WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute paralysis virus

  1. Acute bee paralysis virus [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Acute bee paralysis virus [gbvrl]: 14 CDS's (15780 codons) fields: [triplet] [frequ...osomal protein / MAP kinase List of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage Acute bee paralysis virus ...

  2. Single Assay Detection of Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    A new RT-PCR primer pair designed to identify Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV) or Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (IAPV) of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in a single assay is described. These primers are used to screen samples for ABPV, KBV, or IAPV in a single RT-PCR ......-PCR reaction saving time and money. The primers are located in the predicted overlapping gene (pog/ORFX) which is highly conserved across ABPV, KBV, IAPV and other dicistroviruses of social insects. This study has also identified the first case of IAPV in Denmark....

  3. Acute paralysis viruses of the honey bee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunsheng; Hou; Nor; Chejanovsky

    2014-01-01

    <正>The alarming decline of honey bee(Apis mellifera)colonies in the last decade drove the attention and research to several pathogens of the honey bee including viruses.Viruses challenge the development of healthy and robust colonies since they manage to prevail in an asymptomatic mode and reemerge in acute infections following external stresses,as well as they are able to infect new healthy colonies(de Miranda J R,et al.,2010a;de Miranda J R,et al.,2010b;Di Prisco G,et al.,2013;Nazzi F,et al.,2012;Yang X L,et al.,2005).

  4. Acute flaccid paralysis incidence and Zika virus surveillance, Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle T; Pastore, Roberta; Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Problem The emergence of Zika virus has challenged outbreak surveillance systems in many at-risk, low-resource countries. As the virus has been linked with Guillain–Barré syndrome, routine data on the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) may provide a useful early warning system for the emergence of Zika virus. Approach We documented all Zika virus outbreaks and cases in 21 Pacific Islands and territories for the years 2007 to 2015. We extracted data from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative database on the reported and expected annual incidence of AFP in children younger than 15 years. Using a Poisson probability test, we tested the significance of unexpected increases in AFP in years correlating with Zika virus emergence. Data were analysed separately for each Pacific Island country and territory. Local setting In most Pacific Island countries, early warning surveillance for acute public health threats such as Zika virus is hampered by poor health infrastructure, insufficient human resources and geographical isolation. Relevant changes Only one example was found (Solomon Islands in 2015) of a significant increase in reported AFP cases correlating with Zika virus emergence. Lessons learnt We found no conclusive evidence that routinely reported AFP incidence data in children were useful for detecting emergence of Zika virus in this setting. More evidence may be needed from adult populations, who are more likely to be affected by Guillain–Barré syndrome. Reporting of AFP may be deficient in regions certified as polio-free. PMID:28053366

  5. Assembly of recombinant Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyuan Ren

    Full Text Available The dicistrovirus Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV has been implicated in the worldwide decline of honey bees. Studies of IAPV and many other bee viruses in pure culture are restricted by available isolates and permissive cell culture. Here we show that coupling the IAPV major structural precursor protein ORF2 to its cognate 3C-like processing enzyme results in processing of the precursor to the individual structural proteins in a number of insect cell lines following expression by a recombinant baculovirus. The efficiency of expression is influenced by the level of IAPV 3C protein and moderation of its activity is required for optimal expression. The mature IAPV structural proteins assembled into empty capsids that migrated as particles on sucrose velocity gradients and showed typical dicistrovirus like morphology when examined by electron microscopy. Monoclonal antibodies raised to recombinant capsids were configured into a diagnostic test specific for the presence of IAPV. Recombinant capsids for each of the many bee viruses within the picornavirus family may provide virus specific reagents for the on-going investigation of the causes of honeybee loss.

  6. Varroa destructor, a potential vector of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in honey bees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the role of the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, as a vector in transmission of viruses between honey bees is well established, no study has shown that it can similarly transmit Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), a virus that was found to be associated with Colony Collapse Disorder (CC...

  7. Israeli acute paralysis virus affects sucrose responsiveness and homing ability of forager bees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The honeybee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), may be one of the most common stressors that are responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. IAPV was found to be tightly correlated with honeybee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in the recent outbreak of CCD in the ...

  8. A potentially novel overlapping gene in the genomes of Israeli acute paralysis virus and its relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Nicholas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV is a honeybee-infecting virus that was found to be associated with colony collapse disorder. The IAPV genome contains two genes encoding a structural and a nonstructural polyprotein. We applied a recently developed method for the estimation of selection in overlapping genes to detect purifying selection and, hence, functionality. We provide evolutionary evidence for the existence of a functional overlapping gene, which is translated in the +1 reading frame of the structural polyprotein gene. Conserved orthologs of this putative gene, which we provisionally call pog (predicted overlapping gene, were also found in the genomes of a monophyletic clade of dicistroviruses that includes IAPV, acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, and Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant virus 1.

  9. Genetic analysis of Israel Acute Paralysis Virus: distinct clusters are circulating into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is associated with colony collapse disorder of honey bees. Nonetheless, its role in the pathogenesis of the disorder and its geographic distribution are unclear. Here, we report phylogenetic analysis of IAPV obtained from bees in the United States, Canada, Austral...

  10. Varroa destructor is an effective vector of Israeli acute paralysis virus in the honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Pennacchio, Francesco; Caprio, Emilio; Boncristiani, Humberto F; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yanping

    2011-01-01

    The Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a significant marker of honeybee colony collapse disorder (CCD). In the present work, we provide the first evidence that Varroa destructor is IAPV replication-competent and capable of vectoring IAPV in honeybees. The honeybees became infected with IAPV after exposure to Varroa mites that carried the virus. The copy number of IAPV in bees was positively correlated with the density of Varroa mites and time period of exposure to Varroa mites. Further, we showed that the mite-virus association could possibly reduce host immunity and therefore promote elevated levels of virus replication. This study defines an active role of Varroa mites in IAPV transmission and sheds light on the epidemiology of IAPV infection in honeybees.

  11. Israeli acute paralysis virus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and implications for honey bee health and Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a widespread RNA virus that was linked with honey bee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), the sudden and massive die-off of honey bee colonies in the U.S. in 2006-2007. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence and genetic diversity of IAPV, host transcripti...

  12. Effect of oral infection with Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus on bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Ivan; de Miranda, Joachim R; de Graaf, Dirk C; Wäckers, Felix; Smagghe, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) together with Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and Kashmir bee virus (KBV) constitute a complex of closely related dicistroviruses. They are infamous for their high mortality after injection in honeybees. These viruses have also been reported in non-Apis hymenopteran pollinators such as bumblebees, which got infected with IAPV when placed in the same greenhouse with IAPV infected honeybee hives. Here we orally infected Bombus terrestris workers with different doses of either IAPV or KBV viral particles. The success of the infection was established by analysis of the bumblebees after the impact studies: 50days after infection. Doses of 0.5×10(7) and 1×10(7) virus particles per bee were infectious over this period, for IAPV and KBV respectively, while a dose of 0.5×10(6) IAPV particles per bee was not infectious. The impact of virus infection was studied in micro-colonies consisting of 5 bumblebees, one of which becomes a pseudo-queen which proceeds to lay unfertilized (drone) eggs. The impact parameters studied were: the establishment of a laying pseudo-queen, the timing of egg-laying, the number of drones produced, the weight of these drones and worker mortality. In this setup KBV infection resulted in a significant slower colony startup and offspring production, while only the latter can be reported for IAPV. Neither virus increased worker mortality, at the oral doses used. We recommend further studies on how these viruses transmit between different pollinator species. It is also vital to understand how viral prevalence can affect wild bee populations because disturbance of the natural host-virus association may deteriorate the already critically endangered status of many bumblebee species.

  13. Short communication. Presence, quantification and phylogeny of Israeli acute paralysis virus of honeybees in Andalusia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vicente-Rubiano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the possible relationship between the presence of Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV of honeybees and disease symptoms development at the colony level, to describe the IAPV load in field colonies and to illustrate phylogenetic relationships between IAPV isolates in Andalusia (Spain. Presence and load of IAPV was studied in 96 colonies from all provinces in Andalusia. Epidemiological surveys were performed in all the colonies to assess their sanitary status. IAPV was found in 13.5% of the sampled colonies, and no association was observed between the presence of IAPV and disease symptoms at the colony level. An average IAPV load was established in 4.9•105 genome equivalent copies per bee. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Andalusian isolates belong to a different lineage to a previously described isolate found in Valencia (2010. The results of this study will help us understand the epidemiology and effect of IAPV on Spanish colonies.

  14. Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chunsheng Hou; Hadassah Rivkin; Yossi Slabezki; Nor Chejanovsky

    2014-01-01

    The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and ...

  15. Acute flaccid paralysis due to West nile virus infection in adults: A paradigm shift entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby Varkey Maramattom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP with preceding fever are described. One patient had a quadriparesis with a florid meningoencephalitic picture and the other two had asymmetric flaccid paralysis with fasciculations at the onset of illness. Magnetic resonance imaging in two cases showed prominent hyperintensitities in the spinal cord and brainstem with prominent involvement of the grey horn (polio-myelitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF polymerase chain reaction was positive for West Nile virus (WNV in the index patient. All three cases had a positive WNV immunoglobulin M antibody in serum/CSF and significantly high titer of WNV neutralizing antibody in serum, clearly distinguishing the infection from other Flaviviridae such as Japanese encephalitis. WNV has been recognized in India for many decades; however, AFP has not been adequately described. WNV is a flavivirus that is spread by Culex mosquitoes while they take blood meals from humans and lineage 1 is capable of causing a devastating neuro-invasive disease with fatal consequences or severe morbidity. We describe the first three laboratory confirmed cases of WNV induced AFP from Kerala and briefly enumerate the salient features of this emerging threat.

  16. Metagenomic detection of viral pathogens in Spanish honeybees: co-infection by Aphid Lethal Paralysis, Israel Acute Paralysis and Lake Sinai Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Granberg

    Full Text Available The situation in Europe concerning honeybees has in recent years become increasingly aggravated with steady decline in populations and/or catastrophic winter losses. This has largely been attributed to the occurrence of a variety of known and "unknown", emerging novel diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that colonies often can harbour more than one pathogen, making identification of etiological agents with classical methods difficult. By employing an unbiased metagenomic approach, which allows the detection of both unexpected and previously unknown infectious agents, the detection of three viruses, Aphid Lethal Paralysis Virus (ALPV, Israel Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV, and Lake Sinai Virus (LSV, in honeybees from Spain is reported in this article. The existence of a subgroup of ALPV with the ability to infect bees was only recently reported and this is the first identification of such a strain in Europe. Similarly, LSV appear to be a still unclassified group of viruses with unclear impact on colony health and these viruses have not previously been identified outside of the United States. Furthermore, our study also reveals that these bees carried a plant virus, Turnip Ringspot Virus (TuRSV, potentially serving as important vector organisms. Taken together, these results demonstrate the new possibilities opened up by high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic analysis to study emerging new diseases in domestic and wild animal populations, including honeybees.

  17. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli acute paralysis virus disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, Wayne; Ellis, James; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Hayes, Jerry; Westervelt, Dave; Glick, Eitan; Williams, Michael; Sela, Ilan; Maori, Eyal; Pettis, Jeffery; Cox-Foster, Diana; Paldi, Nitzan

    2010-01-01

    ...), which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV...

  18. Israeli acute paralysis virus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and implications for honey bee health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ping Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV is a widespread RNA virus of honey bees that has been linked with colony losses. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence, and genetic traits of this virus, along with host transcriptional responses to infections. Further, we present RNAi-based strategies for limiting an important mechanism used by IAPV to subvert host defenses. Our study shows that IAPV is established as a persistent infection in honey bee populations, likely enabled by both horizontal and vertical transmission pathways. The phenotypic differences in pathology among different strains of IAPV found globally may be due to high levels of standing genetic variation. Microarray profiles of host responses to IAPV infection revealed that mitochondrial function is the most significantly affected biological process, suggesting that viral infection causes significant disturbance in energy-related host processes. The expression of genes involved in immune pathways in adult bees indicates that IAPV infection triggers active immune responses. The evidence that silencing an IAPV-encoded putative suppressor of RNAi reduces IAPV replication suggests a functional assignment for a particular genomic region of IAPV and closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae, and indicates a novel therapeutic strategy for limiting multiple honey bee viruses simultaneously and reducing colony losses due to viral diseases. We believe that the knowledge and insights gained from this study will provide a new platform for continuing studies of the IAPV-host interactions and have positive implications for disease management that will lead to mitigation of escalating honey bee colony losses worldwide.

  19. Risk factors for the presence of Deformed wing virus and Acute bee paralysis virus under temperate and subtropical climate in Argentinian bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineri, Ana; Giacobino, Agostina; Pacini, Adriana; Bulacio Cagnolo, Natalia; Fondevila, Norberto; Ferrufino, Cecilia; Merke, Julieta; Orellano, Emanuel; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Masciángelo, Germán; Pietronave, Hernán; Signorini, Marcelo

    2017-05-01

    Beekeepers all across the world are suffering important losses of their colonies, and the parasitic mites Varroa destructor and Nosema sp, as well as several bee viruses, are being pointed out as the possible causes of these losses, generally associated with environmental and management factors. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of seven virus species (Deformed wing virus -DWV-, Acute bee paralysis virus -ABPV-, Chronic bee paralysis virus -CBPV-, Black queen cell virus -BQCV-, Kashmir bee virus -KBV-, Israeli acute bee paralysis virus -IAPV-, and Sacbrood bee virus -SBV), as well as the prevalence of Nosema sp. and Varroa destructor, and their possible associated factors, under temperate and subtropical climate conditions in Argentinean colonies. A total of 385 colonies distributed in five Argentinean eco-regions were examined after honey harvest. The final multivariable model revealed only one variable associated with the presence of DWV and two with the presence of ABPV. The apiary random effect was significant in both cases (P=0.018; P=0.006, respectively). Colonies with a Varroa infestation rate >3% showed higher presence of DWV than colonies with <3% of Varroa infestation level (OR=1.91; 95% CI: 1.02-3.57; P<0.044). The same pattern was observed for the presence of ABPV (OR=2.23; 95% CI: 1.04-4.77; P<0.039). Also, colonies where replacement of old combs was not a common practice had higher presence of ABPV (OR=6.02; 95% CI: 1.16-31.25; P<0.033). Regardless of the location of the colonies, virus presence was strongly associated with V. destructor level. Therefore, all the factors that directly or indirectly influence the levels of mites will be also influencing the presence of the viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Importance of brood maintenance terms in simple models of the honeybee - Varroa destructor - acute bee paralysis virus complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann J. Eberl

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple mathematical model of the infestation of a honeybee colony by the Acute Paralysis Virus, which is carried by parasitic varroa mites (Varroa destructor. This is a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the dependent variables: number of mites that carry the virus, number of healthy bees and number of sick bees. We study this model with a mix of analytical and computational techniques. Our results indicate that, depending on model parameters and initial data, bee colonies in which the virus is present can, over years, function seemingly like healthy colonies before they decline and disappear rapidly (e.g. Colony Collapse Disorder, wintering losses. This is a consequence of the fact that a certain number of worker bees is required in a colony to maintain and care for the brood, in order to ensure continued production of new bees.

  1. Establishment of realtime RT-PCR assay to detect polio virus in the Acute Flaccid Paralysis laboratory surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Susanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Virus polio indigenous terakhir ditemukan di Indonesia tahun 1995 tetapi ancaman viruspolio impor dan mutasi virus dari Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV menjadi Vaccine Derived Poliovirus (VDPVmasih berlanjut. Tahun 1991 WHO mengembangkan Surveilans Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP dan tahun2014, identifikasi virus polio dengan real-time reverse transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRTPCRmulai digunakan di Laboratorium Nasional Polio Pusat Biomedis dan Teknologi Dasar Kesehatan.Tujuan dari penggunaan rRT-PCR untuk mendapatkan metode yang cepat dan lebih baik dalam memantausirkulasi dan mutasi virus polio.Metode: Isolat polio positif diidentifikasi menggunakanan rRT PCR dengan kombinasi primer dan probeyang ditetapkan WHO. RNA virus di konversi ke cDNA menggunakan reverse transcriptase lalu diamplifikasimenggunakan taq polymerase. Produk PCR di deteksi dan diidentifikasi dengan hibridisasi menggunakanprobe spesifik. Sintesis cDNA dan reaksi PCR menggunakan primer yang dilekatkan di probe. Kombinasiprimer dan probe menghasilkan identifikasi serotipe dan intratypic differentiation (ITD dari isolat virus.Hasil: Selama tahun 2014, NPL Jakarta menerima 604 kasus AFP dari surveilans dan lima kasusterdeteksi positif mengandung virus polio. Semua spesimen positif mengandung virus polio yang berasaldari vaksin. Dua kasus positif virus polio tipe P2 (40%, satu kasus jenis virus polio P1 (20%, 1 kasusjenis virus polio P3 (20% dan satu kasus virus polio campuran jenis P1 + P2 (20%.Kesimpulan: Real-time PCR dapat digunakan di Laboratorium Polio Jakarta untuk membantu identifikasivirus Polio secara cepat. Tes ini dapat digunakan untuk memantau sirkulasi virus polio pada populasiyang rutin diimunisasi dengan OPV. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:27-31Kata kunci: ITD, Poliovirus, Identification, rRT-PCR AbstractBackground: The last indigenous polio was detected in 1995 but the threat of wild type polio viruses and themutation of Oral

  2. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera; Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the first successful use of RNAi under a large-scale real-world application for disease control. Israeli acute paralysis virus, IAPV, has been linked as a contributing factor in coolly collapse, CCD, of honey bees. IAPV specific homologous dsRNA were designed to reduce impacts from IAPV i...

  3. In vitro infection of pupae with Israeli acute paralysis virus suggests disturbance of transcriptional homeostasis in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto F Boncristiani

    Full Text Available The ongoing decline of honey bee health worldwide is a serious economic and ecological concern. One major contributor to the decline are pathogens, including several honey bee viruses. However, information is limited on the biology of bee viruses and molecular interactions with their hosts. An experimental protocol to test these systems was developed, using injections of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV into honey bee pupae reared ex-situ under laboratory conditions. The infected pupae developed pronounced but variable patterns of disease. Symptoms varied from complete cessation of development with no visual evidence of disease to rapid darkening of a part or the entire body. Considerable differences in IAPV titer dynamics were observed, suggesting significant variation in resistance to IAPV among and possibly within honey bee colonies. Thus, selective breeding for virus resistance should be possible. Gene expression analyses of three separate experiments suggest IAPV disruption of transcriptional homeostasis of several fundamental cellular functions, including an up-regulation of the ribosomal biogenesis pathway. These results provide first insights into the mechanisms of IAPV pathogenicity. They mirror a transcriptional survey of honey bees afflicted with Colony Collapse Disorder and thus support the hypothesis that viruses play a critical role in declining honey bee health.

  4. Cryo-electron Microscopy Study of the Genome Release of the Dicistrovirus Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullapudi, Edukondalu; Füzik, Tibor; Přidal, Antonín; Plevka, Pavel

    2017-02-15

    Viruses of the family Dicistroviridae can cause substantial economic damage by infecting agriculturally important insects. Israeli acute bee paralysis virus (IAPV) causes honeybee colony collapse disorder in the United States. High-resolution molecular details of the genome delivery mechanism of dicistroviruses are unknown. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy analysis of IAPV virions induced to release their genomes in vitro We determined structures of full IAPV virions primed to release their genomes to a resolution of 3.3 Å and of empty capsids to a resolution of 3.9 Å. We show that IAPV does not form expanded A particles before genome release as in the case of related enteroviruses of the family Picornaviridae The structural changes observed in the empty IAPV particles include detachment of the VP4 minor capsid proteins from the inner face of the capsid and partial loss of the structure of the N-terminal arms of the VP2 capsid proteins. Unlike the case for many picornaviruses, the empty particles of IAPV are not expanded relative to the native virions and do not contain pores in their capsids that might serve as channels for genome release. Therefore, rearrangement of a unique region of the capsid is probably required for IAPV genome release. Honeybee populations in Europe and North America are declining due to pressure from pathogens, including viruses. Israeli acute bee paralysis virus (IAPV), a member of the family Dicistroviridae, causes honeybee colony collapse disorder in the United States. The delivery of virus genomes into host cells is necessary for the initiation of infection. Here we present a structural cryo-electron microscopy analysis of IAPV particles induced to release their genomes. We show that genome release is not preceded by an expansion of IAPV virions as in the case of related picornaviruses that infect vertebrates. Furthermore, minor capsid proteins detach from the capsid upon genome release. The genome leaves behind empty

  5. Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Hou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions.

  6. Dynamics of the presence of israeli acute paralysis virus in honey bee colonies with colony collapse disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chunsheng; Rivkin, Hadassah; Slabezki, Yossi; Chejanovsky, Nor

    2014-05-05

    The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions.

  7. Echovirus 19 associated with a case of acute flaccid paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesson, Alison M; Choo, Chong Ming; Troedson, Christopher; Thorley, Bruce R; Roberts, Jason A

    2013-03-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis can be caused by many members of the enterovirus genus, most notably the three poliviruses types 1 to 3. We report the case of acute flaccid paralysis caused by echovirus 19. The Western Pacific region has been declared polio free by the WHO since 2000. Australia is now using inactivated polio vaccine in the National Immunization Schedule. This vaccine does not carry the extremely rare risk of vaccine associated acute flaccid paralysis but it does leave our newly vaccinated population open gastrointestinal infection with polioviruses and the risk of circulation of the wild-type virus. Continued surveillance of cases of acute flaccid paralysis is to detect polioviruses is essential until poliovirus is completely eradicated.

  8. Acute Flaccid Paralysis Epidemic Research in East Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FrouzVarshochiani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Current levels of AFP care system have created the possibility to demonstrate the significant decrease in pathogenesis of poliomyelitis. To ensure the success of polio eradication, intensification of AFP care system in a way that it can confirm the lack of polio virus outbreak in areas that have no reports of confirmed cases of this disease, seemed to be essential. This research aimed to represent some features of disease symptoms and final diagnosis of the reported cases and investigate the age, gender, time and geographical zone and the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis cases in the province within 2008-2011.     Material and Methods : Data for the cases of AFP were collected from all cities in the province from 20/3/2008- 19/3/2013 and were analyzed using descriptive methods (census method. Results: Discovery and reporting 95% of acute flaccid paralysis cases up to 7 days from the occurrence of paralysis, preparing two qualitative samples from 98% acute flaccid paralysis up to 14 days from the occurrence of paralysis, tracking and evaluating 100% of acute flaccid paralysis after 60 days of disease occurrence, on-time sending/receiving 98% of the samples to national laboratory, show the capabilities of provincial care system.   Conclusion : Despite the excellent care of acute flaccid paralysis in the East Azerbaijan, it seems that the role of health care facilities and rural and urban health centers and private clinics in identification and reporting of acute flaccid paralysis is non-significant since only 5% of the cases were reported at local levels.

  9. Acute Flaccid Paralysis Associated with Novel Enterovirus C105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Liana M; Poulter, Melinda D; Brenton, J Nicholas; Turner, Ronald B

    2015-10-01

    An outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis among children in the United States during summer 2014 was tentatively associated with enterovirus D68 infection. This syndrome in a child in fall 2014 was associated with enterovirus C105 infection. The presence of this virus strain in North America may pose a diagnostic challenge.

  10. Acute flaccid paralysis due to rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J B Ghosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two clinical forms of rabies are recognize: i a furious form associated with classical signs of excitation or phobic symptoms, ii Dumb rabies (paralytic rabies characterized by progressive paralysis without an initial furious phase wherein distinction from Guillain-Barrι Syndrome may be difficult. Paralytic rabies is more common in persons who have received postexposure vaccination. We report here the diagnostic dilemma of two cases of acute flaccid paralysis due to rabies.

  11. Acute Flaccid paralysis in adults: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP is a complex clinical syndrome with a broad array of potential etiologies that vary with age. We present our experience of acute onset lower motor neuron paralysis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty-three consecutive adult patients presenting with weakness of duration less than four weeks over 12 months period were enrolled. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations according to a pre-defined diagnostic algorithm were carried out. The patients were followed through their hospital stay till discharge or death. Results: The mean age was 33.27 (range 13-89 years with male preponderance (67.7%. The most common etiology was neuroparalytic snake envenomation (51.9%, followed by Guillain Barre syndrome (33.1%, constituting 85% of all patients. Hypokalemic paralysis (7.5% and acute intermittent porphyria (4.5% were the other important conditions. We did not encounter any case of acute polio mylitis in adults. In-hospital mortality due to respiratory paralysis was 9%. Conclusion: Neuroparalytic snakebite and Guillain Barre syndrome were the most common causes of acute flaccid paralysis in adults in our study.

  12. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli acute paralysis virus disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Hunter

    Full Text Available The importance of honey bees to the world economy far surpasses their contribution in terms of honey production; they are responsible for up to 30% of the world's food production through pollination of crops. Since fall 2006, honey bees in the U.S. have faced a serious population decline, due in part to a phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV. This is a single stranded RNA virus with no DNA stage placed taxonomically within the family Dicistroviridae. Although subsequent studies have failed to find IAPV in all CCD diagnosed colonies, IAPV has been shown to cause honey bee mortality. RNA interference technology (RNAi has been used successfully to silence endogenous insect (including honey bee genes both by injection and feeding. Moreover, RNAi was shown to prevent bees from succumbing to infection from IAPV under laboratory conditions. In the current study IAPV specific homologous dsRNA was used in the field, under natural beekeeping conditions in order to prevent mortality and improve the overall health of bees infected with IAPV. This controlled study included a total of 160 honey bee hives in two discrete climates, seasons and geographical locations (Florida and Pennsylvania. To our knowledge, this is the first successful large-scale real world use of RNAi for disease control.

  13. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli acute paralysis virus disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Wayne; Ellis, James; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Hayes, Jerry; Westervelt, Dave; Glick, Eitan; Williams, Michael; Sela, Ilan; Maori, Eyal; Pettis, Jeffery; Cox-Foster, Diana; Paldi, Nitzan

    2010-12-23

    The importance of honey bees to the world economy far surpasses their contribution in terms of honey production; they are responsible for up to 30% of the world's food production through pollination of crops. Since fall 2006, honey bees in the U.S. have faced a serious population decline, due in part to a phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV. This is a single stranded RNA virus with no DNA stage placed taxonomically within the family Dicistroviridae. Although subsequent studies have failed to find IAPV in all CCD diagnosed colonies, IAPV has been shown to cause honey bee mortality. RNA interference technology (RNAi) has been used successfully to silence endogenous insect (including honey bee) genes both by injection and feeding. Moreover, RNAi was shown to prevent bees from succumbing to infection from IAPV under laboratory conditions. In the current study IAPV specific homologous dsRNA was used in the field, under natural beekeeping conditions in order to prevent mortality and improve the overall health of bees infected with IAPV. This controlled study included a total of 160 honey bee hives in two discrete climates, seasons and geographical locations (Florida and Pennsylvania). To our knowledge, this is the first successful large-scale real world use of RNAi for disease control.

  14. Large-Scale Field Application of RNAi Technology Reducing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Disease in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Wayne; Ellis, James; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Hayes, Jerry; Westervelt, Dave; Glick, Eitan; Williams, Michael; Sela, Ilan; Maori, Eyal; Pettis, Jeffery; Cox-Foster, Diana; Paldi, Nitzan

    2010-01-01

    The importance of honey bees to the world economy far surpasses their contribution in terms of honey production; they are responsible for up to 30% of the world's food production through pollination of crops. Since fall 2006, honey bees in the U.S. have faced a serious population decline, due in part to a phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV. This is a single stranded RNA virus with no DNA stage placed taxonomically within the family Dicistroviridae. Although subsequent studies have failed to find IAPV in all CCD diagnosed colonies, IAPV has been shown to cause honey bee mortality. RNA interference technology (RNAi) has been used successfully to silence endogenous insect (including honey bee) genes both by injection and feeding. Moreover, RNAi was shown to prevent bees from succumbing to infection from IAPV under laboratory conditions. In the current study IAPV specific homologous dsRNA was used in the field, under natural beekeeping conditions in order to prevent mortality and improve the overall health of bees infected with IAPV. This controlled study included a total of 160 honey bee hives in two discrete climates, seasons and geographical locations (Florida and Pennsylvania). To our knowledge, this is the first successful large-scale real world use of RNAi for disease control. PMID:21203478

  15. Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Honeybee Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiri, Esmaeil; Meixner, Marina; Büchler, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is known as a disease of worker honey bees. To investigate pathogenesis of the CBPV on the queen, the sole reproductive individual in a colony, we conducted experiments regarding the susceptibility of queens to CBPV. Results from susceptibility experiment showed...... a similar disease progress in the queens compared to worker bees after infection. Infected queens exhibit symptoms by Day 6 post infection and virus levels reach 1011 copies per head. In a transmission experiment we showed that social interactions may affect the disease progression. Queens with forced...... contact to symptomatic worker bees acquired an overt infection with up to 1011 virus copies per head in six days. In contrast, queens in contact with symptomatic worker bees, but with a chance to receive food from healthy bees outside the cage appeared healthy. The virus loads did not exceed 107...

  16. Reversible electrophysiological abnormalities in acute secondary hyperkalemic paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkal R Naik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperkalemia manifests clinically with acute neuromuscular paralysis, which can simulate Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS and other causes of acute flaccid paralysis. Primary hyperkalemic paralysis occurs from genetic defects in the sodium channel, and secondary hyperkalemic paralysis (SHP from diverse causes including renal dysfunction, potassium retaining drugs, Addison′s disease, etc. Clinical characteristics of SHP have been addressed in a number of publications. However, electrophysiological evaluations of these patients during neuromuscular paralysis are infrequently reported and have demonstrated features of demyelination. The clinical features and electrophysiological abnormalities in secondary hyperkalemia mimic GBS, and pose diagnostic challenges. We report the findings of nerve conduction studies in a middle-aged man who was admitted with rapidly reversible acute quadriplegia resulting from secondary hyperkalemic paralysis.

  17. Inactivation of a non-enveloped RNA virus by artificial ribonucleases: honey bees and acute bee paralysis virus as a new experimental model for in vivo antiviral activity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Antonina A; Azzami, Klara; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Spitsyna, Yulia E; Silnikov, Vladimir N; Ritter, Wolfgang; Gross, Hans J; Tautz, Jürgen; Vlassov, Valentin V; Beier, Hildburg; Zenkova, Marina A

    2011-09-01

    RNA-containing viruses represent a global threat to the health and wellbeing of humans and animals. Hence, the discovery of new approaches for the design of novel vaccines and antiviral compounds attains high attention. Here we describe the potential of artificial ribonucleases (aRNases), low molecular weight compounds capable to cleave phosphodiester bonds in RNA under mild conditions, to act as antiviral compounds via destroying the genome of non-enveloped RNA viruses, and the potential of utilizing honey bee larvae and adult bees (Apis mellifera) as a novel experimental system for the screening of new antiviral compounds. Pre-incubation of an Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) suspension with aRNases D3-12, K-D-1 or Dp12F6 in a concentration-dependent manner increased the survival rate of bee larvae and adult bees subsequently infected with these preparations, whereas incubation of the virus with aRNases ABL3C3 or L2-3 had no effect at all. The results of RT-PCR analysis of viral RNA isolated from aRNase-treated virus particles confirmed that virus inactivation occurs via degradation of viral genomic RNA: dose-dependent inactivation of ABPV correlates well with the cleavage of viral RNA. Electron microscopy analysis revealed that the morphology of ABPV particles inactivated by aRNases remains unaffected as compared to control virus preparations. Altogether the obtained results clearly demonstrate the potential of aRNases as a new virus inactivation agents and bee larvae/ABPV as a new in vivo system for the screening of antiviral compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Unusual case of West Nile Virus flaccid paralysis in a 10-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Farouq I; Servinsky, Sarah E; Naz, Fareeha; Kovas, Teresa E; Raghib, Timur O

    2013-05-01

    West Nile virus infection is asymptomatic in most cases. West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease includes encephalitis, meningitis, and/or acute flaccid paralysis. In children, acute flaccid paralysis as the solo presentation of West Nile virus disease is rare. It develops abruptly and progresses rapidly early in the disease course. We report on a 10-year-old child who presented with a slowly progressive left leg flaccid paralysis over 4 weeks. He tested positive for West Nile virus in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Spinal MRI showed enhancement of the ventral nerve roots. This was also supported by electrophysiological studies. One week after the plateauing of his left leg paralysis, he was readmitted to the hospital with left hand weakness. Complete recovery of his recurrent weakness was observed after prompt 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin G therapy. However, no improvement was noticed in the left foot drop. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of West Nile virus disease in children presented with a slowly progressive flaccid paralysis, and a recurrent weakness recovered after intravenous immunoglobulin G administration.

  19. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance: A 6 years study, Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Emami Naeini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poliomyelitis is still an endemic disease in many areas of the world including Africa and South Asia. Iran is polio free since 2001. However, due to endemicity of polio in neighboring countries of Iran, the risk of polio importation and re-emergence of wild polio virus is high. Case definition through surveillance system is a well-defined method for maintenance of polio eradication in polio free countries. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey from 2007 to 2013, we reviewed all the records of under 15 years old patients reported to Acute Flaccid Paralysis Committee (AFPC in Isfahan province, Iran. All cases were visited by members of the AFPC. Three stool samples were collected from each reported case within 2 weeks of onset of paralysis and sent to National Polio Laboratory in Tehran, Iran, for poliovirus isolation. Data were analyzed by SSPS software (version 22. Student′s t-test and Chi-square was used to compare variables. Statistical significance level was set at P 94%, with six doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV. Accurate surveillance for poliomyelitis is essential for continuing eradication.

  20. Detection of diphtheritic polyneuropathy by acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J; Bahl, Sunil; Khera, Ajay; Sutter, Roland W

    2013-01-01

    Diphtheritic polyneuropathy is a vaccine-preventable illness caused by exotoxin-producing strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. We present a retrospective convenience case series of 15 children (6 girls)paralysis surveillance, which was designed to detect poliomyelitis in India during 2002-2008. We also report data on detection of diphtheritic polyneuropathy compared with other causes of acute flaccid paralysis identified by this surveillance system.

  1. Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralysis is the loss of muscle function in part of your body. It happens when something goes ... way messages pass between your brain and muscles. Paralysis can be complete or partial. It can occur ...

  2. Marek's disease virus induced transient paralysis--a closer look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s Disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, and transient paralysis (TP). TP is a disease of the central nervous system...

  3. Molecular identification of chronic bee paralysis virus infection in Apis mellifera colonies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Tomomi; Kojima, Yuriko; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Yang, Bu; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2012-07-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. Although CBPV shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in Japan. Our investigation of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana japonica colonies with RT-PCR has revealed CBPV infection in A. mellifera but not A. c. japonica colonies in Japan. The prevalence of CBPV is low compared with that of other viruses: deformed wing virus (DWV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and sac brood virus (SBV), previously reported in Japan. Because of its low prevalence (5.6%) in A. mellifera colonies, the incidence of colony losses by CBPV infection must be sporadic in Japan. The presence of the (-) strand RNA in dying workers suggests that CBPV infection and replication may contribute to their symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a geographic separation of Japanese isolates from European, Uruguayan, and mainland US isolates. The lack of major exchange of honey bees between Europe/mainland US and Japan for the recent 26 years (1985-2010) may have resulted in the geographic separation of Japanese CBPV isolates.

  4. Clinical Efficacy of Electroneurography in Acute Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hee

    2016-04-01

    The estimated incidence of acute facial paralysis is approximately 30 patients per 100000 populations annually. Facial paralysis is an extremely frightening situation and gives extreme stress to patients because obvious disfiguring face may cause significant functional, aesthetic, and psychological disturbances. For stressful patients with acute facial paralysis, it is very important for clinicians to answer the questions like whether or not their facial function will return to normal, how much of their facial function will be recovered, and how long this is going to take. It is also important for clinicians to treat the psychological aspects by adequately explaining the prognosis, in addition to providing the appropriate medical treatment. For decades, clinicians have used various electrophysiologic tests, including the nerve excitability test, the maximal stimulation test, electroneurography, and electromyography. In particular, electroneurography is the only objective measure that is useful in early stage of acute facial paralysis. In this review article, we first discuss the pathophysiology of injured peripheral nerve. And then, we describe about various electrophysiologic tests and discuss the electroneurography extensively.

  5. A rare cause of acute flaccid paralysis: Human coronaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cokyaman Turgay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP is a life-threatening clinical entity characterized by weakness in the whole body muscles often accompanied by respiratory and bulbar paralysis. The most common cause is Gullian-Barre syndrome, but infections, spinal cord diseases, neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis, drugs and toxins, periodic hypokalemic paralysis, electrolyte disturbances, and botulism should be considered as in the differential diagnosis. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs cause common cold, upper and lower respiratory tract disease, but in the literature presentation with the lower respiratory tract infection and AFP has not been reported previously. In this study, pediatric case admitted with lower respiratory tract infection and AFP, who detected for HCoV 229E and OC43 co-infection by the real-time polymerase chain reaction, has been reported for the first time.

  6. In-vitro infection of pupae with Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus suggests variation for susceptibility and disturbance of transcriptional homeostasis in honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ongoing decline of honey bee health worldwide is a serious economic and ecological concern. One major contributor to the decline are pathogens, including several honey bee viruses. However, information is limited on the biology of bee viruses and molecular interactions with their hosts. An exper...

  7. First report of Israeli acute paralysis virus in asymptomatic hives of Argentina Primera comunciación del virus israelí de la parálisis aguda en colmenas asintomáticas de la República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Reynaldi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bee mortality has recently been associated with Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV, a proposed etiological agent for a new syndrome known as Colony Collapse Disorder. Bees infected with this virus show shivering wings, progress into paralysis, and finally die outside the hive. During the last years, honey bee mortality became a serious problem for Argentinean beekeepers. We herein report the preliminary results of a survey carried out to detect IAPV in samples taken from several Argentine provinces, by using a reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction assay. Our data indicate the existence of high frequency of IAPV in asymptomatic hives of Argentina.Recientemente la mortalidad de las abejas melíferas ha sido asociada al virus israelí de la parálisis aguda (IAPV, propuesto como agente etiológico del denominado síndrome de despoblamiento de las colmenas. Las abejas infectadas con este virus presentan temblores en las alas que progresan hasta convertirse en parálisis, y finalmente mueren fuera de la colmena. Durante los últimos años, la mortalidad de las abejas melíferas se ha transformado en un serio problema para los productores de miel de la Argentina. Nosotros informamos aquí los resultados preliminares de un estudio realizado para detectar IAPV en muestras de colmenas provenientes de varias provincias argentinas utilizando la técnica de transcripción reversa-reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Nuestros datos indican la presencia de IAPV en un alto porcentaje de las colonias estudiadas.

  8. Paediatric surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis in the Netherlands in 1995 and 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Geubbels ELPE; Suijkerbuijk AWM; CIE; NSCK

    1998-01-01

    In Nederland wordt de surveillance van acute slappe verlamming (AFP acute flaccid paralysis) sinds oktober 1992 uitgevoerd via het Nederlands Signalerings-Centrum Kindergeneeskunde. Het betreft een vorm van actieve surveillance waarbij klinisch werkzame kinderartsen maandelijks een aantal zeldzame

  9. Acute hypokalemic periodic paralysis possibly precipitated by albuterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Calvin; Villanueva, Lyn

    2013-09-15

    An episode of acute hypokalemic paralysis associated with the use of inhaled albuterol is described. A 34-year-old woman admitted to the emergency department reported the development of pain and diffuse paralysis of the extremities and torso shortly after using an albuterol inhaler. At age 18, she had been diagnosed with hyokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP), a disorder of muscle membrane excitability caused by serum potassium depletion that can lead to life-threatening neuromuscular and cardiovascular complications. After a 15-year period of episodically recurring HPP symptoms despite long-term acetazolamide use, she was switched to spironolactone therapy and had experienced no HPP exacerbations for about 1 year. On her arrival in the emergency department, the patient's serum potassium concentration was 1.8 meq/L and she was mildly tachycardic (heart rate of 125 beats/min). After careful supplementation to gradually increase the serum potassium concentration to 5.4 meq/L, the patient slowly regained movement and strength in her extremities. Application of the adverse drug reaction probability scale of Naranjo et al. to this case yielded a score of 3, indicating that albuterol was possibly the cause of the patient's HPP exacerbation. Beta-2-adrenergic agonists and several other medications can affect serum potassium levels; although the potential risks posed by the use of such drugs in patients with a history of HPP are unclear, cautious use in the context of known HPP is advised. A patient previously diagnosed with HPP experienced an exacerbation of HPP possibly induced by inhaled albuterol treatment.

  10. Molecular Identification of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Infection in Apis mellifera Colonies in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Morimoto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. Although CBPV shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in Japan. Our investigation of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana japonica colonies with RT-PCR has revealed CBPV infection in A. mellifera but not A. c. japonica colonies in Japan. The prevalence of CBPV is low compared with that of other viruses: deformed wing virus (DWV, black queen cell virus (BQCV, Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV, and sac brood virus (SBV, previously reported in Japan. Because of its low prevalence (5.6% in A. mellifera colonies, the incidence of colony losses by CBPV infection must be sporadic in Japan. The presence of the (− strand RNA in dying workers suggests that CBPV infection and replication may contribute to their symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a geographic separation of Japanese isolates from European, Uruguayan, and mainland US isolates. The lack of major exchange of honey bees between Europe/mainland US and Japan for the recent 26 years (1985–2010 may have resulted in the geographic separation of Japanese CBPV isolates.

  11. Non-polio enteroviruses associated with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and facial paralysis (FP) cases in Romania, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persu, Ana; Băicuş, Anda; Stavri, Simona; Combiescu, Mariana

    2009-01-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis is a complex clinical syndrome, with a wide variety of possible etiologies and with clinical manifestations that can vary according to age or geographical region. Enteroviruses (polioviruses and non-polio enteroviruses) are among the viral agents that can cause AFP. AFP surveillance is important for public health through its use in monitoring poliomyelitis, in the context of the Global Initiative to eradicate this disease. The current paper aims to assess the non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) association with AFP and FP cases registered in Romania in the period 2001-2008 and to identify prevalent serotypes. Within the framework of Surveillance of AFP Cases Program, were collected samples from 579 children with AFP or FP (3.069 samples). The samples were processed and inoculated onto two types of cell culture (RD and L20B), according to WHO protocol. The identification of isolated viruses has been done by the reaction of seroneutralization with pools of specific antiserum and then with monospecific antiserum for confirmation. NPEV were isolated from 58 cases (123 positive samples). During the analyzed period, 23 NPEV serotypes have circulated (15 Echo serotypes and 8 coxsackie serotypes). The most frequently identified were the Echoviruses 13 and 11 and the coxsackie A viruses. 88% of positive cases have occurred in children between 1 and 5 years. As seasonal distribution, the peak of NPEV circulation was in the months August-September (36.2%). The paper provides information about NPEV circulation in Romania in the past 8 years, about its association with the AFP and FP and it indicates the need for monitoring NPEV circulation even after the eradication of poliomyelitis.

  12. Plaque and growth characteristics of different polioviruses isolated from acute flaccid paralysis in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, W F; Oyedele, O I; Osei-Kwasi, M; Odoom, J K; Adu, F D

    2008-03-01

    To determine some virulent trait-related properties of poliovirus isolates from children with acute flaccid paralysis following vaccination with oral polio vaccine (OPV). Six polioviruses earlier characterised into wild, vaccine-derived and OPV-like were studied using the plaque morphology and growth kinetics at supra-optimal temperature. Department of Virology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Polio isolates from six children who developed acute flaccid paralysis following vaccinations with various doses of OPV were used. All the children were located in the Northern part of the country where poliovirus is still circulating. The two vaccine-derived polioviruses acquired wild type characteristics. All the six poliovirus isolates developed different forms of plaques ranging from tiny, small and large. The plaque formed could however not be used to identify the different isolates. Growth of the different isolates at supra-optimal temperature showed that the three wild polioviruses grew to a higher titre when compared with the Sabin 2 control. The two vaccine derived isolates behaved like the wild poliovirus while the OPV-like virus acquired an intermediate characteristics between wild and sabin. The wild polioviruses represented in this study are among the last vestiges of the circulating polioviruses found in the world. It is possible that the observed biological properties of wild types 1 and 3 described in the study are typical of the West African polioviruses. These properties will provide useful previews to the final identification of some important clinical isolates especially type 1 which may grow rapidly in cell culture.

  13. Molecular Identification of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Infection in Apis mellifera Colonies in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Tomomi Morimoto; Yuriko Kojima; Mikio Yoshiyama; Kiyoshi Kimura; Bu Yang; Tatsuhiko Kadowaki

    2012-01-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. Although CBPV shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in Japan. Our investigation of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana japonica colonies with RT-PCR has revealed CBPV infection in A. mellifera but not A. c. japonica colonies in Japan. The prevalence of CBPV...

  14. Human Enteroviruses isolated during acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Ghana: implications for the post eradication era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoom, John Kofi; Obodai, Evangeline; Barnor, Jacob Samson; Ashun, Miriam; Arthur-Quarm, Jacob; Osei-Kwasi, Mubarak

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) has been used world-wide to monitor the control and eradication of circulating wild polioviruses. The Polio Laboratory since its accreditation in 1996 has supported the Disease Surveillance Department for AFP surveillance. This study aims to isolate and characterize human enteroviruses from patients with AFP in Ghana. Stool suspension was prepared from 308 samples received in 2009 from the surveillance activities throughout the country and inoculated on both RD and L20B cell lines. Isolates that showed growth on L20B were selected for real-time RT-PCR using degenerate and non-degenerate primers and probes. RD isolates were however characterized by microneutralisation technique with antisera pools from RIVM, The Netherlands and viruses that were untypable subjected to neutralization assay using antibodies specific for E71. Of the 308 samples processed, 17 (5.5%) grew on both L20B and RD cells while 32 (10.4%) grew on RD only. All 28 isolates from L20B were characterized by rRT-PCR as Sabin-like polioviruses. No wild poliovirus or VDPV was found. However from the microneutralisation assay, six different enteroviruses were characterized. Among these, Coxsackie B viruses were most predominant followed by Echovirus. Three children from whom non-polio enteroviruses were isolated had residual paralysis while one child with VAPP found. The non-polio enteroviruses circulated throughout the country with the majority (20.7%) from Ashanti region. This study showed the absence of wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation in the country. However, the detection of three non-polio enteroviruses and one Sabin-like poliovirus with residual paralysis call for continuous surveillance even in the post polio eradication era.

  15. Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance in Zambia: Progress towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    months after onset of paralysis to assess recovery of the children. In Zambia AFP cases are followed up regularly but there is ... vaccination status, 77% of the cases had received 1 to 4 doses of the ... fever, malaise, headache, muscle pain, nausea and vomiting to .... the PEI management, to the Ministry of Health and to the.

  16. Characterization of a novel enterovirus serotype and an enterovirus EV-B93 isolated from acute flaccid paralysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Shaukat

    Full Text Available Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. Most of these infections are asymptomatic but few can lead to systemic and neurological disorders like Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP. Acute Flaccid Paralysis is a clinical syndrome and NPEVs have been isolated frequently from the patients suffering from AFP but little is known about their causal relationship. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the NPEV serotypes recovered from 184 stool samples collected from AFP patients in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA in north-west of Pakistan. Overall, 44 (95.6 % isolates were successfully typed through microneutralization assay as a member of enterovirus B species including echovirus (E-2, E-3, E-4, E-6, E-7, E-11, E-13, E-14, E-21 and E-29 while two isolates (PAK NIH SP6545B and PAK NIH SP1202B remained untypeable. The VP1 and capsid regions analysis characterized these viruses as EV-B93 and EV-B106. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that PAK NIH isolates had high genetic diversity and represent distinct genotypes circulating in the country. Our findings highlight the role of NPEVs in AFP cases to be thoroughly investigated especially in high disease risk areas, with limited surveillance activities and health resources.

  17. [Clinical observation on therapeutic effect of different acupuncture therapies on acute peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jun-ping

    2009-06-01

    To explore the better therapeutic method for acute peripheral facial paralysis. One hundred and ninety-seven cases of acute peripheral facial paralysis were randomly divided into an observation group (n=125) and a control group (n=72). The observation group was treated by injection at acupoint combined with warming needle therapy at Yifeng (TE 17), Wangu (GB 12), Xiaguan (ST 7), Qianzheng (EX), and Taiyang (EX-HN 5). The control group was treated with electroacupuncture at Yifeng (TE 17), Yangbai (GB 14), Xiaguan (ST 7), etc. Their therapeutic effects were compared between the two groups. After three therapeutic courses, the cured rate and the total effective rate in the observation group were 76.0%, 100.0%, and 48.6%, 86.1% in the control group, respectively, with significant defferences between the two groups (all P facial paralysis.

  18. Metagenomic Analysis of Cucumber RNA from East Timor Reveals an Aphid lethal paralysis virus Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R.; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present here the first complete genomic Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) sequence isolated from cucumber plant RNA from East Timor. We compare it with two complete ALPV genome sequences from China, and one each from Israel, South Africa, and the United States. It most closely resembled the Chinese isolate LGH genome. PMID:28082492

  19. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in the Netherlands, 1992-94

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostvogel, P.M.; Conyn-Spaendonck, M.A.E. van; Hirasing, R.A.; Loon, A.M. van

    1998-01-01

    Detection and investigation of call cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children below 15 years of age are among the criteria for poliomyelitis-free certification. In the absence of poliomyelitis the incidence of AFP is around 1 per 100 000 children aged < 15 years. In the Netherlands, surveil

  20. A Case of Associated Laryngeal Paralysis Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus without Eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishi Fujiwara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with significant weakness of the left soft palate, paralysis of the left vocal cord, and left facial nerve palsy. Although the patient showed no herpetic eruption in the pharyngolaryngeal mucosa and auricle skin, reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV was confirmed by serological examination. She was diagnosed with zoster sine herpete. After treatment with antiviral drugs and corticosteroids, her neurological disorder improved completely. When we encounter a patient with associated laryngeal paralysis, we should consider the possibility of reactivation of VZV even when no typical herpetic eruption is observed.

  1. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Bassey Enya; Gasasira, Alex; Mitula, Pamela; Frankson, Umoh Utobong; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

    2011-01-01

    The last case of wild polio virus transmission occurred in Akwa Ibom state in October 2001; however, combination high routine immunization coverage with OPV, high quality AFP surveillance, mass immunization campaign in which two doses of potent oral polio vaccine is administered to eligible children and mop-up campaigns in areas with identified immunization or surveillance gaps has help the state in maintaining a free polio status for over ten years. This study was carried out to describe the characteristics of reported acute flaccid paralysis cases between 2004 and 2009, and to evaluate the performance of the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system using indicators recommended by the World Health Organization. A retrospective study was conducted among children, 0-15 years, by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Epidemiology unit of State Ministry of Health (SMOH), Uyo. The demographic characteristics and the results of isolation and identification of polio and other enteroviruses in stool samples sent to the WHO Polio Laboratory Ibadan for cases was analyzed. A total of 521 cases of AFP (270 males and 251 females) aged 0 month to=15 years were reported by the surveillance system between 2004 and 2009. Those below 5 years of age accounted for 82.5% of cases reported and investigated. Of the 521 cases investigated 512 (98.3%) received at least three doses of oral polio vaccine, while 9(1.7) never received any oral polio vaccine (zero-dose). In all 5.1% of the isolates were Sabin, 7.9% non polio enterovirus (NPEV) and 2.3% were classified by national expert committee as compatible with poliomyelitis. There was consistent and steady increase in three critical indicators; Non polio AFP rate in children surveillance performance with some challenges in reverse the cold chain system, the continuation and sustained AFP case detection, prompt investigation and response, improvement in the reserve cold chain system would achieve optimal standards recommended by WHO

  2. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Dicistroviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicistroviridae is a family of small non-enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of approximately 8-10 kilobases in length. All members infect arthropod hosts with some having devastating economic consequences, such as Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, and Israeli acute paralysis virus towar...

  3. [Comparison of therapeutic effects of peripheral facial paralysis in acute stage by different interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-An; Zhu, Zai-Bo; Qi, Qi-Hua; Ni, Shan-Shan; Cui, Chen-Hua; Xing, Dan

    2010-12-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of peripheral facial paralysis in acute stage by different interventions and explore the better treatments of peripheral facial paralysis. One hundred and thirty one cases of Bell's facial paralysis were randomly divided into three groups. In acupuncture group (44 cases), Dicang (ST 4), Jiache (ST 6), Hegu (LI 4), Yangbai (GB 14) and Taiyang (EX-HN 5), etc. were applied; in electroacupuncture group (45 cases), the selection of acupoints and needling method were same as those in acupuncture group, and the electroacupuncture therapy was applied on Dicang (ST 4), Xiaguan (ST 7), Yangbai (GB 14) and Taiyang (EX-HN 5) in acute stage; in medication and acupuncture group (42 cases), Prednisone and Acyclovir were taken by oral administration, Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B12, were applied by intramuscular injection in acute stage, and acupuncture was applied by the way which was same as that in acupuncture group during quiescent and recovery stages. The curative effects were evaluated by House-Brackmann Grading Scale, and the failed rates were observed by follow-up after one and three months. The cured and markedly effective rates were 79.6% (35/44), 93.4% (42/45) and 78.6% (33/42) respectively in acupuncture group, electroacupuncture group and medication and acupuncture group, and the result in electroacupuncture group was superior to those in acupuncture group and medication and acupuncture group (P acupuncture group, electroacupuncture group and medication and acupuncture group, and the result in electroacupuncture group was superior to those in acupuncture group and medication and acupuncture group (P 0.05); and the failed rate in electroacupuncture group was much lower than those in acupuncture group and medication and acupuncture group by follow-up after one and three months (all P facial paralysis is effectively treated by electroacupuncture in acute stage, and it suggests that electroacupuncture should be applied early during the

  4. 云南省2003-2007年分离到脊髓灰质炎病毒的急性弛缓性麻痹病例特征分析%Characteristics of 57 acute flaccid paralysis case with polio-virus isolated from stool specimens,in Yunnan province,from 2003 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽芬; 丁峥嵘; 罗梅; 庞颜坤; 张杰

    2009-01-01

    Objective Study on the epidemiological characteristiCS of poliomyelitis virus in Yunnan, from 2003 to 2007.Methods Surveillance data of acute flaccid paralysis(AFP) cases from year 2003 to 2007 was gathered.All the stool specimens were identified to contain polio virus.Results 1171 AFP cases were reported.Out of the total number of 1138 stool specimens from 2003 to 2007,57 cases showed polio virus(5.0%),159 showed NPEV(14.0%),922 cases showed virus negative.In those virus,polio type II took the lead(31.6%).57 AFP cases appeared in 37(28.7%) counties in Yunnan.Most of the cases were under 2 years of age.29 cases had taken more than 3 OFV (oral poliovaccine) dosages and 41 cases had fever before paralysis occurred.Most of the cases appeared paralysis on single lower limb,but 26 cases leaving deformity.Significant difference was found between the two groups:having received vaccination more than 3 OPV dosages or less than 3 dosages.Conclusion High quality AFP epidemiological and labomtory surveillance program,together with OPV routine and supplemental immunization strategy to cover the poorly immunized area/population appeared to be most effective.%目的 了解云南省脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)病毒(PV)流行情况.方法 对云南省2003-2007年急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例粪便标本分离到PV的AFP病例进行描述性分析.结果 2003-2007年云南省报告1171例AFP病例,1138例采集到粪便标本,57例分离到PV,PV分离率5.0%.159例分离到NPEV(非脊灰肠道病毒),NPEV分离率14.0%,922例分离结果阴性.PV型别以PV II型居多,单型合计占总数的31.6%.57例PV阳性AFP病例分布在37个县,占全省总县数的28.7%(37/129),病例主要集中在2岁以下儿童共43例,占75.4%,口服脊灰疫苗≥3次29人,全程口服脊灰疫苗者占50.9%.麻痹前有发热的41例,占71.9%;麻痹部位以单下肢为主共28例,占49.1%.60 d后随访有26例残留麻痹,占45.6%;经统计学检验,未全程免疫者残留麻痹率大于全程免

  5. [Observation on therapeutic effect of acupuncture on spontaneous facial paralysis in acute stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Run-Fen; Huang, Shi-Xi

    2011-07-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect and to explore the best opportunity of acupuncture on spontaneous facial paralysis in acute stage. By prospective cohort study, 80 patients were divided into an observation group (n = 59) and a control group (n = 21). The course of disease was less than 5 days in the observation group and more than 7 days in the control group and had not received acupuncture treatment. They were all treated with acupuncture at Sibai (ST 2), Dicang (ST 4), Jiache (ST 6) and Cuanzhu (BL 2) etc. for 8 weeks. The facial nerve function grading (House-Brackmann, HB) and facial disable index (FDI) before treatment, 8 days after onset, 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks and 3 months after treatment were evaluated. Both two groups could decrease HB grading and increase FDI score (all P Acupuncture can improve the therapeutic effect, shorten the treatment course and reduce the sequelae incidence of spontaneous facial paralysis in acute stage.

  6. [Clinical observation on relation of different therapeutic methods with prognosis of acute idiopathetic facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Zhe

    2005-05-01

    To find the optimal therapeutic program for treatment of acute idiopathetic facial paralysis. Four hundred and seventy-seven cases were randomly divided into acupuncture group (group A) treated by routine point multiple needle shallow needling, electroacupuncture group (group B) treated by routine point plus electroacupuncture, drug group (group C), acupuncture plus drug group (group D), and electroacupuncture plus drug group (group E). After treatment of 40 sessions, their therapeutic effects were compared. The effective rate was 84.0%, 57.1%, 60.6%, 95.8% and 73.5% in the 5 groups respectively; the effective rate in the group D was the best with a very significant difference as compared with other groups (P Acupuncture combined with drug is the best program for treatment of acute idiopathetic facial paralysis, and the multiple needle shallow needling is better than electroacupuncture or simple medication.

  7. [Effect of shallow needling combined with acupoint application on the acute stage of peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong-Liang; Cao, Xue-Mei; Huang, Shi-Zhao; Chen, Shang-Jie; Zhu, Fen; Zheng, Xiao-Yue

    2010-07-01

    To search for an effective therapy for the acute stage of peripheral facial paralysis. One hundred and twenty cases of facial paralysis patients were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 60 cases in each group. Both groups were treated with routine medication, and the observation group was treated with shallow needling combined with acupoint application using self-made "acupoint application formula for facial paralysis" on the basis of the routine medication. The acupoints of Yifeng (TE 17), Wangu (GB 12), Dicang (ST 4), Jiache (ST 6), Yangbai (GB 14), Taiyang (EX-HN 5), Qianzheng (EX-HN 17), Cuanzhu (BL 2) in affected side and Hegu (LI 4) in healthy side were selected as main acupoints for shallow needling, and Qianzheng (EX-HN 17), Dicang (ST 4), Yangbai (GB 14) and Wangu (GB 12), or Jiache (ST 6), Taiyang (EX-HN 5), Quanliao (SI 18) and Yifeng (TE 17) were selected for acupoint application. The cure rate and the course of cured patients in both groups were compared. The cure rate of 88.3% (53/60) in observation group was superior to that of 66.7% (40/60) in control group (P facial paralysis.

  8. Detection of polioviruses and non-polio enteroviruses by acute flaccid paralysis and environmental surveillances in Sistan and Balouchestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh alsadat Razavi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In some countries, though wild poliovirus isolation from clinical specimens has not been done, evidences of silent circulation of wild virus in sewage system have been reported. On the other hand, based on WHO recommendations, if there is any probability of wild virus entrance from endemic countries, environmental surveillance is advised as a completion to Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP surveillance. Methods: AFP and environmental surveillance were performed simultaneously in Sistan and Balouchestan province to confirm wild poliovirus eradication. To perform AFP surveillance, 21 stool specimens of AFP suspected cases were collected in a one year period and evaluated using L20B, RD and Hep-2 cell lines. To perform environmental surveillance, 86 samples from urban and hospital sewage disposal systems were collected. Using direct, Pellet and Two-phase methods for virus concentration, Enterovirus existence was investigated in above-mentioned cell lines. Results: Non-polio enteroviruses and polioviruses were isolated from 53.49% and 20.93% of sewage specimens, respectively. Sabin-Like polioviruses were isolated from 9.52% of AFP cases, and non-polio enteroviruses from 14.28% of them. Poliovirus type 2 was not isolated form stool specimens and there was no Poliovirus type 1 isolation from sewage specimens, either. Conclusion: The environmental surveillance as a completion to AFP in Sistan and Balouchestan Province in Iran confirms poliovirus eradication.

  9. Multiple Virus Infections and the Characteristics of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Diseased Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L. in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yan Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies globally, but there is currently no data on viral infection in diseased A. mellifera L. colonies in China. In particular, there is a lack of data on chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV in Chinese honey bee colonies. Consequently, the present study investigated the occurrence and frequency of several widespread honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries, and we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay. Described was the relationship between the presence of CBPV and diseased colonies (with at least one of the following symptoms: depopulation, paralysis, dark body colorings and hairless, or a mass of dead bees on the ground surrounding the beehives. Phylogenetic analyses of CBPV were employed. The prevalence of multiple infections of honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries was 100%, and the prevalence of infections with even five and six viruses were higher than expected. The incidence of CBPV in diseased colonies was significantly higher than that in apparently healthy colonies in Chinese A. mellifera aparies, and CBPV isolates from China can be separated into Chinese-Japanese clade 1 and 2. The results indicate that beekeeping in China may be threatened by colony decline due to the high prevalence of multiple viruses with CBPV.

  10. Analysis on Acute Flaccid Paralysis Cases Induced by Vaccine Derivation Poliomylitis Virus in Hebei Province%河北省检出脊髓灰质炎疫苗株病毒急性弛缓性麻痹病例流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 张振国; 张俊棉; 张富斌; 郭玉; 陈玫

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解河北省2004-2007年急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例中检出脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)疫苗株病毒阳性病例的流行病学特征.方法 描述流行病学方法分析个案数据.结果 从1 657例AFP病例中检出脊灰病毒91株,检出率为5.5%,均为疫苗相关株病毒.病例散在发生,无聚集性.≤2岁儿童病例占92.3%.临床表现主要以发热、腹泻、肢体感觉障碍、深部腱反射减弱或消失为主.结论 脊髓灰质炎疫苗株病毒导致的麻痹病例以2岁以下幼儿多见,应加强监测与研究.%Objective To analyze the epidemiological features of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases induced by vaccine derivation poliomyelitis virus (VDPV) from 2004 to 2007 in Hebei Province. Methods Descriptive a-nalysis was conducted on the case data. Results A total of 1 674 AFP cases were reported from 2004 to 2007, and 91 strains of poliovirus were detected (5.5% ), all of them were VDPV. The cases occurred sporadically and children aged ≤2 years accounted for 92. 3% of the total cases. The clinical symptoms included fever, diarrhea, sensorial disorder of extremity, weakened or disappeared deep tendon reflect. Conclusion AFP ca-scs induced by VDPV were often observed in children less than 2 years old, it is necessary to strengthen the surveillance and study of AFP cases induced by VDPV.

  11. [Clinical efficacy on peripheral facial paralysis at acute stage treated with opposing needling technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Zhang, Zhongyi; Chen, Yuelai; Zong, Lei; Li, Jing; Tao, Ying; Zeng, Liang; Hou, Wenguang

    2015-01-01

    To compare the differences in clinical efficacy on peripheral facial paralysis at acute stage between the opposing needling technique and routine acupuncture at the affected side so as to provide the evidence on the acupuncture treatment for peripheral facial paralysis at acute stage. Forty patients were rando- mized into an opposing needling technique group (19 cases) and an affected side needling technique group (21 cases). The basic medication was same in the two groups. The acupoints were Fengchi (GB 20), Yangbai (GB 14) to Yuyao (EX-HN 4) (penetrating needling method), Jingming (BL 1), Chengqi (ST 1), Xiaguan (ST 7), Jiache (ST 6) to Dicang (ST 4), Hegu (LI 4) and Zusanli (ST 36). In supplementation, in the opposing needling technique group, the acupoints were stimulated on the face of healthy side. In the affected side needling technique group, the acupoints were stimulated on the face of the affected side. The treatment was given three times a week, for 4 weeks. House-Brackmann (H-B) facial nerve function assessment was used to evaluate facial nerve function before and after treatment in the patients of the two groups. The efficacy was compared between the two groups. The facial nerve function was recovered in the two groups and the total effective rate was 100.0% in the two groups (P>0.05). The curative rate was 68.4% (13/19) in the opposing needling technique group and better than 47.6% (10/21) in the affected side needling technique group (Pfacial nerve function in peripheral facial paralysis at acute stage and apparently shortens the curative time. The efficacy is better than that in acupuncture on the affect- ed side of the face.

  12. RAPID COMMUNICATION-- POLIO VACCINE COVERAGE IN THE ACUTE FLACCID PARALYSIS (AFP) CASES IN ROMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Băicuş, Anda

    2015-01-01

    Poliovirus (PV), a member of the Enterovirus genus, is the etiological agent of poliomyelitis. A study carried out between 2013-2014 on 30 serum samples from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases, showed a protective antibody level of 90% against poliovirus Sabin strains type 1 and type 2 and of 88% against type 3. No PV strains were isolated from 2009 to 2015 in Romania. Maintaining a high vaccine coverage level against polio is mandatory until global polio eradication, especially as the risk of polio importation remains elevated in Romania.

  13. Epidemiology of childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome as a cause of acute flaccid paralysis in Honduras: 1989-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, Marco R; Varon, Daniel; Holden, Kenton R; Sladky, John T; Molina, Ida B; Cleaves, Francisco

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis in the pediatric population of Honduras over an 11-year period, determine what percentage of acute flaccid paralysis was Guillain-Barré syndrome, and identify the epidemiologic features of Guillain-Barré syndrome. There were 546 childhood cases of acute flaccid paralysis seen between January 1989 and December 1999 at the Hospital Escuela Materno-Infantil in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Of these cases with acute flaccid paralysis, 394 (72.2%) were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Our incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in the Honduran pediatric population (1.37/100,000 per year) is higher than that shown in other studies. There was a significantly higher incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in younger children (ages 1-4 years), a significant preponderance of cases from rural areas, and a mild predominance in boys but a typical clinical presentation. The Honduran pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome population had an increased mortality rate. Guillain-Barré syndrome has become the leading cause of childhood paralysis in Honduras. A better understanding of the population at highest risk and opportunities for earlier intervention with more effective therapeutic modalities may permit reducing the mortality among Honduran children who develop Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  14. Characterisation of Structural Proteins from Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus (CBPV Using Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Chevin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV is the etiological agent of chronic paralysis, an infectious and contagious disease in adult honeybees. CBPV is a positive single-stranded RNA virus which contains two major viral RNA fragments. RNA 1 (3674 nt and RNA 2 (2305 nt encode three and four putative open reading frames (ORFs, respectively. RNA 1 is thought to encode the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp since the amino acid sequence derived from ORF 3 shares similarities with the RdRP of families Nodaviridae and Tombusviridae. The genomic organization of CBPV and in silico analyses have suggested that RNA 1 encodes non-structural proteins, while RNA 2 encodes structural proteins, which are probably encoded by ORFs 2 and 3. In this study, purified CBPV particles were used to characterize virion proteins by mass spectrometry. Several polypeptides corresponding to proteins encoded by ORF 2 and 3 on RNA 2 were detected. Their role in the formation of the viral capsid is discussed.

  15. Surgical Treatment of Facial Paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Ritvik P.

    2009-01-01

    The management of facial paralysis is one of the most complex areas of reconstructive surgery. Given the wide variety of functional and cosmetic deficits in the facial paralysis patient, the reconstructive surgeon requires a thorough understanding of the surgical techniques available to treat this condition. This review article will focus on surgical management of facial paralysis and the treatment options available for acute facial paralysis (2 yr). For acute facial paralysis, the main surgi...

  16. Very virulent plus strains of MDV induce acute form of transient paralysis in both susceptible and resistant chicken lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s Disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, and transient paralysis (TP). TP is a disease of the central nervous system...

  17. First Detection of an Enterovirus C99 in a Captive Chimpanzee with Acute Flaccid Paralysis, from the Tchimpounga Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Center, Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombo, Illich Manfred; Berthet, Nicolas; Lukashev, Alexander N; Bleicker, Tobias; Brünink, Sebastian; Léger, Lucas; Atencia, Rebeca; Cox, Debby; Bouchier, Christiane; Durand, Patrick; Arnathau, Céline; Brazier, Lionel; Fair, Joseph N; Schneider, Bradley S; Drexler, Jan Felix; Prugnolle, Franck; Drosten, Christian; Renaud, François; Leroy, Eric M; Rougeron, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses, members of the Picornaviridae family, are ubiquitous viruses responsible for mild to severe infections in human populations around the world. In 2010 Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo recorded an outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in the humans, caused by wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1). One month later, in the Tchimpounga sanctuary near Pointe-Noire, a chimpanzee developed signs similar to AFP, with paralysis of the lower limbs. In the present work, we sought to identify the pathogen, including viral and bacterial agents, responsible for this illness. In order to identify the causative agent, we evaluated a fecal specimen by PCR and sequencing. A Human enterovirus C, specifically of the EV-C99 type was potentially responsible for the illness in this chimpanzee. To rule out other possible causative agents, we also investigated the bacteriome and the virome using next generation sequencing. The majority of bacterial reads obtained belonged to commensal bacteria (95%), and the mammalian virus reads matched mainly with viruses of the Picornaviridae family (99%), in which enteroviruses were the most abundant (99.6%). This study thus reports the first identification of a chimpanzee presenting AFP most likely caused by an enterovirus and demonstrates once again the cross-species transmission of a human pathogen to an ape.

  18. Surgical treatment of facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ritvik P

    2009-03-01

    The management of facial paralysis is one of the most complex areas of reconstructive surgery. Given the wide variety of functional and cosmetic deficits in the facial paralysis patient, the reconstructive surgeon requires a thorough understanding of the surgical techniques available to treat this condition. This review article will focus on surgical management of facial paralysis and the treatment options available for acute facial paralysis (facial paralysis (3 weeks to 2 yr) and chronic facial paralysis (>2 yr). For acute facial paralysis, the main surgical therapies are facial nerve decompression and facial nerve repair. For facial paralysis of intermediate duration, nerve transfer procedures are appropriate. For chronic facial paralysis, treatment typically requires regional or free muscle transfer. Static techniques of facial reanimation can be used for acute, intermediate, or chronic facial paralysis as these techniques are often important adjuncts to the overall management strategy.

  19. Chronic bee paralysis virus and Nosema ceranae experimental co-infection of winter honey bee workers (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. In this study winter worker bees were experimentally infected using three different experiments. Bees were inoculated orally or topically with CBPV to evaluate the l...

  20. The presence of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus infection in Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) infection in the U.S. is reported for the first time. Using molecular methods, the evidence of infection of honey bees with CBPV has been detected in both symptomatic and asymptomatic bees. While our seven year’s survey showed that the CBPV infect...

  1. Epidemiology of acute flaccid paralysis in Kermanshah province, 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyghobad Ghadiri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine epidemiologic features of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP during 2004-2009 in Kermanshah province. This cross-sectional descriptive study was done based on data records from Kermanshah health care center. In total 89 patients, 0-14 years old were enrolled study, which 36 of them were male and 53 were female. 50.6% of subjects were diagnosed as Guillain-barre, 6.7% transverse synovitis and 5.6% as arthritis. No any cases of poliomyelitis were diagnosed. The prevalence of reported of AFP during 2004-2009 in Kermanshah province was more than expected rate of 1 per 100000 according to WHO.

  2. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly.

  3. Health care seeking behavior of parents with acute flaccid paralysis child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Ayesheshem Ademe; Mersha, Amare Mengistu

    2017-01-01

    Despite the tremendous increase in the number of modern health institutions, traditional medical practices still remain alternative places of health care service delivery and important sites for disease notification in the disease surveillance system. The objectives of this study are to describe the patterns and factors associated with health care seeking behavior of parents and care takers with acute flaccid paralysis child and see how the traditional practice affect the surveillance system. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to assess the health seeking behavior of parents with an acute flaccid paralysis child. Data were collected throughout the country as a routine surveillance program. Of 1299 families analyzed, 907(69.3%) of families with AFP child first went to health institutions to seek medical care, while. 398 (30.7%) of parents took their child first to other traditional sites, including holy water sites (11.8%), traditional healers (9.1%) and prayer places (5.4%). Over half of the parents with AFP child reported practicing home measures before first seeking health service from modern health institutions. Home measures (OR, 0.1202, 95% CI 0.0804-0.1797), decision by relatives (OR, 0.5595, 95% CI 0.3665-0.8540) and More than 10km distance from health facility (OR, 0.5962, 95% CI, 0.4117-0.8634) were significantly associated to first seeking health service from health institutions (p<0.05). Program strategies must certainly be developed to expand and capture all traditional sites in the surveillance network, and intensify sensitization and active surveillance visit in these areas.

  4. PENGKAJIAN DATA RUMAH SAKIT (HOSPITAL RECORD REVIEW KASUS ACUTE FLACCID PARALYSIS (AFP TAHUN 1999-2000 DI JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholis Bachroen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This survey was the evaluation of the program on Polio Eradication through Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP Surveillance especially Hospital Based Surveillance. The evaluation was done by reviewing the Hospitals' Record (Hospital Based Survey. The objective of the survey was to estimate the under reported of routine reporting system, which the data of the survey used as a gold standard. The results showed that due to incomplete of the records in several hospitals, some of AFP cases might be could not be covered. However the under reported of the routine surveillance system was more than 50%. It seems that the strengthening of supervision was still needed to increase coverage of the routine surveillance system.   Keywords: hospitals; medical record; acute flocid paralysis

  5. Enterovirus 71 infection-associated acute flaccid paralysis: a case series of long-term neurologic follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiu-Fen; Chi, Ching-Shiang

    2014-10-01

    The authors undertook long-term neurologic outcomes of 27 patients aged 0 to 15 years with enterovirus 71-related acute flaccid paralysis from June 1998 to July 2012. Motor function outcome was graded from class I (complete recovery) to class V (permanent paralytic limbs). Twelve of 20 patients (60%) who received intravenous immunoglobulin for treatment of acute flaccid paralysis had motor function outcomes in classes III to V. The median duration of follow-up was 6 months, during which time 7 of 13 patients (54%) with central nervous system infection, 3 of 6 patients (50%) with autonomic nervous system dysregulation, and 3 of 8 patients (37%) with heart failure showed motor function outcomes in classes III to V. These findings suggested that the usage of intravenous immunoglobulin and the severity of disease staging at disease onset might not be able to predict long-term motor function outcomes.

  6. Acute otitis media and respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, O; Arola, M; Putto-Laurila, A; Mertsola, J; Meurman, O; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P

    1989-02-01

    We studied the association of acute otitis media with different respiratory virus infections in a pediatric department on the basis of epidemics between 1980 and 1985. Altogether 4524 cases of acute otitis media were diagnosed. The diagnosis was confirmed by tympanocentesis in 3332 ears. Respiratory virus infection was diagnosed during the same period in 989 patients by detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal mucus. There was a significant correlation between acute otitis media and respiratory virus epidemics, especially respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. There was no significant correlation between outbreaks of other respiratory viruses and acute otitis media. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 57% of respiratory syncytial virus, 35% of influenza A virus, 33% of parainfluenza type 3 virus, 30% of adenovirus, 28% of parainfluenza type 1 virus, 18% of influenza B virus and 10% of parainfluenza type 2 virus infections. These observations show a clear association of respiratory virus infections with acute otitis media. In this study on hospitalized children Haemophilus influenzae strains were the most common bacteriologic pathogens in middle ear fluid, occurring in 19% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae was present in 16% and Branhamella catarrhalis in 7% of cases. There was no association between specific viruses and bacteria observed in this study.

  7. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in the Marches region (Italy: 1997–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moroni Vania

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last case of poliomyelitis due to transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus occurred in Italy in 1982, however, it is important to guarantee a high quality surveillance as there is a risk of importation of cases from areas where polio is endemic. Stopping poliovirus transmission is pursued through a combination of high infant immunization coverage and surveillance for wild poliovirus through reporting and laboratory testing of all cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP among children under fifteen years of age. The aim of this study was to describe and to evaluate 11 years of active surveillance in the Marches (Italy in terms of: incidence, aetiology and clinical manifestation of AFP cases. Methods The active Acute Flaccid Paralysis surveillance has been carried out in the Marches region since February 1997 by the Chair of Hygiene which established a regional hospital network. Active surveillance involves 15 hospital centres. Results In the considered period, 0–15 years population varied between 187,051 in 1997 to 201,625 in 2007, so the number of AFP expected cases is 2 per year. From February 1997 to October 2007, 27 cases were found with rates of 1.0/100,000 in 1997; 2.0/100,000 in 1998; 1.0/100,000 in 1999; 0.5/100,000 in 2000; 2.5/100,000 in 2001; 1.0/100,000 in 2002; 0 in 2003; 0.5/100,000 in 2004; 1.5/100,000 in 2005; 2.0/100,000 in 2006; 1.5/100,000 in 2007. In 29.6% of cases two stool samples were collected in 14 days from the symptoms onset. The 60-days follow-up is available for 23 out of 27 cases reported. In 44.5% of cases the definite diagnosis was Guillain Barrè syndrome. Conclusion In general, the surveillance activity is satisfactory even if in presence of some criticalities in biological samples collection. The continuation of surveillance, in addition to the maintenance of current levels of performance, will tend to a further and more detailed sensitization of all workers involved, in order to obtain

  8. ["Santong Needling" by Stages for Moderate and Severe Peripheral Facial Paralysis in the Acute Period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-tao; Qiu, Lian-li

    2015-10-01

    To observe clinical effects of "Santong needling" by stages for patients with moderate and severe peripheral facial paralysis (PFP) in the acute period. Sixty patients with moderate and severe PFP were equally and randomly divided into Santong needling group and control group. The patients of the Santong needling group were treated by shallow puncture of Yifeng (TE 17, on the affected side) and Hegu (LI 4, on the healthy side) without needle manipulation in the acute stage ("Qing-tong", mild dredging) , by oblique-penetrative puncture of Dicang (ST 4) to Jiache (ST 6), etc. , and moderate manipulation of needles in the resting stage ("Qiang-tong", stronger dredging) , and by oblique-penetrative puncture of Dicang (ST 4) to Jiache (ST 6), etc., and reinforcing needling manipulation in the recovery stage("Bu-tong", tonifying dredging). The patients of the control group were treated by "Jingjin" (musculotendon) puncture of the same acupoints. The treatment was conducted once daily, 5 times per week for 6 weeks. The 0-3-grade scores of therapeutic effects were evaluated according to the severity of the patients' symptoms and signs (including forehead stripes, palpebral fissure, nasolabial groove, drooping of the mouth angle, bulging cheek-air leak, food residue, dysgeusis, hyperacusi, lacrimation, and orbicularis oculi reflex). The therapeutic effect index = (score of pre-treatment--score of post-treatment)/score of pre-treatment x100% . The patients' life quality scores were assessed by using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire. After the treatment, the scores of clinical symptoms and signs were significantly decreased in both control and Santong needling groups in comparison with pre-treatment in the same one group (P facial nerve function after 6 weeks' treatment. Of the two 30 patients in the control group and Santong needling group, 11 (36.7%) and 15 (50.0%) were cured, 8 (26.7%) and 9 (30.0%) experienced marked improvement, 5

  9. Clinical and neuroimaging features of enterovirus71 related acute flaccid paralysis in patients with hand-foot-mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Chen; Jian-Jun Li; Tao Liu; Guo-Qiang Wen; Wei Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate clinical and neuroimaging features of enterovirus71 (EV71) related acute flaccid paralysis in patients with hand-foot-mouth disease. Methods: Nine patients with acute flaccid paralysis met the criterion of EV71 induced hand-foot-mouth disease underwent spinal and brain MR imaging from May 2008 to Sep 2012. Results: One extremity flaccid was found in four cases (3 with lower limb, 1 with upper limb), two limbs flaccid in three cases (2 with lower limbs, 1 with upper limbs), and four limbs flaccid in two cases. Spinal MRI studies showed lesion with high signal in T2-weighted images (T2WI) and low signal T1-weighted images (T1WI) in the spinal cord of all nine cases, and the lesions were mainly in bilateral and unilateral anterior horn of cervical spinal cord and spinal cord below thoracic 9 (T9) level. In addition, the midbrain, pons, and medulla, which were involved in 3 cases with brainstem encephalitis, demonstrated abnormal signal. Moreover, spinal cord contrast MRI studies showed mild enhancement in corresponding anterior horn of the involved side, and strong enhancement in its ventral root. Conclusions:EV71 related acute flaccid paralysis in patients with hand-foot-mouth disease mainly affected the anterior horn regions and ventral root of cervical spinal cord and spinal cord below T9 level. MR imaging could efficiently show the characteristic pattern and extent of the lesions which correlated well with the clinical features.

  10. [Study on clinical effectiveness of acupuncture and moxibustion on acute Bell's facial paralysis: randomized controlled clinical observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Li, Ning; Liu, Yi; Huang, Chang-qiong; Zhang, Yong-ling

    2006-03-01

    To investigate the adverse effects of acupuncture on the prognosis, and effectiveness of acupuncture combined with far infrared ray in the patient of acute Bell's facial paralysis within 48 h. Clinically randomized controlled trial was used, and the patients were divided into 3 groups: group A (early acupuncture group), group B (acupuncture combined with far infrared ray) and group C (acupuncture after 7 days). The facial nerve functional classification at the attack, 7 days after the attack and after treatment, the clinically cured rate of following-up of 6 months, and the average cured time, the cured time of complete facial paralysis were observed in the 3 groups. There were no significant differences among the 3 groups in the facial nerve functional classification 7 days after the attack, the clinically cured rate of following-up of 6 months and the average cured time (P > 0.05), but the cured time of complete facial paralysis in the group A and the group B were shorter than that in the group C (P facial paralysis can be treated with acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional moxibustion can be replaced by far infrared way.

  11. Genomic characterization of coxsackievirus type B3 strains associated with acute flaccid paralysis in south-western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxmivandana, Rongala; Cherian, Sarah S; Yergolkar, Prasanna; Chitambar, Shobha D

    2016-03-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with coxsackievirus type B3 (CV-B3) of the species Enterovirus B is an emerging concern worldwide. Although CV-B3-associated AFP in India has been demonstrated previously, the genomic characterization of these strains is unreported. Here, CV-B3 strains detected on the basis of the partial VP1 gene in 10 AFP cases and five asymptomatic contacts identified from different regions of south-western India during 2009-2010 through the Polio Surveillance Project were considered for complete genome sequencing and characterization. Phylogenetic analysis of complete VP1 gene sequences of global CV-B3 strains classified Indian CV-B3 strains into genogroup GVI, along with strains from Uzbekistan and Bangladesh, and into a new genogroup, GVII. Genomic divergence between genogroups of the study strains was 14.4 % with significantly lower divergence (1.8 %) within GVI (n = 12) than that within GVII (8.5 %) (n = 3). The strains from both AFP cases and asymptomatic contacts, identified mainly in coastal Karnataka and Kerala, belonged to the dominant genogroup GVI, while the GVII strains were recovered from AFP cases in north interior Karnataka. All study strains carried inter-genotypic recombination with the structural region similar to reference CV-B3 strains, and 5' non-coding regions and non-structural regions closer to other enterovirus B types. Domain II structures of 5' non-coding regions, described to modulate virus replication, were predicted to have varied structural folds in the two genogroups and were attributed to differing recombination patterns. The results indicate two distinct genomic compositions of CV-B3 strains circulating in India and suggest the need for concurrent analysis of viral and host factors to further understand the varied manifestations of their infections.

  12. [Clinical trials of treatment of acute facial paralysis with pain by blood-letting plus acupuncture in patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le-Rong; Wang, Hai-Long; Lu, Jia-Qing

    2015-04-01

    To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of blood-letting plus acupuncture intervention for acute facial paralysis with pain (damp-heat type of liver and gallbladder). A total of 120 cases of acute facial paralysis with pain were randomly and equally divided into control group and treatment group. Patients of the control group were treated by simple acupuncture therapy only, and patients of the treatment group treated by acupuncture plus bloodletting at the ipsilateral Yangbai(GB 14) and Quanliao (SI 18), and Dazhui (GV 14) and Yifeng (TE 17), alternatively. Shallow-acupuncture stimulation of ipsilateral Cuanzhu (BL 2), Sizhukong (TE 23), Sibai (ST 2), Dicang (ST 4), Jiache (ST 6), Yingxiang (SP 9), and bilateral Hegu (LI 4), Yanglingquan (GB 34) and Xingjian (LR 2) was administered for 30 min, once daily for one month. The patients' facial pain degree was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS), and the pain duration during acute stage was recorded. The facial nerve function and facial nerve function recovery (grade II) time were determined by using Sunnybrook Facial Grading scale and House-Brackmann (HB) grading scale, respectively. In comparison with pre-treatment, the post-aurem pain scores after the first treatment and after the acute stage were significantly decreased, and the facial nerve function scores after the treatment were significantly increased in both control and treatment groups (P facial nerve function recovery (HB) of the treatment group were considerably lower than those of the control group (P facial palsy patients in the control and treatment groups, 16 (27.6%) and 24 (40.7%) were cured, 18 (31.0%) and 23 (39.0%) experienced marked improvement, 15 (25.9%) and 10 (16.9%) were improved, and 9 (15.5%) and 2 (3.4%) were failed, with the effective rate being 85.0% and 96.6%, respectively. Bloodletting combined acupuncture is effective in the treatment of acute facial paralysis with pain.

  13. 2008-2012年广东省残留麻痹的急性弛缓性麻痹病例流行病学特征及影响因素分析%Correlative risk factors of residual paralysis among acute flaccid paralysis cases in Guangdong Province,2008-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭秋; 郑慧贞; 朱琦; 韩轲; 刘宇; 刘楚钿

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze epidemiological characteristics and correlative risk factors of sequela of paralysis in acute flaccid paralysis(AFP)cases in Guangdong Province and to explore relevant prevention and control measures.Methods The data of the cases were from AFP surveillance system of Guangdong Province and included basic situation,clinical symptom,doctor visits,history of immunization.Specimens of double feces were collected and delivered to provincial laboratory to detect polio virus.Descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of AFP cases with residual paralysis during 2008 to 2012.The correlative risk factors of sequela of paralysis were analyzed with univariate and multivariate non-conditional logistic regression.Results A total of 1 659 AFP cases were reported,including 231 cases of residual paralysis(13.92%)in Guangdong Province from 2008 to 2012.The residual paralysis cases concentrated in the children aged 0-4 years old (82.25%,190/231).67.97% of the residual paralysis cases had been vaccinated at least 3 times.Before paralysis,the most symptoms of the residual paralysis cases were fever(71.43%,165/231)and lower limb paralysis (67.10%,155/231).The polio virus isolating rate from the excrement of residual paralysis cases was 19.82%(45/227).The multivariate nonconditional logistic regression analyses showed that residual paralysis of AFP cases was associated with female,fever before paralysis,and polio virus isolated from the faces specimen with OR at 1.673,1.560,and 6.535,respectively.Conclusion The polio virus isolated from feces significantly increased risk of residual paralysis of AFP cases.Cases of vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis may exist among residual paralysis cases.A high immunization coverage rate should be promoted to reduce the incidence of residual paralysis in AFP cases.%目的 分析广东省残留麻痹的急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例的流行病学特征及影响

  14. [Clinical observation on plum-blossom needle therapy combined with cupping for treatment of acute facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Hong

    2005-11-01

    To observe clinical therapeutic effect of plum-blossom needle therapy combined with cupping at the affected side on acute facial paralysis. The such patients were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group, 32 cases in each group. The patients of the two groups were treated with the same Western medicines, and at the acute stage, the treatment group were treated by tapping the affected face, the surroundings of retroanricular mastoid, the region with aching pain in the neck side with plum-blossom needle and cupping, and then local radiation by TDP, and the control group were treated by TDP radiation at the same area. In the stationary phase and restoration stage, the two groups were treated by body acupuncture at the affected side with a same therapeutic course. The cured rate was 81.2% in the treatment group and 68.7% in the control group with a significant difference between the two groups (P facial nerves, and obviously increase the cured rate and shorten the therapeutic course for acute facial paralysis.

  15. The role of CD4(+) T cells in biphasic hind limb paralysis induced by the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D) in DBA/2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Makio; Ohtsuka, Ryoichi; Nakayama, Yumi; Doi, Kunio

    2004-01-01

    DBA/2 CrSlc mice infected with the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D) (10 PFU/head) developed biphasic hind limb paralysis due to spinal cord lesion. The early phase lesion was characterized by demyelination with infiltration of macrophages in the funiculus lateraris and the late phase lesion by degeneration of motor neurons with infiltration of CD4(+) T cells in the cornu ventrale. In the present study, treatment with anti-Mac1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) or anti-CD4 MAb prior to virus infection (-3 to -1 days) reduced the early phase lesion and the incidence of the first paralysis. Signals of viral RNAs were observed only in a few oligodendrocytes in the funiculus lateraris. Treatment with anti-CD4 MAb from 31 to 33 days post infection when mice showed recovery from the first paralysis reduced the late phase lesion and prevented the second paralysis. Signals of viral RNAs were still detected in a few degenerated neurons in the cornu ventrale. These results indicate that while macrophages and CD4(+) T cells participate in the early phase lesion and paralysis and only CD4(+) T cells in the late phase lesion and paralysis.

  16. An evaluation of the sensitivity of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance for poliovirus infection in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madin Ben

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background World Health Organization (WHO targets for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP surveillance, including the notification of a minimum rate of AFP among children, are used to assess the adequacy of AFP surveillance for the detection of poliovirus infection. Sensitive surveillance for poliovirus infection in both developed and developing countries is essential to support global disease eradication efforts. We applied recently developed methods for the quantitative evaluation of disease surveillance systems to evaluate the sensitivity of AFP surveillance for poliovirus infection in Australia. Methods A scenario tree model which accounted for administrative region, age, population immunity, the likelihood of AFP, and the probability of notification and stool sampling was used to assess the sensitivity of AFP surveillance for wild poliovirus infection among children aged less than 15 years in Australia. The analysis was based on historical surveillance data collected between 2000 and 2005. We used a surveillance time period of one month, and evaluated the ability of the surveillance system to detect poliovirus infection at a prevalence of 1 case per 100 000 persons and 1 case per million persons. Results There was considerable variation in the sensitivity of AFP surveillance for poliovirus infection among Australian States and Territories. The estimated median sensitivity of AFP surveillance in Australia among children aged less than 15 years was 8.2% per month at a prevalence of 1 case per 100,000 population, and 0.9% per month at a prevalence of 1 case per million population. The probability that Australia is free from poliovirus infection given negative surveillance findings following 5 years of continuous surveillance was 96.9% at a prevalence of 1 case per 100,000 persons and 56.5% at a prevalence of 1 case per million persons. Conclusion Given the ongoing risk of poliovirus importation prior to global eradication, long term

  17. The cricket paralysis virus suppressor inhibits microRNA silencing mediated by the Drosophila Argonaute-2 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Besnard-Guérin

    Full Text Available Small RNAs are potent regulators of gene expression. They also act in defense pathways against invading nucleic acids such as transposable elements or viruses. To counteract these defenses, viruses have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs. Plant viruses encoded VSRs interfere with siRNAs or miRNAs by targeting common mediators of these two pathways. In contrast, VSRs identified in insect viruses to date only interfere with the siRNA pathway whose effector Argonaute protein is Argonaute-2 (Ago-2. Although a majority of Drosophila miRNAs exerts their silencing activity through their loading into the Argonaute-1 protein, recent studies highlighted that a fraction of miRNAs can be loaded into Ago-2, thus acting as siRNAs. In light of these recent findings, we re-examined the role of insect VSRs on Ago-2-mediated miRNA silencing in Drosophila melanogaster. Using specific reporter systems in cultured Schneider-2 cells and transgenic flies, we showed here that the Cricket Paralysis virus VSR CrPV1-A but not the Flock House virus B2 VSR abolishes silencing by miRNAs loaded into the Ago-2 protein. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that insect VSR have the potential to directly interfere with the miRNA silencing pathway.

  18. Importance of viruses in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Marom, Tal; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2015-02-01

    Acute otitis media occurs as a complication of viral upper respiratory tract infection. Bacterial otopathogens and respiratory viruses interact and play important roles in acute otitis media development. A better understanding of viral and bacterial interactions may lead to innovative ways to lessen the burden of this common childhood disease. There has been increasing evidence that acute otitis media occurs during upper respiratory infection, even in the absence of nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization. Among the types of viruses associated with acute otitis media, respiratory syncytial virus continues to be the most commonly detected. It is still unclear whether viral load plays an important role in acute otitis media development, but symptomatic upper respiratory tract infection (as opposed to asymptomatic viral infection) is crucial. Widespread use of bacterial and viral vaccines in young children, including pneumococcal conjugate and influenza vaccines, has led to the reduction in otitis media-related healthcare use between 2001 and 2011. There has been no new vaccine against respiratory viruses other than influenza. Progress has been made toward the reduction of the burden of acute otitis media in the last decade. Success in reducing acute otitis media incidence will rely mainly on prevention of nasopharyngeal otopathogen colonization, as well as reduction in the incidence of viral upper respiratory tract infection.

  19. Facial paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003028.htm Facial paralysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Facial paralysis occurs when a person is no longer able ...

  20. Viral Aetiology of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance Cases, before and after Vaccine Policy Change from Oral Polio Vaccine to Inactivated Polio Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Saraswathy Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992, surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases was introduced in Malaysia along with the establishment of the National Poliovirus Laboratory at the Institute for Medical Research. In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, approved a vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. Eight states started using IPV in the Expanded Immunization Programme, followed by the remaining states in January 2010. The objective of this study was to determine the viral aetiology of AFP cases below 15 years of age, before and after vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine. One hundred and seventy-nine enteroviruses were isolated from the 3394 stool specimens investigated between 1992 and December 2012. Fifty-six out of 107 virus isolates were polioviruses and the remaining were non-polio enteroviruses. Since 2009 after the sequential introduction of IPV in the childhood immunization programme, no Sabin polioviruses were isolated from AFP cases. In 2012, the laboratory AFP surveillance was supplemented with environmental surveillance with sewage sampling. Thirteen Sabin polioviruses were also isolated from sewage in the same year, but no vaccine-derived poliovirus was detected during this period.

  1. Etiological spectrum of hypokalemic paralysis: A retrospective analysis of 29 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Kumar Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypokalemic paralysis is characterized by episodes of acute muscle weakness associated with hypokalemia. In this study, we evaluated the possible etiological factors in patients of hypokalemic paralysis. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the records of 29 patients who were admitted with a diagnosis of hypokalemic paralysis. Modified Guillain-Barre΄ Syndrome disability scale was used to grade the disability. Results: In this study, 15 (51.7% patients had secondary causes of hypokalemic paralysis and 14 patients (42.3% had idiopathic hypokalemic paralysis. Thyrotoxicosis was present in six patients (20.6%, dengue infection in four patients (13.7%, distal renal tubular acidosis in three patients (10.3%, Gitelman syndrome in one patient (3.4%, and Conn′s syndrome in one patient (3.4%. Preceding history of fever and rapid recovery was seen in dengue infection-induced hypokalemic paralysis. Approximately 62% patients had elevated serum creatinine phosphokinase. All patients had recovered completely following potassium supplementation. Patients with secondary causes were older in age, had significantly more disability, lower serum potassium levels, and took longer time to recover. Conclusion: In conclusion, more than half of patients had secondary causes responsible for hypokalemic paralysis. Dengue virus infection was the second leading cause of hypokalemic paralysis, after thyrotoxicosis. Presence of severe disability, severe hypokalemia, and a late disease onset suggested secondary hypokalemic paralysis.

  2. Vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis cases from children presenting with acute flaccid paralysis in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanteza, Mary B; Kisakye, Annet; Ota, Martin O; Gumede, Nicksy; Bwogi, Josephine

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective study to identify VAPP cases from the entire Uganda was conducted between January 2003 and December 2011. Eleven of the 106 AFP cases were VAPPs. The VAPP rate ranged from 0 to 3.39 cases per 1,000,000 birth cohorts and the peak was in 2009 when there was scaling up of OPV immunization activities following an importation of wild poliovirus in the country. All the subsequent polio suspect cases since then have been vaccine-associated polio cases. Our data support the strategy to withdraw OPV and introduce IPV progressively in order to mitigate against the paralysis arising from Sabin polioviruses.

  3. Acute diaphragmatic paralysis caused by chest-tube trauma to phrenic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahum, E.; Ben-Ari, J.; Schonfeld, T. [Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva (Israel); Horev, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2001-06-01

    A 3{sup 1}/{sub 2}-year-old child developed unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis after chest drain insertion. Plain chest X-ray demonstrated paravertebral positioning of the chest-tube tip, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed hematomas in the region of the chest-tube tip and the phrenic nerve fibers. The trauma to the phrenic nerve was apparently secondary to malposition of the chest tube. This is a rare complication and has been reported mainly in neonates. Radiologists should notify the treating physicians that the correct position of a chest drain tip is at least 2 cm distant from the vertebrae. (orig.)

  4. Acute hyperkalemia leading to flaccid paralysis: a review of hyperkalemic manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Karmacharya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperkalemia can present with a spectrum of clinical manifestations with progressive EKG changes and life-threatening arrhythmias. Although no formal guidelines exist as to when to initiate treatment for hyperkalemia, it is generally recommended in clinically symptomatic patients with or without EKG changes. Timely diagnosis and reversal can relieve symptoms and prevent life-threatening arrhythmias. We review the EKG changes associated with hyperkalemia and management principles along with an example of a case of severe hyperkalemia resulting in arrhythmia and flaccid paralysis.

  5. The Nerium oleander aphid Aphis nerii is tolerant to a local isolate of Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovsky, Aviv; Luria, Neta

    2013-04-01

    In a survey that was conducted during the year 2011, a local strain of Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) was identified and isolated from a wild population of Aphis nerii aphids living on Nerium oleander plants located in northern Israel. The new strain was tentatively named (ALPV-An). RNA extracted from the viral particles allowed the amplification and determination of the complete genome sequence. The virus genome is comprised of 9835 nucleotides. In a BLAST search analysis, the ALPV-An sequence showed 89 % nucleotide sequence identity with the whole genome of a South African ALPV and 96 and 94 % amino acid sequence identity with the ORF1 and ORF2 of that strain, respectively. In preliminary experiments, spray-applied, purified ALPV virions were highly pathogenic to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae; 95 % mortality was recorded 4 days post-infection. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of ALPV for use as a biologic agent for some aphid control. Surprisingly, no visible ALPV pathogenic effects, such as morphological changes or paralysis, were observed in the A. nerii aphids infected with ALPV-An. The absence of clear ALPV symptoms in A. nerii led to the formulation of two hypotheses, which were partially examined in this study. The first hypothesis suggest that A. nerii is resistant or tolerant of ALPV, while the second hypothesis propose that ALPV-An may be a mild strain of ALPV. Currently, our results is in favor with the first hypothesis since ALPV-An is cryptic in A. nerii aphids and can be lethal for M. persicae aphids.

  6. Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus and Nosema ceranae Experimental Co-Infection of Winter Honey Bee Workers (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Ivan; Jamnikar Ciglenečki, Urška; Aronstein, Katherine; Gregorc, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. Despite comprehensive research, only limited data is available from experimental infection for this virus. In the present study winter worker bees were experimentally infected in three different experiments. Bees were first inoculated per os (p/o) or per cuticle (p/c) with CBPV field strain M92/2010 in order to evaluate the virus replication in individual bees. In addition, potential synergistic effects of co-infection with CBPV and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae) on bees were investigated. In total 558 individual bees were inoculated in small cages and data were analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Our results revealed successful replication of CBPV after p/o inoculation, while it was less effective when bees were inoculated p/c. Dead bees harbored about 1,000 times higher copy numbers of the virus than live bees. Co-infection of workers with CBPV and N. ceranae using either method of virus inoculation (p/c or p/o) showed increased replication ability for CBPV. In the third experiment the effect of inoculation on bee mortality was evaluated. The highest level of bee mortality was observed in a group of bees inoculated with CBPV p/o, followed by a group of workers simultaneously inoculated with CBPV and N. ceranae p/o, followed by the group inoculated with CBPV p/c and the group with only N. ceranae p/o. The experimental infection with CBPV showed important differences after p/o or p/c inoculation in winter bees, while simultaneous infection with CBPV and N. ceranae suggesting a synergistic effect after inoculation. PMID:24056674

  7. Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus and Nosema ceranae Experimental Co-Infection of Winter Honey Bee Workers (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Gregorc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. Despite comprehensive research, only limited data is available from experimental infection for this virus. In the present study winter worker bees were experimentally infected in three different experiments. Bees were first inoculated per os (p/o or per cuticle (p/c with CBPV field strain M92/2010 in order to evaluate the virus replication in individual bees. In addition, potential synergistic effects of co-infection with CBPV and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae on bees were investigated. In total 558 individual bees were inoculated in small cages and data were analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR. Our results revealed successful replication of CBPV after p/o inoculation, while it was less effective when bees were inoculated p/c. Dead bees harbored about 1,000 times higher copy numbers of the virus than live bees. Co-infection of workers with CBPV and N. ceranae using either method of virus inoculation (p/c or p/o showed increased replication ability for CBPV. In the third experiment the effect of inoculation on bee mortality was evaluated. The highest level of bee mortality was observed in a group of bees inoculated with CBPV p/o, followed by a group of workers simultaneously inoculated with CBPV and N. ceranae p/o, followed by the group inoculated with CBPV p/c and the group with only N. ceranae p/o. The experimental infection with CBPV showed important differences after p/o or p/c inoculation in winter bees, while simultaneous infection with CBPV and N. ceranae suggesting a synergistic effect after inoculation.

  8. Clinical and enterovirus findings associated with acute flaccid paralysis in the Republic of Korea during the recent decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyeJin; Kang, Byounghak; Hwang, Seoyeon; Lee, Sang Won; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Kim, Kisang; Jeong, Yong-Seok; Hyeon, Ji-Yeon

    2014-09-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is described as sudden onset of flaccid paralysis in one or more limbs in children caused by polioviruses (PVs). PV eradication is achieved through intensive immunization and AFP attentive surveillance, according to the World Health Organization. Since 1998, the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has conducted surveillance system. This is an overview of surveillance in the Republic of Korea during the 10-year period from 2002 to 2011. The surveillance system for wild PV eradication was conducted through reporting and laboratory testing. Cell culture isolates were identified by neutralization tests using standard polyclonal antisera typing. The molecular methods were used for further characterization to improve specificity. For genotyping, semi-nested RT-PCR was used to amplify part of the viral protein 1 gene. Patients below 5 years of age accounted for the largest proportion of cases, and a positive association between age and incidence was found. In the total 285 cases, Guillain-Barré syndrome was the major leading causes of AFP. Non-polio enterovirus was detected in some AFP patients. EV71 was detected in 21 cases and Coxsackievirus (C) A2, CA6, CA9, CB2, CB3, CB4, CB5, and Echovirus (E) 25, E30, Sabin strain polio 2, polio 1 and 3 were also detected in some patients. The present study represents a comprehensive 10-year country-based survey of AFP in the Republic of Korea. This surveillance could provide better understanding of the epidemiologic pattern, and clinical manifestations associated with specific genotypes of AFP in the Republic of Korea.

  9. Bilateral optic neuritis in acute human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M; Toft, P.B.; Bernhard, P;

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of acute viral disease accompanied by bilateral optic neuritis with substantial paraclinical evidence that human immunodeficiency virus was the causative agent. METHODS: Clinical and paraclinical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Virus and antibody titers...... as well as reverse lymphocytosis were consistent with acute infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-1. CONCLUSIONS: Human immunodeficiency virus infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute optic neuritis...

  10. Obstetrical paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S M; Nissenbaum, M M

    1975-04-01

    Most patients with obstetrical paralysis have some useful functional return, and early recognition and treatment help prevent rapidly developing shoulder contractures. Initial physical therapy includes passive range of motion exercises. Fixed contractures must be released prior to reconstructive surgery designed to improve funtion. An approach to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of obstetrical paralysis is given.

  11. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neki, N S

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level.

  12. Characterization of the non-polio enterovirus infections associated with acute flaccid paralysis in South-Western India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongala Laxmivandana

    Full Text Available Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs have been reported frequently in association with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases during Polio Surveillance Programs (PSPs worldwide. However, there is limited understanding on the attributes of their infections. This study reports characteristics of NPEVs isolated from AFP cases, investigated during PSPs held in 2009-2010, in Karnataka and Kerala states of south-western India having varied climatic conditions. NPEV cell culture isolates derived from stool specimens that were collected from 422 of 2186 AFP cases (<1-14 years age and 17 of 41 asymptomatic contacts; and details of all AFP cases/contacts were obtained from National Polio Laboratory, Bangalore. The distribution of NPEV infections among AFP cases and circulation pattern of NPEV strains were determined by statistical analysis of the data. Genotyping of all NPEV isolates was carried out by partial VP1 gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. NPEV positive AFP cases were significantly higher in children aged <2 years; with residual paralysis; in summer months; and in regions with relatively hot climate. Genotyping of NPEVs identified predominance of human enteroviruses (HEV-B species [81.9%-Echoviruses (E: 57.3%; coxsackieviruses (CV B: 15%; numbered EVs: 8.9%; CVA9: 0.7%] and low levels of HEV-A [14.5%-CVA: 6%; numbered EVs: 8.5%] and HEV-C [3.6%-CVA: 2.6%; numbered EVs: 1%] species, encompassing 63 genotypes. EV76 (6.3% and each of E3, CVB3 and E9 (4.97% were found frequently during 2009 while E11 (6.7%, CVB1 (6.1%, E7 (5.1% and E20 (5.1% were detected commonly in 2010. A marked proportion of AFP cases from children aged <2 years; presenting with fever; and from north and south interior parts of Karnataka state was detected with E/numbered EVs than that found with CVA/CVB. This study highlights the extensive genetic diversity and diverse circulation patterns of NPEV strains in AFP cases from different populations and climatic conditions.

  13. Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis in the Netherlands 1992-1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostvogel PM; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Hirasing RA; van Loon AM; LIO; CIE; Nederlands Signalerings Centrum Kindergeneeskunde (NSCK); TNO

    1996-01-01

    Surveillance van acute slappe verlamming (ASV) bij kinderen in Nederland vindt plaats in het kader van het mondiale uitroeiingsinitiatief van poliomyelitis van de Wereld Gezondheidsorganisatie. Ervaring elders leert dat de incidentie van ASV, in afwezigheid van poliomyelitis, ongeveer 1 op de 100.0

  14. Paralysis: Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Rehabilitation Rehabilitation Rehabilitation and exercise are key to enhancing your health and quality of life. Find a rehabilitation center near you and become familiar with different ...

  15. Periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    Periodic paralyses are rare diseases characterized by severe episodes of muscle weakness concomitant to variations in blood potassium levels. It is thus usual to differentiate hypokalemic, normokalemic, and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Except for thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis and periodic paralyses secondary to permanent changes of blood potassium levels, all of these diseases are of genetic origin, transmitted with an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance. Periodic paralyses are channelopathies, that is, diseases caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels. The culprit genes encode for potassium, calcium, and sodium channels. Mutations of the potassium and calcium channel genes cause periodic paralysis of the same type (Andersen-Tawil syndrome or hypokalemic periodic paralysis). In contrast, distinct mutations in the muscle sodium channel gene are responsible for all different types of periodic paralyses (hyper-, normo-, and hypokalemic). The physiological consequences of the mutations have been studied by patch-clamp techniques and electromyography (EMG). Globally speaking, ion channel mutations modify the cycle of muscle membrane excitability which results in a loss of function (paralysis). Clinical physiological studies using EMG have shown a good correlation between symptoms and EMG parameters, enabling the description of patterns that greatly enhance molecular diagnosis accuracy. The understanding of the genetics and pathophysiology of periodic paralysis has contributed to refine and rationalize therapeutic intervention and will be without doubts the basis of further advances.

  16. Influencing factors of residual paralysis in acute flaccid paralysis cases with isolation of poliovirus in Jiangsu province%江苏省脊灰病毒阳性AFP病例残留麻痹影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪志国; 马福宝; 汤奋扬; 冷红英; 胡莹; 吴昀; 严旭玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)病毒阳性、急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例流行病学特征及其残留麻痹影响因素.方法 收集2004 - 2009年江苏省(AFP)病例1 548例,采集粪便标本1 540例,检测脊髓灰质炎病毒(PV),进行描述流行病学分析.结果 1 540例中,检出PV60例,检出率3.90%,均为脊灰疫苗相关株病毒;病例散在发生,男性多于女性;<1岁组阳性病例均高于1~2岁和≥3岁组;<1岁组、未服苗或服苗<3次、服苗与麻痹时间间隔≤60d的PV阳性AFP病例残留麻痹率均较高;首次服苗并分离出混合型脊灰病毒的5例病例均残留麻痹;疫苗相关麻痹型脊灰(VAPP)总发生率为0.29/100万,首次服苗后为1.56/100万.结论 江苏省仍有一定数量的脊灰疫苗株阳性病例和疫苗相关麻痹型脊灰(VAPP)病例发生;年龄、服苗史、服苗与麻痹时间间隔是残留麻痹的主要影响因素.%Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of acute flaccid paralysis(AFP) cases with isolation of poliovirus and to find out factors associated with residual paralysis. Methods During 2004 - 2009,1 548 AFP cases were reported. The stool specimens were collected and poliovirus was detected among 1 540 cases. The description epidemiological methods were used to analyze the characteristics of AFP cases with positive poliovirus detection. Results Sixty of 1 540 AFP cases had poliovirus positive stool specimen with a isolated rate of 3.90% of vaccine associated poliovirus. All cases were sporadic and the male was more than the female. The rate of poliovirus isolated and residual paralysis in the AFP cases aged 0-1 years was higher than those of aged 1 -2 years and 3≥3 years. The rates of residual paralysis were higher in the AFP cases aged 0 - 1 years,unvaccinated or not full course vaccinated( <3 times) ,and the time between oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) immunization and disease onset less than 60 days. All five AFP cases

  17. Acute viral hemorrhage disease:A summary on new viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as “acute hemorrhagic fever”.

  18. MRI findings in acute Hendra virus meningoencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakka, P.; Amos, G.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia); Saad, N., E-mail: nivena100@hotmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia); Jeavons, S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Aim: To describe serial changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute human infection from two outbreaks of Hendra virus (HeV), relate these changes to disease prognosis, and compare HeV encephalitis to reported cases of Nipah virus encephalitis. Materials and methods: The MRI images of three human cases (two of which were fatal) of acute HeV meningoencephalitis were reviewed. Results: Cortical selectivity early in the disease is evident in all three patients, while deep white matter involvement appears to be a late and possibly premorbid finding. This apparent early grey matter selectivity may be related to viral biology or ribavirin pharmacokinetics. Neuronal loss is evident at MRI, and the rate of progression of MRI abnormalities can predict the outcome of the infection. In both fatal cases, the serial changes in the MRI picture mirrored the clinical course. Conclusion: This is the first comprehensive report of serial MRI findings in acute human cerebral HeV infection from two outbreaks. The cortical selectivity appears to be an early finding while deep white matter involvement a late, and possibly premorbid, finding. In both fatal cases, the serial changes in MRI mirrored the clinical course.

  19. [A case of brachial plexus neuropathy who presented with acute paralysis of the hand after sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Makiko; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Ohizumi, Hideki; Fujishima, Kenji; Goto, Keigo; Mizuno, Yoshikuni

    2002-09-01

    We report a 46-year-old woman who presented with acute paresis of the right hand and arm. She was well until when she noted a paresis and dysesthesia in her right hand in the morning. Neurological examination revealed weakness in the muscles which were supplied by lower cervical segments, with increased deep tendon reflexes in the right arm. Allen's test and Wright's test were positive. The nerve conduction studies disclosed a reduced CMAPs more severely by right median than ulnar nerve stimulation. The frequency and amplitude of the F waves was also reduced. Needle electromyogram showed a mild neurogenic pattern in the right hand muscles. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a tapering of the subclavian artery when the right arm was abducted. She underwent decompression surgery. A remarkable improvement of the symptoms was observed after surgery. Our patient suggests that brachial plexus neuropathy should be considered in the acute paresis of the hand after sleep, and that surgical procedure would lead to a successful outcome.

  20. Detection of non-polio enteroviruses from 17 years of virological surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Lea Necitas; Suzuki, Akira; Bautista, Analisa; Galang, Hazel; Paladin, Fem Julia; Fuji, Naoko; Lupisan, Socorro; Olveda, Remigio; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-04-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance has been conducted as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy on poliomyelitis eradication. Aside from poliovirus, which is the target pathogen, isolation, and identification of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) is also done by neutralization test using pools of antisera which can only identify limited number of NPEVs. In the Philippines, despite the significant number of isolated NPEVs, no information is available with regard to its occurrence, diversity, and pattern of circulation. In this study, a total of 790 NPEVs isolated from stool samples submitted to the National Reference Laboratory from 1992 to 2008 were analyzed; neutralization test was able to type 55% (442) of the isolates. Of the remaining 356 isolates, which were untyped by using neutralization test, 348 isolates were analyzed further by RT-PCR targeting the VP1 gene. A total of 47 serotypes of NPEV strains were identified using neutralization test and molecular typing, including 28 serotypes of human enterovirus B (HEV-B), 12 serotypes of HEV-A, and 7 of HEV-C. The HEV-B group (625/790; 79%) constituted the largest proportion of isolates, followed by HEV-C (108/790; 13.7%), HEV-A (57/790; 7.2%), and no HEV-D. Coxsackievirus (CV) B, echovirus (E)6, E11, and E13 were the most frequent isolates. E6, E11, E13, E14, E25, E30, E33, CVA20, and CVA24 were considered as endemic strains, some NPEVs recurred and few serotypes existed only for 1-3 years during the study period. Despite some limitations in this study, plural NPEVs with multiple patterns of circulation in the Philippines for 17 years were identified.

  1. 面瘫动物模型的研究现状%Research status of animal model of acute peripheral facial paralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昕蓉; 张勤修

    2012-01-01

    Acute peripheral facial paralysis is a disease with acute palsy flaccid of mimic muscles due to the damages to facial nerve either at facial nerve nucleus or beyond it. Because facial nerve is the longest cranial nerve which traverses in the bony fallopian canal, any lesion of the facial nerve could cause paralysis of the ipsilateral face. Acute peripheral dysfunction of the facial nerve becomes one of the most common otology diseases. It is hard to locate the lesion of facial nerve and to choose proper therapeutic regiment as soon as possible because of the complexity of the anatomy of facial nerve. So it is necessary to establish acute facial paralysis animal model to prompt further study of this disease. This article approached the methods to found acute facial paralysis animal models, analyzed the deficiencies existing in the models and suggested the new thread of this research.%急性周围性面瘫是面神经核及其以下面神经损伤导致的急性面部表情肌的迟缓性麻痹.因面神经是在骨管内行程最长的颅神经,易受外界因素影响、侵犯,所以急性周围性面瘫是耳科疾病中的常见病.且因面神经行程复杂,增大了面瘫定位和选择治疗方案的难度.急性周围性面瘫动物模型的建立为深入研究面瘫提供了一个手段.本文从面瘫动物造模机制、特点、适用范围及效度、目前存在的问题等方面对现常用的面瘫动物模型的研究现状进行综述.

  2. Acute otitis media and respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Yunus; Güven, Mehmet; Otlu, Bariş; Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Aladağ, Ibrahim; Eyibilen, Ahmet; Doğru, Salim

    2007-03-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the clinical outcome, and etiology of acute otitis media (AOM) in children based on virologic and bacteriologic tests. The study group consisted of 120 children aged 6 to 144 months with AOM. Middle ear fluid (MEF) was tested for viral pathogens by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and for bacteria by gram-staining and culture. Clinical response was assessed on day 2 to 4, 11 to 13, 26 to 28. Respiratory viruses were isolated in 39 patients (32.5%). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (46.5%) was the most common virus identified in MEF samples, followed by human rhinovirus (HRV) (25.6%), human coronavirus (HCV) (11.6%), influenza (IV) type A (9.3%), adenovirus type sub type A (AV) (4%), and parainfluenza (PIV) type -3 (2%) by RT-PCR. In total 69 bacterial species were isolated from 65 (54.8%) of 120 patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) was the most frequently isolated bacteria. Viral RNA was detected in 31 (56.3%) of 55 bacteria-negative specimens and in 8 (12.3%) of 65 bacteria-positive MEF samples. No significant differences were found between children representing viral infection alone, combined viral and bacterial infection, bacterial infection alone, and neither viral nor bacterial infection, regarding clinical cure, relapse and reinfection rates. A significantly higher rate of secretory otitis media (SOM) was observed in alone or combined RSV infection with S. pneumonia or Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) than in other viruses infection. Conclusion. This study provides information about etiologic agents and diagnosis of AOM in Turkish children. The findings highlight the importance of common respiratory viruses and bacterial pathogens, particularly RSV, HRV, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, in predisposing to and causing AOM in children.

  3. Potential for the Australian and New Zealand paediatric intensive care registry to enhance acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Australia: a data-linkage study

    OpenAIRE

    Hobday, Linda K; Thorley, Bruce R; Alexander, Janet; Aitken, Thomas; Peter D Massey; Cretikos, Michelle; Slater, Anthony; DURRHEIM, DAVID N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Australia uses acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance to monitor its polio-free status. The World Health Organization criterion for a sensitive AFP surveillance system is the annual detection of at least one non-polio AFP case per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years, a target Australia has not consistently achieved. Children exhibiting AFP are likely to be hospitalised and may be admitted to an intensive care unit. This provides a potential opportunity for active AFP surve...

  4. Mayaro Virus in Child with Acute Febrile Illness, Haiti, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednicky, John; De Rochars, Valery Madsen Beau; Elbadry, Maha; Loeb, Julia; Telisma, Taina; Chavannes, Sonese; Anilis, Gina; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massinno; Okech, Bernard; Salemi, Marco; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-11-01

    Mayaro virus has been associated with small outbreaks in northern South America. We isolated this virus from a child with acute febrile illness in rural Haiti, confirming its role as a cause of mosquitoborne illness in the Caribbean region. The clinical presentation can mimic that of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika virus infections.

  5. Virus elimination in acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Correlation with virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity rather than cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Bro-Jørgensen, K

    1983-01-01

    The immunological effector mechanism responsible for the elimination of virus in murine acute non-fatal extracranial lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection was studied. In this infection virus clearance is generally regarded as the result of a direct action of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells...

  6. Institutional Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, Adam

    1975-01-01

    Institutional paralysis of higher education is the result of the disjunction between faculty and administration; the disjunction between substantive planning and bugetary decision-making; the disjunction between departmental structures and functional areas of university concern; and the disjunction between the theory of direct democracy and its…

  7. The Research Process of TCM Therapies for Acute Peripheral Facial Paralysis%周围性面瘫急性期中医治疗方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春红; 刘立安; 戚其华

    2015-01-01

    The author sort out the recent literatures about TCM therapies for acute peripheral facial paralysis, and reviewed the curative effect of as-pects such as blood-letting therapy, acupuncture and acupuncture combined with other therapies on acute peripheral facial paralysis.%笔者整理周围性面瘫急性期中医治疗方法的近期研究文献,从放血疗法、单纯针刺、针刺联合其他疗法等方面综述周围性面瘫急性期的治疗效果。

  8. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) receptor restricts systemic dengue virus replication and prevents paralysis in IFN-α/β receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwood, Tyler R; Morar, Malika M; Zellweger, Raphaël M; Miller, Robyn; May, Monica M; Yauch, Lauren E; Lada, Steven M; Shresta, Sujan

    2012-12-01

    We previously reported that mice lacking alpha/beta and gamma interferon receptors (IFN-α/βR and -γR) uniformly exhibit paralysis following infection with the dengue virus (DENV) clinical isolate PL046, while only a subset of mice lacking the IFN-γR alone and virtually no mice lacking the IFN-α/βR alone develop paralysis. Here, using a mouse-passaged variant of PL046, strain S221, we show that in the absence of the IFN-α/βR, signaling through the IFN-γR confers approximately 140-fold greater resistance against systemic vascular leakage-associated dengue disease and virtually complete protection from dengue-induced paralysis. Viral replication in the spleen was assessed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, which revealed a reduction in the number of infected cells due to IFN-γR signaling by 2 days after infection, coincident with elevated levels of IFN-γ in the spleen and serum. By 4 days after infection, IFN-γR signaling was found to restrict DENV replication systemically. Clearance of DENV, on the other hand, occurred in the absence of IFN-γR, except in the central nervous system (CNS) (brain and spinal cord), where clearance relied on IFN-γ from CD8(+) T cells. These results demonstrate the roles of IFN-γR signaling in protection from initial systemic and subsequent CNS disease following DENV infection and demonstrate the importance of CD8(+) T cells in preventing DENV-induced CNS disease.

  9. Isolated sleep paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep paralysis - isolated; Parasomnia - isolated sleep paralysis ... Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from a few seconds to 1 or 2 minutes. During these episodes the person is unable to move ...

  10. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011.   Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children <15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared.

  11. Importance of respiratory viruses in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Terho; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2003-04-01

    Acute otitis media is usually considered a simple bacterial infection that is treated with antibiotics. However, ample evidence derived from studies ranging from animal experiments to extensive clinical trials supports a crucial role for respiratory viruses in the etiology and pathogenesis of acute otitis media. Viral infection of the upper respiratory mucosa initiates the whole cascade of events that finally leads to the development of acute otitis media as a complication. The pathogenesis of acute otitis media involves a complex interplay between viruses, bacteria, and the host's inflammatory response. In a substantial number of children, viruses can be found in the middle-ear fluid either alone or together with bacteria, and recent studies indicate that at least some viruses actively invade the middle ear. Viruses appear to enhance the inflammatory process in the middle ear, and they may significantly impair the resolution of otitis media. Prevention of the predisposing viral infection by vaccination against the major viruses would probably be the most effective way to prevent acute otitis media. Alternatively, early treatment of the viral infection with specific antiviral agents would also be effective in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media.

  12. An Acute Hemorrhagic Infectious Disease:Ebola Virus Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Lei; XU An-hua; FENG Chao; QIU Qian-qian; TANG Qi-ling; LIU Xiao-huan

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.

  13. Frequency of isolation of polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses from patients with acute flaccid paralysis, enterovirus infection and children from groups at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Romanenkova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the frequency of isolation of polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses from different categories of the investigated children. The percentage of detection of polioviruses from the patients with acute flaccid paralysis was lower than that from the children from groups at risk. Among the patients with the enterovirus infection the polioviruses were rarely revealed. The frequency of isolation of non polio enteroviruses from these patients was significantly higher than that from the other categories of investigated persons. The improvement of poliomyelitis surveillance and the reinforcement of virological surveillance of children from groups at risk and those with enterovirus infection will provide the important data for Global Polio Eradication Initiative and the maintenance of polio free status of the Russian Federation.

  14. 特发性面神经麻痹急性期的综合治疗%Comprehensive treatment for idiopathic facial paralysis at acute stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江伟; 何传斌; 周俊明

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察特发性面神经麻痹急性期患者综合治疗的效果.方法 综合运用药物治疗、物理疗法、康复治疗和心理治疗的方法治疗35例特发性面神经麻痹急性期患者,并观察疗效.结果 35例患者经10 d治疗后,痊愈14例,显效15例,好转4例,无效2例,显效率达82.9%.1个月后随访,痊愈25例,显效8例,好转2例.显效率达94.3%.结论 运用综合方法治疗特发性面神经麻痹急性期患者,临床疗效显著.%Objective To study the effect of combined treatment in 35 cases of idiopathic facial paralysis at acute stage. Methods The integrated application of drug medication, physical therapy, therapeutic rehabilitation and psychological treatment was applied in these patients. Results After treatment for10 days, 14 cases were cured, 15 cases with much improvement, 4 cases with amelioration and 2 cases with failure, and the markedly effective rate was 82.9%. After follow - up for 1 month, 25 patients cured, marked effectiveness in 8 and improvement in 2 cases. The markedly effective rate was 94.3%. Conclusion The efficacy of comprehensive treatment for patients with idiopathic facial paralysis at acute stage is significant .

  15. Acute kidney injury in dengue virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Muhammad A.M.; Sarwar, Sarfaraz; Chaudry, Muhammad A.; Maqbool, Baila; Khalil, Zarghoona; Tan, Jackson; Yaqub, Sonia; Hussain, Syed A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is a growing public health problem in Pakistan and acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the least studied complications of dengue virus infection (DVI). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, severity and predictors of AKI in patients with DVI and to study the impact of AKI on the length of hospital stay and mortality. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients aged ≥14 years hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of DVI at Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi between January 2008 and December 2010. Binary logistic regression models were constructed to identify factors associated with the development of AKI and to study the impact of AKI on hospital stays of more than 3 days. Results Out of 532 patients, AKI was present in 13.3% (71/532). Approximately two-thirds (64.8%) of these patients had mild AKI and a third (35.2%) had moderate to severe AKI. Independent predictors for AKI were male gender [odds ratio (OD) 4.43; 95% CI 1.92–10.23], presence of dengue hemorrhagic and dengue shock syndrome (DSS, OD 2.14; 95% CI 1.06–4.32), neurological involvement (OD 12.08; 95% CI 2.82–51.77) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, OD 1.81; 95% CI 1.003–3.26). AKI was associated with a length of stay ≥3 days when compared with those who did not have AKI (OD 2.98; 95% CI 1.66–5.34). Eight patients (11.3%) with AKI died whereas there were no mortalities in patients without AKI (P < 0.001). Only 5 patients (7%) had persistent kidney dysfunction at discharge. Conclusions AKI in DVI is associated with neurological involvement, prolongation of aPTT, greater length of hospital stay and increased mortality. PMID:26019813

  16. Israeli acute paralysis virus in Africanized honey bees in southeastern Brazilian Apiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee losses in Brazil have been observed over the past few years. These losses share somewhat similar symptoms with the syndrome known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in the USA. After more than a half century of introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata, Africanized honey bees have...

  17. Historical presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the winter of 2006-2007, a rare and extreme syndrome of honey bee losses was observed. This syndrome, labeled Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), was defined by a rapid depopulation of adult bees in colonies, often leaving substantial amounts of standing brood. In an extensive metagenomic survey...

  18. 海南省2005~2009年急性弛缓性麻痹病例病原学监测分析%Results of pathogenic surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis cases in Hainan Province in 2005~2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海云; 潘正帆; 潘婷婷; 林春燕; 陈少明; 马焱

    2011-01-01

    Aim To analyze the results of pathogenic surveillance acute flaccid paralysis cases in Hainan province in 2005~2009. Methods Polio virus strains were isolated from AFP cases by using RDa and L20B cell lines and differentiated. Results There 33 polio virus strains including 8 type Ⅰ strains,6 type Ⅱ strains,5 type Ⅲ stains,13 mixed virus stains and 1 mixed stains with polio virus and NPEV,and 196 non-polio enterovirus. (NPEV) strains were isolated from 966 stool samples in 2005~2009. All of the polio viruses were identified by national polio laboratory. All of the 33 polio viruses were vaccine-associated polio virus strains. Conclusion No vaccine-derived polio virus (VDPV) strain was found in Hainan province. All the surveillance indexes reached the demand of WHO.%目的 分析海南省2005~2009年急性弛缓性麻痹(Acute Flaccid Paralysis,FP)病例及其密切接触者病原学监测结果,为维持无脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)状态提供病原学依据.方法 按照世界卫生组织(WHO)规定的方法,用RDa和L20B细胞对AFP病例及其密切接触者的粪便进行病毒分离和鉴定.结果 2005~2009年从AFP病例及其密切接触者966份粪便标本中分离到33株脊髓友质炎病毒(PV)毒株,非脊灰肠道病毒(NPEV)196株;33株PV毒株中PVⅠ型8株、PVⅡ型6株、PVⅢ型5株、PⅤ混合型(Pmix)13株、PV+NPEV混合株1株.所有PV毒株经中国疾病预防控制中心国家脊灰实验室进行型内鉴定,均为脊友疫苗相关株.结论 海南省2005~2009年AFP病例及其密切接触者中未发现脊灰疫苗衍生毒株(VDPV),且脊灰实验室监测系统各项监测指标都达到WHO的标准,表明海南省AFP病例的病原学监测敏感、高效.

  19. Clinical Research on Acupuncture Treatment of Peripheral Facial Paralysis in Acute Stage%近年来针灸治疗急性期周围性面瘫的临床研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵京媛; 郭耀光; 杨玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过总结急性期周围性面瘫的病因病机、发病率、治疗方法及危害性,提高临床医生对急性期周围性面瘫使用针刺可以提高面瘫患者的治愈率这一认识,探讨急性期周围性面瘫的具体治疗方法。方法收集近5年来针灸治疗周围性面瘫的临床文献,对具体使用的针灸方法及具体时期进行分析。结果将收集到的文章整理汇总,完成对急性期周围性面瘫具体治疗方法统计的一套报告。结论周围性面瘫的急性期使用针灸,给予轻刺激可以提高患者的治愈率,为制定有效、简洁、易推广的针灸治疗急性期周围性面瘫规范化治疗方案提供临床依据。%Objective Through summarizing the etiology and pathogenesis of acute around sexual facial paralysis,incidence,treatment methods and harmfulness,improve the clinical doctors's knowledge about that using acupuncture can improve the cure rate of patients with paralysis,discuss the concrete methods of treatment of facial paralysis.Methods Collect the clinical literature of acupuncture and moxibustion in treatment of facial paralysis nearly five years,analyze the acupuncture and moxibustion methods and specific use in a specific period.Results Arrange and organize the collected article,specific treatment for acute facial paralysis statistics of a report.Conclusion Using acupuncture and moxibustion and giving light stimulation in acute phase facial paralysis can improve the cure rate of patients,providing the clinical basis for treatment to develop effective,concise, easy to promote acupuncture in treatment of acute phase facial paralysis standardization.

  20. Clinical curative effect observation of acupuncture treatment on acute peripheral facial paralysis%针灸治疗急性期周围性面瘫的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄沐春; 张杨; 唐诗; 陈冬梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨针灸治疗急性期周围性面瘫的临床疗效。方法对急性期周围性面瘫患者使用针灸治疗,采用House-Brack-mann分级量表进行疗效观察与评价。结果针灸治疗可以明显改善周围性面瘫患者的临床症状。结论治疗周围性面瘫介入越早越好,留下后遗症的几率越小。%ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment on peripheral facial paralysis in acute stage.Methods the patients in acute stage of peripheral facial paralysis were treated with acupuncture.The House-Brack-mann grading scale was used to evaluate the treatment effect.Results The acupuncture therapy can significantly improve the clinical symptoms of patients with peripheral facial paralysis. Conclusion the treatment of peripheral facial paralysis was the sooner,the better.

  1. 综合康复治疗贝尔面瘫瘫32例%Treatment of Bell facial paralysis by comprehensive rehabilitation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐纪香

    2002-01-01

    Background:Bell facial paralysis is characterized by acutely peripheral facial paralysis.Simple approaches can aggravate symptoms and induce permanent facial paralysis.Optimal therapy time may be missed.Comprehensive therapy is effective in treating the condition.

  2. Support for children identified with acute flaccid paralysis under the global polio eradication programme in Uttar Pradesh, India: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotsu Rie R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cases of polio in India declined after the implementation of the polio eradication programme especially in these recent years. The programme includes surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP to detect and diagnose cases of polio at early stage. Under this surveillance, over 40,000 cases of AFP are reported annually since 2007 regardless of the number of actual polio cases. Yet, not much is known about these children. We conducted a qualitative research to explore care and support for children with AFP after their diagnosis. Methods The research was conducted in a district of western Uttar Pradesh classified as high-risk area for polio. In-depth interviews with parents of children with polio (17, with non-polio AFP (9, healthcare providers (40, and key informants from community including international and government officers, religious leaders, community leaders, journalists, and academics (21 were performed. Results Minimal medicine and attention were provided at government hospitals. Therefore, most parents preferred private-practice doctors for their children with AFP. Many were visited at homes to have stool samples collected by authorities. Some were visited repetitively following the sample collection, but had difficulty in understanding the reasons for these visits that pertained no treatment. Financial burden was a common concern among all families. Many parents expressed resentment for their children's disease, notably have been affected despite receiving multiple doses of polio vaccine. Both parents and healthcare providers lacked information and knowledge, furthermore poverty minimised the access to available healthcare services. Medicines, education, and transportation means were identified as foremost needs for children with AFP and residual paralysis. Conclusions Despite the high number of children diagnosed with AFP as part of the global polio eradication programme, we found they were not provided with

  3. Support for children identified with acute flaccid paralysis under the global polio eradication programme in Uttar Pradesh, India: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsu, Rie R; Abba, Katharine; Smith, Helen; Das, Abhijit

    2012-03-22

    Cases of polio in India declined after the implementation of the polio eradication programme especially in these recent years. The programme includes surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) to detect and diagnose cases of polio at early stage. Under this surveillance, over 40,000 cases of AFP are reported annually since 2007 regardless of the number of actual polio cases. Yet, not much is known about these children. We conducted a qualitative research to explore care and support for children with AFP after their diagnosis. The research was conducted in a district of western Uttar Pradesh classified as high-risk area for polio. In-depth interviews with parents of children with polio (17), with non-polio AFP (9), healthcare providers (40), and key informants from community including international and government officers, religious leaders, community leaders, journalists, and academics (21) were performed. Minimal medicine and attention were provided at government hospitals. Therefore, most parents preferred private-practice doctors for their children with AFP. Many were visited at homes to have stool samples collected by authorities. Some were visited repetitively following the sample collection, but had difficulty in understanding the reasons for these visits that pertained no treatment. Financial burden was a common concern among all families. Many parents expressed resentment for their children's disease, notably have been affected despite receiving multiple doses of polio vaccine. Both parents and healthcare providers lacked information and knowledge, furthermore poverty minimised the access to available healthcare services. Medicines, education, and transportation means were identified as foremost needs for children with AFP and residual paralysis. Despite the high number of children diagnosed with AFP as part of the global polio eradication programme, we found they were not provided with sufficient medical support following their diagnosis. Improvement in

  4. 病毒感染性面神经麻痹的实验探讨%The Experimental Research on Facial Paralysis Caused by Virus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笑天; 任子涵; 阎雪晶; 姜学钧; 任重

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨贝尔氏面神经麻痹与单纯疱疹病毒(HSV)感染的关系.方法 将HSV接种在120只Bal b/c小鼠耳廓背面制作面神经麻痹实验模型.应用荧光抗体法和酶抗体法检测其中32只小鼠的HSV抗原.结果 面神经麻痹发生率65%(75/120),只在接种侧检出HSV抗原,间接荧光抗体法和酶抗体法检测的32只小鼠中19只检出病毒抗原.瞬目反射诱发肌活动电位,麻痹组麻痹侧I渡潜伏期平均(14.3±2.4)ms;非麻痹侧I波潜伏期平均(7.2±3.6)ms,两侧比较差异有统计学意义(t=5.267,P<0.01).结论 HSV感染可能是贝尔氏面神经麻痹的病因之一.%Objective To study the relationship between herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of facial nerve and the etiology of Bell's palsy. Methods An experimental model of facial nerve paralysis was made by inoculating HSV into the posterior aspect of the auricle of Bal b/c mice. HSV antigen was identified by fluorescent antibody method and enzyme labeled antibody method. Results 75 out of 120 mice (65%) developed facial paralysis and HSV antigen were identified only on the inoculated side. HSV antigens were demonstrated in 19 out of 32 labeled by indirect fluorescent antibody method and enzyme-labeled antibody method. Electromyographic response was recorded using NEC Synax ER1100. The average wave Ⅰ latency of the paralysis side and the other side was 14.3±2.4 ms and 7.2±3.6 ms respectively,and difference was statistically significant(t=5.267,P<0.01).Conclusion HSV infection may be one of the causes of Bell's palsy.

  5. Analysis on virological surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in Chongqing (2008-2011)%重庆市2008-2011年急性驰缓性麻痹病例监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春芳; 赵华; 陈应琼; 彭靖尧; 凌华; 张敏

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价重庆市2008-2011年急性驰缓性麻痹(AFP)病例监测运转情况.方法 按照《脊灰病毒检验手册》操作规程进行病毒分离与鉴定,由国家脊灰实验室用PCR-RFLP法和ELISA法对分离到的脊灰病毒株进行型内鉴定.结果 从307例AFP病例粪便标本中分离到脊灰病毒(PV)10株,分离率为3.26%,其中脊灰Ⅱ型5株,Ⅲ型3株,PV混合2株,Ⅱ型为我市的主要型别占50.00%,其次是Ⅲ型、PV混合型分别占30.00%、20.00%.所有PV经国家脊灰实验室进行型内鉴定,有9株为疫苗相关株,另外有1株Ⅱ型有6个核苷酸序列变异,鉴定为疫苗高变异株.分离非脊灰肠道病毒(NPEV) 26株,分离率为8.47%.结论重庆市2008-2011年急性驰缓性麻痹病例中未发现脊灰野病毒,维持了无脊灰状态.在实现无脊灰目标后,仍应加强AFP病例的病毒学监测工作,以确保最终实现全球消灭脊灰的目标.%Objective To evaluate the surveillance system of the acute flaccid paralysis( AFP) cases in Chongqing from 2008 to 2011. Methods Viruses were isolated and identified according to the Polio Laboratory Manual,and the results were conducted intratypic differentiation at the National Poliomyelitis Laboratory by PCR-RFLP and ELJSA methods. Results 10 strains of poliomyelitis virus( PV) were isolated from human fecal samples of 307 AFP cases,The isolating rate was 3. 26% , which included 5 strains of the type Ⅱ poliovirus ,3 strains of the type Ⅲ poliovirus and 2 strains of the mixed poliovirus. The principle prevalent type was Ⅱ, accounted for 50. 00% , followed by type Ⅲ and PV hybrid, accounted for 30. 00% and 20. 00% respectively. All the PVs were sent to the National Poliomyelitis Laboratory for further intratypic differentiation and identification. The results indicated that 9 strains were vaccine-related. Meanwhile, 6 nucleotide sequence variations were found in 1 strain of the type Ⅱ poliovirus, which was confirmed as the

  6. Acute sporadic hepatitis E virus infection in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D; Im, S W; Yao, J L; Ng, M H

    1995-09-01

    The hepatitis E virus is responsible for epidemic and sporadic hepatitis in northwestern China, but its role as a cause of acute sporadic hepatitis in southern China has not been reported. We applied the most practical current methods for diagnosis of hepatitis E virus infection, IgM and IgG anti-HEV detection by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection among acute sporadic hepatitis. Anti-HEV IgM was found in 1 of 26 (3.8%), 4 of 20 (20.0%), 4 of 19 (21.1%), and 51 of 142 (35.9%), with acute hepatitis A, B, C and non-ABC, respectively. Anti-HEV IgM was not detectable in healthy subjects, while IgG anti-HEV was found in 14 of 77 healthy subjects (18.2%) and was long-lasting. Ninety-one cases without any evidence of hepatitis A, B or C infections and anti-HEV IgM were tentatively classified as non-A, B, C, D, E (non-ABCDE) hepatitis. By comparison with non-ABCDE, cases with hepatitis E were more frequently icteric and exhibited higher alanine aminotransferase levels (92.2% vs. 45.1%, 770 iu/l vs 377 iu/l, respectively, p hepatitis E virus infections. However, 14 of 91 (15.4%) cases with non-ABCDE developed to chronicity (p Hepatitis E virus infection is sporadic as well as endemic in southern China. Only IgM anti-HEV but not IgG anti-HEV can be used as an appropriate marker of acute hepatitis E virus infection. Superinfection of hepatitis E virus with other types of hepatitis viruses is frequent in this area. While the disease was associated with more severe clinical manifestations, patients usually recovered completely.

  7. Virus infections of honeybees Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Tantillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp. and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and wellbeing of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV and Kakugo virus (KV; Sacbrood virus (SBV; Black Queen cell virus (BQCV; Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV; Kashmir bee virus (KBV; Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV; Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV. The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research.

  8. Virus Infections of Honeybees Apis Mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Giuseppina; Bottaro, Marilisa; Di Pinto, Angela; Martella, Vito; Di Pinto, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp.) and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and well-being of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Kakugo virus (KV); Sacbrood virus (SBV); Black Queen cell virus (BQCV); Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV); Kashmir bee virus (KBV); Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV); Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV). The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research. PMID:27800411

  9. [Hypoglycaemic periodic paralysis in hyperthyroidism patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvíl, J; Masopust, J; Martínková, V; Charvát, J

    2008-11-01

    Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare disorder characterised by acute, potentially fatal atacks of muscle weakness or paralysis. Massive shift of potassium into cells is caused by elevated levels of insulin and catecholamines in the blood. Hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia may be also present. Acidobasic status usually is not impaired. HPP occurs as familiar (caused by ion channels inherited defects) or acquired (in patients with hyperthyroidism). On the basis of two clinical cases we present a review of hypokalemic periodic paralysis in hyperthyroid patients. We discuss patogenesis, clinical and laboratory findings as well as the principles of prevention and treatment of this rare disorder.

  10. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis: a case study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseeha, Marcelle; Parsamehr, Behnaz; Kissell, Kerri; Attia, Maximos

    2017-03-01

    Acute hypokalemic paralysis is a rare cause of acute weakness. Morbidity and mortality associated with unrecognized disease can occur and include respiratory failure and possibly death. Common causes of hypokalemic paralysis include thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) which is a disorder most frequently seen in Asian males. TPP is characterized by sudden onset of hypokalemia and paralysis that primarily affects the lower extremities. Treatment of TPP includes replacing potassium rapidly, using nonselective beta-blockade and correcting the underlying hyperthyroidism as soon as possible. TPP is curable once euthyroid state is achieved. It is vital for physicians to be able to differentiate TPP from familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis, a more common cause of periodic paralysis in Caucasians and western countries. We describe a 19-year-old Caucasian man who presented with acute onset lower extremity paralysis secondary to acute hypokalemia and was found to have new onset Graves' disease. Abbreviations: TPP: Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

  11. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Kuo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old Taiwanese man presented with dark urine for 5 days before admission to hospital and with fever on the 2nd day of admission to hospital. Laboratory studies showed acute hepatitis with hyperbilirubinemia. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection was diagnosed. The fever subsided after treatment with ceftriaxone and cefepime. His serum bilirubin reached its peak value on the 3rd week after admission to hospital and then gradually returned to the normal range. To the best of our knowledge, acute hepatitis E coinfection with nontyphoidal salmonella has not been reported previously.

  12. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated

  13. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated who

  14. 针刺治疗周围性面瘫(急性期)的系统评价%Acupuncture Treatment of Peripheral Facial Paralysis(Acute Period)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘江; 章薇; 陈武善; 石文英

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To systematically analyze the effectiveness of acupuncture for the treatment of peripheral facial paralysis at acute period.Methods:Through the VIP datebase, index.htm Shuofang doctoral dissertation,the national databases, Wanfang database electronic retrieval and refer to the relevant professional information and network information.The test data taken by the Cochrane pensonnel provide Revman4.2.7 on Meta analysis.Results:Through selecting, only eight articles which met criteria were chosen from total checked 79 related paper, using Jadad rating criteria for 8 articles methodological quality evaluation, including a literature which is of high quality and the rest are low quality documents.We can see that acupuncture trcatment of peripheral facial paralysis has a better efficacy.The difference was statistically significant( Z = 5.89, P < 0.00001 ).Conclusion:Using acupuncture treatment for peripheral facial paralysis at acute period is better, and it could shorten the time.However, the quality of RCT literatures is not high, and quantity is less.This study still needs further large - scale development to further improve the intensity of evidence.%目的:评价针刺治疗周围性面瘫急性期的疗效.方法:通过对维普网、中国知网、全国硕博士论文数据库、万方数据库进行电子检索以及查阅相关的专业资料和网络信息.试验数据采取由Cochrane协作网提供的Revman4.2.7进行Meta分析.结果:共查到79篇相关文献,经过筛选,只有8篇文章符合纳入标准,采用Jadad评分标准对8篇文献的方法学质量进行评价,其中1篇文献质量高,其余均是低质量文献.Meta分析显示,周围性面瘫急性期针刺治疗结果比不使用针刺治疗的效果好,其差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:现有的临床证据表明,周围性面瘫的急性期应用针刺治疗比不使用针刺治疗更能改善病人的症状,提高治疗的效果,缩短面瘫恢复的时间.但是,由

  15. Cytokine Signatures Discriminate Highly Frequent Acute Hepatitis a Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Coinfections from Monoinfections in Mexican Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realpe-Quintero, Mauricio; Copado-Villagrana, Edgar Daniel; Trujillo-Ochoa, Jorge Luis; Alvarez, Angel Hilario; Panduro, Arturo; Fierro, Nora Alma

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus infections and their cytokine profiles were analyzed in Mexican pediatric patients with acute hepatitis. A high frequency of coinfections was found. Significant overexpression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-13 and interferon-gamma during hepatitis A virus monoinfections and limited secretion of cytokines in hepatitis E virus infections were observed.

  16. Facial paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sashank; Redett, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Facial paralysis can have devastating physical and psychosocial consequences. These are particularly severe in children in whom loss of emotional expressiveness can impair social development and integration. The etiologies of facial paralysis, prospects for spontaneous recovery, and functions requiring restoration differ in children as compared with adults. Here we review contemporary management of facial paralysis with a focus on special considerations for pediatric patients.

  17. Forewarning of poliovirus outbreaks in the Horn of Africa: an assessment of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance and routine immunization systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Allison Taylor; Sodha, Samir; Warren, Wick C; Sergon, Kibet; Kiptoon, Shem; Ogange, John; Ahmeda, Abdi Hassan; Eshetu, Messeret; Corkum, Melissa; Pillai, Satish; Scobie, Heather; Mdodo, Rennatus; Tack, Danielle M; Halldin, Cara; Appelgren, Kristie; Kretsinger, Katrina; Bensyl, Diana M; Njeru, Ian; Kolongei, Titus; Muigai, Juliet; Ismail, Amina; Okiror, Samuel O

    2014-11-01

    Although the Horn of Africa region has successfully eliminated endemic poliovirus circulation, it remains at risk for reintroduction. International partners assisted Kenya in identifying gaps in the polio surveillance and routine immunization programs, and provided recommendations for improved surveillance and routine immunization during the health system decentralization process. Structured questionnaires collected information about acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance resources, training, data monitoring, and supervision at provincial, district, and health facility levels. The routine immunization program information collected included questions about vaccine and resource availability, cold chain, logistics, health-care services and access, outreach coverage data, microplanning, and management and monitoring of AFP surveillance. Although AFP surveillance met national performance standards, widespread deficiencies and limited resources were observed and reported at all levels. Deficiencies were related to provider knowledge, funding, training, and supervision, and were particularly evident at the health facility level. Gap analysis assists in maximizing resources and capacity building in countries where surveillance and routine immunization lag behind other health priorities. Limited resources for surveillance and routine immunization systems in the region indicate a risk for additional outbreaks of wild poliovirus and other vaccine-preventable illnesses. Monitoring and evaluation of program strengthening activities are needed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Acute Human Inkoo and Chatanga Virus Infections, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkuri, Niina; Kantele, Anu; Levanov, Lev; Kivistö, Ilkka; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Markus; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-05-01

    Inkoo virus (INKV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), which are circulating in Finland, are mosquitoborne California serogroup orthobunyaviruses that have a high seroprevalence among humans. Worldwide, INKV infection has been poorly described, and CHATV infection has been unknown. Using serum samples collected in Finland from 7,961 patients suspected of having viral neurologic disease or Puumala virus infection during the summers of 2001-2013, we analyzed the samples to detect California serogroup infections. IgM seropositivity revealed 17 acute infections, and cross-neutralization tests confirmed presence of INKV or CHATV infections. All children (<16 years of age) with INKV infection were hospitalized; adults were outpatients with mild disease, except for 1 who was hospitalized with CHATV infection. Symptoms included fever, influenza-like illness, nausea or vomiting, disorientation, nuchal rigidity, headache, drowsiness, and seizures. Although many INKV and CHATV infections appear to be subclinical, these viruses can cause more severe disease, especially in children.

  19. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis in a Hispanic male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumo, Lawrence A.; Terzian, Christian; Brannan, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of a Hispanic male presenting with acute onset of bilateral lower extremity weakness, without any antecedent viral or bacterial illness, dietary changes, infiltrative orbitopathy, diffuse goiter, infiltrative dermopathy, and family history of periodic paralysis, who was later found to have Graves' disease. This demonstrates a rare case of periodic paralysis as the initial presentation of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis is common in Asian and Hispanic individuals and uncommon in whites and African Americans. PMID:12069220

  20. Multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with atypical rubella virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Koji; Asahara, Hideaki; Uehara, Taira; Miyoshi, Katsue; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of an occurrence of multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with atypical rubella virus infection with no rash and long-term increased titers of serum anti-rubella IgM in a 17-year-old male who had no history of rubella vaccination. He suffered from at least six clinical exacerbations with disseminated hyperintense lesions on FLAIR MR images during the course of 18 months. Repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy resolved the exacerbations. In patients with multiphasic ADEM of unknown etiology, clinicians should also consider the possibility of preceding infection with rubella virus.

  1. A case report of acute flaccid paralysis following the pre-inoculation with oral poliomyelitis attenuated live vaccine%提前接种脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗发生急性弛缓性麻痹1例报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敬仓; 杨传欣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the occurrence of acute flaccid paralysis was caused by the vaccination of oral poliomyelitis Attenuated Live Vaccine. Methods The investigation of the case,collecting case, s medical records,presenting the diagnostic opinion after summary and analysis. Results The case,with vaccination history of oral poliomyelitis vaccine 16 days later, had main symptoms of fever,limb weakness,etc.The case had inpatient treatment successively in a municipal hospital and a provincial hospital,and was diagnosed of acute flaccid paralysis and poliomyelitis.Polio virus and other enteroviruses were not detected in the case's specimens. The opinions of the municipal diagnosis experts group on adverse events following immunization for the diagnosis was that the patient did not meet the diagnostic conditions of vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis,but clinical polio compatible. Conclusion There was relationship between acute flaccid paralysis and the vaccinations of oral poliomyelitis attenuated live vaccine.%目的:调查某急性弛缓性麻痹病例是否因为口服脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗所引发。方法对患者开展个案调查,收集患者的病历资料,汇总分析后提出诊断意见。结果该患者有口服脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗的记录。在接种口服脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗后约16d开始发病,主要症状有发热、四肢无力等,先后在市级医院和省级医院住院治疗,主要诊断为急性弛缓性麻痹、脊髓灰质炎等;所采集的该患者大便标本判定为不合格标本,未检出脊髓灰质炎病毒、其他肠道病毒;市级预防接种异常反应调查诊断专家组意见为不符合确诊脊髓灰质炎疫苗相关患者的诊断条件,但临床表现符合脊髓灰质炎。结论该病例接种口服脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗与发生急性弛缓性麻痹有关。

  2. Characteristics of hepatitis viruses among Egyptian children with acute hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed; Yano, Yoshihiko; El-Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    Hepatitis viral infection is hyperendemic in Egypt, western Asia and Africa. However, little is known about the status of hepatitis viruses among rural Egyptian children. Therefore, this study sought to examine the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis viruses among symptomatic Egyptian children. Serological and molecular analyses of hepatitis viral infection were conducted in 33 children hospitalised at Mansoura University with symptomatic hepatic dysfunction (mean ± standard deviation age, 9.7±3.4 years; alanine aminotransferase level, 130±68 IU/ml). Eleven children (33%) were positive for anti-haemagglutination-IgM and were diagnosed with acute hepatitis A. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti‑hepatitis C virus (HCV) were detected in 9 (27%) and 7 (21%) children, respectively, indicating acute-on-chronic infection with hepatitis viruses. None of the children was positive for anti‑hepatitis B core antigen-IgM. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all HBVs belonged to genotype D (subgenotype D1) and that HCV belonged to genotypes 4a and 1g. HBV-DNA was detected in 9 children (27%) in the pre-S/S region and in 16 children (48%) in the core promoter/precore region. The Y134F amino acid mutation in the 'α' determinant region was detected in all of the patients. The A1762T/G1764A double mutation, and the T1846A and G1896A single mutations were common in children with occult HBV infection. In conclusion, hepatitis viral infection, including acute-on-chronic infection with HCV and HBV, is common in Egyptian children hospitalised with acute hepatitis.

  3. Respiratory viruses in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Parvaiz A; Mir, Hyder; Akram, Shabir; Potdar, Varsha; Chadha, Mandeep S

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) cause significant morbidity, mortality, and an inexorable decline of lung function. Data from developed countries have shown viruses to be important causes of AECOPD, but data from developing countries like India are scant. We set out to determine the contribution of viruses in the causation of hospitalized patients with AECOPD. Methods: Twin nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs collected from 233 patients admitted with an acute AECOPD and tested for respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus A and B, parainfluenza were (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) A and B, influenza A and B, enterovirus, corona NL65, OC43, and 229E viruses, adenovirus 2 and 4, rhinovirus, and bocavirus, by duplex real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using CDC approved primers and probes. Samples positive for influenza A were subtyped for A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 whereas influenza B samples were subtyped into B/Yamagata and B/Victoria subtypes, using primers and probes recommended by CDC, USA. Results: Respiratory viruses were detected in 46 (19.7%) cases, influenza A/H3N2 and rhinoviruses being the most common viruses detected. More than one virus was isolated in four cases consisting of hMPV-B + adeno-2 + Inf-B; rhino + H3N2, PIV-1 + rhino; and PIV-1+ hMPV-B in one case each. Ancillary supportive therapeutic measures included bronchodilators, antibiotics, steroids, and ventilation (noninvasive in 42 and invasive in 4). Antiviral therapy was instituted in influenza-positive patients. Three patients with A/H3N2 infection died during hospitalization. Conclusions: We conclude that respiratory viruses are important contributors to AECOPD in India. Our data calls for prompt investigation during an exacerbation for viruses to obviate inappropriate antibiotic use and institute antiviral therapy in viral disease amenable to antiviral therapy. Appropriate

  4. Hysterical conversion paralysis in an adolescent boy with lumbar spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Tadahiro; Tonogai, Ichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Takata, Yoichiro; Goda, Yuichiro; Abe, Mitsunobu; Jha, Subash C; Fukuta, Shoji; Higashino, Kosaku; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-05-01

    We describe a case of recurrent hysterical paralysis triggered by low back pain because of lumbar spondylolysis. A 16-year-old male soccer player was referred to our institution with five previous episodes of acute paralysis triggered by severe low back pain. We performed direct surgical repair of the terminal-stage bilateral spondylolysis at L4 using a hook-rod system. His chronic low back pain was completely resolved, and no further episodes of hysterical paralysis have occurred after surgery. Spine surgeons should be aware of possible hysterical conversion paralysis when there is discrepancy between radiological and neurological findings.

  5. Isolated sleep paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Neena S.; Parkar, Shubhangi R.; Tambe, Ravindra

    2005-01-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months.

  6. Isolated sleep paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Neena S.; Shubhangi R Parkar; Tambe, Ravindra

    2005-01-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months.

  7. The ability to cause infection in a pathogenic fungus uncovers a new biological feature of honey bee viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Su, Songkun; Hamilton, Michele; Yan, Limin; Chen, Yanping

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrated that honey bee viruses including Deformed wing virus (DWV), Black queen cell virus (BQCV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) could infect and replicate in the fungal pathogen Ascosphaera apis that causes honey bee chalkbrood disease, revealing a novel biological feature of honey bee viruses. The phylogenetic analysis show that viruses of fungal and honey bee origins form two clusters in the phylogenetic trees distinctly and that host range of honey bee viruses is dynamic. Further studies are warranted to investigate the impact of the viruses on the fitness of their fungal host and phenotypic effects the virus-fungus combination has on honey bee hosts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abbas, Haider; Kothari, Nikhil; Bogra, Jaishri

    2012-01-01

    Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare genetic disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of skeletal muscle weakness with associated hypokalemia which is precipitated by stress, cold, carbohydrate...

  9. 药物结合物理疗法治疗面神经炎合并糖尿病疗效观察%Clinical Effect of Drug Combined with Physical Therapy on Acute Facial Paralysis with Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂芬; 毕研贞

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Observe the drug clinical effect of combined with physical therapy in the treatment of acute facial paralysis with diabetes.Methods:53 cases of acute facial paralysis with diabetes mellitus were randomly divided into control group (26 cases)and treat-ment group (27 cases).conventional medical treatment and rehabilitation exercise was treated in control group , besides treatment group was treated with microwave and infrared .Results:The rate of total effective was 100%in the treatment group and 86.4% in the control group.There was a significant difference in the clinical effect between the two groups .(P<0.05)Conclusion:Microwave and infrared in the treatment of acute facial paralysis with diabetes is effective .%目的:观察药物结合物理疗法治疗面神经炎合并糖尿病急性期的临床疗效。方法:将53例急性面神经炎合并糖尿病患者随机分为对照组26例,治疗组27例,对照组采用常规内科治疗+康复锻炼,治疗组在对照组治疗基础上加用微波和红外线治疗。结果:治疗组有效率为100%,对照组有效率为84.6%。治疗组有效率较对照组有显著提高,有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论:微波+红外线治疗面神经炎合并糖尿病疗效确切。

  10. Acute Renal Failure: Unusual Complication of Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Infectious Mononucleosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul S. Lei; Amy Lowichik; Wain Allen; Teri Jo Mauch

    2000-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis presented with jaundice, confusion, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure secondary to titer-confirmed acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV...

  11. Analysis of Aichi virus and Saffold virus association with pediatric acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Li; Liu, Na; Yu, Jei-Mei; Ao, Yuan-Yun; Li, Shan; Stine, O Colin; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2017-02-01

    Aichi virus (AiV) and Saffold virus (SAFV) have been reported in children with acute gastroenteritis and respiratory disease worldwide; however, their causative role in acute gastroenteritis remains ambiguous. To assess the clinical association of AiV and SAFV with acute gastroenteritis in the pediatric population. A case-control study involving 461 paired stool samples from pediatric cases with diarrhea and healthy controls was conducted in China. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen AiV and SAFV. In the 461 paired samples, AiV and SAFV were more prevalent among asymptomatic children than children with acute gastroenteritis (0.87% vs. 0.43% and 2.8% vs. 1.5%, respectively), with no significant differences between groups (p=0.142 and p=0.478, respectively). Cox regression model analysis revealed no correlation between AiV (odds ratio, OR=2.24; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.76-6.54) or SAFV infection (OR=1.36; 95% CI, 0.86-2.15) and diarrhea. High viral loads were found in both AiV- and SAFV-positive groups, with no significant difference in viral load between the groups (p=0.507 and p=0.677, respectively). No other known enteric pathogens were found in the AiV-positive samples but common in SAFV-positive cases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all 6 AiV subjects clustered with genotype B. All 7 SAFV-positive cases and 8 of 13 SAFV-positive controls were genotyped successfully; the genotypes identified included SAFV-1, SAFV-2 SAFV-3, and SAFV-6. Our study revealed no association of these viruses in acute gastroenteritis in children. These viruses may have the ability to replicate in humans; however, the infections are usually asymptomatic. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion presenting with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan Derek J; Nicolson Andrew; Miller Alastair RO; Beeching Nick J; Beadsworth Mike BJ

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is associated with a range of neurological conditions. Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare presentation; acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is the commonest form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has occasionally been reported in acute Immunodeficiency Virus infection but little data exists on frequency, management and outcome. Case presentation We describe an episode of Gui...

  13. 2012~2013年长春市急性弛缓性麻痹病例监测结果分析%Analysis and Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Cases in Changchun from 2012 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶育晖; 王崇

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the working status of acute flaccid paralysis ( AFP) cases surveillance system in Changchun from 2012 to 2013 .Methods:All of AFP cases were analyzed by descriptive epidemiological method ,and the surveillance system was evaluated . Results:The reported average incidence of AFP of children under 15 years old was ×per 100,000 ,the investigation rate within 48 hours was 100%,the collection rate of two adequate stool samples within 14 days was 97.67%,the transport rate of stool samples within 7 days was 97.67%,the isolation rate of polio virus within 28 days in Jilin provincial center for disease control and prevention was 100%,the timely follow up rate within 75 days was 100%.Conclusion:AFP cases surveillance system maintained high quality in changchun from 2012 to 2013 ,all the surveillance indicators met the requirement of China Committee of Health and Family Planning .%目的:评价长春市2012~2013年急性弛缓性麻痹( AFP)病例监测系统的运转情况。方法:采用描述性流行病学方法进行AFP病例的数据分析,并评价AFP病例监测系统。结果:长春市2012~2013年共报告AFP病例43例,平均报告发病率为2.19/10万,48小时内调查及时率为100%,14天内双份合格粪便标本采集率为97.67%,标本7天内送检及时率为97.67%,省级实验室28天内病毒分离及时率为100%,病例75天内随访及时率为100%。结论:2012~2013年长春市AFP监测系统运转良好,各项指标均达到卫生部的要求。

  14. Vertical transmission of honey bee viruses in a Belgian queen breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoet, Jorgen; De Smet, Lina; Wenseleers, Tom; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-03-14

    The Member States of European Union are encouraged to improve the general conditions for the production and marketing of apicultural products. In Belgium, programmes on the restocking of honey bee hives have run for many years. Overall, the success ratio of this queen breeding programme has been only around 50%. To tackle this low efficacy, we organized sanitary controls of the breeding queens in 2012 and 2014. We found a high quantity of viruses, with more than 75% of the egg samples being infected with at least one virus. The most abundant viruses were Deformed Wing Virus and Sacbrood Virus (≥40%), although Lake Sinai Virus and Acute Bee Paralysis Virus were also occasionally detected (between 10-30%). In addition, Aphid Lethal Paralysis Virus strain Brookings, Black Queen Cell Virus, Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus occurred at very low prevalences (≤5%). Remarkably, we found Apis mellifera carnica bees to be less infected with Deformed Wing Virus than Buckfast bees (p Colony Collapse Disorder. Moreover, negative-strand detection of Sacbrood Virus in eggs was demonstrated for the first time. High pathogen loads were observed in this sanitary control program. We documented for the first time vertical transmission of some viruses, as well as significant differences between two honey bee races in being affected by Deformed Wing Virus. Nevertheless, we could not demonstrate a correlation between the presence of viruses and queen breeding efficacies.

  15. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis: a short clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Aggarwal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis (TPP is a potentially lethal manifestation of hyperthyroidism which is characterized by hypokalemia and muscular weakness. It mainly affects Asian men in the age group of 20 to 40 years. Immediate supplementation with oral or intravenous potassium will help to not only abort the acute attack of paralysis but will also prevent serious and life threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Non selective beta blockers like propranolol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. Acetazolamide has no role in the treatment of TPP. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 539-542

  16. Ethmoidal Mucocele Presenting as Oculomotor Nerve Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Woo; Sohn, Hee-Young; Jeon, Sea-Yuong; Kim, Jin-Pyeong; Ahn, Seong-Ki; Park, Jung Je; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old male was admitted with an acute headache and sudden ptosis on the right side. No ophthalmological or neurological etiologies were apparent. A mucocele of the right posterior ethmoid sinus was observed with radiology. After the marsupialization of the mucocele via a transnasal endoscopic approach, the patient's symptoms (oculomotor nerve paralysis and headache) resolved in 4 weeks. Oculomotor paralysis is a rare symptom of an ethmoidal mucocele. In this article, we report this rare case along with a literature review. PMID:23799169

  17. 近三年针灸治疗急性期周围性面瘫研究进展%The Research Process in Recent 3 Years of Acupuncture for Acute Peripheral Facial Paralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高德强; 刘立安; 王蕾

    2015-01-01

    本研究旨在呈现2012~2014年3年间针灸治疗急性期周围性面瘫的研究进展,从针刺、电针及其他针灸相关疗法等方面进行阐述;认为在周围性面瘫急性期介入针灸治疗优势独特、效果显著、预后良好,同时也存在一些亟需解决的问题,待探索解决,以更好地服务于临床.%This article is conducted to present the research process of acupuncture for acute peripheral facial paralysis in recent 3 years that from 2012 to 2014, and elaborates the aspects such as acupuncture, electroacupuncture and related therapies of acupuncture;considers that, involves acu-puncture therapy at acute stage of peripheral facial paralysis has unique advantage, significant effect and good prognosis, meanwhile it also has some problems that need to solve and awaiting find out solutions to provide better service to clinical practice.

  18. Purpura fulminans associated with acute West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sheevam; Fite, Laura Paul; Lane, Natalie; Parekh, Palak

    2016-02-01

    Purpura fulminans is a progressive thrombotic disorder that presents with widespread purpura due to deficiency or dysfunction of protein C or protein S. Lesions present as well-demarcated erythematous macules that progress to irregular areas of hemorrhagic necrosis.West Nile virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family transmitted to humans through the bite of various mosquito species. It manifests as West Nile fever in 25% of those infected and less commonly as neuroinvasive disease. An African American man in his fortiespresented with altered mental status and was noted to have evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation according to his lab data. He then developed dusky skin discoloration and systemic flaccid bullae with desquamation. Biopsy was consistent with purpura fulminans and the patient eventually developed symmetric peripheral gangrene, requiring amputations of all four extremities. Infectious work up revealed positive testing for IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid leading to the diagnosis of acute West Nile Virus encephalitis. We present this case to describe the rarely reported association of purpura fulminans with West Nile Virus infection.

  19. Pericarditis Associated With Acute Zika Virus Infection in a Returning Traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Rouphael, Nadine; Xu, Yongxian; Natrajan, Muktha; Lai, Lilin; Patel, Shital M; Levit, Rebeca D; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Mulligan, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread outbreak, few cases of Zika virus associated with cardiac manifestations have been described. We present a case of pericarditis in the setting of an acute, symptomatic Zika virus infection in a traveler returning from St. Thomas. Clinicians should be alert for this potential complication of Zika virus infection.

  20. Hypokalemic paralysis is not just a hypokalemic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesur, Mustafa; Ilgin, Sen Dagci; Baskal, Nilgun; Gullu, Sevim

    2008-06-01

    Although the commonest form of hypokalemic paralysis is the hereditary variety, some patients during course of thyrotoxicosis or with chronic potassium depletion, may exhibit episodic weakness. Approach to the patient with hypokalemic paralysis should be a careful search for the etiology and potassium replacement therapy. In this report, two hypokalemic paralysis cases are described. Case 1 is a 29-year-old Caucasian male who developed thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. Case 2 is a 50-year-old female who experienced hypokalemic paralysis due to primary aldosteronism. Hypokalemic paralysis usually carries an underlying secret problem. Emergency department workers should give importance to etiological differentiation.

  1. Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, M. J.; Vinagre, I.; Sojo, L.; Cubero, J. M.; Pérez, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    We describe a 37-year-old man with a 4-month history of episodic muscular weakness, involving mainly lower-limbs. Hypokalemia was documented in one episode and managed with intravenous potassium chloride. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed 4 months after onset of attacks because of mild symptoms. The patient was subsequently diagnosed as having thyrotoxic periodic paralysis associated with Graves’ disease. Treatment with propranolol and methimazol was initiated and one year later he remains euthyroid and symptom free. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a rare disorder, especially among Caucasians, but it should always be considered in patients with acute paralysis and hypokalemia, and thyroid function should be evaluated. PMID:19625499

  2. Facial paralysis as a presenting symptom of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilavsky, Efraim; Scheuerman, Oded; Marcus, Nofar; Hoffer, Vered; Garty, Ben Zion

    2006-06-01

    Facial paralysis may occur as a complication of central nervous system leukemias in children, but it is rarely a presenting symptom. This report describes an 8-month-old child who presented with peripheral facial palsy, failure to thrive, anemia, and otitis media. Antibiotic and steroid treatment led to an improvement in the clinical condition, but not the paralysis. At readmission 3 weeks later, physical examination revealed bluish, firm, palpable masses on the scalp and facial areas, and laboratory and imaging studies confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia. This case should alert physicians to consider hematologic malignancies in children with facial paralysis.

  3. Three cases of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to painless thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP due to painless thyroiditis presenting as acute quadriparesis. All responded to potassium supplementation and propranolol. TPP may be due to thyrotoxicosis of any etiology, commonly Grave′s disease. The absence of clinical signs of thyrotoxicosis can delay diagnosis and treatment. Thyroid function tests should be a routine evaluation in all cases of hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

  4. 青海省2008-2012年急性驰缓性麻痹病例与健康人群病原学监测%Etiology surveillance on acute flaccid paralysis cases and healthy crowds in Qinghai from 2008 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽霞; 巴卓玛; 赵生仓

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析急性驰缓性麻痹(acute flaccid paralysis,AFP)病例、健康人群粪便标本病原学监测结果,为保持无脊灰状态提供实验室依据.方法 病毒分离及鉴定,脊灰病毒株型内鉴别,确定疫苗株或野病毒株.结果 青海省2008-2012年AFP病例、健康人群粪便标本782份,分离出脊髓灰质炎病毒2株,分离率为0.26%,其中脊灰Ⅰ型疫苗株1株,脊灰混合型疫苗株1株,无脊灰野病毒株.分离到非脊灰肠道病毒(non-polio enterovirus,NPEV) 162株,分离率为20.72%.结论 我省2008-2012年无本地脊灰野毒株病例流行,阻断了脊灰本地野病毒的传播,保持了无脊灰状态.%Objective To analyze the etiology surveillance on acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and stool specimens of healthy crowds,so as to provide the laboratory basis for maintaining polio-free status.Method Virus isolation and identification was used,and the strains were determined by the identification within type of poliovirus.Results It was shown that 782 stool specimens of AFP cases and healthy crowds were detected from 2008 to 2012 in Qinghai Province,and 2 strains of poliovirus were isolated,the isolation rate was 0.26%,including 1 strains of poliovirus type I vaccine strain,1 strains of hybrid poliovirus vaccine strain,and no wild poliovirus strain.Furthermore,162 strains of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) were isolated,and the isolation rate was 20.72%.Conclusions There was no prevalence of local wild poliovirus from 2008 to 2012 in Qinghai Province,which illustrated that we block the spread of local wild poliovirus effectively,and maintain polio-free status.

  5. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  6. Sudden flaccid paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Mohammad; Peshin, Rohit; Ellis, Oliver; Grover, Karan

    2015-01-07

    Periodic thyrotoxic paralysis is a genetic condition, rare in the West and in Caucasians. Thyrotoxicosis, especially in western hospitals, is an easily overlooked cause of sudden-onset paralysis. We present a case of a 40-year-old man who awoke one morning unable to stand. He had bilateral lower limb flaccid weakness of 0/5 with reduced reflexes and equivocal plantars; upper limbs were 3/5 with reduced tone and reflexes. ECG sinus rhythm was at a rate of 88/min. PR interval was decreased and QT interval increased. Bloods showed potassium of 1.8 mEq/L (normal range 3.5-5), free T4 of 29.2 pmol/L (normal range 6.5-17) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of paralysis. He was discharged on carbimazole and propanolol, and follow-up was arranged in the endocrinology clinic.

  7. 2007-2011年连云港市儿童急性弛缓性麻痹病例监测结果%The monitoring results of acute flaccid paralysis in children in Lianyungang City from 2007-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷利妞

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价连云港市2007-2011年儿童急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例的流行特征及监测系统的运行状况,为维持无脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)状态提供科学依据.方法 应用Excel软件和中国免疫规划监测信息管理系统进行数据分析.结果 连云港市2007--2011年15岁以下儿童共报告76例AFP病例,年平均报告发病率为1.73/10万.夏秋季病例居多,4岁以下病例所占构成比为75.00%,服苗史≥3次的占94.74%.实验室培养结果显示,76例病例均为脊灰排除病例,共分离到4株脊灰疫苗病毒.AFP病例监测各项指标均达到相关要求.初到村级、乡级、县级、地市级医院就诊的病例报告率分别为0、47.83%、59.26%和85.00%.结论 连云港市儿童AFP病例监测系统运转良好.但仍需提高监测灵敏性,做好常规免疫和AFP病例合格标本的采集工作,提高首诊报告率,有效维持无脊灰状态.%[ Objective] To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children and the operation status of monitoring system in Lianyungang City from 2007-2011, provide scientific evidence for maintaining the polio-free status. [ Methods] Excel software and China immunization monitoring information management system were applied to analyze the AFP data. [Results] A total of 76 AFP cases were reported among children under 15 years old in Lianyungang City from 2007-2011, with the average annual incidence rate of 1.73/lakh. The cases were mainly occurred in summer and autumn. 75. 00% of cases were children under 4 years old, and 94. 74% were vaccinated over three times. The results of laboratory culture showed that all of 76 cases were exclude cases of poliomyelitis, and 4 strains of polio vaccine virus were detected. All the indicators of AFP surveillance met the relevant requirements. The reporting rate of first diagnosis in the hospital of village level, township level, county level and city level was 0, 47. 83% , 59

  8. Provocative poliomyelitis causing postpolio residual paralysis among select communities of two remote villages of North Karnataka in India: A community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular injections can provoke muscular paralysis especially, if the child has had exposure to polio virus. The purpose of the study was to determine the association with known risk factors for motor disabilities in two remote villages of North Karnataka (India, where an increased number of disabled people among select communities had been reported. A community based survey was conducted. The selection of study subjects was done through screening, history related with occurrence of musculoskeletal disability, screening and general examination of the affected joints and muscles. Data analysis was done by estimation of percentages. Among the physical disabilities identified, the most common was post-polio residual paralysis. 35.65% (n = 41 subjects had developed paralysis following the administration of an intramuscular injection when they had acute viremia in childhood, indicating that (probably muscle paralysis would have been provoked by intramuscular injections, resulting in provocative poliomyelitis. Unnecessary injection must be avoided in children during acute viremia state and use of oral polio vaccine should be encouraged.

  9. Provocative poliomyelitis causing postpolio residual paralysis among select communities of two remote villages of North Karnataka in India: a community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Amitesh; Ganesan, Sailakshmi; Shenoy, U V; Narayanan, E

    2011-01-01

    Intramuscular injections can provoke muscular paralysis especially, if the child has had exposure to polio virus. The purpose of the study was to determine the association with known risk factors for motor disabilities in two remote villages of North Karnataka (India), where an increased number of disabled people among select communities had been reported. A community based survey was conducted. The selection of study subjects was done through screening, history related with occurrence of musculoskeletal disability, screening and general examination of the affected joints and muscles. Data analysis was done by estimation of percentages. Among the physical disabilities identified, the most common was post-polio residual paralysis. 35.65% (n = 41) subjects had developed paralysis following the administration of an intramuscular injection when they had acute viremia in childhood, indicating that (probably) muscle paralysis would have been provoked by intramuscular injections, resulting in provocative poliomyelitis. Unnecessary injection must be avoided in children during acute viremia state and use of oral polio vaccine should be encouraged.

  10. Facial nerve paralysis after cervical traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Edmund Cheung

    2010-10-01

    Cervical traction is a frequently used treatment in rehabilitation clinics for cervical spine problems. This modality works, in principle, by decompressing the spinal cord or its nerve roots by applying traction on the cervical spine through a harness placed over the mandible (Olivero et al., Neurosurg Focus 2002;12:ECP1). Previous reports on treatment complications include lumbar radicular discomfort, muscle injury, neck soreness, and posttraction pain (LaBan et al., Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73:295-6; Lee et al., J Biomech Eng 1996;118:597-600). Here, we report the first case of unilateral facial nerve paralysis developed after 4 wks of intermittent cervical traction therapy. Nerve conduction velocity examination revealed a peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis. Symptoms of facial nerve paralysis subsided after prednisolone treatment and suspension of traction therapy. It is suspected that a misplaced or an overstrained harness may have been the cause of facial nerve paralysis in this patient. Possible causes were (1) direct compression by the harness on the right facial nerve near its exit through the stylomastoid foramen; (2) compression of the right external carotid artery by the harness, causing transient ischemic injury at the geniculate ganglion; or (3) coincidental herpes zoster virus infection or idiopathic Bell's palsy involving the facial nerve.

  11. [Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar Jiménez, J; Ruiz Serrato, A E; Bautista Galán, C; Guerrero León, M Á

    2013-01-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis is an uncommon complication of thyrotoxicosis, characterized by attacks of generalized muscular weakness associated with hypokalemia in patients with hyperthyroidism, most frequently with Graves-Basedow disease. Treatment with antithyroid drugs and potassium supplements reversed the symptoms and the episodes of acute muscular weakness did not reappear. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute hepatitis due to dengue virus in a chronic hepatitis patient

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, L J; Coelho, J.M.C. de O.; Silva,E. J.; Abukater,M.; Almeida,F.C.R.; A. S. Fonte; L.A Souza

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of acute hepatitis caused by dengue virus, with a significant increase in aspartate transferase and alanine transferase levels in a chronic hepatitis patient attended at the Cane Sugar Planters Hospital of Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ.

  13. Detection of viruses and atypical bacteria associated with acute respiratory infection of children in Hubei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zegang; Li, Yan; Gu, Jian; Zheng, Hongyun; Tong, Yongqing; Wu, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Acute respiratory infection is the major cause of disease and death in children, particularly in developing countries. However, the spectrum of pathogenic viruses and atypical bacteria that exist in many of these countries remains incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the spectrum of pathogenic viruses and atypical bacteria associated with acute respiratory infection in children under the age of 16. A total of 10 435 serum sera specimens were collected from hospitalized children presenting with acute respiratory infection symptoms. Indirect immunofluorescence assays were performed to detect immunoglobulin M antibodies against nine common pathogens: mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, influenza virus A, legionella pneumophila, coxiella burnetii and chamydophila pneumonia. Of the 10 435 specimens examined, 7046 tested positive for at least one pathogen. Among all of the tested pathogens, mycoplasma pneumonia had the highest detection rate (56.9%). Influenza virus A and influenza virus B epidemics occurred during both winter and summer. The detection rate of respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus was higher in spring. Cases of mixed infection were more complex: 4136 specimens (39.6%) tested positive for ≥2 pathogens. There were statistically significant difference in detection rates of mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, influenza virus A, legionella pneumophila and chamydophila pneumonia among different age groups (P virus B and respiratory syncytial virus. The detection rates for each pathogen displayed specific seasonal and age group variations. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  14. The role of respiratory syncytial virus and other viral pathogens in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B S; Dollete, F R; Yolken, R H

    1982-07-01

    We utilized recently developed enzyme immunoassay techniques to examine the role of selected viruses in the etiology of acute otitis media. Viral pathogens were found in middle ear fluids obtained from 13 (24%) of 53 children with acute otitis media; respiratory syncytial virus accounted for ten of the 13 viral agents identified. In addition, respiratory syncytial viral antigen was found in nasopharyngeal washings obtained from 15 of the 53 children. Seven of these children had RSV identified as the sole middle ear pathogen, whereas six children had otitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae as either the sole middle ear pathogen or in combination with RSV. Similarly, all three children with respiratory infections caused by influenza virus had ear infections caused by bacterial pathogens, either alone or in combination with influenza virus. These findings suggest that, in patients with viral respiratory infection, coexisting acute otitis media may be associated with the recovery of either viruses or bacteria from the middle ear exudates.

  15. The first comprehensive molecular detection of six honey bee viruses in Iran in 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani, Mohammadreza; Madadgar, Omid; Langeroudi, Arash Ghalyanchi; Rezapanah, Mohammadreza; Nabian, Sedigheh; Akbarein, Hesameddin; Farahani, Reza Kh; Maghsoudloo, Hossein; Abdollahi, Hamed; Forsi, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    At least 18 viruses have been reported in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). However, severe diseases in honey bees are mainly caused by six viruses, and these are the most important in beekeeping. These viruses include: deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), sacbrood virus (SBV), kashmir bee virus (KBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV). In this study, we evaluated 89 Iranian honey bee apiaries (during the period 2015-2016) suffering from symptoms of depopulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring, by employing reverse transcription-PCR. Samples were collected from four regions (Mazandaran, Hormozgan, Kurdistan, and Khorasan Razavi) of Iran. Of the 89 apiaries examined, 16 (17.97%), three (3.37%), and three (3.37%) were infected by DWV, ABPV, and CBPV, respectively. The study results for the other viruses (SBV, KBV, and BQCV) were negative. The present study evaluated the presence of the six most important honey bee viruses in bee colonies with suspected infections, and identified remarkable differences in the distribution patterns of the viruses in different geographic regions of Iran.

  16. [Poliomyelitis in Tajikistan. Protection of Russia from emergence and spread of wild poliomyelitis virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Ezhlova, E B; Mel'nikova, A A; Lazikova, G F; Demina, Iu V; Frolova, N V

    2011-01-01

    Problem of emergence and spread of poliomyelitis in Russian Federation and neighboring states is examined. Measures taken in Russian Federation to prevent emergence of poliomyelitis cases caused by wild type virus are discussed, as well as treaties and agreements between Russia, Commonwealth of Independent States, Shanghai Cooperation Organization states regarding epidemiological control of poliomyelitis and acute flaccid paralysis. Measure planned by Federal Service for Surveillance for Protection of Consumers Rights and Human Welfare to prevent emergence of poliomyelitis and acute flaccid paralysis cases in Russian Federation and neighboring countries are presented.

  17. 耳部无疱疹的带状疱疹性面瘫%Zoster sine herpete-Facial paralysis without herpes caused by herpes zoster virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琨; 李健东; 赵亮; 于春刚; 李杨; 王杰

    2016-01-01

    疱疹顿挫型面瘫同亨特综合征一样,由水痘-带状疱疹病毒(varicella-zoster virus VZV)感染面神经所致,多为潜伏在膝状神经节的VZV病毒再次复活感染。表现为急性周围性面瘫,耳、舌、咽等部位的剧烈疼痛,伴有眩晕、听力下降等症状,但不出现疱疹,所以在临床中常常被误诊为贝尔面瘫。而其不论是病因、发病机制还是治疗及愈后方面与贝尔面瘫都不同,临床中常常耽误治疗,影响患者的愈后。本文就疱疹顿挫性面瘫在临床特征、发病机制、诊断、治疗及愈后等方面的进展做一综述,以引起耳鼻咽喉科医师对此类疾病的关注。%Zoster sine herpete (ZSH) facial palsy is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), similar to Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Latent VZV infection is reactivated in the geniculate ganglion, causing acute peripheral facial palsy, severe pain in the ear, tongue, pharynx and other regions of head and neck. Vertigo and hearing loss can be part of the process. However, facial palsies caused by VZV are not always accompanied by vesicular eruption, and these cases are referred to as zoster sine herpete (ZSH). Distinguishing ZSH from Bell palsy is difficult, and ZSH is often clinically diagnosed as Bell pal-sy. However, the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment and prognosis are quite different. So facial palsy in ZSH is often misdiag-nosed and adequate treatment delayed, leading to poor prognosis. In this paper, we elaborate on the clinical features, patho-genesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ZSH associated facial palsy, in order to bring it to the attention of Otorhinolar-yngologist.

  18. Hemolytic uremic syndrome as a primary manifestation of acute human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A M; Ventura, A; Almeida, C; Correia, M; Tavares, V; Mota, M; Seabra, J

    2009-05-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection but it occurs in advanced stages of human immunodeficiency virus disease. As in other forms of hemolytic uremic syndrome plasmapheresis seems to be the treatment of choice. The authors present an unusual case of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with acute human immunodeficiency virus infection in a 38 year-old black male. The patient was admitted with fever, asthenia, nausea, diarrhea, and reduced urinary output. He was found to have anemia, thrombocytopenia and severe renal failure. Hemolytic uremic syndrome was diagnosed and he was started on plasmapheresis and hemodialysis. Serological tests were consistent with acute human immunodeficiency virus infection: the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for human immunodeficiency virus was weakly positive, Western Blot test was negative and human immunodeficiency virus RNA quantification was positive, with > 1,000,000 copies/microl. After 4 daily treatment sessions, patient's clinical condition improved and hemoglobin, platelets, lactic dehydrogenase and renal function normalized.

  19. Associations between co-detected respiratory viruses in children with acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Atsushi; Kubo, Hideyuki; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Sekiguchi, Jun-ichiro; Yamamoto, Seiji P; Kohdera, Urara; Togawa, Masao; Amo, Kiyoko; Shiomi, Masashi; Ohyama, Minori; Goto, Kaoru; Hase, Atsushi; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Iritani, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are the major etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in young children. Although respiratory virus co-detections are common, analysis of combinations of co-detected viruses has never been conducted in Japan. Nineteen respiratory viruses or subtypes were surveyed using multiplex real-time PCR on 1,044 pediatric (patient age virus positive (1,414 viruses were detected), and 388 of the virus-positive specimens (43.5%, 388/891) were positive for multiple viruses. The ratio of multiple/total respiratory virus-positive specimens was high in children aged 0-35 months. Statistical analyses revealed that human bocavirus 1 and human adenovirus were synchronously co-detected. On the other hand, co-detections of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV-1) with HPIV-3, HPIV-3 with human metapneumovirus (hMPV), hMPV with respiratory syncytial virus A (RSV A), hMPV with influenza virus A (H1N1) 2009 (FLUA (H1N1) 2009), RSV A with RSV B, and human rhinovirus and FLUA (H1N1) 2009 were exclusive. These results suggest that young children (viruses, and some combinations of viruses are synchronously or exclusively co-detected.

  20. Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis in a Patient with Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: A Rare Case

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis (TPP) is an uncommon disorder. Though many cases of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis are reported in overt hyperthyroidism, hypokalaemic paralysis in subclinical hyperthyroidism is very rare. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is characterised by circulating TSH levels below reference range and normal thyroid hormone levels. We describe a case of 32-year-old Asian male who presented to the emergency department with acute onset weakness and hypokalaemia with no previous h...

  1. Blood donor screening for West Nile virus (WNV) revealed acute Usutu virus (USUV) infection, Germany, September 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadar, Daniel; Maier, Philipp; Müller, Susanne; Kress, Julia; Chudy, Michael; Bialonski, Alexandra; Schlaphof, Alexander; Jansen, Stephanie; Jöst, Hanna; Tannich, Egbert; Runkel, Stefan; Hitzler, Walter E; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Wessiepe, Martina; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Between 1 June and 31 December 2016, 13,023 blood donations from the University Hospital Aachen in Germany were routinely screened for West Nile virus (WNV) RNA using the cobas TaqScreen WNV Test. On 28 September 2016, one blood donor was tested positive. Subsequent analysis revealed an acute Usutu virus (USUV) infection. During the ongoing USUV epizootics in Germany, blood transfusion services, public health authorities and clinicians should be aware of increased human USUV infections. PMID:28422005

  2. Sleep Paralysis and Hallucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Stores

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep paralysis is one of the many conditions of which visual hallucinations can be a part but has received relatively little attention. It can be associated with other dramatic symptoms of a psychotic nature likely to cause diagnostic uncertainty. Methods and results: These points are illustrated by the case of a young man with a severe bipolar affective disorder who independently developed terrifying visual, auditory and somatic hallucinatory episodes at sleep onset, associated with a sense of evil influence and presence. The episodes were not obviously related to his psychiatric disorder. Past diagnoses included nightmares and night terrors. Review provided no convincing evidence of various other sleep disorders nor physical conditions in which hallucinatory experiences can occur. A diagnosis of predormital isolated sleep paralysis was made and appropriate treatment recommended. Conclusions: Sleep paralysis, common in the general population, can be associated with dramatic auxiliary symptoms suggestive of a psychotic state. Less common forms are either part of the narcolepsy syndrome or (rarely they are familial in type. Interestingly, sleep paralysis (especially breathing difficulty features prominently in the folklore of various countries.

  3. Facial Paralysis Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razfar, Ali; Lee, Matthew K; Massry, Guy G; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Facial nerve paralysis is a devastating condition arising from several causes with severe functional and psychological consequences. Given the complexity of the disease process, management involves a multispecialty, team-oriented approach. This article provides a systematic approach in addressing each specific sequela of this complex problem.

  4. The Price of Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thweatt, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    There are situations in which people feel that it is perfectly acceptable to take no action at all, given a certain set of circumstances. Not only is this a generally unacceptable approach to problem solving, but this type of paralysis can have far reaching and unintended consequences. Since childhood, one has at times held out hope that if he/she…

  5. Two novel viruses associated with the Apis mellifera pathogenic mite Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sofia; Sela, Noa; Chejanovsky, Nor

    2016-11-24

    Varroa destructor infestation of Apis mellifera colonies carries and/or promotes replication of honey bee viruses like the Deformed wing virus, the Varroa destructor virus-1, the Acute bee paralysis virus, the Israeli acute bee paralysis virus and the Kashmir bee virus that have been well described and characterized; but viruses exclusively associated with Varroa were not found. To look for viruses that may associate with- or infect V. destructor we performed deep sequencing (RNA-seq) of RNA extracted from honey bees and mites in Varroa-infested untreated colonies. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the two separate contig-assemblies generated from the sequences' reads annotated using Blastx enabled identification of new viruses unique to Varroa and absent in A. mellifera: an Iflavirus and a virus with homology to Ixodes scapularis associated virus 2, that we named Varroa destructor virus 2 (VDV-2) and 3(VDV-3), respectively. We validated these findings sequencing the mite- and honey bee-viromes and in separate mites and honey bees randomly sampled. The complete genomes of VDV-2 and VDV-3 bear 9576 nucleotides and 4202 nucleotides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of VDV-3 suggests that it belongs to a new group of viruses. Our results open venues for investigating the pathogenicity of these V. destructor viruses.

  6. Microbiology of acute otitis media in children with tympanostomy tubes : prevalences of bacteria and viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruohola, Aino; Meurman, Olli; Nikkari, Simo; Skottman, Tuukka; Salmi, Aimo; Waris, Matti; Osterback, Riikka; Eerola, Erkki; Allander, Tobias; Niesters, Hubert; Heikkinen, Terho; Ruuskanen, Olli

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacteria are found in 50%-90% of cases of acute otitis media (AOM) with or without otorrhea, and viruses are found in 20%-49% of cases. However, for at least 15% of patients with AOM, the microbiological etiology is never determined. Our aim was to specify the full etiology of acute

  7. Respiratory picornaviruses and respiratory syncytial virus as causative agents of acute expiratory wheezing in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Jartti; P. Lehtinen; T. Vuorinen; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); O. Ruuskanen; R. Österback (Riika); B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the viral etiology of acute expiratory wheezing (bronchiolitis, acute asthma) in 293 hospitalized children in a 2-year prospective study in Finland. A potential causative viral agent was detected in 88% of the cases. Eleven different viruses were represented. Respiratory

  8. Microbiology of acute otitis media in children with tympanostomy tubes : prevalences of bacteria and viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruohola, Aino; Meurman, Olli; Nikkari, Simo; Skottman, Tuukka; Salmi, Aimo; Waris, Matti; Osterback, Riikka; Eerola, Erkki; Allander, Tobias; Niesters, Hubert; Heikkinen, Terho; Ruuskanen, Olli

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacteria are found in 50%-90% of cases of acute otitis media (AOM) with or without otorrhea, and viruses are found in 20%-49% of cases. However, for at least 15% of patients with AOM, the microbiological etiology is never determined. Our aim was to specify the full etiology of acute midd

  9. A young man presenting with paralysis after vigorous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubran, Christopher; Narain, Rajay; Malik, Luqmaan; Saeed, Saad Aldeen

    2012-08-27

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare metabolic disorder characterised by muscular weakness and paralysis in predisposed thyrotoxic patients. Although patients with TPP are almost uniformly men of Asian descent, cases have been reported in Caucasian and other ethnic populations. The rapid increase in ethnic diversity in Western and European nations has led to increase in TPP reports, where it was once considered exceedingly rare. Correcting the hypokalaemic and hyperthyroid state tends to reverse the paralysis. However, failure to recognise the condition may lead to delay in diagnosis and serious consequences including respiratory failure and death. We describe a young man who was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism who presented with acute paralysis. The clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and management of TTP are reviewed.

  10. Nuevos virus asociados con gastroenteritis New viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Se hace un resumen de las características comunes y específicas de los diversos virus asociados con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con énfasis en la importancia que tienen en la génesis de este síndrome y en el hecho de que la mayoría de los casos, aunque sean severos, pueden ser manejados adecuadamente mediante el reemplazo de líquidos y electrolitos.

    A synopsis of the common and specific features of the various viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease is presented; emphasis Is made on their importance as etiologic agents of this syndrome and on the fact that most cases, even If they are severe, can be appropriately treated by fluid and electrolyte replacement.

  11. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  12. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rens Zonneveld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks.

  13. Similar virus spectra and seasonality in paediatric patients with acute respiratory disease, Ghana and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, A; Ebach, F; Corman, V M; Krumkamp, R; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Eis-Hübinger, A M; Kruppa, T; Simon, A; May, J; Evans, J; Panning, M; Drosten, C; Drexler, J F

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological differences between tropical and temperate regions regarding viruses causing acute respiratory infection are poorly understood. This is in part because methodological differences limit the comparability of data from these two regions. Using identical molecular detection methods, we tested 1174 Ghanaian and 539 German children with acute respiratory infections sampled over 12 months for the 15 most common respiratory viruses by PCR. A total 43.2% of the Ghanaian and 56.6% of the German children tested positive for at least one respiratory virus. The pneumoviruses respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus were most frequently detected, in 13.1% and 25.1% within the Ghanaian and German children, respectively. At both study sites, pneumoviruses were more often observed at younger ages (p Ghana, virus spectra, age associations and seasonal fluctuation showed similarities between sites. Neither respiratory viruses overall, nor environmentally stable (non-enveloped) viruses in particular were more frequent in tropical Ghana. The standardization of our sampling and laboratory testing revealed similarities in acute respiratory infection virus patterns in tropical and temperate climates.

  14. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis in an African male: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayneh, Dereje K; Kellerth, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare manifestation of thyrotoxicosis and is rarely reported in non-Asian populations. A 26-year-old Ethiopian male who presented with recurrent flaccid tetraparesis, hypokalemia, and hyperthyroidism is reported here. Thyroid function should be routinely checked in patients with acute or recurrent hypokalemic paralysis.

  15. 脑蛋白水解物治疗急性特发性面神经麻痹随机对照研究%Cerebrolysin injection in the treatment of acute idiopathic facial paralysis: a randomized controled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付睿; 戴威; 孟然; 赵星辉; 黄栋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Cerebrolysin injection on the acute idiopathic facial paralysis.Methods Seventy-two patients with acute idiopathic facial paralysis were randomly assigned to Cerebrolysin injection ( n =36 ) and control groups ( n = 36 ). Patients in Cerehrolysin injection group received cerehrolysin 20 ml per day for ten consecutive days. Both Cerebrolysin and control groups received prednisone, vitamin B and Adenosine Disodiu. House-Brack-mann facial nerve grading system was used to evaluate the outcomes at 4 weeks and 3 months after Cerebrolysin administration. Results Complete recover rate ( 61. 1% vS. 33. 3% and 75% vs. 44. 4% )and the overall effective rate ( 80. 5%vs.50%and 94. 4%vs. 72. 2% ) were significantly higher in Cerebrolysin group than in control group at either 4 weeks or 3months after treatment. The difference hetween Cerehrolysin group and control group was statistically significant. The overall effective rate for grade Ⅴand Ⅵ of House-Brackmann were significantly higher in Cerehrolysin group than in control group ( 82. 4% vs 44. 4% )(ρ = 0. 035 ). Conclusions Cerebrolysin is more effective than conventional treatment in treating acute idiopathic: facial paralysis.%目的 评价脑蛋白水解物(施普善)治疗急性特发性面神经麻痹的疗效.方法 72例急性特发性面神经麻痹患者随机分为施普善组和对照组各36例,两组同时使用相同剂量的激素、B族维生素和能量合剂治疗,施普善组在常规治疗基础上加用施普善治疗.治疗后4周和3个月采用House-Brackmann面神经功能分级系统评分评价疗效.结果 治疗后4周和3个月施普善组与对照组患者的痊愈率分别为61.1%×33.3%和75%×44.4%,总有效率分别为80.5% vs.50%和94.4% vs.72.2%,二组差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).对于House-Brackmann分级Ⅴ~Ⅵ级的重症患者施普善组的总有效率较对照组更高为82.4%和44.4%(P=0.035),差

  16. Sleep paralysis and folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ann M

    2015-07-01

    Sleep paralysis is a relatively new term to describe what for hundreds of years many believed to be a visitation by a malevolent creature which attacked its victims as they slept. The first clinical description of sleep paralysis was published in 1664 in a Dutch physician's case histories, where it was referred to as, 'Incubus or the Night-Mare [sic]'. In 1977, it was discovered more than 100 previously healthy people from various South East Asian communities had died mysteriously in their sleep. The individuals affected were dying at a rate of 92/100,000 from Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome. No underlying cause was ever found, only that subsequent studies revealed a high rate of sleep paralysis and belief in the dab tsog (nightmare spirit) amongst members of the community. The nightmare/succubus is descended from Lilith. The earliest reference to Lilith is found in the Sumerian King list of 2400 BC known as Lilitu or she-demon, she bore children from her nocturnal unions with men. In other derivations, she was Adam's first wife who rather than 'obey' became a demon that preyed on women during childbirth. In modern Middle Eastern maternity wards, some women still wear amulets for protection. Today, clinical cause of these disturbances is sleep paralysis due to the unsuitable timing of REM sleep. During the 'Nightmare' episode, the sleeper becomes partially conscious during REM cycle, leaving the individual in a state between dream and wakefulness. For some, culture and the tradition of the nightmare is explanation enough.

  17. Detection of respiratory viruses and the associated chemokine responses in serious acute respiratory illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumino, Kaharu C.; Walter, Michael J.; Mikols, Cassandra L.; Thompson, Samantha A.; Gaudreault-Keener, Monique; Arens, Max. Q.; Agapov, Eugene; Hormozdi, David; Gaynor, Anne M.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Storch, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Background A specific diagnosis of a lower respiratory viral infection is often difficult despite frequent clinical suspicion. This low diagnostic yield may be improved by use of sensitive detection methods and biomarkers. Methods We investigated the prevalence, clinical predictors and inflammatory mediator profile of respiratory viral infection in serious acute respiratory illness. Sequential bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from all patients hospitalized with acute respiratory illness over 12 months (n=283) were tested for the presence of 17 respiratory viruses by multiplex PCR assay and for newly-discovered respiratory viruses (bocavirus, WU and KI polyomaviruses) by single-target PCR. BAL samples also underwent conventional testing (direct immunoflorescence and viral culture) for respiratory virus at the clinician’s discretion. 27 inflammatory mediators were measured in subset of the patients (n=64) using a multiplex immunoassay. Results We detected 39 respiratory viruses in 37 (13.1% of total) patients by molecular testing, including rhinovirus (n=13), influenza virus (n=8), respiratory syncytial virus (n=6), human metapneumovirus (n=3), coronavirus NL63 (n=2), parainfluenza virus (n=2), adenovirus (n=1), and newly-discovered viruses (n=4). Molecular methods were 3.8-fold more sensitive than conventional methods. Clinical characteristics alone were insufficient to separate patients with and without respiratory virus. The presence of respiratory virus was associated with increased levels of interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP -10)(p<0.001) and eotaxin-1 (p=0.017) in BAL. Conclusions Respiratory viruses can be found in patients with serious acute respiratory illness by use of PCR assays more frequently than previously appreciated. IP-10 may be a useful biomarker for respiratory viral infection. PMID:20627924

  18. Effect of acute Zika virus infection on sperm and virus clearance in body fluids: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joguet, Guillaume; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Matusali, Giulia; Hamdi, Safouane; Walschaerts, Marie; Pavili, Lynda; Guyomard, Stefanie; Prisant, Nadia; Lamarre, Pierre; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Pasquier, Christophe; Bujan, Louis

    2017-08-21

    Evidence of human sexual transmission during Zika virus emergence is a matter of concern, particularly in procreation, but to date, kinetics of seminal shedding and the effects of infection on human reproductive function have not been described. To investigate the effects of Zika virus infection on semen and clearance of Zika virus from semen and body fluids, we aimed to study a cohort of Zika virus-infected men. This prospective observational study recruited men presenting with acute Zika virus infection at Pointe-à-Pitre University Hospital in Guadeloupe, French Caribbean, where a Zika virus outbreak occurred between April and November, 2016. Blood, urine, and semen were collected at days 7, 11, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 after symptom onset, and semen characteristics, such as total sperm count, sperm motility, vitality, and morphology, and reproductive hormone concentrations, such as testosterone, inhibin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinising hormone, were assessed. At days 7, 11, and 20, semen was processed to isolate motile spermatozoa. Zika virus RNA was detected by RT-PCR using whole blood, serum, urine, seminal plasma, semen cells, and motile spermatozoa fractions. Zika virus was isolated from different sperm fractions on Vero E6 cultures. 15 male volunteers (mean age 35 years [SD 5; range 25-44) with acute Zika virus infection and positive Zika virus RNA detection in blood or urine were enrolled. Total sperm count was decreased from median 119 × 10(6) spermatozoa (IQR 22-234) at day 7 to 45·2 × 10(6) (16·5-89·6) at day 30 and 70 × 10(6) (28·5-81·4) at day 60, respectively, after Zika virus infection. Inhibin values increased from 93·5 pg/mL (IQR 55-162) at day 7 to 150 pg/mL (78-209) at day 120 when total sperm count recovered. In motile spermatozoa obtained after density gradient separation, Zika virus RNA was found in three of 14 patients at day 7, four of 15 at day 11, and four of 15 at day 20, and replication-competent virus was

  19. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwofie Theophilus B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion presenting with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan Derek J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is associated with a range of neurological conditions. Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare presentation; acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is the commonest form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has occasionally been reported in acute Immunodeficiency Virus infection but little data exists on frequency, management and outcome. Case presentation We describe an episode of Guillain-Barré syndrome presenting as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a 30-year-old man testing positive for Immunodeficiency Virus, probably during acute seroconversion. Clinical suspicion was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis and nerve conduction studies. Rapid clinical deterioration prompted intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and early commencement of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. All symptoms resolved within nine weeks. Conclusion Unusual neurological presentations in previously fit patients are an appropriate indication for Immunodeficiency-Virus testing. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy with adequate penetration of the central nervous system should be considered as an early intervention, alongside conventional therapies such as intravenous immunoglobulin.

  1. Treatment for periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, V; Meola, G; Links, T P; Panzeri, M; Rose, M R

    2008-01-23

    Primary periodic paralyses are rare inherited muscle diseases characterised by episodes of flaccid weakness affecting one or more limbs, lasting several hours to several days, caused by mutations in skeletal muscle channel genes. The objective of this review was to systematically review treatment of periodic paralyses. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Trials Register, MEDLINE (from January 1966 to July 2007), and EMBASE (from January 1980 to July 2007) and any other available international medical library sources from the University of Milan for randomised trials. We included randomised (including cross-over studies) and quasi-randomised trials in participants with primary periodic paralyses, in which any form of treatment, including physical therapy and alternative therapies, was compared to placebo or another treatment. Our primary outcome measure was the change in attack severity or frequency by eight weeks from the start of treatment. Our secondary outcome measures were: change in muscle strength and mass; change in Quality of Life, using Short Form 36 (SF36) or similar; preference of treatment strategy; adverse effects at eight weeks. Three studies met our inclusion criteria. In one study dichlorphenamide (DCP) vs placebo was tested in two groups of participants: 42 with hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) and 31 with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperPP), based on clinical criteria. Thirty-four of 42 participants with hypokalemic periodic paralysis completed both treatment phases. For the 34 participants having attack rate data for both treatment phases, the mean improvement in attack rate (P = 0.02) and severity-weighted attack rate (P = 0.01) on DCP relative to placebo were statistically significant. Fifteen preferred DCP, three placebo and six their baseline medication. Twenty-four of 31 participants with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis completed both treatment phases: for the 16 participants who had attack rate data for both

  2. Role of Nasopharyngeal Bacteria and Respiratory Viruses in Acute Symptoms of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitti, Johanna M; Tähtinen, Paula A; Laine, Miia K; Huovinen, Pentti; Ruuskanen, Olli; Ruohola, Aino

    2015-10-01

    The spectrum of acute symptoms in young outpatient children with respiratory tract infection (RTI) is variable, and it cannot be explained by the diagnosis of acute otitis media (AOM) versus uncomplicated RTI. We studied that the variation of symptoms is explained by the nasopharyngeal bacteria and/or respiratory viruses. Children aged 6-35 months with acute symptoms with AOM (n = 201) or without AOM (n = 225) were eligible in this cross-sectional study. We analyzed their nasopharyngeal samples for pathogenic bacteria by culture and for respiratory viruses by polymerase chain reaction. We surveyed 17 symptoms (fever, respiratory, ear related, nonspecific, gastrointestinal) with a structured questionnaire. Fever had a positive association with influenza viruses [odds ratio (OR): 6.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-26.27], human metapneumovirus (OR: 3.84; 95% CI: 1.25-11.77), coronaviruses (OR: 3.45; 95% CI: 1.53-7.75) and parainfluenza viruses (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.07-4.47). Rhinitis (OR: 5.07; 95% CI: 1.93-13.36), nasal congestion (OR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.25-3.31) and cough (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.15-3.17) had positive associations with Moraxella catarrhalis. Furthermore, cough had a positive association with respiratory syncytial virus (OR: 7.20; 95% CI: 1.59-32.71) and parainfluenza viruses (OR: 2.79; 95% CI: 1.02-7.69). The variation of acute symptoms in young children may be influenced by both nasopharyngeal bacteria and respiratory viruses. Our results showed a strong association between fever and respiratory viruses; rhinitis, nasal congestion and cough were associated with M. catarrhalis in the presence of viruses. Further studies are required to determine the possible synergistic role of M. catarrhalis in symptoms of RTI.

  3. Virus Status, Varroa Levels, and Survival of 20 Managed Honey Bee Colonies Monitored in Luxembourg Between the Summer of 2011 and the Spring of 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clermont Antoine

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty managed honey bee colonies, split between 5 apiaries with 4 hives each, were monitored between the summer of 2011 and spring of 2013. Living bees were sampled in July 2011, July 2012, and August 2012. Twenty-five, medium-aged bees, free of varroa mites, were pooled per colony and date, to form one sample. Unlike in France and Belgium, Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus (CBPV has not been found in Luxembourg. Slow Bee Paralysis Virus (SBPV and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV levels were below detection limits. Traces of Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV were amplified. Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV, Varroa destructor Virus-1 (VDV-1, and SacBrood Virus (SBV were detected in all samples and are reported from Luxembourg for the first time. Varroa destructor Macula- Like Virus (VdMLV, Deformed Wing Virus (DWV, and Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV were detected at all locations, and in most but not all samples. There was a significant increase in VDV-1 and DWV levels within the observation period. A principal component analysis was unable to separate the bees of colonies that survived the following winter from bees that died, based on their virus contents in summer. The number of dead varroa mites found below colonies was elevated in colonies that died in the following winter. Significant positive relationships were found between the log-transformed virus levels of the bees and the log-transformed number of mites found below the colonies per week, for VDV-1 and DWV. Sacbrood virus levels were independent of varroa levels, suggesting a neutral or competitive relationship between this virus and varroa.

  4. 2009-2011年河北省脊髓灰质炎疫苗病毒核苷酸变异情况分析%Nucleotide Variation of Poliovirus Isolated From Acute Flaccid Paralysis Cases in Hebei Province, 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊棉; 崔志强; 李静; 郭玉; 陈玫; 赵娜; 张振国; 李琦

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析河北省2009-2011年急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例及其密切接触者中脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)病毒分离株VP1编码区基因核苷酸变异情况,及时发现可能出现的疫苗衍生脊灰病毒(Vaccine-derived poliovrus,VDPV)及其引起的VDPV循环(Circulating VDPV,cVDPVs),为河北省维持无脊灰状态提供依据.方法 按照《世界卫生组织(WHO)脊灰实验室手册》的要求,对全省2009-2011年997例AFP病例及90例的接触者的粪便标本进行病毒分离与鉴定,分离的脊灰病毒送中国疾病预防控制中心(CDC)病毒病预防控制所国家脊灰实验室进行VP1编码区基因核苷酸序列测定与分析.结果 河北省2009-2011年,从24例AFP病例和7例AFP病例的密切接触者粪便标本中分离到脊灰病毒,将混合株进行单型分离,得到38株脊灰病毒,经国家脊灰实验室对脊灰病毒VP1编码区基因核苷酸序列测定,其中,36株发生突变,变异率均<1.0%,最多变异个数为5个.脊灰病毒阳性AFP病例男性明显高于女性,主要集中在小年龄组.结论 2009-2011年分离到的脊灰病毒均为疫苗株,局部地区出现高变异株,未发现VDPV,河北省继续保持无脊灰状态.%Objective To analysis the VP1 nucleotide variation of poliovirus isolated from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and close contacts in Hebei province during 2009-2011,so as to detect vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) and Circulating VDPV (VDPVs) timely and provide the evidence for maintaining polio free status,Method All stool samples from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and close contacts were virally isolated and identified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) Polio Laboratory Manual and then performed VP1 sequencing.Results During 2009-2011,24 cases AFP cases and 7 cases of AFP close contact were isolated with poliovirus.After single type isolation from the mixed,38 single type were obtained,and 36 strains of which occurred mutation with VP1

  5. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis: a life-threatening syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonello, Ivan Carlos Ferreira; Antonello, Vicente Sperb; de Los Santos, Carlos Abaeté; de Almeida, Nelsoni; d'Avila, Domingos Otávio Lorenzoni

    2009-02-01

    Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare life-threatening syndrome, potentially reversible when detected at an early stage. Hypokalemia may also occur in other conditions characterized by muscle weakness. Acute myopathy associated with thyrotoxicosis has been described in Asian populations, although it seldom affects Caucasians or African-Americans. It can be difficult to recognize in western populations. Acute recurrent episodes of flaccid paralysis, symmetrically affecting the proximal muscles of the lower limbs, either following strenuous physical activity or carbohydrate overindulgence, is the usual presentation. Hypokalemia seems to result from transcellular shifts of potassium rather than losses. A case of thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis occurring in a young Caucasian male diagnosed with Graves' disease is reported.

  6. Infección aguda por el VHC Acute hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez Echeverría

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La infección aguda por el virus C de la hepatitis produce un cuadro clínico y bioquímico no específico e indistinguible de los causados por otros virus hepatotropos. El diagnóstico específico de la hepatitis aguda por virus C se basa en la detección en sangre del RNA-VHC mediante una técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa cuyo resultado será positivo a partir de 1-2 semanas tras el contacto inicial con el virus. Los anticuerpos frente al VHC se detectan más tardíamente (a las 7-8 semanas por término medio no siendo útiles, como determinación aislada, para distinguir infección aguda de infección crónica o aclaramiento del virus (espontáneo o tras tratamiento. El 55-85% de los pacientes con infección aguda por el VHC no aclaran el virus y desarrollan una infección crónica con riesgo de evolución a cirrosis y de desarrollo de hepatocarcinoma. Por ello, la tendencia actual es tratar con interferón a todos aquellos pacientes en los que el RNA-VHC se mantenga positivo más allá de 3-4 meses tras el diagnóstico de la infección aguda.Acute hepatitis C virus infection produces clinical and biochemical features that is non-specific and indistinguishable from those caused by other hepatotropic viruses. The specific diagnosis of acute hepatitis C virus infection is based on the detection of serum RNA-HCV through a technique of PCR whose result will be positive after 1-2 weeks of the initial contact with the virus. The anti-bodies against HCV are detected later (after 7-8 weeks on average, and are not useful, as an isolated determination, in distinguishing acute infection from chronic infection or in clearing the virus (spontaneous or following treatment. Fifty-five to eighty-five percent of patients with acute HCV infection do not clear the virus and develop a chronic infection with risk of evolution to cirrhosis and of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. For this reason, the present tendency is to treat with interferon

  7. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis as the presenting symptom of silent thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Debmalya; Bhattacharjee, Shakya

    2013-04-01

    Silent thyroiditis is a rare cause of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. The objective was to present a case of silent thyroiditis presenting as periodic paralysis. A 23-year-old man presented with recurrent acute flaccid predominantly proximal weakness of all four limbs. He had a similar episode 3 weeks back. On examination he was found to have hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis. Clinically there were no features of thyrotoxicosis or thyroiditis. He was initially treated with intravenous and later oral potassium supplementation and propranolol. At 8 weeks of follow-up his thyroid profile became normal and his propranolol was stopped. He had no further recurrence of paralysis. He was diagnosed as a case silent thyroiditis presenting as thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. In cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to suspect thyrotoxicosis, even if asymptomatic. Definitive treatment of thyrotoxicosis prevents recurrence.

  8. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis as the presenting symptom of silent thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silent thyroiditis is a rare cause of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. The objective was to present a case of silent thyroiditis presenting as periodic paralysis. A 23-year-old man presented with recurrent acute flaccid predominantly proximal weakness of all four limbs. He had a similar episode 3 weeks back. On examination he was found to have hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis. Clinically there were no features of thyrotoxicosis or thyroiditis. He was initially treated with intravenous and later oral potassium supplementation and propranolol. At 8 weeks of follow-up his thyroid profile became normal and his propranolol was stopped. He had no further recurrence of paralysis. He was diagnosed as a case silent thyroiditis presenting as thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. In cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to suspect thyrotoxicosis, even if asymptomatic. Definitive treatment of thyrotoxicosis prevents recurrence.

  9. Kawasaki disease with facial nerve paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, Margarita; Santos-Muñoz, Andrea; Rutiman, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a multisystem disorder with varying clinical expression. We describe an instance of facial nerve paralysis in a patient with KD. A 5-month-old boy developed fever, irritability, and diarrhea, treated 8 days later with cefaclor and ibuprofen. Three days later a confluent, erythematous and papular rash appeared, his lips were reddened and swollen, and his white blood count and platelet count were 20,900/mm(3) and 558,000/mm(3), respectively. He was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of KD, and an echocardiogram showed a right coronary aneurysm. The patient then developed an acute, right-sided, facial nerve peripheral paralysis that resolved over the next 6 weeks. He was treated with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) 2 g/kg and aspirin 100 mg/kg/day with improvement of signs and symptoms. This report documents facial nerve paralysis as an uncommon complication of KD and points out that it may be a marker of increased risk of cardiovascular disease in this disorder.

  10. Does virus-bacteria coinfection increase the clinical severity of acute respiratory infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasio, Guilherme A C; Pereira, Luciane A; Moreira, Suzana D R; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Dalla-Costa, Libera M; Raboni, Sonia M

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective cohort study investigated the presence of bacteria in respiratory secretions of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections and analyzed the impact of viral and bacterial coinfection on severity and the mortality rate. A total of 169 patients with acute respiratory infections were included, viruses and bacteria in respiratory samples were detected using molecular methods. Among all samples, 73.3% and 59.7% were positive for viruses and bacteria, respectively; 45% contained both virus and bacteria. Bacterial coinfection was more frequent in patients infected by community respiratory viruses than influenza A H1N1pdm (83.3% vs. 40.6%). The most frequently bacteria detected were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Both species were co-detected in 54 patients and identified alone in 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences in the period of hospitalization, severity, or mortality rate between patients infected with respiratory viruses alone and those coinfected by viruses and bacteria. The detection of mixed respiratory pathogens is frequent in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory infections, but its impact on the clinical outcome does not appear substantial. However, it should be noted that most of the patients received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, which may have contributed to this favorable outcome.

  11. Acute Cholestatic Hepatitis A Virus Infection Presenting with Hemolytic Anemia and Renal Failure: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochling, Fedja

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus is the most common acute viral hepatitis worldwide with approximately 1.5 million cases annually. Hepatitis A virus infection in general is self-limited. In rare cases, hepatitis A virus infection may cause renal failure, hemolytic anemia, and/or cholestasis. We report the first case of acute cholestatic hepatitis A virus infection complicated by hemolytic anemia, and renal failure in one patient. A 42-year-old Caucasian male presented with cholestasis, hemolytic anemia and renal failure after consuming street tacos in Central and South America while on a business trip. His protracted course required corticosteroid therapy, multiple sessions of plasma exchange, and numerous units of packed red blood cells. This case demonstrates the importance of vaccination in high-risk adults. A prompt diagnosis of acute hepatitis A virus infection is essential, as uncommon presentations may delay diagnosis leading to permanent morbidity and potentially death in fulminant cases. We also demonstrate the efficacy of treatment of cholestatic hepatitis A virus infection, hemolytic anemia, and renal failure with corticosteroids and plasma exchange. PMID:25431704

  12. Acute Cholestatic Hepatitis A Virus Infection Presenting with Hemolytic Anemia and Renal Failure: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T. Lapp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus is the most common acute viral hepatitis worldwide with approximately 1.5 million cases annually. Hepatitis A virus infection in general is self-limited. In rare cases, hepatitis A virus infection may cause renal failure, hemolytic anemia, and/or cholestasis. We report the first case of acute cholestatic hepatitis A virus infection complicated by hemolytic anemia, and renal failure in one patient. A 42-year-old Caucasian male presented with cholestasis, hemolytic anemia and renal failure after consuming street tacos in Central and South America while on a business trip. His protracted course required corticosteroid therapy, multiple sessions of plasma exchange, and numerous units of packed red blood cells. This case demonstrates the importance of vaccination in high-risk adults. A prompt diagnosis of acute hepatitis A virus infection is essential, as uncommon presentations may delay diagnosis leading to permanent morbidity and potentially death in fulminant cases. We also demonstrate the efficacy of treatment of cholestatic hepatitis A virus infection, hemolytic anemia, and renal failure with corticosteroids and plasma exchange.

  13. [Rehabilitation of facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F

    2015-10-01

    Rehabilitation takes an important part in the treatment of facial paralysis, especially when these are severe. It aims to lead the recovery of motor activity and prevent or reduce sequelae like synkinesis or spasms. It is preferable that it be proposed early in order to set up a treatment plan based on the results of the assessment, sometimes coupled with an electromyography. In case of surgery, preoperative work is recommended, especially in case of hypoglossofacial anastomosis or lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM). Our proposal is to present an original technique to enhance the sensorimotor loop and the cortical control of movement, especially when using botulinum toxin and after surgery.

  14. A Paralysis of Social Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Joel

    1992-01-01

    Reviews paralysis of U.S. social policy. Notes that, although federal government has implemented new social programs, programs either are provided on condition of willingness to work or are modest in scope. Linking paralysis with literature on government ineffectuality, traces origins of ineffectuality of political/economic policies of past 20…

  15. MARATHON DESPITE UNILATERAL VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach

    2008-06-01

    vocal fold paralysis for the first time. Although a marathon race is an endurance exertion without maximum acute strain on the respiratory system (McArdle et al., 2001, the sport medical examinations also showed no restriction at maximum exertion, neither expiratory nor inspiratory. An unilateral vocal fold paralysis is apparently not such a serious obstacle to the respiratory tract that one would have to reckon with a clear-cut respiratory deficit. Exercise testing of larger samples of patients with vocal fold paralysis should be performed concerning their capacity to endure exertion.The question in the present case thus remains the causal connection between the paralysis and unspecific respiratory complaints. The laryngological examination speaks against an acute event. A possible cause of the vocal fold paralysis is the thoracotomy or the pleuritis in childhood; Due to the time lapse of over 40 years, this cannot be proven. The entire diagnostic spectrum excluded another organic cause for her respiratory complaints, so that we tend to assume a functional or psychosomatic nature. As the symptoms vanished spontaneously, no further proof of this can be offered

  16. Clinical study of 15 children with hand foot and month disease and acute flaccid paralysis%手足口病合并急性弛缓性瘫痪15例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉光; 陈志海; 张璐; 卢联合; 冯亮; 王凌航; 徐艳利; 任娜; 庞琳; 李兴旺

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical characteristics and prognosis of 15 children with hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) who were admitted to Beijing Ditan Hospital during the outbreak of HFMD in 2008. Method The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF),magnetic resonance imaging and prognosis of 15 children with HFMD and AFP were retrospectively reviewed. The recovery of the patients' affected extremities were monitored for 4 weeks. Results The mean age of these patients was (22.47 ± 20.68) months (range: 5~72 months). Acute paralysis developed (3.47 ± 1.68) days after the onset of fever and progressed to maximum severity within (1~2) days. Poliomyelitis-like syndrome was observed in all cases. Of the 15 cases, 10 had monoplegia of lower limbs, two had paraplegia, one had monoplegia of upper limbs and two had quadriplegia. In these cases, the muscle power varied from level 0 to level 4, and six even showed no muscle power in their affected extremities. Thirteen cases developed neurologic complications (encephalitis, meningitis or ataxia) and three had transient urinary retention. Cerebrospinal MRI examination in eight cases showed hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images, predominantly in the impaired anterior horn regions of the spinal cord (C2~C7 for cases with upper extremity impairments and T12~L1 for cases with lower extremity impairments), and displayed long T1 signals and long T2 signals. In addition, the midbrain, brain-stem or medulla was also involved in four cases who also contracted encephalitis or meningitis. The muscle strength in 11 patients with single lower extremity impairment showed improvements in the distal limb muscles within 4~8 days, and the other cases showed recovery 2~3 weeks later. Conclusions HFMD in combination with AFP most commonly occurs in children aged less than 2 years old. Acute paralysis develops during the early stage of infection and progresses to a

  17. Molecular evolution of GB virus B hepatitis virus during acute resolving and persistent infections in experimentally infected tamarins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Faulk, Kristina N

    2010-01-01

    GB virus B (GBV-B) causes acute hepatitis in experimentally infected tamarins. We compared evolutionary features in acute resolving and persistent GBV-B infection. We detected no evidence of evolution in four animals with clearance during weeks 9-12, whereas three animals with clearance during......(-3) substitutions per site year(-1) during weeks 1-52 and 53-104, respectively. Thus, there was a significant decrease in evolution over time, as found for hepatitis C virus. The rate of non-synonymous substitution per non-synonymous site compared with that of synonymous substitution per synonymous site decreased...... over time, suggesting reduction of positive selective pressure. These data demonstrate that prolonged GBV-B infection is associated with viral evolution....

  18. Hypokalemic thyrotoxic periodic paralysis with thyrotoxic psychosis and hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Bushra; Sharif, Zain; Sprabery, Laurie R

    2010-08-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a rare and potentially lethal neuromuscular disease that manifests as recurrent episodic muscle weakness associated with hypokalemia and thyrotoxicosis. Paralysis can rarely involve respiratory muscles leading to acute respiratory failure. The disease primarily affects people of Asian descent, but it is being increasingly reported in other ethnic groups. We review the literature and report a case of hypokalemic thyrotoxic periodic paralysis manifesting as thyroid storm with episodic acute respiratory failure requiring recurrent intubation and eventually requiring thyroidectomy for resolution of symptoms.

  19. The role of egg drop syndrome virus in acute respiratory disease of goslings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanics, E; Palya, V; Glavits, R; Dan, A; Palfi, V; Revesz, T; Benko, M

    2001-06-01

    An outbreak of severe acute respiratory disease characterized by tracheitis and bronchitis was observed in young goslings on a large-scale goose farm in Hungary. Histological examination revealed amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the superficial epithelial cells of the trachea and bronchi. Adenovirus-like particles were detected by electron microscopy, and the virus isolated from the trachea and the lungs was identified as egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus by serological and genomic examination. The clinical and pathological signs were reproduced by intratracheal administration of the virus isolate to 1-day-old goslings free of EDS antibodies. The presence of EDS virus DNA in different organs of the naturally and experimentally infected goslings was detected by polymerase chain reaction. This is the first report on the involvement of EDS virus in severe respiratory disease of geese.

  20. Periodic paralysis: understanding channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann-Horn, Frank; Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Rüdel, Reinhardt

    2002-01-01

    Familial periodic paralyses are typical channelopathies (i.e., caused by functional disturbances of ion channel proteins). The episodes of flaccid muscle weakness observed in these disorders are due to underexcitability of sarcolemma leading to a silent electromyogram and the lack of action potentials even upon electrical stimulation. Interictally, ion channel malfunction is well compensated, so that special exogenous or endogenous triggers are required to produce symptoms in the patients. An especially obvious trigger is the level of serum potassium (K+), the ion responsible for resting membrane potential and degree of excitability. The clinical symptoms can be caused by mutations in genes coding for ion channels that mediate different functions for maintaining the resting potential or propagating the action potential, the basis of excitability. The phenotype is determined by the type of functional defect brought about by the mutations, rather than the channel effected, because the contrary phenotypes hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperPP) and hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) may be caused by point mutations in the same gene. Still, the common mechanism for inexcitability in all known episodic-weakness phenotypes is a long-lasting depolarization that inactivates sodium ion (Na+) channels, initiating the action potential.

  1. Visual experiences during paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Whitham

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available RationaleParalysed human volunteers (n=6 participated in an electroencephalographic study after which they undertook studies of attempted eye movement. The interventions tested a central, intentional component to one’s internal visual model.Methods Six subjects reclined in a supported chair and were ventilated after paralysis (cisatracurium, 20 mg intravenously. In illumination, subjects were requested to focus alternately on the faces of investigators standing on the left and the right within peripheral vision. In darkness, subjects were instructed to look away from a point source of light. Subjects were to report their experiences after reversal of paralysis.Results During attempted eye movement in illumination, one subject had an illusion of environmental movement but four subjects perceived faces as clearly as if they were in central vision. In darkness, four subjects reported movement of the target light in the direction of attempted eye movements and three could control the movement of the light at will. ConclusionThe hypothesis that internal visual models receive intended ocular-movement-information directly from oculomotor centres is strengthened by this evidence.

  2. A molecular epidemiological study of respiratory viruses detected in Japanese children with acute wheezing illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda Masahiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies strongly suggest that some respiratory viruses are associated with the induction of acute wheezing and/or exacerbation of bronchial asthma. However, molecular epidemiology of these viruses is not exactly known. Methods Using PCR technology, we attempted to detect various respiratory viruses from 115 Japanese children. Furthermore, the detected viruses were subjected to homology, pairwise distance, and phylogenetic analysis. Results Viruses were detected from 99 (86.1% patients. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV alone and human rhinovirus (HRV alone were detected in 47 (40.9% and 36 (31.3% patients, respectively. Both RSV and HRV were detected in 14 (12.2% patients. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV alone and human parainfluenza virus (HPIV alone were detected in 1 (0.9% patient each, respectively. Homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that the RSV and HRV strains were classified into genetically diverse species or subgroups. In addition, RSV was the dominant virus detected in patients with no history of wheezing, whereas HRV was dominant in patients with a history of wheezing. Conclusions The results suggested that these genetically diverse respiratory viruses, especially RSV and HRV, might be associated with wheezing in Japanese children.

  3. Risk factors and molecular characterization of acute sporadic symptomatic hepatitis E virus infection in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kittiyod Poovorawan; Salyavit Jitmitrapab; Sombat Treeprasertsuk; Thanunrat Thongmee; Apiradee Theamboonlers; Pisit Tangkijvanich; Piyawat Komolmit; Yong Poovorawan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To report clinical outcomes and viral genotypes of acute symptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection inThailand.Methods:Forty patients with acute symptomaticHEV infection were recruited during2009-2013.Clinical, demographic and laboratory data were collected.Diagnosis was accomplished by detection of anti-HEVIgM and/orHEVRNA in the serum or stool.HEV genotypes were classified by direct sequencing ofRT-PCRproducts and phylogenetic analysis. Results:The high risk group, comprising immune-compromised, liver cirrhosis and very elderly (>80 years) patients(17 cases), had higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase at presentation compared with the low risk group.Two fatal cases resulted from acute hepatitisE in the high risk group.Initial clinical presentation did not show statistically significant differences.In six cases (6/40), the virus could be detected in serum or stool byRT-PCR and sequencing.Upon molecular characterization, the viruses were classified asHEV genotype3f and were in the same cluster as Thai swineHEV.Conclusions:Our data showed that acuteHEV infection has various clinical presentations and outcomes.Higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase were observed in high risk patients.All isolated viruses were identified asHEV genotype3f possibly originating from swine.

  4. Knowledge of Acute Human Immnuodeficiency Virus Infection among Gay and Bisexual Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Benjamin; Chan, Philip A.; Operario, Don

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in at-risk college men who have sex with men (MSM), focusing on knowledge about acute HIV infection (AHI). Participants and Methods: A one-time anonymous survey was administered to college students attending a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  5. Viruses and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations - A GA2LEN-DARE* systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulos, N. G.; Christodoulou, I.; Rohde, G.; Agache, I.; Almqvist, C.; Bruno, A.; Bonini, S.; Bont, L.; Bossios, A.; Bousquet, J.; Braido, F.; Brusselle, G.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Chanez, P.; Fokkens, W. J.; Garcia-Garcia, M.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Haahtela, T.; Holgate, S. T.; Johnston, S. L.; Konstantinou, G.; Kowalski, M.; Lewandowska-Polak, A.; Lodrup-Carlsen, K.; Makela, M.; Malkusova, I.; Mullol, J.; Nieto, A.; Eller, E.; Ozdemir, C.; Panzner, P.; Popov, T.; Psarras, S.; Roumpedaki, E.; Rukhadze, M.; Stipic-Markovic, A.; Bom, A. Todo; Toskala, E.; van Cauwenberge, P.; van Drunen, C.; Watelet, J. B.; Xatzipsalti, M.; Xepapadaki, P.; Zuberbier, T.

    P>A major part of the burden of asthma is caused by acute exacerbations. Exacerbations have been strongly and consistently associated with respiratory infections. Respiratory viruses and bacteria are therefore possible treatment targets. To have a reasonable estimate of the burden of disease induced

  6. Viruses and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations - A GA2LEN-DARE* systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulos, N. G.; Christodoulou, I.; Rohde, G.; Agache, I.; Almqvist, C.; Bruno, A.; Bonini, S.; Bont, L.; Bossios, A.; Bousquet, J.; Braido, F.; Brusselle, G.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Chanez, P.; Fokkens, W. J.; Garcia-Garcia, M.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Haahtela, T.; Holgate, S. T.; Johnston, S. L.; Konstantinou, G.; Kowalski, M.; Lewandowska-Polak, A.; Lodrup-Carlsen, K.; Makela, M.; Malkusova, I.; Mullol, J.; Nieto, A.; Eller, E.; Ozdemir, C.; Panzner, P.; Popov, T.; Psarras, S.; Roumpedaki, E.; Rukhadze, M.; Stipic-Markovic, A.; Bom, A. Todo; Toskala, E.; van Cauwenberge, P.; van Drunen, C.; Watelet, J. B.; Xatzipsalti, M.; Xepapadaki, P.; Zuberbier, T.

    2011-01-01

    P>A major part of the burden of asthma is caused by acute exacerbations. Exacerbations have been strongly and consistently associated with respiratory infections. Respiratory viruses and bacteria are therefore possible treatment targets. To have a reasonable estimate of the burden of disease induced

  7. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...

  8. Respiratory virus infection as a cause of prolonged symptoms in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, M; Ziegler, T; Ruuskanen, O

    1990-05-01

    We studied respiratory viruses in 22 children with acute otitis media who had failed to improve after at least 48 hours of antimicrobial therapy. The mean duration of preenrollment antimicrobial therapy was 4.8 days. For comparison we studied 66 children with newly diagnosed acute otitis media. Respiratory viruses were isolated from middle ear fluid or from the nasopharynx, or both, significantly more often in the patients unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy than in the comparison patients (68% vs 41%, p less than 0.05). Viruses were recovered from the middle ear fluid in 32% of the study patients and from 15% of the comparison group. Bacteria were isolated from the middle ear fluid of four (18%) children in the study group; one child had an isolate resistant to initial antimicrobial therapy. All four children with bacteria in the middle ear fluid had evidence of concomitant respiratory virus infection. Our results indicate that respiratory virus infection is often present in patients with acute otitis media unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy, and may explain the prolongation of symptoms of infection. Resistant bacteria seem to be a less common cause of failure of the initial treatment.

  9. 深圳市2004-2010年急性弛缓性麻痹病例监测分析及监测系统评价%Monitoring analysis and evaluation on the acute flaccid paralysis from 2004 to 2010 in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫红; 黄芳; 单芙香

    2013-01-01

    Objective To further do the monitoring work of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases,so as to secure the achievements of polio-free.Methods All of AFP cases of Shenzhen from 2004 to 2010 were analyzed by the descriptive epidemiological method,and the monitoring system was evaluated.Results A total of 134 AFP cases from 2004 to 2010 in Shenzhen were reported,and the reported incidence of AFP cases was from 1.09/100 000 to 4.2/100 000.All the surveillance indicators reached the requirements.Among the 134 cases,there was no wild poliovirus virus case and VAPP case.One case of type Ⅰ vaccine strain (0.75%),seven cases of type Ⅱ vaccine strains (5.22%),two cases of type Ⅲ vaccine strains (1.49%),13 cases of nonpolio enterovirus (9.70%) were isolated from the 134 cases.There were 7 cases with no history of immune,accounting for 5.22%.2 cases were lost to follow-up,accounting for 1.49%.Conclusions Doing well the routine immune vaccination and collecting the samples of AFP first diagnosed report cases and qualified fecal specimens,and continuing to maintain the sensitivity of AFP surveillance system are important in non-poliomyelitis confirmation period.%目的 进一步做好急性迟缓性麻痹(acute flaccid paralysis,AFP)监测,巩固无脊髓灰质炎成果.方法 运用描述性流行病学方法对深圳市2004-2010年AFP监测病例进行分析,同时对该监测系统进行评价.结果 深圳市2004-2010年共报告AFP病例134例,AFP病例报告发病率在1.09/10万~4.2/10万范围,AFP监测系统各项指标均达到国家监测方案的要求.134例中确诊脊灰野病毒0例、vapp病例0例,分离到Ⅰ型疫苗株1例(0.75%)、Ⅱ型疫苗株7例(5.22%)、Ⅲ型疫苗株2例(1.49%)、非脊灰肠道病毒13例(9.70%).报告的134例病例中,无免疫史7例,占5.22%,失访2例,占1.49%.结论 做好脊灰疫苗的常规免疫和AFP病例首诊报告及合格便标本的采集、继续保持AFP病例监测系统的敏感性

  10. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus as causes of acute viral hepatitis in North India: a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P; Prakash, S; Gupta, S; Singh, K P; Shrivastava, S; Singh, D D; Singh, J; Jain, A

    2013-01-01

    Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) as causes of AVH in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Blood samples and clinical information was collected from cases of AVH referred to the Grade I viral diagnostic laboratory over a 1-year period. Samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV total antibodies, anti-HAV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and anti-HEV IgM by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PCR for nucleic acid detection of HBV and HCV was also carried out. Those positive for HBV infection were tested for anti-HDV antibodies. Fisher's exact test was used and a P hepatitis cases, 62 (23.22%) patients presented as acute hepatic failure. HAV (26.96%) was identified as the most common cause of acute hepatitis followed by HEV (17.97%), HBV (16.10%) and HCV (11.98%). Co-infections with more than one virus were present in 34 cases; HAV-HEV co-infection being the most common. HEV was the most important cause of acute hepatic failure followed by co-infection with HAV and HEV. An indication towards epidemiological shift of HAV infection from children to adults with a rise in HAV prevalence was seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report indicating epidemiological shift of HAV in Uttar Pradesh.

  11. Effects of acute respiratory virus infection upon tracheal mucous transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrard, C.S.; Levandowski, R.A.; Gerrity, T.R.; Yeates, D.B.; Klein, E.

    Tracheal mucous velocity was measured in 13 healthy non-smokers using an aerosol labelled with /sup 99m/Tc and a multidetector probe during respiratory virus infections. The movement of boluses of tracheal mucous were either absent or reduced in number in five subjects with myxovirus infection (four influenza and one respiratory syncytial virus) within 48 hr of the onset of symptoms and in four subjects 1 wk later. One subject with influenza still had reduced bolus formation 12-16 wk after infection. Frequent coughing was a feature of those subjects with absent tracheal boluses. In contrast, four subjects with rhinovirus infection had normal tracheal mucous velocity at 48 hr after the onset of symptoms (4.1 +/- 1.3 mm/min). Tracheal mucous velocity was also normal (4.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min) in four subjects in whom no specific viral agent could be defined but had typical symptomatology of respiratory viral infection. During health tracheal mucous velocity was normal (4.8 +/- 1.6 mm/min) in the eleven subjects who had measurements made. Disturbances in tracheal mucous transport during virus infection appear to depend upon the type of virus and are most severe in influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus infection.

  12. Sleep paralysis as spiritual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufford, David J

    2005-03-01

    This article presents an overview of the sleep paralysis experience from both a cultural and a historical perspective. The robust, complex phenomenological pattern that represents the subjective experience of sleep paralysis is documented and illustrated. Examples are given showing that, for a majority of subjects, sleep paralysis is taken to be a kind of spiritual experience. This is, in part, because of the very common perception of a non-physical 'threatening presence' that is part of the event. Examples from various cultures, including mainstream contemporary America which has no widely known tradition about sleep paralysis, are used to show that the complex pattern and spiritual interpretation are not dependent on cultural models or prior learning. This is dramatically contrary to conventional explanations of apparently 'direct' spiritual experiences, explanations that are summed up as the 'Cultural Source Hypothesis.' This aspect of sleep paralysis was not recognized through most of the twentieth century. The article examines the way that conventional modern views of spiritual experience, combined with medical ideas that labeled 'direct' spiritual experiences as psychopathological, and mainstream religious views of such experiences as heretical if not pathological, suppressed the report and discussion of these experiences in modern society. These views have resulted in confusion in the scientific literature on sleep paralysis with regard to its prevalence and core features. The article also places sleep paralysis in the context of other 'direct' spiritual experiences and offers an 'Experiential Theory' of cross-culturally distributed spiritual experiences.

  13. Respiratory picornaviruses and respiratory syncytial virus as causative agents of acute expiratory wheezing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jartti, Tuomas; Lehtinen, Pasi; Vuorinen, Tytti; Osterback, Riika; van den Hoogen, Bernadette; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Ruuskanen, Olli

    2004-06-01

    We studied the viral etiology of acute expiratory wheezing (bronchiolitis, acute asthma) in 293 hospitalized children in a 2-year prospective study in Finland. A potential causative viral agent was detected in 88% of the cases. Eleven different viruses were represented. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (27%), enteroviruses (25%), rhinovirus (24%), and nontypable rhino/enterovirus (16%) were found most frequently. In infants, RSV was found in 54% and respiratory picornaviruses (rhinovirus and enteroviruses) in 42% of the cases. In older children, respiratory picornaviruses dominated (65% of children ages 1-2 years and 82% of children ages > or =3 years). Human metapneumovirus was detected in 4% of all children and in 11% of infants. To prevent and treat acute expiratory wheezing illnesses in children, efforts should be focused on RSV, enterovirus, and rhinovirus infections.

  14. Etiologic and therapeutic analysis in patients with hypokalemic nonperiodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chih-Chien; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Chiang, Wen-Fang; Chau, Tom; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Yang, Sung-Sen; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Hypokalemic nonperiodic paralysis represents a group of heterogeneous disorders with a large potassium (K(+)) deficit. Rapid diagnosis of curable causes with appropriate treatment is challenging to avoid the sequelae of hypokalemia. We prospectively analyzed the etiologies and therapeutic characteristics of hypokalemic nonperiodic paralysis. Over an 8-year period, patients with hypokalemic nonperiodic paralysis were enrolled by excluding those with hypokalemic periodic paralysis due to acute shift of K(+) into cells. Blood and spot urine samples were collected for the measurements of electrolytes, pH, and biochemistries. Intravenous potassium chloride (KCl) at a rate of 10-20 mmol/h was administered until muscle strength recovered. We had identified 58 patients with hypokalemic nonperiodic paralysis from 208 consecutive patients with hypokalemic paralysis, and their average K(+) concentration was 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L. Among patients with low urinary K(+) excretion (n = 17), chronic alcoholism, remote diuretic use, and anorexia/bulimia nervosa were the most common causes. Among patients with high urinary K(+) excretion (n = 41) and metabolic acidosis, renal tubular acidosis and chronic toluene abuse were the main causes, while primary aldosteronism, Gitelman syndrome, and diuretics were the leading diagnoses with metabolic alkalosis. The average KCl dose needed to restore muscle strength was 3.8 ± 0.8 mmol/kg. Initial lower plasma K(+), volume depletion, and high urinary K(+) excretion were associated with higher recovery KCl dosage. During therapy, patients with paradoxical hypokalemia (n = 32) who required more KCl supplementation than patients without (4.1 ± 0.7 vs 3.4 ± 0.7 mmol/kg, P hypokalemic nonperiodic paralysis may aid in early diagnosis. Patients with initial lower plasma K(+), renal K(+) wasting, and hypovolemia required higher recovery K(+) dosage. Paradoxical hypokalemia is prone to develop in hypovolemic patients even during K(+) supplementation with

  15. Role of viruses in the pathogenesis of acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, T

    2000-05-01

    To date there is ample evidence suggesting a crucial role for respiratory viruses in the pathogenesis of AOM. Respiratory viral infection appears to initiate the cascade of events that finally leads to development of AOM (Fig. 1). The pathogenesis of AOM is complicated, involving a network of factors, some probably not yet identified, which affect each other in a time-dependent manner. Increased knowledge of the detailed mechanisms of viral infection, the host inflammatory response during URI and the interaction between viruses and bacteria could lead to major advances in the prevention of AOM.

  16. MR features in patients with residual paralysis following aseptic meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Dae Chul; Park, Young Seo [College of Medicine, Asan Meidcal Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-01-15

    MR studies were performed in three patients with paralysis in the lower extremities. Poliomyelitis-like paralysis can be caused by neurovirulent strains of nonpolioenteroviruses. Entervirus 71 (EV 71) is documented as one of the potentially neurovirulent strains and a causative agent of some epidemics (1-7). The clinical manifestations associated with the EV 71 infection include aseptic meningitis, hand-food-mouth disease (HFMD), acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal disease(6). Although rarely fatal, flaccidparalysis can be followed by EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis. Anterior horn cell necrosis was suggested on MR in two patients with residual paralysis (7). MR features, however, have not yet been described in detail. In this report we present three cases of patients with clinical evidence of EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis whose MR studies showed residual changes in spinal cord.

  17. A Case of Hypokalemic Paralysis in a Patient With Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Frederic N.; Kar, Jitesh K.; Verduzco-Gutierrez, Monica; Zakaria, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Acute hypokalemic paralysis is characterized by muscle weakness or paralysis secondary to low serum potassium levels. Neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition where the patient excretes large volume of dilute urine due to low levels of antidiuretic hormone. Here, we describe a patient with neurogenic DI who developed hypokalemic paralysis without a prior history of periodic paralysis. A 30-year-old right-handed Hispanic male was admitted for refractory seizures and acute DI after developing a dental abscess. He had a history of pituitary adenoma resection at the age of 13 with subsequent pan-hypopituitarism and was noncompliant with hormonal supplementation. On hospital day 3, he developed sudden onset of quadriplegia with motor strength of 0 of 5 in the upper extremities bilaterally and 1 of 5 in both lower extremities with absent deep tendon reflexes. His routine laboratory studies revealed severe hypokalemia of 1.6 mEq/dL. Nerve Conduction Study (NCS) revealed absent compound motor action potentials (CMAPs) with normal sensory potentials. Electromyography (EMG) did not reveal any abnormal insertional or spontaneous activity. He regained full strength within 36 hours following aggressive correction of the hypokalemia. Repeat NCS showed return of CMAPs in all nerves tested and EMG revealed normal motor units and normal recruitment without myotonic discharges. In patients with central DI with polyuria, hypokalemia can result in sudden paralysis. Hypokalemic paralysis remains an important differential in an acute case of paralysis and early recognition and appropriate management is key. PMID:24707338

  18. Evaluation of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Cases Surveillance System During 2006-2011 in A City%某市2006~2011年急性弛缓性麻痹病例的监测系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence of acute flaccid paralysis(AFP)in Zhoukou. Explore the measures of AFP surveillance after the elimination of poliomyelitis. Methods To study the performance of monitoring system of Acute Flaccid Paralysis(AFP)in Zhoukou during 2006~2011, provide scientific evidence for improving the report quality of monitoring system. Results During2006~2011, 353 AFP cases were reported in Zhoukou City, no wild poliovirus was detected. These AFP cases were distributed in 10 countries. The age of AFP cases was mainly 0-4years old, accounting for 77.34%, higher incidence in male than in female, the rate is 2.84∶1.All AFP cases were discarded poliomyelitis cases by the diagnoses group of Henan Province. The rate of Guillan Barre syndrome (GBS)in these cases was 36.26%.The reported incidence of non—polio AFP cases of children under15 years old has been over 1/100000 since 2003.Other indexes have been above 80%.Conclusion The performance of monitoring system of AFP in Zhoukou city is well.The system reports Cases sensitively-duly and accurately.The quality of reports enhances continuously.But some problems remain to be improved further.%  目的了解周口市急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)发病情况,探讨消灭脊灰后AFP监测工作措施。方法对周口市2006~2011年AFP病例监测资料进行流行病学分析,并对AFP病例监测系统进行评价。结果2006~2011年全市共报告AFP病例353例,未发现脊灰野病毒引起的病例。病例分布在全市10个县(区),发病以0~4岁儿童为主,占77.34%;男性发病多于女性,男女比例2.84∶l;所有监测病例经河南省专家诊断组诊断均为排除脊灰病例,格林巴利综合征最多,占36.26%。自2006年起,15岁以下儿童非脊灰AFP病例报告发病率均>l/10万,各项主要监测指标均达到了卫生部规定的80%的要求。结论周口市AFP监测系统运转正常,系统报告敏感、及时、准确

  19. 针刺治疗急性期贝尔麻痹有效性与安全性的系统评价%Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety of Acupuncture for Acute Bell's Facial Paralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐; 李素荷; 曾侠一

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for acute Bell's facial paralysis. Methods The articles on relevant randomized controlled trials of acupuncture for acute Bell's facial paralysis were searched in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedicine Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) and VIP database. The risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane reviews handbook 5. 0 and the efficacy was analyzed based on meta-analysis with Review Manage 5.0 software. Results Totally 17 articles and 1564 cases were included. The articles existed a high risk of bias with low quality. There was no significant difference in efficacy between acupuncture and western medicine (RR=1.16, 95%CI[0. 93, 1.45], 2=1. 28, P = 0. 20>0. 05). The efficacy of acupuncture combined with western medicine was superior to that of simple western medicine (RR=1. 25, 95%CI[1.08, 1. 46] , 2=2. 91, P = 0. 004<0. 05). The efficacy of acupuncture was superior to that of TDP irradiation (RR=1. 67, 95%CI [1. 21, 2. 31], 2=3. 15, P = 0. 002<0. 05). No reports on side-effect were described in 17 articles. Conclusion As a safe and effective therapy, acupuncutre should be applied in treatment of Bell's facial paralysis in acute stage, and combination of acupuncture and western medicine may improve the efficacy. More high-quality evidences are needed.%目的 对针刺治疗急性期贝尔麻痹临床随机对照试验进行方法学质量评价及有效性、安全性评价. 方法 计算机检索Cochrane图书馆、MEDLINE、EMBASE、中国生物医学文献数据库、中国学术期刊全文数据库、中文科技期刊全文数据库,手工检索广州中医药大学图书馆期刊资料库,筛选符合纳入标准的针刺治疗急性期贝尔麻痹随机对照试验文献,用Cochrane reviews handbook 5.0对文献进行偏倚风险评估,疗效评价采用Review Manage 5.0软件进行Meta分析. 结果 最终纳入17项研究,共1564例患者,偏倚风险

  20. West Nile virus and "poliomyelitis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejvar, James J

    2004-07-27

    West Nile virus (WNV) has recently been associated with a syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis. Most cases of WNV-associated weakness have clinical, histopathologic, and electrophysiologic characteristics indistinguishable from those of poliomyelitis caused by infection with poliovirus. There is debate about the nomenclature of this manifestation of WNV infection. An historical perspective of the term "poliomyelitis" suggests that the term "WNV poliomyelitis" seems appropriate, but members of the neurologic and infectious disease communities should engage in discussion regarding the terminology of this syndrome.

  1. [Clinical observation on the principle of "single usage of acupoints of Shaoyang meridian" for treatment of facial paralysis in acute stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Te-Li; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yan

    2010-06-01

    To compare different therapeutic effects between single usage of acupoints of Shaoyang meridian and the routine ones for treatment of Bell palsy in acute stage. One hundred and twenty cases with Bell palsy during the first three days were random divided into an observation group and a control group, 60 cases in each group. In observation group, acupoints of Shaoyang meridians were used from the 3rd day till the 14th day, Fengchi (GB 20), Yifeng (TE 17), Wangu (GB 12) at the affected side etc. were selected, after the 15th day, the routine acupoints were applied, Hegu (LI 4) on both sides, Fengchi (GB 20), Quchi (LI 11), Yangbai (GB 14) at the affected side etc. were selected; the control group were treated with the same acupoints as the routine ones in observation group since the 3rd day. And both two groups were treated with oral administration of Prednisone. House-Brackmann (H-B) functional grading of facial nerve on the 3rd day with the one of the 60th day as well as electroneurography (ENoG) on the 3rd day with the one of the 14th day were compared respectively. The H-B grading improvement and cured rate were 95.0% (57/60) in observation group, which were suprior to 83.3% (50/60) in control group; the cured time in observation group was (34.21 +/- 8.026) days, significantly shorter than (42.78 +/- 9.029) days in control group (P < 0.05). On the basis of oral administration of Prednisone, single usage of acupoints of Shaoyang meridian in acute stage can make great improvement for recovery of Bell palsy, better than routine point selection.

  2. Inuit interpretations of sleep paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Samuel; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2005-03-01

    Traditional and contemporary Inuit concepts of sleep paralysis were investigated through interviews with elders and young people in Iqaluit, Baffin Island. Sleep paralysis was readily recognized by most respondents and termed uqumangirniq (in the Baffin region) or aqtuqsinniq (Kivalliq region). Traditional interpretations of uqumangirniq referred to a shamanistic cosmology in which the individual's soul was vulnerable during sleep and dreaming. Sleep paralysis could result from attack by shamans or malevolent spirits. Understanding the experience as a manifestation of supernatural power, beyond one's control, served to reinforce the experiential reality and presence of the spirit world. For contemporary youth, sleep paralysis was interpreted in terms of multiple frameworks that incorporated personal, medical, mystical, traditional/shamanistic, and Christian views, reflecting the dynamic social changes taking place in this region.

  3. The Phenomenon of Sleep Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of sleep where vivid dreams occur (known as REM sleep), your arms and legs are temporarily paralyzed so ... alien abductions." Since breathing can be irregular during REM sleep, those experiencing sleep paralysis may feel like they' ...

  4. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus envelope protein ion channel activity promotes virus fitness and pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L Nieto-Torres

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Deletion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV envelope (E gene attenuates the virus. E gene encodes a small multifunctional protein that possesses ion channel (IC activity, an important function in virus-host interaction. To test the contribution of E protein IC activity in virus pathogenesis, two recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs, each containing one single amino acid mutation that suppressed ion conductivity, were engineered. After serial infections, mutant viruses, in general, incorporated compensatory mutations within E gene that rendered active ion channels. Furthermore, IC activity conferred better fitness in competition assays, suggesting that ion conductivity represents an advantage for the virus. Interestingly, mice infected with viruses displaying E protein IC activity, either with the wild-type E protein sequence or with the revertants that restored ion transport, rapidly lost weight and died. In contrast, mice infected with mutants lacking IC activity, which did not incorporate mutations within E gene during the experiment, recovered from disease and most survived. Knocking down E protein IC activity did not significantly affect virus growth in infected mice but decreased edema accumulation, the major determinant of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS leading to death. Reduced edema correlated with lung epithelia integrity and proper localization of Na+/K+ ATPase, which participates in edema resolution. Levels of inflammasome-activated IL-1β were reduced in the lung airways of the animals infected with viruses lacking E protein IC activity, indicating that E protein IC function is required for inflammasome activation. Reduction of IL-1β was accompanied by diminished amounts of TNF and IL-6 in the absence of E protein ion conductivity. All these key cytokines promote the progression of lung damage and ARDS pathology. In conclusion, E protein IC activity represents a new determinant for SARS

  5. Epidemiological analysis of acute diarrhea in children and inspection of pathogenic bacterium, viruses and other microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hu; Yan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate of epidemiological analysis of acute diarrhea in children, and to discuss the inspection of pathogenic bacterium, viruses and other microorganisms, in order to provide theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of the disease.Methods: Five hundred and sixty-two cases of children with acute diarrhea treated in our center were selected as the research subjects, whose epidemiological data were analyzed. The fecal samples were collected for bacterial culture and identification, and the distribution characteristics of pathogenic bacteria were collected, then their relative characteristics were analyzed.Results:Children with acute diarrhea were more common in men aged 1-2 years old,and the incidence of time was more concentrated in June-August. There were four hundred and eighty-nine strains in the five hundred and sixty-two cases of children, among which the rate of viruses was the most, and the human rotavirus accounted for 30.67%, and the Shigella bacterium accounted for 20.65% in the total microorganisms, which was the highest detection rate of pathogenic bacterium. Rotavirus infection occured mainly in Winter, but the bacterial and goblet viral diarrhea was prevalent in summer.Conclusions:Children with acute diarrhea were more common in men aged 1-2 years old , and the rate of viruses in the detection of microorganisms is the highest, so targeted treatment should be taken according to the type of infection.

  6. Microbiology of acute otitis media in children with tympanostomy tubes: prevalences of bacteria and viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohola, Aino; Meurman, Olli; Nikkari, Simo; Skottman, Tuukka; Salmi, Aimo; Waris, Matti; Osterback, Riikka; Eerola, Erkki; Allander, Tobias; Niesters, Hubert; Heikkinen, Terho; Ruuskanen, Olli

    2006-12-01

    Bacteria are found in 50%-90% of cases of acute otitis media (AOM) with or without otorrhea, and viruses are found in 20%-49% of cases. However, for at least 15% of patients with AOM, the microbiological etiology is never determined. Our aim was to specify the full etiology of acute middle ear infection by using modern microbiological methods concomitantly for bacterial and viral detection. The subjects were 79 young children having AOM with new onset (Bacteria were sought by culture and polymerase chain reaction; viruses were analyzed by culture, antigen detection, and polymerase chain reaction. At least 1 respiratory tract pathogen was noted in 76 children (96%). Bacteria were found in 73 cases (92%), and viruses were found in 55 (70%). In 52 patients (66%), both bacteria and viruses were found. Bacteria typical of AOM were detected in 86% of patients. Picornaviruses accounted for 60% of all viral findings. In the great majority of children, AOM is a coinfection with bacteria and viruses. The patent tympanostomy tube does not change the spectrum of causative agents in AOM. A microbiological etiology can be established in practically all cases.

  7. Transient muscle paralysis degrades bone via rapid osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliprantis, Antonios O; Stolina, Marina; Kostenuik, Paul J; Poliachik, Sandra L; Warner, Sarah E; Bain, Steven D; Gross, Ted S

    2012-03-01

    A unilateral injection of botulinum toxin A (BTxA) in the calf induces paralysis and profound loss of ipsalateral trabecular bone within days. However, the cellular mechanism underlying acute muscle paralysis-induced bone loss (MPIBL) is poorly understood. We hypothesized that MPIBL arises via rapid and extensive osteoclastogenesis. We performed a series of in vivo experiments to explore this thesis. First, we observed elevated levels of the proosteoclastogenic cytokine receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) within the proximal tibia metaphysis at 7 d after muscle paralysis (+113%, Pparalysis (P=0.04) and MPIBL was completely blocked by treatment with human recombinant osteoprotegerin (hrOPG). Further, conditional deletion of nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 (NFATc1), the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis, completely inhibited trabecular bone loss (-2.2±11.9%, Pparalysis induced acute RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis resulting in profound local bone resorption. Elucidation of the pathways that initiate osteoclastogenesis after paralysis may identify novel targets to inhibit bone loss and prevent fractures.

  8. Surveillance on Acute Flaccid Paralysis Cases in Xuchang from 2010 to 2011%许昌市2010-2011年急性弛缓性麻痹病例监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑惠平; 张丹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the working status of surveillance system of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Xuchang City, to analyze the problems occurred in the monitoring so as to provide a scientific basis for AFP prevention and control. Methods The epidemiological methods were applied to analyze the monitoring data about AFP cases collected in Xuchang from 2010 to 2011. Results There were 65 cases of AFP reported during the period of 2010-2011. The reported incidence rates of cases under 15 years occurred in 2010 and 2011 were 3. 75/100,000 and 4. 37/100,000, respectively. 1 case was found without any immune history and the unknown history cases accounted for 2 of all 65 cases. The 48 - hour survey rate of the incidence was 100% . The two - specimen - collection rate within 14 days and the collection rate of qualified specimen were both 76.9% . The specimen delivery rate within 7 days was 93.8% . The timely follow- up rate of paralysis within 75 days was 93.8% . Conclusions The surveillance system of AFP generally runs well, but there is still room for improvement. AFP cases without any immune history or with the unknown history still occur in Xuchang, it is necessary to reinforce the prophylactic immunization and management.%目的 了解许昌市急性弛缓性麻痹病例(AFP)监测系统运转状况,剖析监测中存在的问题,为脊灰防控提供科学依据.方法 对许昌市2010-2011年AFP病例监测资料进行流行病学分析.结果 许昌市2010-2011年共报告AFP病例65例,<15岁AFP病例报告发病率分别为3.75/10万、4.37/10万;0剂次免疫者1例,免疫史不详者2例;报告后48 h调查率100%;14 d内双份便采集率76.9%,合格便采集率76.9%;粪便标本7d内送达率100%;麻痹75 d内随访及时率93.8%.结论 AFP监测体系整体运行良好,但存在需改进的地方,0剂次接种和免疫史不详病例仍有发生,需进一步强化预防接种与管理.

  9. Clinical and biochemical spectrum of hypokalemic paralysis in North: East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Kayal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute hypokalemic paralysis, characterized by acute flaccid paralysis is primarily a calcium channelopathy, but secondary causes like renal tubular acidosis (RTA, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP, primary hyperaldosteronism, Gitelman′s syndrome are also frequent. Objective: To study the etiology, varied presentations, and outcome after therapy of patients with hypokalemic paralysis. Materials And Methods: All patients who presented with acute flaccid paralysis with hypokalemia from October 2009 to September 2011 were included in the study. A detailed physical examination and laboratory tests including serum electrolytes, serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK, urine analysis, arterial blood gas analysis, thyroid hormones estimation, and electrocardiogram were carried out. Patients were further investigated for any secondary causes and treated with potassium supplementation. Result: The study included 56 patients aged 15-92 years (mean 36.76 ± 13.72, including 15 female patients. Twenty-four patients had hypokalemic paralysis due to secondary cause, which included 4 with distal RTA, 4 with Gitelman syndrome, 3 with TPP, 2 each with hypothyroidism, gastroenteritis, and Liddle′s syndrome, 1 primary hyperaldosteronism, 3 with alcoholism, and 1 with dengue fever. Two female patients were antinuclear antibody-positive. Eleven patient had atypical presentation (neck muscle weakness in 4, bladder involvement in 3, 1 each with finger drop and foot drop, tetany in 1, and calf hypertrophy in 1, and 2 patient had respiratory paralysis. Five patients had positive family history of similar illness. All patients improved dramatically with potassium supplementation. Conclusion: A high percentage (42.9% of secondary cause for hypokalemic paralysis warrants that the underlying cause must be adequately addressed to prevent the persistence or recurrence of paralysis.

  10. Clinical and biochemical spectrum of hypokalemic paralysis in North: East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, Ashok K.; Goswami, Munindra; Das, Marami; Jain, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute hypokalemic paralysis, characterized by acute flaccid paralysis is primarily a calcium channelopathy, but secondary causes like renal tubular acidosis (RTA), thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP), primary hyperaldosteronism, Gitelman’s syndrome are also frequent. Objective: To study the etiology, varied presentations, and outcome after therapy of patients with hypokalemic paralysis. Materials And Methods: All patients who presented with acute flaccid paralysis with hypokalemia from October 2009 to September 2011 were included in the study. A detailed physical examination and laboratory tests including serum electrolytes, serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK), urine analysis, arterial blood gas analysis, thyroid hormones estimation, and electrocardiogram were carried out. Patients were further investigated for any secondary causes and treated with potassium supplementation. Result: The study included 56 patients aged 15-92 years (mean 36.76 ± 13.72), including 15 female patients. Twenty-four patients had hypokalemic paralysis due to secondary cause, which included 4 with distal RTA, 4 with Gitelman syndrome, 3 with TPP, 2 each with hypothyroidism, gastroenteritis, and Liddle’s syndrome, 1 primary hyperaldosteronism, 3 with alcoholism, and 1 with dengue fever. Two female patients were antinuclear antibody-positive. Eleven patient had atypical presentation (neck muscle weakness in 4, bladder involvement in 3, 1 each with finger drop and foot drop, tetany in 1, and calf hypertrophy in 1), and 2 patient had respiratory paralysis. Five patients had positive family history of similar illness. All patients improved dramatically with potassium supplementation. Conclusion: A high percentage (42.9%) of secondary cause for hypokalemic paralysis warrants that the underlying cause must be adequately addressed to prevent the persistence or recurrence of paralysis. PMID:23956566

  11. West Nile Virus Encephalitis: The First Human Case Recorded in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcelo A. C. S.; Romano, Alessandro P. M.; Borba, Amaríles S.; Silva, Eliana V. P.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Eulálio, Kelsen D.; Azevedo, Raimunda S. S.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Almeida-Neto, Walfrido S.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.

    2015-01-01

    A Brazilian ranch worker with encephalitis and flaccid paralysis was evaluated in the regional Acute Encephalitis Syndromic Surveillance Program. This was the first Brazilian patient who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmation criteria for West Nile virus disease. Owing to the overlapping of neurological manifestations attributable to several viral infections of the central nervous system, this report exemplifies the importance of human acute encephalitis surveillance. The syndromic approach to human encephalitis cases may enable early detection of the introduction of unusual virus or endemic occurrence of potentially alarming diseases within a region. PMID:26055749

  12. Chikungunya Virus Infection and Acute Elevation of Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Derval Aiken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A man with prostate cancer on a regime of active surveillance had a laboratory-confirmed acute Chikungunya virus infection. The patient experienced a sudden increase in serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA during the acute illness that caused him anxiety and confounded interpretation of the PSA test. Six weeks after the onset of Chikungunya Fever symptoms, the elevated serum PSA returned to baseline. The association of Chikungunya Fever and elevated serum PSA may result in misinterpretation of the PSA test, triggering unnecessary prostate biopsy or other management errors.

  13. A case of acute acalculous cholecystitis complicated by primary Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kenichi; Shono, Miki; Goji, Aya; Matsuura, Sato; Inoue, Miki; Kawahito, Masami; Mori, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a rare complication of infectious mononucleosis (IM). An immunocompetent 6-year-old Japanese girl complained of epigastralgia during the course of IM. Ultrasonography (US) revealed a markedly thickened and sonolucent gallbladder wall. No gallstones were apparent. Antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) confirmed primary EBV infection. Cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M showed a false-positive result in the acute phase, probably due to cross-reaction to EBV nuclear antigen. We diagnosed her as AAC related with primary EBV infection. She recovered completely by conservative treatment. US should be performed in consideration of the possibility of AAC when a patient with IM complains of epigastralgia.

  14. Lower virus infections in Varroa destructor-infested and uninfested brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) of a low mite population growth colony compared to a high mite population growth colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsen, Berna; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Goodwin, Paul H; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    A comparison was made of the prevalence and relative quantification of deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and sac brood virus (SBV) in brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) from colonies selected for high (HMP) and low (LMP) Varroa destructor mite population growth. Two viruses, ABPV and SBV, were never detected. For adults without mite infestation, DWV, IAPV, BQCV and KBV were detected in the HMP colony; however, only BQCV was detected in the LMP colony but at similar levels as in the HMP colony. With mite infestation, the four viruses were detected in adults of the HMP colony but all at higher amounts than in the LMP colony. For brood without mite infestation, DWV and IAPV were detected in the HMP colony, but no viruses were detected in the LMP colony. With mite infestation of brood, the four viruses were detected in the HMP colony, but only DWV and IAPV were detected and at lower amounts in the LMP colony. An epidemiological explanation for these results is that pre-experiment differences in virus presence and levels existed between the HMP and LMP colonies. It is also possible that low V. destructor population growth in the LMP colony resulted in the bees being less exposed to the mite and thus less likely to have virus infections. LMP and HMP bees may have also differed in susceptibility to virus infection.

  15. Lower virus infections in Varroa destructor-infested and uninfested brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera of a low mite population growth colony compared to a high mite population growth colony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Emsen

    Full Text Available A comparison was made of the prevalence and relative quantification of deformed wing virus (DWV, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV, black queen cell virus (BQCV, Kashmir bee virus (KBV, acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV and sac brood virus (SBV in brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera from colonies selected for high (HMP and low (LMP Varroa destructor mite population growth. Two viruses, ABPV and SBV, were never detected. For adults without mite infestation, DWV, IAPV, BQCV and KBV were detected in the HMP colony; however, only BQCV was detected in the LMP colony but at similar levels as in the HMP colony. With mite infestation, the four viruses were detected in adults of the HMP colony but all at higher amounts than in the LMP colony. For brood without mite infestation, DWV and IAPV were detected in the HMP colony, but no viruses were detected in the LMP colony. With mite infestation of brood, the four viruses were detected in the HMP colony, but only DWV and IAPV were detected and at lower amounts in the LMP colony. An epidemiological explanation for these results is that pre-experiment differences in virus presence and levels existed between the HMP and LMP colonies. It is also possible that low V. destructor population growth in the LMP colony resulted in the bees being less exposed to the mite and thus less likely to have virus infections. LMP and HMP bees may have also differed in susceptibility to virus infection.

  16. Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis in a Patient with Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: A Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Swati; Shaikh, Mohammed Aslam; Gummadi, Thejaswi

    2016-01-01

    Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis (TPP) is an uncommon disorder. Though many cases of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis are reported in overt hyperthyroidism, hypokalaemic paralysis in subclinical hyperthyroidism is very rare. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is characterised by circulating TSH levels below reference range and normal thyroid hormone levels. We describe a case of 32-year-old Asian male who presented to the emergency department with acute onset weakness and hypokalaemia with no previous history of thyroid disorder or any signs and symptoms suggestive of hyperthyroidism. He was subsequently diagnosed with Graves' disease with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  17. [Acute encephalitis. Neuropsychiatric manifestations as expression of influenza virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Flagge, Noris; Bayard, Vicente; Quirós, Evelia; Alonso, Tomás

    2009-01-01

    The aim is to review the encephalitis in infants and adolescents as well as its etiology, clinical manifestation, epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnostic methods and treatment, and the neuropsyquiatric signs appearing an influenza epidemy. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) which involves the brain. The clinical manifestations usually are: headache, fever and confusional stage. It could also be manifested as seizures, personality changes, or psiqyiatric symptoms. The clinical manifestations are related to the virus and the cell type affected in the brain. A meningitis or encephalopathy need to be ruled out. It could be present as an epidemic or isolated form, beeing this the most frequent form. It could be produced by a great variety of infections agents including virus, bacterias, fungal and parasitic. Viral causes are herpesvirus, arbovirus, rabies and enterovirus. Bacterias such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia and Mycoplasma neumoniae. Some fungal causes are: Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum. More than 100 agents are related to encephalitis. The diagnosis of encephalitis is a challenge for the clinician and its infectious etiology is clear in only 40 to 70% of all cases. The diagnosis of encephalitis can be established with absolute certainty only by the microscopic examination of brain tissue. Epidemiology is related to age of the patients, geographic area, season, weather or the host immune system. Early intervention can reduce the mortality rate and sequels. We describe four patients with encephalitis and neuropsychiatric symptoms during an influenza epidemic.

  18. Infección aguda por el VHB Acute infection by Hepatitis B Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alegre

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El espectro clínico de la infección aguda por el virus de la hepatitis B es muy amplio, con cuadros que van desde una hepatitis anictérica y subclínica a una hepatitis ictérica aguda grave e incluso, en algunos casos, a una hepatitis fulminante. El diagnóstico depende en gran medida del grado de sospecha clínica de la hepatitis, estableciéndose el origen etiológico por el virus B mediante el estudio de marcadores serológicos y/o DNA en sangre. Aunque en la mayor parte de los casos la evolución de la hepatitis aguda por virus B es favorable, con resolución espontánea de la clínica en 4-8 semanas, no es infrecuente en ciertos casos, sobre todo en la infancia, la progresión a hepatitis crónica. No existe ningún tratamiento específico para la infección aguda por virus B que reduzca su gravedad o prevenga su evolución a hepatitis crónica. Se recomienda, no obstante, el reposo relativo, y la administración de una dieta hipercalórica. En las hepatitis agudas graves debe indicarse ingreso hospitalario; en casos de hepatitis fulminante ingreso en UCI para monitorización intensiva y valoración de trasplante hepático si no se produce mejoría espontánea. En el presente artículo se revisa, de forma breve y esquemática, la clínica, el diagnóstico, el pronóstico y el tratamiento de la infección aguda por el virus de la hepatitis B.The clinical spectrum of acute hepatitis B virus infection is very broad, with clinical manifestations that range from anicteric and sub-clinical hepatitis to severe acute icteric hepatitis and even, in some cases, to fulminant hepatitis. Diagnosis depends to a large extent on the degree of clinical suspicion of hepatitis, establishing the aetiological origin of the B virus through the study of serological markers and/or DNA in the blood. Although in the majority of cases there is a favourable evolution of acute hepatitis B virus infection, with spontaneous resolution of the clinical manifestations

  19. Acute gastritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Mok; Song, Chun Woo; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) inducing a self-limiting clinical syndrome characterized by fever, sore throat, hepatosplenomegaly, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection are nonspecific and occur rarely. EBV inducing acute gastrointestinal pathology is poorly recognized without suspicion. Careful consideration is needed to diagnose gastric involvement of EBV infection including gastric lymphoma, gastric cancer, and gastritis. A few re...

  20. Feline immunodeficiency virus can be experimentally transmitted via milk during acute maternal infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Sellon, R K; Jordan, H L; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S; Tompkins, M B; Tompkins, W A

    1994-01-01

    Postnatal transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in neonates nursed by acutely infected mothers and infection resulting from oral inoculation of kittens with FIV were evaluated. Ten of 16 kittens nursed by four queens with FIV infection established immediately postpartum developed FIV infection. Five of 11 neonates orally administered cell-free FIV culture supernatant developed FIV infection. Kittens that developed FIV infection had greater proportions of CD4+ and Pan-T+ lymphocy...

  1. Infection with hepatitis A, B, C, and delta viruses among patients with acute hepatitis in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Takahashi, Masaharu; Endo, Kazunori; Buyankhuu, Osorjin; Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2006-05-01

    One hundred ten consecutive patients (60 males and 50 females; age, mean +/- standard deviation [SD], 22.6 +/- 6.4 years; range 16-48 years) who were clinically diagnosed with sporadic acute hepatitis between December 2004 and January 2005 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, were studied. IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected in 18 patients (16.4%), IgM antibodies to hepatitis B core (anti-HBc IgM) in 38 patients (34.5%) including two patients with concurrent hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection, and hepatitis C virus RNA in nine patients (8.2%). There were 30 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers who had detectable hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to HDV but were negative for anti-HBc IgM, suggesting that they acquired type D acute hepatitis due to superinfection of HDV on a background of chronic HBV infection. None had IgM antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV). Consequently, 16.4, 32.7, 6.4, 1.8, and 27.3% of the patients were diagnosed as having acute hepatitis of type A, B, C, type B + D (HBV/HDV coinfection), and type D (superinfection of HDV), respectively. The cause of hepatitis was not known in the remaining 17 patients (15.5%). All 18 HAV isolates were genotyped as IA, all 9 HCV isolates were genotyped as 1b, and all 32 HDV isolates were classified into genotype I. The distribution of HBV genotypes among the 67 HBV isolates was A (1.5%, n = 1) and D (98.5%, n = 66). The present study indicates that de novo infections of HAV, HBV, HCV, and HDV are prevalent among young adults in Mongolia. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. 青海省2000~2009年急性驰缓性麻痹病例与健康人群病原学监测%ETIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE ON ACUTE FLACCID PARALYSIS(AFP)CASES AND HEALTHY CROWDS FROM 2000 TO 2009 IN QINGHAI PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵生仓

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To provide the laboratory basis for maintaining polio-free status through the etiological surveillance of stool specimens of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and healthy crowds.[Methods]Virus isolation and identification were used, and the strains were determined by intralypic differentiation of poliovirus.[Results]1 6.13 stool specimens of AFP cases and healthy crowds were detected from 2000 to 2009 in Qinghai Province, and 22 strains of poliovirus were isolated, the isolation rate was 1.36%, including 3 strains of poliovirus type Ⅰ vaccine strain, 2 strains of poliovirus type Ⅱ vaccine strain, 9 strains of poliovirus type Ⅲ vaccine strain, 8 strains of hybrid poliovirus vaccine strain, and no wild poliovirus strain.Furthermore, 187 strains of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) were isolated, and the isolation rate was 11.59%.[Conclusion]There is no prevalence of local wild poliovirus from 2000 to 2009 in Qinghai Province, which illustrates that we block the spread of local wild poliovirus effectively, and maintain polio-free status.%[目的]分析开展急性驰缓性麻痹(AFP)病例、健康人群粪便标本病原学监测结果,为保持无脊灰状态提供实验室依据.[方法]病毒分离及鉴定,脊灰病毒株型内鉴别,确定疫苗株或野病毒株.[结果]青海省2000~2009年 AFP 病例、健康人群粪便标本1 613份,分离出脊髓灰质炎病毒22株,分离率为1.36%,其中脊灰Ⅰ型疫苗株3株,脊灰Ⅱ型疫苗株2株,脊灰Ⅲ型疫苗株9株,脊灰混合型疫苗株8株,无脊灰野病毒株.分离到非脊灰肠道病毒(NPEV)187株,分离率为11.59%.[结论]该省2000~2009年无本地脊灰野毒株病例流行,阻断了脊灰本地野病毒的传播,保持了无脊灰状态.

  3. Paralysis that easily reverses: a case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachamo, Niranjan; Lohani, Saroj; Nazir, Salik; Juliano, Noelle

    2017-01-30

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with recurrent episodes of muscle weakness and hypokalaemia due to hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis is often delayed or misdiagnosed due to its rarity in the western world and subtle features of hyperthyroidism on initial presentation. Here we present the case of a 25-year-old man who presented to the emergency department (ED) with sudden onset weakness of bilateral upper and lower extremities. His labs revealed hypokalaemia with elevated T4 and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone and he was diagnosed with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. He was treated with potassium repletion, atenolol and methimazole with complete reversal of his paralysis within the next day. Unfortunately, he failed to keep the follow-up appointment after discharge, ran out of his methimazole and landed up in the ED again. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Immune complexed (IC) hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chronically and acutely HCV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, E; Maggi, F; Abbruzzese, F; Bellomi, F; Giannelli, G; Picardi, A; Scagnolari, C; Folgori, A; Spada, E; Piccolella, E; Dianzani, F; Antonelli, G

    2009-02-01

    In infected individuals, hepatitis C virus (HCV) exists in various forms of circulating particles which role in virus persistence and in HCV resistance to IFN therapy is still debated. Here, the proportion of HCV bound to immunoglobulin was determined in plasma of 107 chronically infected patients harbouring different HCV genotypes and, for comparison, of six patients with acute HCV infection. The results showed that, in spite of wide individual variability, chronically HCV-infected patients exhibited an extremely high proportion of immune complexed (IC) virus regardless of plasma HCV load and infecting genotype. Moreover, no significant association was found between baseline proportion of IC HCV and response to IFN treatment. Plasma samples collected within 2 weeks of treatment from 20 patients revealed a significant decline of mean IC HCV values relative to baseline that clearly paralleled the decay of total HCV load. In acutely infected patients, circulating HCV was not IC or IC at very low levels only in patients developing chronic HCV infection. Collectively, these findings strengthen the possibility that IC virus could play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  5. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevegmid, Khaliunaa; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies), where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Chronic bee paralysis virus) were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km). Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research. PMID:26959221

  6. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevegmid, Khaliunaa; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies), where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Chronic bee paralysis virus) were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km). Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research.

  7. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliunaa Tsevegmid

    Full Text Available Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies, where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV and Chronic bee paralysis virus were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km. Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research.

  8. 吉安市2007-2011年急性弛缓性麻痹病例流行病学分析%Epidemiological analysis on acute flaccid paralysis in Ji'an City from 2007 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓斌; 刘晓东; 黄光明

    2012-01-01

    目的 做好急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例的监测工作,维持无脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)状态.方法 采用描述性方法对吉安市2007-2011年急性弛缓性麻痹病例进行流行病学分析.结果 吉安市2007-2011年AFP监测系统共报告AFP病例74例,非AFP病例2例,AFP病例72例,均为非脊灰AFP病例.2007年报告15例,2008年17例,2009年10例,2010年15例,2011年15例; <15岁儿童非脊灰AFP病例报告发病率分别为1.37/10万、1.55/10万、1.085/10万、1.61/10万、1.61/10万.结论 吉安市<15岁儿童非脊灰AFP病例报告发病事连续5年达世界卫生组织和国家卫生部的指标要求(≥1/10万),保持了AFP病例监测系统较高的敏感性.%Objective To do the monitoring work of acute flaccid paralysis ( AFP) well and maintain polio - free status. Method Do epidemiologieal analysis on AFP in Ji'an City from 2007 to 2011 by descriptive method. Results 74 cases were reported by AFP monitoring system in Jian City from 2007 to 2011, of which, 2 cases were non - AFP and 72 cases were AFP. All the cases were non - polio AFP. There were 15 cases in 2007, 17 cases in 2008, 10 cases in 2009, 15 cases in 2010, and 15 cases in 2011. The incidence rates of non -polio AFP of children under 15 years old were I. 37/100 000, 1.55/100 000, 1.085 /100 000, 1.61/100 000, 1.61/100 000, respectively. Conclusions The incidence rate of non ?polio AFP of children under 15 years old had reached the indicator required by WHO and National Ministry of Health for 5 consecutive years (more than or equal to 1/100 000) , which kept a higher sensitivity of AFP monitoring system.

  9. Development of a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP system for a highly sensitive detection of enterovirus in the stool samples of acute flaccid paralysis cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakita Takaji

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the global eradication program for poliomyelitis, the laboratory diagnosis plays a critical role by isolating poliovirus (PV from the stool samples of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases. In this study, we developed a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP system for a rapid and highly sensitive detection of enterovirus including PV to identify stool samples positive for enterovirus including PV. Methods A primer set was designed for RT-LAMP to detect enterovirus preferably those with PV-like 5'NTRs of the viral genome. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP system was evaluated with prototype strains of enterovirus. Detection of enterovirus from stool extracts was examined by using RT-LAMP system. Results We detected at least 400 copies of the viral genomes of PV(Sabin strains within 90 min by RT-LAMP with the primer set. This RT-LAMP system showed a preference for Human enterovirus species C (HEV-C strains including PV, but exhibited less sensitivity to the prototype strains of HEV-A and HEV-B (detection limits of 7,400 to 28,000 copies. Stool extracts, from which PV, HEV-C, or HEV-A was isolated in the cell culture system, were mostly positive by RT-LAMP method (positive rates of 15/16 (= 94%, 13/14 (= 93%, and 4/4 (= 100%, respectively. The positive rate of this RT-LAMP system for stool extracts from which HEV-B was isolated was lower than that of HEV-C (positive rate of 11/21 (= 52%. In the stool samples, which were negative for enterovirus isolation by the cell culture system, we found that two samples were positive for RT-LAMP (positive rates of 2/38 (= 5.3%. In these samples, enterovirus 96 was identified by sequence analysis utilizing a seminested PCR system. Conclusions RT-LAMP system developed in this study showed a high sensitivity comparable to that of the cell culture system for the detection of PV, HEV-A, and HEV-C, but less sensitivity to HEV-B. This RT-LAMP system would be useful for the

  10. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time coronary...

  11. lamivudine inhibits the replication of ALV-J associated acutely transforming virus, its helper virus and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the antiviral effects of lamivudine on avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J and its inhibitory effect on the growth of fibrosarcomas caused by acute transforming ALV, a series of experiments were performed in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures and 1-day-old chickens inoculated with an acutely transforming viral stock Fu-J (SDAU1005. This stock was prepared from an acutely fibrosarcoma of field cases in chicken farms and contained both the replication-defective virus Fu-J carrying v-fps oncogene and its helper virus ALV-J strain SDAU1005. The results from 3 different assays in cell cultures demonstrated the significant inhibitory effect of lamivudine on the replication of both SDAU1005 and Fu-J viruses. Furthermore, the effect was dose dependent in the concentration range of 1–4 μg/ml. In chicken experiments, lamivudine could decrease the viral loads of SDAU1005 and Fu-J in the plasma of inoculated chickens, delay the appearance of acute sarcomas, and decrease chicken mortality in the early stage. This model may be used to directly evaluate the inhibitory effects of lamivudine on such tumors and to understand the relationship between the replication-defective virus and its helper virus while also assessing tumor processes.

  12. Acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong Youb; Lim, Young-Ho; Choi, Eun-Hi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder with progressive weakness. Acute-onset CIDP resembles Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), a rapidly progressive disorder, and follows a chronic course. To our knowledge, no case of acute-onset CIDP in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has been reported previously. Clinical findings: We report a case of acute-onset CIDP that was initially diagnosed as GBS. Diagnoses: A 44-year-old male logger complained of acute quadriplegia and dyspnea. Mechanical ventilation was initiated. He was an HBV carrier with mild elevation of hepatic enzyme, and positive for hantavirus antibody. He was diagnosed with GBS and immunoglobulin therapy was administered. Interventions: After 8 months, quadriplegia and hypesthesia recurred. Immunoglobulin therapy at this time had no effect, but steroid therapy had some effect. Outcomes: A diagnosis of CIDP was made. After 2 months, severe extremity pain and dyspnea developed again, and steroid pulse therapy was initiated. Conclusion: Besides GBS, acute-onset CIDP can occur with hantavirus and HBV coinfection. Patients with this coinfection in whom GBS has been initially diagnosed should be followed up for a long time, because of the possibility of relapse or deterioration, and acute-onset CIDP should always be considered. PMID:27930572

  13. Acute Kidney Injury Complicated Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Ozgurhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious mononucleosis is an acute lymphoproliferative disorder caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and seen most commonly in children and young adults. Clinical presentation of the disease is characterized by fever, tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly, whereas serological findings of this benign disorder include positive heterophilic antibody formation (transient increase in heterophilic antibodies and prominence of hematological lymphocytosis of more than 10% of atypical lymphocytes. An EBV infection is usually asymptomatic in childhood, but acute kidney injury can be a rare complication during its course. Most cases recover from the disease completely. Early recognition of EBV infection and estimation of its complication are important for its prognosis. In light of previous literature, we discuss the case evaluated as an EBV infection complicated by acute kidney injury in early childhood and results of tubulointerstitial nephritis shown on a renal biopsy that was later diagnosed as an EBV infection by serological examination.

  14. Causes of Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by a virus that attacks the nerves which control motor function. > Spina bifida A neural tube defect that causes incomplete closure in the spinal column. > Spinal cord injury Involves damage to the nerves within the bony protection of the spinal canal. > ...

  15. Etiology of hypokalemic paralysis in Korea: data from a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Jung-Kook; Lee, Hong Joo; Kim, Eun Young; Cho, Joo Hee; Chin, Sang Ouk; Rhee, Sang Youl; Moon, Ju-Young; Lee, Sang-Ho; Jeong, Kyung-Hwan; Ihm, Chun-Gyoo; Lee, Tae-Won

    2012-12-01

    Recognizing the underlying causes of hypokalemic paralysis seems to be essential for the appropriate management of affected patients and their prevention of recurrent attacks. There is, however, a paucity of documented reports on the etiology of hypokalemic paralysis in Korea. We retrospectively analyzed 34 patients with acute flaccid weakness due to hypokalaemia who were admitted during the 5-year study period in order to determine the spectrum of hypokalemic paralysis in Korea and to identify the differences in clinical parameters all across the causes of hypokalemic paralysis. We divided those 34 patients into 3 groups; the 1(st) group, idiopathic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP), the 2(nd), thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP), and the 3rd group, secondary hypokalemic paralysis (HP) without TPP. Seven of the patients (20.6%) were diagnosed as idiopathic HPP considered the sporadic form, and 27 patients (79.4%) as secondary HP. Among the patients diagnosed as secondary HP, 16 patients (47.1%) had TPP. Patients of secondary hypokalemic paralysis without TPP required a longer recovery time compared with those who had either idiopathic HPP or TPP. This is due to the fact that patients of secondary HP had a significantly negative total body potassium balance, whereas idiopathic HPP and TPP were only associated with intracellular shift of potassium. Most of the TPP patients included in our study had overt thyrotoxicosis while 3 patients had subclinical thyrotoxicosis. This study shows that TPP is the most common cause of hypokalemic paralysis in Korea. And we suggest that doctors should consider the presence of TPP in patients of hypokalemic paralysis even if they clinically appear to be euthyroid state.

  16. 自体MSC-NSCs治疗小儿急性播散性脑脊髓炎后瘫痪1例%Efficacy of autologous MSC-NSCs treatment on the paralysis occurred after acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in child: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚莉; 陈国军; 方凤; 陈丽; 刘厚奇

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察自体骨髓间充质干细胞转化神经干细胞移植对急性播散性脑脊髓炎后下肢瘫痪的治疗效果.方法 采集自体骨髓分离间充质干细胞体外培养增殖后诱导为神经干细胞后移植给患儿.结果 患儿下肢的功能明显恢复.结论 自体骨髓间充质干细胞转化神经干细胞移植是急性播散性脑脊髓炎后下肢瘫痪的有效方法.%We reported a case of child with lower limbs paralysis caused by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after vaccination. The child had treated with transplantation of neural stem cell derived from autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. After the treatment, we found the lower limbs function of the child was obviously recovered. The autologous MSC-NSCs transplantation is an effective therapy to lower limb paralysis after acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  17. Identification of acute self-limited hepatitis B among patients presenting with hepatitis B virus-related acute hepatitis: a hospital-based epidemiological and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y-N

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify acute self-limited hepatitis B (ASL-HB) among patients presenting with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute hepatitis. Data were available for 220 patients diagnosed with HBV-related acute hepatitis, of whom 164 had acute hepatitis B (AHB). Of these, 160 were confirmed as ASL-HB: three (1.9%) evolved to chronic hepatitis B and one (0.6%) developed fulminant hepatitis and died. Comparisons were also made between AHB and acute infections with hepatitis A (HA) and hepatitis E (HE) viruses. During the study period, the number of patients with AHB exceeded the sum of those with acute HA and acute HE infections. There was no distinct seasonal peak for AHB infection, whereas both acute HA and acute HE infections occurred more frequently in the spring. Clinical symptoms and physical signs were similar for all three types of hepatitis, but significant differences were seen in some biochemical parameters. In conclusion, this study suggests that symptomatic AHB is not rare in China but it seldom evolves to chronic hepatitis B.

  18. Acupuncture Treatment of Abducent Paralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任辉; 王涵; 武连仲; 杜元灏

    2006-01-01

    @@ Abducent paralysis is a kind of the pathological change of the cranial nerve, manifested mainly by the clinical symptoms of inward strabismus, limited abduction of the eyeball and double vision. It is believed in modern medicine that this disease can be caused by pathological change of the pons, basicranial metastatic carcinoma, elevated intracranial pressure, and also by inflammation in the head and face, rupture of local small blood vessels or traumatic injury. Now, Prof. WU Lian-zhong's experience in the treatment of abducent paralysis is reported in the following.

  19. The Role of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus Accessory Proteins in Virus Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ruth; Fielding, Burtram C.

    2012-01-01

    A respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, termed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was first reported in China in late 2002. The subsequent efficient human-to-human transmission of this virus eventually affected more than 30 countries worldwide, resulting in a mortality rate of ~10% of infected individuals. The spread of the virus was ultimately controlled by isolation of infected individuals and there has been no infections reported since April 2004. However, the natural reservoir of the virus was never identified and it is not known if this virus will re-emerge and, therefore, research on this virus continues. The SARS-CoV genome is about 30 kb in length and is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). The genome encodes for proteins that are homologous to known coronavirus proteins, such as the replicase proteins (ORFs 1a and 1b) and the four major structural proteins: nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), membrane (M) and envelope (E). SARS-CoV also encodes for eight unique proteins, called accessory proteins, with no known homologues. This review will summarize the current knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins and will include: (i) expression and processing; (ii) the effects on cellular processes; and (iii) functional studies. PMID:23202509

  20. [Flaccid paralysis surveillance in the Latium Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, A M; Santi, A L; Ciapetti, C; Fiore, L; Novello, F; Vellucci, L; De Stefano, F; Fara, G M

    2000-01-01

    The goal of World Health Organization is to reach the global eradication of poliomyelitis during the first decade of the third millennium. To achieve the certification of the eradication of the disease the main strategy is the Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance. In Italy the active AFP surveillance was performed at national level since 1997. In the Latium region the active surveillance was performed since January 1997 by the laboratory of virology of Institute of Hygiene G Sanarelli which established a regional hospital network. During the years of survey 7 cases were found in 1997 (0.87/100,000), 4 in 1998 (0.5/100,000), 2 in 1999 (0.25/100,000) and 2 in 2000. No wild polioviruses were detected.

  1. 特发性面神经麻痹急性期针灸干预疗效观察%Observation on therapeutic effect of acupuncture on spontaneous facial paralysis in acute stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟润芬; 黄石玺

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect and to explore the best opportunity of acupuncture on spontaneous facial paralysis in acute stage.Methods By prospective cohort study, 80 patients were divided into art observation group (n=59) and a control group (n=21).The course of disease was less than 5 days in the observation group and more than 7 days in the control group and had not received acupuncture treatment.They were all treated with acupuncture at Sibai (ST 2), Dicang (ST 4), Jiache (ST 6) and Cuanzhu (BL 2) etc.for 8 weeks, The facial nerve function grading (House-Brackmann, HB) and facial disable index (FDI) before treatment, 8 days after onset, 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks and 3 months after treatment were evaluated.Results Both two groups could decrease HB grading and increase FDI score (all P<0.05), and the observation group was superior to the control group in improvement degree (all P<0.05).The cured rate of 86.4% (51/59) in the observation group was superior to that of 76.2% (16/21) in the control group, with significant difference between the two groups (P< 0.05).Compared with the control group, the treatment time of cured patients in the observation group was shorter [(25.98±11.25)days va (39.31±13.07)days, P<0.01], and the incidence of sequelae of 5.1% (3/59) in the observation group was lower than that of 9.5% (2/21) in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Acupuncture can improve the therapeutic effect, shorten the treatment course and reduce the sequelae incidence of spontaneous facial paralysis in acute stage.%目的:观察特发性面神经麻痹急性期针灸干预的疗效,探索针灸治疗面神经麻痹的最佳治疗时机.方法:使用前瞻性队列研究,将80例患者分为观察组(59例)和对照组(21例),观察组痛程不超过5天(以保证急性进展期最少3次的针灸治疗),对照组病程7天以上,未接受过针灸治疗.两组患者入组后均接受针灸治疗,穴取四白、地

  2. Relevance of sleep paralysis and hypnic hallucinations to psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangdev, Prakash

    2004-03-01

    To describe a patient who presented with psychopathology in the wake of sleep paralysis and hypnopompic hallucinations, and to discuss the importance of these phenomena to psychiatric diagnoses. Case report. A 25-year-old black South African woman developed paranoid beliefs and a sad and anxious mood in the wake of her first experience of sleep paralysis and hypnic hallucinations. She had no history of other sleep-related events. Reassurance, explanation of the physiological basis of her experience, and a short course of low-dose diazepam were provided. Her mood and sleep improved promptly and she no longer held paranoid beliefs. She did not experience further episodes of sleep paralysis or hypnic hallucinations and improvement was sustained at 6 months. It pays to probe for the core experiences or events that patients may be explaining by devising "delusions". Acute, nocturnal-onset, first-time psychopathology warrants inquiry for sleep paralysis and hypnic hallucinations. Sleep-related side-effects of psychotropic medications need to be studied more closely.

  3. HYPOKALEMIC PERIODIC PARALYSIS: AGE OF ONSET IN A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Harirchian

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a familial channelopathy inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The first attack of paralysis may be evolved at any age, but has been reported to be most common in the second decade, so that some authorities believe that an episodic weakness beginning after age 25 is almost never due to primary periodic paralysis. In this retrospective study, we reviewed 50 patients admitted in two hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 1992-2001 with acute flaccid weakness and hypokalemia, twenty-three of whom fulfilled our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two patients showed first attack below age 15, 8 in 15-20, 4 in 20-25, 3 in 25-35, 4 in 35-45, and 2 beyond age 45. In our study, in contrast to previous ones, the first attack was beyond age 20 in 13 patients (56.5% and beyond 25 in 9 (39 %. Age at first attack is more than other studies, which seems to be due to a difference between our epidemiological characteristics compared to that in the West. In other words, in our epidemiological condition, periodic weakness, although started beyond second decade of age, could be due to primary periodic paralysis if secondary hypokalemia had been ruled out.

  4. Prevalence of human cosavirus and saffold virus with an emergence of saffold virus genotype 6 in patients hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menage, Lucy; Yodmeeklin, Arpaporn; Khamrin, Pattara; Kumthip, Kattareeya; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2017-09-01

    Human cosavirus and saffold virus are both newly discovered members of the Picornaviridae family. It has been suggested that these viruses may be the causative agents of acute gastroenteritis. In this study, 1093 stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis between January 2014 and December 2016, were screened for cosavirus and saffold virus using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The viral genotypes were then established via nucleotide sequencing. Here, cosavirus was detected in 16 of 1093 stool samples (1.5%) and saffold virus was detected in 18 of 1093 stool samples (1.6%). The saffold virus genotypes 1 (16.7%), 2 (50%) and 6 (33.3%), and the cosavirus genetic groups A (87.5%), C (6.25%) and D (6.25%), were all identified across the three-year study period. Interestingly, saffold virus genotype 6 has now been detected for the first time in Thailand. The present study provides the prevalence of cosavirus and saffold virus with the emergence of saffold virus genotype 6 in Thailand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. False positive dengue NS1 antigen test in a traveller with an acute Zika virus infection imported into Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurech, Danielle; Schilling, Julian; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Cassinotti, Pascal; Kaeppeli, Franz; Dobec, Marinko

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of an acute Zika virus infection imported into Switzerland by a traveller returning from Canoa Quebrada, Ceará state, in the north-eastern part of Brazil. Due to a false positive dengue virus NS1 antigen test, IgG antibody seroconversion and a suggestive clinical picture,an acute dengue fever was initially considered. However, because of lack of specific IgM-antibodies, stationary IgG antibody titre and a negative dengue virus PCR test result, a dengue virus infection was excluded and a cross-reaction with other, causative flaviviruses was postulated. Based on recent reports of Zika fever cases in the north-eastern parts of Brazil, an acute Zika virus infection was suspected. Because of a lack of commercially available Zika virus diagnostic tests, the case was confirmed in the WHO reference laboratory. As the clinical presentation of Zika virus infection can be confused with dengue fever and chikungunya fever, and because of possible public health implications, all patients returning from affected areas should be additionally tested for Zika virus. This case illustrates the urgent medical need for a broadly available assay capable of differentiating Zika from Dengue infections.

  6. Virus profile in children with acute respiratory infections with various severities in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Runan; Song Qinwei; Qian Yuan; Zhao Linqing; Deng Jie; Wang Fang; Sun Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in infants and young children globally.This study aimed to determine the virus profile in children with ARI presenting with different severities.Methods Clinical specimens collected from children with ARI in Beijing from September 2010 to March 2011 were investigated for 18 respiratory viruses using an xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel Fast (RVP Fast) assay.The Pearson chisquare analysis was used to identify statistical significance.Results Of 270 cases from three groups of ARI patients,including Out-patients,In-patients and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU),viruses were detected in 176 (65.2%) specimens with the RVP Fast assay.The viral detection rate from the Out-patients group (50.0%) was significantly lower than that from the In-patients (71.1%) and ICU-patients (74.4%) groups.The virus distribution was different between the Out-patients group and the other hospitalized groups,while the virus detection rate and distribution characteristics were similar between the In-patients and ICU-patients groups.The coinfection rates of the Out-patients group,the In-patients group,and the ICU-patients group were 15.6%,50.0% and 35.8%,respectively.In addition to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenovirus (ADV),human rhinovirus (HRV) was frequently detected from children with serious illnesses,followed by human metapneumovirus (hMPV),human bocavirus (HBoV) and coronaviruses.Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) was detected in children with lower respiratory illness,but rarely from those with serious illnesses in the ICU-patient group.Conclusion In addition to so-called common respiratory viruses,virus detection in children with ARI should include those thoucht to be uncommon respiratory viruses,especially when there are severe ARI-related clinical illnesses.

  7. An unusual case of acute wandering paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bianchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors reported on a 63-year-old diabetic male who developed a strange wandering hemiparesis affecting first left side and then right side, not consistent with a right parasagittal meningioma nor with ischemic stroke. The subsequent rapid worsening of clinical picture, with occurrence of paraparesis, urinary incontinence and midthoracic sensory level, together with the evidence of leucocytosis, led to the diagnosis of a T6-T7 spondylodiscitis with spinal cord compression. The authors underlied the difficulties in diagnosing this condition in the setting of general hospital practice and the importance of clinical and neurological examination.

  8. An unusual case of acute wandering paralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico Bianchi; Quintino Giorgio D'Alessandris; Roberto Pallini; Eduardo Fernandez; Liverana Lauretti

    2016-01-01

    The authors reported on a 63-year-old diabetic male who developed a strange wandering hemiparesis affecting first left side and then right side, not consistent with a right para-sagittal meningioma nor with ischemic stroke. The subsequent rapid worsening of clinical picture, with occurrence of paraparesis, urinary incontinence and midthoracic sensory level, together with the evidence of leucocytosis, led to the diagnosis of a T6-T7 spon-dylodiscitis with spinal cord compression. The authors underlied the difficulties in diagnosing this condition in the setting of general hospital practice and the importance of clinical and neurological examination.

  9. Hypokalemic paralysis and acid-base balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Casagranda

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of hypokalemic paralysis are reported, presenting to the Emergency Department. The first is a patient with a hypokalemic periodic paralysis with a normal acid-base status, the second is a case of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis of all extremities with a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, the last is a patient with a hypokalemic distal paralysis of right upper arm with metabolic alkalosis. Afterwards some pathophysiologic principles and the clinical aspects of hypokalemia are discussed and an appropriate approach to do in Emergency Department, to identify the hypokalemic paralysis etiologies in the Emergency Department, is presented, beginning from the evaluation of acid-base status.

  10. The Dicistroviridae: An Emerging Family of Invertebrate Viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bryony C. Bonning

    2009-01-01

    Dicistroviruses comprise a newly characterized and rapidly expanding family of small RNA viruses of invertebrates. Several features of this virus group have attracted considerable research interest in recent years. In this review I provide an overview of the Dicistroviridae and describe progress made toward the understanding and practical application of dicistroviruses, including (i) construction of the first infectious clone of a dicistrovirus, (ii) use of the baculovirus expression system for production of an infectious dicistrovirus, (iii) the use of Drosophila C virus for analysis of host response to virus infection, and (iv) correlation of the presence of Israeli acute paralysis virus with honey bee colony collapse disorder. The potential use of dicistroviruses for insect pest management is also discussed. The structure, mechanism and practical use of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements has recently been reviewed elsewhere.

  11. Developmental facial paralysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Anesti, Katerina

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the confusing nomenclature and pathogenesis of Developmental Facial Paralysis, and how it can be differentiated from other causes of facial paralysis present at birth. Differentiating developmental from traumatic facial paralysis noted at birth is important for determining prognosis, but also for medicolegal reasons. Given the dramatic presentation of this condition, accurate and reliable guidelines are necessary in order to facilitate early diagnosis and initiate appropriate therapy, while providing support and counselling to the family. The 30 years experience of our center in the management of developmental facial paralysis is dependent upon a thorough understanding of facial nerve embryology, anatomy, nerve physiology, and an appreciation of well-recognized mishaps during fetal development. It is hoped that a better understanding of this condition will in the future lead to early targeted screening, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment in this population of facially disfigured patients, which will facilitate their emotional and social rehabilitation, and their reintegration among their peers.

  12. Treatment of acute hepatitis C virus infection in HIV+ patients: Dutch recommendations for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, J E; Lambers, F A E; van der Meer, J T M; Schreij, G; Richter, C; Brinkman, K; Hoepelman, A I M

    2011-01-01

    With a rising incidence of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients coinfected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), there is a need for evidence-based treatment recommendations. There are no randomised trials available and published studies differ with respect to design, patient characteristics and number of patients included, making a comparison between studies difficult. However, it is critical to standardise treatment for this group of patients in order to optimise the outcome of therapy. The Dutch Society for HIV Physicians proposed to write recommendations for the treatment of acute HCV in HIV -coinfected patients. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin is the preferred regimen initiated preferably within 12 weeks after the diagnosis of acute HCV. A treatment duration of 24 weeks is recommended in case of a favourable virological response (either achievement of a rapid virological response or a > 2 log10 decrease plus undetectable HCV-RNA at week 12). In all other patients prolonging the duration of therapy to 48 weeks should be considered.

  13. Overview of facial paralysis: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Thuy-Anh N; Limb, Charles J

    2008-05-01

    Facial paralysis represents the end result of a wide array of disorders and heterogeneous etiologies, including congenital, traumatic, infectious, neoplastic, and metabolic causes. Thus, facial palsy has a diverse range of presentations, from transient unilateral paresis to devastating permanent bilateral paralysis. Although not life-threatening, facial paralysis remains relatively common and can have truly severe effects on one's quality of life, with important ramifications in terms of psychological impact and physiologic burden. Prognosis and outcomes for patients with facial paralysis are highly dependent on the etiologic nature of the weakness as well as the treatment offered to the patient. Facial plastic surgeons are often asked to manage the sequelae of long-standing facial paralysis. It is important, however, for any practitioner who assists this population to have a sophisticated understanding of the common etiologies and initial management of facial paralysis. This article reviews the more common causes of facial paralysis and discusses relevant early treatment strategies.

  14. Parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Tani, Akiko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Parotid lymphangioma is a relatively rare disease that is usually detected in infancy or early childhood, and which has typical features. Clinical reports of facial nerve paralysis caused by lymphangioma, however, are very rare. Usually, facial nerve paralysis in a child suggests malignancy. Here we report a very rare case of parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis. A 7-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a rapidly enlarging mass in the left parotid region. Left peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis was also noted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also revealed multiple cystic lesions. Open biopsy was undertaken in order to investigate the cause of the facial nerve paralysis. The histopathological findings of the excised tumor were consistent with lymphangioma. Prednisone (40 mg/day) was given in a tapering dose schedule. Facial nerve paralysis was completely cured 1 month after treatment. There has been no recurrent facial nerve paralysis for eight years.

  15. Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis: causal or incidental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Garg, Ravindra Kumar

    2014-05-15

    Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis is considered an important but under-emphasized neuromuscular complication of dengue virus infection. Review of the published literature reveals that 35 instances of hypokalemic paralysis associated with dengue have been recorded from the Indian subcontinent and all but two, were males. The median age of presentation is 29 years and moderate to severe grade pure motor quadriparesis is precipitated during the phase of defervescence of moderate to high-grade fever. Recovery starts within 12h of potassium supplementation and is usually complete in a couple of days. Redistribution or increased loss of potassium from the body is speculated as the pathophysiological mechanism involved in the causation of hypokalemia. It is not possible to derive the exact etiopathological correlation from the published literature either due to a lack of comprehensive reporting or inadequate work-up of the patients. Curious is the fact that only 35 patients had manifest-paralysis when more than two-thirds affected with the dengue virus exhibit hypokalemia; whether this indicates a genetically mediated channel disorder or an incidental association remains to be seen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Emerging and re-emerging viruses of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genersch, Elke; Aubert, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, specific viral infections of the honey bee were generally considered harmless in all countries. Then, with the worldwide introduction of the ectoparasite mite Varroa destructor, beekeepers encountered increasing difficulties in maintaining their colonies. Epidemiological surveys and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the newly acquired virulence of several viruses belonging to the family Dicistroviridae (acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus) in Europe and the USA had been observed in relation with V. destructor acting as a disseminator of these viruses between and within bee colonies and as an activator of virus multiplication in the infected individuals: bee larvae and adults. Equal emphasis is given to deformed wing virus (DWV) belonging to the Iflaviridae. Overt outbreaks of DWV infections have been shown to be linked to the ability of V. destructor to act not only as a mechanical vector of DWV but also as a biological vector. Its replication in mites prior to its vectoring into pupae seemed to be necessary and sufficient for the induction of a overt infection in pupae developing in non-viable bees with deformed wings. DWV in V. destructor infested colonies is now considered as one of the key players of the final collapse. Various approaches for combating bee viral diseases are described: they include selection of tolerant bees, RNA interference and prevention of new pathogen introduction. None of these approaches are expected to lead to enhanced bee-health in the short term. PMID:20423694

  17. Prevalence of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the patients presenting with acute viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joon, A; Rao, P; Shenoy, S M; Baliga, S

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both enterically transmitted, resulting in acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in developing countries. They pose major health problems in our country. This study was done to determine prevalence of HAV and HEV in patients presenting with AVH and the co-infection of HAV and HEV in these patients. A cross-sectional study of 2-years duration was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, KMC, Mangalore. A non-random sampling of 958 patients presenting with AVH was considered in the study. On the basis of history, serum samples were analysed for IgM anti-HAV and IgM anti-HEV for the detection of HAV and HEV, respectively using commercially available ELISA kits. Data collected was analysed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. The seroprevalence of HAV- and HEV-positive patients were 19.31% and 10.54%, respectively. The seroprevalence of both HAV and HEV in patients with acute viral hepatitis was 11.5%. The prevalence of HAV and HEV among males (68% and 31%) was higher than in females (31% and 20%) and was predominantly seen among young adults. These infections were predominantly seen during end of monsoons and beginning of winter. Though the prevalence of HAV is much higher than that of HEV, co-infection rate of 11.5% mandates the screening for HEV which will be of immense importance in pregnant women and improving levels of personal hygiene among higher socio-economic population. These data will be essential for planning of future vaccination strategies and for better sanitation programme in this part of the country.

  18. Virus and bacteria enhance histamine production in middle ear fluids of children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonmaitree, T; Patel, J A; Lett-Brown, M A; Uchida, T; Garofalo, R; Owen, M J; Howie, V M

    1994-06-01

    Histamine levels were measured in 677 middle ear fluid (MEF) samples from 248 children (aged 2 months to 7 years) with acute otitis media (AOM); of these, 116 (47%) had documented viral infection. Histamine content was higher in bacteria-positive than in bacteria-negative MEF samples (P = .007) and higher in samples from patients with viral infection than in those from patients with no viral infection (P = .002). Bacteria and viruses together had an additive effect on histamine content in MEF. Histamine concentration in the initial MEF sample tended to be higher in patients with persistent otitis than in those with good response to treatment (P = .14). Results suggest that viruses, bacteria, or both induce histamine production, which leads to increased inflammation in the middle ear. Antihistaminic drugs may be beneficial. Large, prospective, controlled trials of the effects of antihistamine as an adjunct therapy in bacterial and viral AOM are required before recommendations can be made.

  19. Acute gastritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Mok; Song, Chun Woo; Song, Kyu Sang

    2016-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) inducing a self-limiting clinical syndrome characterized by fever, sore throat, hepatosplenomegaly, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection are nonspecific and occur rarely. EBV inducing acute gastrointestinal pathology is poorly recognized without suspicion. Careful consideration is needed to diagnose gastric involvement of EBV infection including gastric lymphoma, gastric cancer, and gastritis. A few recent cases of gastritis associated with EBV infection have been reported in adolescents and adults. However, there is no report of EBV-associated gastritis in early childhood. We experienced a rare case of 4-year-old girl with EBV gastritis confirmed by in situ hybridization. PMID:28018450

  20. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  1. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Tieling, Liaoning, 2001-2010%铁岭市2001-2010年急性弛缓性麻痹病例监测情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武环

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析铁岭市2001-2010年急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例监测情况,保持全市无脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)状态.方法 对2001-2010年全市报告的AFP病例进行描述流行病学分析.结果 2001-2010年铁岭市共报告AFP病例69例,无脊灰确诊病例,AFP病例报告发病率在1.17/10万~2.16/10万之间.各县(市、区)年均报告发病率在1.02/10万~3.94/10万之间,其中昌图县有5年报告发病率未达到1/10万的标准.下半年报告病例49例,占71.01%.AFP发病者中以5岁以下儿童为主,占53.62%.病例中服苗史≥3剂次53例,占76.81%.合格粪便样本采集率为92.75%.从3例AFP病例粪便样本中分离到非脊灰肠道病毒,分离率为4.35%.结论 铁岭市AFP病例监测系统各项指标,以市为单位,均达到国家标准.为保持无脊灰状态,应保持高水平脊灰疫苗免疫接种率,提高AFP病例监测系统质量.%Objective To analyze the data of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Methods The method of descriptive epidemiology was applied to analyze the surveillance data of AFP for the year of 2001-2010 in Tieling, Liaoning. Results A total of 69 (incident rate: 1. 17/100 000-2. 16/lakh) non-polio AFP cases were reported for the years 2001-2010.The annual incident rates of AFP were ranged between 1. 02/lakh and 3. 94/lakh among counties. The incident rate of AFP was below 1/lakh for five continuous years in Changtu County. Most AFP cases (49, 71. 01%) were reported in the second half of the year. Children under 5 years had 53. 62% of the AFP cases. Fifty-three cases (76. 81%) were immunized more than or equal to 3 times with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Stool specimens were collected and analyzed for 92. 75% of patients. Non-polio enteroviruses were isolated in three (4. 35%) cases. Conclusion The WHO standard of AFP surveillance was applied with high quality in Tieling, Liaoning Province. Continuous OPV vaccination and AFP surveillance are essential to maintain polio

  2. Epidemiological analysis on acute flaccid paralysis cases and surveillance system evaluation in Fuzhou city from 2005 to 2010%福州市2005~2010年急性弛缓性麻痹病例监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    羊晶晶; 陈杨伟; 王镜泉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of acute flaccid paralysis(AFP)and evaluate the surveillance system. Methods The AFP cases reported by AFP surveillance system of Fuzhou City and the result of poliovirus survelliance were analyzed. Results 125 local AFP child cases under 15 years old were reported in Fuzhou from 2005 to 2010.The annual average incidence of AFP was 1.53/100 000. All the cases were distributed in 13 counties and cases reported from health units below levels of village and town occupied only 4%. The cases occurred mainly in chirdren below 5 years old,accounted for 68.8%.4.8% of the cases were either unvaccinated or unclear. The morbidity of children in age group of 0~14 years,survey of cases,feces sampling (except 2008)test,follow-up of 75 days after cure of disease,etc. met relevant requirements of national regulations. 6PV positive cases were vaccine-related strains. (50% belonged to type I and Ⅱ ,the rest belonged to type Ⅱ + Ⅲ ). Conclusion The surveillance system needs further improveed and the AFP case report rate at township level should be strengthened.%目的 分析福州市急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例流行病学特征,评价AFP监测系统.方法用描述流行病学方法 分析全市AFP病例监测系统上报的个案调查表和病毒检测结果,按照国家监测指标评价间隙系统的敏感性.结果 福州市2005 ~2010年共报告AFP病例125例,15岁以下儿童AFP平均报告发病率为1.53/10万;福州市所辖13个县(市、区)均有病例报告,乡镇卫生单位的报告病例仅占4%;病例以低年龄组为主,5岁以下占68.8%;125例病例中未服苗者和免疫史不详着占4.8%;AFP报告发病率、病例调查、75d随访、粪便及时送检等指标均达到国家规定要求,合格粪便采集率仅2008年未达到国家要求;病毒分离6株为疫苗相关株(Ⅰ型1例,Ⅱ型2例、Ⅱ+Ⅲ型3例).结论 福州市监测质量需进一步提高,加强医

  3. Respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, and mixed acute lower respiratory infections in children in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Diego Andrés; Nino, Gustavo

    2015-05-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting greater severity and worse outcomes in children with mixed as compared to single respiratory virus infections. However, studies that assess the risk factors that may predispose a child to a mixture of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenoviral infections, are scarce. In a retrospective cohort study, the study investigated the epidemiology of RSV and adenovirus infections and predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in young children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection in Bogota, Colombia, South America, over a 2-year period 2009-2011. Of a total of 5,539 children admitted with a diagnosis of acute lower respiratory infection, 2,267 (40.9%) who were positive for RSV and/or adenovirus were selected. Out the total number of cases, 1,416 (62.5%) infections occurred during the 3-month period from March to May, the first rainy season of Bogota, Colombia. After controlling for gender, month when the nasopharyngeal sample was taken, and other pre-existing conditions, it was found that an age greater than 6 months (OR:1.74; CI 95%:1.05-2.89; P = 0.030) and malnutrition as a comorbidity (OR:9.92; CI 95%:1.01-100.9; P = 0.049) were independent predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in the sample of patients. In conclusion, RSV and adenovirus are significant causes of acute lower respiratory infection in infants and young children in Bogota, Colombia, especially during the first rainy season. The identified predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections should be taken into account when planning intervention, in order to reduce the burden of acute lower respiratory infection in young children living in the country.

  4. Hepatitis C virus acquisition among Egyptians: analysis of a 10-year surveillance of acute hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Amira; Bernier, Adeline; LeFouler, Lenaig; Delarocque-Astagneau, Elisabeth; El-Daly, Mai; El-Kafrawy, Sherif; El-Mango, Salwa; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Gadallah, Mohsen; Esmat, Gamal; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Fontanet, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    To identify current risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) acquisition among Egyptians. Patients with acute HCV were identified through a surveillance system of acute hepatitis in four fever hospitals in Egypt between 2002 and 2012. Case-control analysis was conducted, cases being incident acute symptomatic HCV and controls being acute hepatitis A identified at the same hospitals. The questionnaire covered iatrogenic, community and household exposures to HCV in the 1-6 months prior to onset of symptoms. Multivariate models were built to identify risk factors associated with HCV acquisition among non-drug users and drug users separately. Among non-drug users, hospital admission was independently associated with acute HCV infection (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.7-10.5). Several iatrogenic procedures, for example admission in a surgery unit, sutures, IV injections and IV infusions, highly correlated with hospital admission, were also associated with acute HCV infection and could have been used in the final model instead of hospital admission. Among drug users, identified risk factors were multiple sexual relations (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.1-14.7), intravenous drug use (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.2-13.0) and shaving at the barbershops (OR = 8.7, 95% CI = 2.4-31.4). Illiteracy and marriage were significant risk factors in both groups. Invasive medical procedures are still a major risk for acquiring new HCV infections in Egypt, as is illicit drug use in spreading HCV infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Human herpes virus type 6, etiology of an acute encephalitis in childhood: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afenjar, A; Rodriguez, D; Rozenberg, F; Dorison, N; Guët, A; Mignot, C; Doummar, D; Billette de Villemeur, T; Ponsot, G

    2007-05-01

    Primary infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) causes the classical roseola infantum. Otherwise the infection is clinically silent but it may sometimes be responsible for central nervous system involvement. In order to illustrate such a type of lesions, we report on a 16-month-old girl with acute leucoencephalitis. The disease started with pyrexia 40 degrees C, followed by an episode of seizure, erythematous rash on the trunk and then coma. Brain MRI showed wide lesions on white matter. HHV-6 DNA was detected by PCR in the CSF and serum at the acute stage, and tests for HHV-6 antibody showed a significant increase of IgG antibody titre between acute and convalescent sera. One month later complete clinical recovery was observed while the MRI showed a partial disappearance of the lesions. The sero-conversion associated with the detection of the viral DNA in the serum identified a primary HHV-6 infection and the detection of viral nucleic acid in CSF gives arguments for the responsibility of the virus in the pathogenesis. When facing an acute leuco-encephalitis in infants, it is important to perform exhaustive virology investigations to rule out the implication of HHV-6 as well as other commonly incriminated pathogens (EBV, CMV, mycoplasma, enterovirus) to avoid accusing wrongly the vaccines.

  6. Serological Evidence of Chikungunya Virus among Acute Febrile Patients in Southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudo, Eduardo Samo; Pinto, Gabriela; Vene, Sirkka; Mandlaze, Arcildo; Muianga, Argentina Felisbela; Cliff, Julie; Falk, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has rapidly expanded to several geographical areas, causing frequent outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia, South America, and Europe. Therefore, the disease remains heavily neglected in Mozambique, and no recent study has been conducted. Between January and September 2013, acute febrile patients with no other evident cause of fever and attending a health center in a suburban area of Maputo city, Mozambique, were consecutively invited to participate. Paired acute and convalescent serum samples were requested from each participant. Convalescent samples were initially screened for anti-CHIKV IgG using a commercial indirect immunofluorescence test, and if positive, the corresponding acute sample was screened using the same test. Four hundred patients were enrolled. The median age of study participants was 26 years (IQR: 21-33 years) and 57.5% (224/391) were female. Paired blood samples were obtained from 209 patients, of which 26.4% (55/208) were presented anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies in the convalescent sample. Seroconversion or a four-fold titer rise was confirmed in 9 (4.3%) patients. The results of this study strongly suggest that CHIKV is circulating in southern Mozambique. We recommend that CHIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness in Mozambique and that systematic surveillance for CHIKV should be implemented.

  7. Facial paralysis induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 and the study of facial neurons apoptosis in mice%小鼠病毒性面神经炎模型中面神经元凋亡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘稳; 高志强; 神平; 冯国栋; 查洋; 张彦东; 刘佩毛

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨1型单纯疱疹病毒(herpes simplex virus type 1,HSV-1)性面神经炎动物模型中面神经运动神经元(facial motor neurons,FMN)的凋亡情况以及凋亡相关基因bcl-2和bax的表达。方法 Balb/c小鼠84只,分别进行HSV-1接种和面神经切断处理。在操作后第1、3、7、10、15、20及30天分批处死动物,对面神经核进行HE染色、尼氏染色;采用原位末端转移酶标记(terminaldeoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling,TUNEL)技术检测FMN的凋亡;免疫组化染色检测凋亡相关基因bcl-2和bax在FMN中的表达。结果 面神经切断后,同侧FMN出现凋亡,在第10、15天达高峰,Bcl-2表达降低,Bax表达升高,Bcl-2/Bax比值下降;接种病毒后,同侧FMN没有明显的细胞凋亡,Bcl-2表达增高,在第15天达高峰,Bcl-2/Bax比值上升。结论 小鼠面神经接种HSV-1后FMN没有明显凋亡,可能与神经损伤程度轻以及HSV-1抑制宿主细胞凋亡有关,Bcl-2、Bax可能参与调控FMN的凋亡。%Objective To study the apoptosis of facial motor neurons and the expression of apoptosis-related genes, Bcl-2 and Bax, in the animal model of viral facial paralysis. Methods Total of 84Balb/c mice were divided into viral inoculation group and nerve transaction group. The animals were executed 1, 3, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 30 days after being operated respectively. The histopathological features of facial neurons in brain stem were observed by HE and Nissl stain. The changes of facial neuronal apoptosis were observed by TUNEL The changes of expression of Bcl-2 and Bax genes in facial neurons were observed by immunohistochemistry staining. Results After nerve transection, increased apoptotic cells were found in homolateral facial motor neucleus and the peak appeared at 10 and 15 days. The level of Bcl-2 expression inneurons declined while the expression of Bax increased gradually. Correspondingly, the ratio of

  8. Epstein-Barr virus associated acute hepatitis with cross-reacting antibodies to other herpes viruses in immunocompetent patients: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ekta; Bhatia, Vikram; Choudhary, Aashish; Rastogi, Archana; Gupta, Naveen L

    2013-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM) which is characterized by the triad of fever, sore throat, and lymphadenopathy. Self-limited, mild liver function test abnormalities are seen in IM. Acute hepatitis in primary EBV infection is uncommon. Serum transaminases are elevated but are less than fivefold the normal levels in most cases and rarely exceed 10 times the normal levels in primary EBV infections especially in elderly. Laboratory diagnosis of acute EBV infection is by serological assays confirming the presence of EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM antibodies. Due to antigenic cross-reactivity with Herpes viruses, serological assays lack specificity; hence specific molecular diagnostic methods are required for confirmation of the etiology. The present report describes two cases of acute hepatitis caused by infection with EBV which had indistinguishable clinical features and biochemical markers from acute hepatitis caused by hepatotropic viruses such as hepatitis viruses A-E. The diagnosis of infection by EBV was confirmed by detection of EBV DNA in blood of both the patients and EBV DNA in the liver tissue of one of the patients.

  9. 针刺配合情志护理综合干预对急性面瘫患者抑郁状态及睡眠质量的影响%Effect of Acupuncture Combined with Comprehensive Emotional Nursing Intervention on Acute Facial Paralysis Patients' Depresson and Sleep Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁子梅; 蔡南哨; 罗文舒

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨针刺配合情志护理综合干预对急性面瘫的抑郁状态和睡眠质量的影响。方法随机选取2011年8月至2013年8月在我院接受针刺治疗的周围性面瘫患者160例,随机分为常规针刺法治疗的对照组80例,以及针刺配合情志护理综合干预的观察组80例,对比两组患者的抑郁状态、睡眠质量以及临床疗效。结果治疗4周后,观察组的抑郁评分为(42.16±5.02)分,显著低于对照组(孕<0.05);观察组的睡眠质量指数为(10.51±1.74)分,显著低于对照组(孕<0.05)。结论急性面瘫采用针刺配合情志护理综合干预的临床效果确切,能显著改善抑郁状态和睡眠质量,提高患者生活质量。%Objective To investigate the effect of acupuncture combined with comprehensive emotional nursing intervention on acute facial paralysis patients' depresson and sleep quality. Methods 160 patients with acute facial paralysis in our hospital from Aug. 2011 to Aug. 2013 were randomly divided into control group (common accupuncture treatment, n = 80) and observation group (accupuncture combined with comprehensive emotional nursing intervention, n=80). The status of depression, sleep quality and clinical curative effect were compared. Results After 4 weeks' treatment, the depression score of the observation group was (42.16±5.02), significantly lower than that of the control group (P <0.05). The sleep quality index of the observation group was (10.51±1.74), significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions Acupuncture combined with comprehensive emotional nursing intervention has exact clinical effect on acute facial paralysis, which can treat depression, enhance sleep quality significantly, and improve patients' life quality.

  10. Recurrent Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis Unmasks Sjogren Syndrome without Sicca Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yao-Min; Huang, Neng-Chyan; Wann, Shue-Ren; Chang, Yun-Te; Wang, Jyh-Seng

    2015-04-01

    Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis (HPP) may occur as a rare complication of Sjogren Syndrome (SS) and Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA). A 64-year male patient came with HPP, and was later diagnosed with distal RTA. The patient, who had no xerostomia and xerophthalmia, was diagnosed with primary SS from serologic and histologic findings of minor salivary gland biopsy. The patient recovered after potassium replacement therapy. Renal biopsy was also performed and revealed evidence of tubulointerstitial nephritis. Corticosteroids were administered and there was no recurrence of HPP during a 4-year follow-up period. The case highlights the significance of acute hypokalemia management in emergency department as it can unmask SS even if the SS is not associated with sicca symptoms. Hypokalemic paralysis associated with normal anion gap metabolic acidosis should prompt toward the diagnosis of SS.

  11. Betamethasone-induced hypokalemic periodic paralysis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagarden, Corey M; Picardo, Carla W

    2011-02-01

    Acute hypokalemic periodic paralysis may be induced by betamethasone injections during pregnancy. A healthy 23-year-old gravid woman at 32 weeks of gestation with preterm premature rupture of membranes received two doses of 12-mg intramuscular betamethasone 24 hours apart to accelerate fetal lung maturation. She developed significant proximal muscle weakness within 16 hours after the initial dose. Her serum potassium was 1.6 mEq/L. Oral and parenteral potassium replacement restored her neuromuscular function over several days. She delivered by repeat cesarean at 34 weeks of gestation without complications for her or the neonate. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis, a rare cause of weakness, may be induced by betamethasone injections during pregnancy and is reversible with low-risk interventions.

  12. Fatal Dysrhythmia Following Potassium Replacement for Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, Imdad

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of fatal rebound hyperkalemia in a patient with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP treated with potassium supplementation. Although TPP is a rare hyperthyroidism-related endocrine disorder seen predominantly in men of Asian origin, the diagnosis should be considered in patients of non-Asian origins presenting with hypokalemia, muscle weakness or acute paralysis. The condition may present as a life threatening emergency and unfamiliarity with the disease could result in a fatal outcome. Immediate therapy with potassium chloride supplementation may foster a rapid recovery of muscle strength and prevent cardiac arrhythmias secondary to hypokalemia, but with a risk of rebound hyperkalemia. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:57-59.

  13. Facial nerve paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-12-16

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology.

  14. Fibromyalgia in hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, F R; Thid, S; Kyllerman, M

    1998-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented at the age of 38 with joint pains and muscle stiffness. Tender points were found fulfilling ACR criteria (1) for fibromyalgia. She had well developed muscles and decreasing muscle power since the age of 35. Muscle pains increased after exercise. Her 10-year-old son had similar symptoms and one paralytic attack. Muscle pain and fatigue increasing with age were found by history in three close relatives. Forearm cold water test produced myotonia in both mother and son. Electromyography was normal and muscle biopsy showed minor unspecific changes. Biochemical investigation of muscle mitochondrial function was normal. Peroral potassium load test produced complete muscle paralysis at a potassium serum level of 5.0 mmol/l. Autosomal dominant hyperkalemic periodic paralysis was diagnosed. Frequent carbohydrate enriched meals, peroral bendroflumethiazide and restriction to submaximal exercise improved muscle and joint pain. Salbutamol peroral spray relieved the periodic weakness.

  15. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of honey bee viruses, Nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and parasitic mites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bu; Peng, Guangda; Li, Tianbang; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2013-02-01

    China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies, which produce the highest quantity of honey and royal jelly in the world; however, the presence of honey bee pathogens and parasites has never been rigorously identified in Chinese apiaries. We thus conducted a molecular survey of honey bee RNA viruses, Nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and tracheal mites associated with nonnative Apis mellifera ligustica and native Apis cerana cerana colonies in China. We found the presence of black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and sacbrood virus (SBV), but not that of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) or Kashmir bee virus (KBV). DWV was the most prevalent in the tested samples. Phylogenies of Chinese viral isolates demonstrated that genetically heterogeneous populations of BQCV, CBPV, DWV, and A. cerana-infecting SBV, and relatively homogenous populations of IAPV and A. meliifera-infecting new strain of SBV with single origins, are spread in Chinese apiaries. Similar to previous observations in many countries, Nosema ceranae, but not Nosema apis, was prevalent in the tested samples. Crithidia mellificae, but not Apicystis bombi was found in five samples, including one A. c. cerana colony, demonstrating that C. mellificae is capable of infecting multiple honey bee species. Based on kinetoplast-encoded cytochrome b sequences, the C. mellificae isolate from A. c. cerana represents a novel haplotype with 19 nucleotide differences from the Chinese and Japanese isolates from A. m. ligustica. This suggests that A. c. cerana is the native host for this specific haplotype. The tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi, was detected in one A. m. ligustica colony. Our results demonstrate that honey bee RNA viruses, N. ceranae, C. mellificae, and tracheal mites are present in Chinese apiaries, and some might be originated from native Asian honey bees.

  16. Neuromuscular retraining for facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, H J; Combs, D

    1997-10-01

    Neuromuscular retraining is an effective method for rehabilitating facial musculature in patients with facial paralysis. This nonsurgical therapy has demonstrated improved functional outcomes and is an important adjunct to surgical treatment for restoring facial movement. Treatment begins with an intensive clinical evaluation and incorporates appropriate sensory feedback techniques into a patient-specific, comprehensive, home therapy program. This article discusses appropriate patients, timelines for referral, and basic treatment practices of facial neuromuscular retraining for restoring function and expression to the highest level possible.

  17. Familial congenital peripheral facial paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo Vallenas, Roberto; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud, Lima, Perú; Aldave, Raquel; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud, Lima, Perú; Reyes, Juan; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud, Lima, Perú; Castañeda, César; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud, Lima, Perú; VERA, JOSÉ; Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, Servicio de Neurología. Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study 29 individuals belonging to four familiar generations in whom 9 cases of facial paralysis was found in 2 generations. Setting: Neurophysiology Service, Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital. Material and Methods: Neurological exam and electrophysiologic (EMG and VCN), otorrhinolaryngologic, radiologic, electroencephalographic, dermatoglyphic and laboratory studies were performed in 7 of the 9 patients (5 men and 2 women). Results: One case of right peripheral facia...

  18. Superiority of West Nile Virus RNA Detection in Whole Blood for Diagnosis of Acute Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Yaniv; Mannasse, Batya; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal; Dovrat, Sara; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-09-01

    The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have shown that WNV RNA can be detected in urine for a longer period and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. Our results demonstrate that 33 of 38 WNV patients had detectable WNV RNA in whole blood at the time of diagnosis, a higher rate than in any of the other sample types tested. Overall, whole blood was superior to all other samples, with 86.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 83.9% negative predictive value. Interestingly, WNV viral load in urine was higher than in whole blood, CSF, serum, and plasma despite the lower sensitivity than that of whole blood. This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases.

  19. Identification of ALV-J associated acutely transforming virus Fu-J carrying complete v-fps oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Li, Jianliang; Li, Yang; Fang, Lichun; Sun, Xiaolong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2016-06-01

    Transduction of oncogenes by ALVs and generation of acute transforming viruses is common in natural viral infections. In order to understand the molecular basis for the rapid oncogenicity of Fu-J, an acutely transforming avian leukosis virus isolated from fibrosarcomas in crossbreed broilers infected with subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) in China, complete genomic structure of Fu-J virus was determined by PCR amplification and compared with those of Fu-J1, Fu-J2, Fu-J3, Fu-J4, and Fu-J5 reported previously. The results showed that the genome of Fu-J was defective, with parts of gag gene replaced by the complete v-fps oncogene and encoded a 137 kDa Gag-fps fusion protein. Sequence analysis revealed that Fu-J and Fu-J1 to Fu-J5 were related quasi-species variants carrying different lengths of v-fps oncogenes generated from recombination between helper virus and c-fps gene. Comparison of virus carrying v-fps oncogene also gave us a glimpse of the molecular characterization and evolution process of the acutely transforming ALV.

  20. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of congenital Zika virus syndrome and diaphragmatic unilateral palsy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Rolland Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: several birth defects associated to congenital Zika virus infection have been reported, although the clinical features have not been fully characterized. Description: this is the first case report on unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis diagnosed on a neonate with congenital Zika confirmed by the examination of the amniotic fluid through polymerase chain reaction (ZIKV RT-PCR and the examination of cerebrospinal fluid by serological test (IgM ZIKV-ELISA after birth. The main manifestations detected by intrauterine ultrasound were: microcephaly, ventriculomegaly, intracranial calcifications, enlarged cisterna magna, increased amniotic fluid index and fetal akinesia syndrome. The newborn had acute respiratory failure in the first hours of life, requiring mechanical ventila-tion. The X- ray of the chest showed unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis and cardiomegaly. Discussion: diaphragmatic palsy in congenital Zika has not been previously reported, the etiopathogenic mechanisms of this event in congenital Zika virus needs to be elucidated.

  1. Immune profile and Epstein-Barr virus infection in acute interstitial nephritis: an immunohistochemical study in 78 patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mansur, Abdurrezagh

    2011-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and is characterised by a dense interstitial cellular infiltrate, which has not been well defined. Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and AIN. The purpose of our study was to define the nature of the interstitial immune infiltrate and to investigate the possibility of renal infection with EBV.

  2. The Impact of Specific Viruses on Clinical Outcome in Children Presenting with Acute Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giulia Gagliardi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence and type of viral genomes have been suggested as the main etiology for inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy. Information on the clinical implication of this finding in a large population of children is lacking. We evaluated the prevalence, type, and clinical impact of specific viral genomes in endomyocardial biopsies (EMB collected between 2001 and 2013 among 63 children admitted to our hospital for acute heart failure (median age 2.8 years. Viral genome was searched by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Patients underwent a complete two-dimensional echocardiographic examination at hospital admission and at discharge and were followed-up for 10 years. Twenty-seven adverse events (7 deaths and 20 cardiac transplantations occurred during the follow-up. Viral genome was amplified in 19/63 biopsies (35%; PVB19 was the most commonly isolated virus. Presence of specific viral genome was associated with a significant recovery in ejection fraction, compared to patients without viral evidence (p < 0.05. In Cox-regression analysis, higher survival rate was related to virus-positive biopsies (p < 0.05. When comparing long-term prognosis among different viral groups, a trend towards better prognosis was observed in the presence of isolated Parvovirus B19 (PVB19 (p = 0.07. In our series, presence of a virus-positive EMB (mainly PVB19 was associated with improvement over time in cardiac function and better long-term prognosis.

  3. Tick-borne encephalitis virus NS1 glycoprotein during acute and persistent infection of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugrysheva, J V; Matveeva, V A; Dobrikova, E Y; Bykovskaya, N V; Korobova, S A; Bakhvalova, V N; Morozova, O V

    2001-08-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was propagated in porcine embryo kidney (PS) cells until 48 h whereas human kidney (RH) cells maintained the virus persistence during at least 2 months. One of possible reasons of flavivirus chronic infection might be abnormal NS1 gene expression. Immunoblotting with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) revealed the similarity of the intracellular and secreted NS1 nonstructural glycoprotein size and linear antigenic determinants in both the infected cell lines. However, according to the competitive binding of MAbs with the TBEV NS1 extracellular glycoprotein, its contiguous epitopes differed for acute or persistent infection. To map the TBEV NS1 glycoprotein antigenic determinants its recombinant analogues were used. All the studied MAbs could bind with the full-length NS1 recombinant protein. Deletion of the TBEV NS1 gene internal region resulted in defective NS1d1 protein without the region between 269 and 333 a.a. Lack of NS1d1 binding with 20B4 MAb and diminished binding with 22H8 and 17C3 MAbs permitted to map their antigenic determinants within or nearby deleted region, respectively. Interaction of other MAbs with the NS1 and NS1d1 recombinant proteins did not differ, suggesting that their epitopes were located in the region of N-terminal 268 a.a. or C-terminal 19 a.a. of the TBEV NS1 protein. The second NS1d2 truncated protein contained the first N-terminal 33 a.a. of the TBEV NS1 protein and was able to bind with 29G9 MAb. Taken together the data stand for the differences in the N-terminal structure of the TBEV NS1 multimers secreted from the acute and persistent infected cells whereas the intracellular and secreted monomer processing was the same. The modified NS1 protein oligomers in the RH cellular line might slow virus replication and could result in the TBEV persistence.

  4. Clinical and MRI Features of Hand - foot - mouth Disease Related to Enterovirus 71 and Associated with Acute Flaccid Paralysis%合并急性弛缓性瘫痪的肠道病毒71型相关手足口病临床及MRI特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶信健; 刘锟; 张桂艳; 白光辉; 周云新; 严志汉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical and MRI characteristics of hand - foot - mouth diseases related to enlerovinis 71 ( EV71) combined with acute flaccid paralysis ( AFP) . Methods Hie clinical and MRI manifestations of fourteen infants suffered from hand - foot - mouth diseases related to enterovirus 71 (EV7I) combined with AFP were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among the fourteen infants with AFP, one had paralysis of unilateral upper limbs, one had paralysis of the unilateral lower limbs, two had paralysis of bilateral upper limbs, one had paralysis of bilateral lower limbs, three had hemiplegia, and six had quadriplegia. All cases clinically presented acute limb myaslhenia with tendon reflex and muscular tension lowered. On the spinal MRI, the lesions involved the anterior hom regions of spinal cord had hyperintensity on T2 - weighted images and hypointensity on T1 - weighted images, which were elongated on sagittal images and patchy on transverse images. Six patients simultaneously contained brainstem encephalitis. MRI showed that the lesions located at the posterior portions of the medulla, pons. The lesions had hyperintensity on T2 -weighted images and hypointensity on T1 - weighted images. Conclusion MRI is the most effective method on evaluating the range, degree and prognosis of the injuries on spinal cord and brain of hand - foot - mouth diseases related to enterovirus 71 ( EV71) combined with AFP. MRI findings have relative specificity. The hand - foot - mouth diseases related to enterovirus 71 (EV71) combined with AFP often involve the anterior horn of the spinal cord, medulla oblongata and pons.%目的 探讨合并急性弛缓性瘫痪(AFP)的肠道病毒71型(EV71)相关手足口病(HFMD)的临床及MRI特征.方法 回顾性分析14例伴有AFP的EV71型相关HFMD患儿临床及MRI资料,并总结其临床及MRI特征.结果 14例患儿中,单上肢瘫痪1例、单下肢瘫痪1例、双上肢瘫痪2例、双下肢瘫痪1例、单侧偏瘫3

  5. Sleep Paralysis: phenomenology, neurophysiology and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Solomonova, Elizaveta

    2017-01-01

    Sleep paralysis is an experience of being temporarily unable to move or talk during the transitional periods between sleep and wakefulness: at sleep onset or upon awakening. Feeling of paralysis may be accompanied by a variety of vivid and intense sensory experiences, including mentation in visual, auditory, and tactile modalities, as well as a distinct feeling of presence. This chapter discusses a variety of sleep paralysis experiences from the perspective of enactive cognition and cultural ...

  6. A CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT FOR FACIAL PARALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TOH Foh Fook

    2002-01-01

    @@ Peripheral facial paralysis is a common disease with manifestation of facial paralysis. The author's clinical observation on 50 cases of facial paralysis treated mainly with acupuncture showed an effeclive rate of 98%, and the remarkable effectiveness was reported as follow.

  7. Detection of respiratory viruses by real-time polymerase chain reaction in outpatients with acute respiratory infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Bragança Martins Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the major contributors to the morbidity and mortality of upper and lower acute respiratory infections (ARIs for all age groups. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies for a large range of respiratory viruses using a sensitive molecular detection technique in specimens from outpatients of all ages with ARIs. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from 162 individuals between August 2007-August 2009. Twenty-three pathogenic respiratory agents, 18 respiratory viruses and five bacteria were investigated using multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF. Through IIF, 33 (20.4% specimens with respiratory virus were recognised, with influenza virus representing over half of the positive samples. Through a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay, 88 (54.3% positive samples were detected; the most prevalent respiratory viral pathogens were influenza, human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Six cases of viral co-detection were observed, mainly involving RSV. The use of multiplex real-time RT-PCR increased the viral detection by 33.9% and revealed a larger number of respiratory viruses implicated in ARI cases, including the most recently described respiratory viruses [human bocavirus, human metapneumovirus, influenza A (H1N1 pdm09 virus, human coronavirus (HCoV NL63 and HCoV HKU1].

  8. Integration of hepatitis B virus DNA into chromosomal DNA during acute hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerald C Kimbi; Anna Kramvis; Michael C Kew

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the serum from black African patients with acute hepatitis B to ascertain if integrants of viral DNA can be detected in fragments of cellular DNA leaking from damaged hepatocytes into the circulation.METHODS: DNA was extracted from the sera of five patients with uncomplicated acute hepatitis B and one with fulminant disease. Two subgenomic PCRs designed to amplify the complete genome of HBV were used and the resulting amplicons were cloned and sequenced.RESULTS: HBV and chromosomal DNA were amplified from the sera of all the patients. In one patient with uncomplicated disease, HBV DNA was integrated into host chromosome 7 q11.23 in the WBSCR1 gene. The viral DNA comprised 200 nucleotides covering the S and X genes in opposite orientation, with a 1 169 nudeotide deletion. The right virus/host junction was situated at nucleotide 1774 in the cohesive overlap region of the viral genome, at a preferred topoisomerase I cleavage motif. The chromosomal DNA was not rearranged.The patient made a full recovery and seroconverted to anti-HBs- and anti-HBe-positivity. Neither HBV nor chromosomal DNA could be amplified from his serum at that time.CONCLUSION: Integration of viral DNA into chromosomal DNA may occur rarely during acute hepatitis B and, with clonal propagation of the integrant, might play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis.

  9. Patterns of hepatitis C virus RNA levels during acute infection: the InC3 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Hajarizadeh

    Full Text Available Understanding the patterns of HCV RNA levels during acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection provides insights into immunopathogenesis and is important for vaccine design. This study evaluated patterns of HCV RNA levels and associated factors among individuals with acute infection.Data were from an international collaboration of nine prospective cohorts of acute HCV (InC3 Study. Participants with well-characterized acute HCV infection (detected within three months post-infection and interval between the peak and subsequent HCV RNA levels ≤ 120 days were categorised by a priori-defined patterns of HCV RNA levels: i spontaneous clearance, ii partial viral control with persistence (≥ 1 log IU/mL decline in HCV RNA levels following peak and iii viral plateau with persistence (increase or <1 log IU/mL decline in HCV RNA levels following peak. Factors associated with HCV RNA patterns were assessed using multinomial logistic regression.Among 643 individuals with acute HCV, 162 with well-characterized acute HCV were identified: spontaneous clearance (32%, partial viral control with persistence (27%, and viral plateau with persistence (41%. HCV RNA levels reached a high viraemic phase within two months following infection, with higher levels in the spontaneous clearance and partial viral control groups, compared to the viral plateau group (median: 6.0, 6.2, 5.3 log IU/mL, respectively; P = 0.018. In the two groups with persistence, Interferon lambda 3 (IFNL3 CC genotype was independently associated with partial viral control compared to viral plateau (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.75; 95%CI: 1.08, 7.02. In the two groups with viral control, female sex was independently associated with spontaneous clearance compared to partial viral control (AOR: 2.86; 95%CI: 1.04, 7.83.Among individuals with acute HCV, a spectrum of HCV RNA patterns is evident. IFNL3 CC genotype is associated with initial viral control, while female sex is associated with ultimate

  10. Hamstring transfer for quadriceps paralysis in post polio residual paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish J Patwa

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: H to Q transfer in the presence of quadriceps paralysis with good power in hamstring is a better alternative than supracondylar osteotomy because it is a dynamic correction and it produces some degree of recurvatum with increasing stability of knee in extension while walking. While inserting hamstring over patella the periosteum is not cut in an I-shaped fashion to create a flap which gives additional strength to new insertion and also patella act as a fulcrum during the extension of knee by producing the bowstring effect.

  11. Simultaneous investigation of influenza and enteric viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting in general practice for acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arena Christophe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal symptoms are not an uncommon manifestation of an influenza virus infection. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the presence of influenza viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting their general practitioner for uncomplicated acute diarrhea (AD and the proportion of concurrent infections by enteric and influenza viruses. Method A case-control study was conducted from December 2010 to April 2011. Stool specimens were collected and tested for influenza viruses A (seasonal A/H3N2 and pandemic A/H1N1 and B, and for four enteric viruses (astrovirus, group A rotavirus, human enteric adenovirus, norovirus of genogroups I – NoVGI - and genogroup II - NoVGII. Results General practitioners enrolled 138 cases and 93 controls. Of the 138 stool specimens collected, 92 (66.7% were positive for at least one of the four enteric viruses analysed and 10 (7.2% tested positive for one influenza virus. None of these 10 influenza positive patients reported respiratory symptoms. In five influenza-positive patients (3.6%, we also detected one enteric virus, with 4 of them being positive for influenza B (2 had co-detection with NoVGI, 1 with NoVGII, and 1 with astrovirus. None of the 93 controls tested positive for one of the enteric and/or other influenza viruses we investigated. Conclusions In this study we showed that the simultaneous detection of influenza and enteric viruses is not a rare event. We have also reported, for the first time in general practice, the presence of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting for uncomplicated AD. A simultaneous investigation of enteric and influenza viruses in patients complaining of gastrointestinal symptoms could be useful for future studies to better identify the agents responsible for AD.

  12. Elevation of soluble VCAM-1 plasma levels in children with acute dengue virus infection of varying severity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koraka, P.; Murgue, B.; Deparis, X.; Gorp, E. van; Setiati, T.E.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Groen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 1,000 million infections with dengue viruses are estimated to occur annually. The majority of the cases develop mild disease, whereas only small proportion of the infected individuals develop severe hemorrhagic manifestations at the end of the acute phase of illness. In this study, the

  13. (18)F-FDG PET/CT Findings in Acute Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Mimicking Malignant Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Mathilde; Graff, Jesper; Markova, Elena;

    2016-01-01

    We present a case demonstrating the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of a patient with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in which the clinical picture and imaging on (18)F-FDG PET/CT mimicked malignant lymphoma. Follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan in the patient performed 7 weeks after...

  14. Case control study to identify risk factors for acute hepatitis C virus infection in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandeel Amr M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of risk factors of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Egypt is crucial to develop appropriate prevention strategies. Methods We conducted a case–control study, June 2007-September 2008, to investigate risk factors for acute HCV infection in Egypt among 86 patients and 287 age and gender matched controls identified in two infectious disease hospitals in Cairo and Alexandria. Case-patients were defined as: any patient with symptoms of acute hepatitis; lab tested positive for HCV antibodies and negative for HBsAg, HBc IgM, HAV IgM; and 7-fold increase in the upper limit of transaminase levels. Controls were selected from patients’ visitors with negative viral hepatitis markers. Subjects were interviewed about previous exposures within six months, including community-acquired and health-care associated practices. Results Case-patients were more likely than controls to have received injection with a reused syringe (OR=23.1, CI 4.7-153, to have been in prison (OR=21.5, CI 2.5-479.6, to have received IV fluids in a hospital (OR=13.8, CI 5.3-37.2, to have been an IV drug user (OR=12.1, CI 4.6-33.1, to have had minimal surgical procedures (OR=9.7, CI 4.2-22.4, to have received IV fluid as an outpatient (OR=8, CI 4–16.2, or to have been admitted to hospital (OR=7.9, CI 4.2-15 within the last 6 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that unsafe health facility practices are the main risk factors associated with transmission of HCV infection in Egypt. Conclusion In Egypt, focusing acute HCV prevention measures on health-care settings would have a beneficial impact.

  15. Chandipura virus: a major cause of acute encephalitis in children in North Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandale, Babasaheb V; Tikute, Sanjaykumar S; Arankalle, Vidya A; Sathe, Padmakar S; Joshi, Manohar V; Ranadive, Satish N; Kanojia, Phoolchand C; Eshwarachary, D; Kumarswamy, M; Mishra, Akhilesh C

    2008-01-01

    A hospital-based surveillance was undertaken between May 2005 and April 2006 to elucidate the contribution of Chandipura virus (CHPV) to acute viral encephalitis cases in children, seroconversion in recovered cases and to compare the seroprevalences of anti-CHPV IgM and N antibodies in areas reporting cases with those without any case of acute viral encephalitis. During this period, 90 cases of acute encephalitis were hospitalized in the pediatric wards of Mahatma Gandhi Memorial (MGM) Hospital, Warangal. There were 49 deaths (Case Fatality Rate, i.e., CFR of 54.4%). Clinical samples and records were obtained from 52 suspected cases. The cases were below 15 years, majority in 0-4 years (35/52, 67.3%). Computerized tomography (CT) scans and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) picture favored viral etiology. No neurological sequelae were observed. CHPV etiology was detected in 25 cases (48.1%, n = 52; RNA in 20, IgM in 3 and N antibody seroconversion in 2). JEV etiology was detected in 5 cases (IgM in 4 cases and seroconversion in 1 case). Anti-CHPV IgM seroprevalence in contacts (26/167, 15.6%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in non-contacts (11/430, 2.6%); which was also observed in children <15 years (19/90, 21.1% vs. 3/109, 2.7%). Anti-CHPV N antibody seroprevalence in <15 years contacts (66/90, 73.3%) and non-contacts (77/109, 70.6%) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in contacts (75/77, 97.4%) and non-contacts (302/321, 94.1%) more than 15 years respectively. CHPV appears to be the major cause of acute viral encephalitis in children in endemic areas during early monsoon months.

  16. Psychogenic paralysis and recovery after motor cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastan, Nathalie; Parain, Dominique

    2010-07-30

    Psychogenic paralysis presents a real treatment challenge. Despite psychotherapy, physiotherapy, antidepressants, acupuncture, or hypnosis, the outcome is not always satisfactory with persistent symptoms after long-term follow-up. We conducted a retrospective study to assess clinical features and to propose an alternative treatment based on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Seventy patients (44 F/26 M, mean age: 24.7 +/- 16.6 years) experienced paraparesis (57%), monoparesis (37%), tetraparesis (3%), or hemiparesis (3%). A precipitating event was observed in 42 patients, primarily as a psychosocial event or a physical injury. An average of 30 stimuli over the motor cortex contralateral to the corresponding paralysis was delivered at low frequency with a circular coil. The rTMS was effective in 89% of cases, with a significantly better outcome for acute rather than chronic symptoms. In conclusion, motor cortex rTMS seem to be very effective in patients with psychogenic paralysis and could be considered a useful therapeutic option.

  17. Default in plasma and intestinal IgA responses during acute infection by simian immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoul Nada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicting results regarding changes in mucosal IgA production or in the proportions of IgA plasma cells in the small and large intestines during HIV-infection have been previously reported. Except in individuals repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 but yet remaining uninfected, HIV-specific IgAs are frequently absent in mucosal secretions from HIV-infected patients. However, little is known about the organization and functionality of mucosal B-cell follicles in acute HIV/SIV infection during which a T-dependent IgA response should have been initiated. In the present study, we evaluated changes in B-cell and T-cell subsets as well as the extent of apoptosis and class-specific plasma cells in Peyer’s Patches, isolated lymphoid follicles, and lamina propria. Plasma levels of IgA, BAFF and APRIL were also determined. Results Plasma IgA level was reduced by 46% by 28 days post infection (dpi, and no IgA plasma cells were found within germinal centers of Peyer’s Patches and isolated lymphoid follicles. This lack of a T-dependent IgA response occurs although germinal centers remained functional with no sign of follicular damage, while a prolonged survival of follicular CD4+ T-cells and normal generation of IgG plasma cells is observed. Whereas the average plasma BAFF level was increased by 4.5-fold and total plasma cells were 1.7 to 1.9-fold more numerous in the lamina propria, the relative proportion of IgA plasma cells in this effector site was reduced by 19% (duodemun to 35% (ileum at 28 dpi. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that SIV is unable to initiate a T-dependent IgA response during the acute phase of infection and favors the production of IgG (ileum or IgM (duodenum plasma cells at the expense of IgA plasma cells. Therefore, an early and generalized default in IgA production takes place during the acute of phase of HIV/SIV infection, which might impair not only the virus-specific antibody response but also IgA responses

  18. Tick paralysis cases in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Remondegui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tick paralysis (TP occurs worldwide and is caused by a neurotoxin secreted by engorged female ticks that affects the peripheral and central nervous system. The clinical manifestations range from mild or nonspecific symptoms to manifestations similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome, bulbar involvement, and death in 10% of the patients. The diagnosis of TP is clinical. To our knowledge, there are no formal reports of TP in humans in South America, although clusters of TP among hunting dogs in Argentina have been identified recently. In this paper, clinical features of two cases of TP occurring during 1994 in Jujuy Province, Argentina, are described.

  19. Acupuncture Treatment of 106 Cases of Peripheral Facial Paralysis in Different Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yuan; ZHANG Li; ZHOU Qin; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    In the treatment of facial paralysis in the acute stage and restoration stage by shallow needling technique and penetrating needling technique respectively, totally 106 cases, the effective rate is respectively 98.6% and 83.9%, indicating that the curative rate is high if early treatment is given.

  20. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis: two case reports and a brief review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Mutneja, Rahul; Vyas, Dhwanil; Trivedi, Ruchir; Silverstein, Nicole

    2013-09-01

    Thyrotoxic Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis (THPP) is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis and can sometimes be fatal. It needs early recognition for proper management and prevention of recurrences. Here we describe two cases presenting with acute onset of paresis, low potassium levels, low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormones (TSH), and elevated thyroid hormone levels.

  1. Amblyopia Associated with Congenital Facial Nerve Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Hitoshi; Kondo, Kenji; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Baba, Shintaro; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The association between congenital facial paralysis and visual development has not been thoroughly studied. Of 27 pediatric cases of congenital facial paralysis, we identified 3 patients who developed amblyopia, a visual acuity decrease caused by abnormal visual development, as comorbidity. These 3 patients had facial paralysis in the periocular region and developed amblyopia on the paralyzed side. They started treatment by wearing an eye patch immediately after diagnosis and before the critical visual developmental period; all patients responded to the treatment. Our findings suggest that the incidence of amblyopia in the cases of congenital facial paralysis, particularly the paralysis in the periocular region, is higher than that in the general pediatric population. Interestingly, 2 of the 3 patients developed anisometropic amblyopia due to the hyperopia of the affected eye, implying that the periocular facial paralysis may have affected the refraction of the eye through yet unspecified mechanisms. Therefore, the physicians who manage facial paralysis should keep this pathology in mind, and when they see pediatric patients with congenital facial paralysis involving the periocular region, they should consult an ophthalmologist as soon as possible. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Pulmonary mucormycosis presenting with vocal cord paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathri Devi, H. J.; Mohan Rao, K.N.; K M Prathima; Moideen, Riyaz

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary mucormycosis is a relatively uncommon infection. It can present in various forms. Very few cases of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as vocal cord paralysis have been described in the literature. We report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as vocal cord paralysis in an uncontrolled diabetic patient.

  3. 安徽省七种蜜蜂病毒的发生与流行研究%Occurrence and distribution of seven bee viruses in Apis mellifera andApis cerana in Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪天澍; 施腾飞; 刘芳; 余林生; 齐磊; 孟祥金

    2015-01-01

    [目的]调查安徽省内7种常见蜜蜂病毒:蜜蜂畸翅病毒(Deformed wing virus,DWV)、以色列急性麻痹病毒(Israeli acute paralysis virus,IAPV)、急性蜜蜂麻痹病毒(Acute bee paralysis virus,ABPV)、慢性麻痹病毒(Chronic bee paralysis virus,CBPV)、黑蜂王台病毒(Black queen cell virus,BQCV)、囊状幼虫病病毒(Sacbrood virus,SBV)、克什米尔病毒(Kashmir bee virus,KBV)的感染发生情况,为安徽养蜂业可持续健康发展提供理论依据.[方法] 运用反转录 RT-PCR 和序列分析比对的方法对安徽省内 21 个乡镇中的 38 个蜂场蜜蜂样品进行研究分析,以获得以上 7 种蜜蜂病毒的特异性发生情况.[结果]意大利蜜蜂Apis mellifera蜂场感染率:DWV(64%),IAPV(43%),CBPV(32%),ABPV(14%), BQCV(11%);中华蜜蜂Apis cerana蜂场感染率:DWV (80%),IAPV (40%),CBPV (30%),ABPV (10%), BQCV(0).SBV和KBV在所有的蜜蜂样品中均未检测到.[结论] DWV,IAPV,CBPV,ABPV,BQCV在安徽省内大范围都存在发生流行现象,SBV和KBV对安徽蜜蜂的潜在危害可能性小.%[Objectives] To conduct the first detailed survey of seven bee viruses; deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), inApis mellifera andA. Cerana in Anhui. We hope this work will help bee researchers and related institutions monitor honey bee health in Anhui, and warn them of the potential threat from bee viruses to the sustainable development of apiculture in that province.[Methods] We used reverse transcriptase PCR and sequence analysis to survey the above seven honey bee viruses in most of Anhui. Samples of worker bees were collected from apiaries in 21 towns, including 28 samples ofA. Mellifera and 10 ofA. Cerana.[Results] Virus frequencies inA. Mellifera samples were as follows; 64% of apiaries were infected with DWV, 43% with IAPV, 32

  4. Acute diarrhea in West African children: diverse enteric viruses and a novel parvovirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung G; Vo, Nguyen P; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kapoor, Amit; Barro, Nicolas; O'Ryan, Miguel; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunling; Delwart, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Parvoviruses cause a variety of mild to severe symptoms or asymptomatic infections in humans and animals. During a viral metagenomic analysis of feces from children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso, we identified in decreasing prevalence nucleic acids from anelloviruses, dependoviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses, bocaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, cosavirus, astroviruses, and hepatitis B virus. Sequences from a highly divergent parvovirus, provisionally called bufavirus, were also detected whose NS1 and VP1 proteins showed parvoviruses. Four percent of the fecal samples were PCR positive for this new parvovirus, including a related bufavirus species showing only 72% identity in VP1. The high degree of genetic divergence of these related genomes from those of other parvoviruses indicates the presence of a proposed new Parvoviridae genus containing at least two species. Studies of the tropism and pathogenicity of these novel parvoviruses will be facilitated by the availability of their genome sequences.

  5. Dynamics of cellular immune responses in the acute phase of dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Saito, Akatsuki; Katakai, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yuki; Kurosawa, Terue; Hamano, Masataka; Higashino, Atsunori; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Kurane, Ichiro; Akari, Hirofumi

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we examined the dynamics of cellular immune responses in the acute phase of dengue virus (DENV) infection in a marmoset model. Here, we found that DENV infection in marmosets greatly induced responses of CD4/CD8 central memory T and NKT cells. Interestingly, the strength of the immune response was greater in animals infected with a dengue fever strain than in those infected with a dengue hemorrhagic fever strain of DENV. In contrast, when animals were re-challenged with the same DENV strain used for primary infection, the neutralizing antibody induced appeared to play a critical role in sterilizing inhibition against viral replication, resulting in strong but delayed responses of CD4/CD8 central memory T and NKT cells. The results in this study may help to better understand the dynamics of cellular and humoral immune responses in the control of DENV infection.

  6. Acute acalculous cholecystitis by Epstein-Barr virus infection: a rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Branco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC is a rare complication of Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection, with only a few cases reported among pediatric population. This clinical condition is frequently associated with a favorable outcome and, usually, a surgical intervention is not required. We report a 16-year-old girl who presented with AAC following primary EBV infection. The diagnosis of AAC was documented by clinical and ultrasonographic examination, whereas EBV infection was confirmed serologically. A conservative treatment was performed, with a careful monitoring and serial ultrasonographic examinations, which led to the clinical improvement of the patient. Pediatricians should be aware of the possible association between EBV and AAC, in order to offer the patients an appropriate management strategy.

  7. Kyrieleis plaques associated with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 acute retinal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Goel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with features typical of acute retinal necrosis (ARN. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous tap was positive for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV – 1. Following therapy with intravenous Acyclovir, followed by oral Acyclovir and steroids, there was marked improvement in the visual acuity and clinical picture. At one week after initiation of treatment, Kyrieleis plaques were observed in the retinal arteries. They became more prominent despite resolution of the vitritis, retinal necrosis and vasculitis and persisted till six weeks of follow-up, when fluorescein angiography was performed. The appearance of this segmental retinal periarteritis also known as Kyrieleis plaques has not been described in ARN due to HSV-1 earlier.

  8. Association of acute cerebellar ataxia and human papilloma virus vaccination: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonee, Chihiro; Toyoshima, Mitsuo; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Kodama, Yuichi; Hayami, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Kusunoki, Susumu; Uchibori, Ayumi; Chiba, Atsuro; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2013-10-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed symptoms of acute cerebellar ataxia (ACA) after administration of the human papilloma virus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine. This patient developed symptoms of ACA, including nausea, vertigo, severe limb and truncal ataxia, and bilateral spontaneous continuous horizontal nystagmus with irregular rhythm, 12 days after administration of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine. After this, the patient received methylprednisolone pulse and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapies as well as immunoadsorption plasmapheresis. Severe ACA symptoms did not improve after methylprednisolone pulse and IVIG therapies, but the patient recovered completely after immunoadsorption plasmapheresis. This temporal association strongly suggests that ACA was induced by the vaccination. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Effect of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria on reactivation and shedding of the eight human herpes viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Chêne

    Full Text Available Human herpes viruses (HHVs are widely distributed pathogens. In immuno-competent individuals their clinical outcomes are generally benign but in immuno-compromised hosts, primary infection or extensive viral reactivation can lead to critical diseases. Plasmodium falciparum malaria profoundly affects the host immune system. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the direct effect of acute P. falciparum infection on reactivation and shedding of all known human herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8. We monitored their presence by real time PCR in plasma and saliva of Ugandan children with malaria at the day of admission to the hospital (day-0 and 14 days later (after treatment, or in children with mild infections unrelated to malaria. For each child screened in this study, at least one type of HHV was detected in the saliva. HHV-7 and HHV-6 were detected in more than 70% of the samples and CMV in approximately half. HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and HHV-8 were detected at lower frequency. During salivary shedding the highest mean viral load was observed for HSV-1 followed by EBV, HHV-7, HHV-6, CMV and HHV-8. After anti-malarial treatment the salivary HSV-1 levels were profoundly diminished or totally cleared. Similarly, four children with malaria had high levels of circulating EBV at day-0, levels that were cleared after anti-malarial treatment confirming the association between P. falciparum infection and EBV reactivation. This study shows that acute P. falciparum infection can contribute to EBV reactivation in the blood and HSV-1 reactivation in the oral cavity. Taken together our results call for further studies investigating the potential clinical implications of HHVs reactivation in children suffering from malaria.

  10. Practical aspects in the management of hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levitt Jacob O

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Management considerations in hypokalemic periodic paralysis include accurate diagnosis, potassium dosage for acute attacks, choice of diuretic for prophylaxis, identification of triggers, creating a safe physical environment, peri-operative measures, and issues in pregnancy. A positive genetic test in the context of symptoms is the gold standard for diagnosis. Potassium chloride is the favored potassium salt given at 0.5–1.0 mEq/kg for acute attacks. The oral route is favored, but if necessary, a mannitol solvent can be used for intravenous administration. Avoidance of or potassium prophylaxis for common triggers, such as rest after exercise, high carbohydrate meals, and sodium, can prevent attacks. Chronically, acetazolamide, dichlorphenamide, or potassium-sparing diuretics decrease attack frequency and severity but are of little value acutely. Potassium, water, and a telephone should always be at a patient's bedside, regardless of the presence of weakness. Perioperatively, the patient's clinical status should be checked frequently. Firm data on the management of periodic paralysis during pregnancy is lacking. Patient support can be found at http://www.periodicparalysis.org.

  11. Practical aspects in the management of hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Jacob O

    2008-01-01

    Management considerations in hypokalemic periodic paralysis include accurate diagnosis, potassium dosage for acute attacks, choice of diuretic for prophylaxis, identification of triggers, creating a safe physical environment, peri-operative measures, and issues in pregnancy. A positive genetic test in the context of symptoms is the gold standard for diagnosis. Potassium chloride is the favored potassium salt given at 0.5–1.0 mEq/kg for acute attacks. The oral route is favored, but if necessary, a mannitol solvent can be used for intravenous administration. Avoidance of or potassium prophylaxis for common triggers, such as rest after exercise, high carbohydrate meals, and sodium, can prevent attacks. Chronically, acetazolamide, dichlorphenamide, or potassium-sparing diuretics decrease attack frequency and severity but are of little value acutely. Potassium, water, and a telephone should always be at a patient's bedside, regardless of the presence of weakness. Perioperatively, the patient's clinical status should be checked frequently. Firm data on the management of periodic paralysis during pregnancy is lacking. Patient support can be found at . PMID:18426576

  12. Recurrent Vocal Fold Paralysis and Parsonage-Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffily, Lucia; Vincent, Maurice Borges

    2013-01-01

    Background. Parsonage-Turner syndrome, or neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), is an acute brachial plexus neuritis that typically presents with unilateral shoulder pain and amyotrophy but also can affect other peripheral nerves, including the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Idiopathic vocal fold paralysis (VFP) represents approximately 12% of the VFP cases and recurrence is extremely rare. Methods and Results. We report a man with isolated recurrent unilateral right VFP and a diagnosis of NA years before. Conclusions. We emphasize that shoulder pain and amyotrophy should be inquired in any patient suffering from inexplicable dysphonia, and Parsonage-Turner syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic VFP. PMID:24288639

  13. Recurrent Vocal Fold Paralysis and Parsonage-Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parsonage-Turner syndrome, or neuralgic amyotrophy (NA, is an acute brachial plexus neuritis that typically presents with unilateral shoulder pain and amyotrophy but also can affect other peripheral nerves, including the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Idiopathic vocal fold paralysis (VFP represents approximately 12% of the VFP cases and recurrence is extremely rare. Methods and Results. We report a man with isolated recurrent unilateral right VFP and a diagnosis of NA years before. Conclusions. We emphasize that shoulder pain and amyotrophy should be inquired in any patient suffering from inexplicable dysphonia, and Parsonage-Turner syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic VFP.

  14. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis: Three rare secondary causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Eswaradass Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic paralysis is a rare neuromuscular disorder, related to a defect in muscle ion channels, characterized by episodes of painless muscle weakness, which may be precipitated by heavy exercise, fasting, or high-carbohydrate meals. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis may be familial (primary or secondary. Here, we report three cases of secondary causes of hypokalemic periodic paralysis. On evaluation, case 1 had distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA due to Sjogren′s syndrome, case 2 had drug induced proximal RTA (Fanconi′s syndrome and case 3 had thyrotoxicosis. Clinician must be aware of causes of secondary PP as recognition and diagnosis can completely prevent further attacks of periodic paralysis. Each of the above case is rare, but completely treatable if diagnosed. Low dose steroids with bicarbonate replacement in case 1, stopping tenofovir in case 2 and carbimazole therapy in case 3 prevented further attacks of periodic paralysis and cardiopulmonary complications.

  15. [Hypokalemic periodic paralysis. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areta-Higuera, J D; Algaba-Montes, M; Oviedo-García, A Á

    2014-01-01

    Periodic paralysis is a rare disorder that causes episodes of severe muscle weakness that can be confused with other diseases, including epilepsy or myasthenia gravis. Hyperkalemic and hypokalemic paralysis are included within these diseases, the latter being divided into periodic paralysis (familial, thyrotoxic or sporadic) and non-periodic paralysis. In this regard, we present a case of familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis in an eighteen year-old female who was diagnosed with epilepsy in childhood, as well as a subclinical hypothyroidism (for which she received replacement therapy) months ago. The diagnosis was made by the anamnesis and the confirmation of hypokalemia. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Presence of bluetongue virus in the marginal zone of the spleen in acute infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fan; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Lin, Chun-Ming; Wang, Fun-In

    2011-08-26

    Bluetongue virus, a member of the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae, is the causative agent of bluetongue, which is a non-contagious Culicoides mediated blood-borne disease. The present study characterizes the pathogenicity of a Taiwan prototype BTV2/KM/2003 in Corriedale sheep inoculated subcutaneously into the ear pinna. Histologically, multifocal petechiated hemorrhage, with mild to moderate inflammation and edema, were present in the contralateral ear pinna, tongue, and facial skin, without remarkable lesions in lymphoid organs. By days post-infection (DPI) 7, viral VP7 antigen, detected by immunohistochemistry, presented in the spleen, chiefly located in the outer rim of macrophages bordering the marginal zone and red pulp, and T lymphocytes of the red pulp. By DPI 11, viral signals shifted from the marginal zone to macrophages and small lymphocytes within follicles of the spleen. In situ hybridization with VP7 gene probe detected strong signals in the spleen, chiefly spanning the whole width of 5-10 cell thickness of the marginal zone, including the marginal zone macrophages and marginal zone B cells, as well as macrophages of sheathed capillaries in the red pulp. This study demonstrates molecular as well as morphologic evidence of the presence of bluetongue virus in the marginal zone of the spleen, most likely associated with viremia in acute infection, as previously demonstrated by the authors.

  17. Molecular characterization of hepatitis E virus in patients with acute hepatitis in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Cristina Gutiérrez; Sánchez, Doneyla; Villalba, Maria Caridad Montalvo; Pujol, Flor Helene; de Los Ángeles Rodríguez Lay, Licel; Pinto, Belquis; Chacón, Elsa Patricia; Guzmán, Maria Guadalupe

    2012-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes a common infection in developing countries. HEV infection occurs as outbreaks, as sporadic clinical cases and as large epidemics in endemic areas. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of HEV infection in patients with clinical suspicion of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, referred to the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in Venezuela. Seventy-four sera were tested for anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgM antibodies. HEV-RNA was amplified from anti-HEV IgM positive sera using nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for ORF1 (RNA dependent RNA polymerase region) and the amplicons sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The frequency of anti-HEV IgM was 22/74 (30%) in the samples tested. Dual infection with HAV and HEV was found in 31% (12/39) of anti-HAV IgM positive patients. Viremia was detected in 3/22 (14%) of sera positive for anti-HEV IgM. Two HEV strains were classified as genotype 1 and one as genotype 3, which were closely related to Yam 67 (north of India) and US1 isolates from the USA, respectively. These findings suggest that HEV is an important cause of acute viral hepatitis in Venezuela as a single infection or co-infection with HAV, with high morbidity in children and young adults suggesting that this infection is endemic in Venezuela. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Acute otorrhea in children with tympanostomy tubes: prevalence of bacteria and viruses in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Thijs M A; Venekamp, Roderick P; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Bogaert, Debby; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Schilder, Anne G M

    2015-04-01

    Acute tympanostomy-tube otorrhea is a common sequela in children with tympanostomy tubes. Acute tympanostomy-tube otorrhea is generally a symptom of an acute middle ear infection, whereby middle ear fluid drains through the tube. The widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) has changed the bacterial prevalence in the upper respiratory tract of children, but its impact on bacterial and viral pathogens causing acute tympanostomy-tube otorrhea is yet unknown. This study was performed in the post-PCV7 era parallel to a randomized clinical trial of the clinical and cost-effectiveness of ototopical and systemic antibiotics and initial observation in 230 children aged 1 to 10 years with untreated, uncomplicated acute tympanostomy-tube otorrhea. Otorrhea and nasopharyngeal samples were collected at baseline (before treatment) and at 2 weeks (after treatment). Conventional bacterial culture was performed followed by antimicrobial-resistance assessment. Viruses were identified by polymerase chain reaction. At baseline, Haemophilus influenzae (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (40%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18%) were the most prevalent bacteria in otorrhea, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (7%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (4%). Most pneumococci were non-PCV7 serotypes. Viruses were detected in 45 otorrhea samples at baseline (21%). Most infections were polymicrobial and overall antimicrobial resistance was low. H. influenzae, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa are the most common microorganisms in children with untreated uncomplicated acute tympanostomy-tube otorrhea. Prevalence of S. pneumoniae has decreased since the introduction of PCV and most pneumococci are nonvaccine serotypes.

  19. [The history of facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicenstein, J

    2015-10-01

    Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques.

  20. Greater numbers of nucleotide substitutions are introduced into the genomic RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus during acute infections of pregnant cattle than of non-pregnant cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neill John D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains circulating in livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucleotide changes were introduced into the BVDV genomic RNA during the establishment of a single fetal persistent infection than following a series of acute infections of naïve cattle. However, it was not known if nucleotide changes were introduce when the virus crossed the placenta and infected the fetus or during the acute infection of the dam. Methods The sequence of the open reading frame (ORF from viruses isolated from four acutely infected pregnant heifers following exposure to persistently infected (PI calves was compared to the sequences of the virus from the progenitor PI calf and the virus from the resulting progeny PI calf to determine when genetic change was introduced. This was compared to genetic change found in viruses isolated from a pregnant PI cow and its PI calf, and in three viruses isolated from acutely infected, non-pregnant cattle exposed to PI calves. Results Most genetic changes previously identified between the progenitor and progeny PI viruses were in place in the acute phase viruses isolated from the dams six days post-exposure to the progenitor PI calf. Additionally, each progeny PI virus had two to three unique nucleotide substitutions that were introduced in crossing the placenta and infection of the fetus. The nucleotide sequence of two acute phase viruses isolated from steers exposed to PI calves revealed that six and seven nucleotide changes were introduced during the acute infection. The sequence of the BVDV-2 virus isolated from an acute infection of a PI calf (BVDV-1a co-housed with a BVDV-2 PI calf had ten nucleotides that were different from the progenitor PI virus. Finally, twenty nucleotide changes were

  1. Acute risk for hepatitis E virus infection among HIV-1-positive pregnant women in central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Mélanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV, an enterically transmitted pathogen, is highly endemic in several African countries. Pregnant women are at particularly high risk for acute or severe hepatitis E. In Gabon, a central African country, the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women is 14.1%. Recent studies have demonstrated unusual patterns of hepatitis E (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis among immunodeficient patients. Findings We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women infected with HIV-1 or HTLV-1 in Gabon. Of 243 samples collected, 183 were positive for HIV-1 and 60 for HTLV-1; 16 women (6.6% had IgG antibodies to HEV. The seroprevalence was higher among HIV-1-infected women (7.1% than HTLV-1-infected women (5.0%. Moreover, the HIV-1 viral load was significantly increased (p ≤ 0.02 among women with past-HEV exposure (1.3E+05 vs 5.7E+04 copies per ml, whereas no difference was found in HTLV-1 proviral load (9.0E+01 vs 1.1E+03 copies per ml. Conclusions These data provide evidence that HIV-1-infected women are at risk for acute or severe infection if they are exposed to HEV during pregnancy, with an increased viral load.

  2. Impact of combined acute rejection on BK virus-associated nephropathy in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jung; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Koo, Tai Yeon; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Han, Miyeun; Jeon, Hee Jung; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2013-12-01

    BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is one of the major causes of allograft dysfunction in kidney transplant (KT) patients. We compared BKVAN combined with acute rejection (BKVAN/AR) with BKVAN alone in KT patients. We retrospectively analyzed biopsy-proven BKVAN in KT patients from 2000 to 2011 at Seoul National University Hospital. Among 414 biopsies from 951 patients, biopsy-proven BKVAN was found in 14 patients. Nine patients had BKVAN alone, while 5 patients had both BKVAN and acute cellular rejection. BKVAN in the BKVAN alone group was detected later than in BKVAN/AR group (21.77 vs 6.39 months after transplantation, P=0.03). Serum creatinine at diagnosis was similar (2.09 vs 2.00 mg/dL). Histological grade was more advanced in the BKVAN/AR group (P=0.034). Serum load of BKV, dose of immunosuppressants, and tacrolimus level showed a higher tendency in the BKVAN alone group; however it was not statistically significant. After anti-rejection therapy, immunosuppression was reduced in the BKVAN/AR group. Renal functional deterioration over 1 yr after BKVAN diagnosis was similar between the two groups (P=0.665). These findings suggest that the prognosis of BKVAN/AR after anti-rejection therapy followed by anti-BKV therapy might be similar to that of BKVAN alone after anti-BKV therapy.

  3. Epidemiology of acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Norway, 1992-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blystad Hans

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norway is classified as a low prevalence country for hepatitis B virus infection. Vaccination is only recommended for risk groups (intravenous drug users (IDUs, Men who have Sex with Men (MSM, immigrants and contacts of known carriers. We describe the epidemiology of reported cases of hepatitis B in Norway, during the years 1992-2009 in order to assess the validity of current risk groups and recommend preventive measures. Methods We used case based data from the national surveillance system on acute and chronic hepatitis B. The Norwegian Statistics Bureau provided population and migration data and the Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research the estimated number of active IDUs between 2002-2007. Incidence rates (IR and incidence rate ratios (IRR for acute hepatitis B and notification rates (NR and notification rate ratios (NRR for chronic hepatitis B with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results The annual IR of acute hepatitis B ranged from 0.7/100,000 (1992 to 10.6/100,000 (1999. Transmission occurred mainly among IDUs (64% or through sexual contact (24%. The risk of acquiring acute hepatitis B was highest in people aged 20-29 (IRR = 6.6 [3.3-13.3], and in males (IRR = 2.4 [1.7-3.3]. We observed two peaks of newly reported chronic hepatitis B cases in 2003 and 2009 (NR = 17.6/100,000 and 17.4/100,000, respectively. Chronic hepatitis B was more likely to be diagnosed among immigrants than among Norwegians (NRR = 93 [71.9-120.6], and among those 20-29 compared to those 50-59 (NRR = 5.2 [3.5-7.9]. Conclusions IDUs remain the largest risk group for acute hepatitis B. The observed peaks of chronic hepatitis B are related to increased immigration from high endemic countries and screening and vaccination of these groups is important to prevent further spread of infection. Universal screening of pregnant women should be introduced. A universal vaccination strategy should be considered, given the high cost of

  4. Hepatitis E virus quasispecies and the outcome of acute hepatitis E in solid-organ transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Sebastien; Abravanel, Florence; Dubois, Martine; Sandres-Saune, Karine; Rostaing, Lionel; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are responsible for chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients, and this can evolve to cirrhosis. Like all RNA viruses, HEV exists as a mixture of heterogeneous viruses defining quasispecies. The relationship between the genetic heterogeneity described as a quasispecies, cytokine secretion, and the outcome of acute hepatitis in immunocompromised patients remains to be elucidated. We cloned and sequenced the region encoding the M and P capsid domains of HEV from eight solid-organ transplant (SOT) patients with acute HEV infection who subsequently cleared the virus and from eight SOT patients whose infection became chronic. We analyzed the cytokines and chemokines in the sera of these SOT patients by multianalyte profiling. The nucleotide sequence entropy and genetic distances were greater in patients whose infections became chronic. A lower K(a)/K(s) ratio was associated with the persistence of HEV. The patients who developed chronic infection had lower serum concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist and soluble IL-2 receptor. Increased concentrations of the chemokines implicated in leukocyte recruitment to the liver were associated with persistent infection. Those patients with chronic HEV infection and progressing liver fibrosis had less quasispecies diversification during the first year than patients without liver fibrosis progression. Great quasispecies heterogeneity, a weak inflammatory response, and high serum concentrations of the chemokines involved in leukocyte recruitment to the liver in the acute phase were associated with persistent HEV infection. Slow quasispecies diversification during the first year was associated with rapidly developing liver fibrosis.

  5. An uncommon case of dyspnea with unilateral laryngeal paralysis in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerat, Justine; Lacoste, Marie; Prechoux, Jean-Marc; Aubry, Karine; Nadalon, Sylvie; Ly, Kim Heang; Bessede, Jean-Pierre

    2016-02-01

    A 61-year-old man with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and normal BMI complained of dyspnea. Nasofibroscopy revealed a global and major oedema of the glottis and supraglottis and also a paralysis of the left vocal fold. CT-scan pointed out a spontaneous hyperdensity of the left arytenoid cartilage. A tracheostomy was performed. Clinical examination revealed large hands and macroglossy with high IGF1 rate. MRI confirmed a supracentimetric pituitary adenoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a case of acute respiratory distress due to unilateral larynx paralysis leading to acromegaly diagnosis. This is due to submucosal hypertrophy and vocal cord immobility.

  6. Acupuncture and Moxibustion Treatment of 150 Cases of Peripheral Facial Paralysis in Different Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Huai-shi; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    Moxibustion was used in predominance in acute stage. Shallow needling technique plus electricstimulation was used in the restoration stage. Comprehensive therapy of acupuncture and massage was used in the sequels stage. 21 cases were cured in the acute stage. 101 cases were cured in the restoration stage.10 cases were cured in the sequels stage. The results indicate that the restoration stage is a key moment for treatment of peripheral facial paralysis.

  7. IL-17 response mediates acute lung injury induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenggang Li; Chen Wang; Zhongwei Chen; Li Xing; Chong Tang; Xiangwu Ju; Feng Guo; Jiejie Deng; Yan Zhao; Peng Yang; Jun Tang; Penghui Yang; Huanling Wang; Zhongpeng Zhao; Zhinan Yin; Bin Cao; Xiliang Wang; Chengyu Jiang; Yang Sun; Taisheng Li; Chen Wang; Zhong Wang; Zhen Zou; Yiwu Yan; Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic involved the emergence of a new strain of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus(S-OIV H1N1)that infected almost every country in the world.Most infections resulted in respiratory illness and some severe cases resulted in acute lung injury.In this report,we are the first to describe a mouse model of S-OIV virus infection with acute lung injury and immune responses that reflect human clinical disease.The clinical efficacy of the antiviral oseltamivir(Tamiflu)administered in the early stages of S-OIV H1N1 infection was confirmed in the mouse model.Moreover,elevated levels of IL-17,Th-17 mediators and IL-17-responsive cytokines were found in serum samples of S-OIV-infected patients in Beijing.IL-17 deficiency or treatment with monoclonal antibodies against IL-17-ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the S-OIV H1N1 virus in mice.These results suggest that IL-17 plays an important role in S-OIV-induced acute lung injury and that monoclonal antibodies against IL-17 could be useful as a potential therapeutic remedy for future S-OIV H1N1 pandemics.

  8. The Bone Hole Bloodletting Fit β-Seven YeZao Sodium and Mecobalamin Glycosides Treatment of Acute Facial Paralysis%完骨穴放血配合β-七叶皂苷钠及甲钴胺治疗急性面神经炎临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富昌

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨完骨穴放血疗法配合β-七叶皂苷钠及甲钴胺注射液治疗急性面神经炎的疗效.方法:将165例急性面神经炎的患者随机分为对照组80例和治疗组85例.对照组给予β-七叶皂苷钠20 mg+生理盐水250 mL,静脉滴注,同时给予甲钴胺0.5 mg肌肉注射,1次·d-1,共14 d;治疗组在对照组的基础上加完骨穴放血疗法.结果:治疗组有效率为94.1%,对照组有效率为85.0%,两组有效率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:完骨穴放血配合β-七叶皂苷钠及甲钴胺治疗急性面神经炎疗效显著.%Objective: To study the bone hole bloodletting therapy with beta seven YeZao sodium glycosides and mecobalamin injection in the treatment of acute the curative effect of facial paralysis. Methods: 165 cases of acute facial paralysis were randomly divided into control group of 80 cases and the treatment group 85 examples. Control group give beta seven YeZao sodium glycosides 20 mg + nacl 250 mL in static drop,once the one day,a total of 14 d;The treatment group in the control group after adding bone hole bloodletting therapy. Results;The effective rate was 94. 1% in treatment group and control group in effective rate was 5. 0% ,two groups of efficient comparison, the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: The bone hole bloodletting fit beta seven YeZao sodium and mecobalamin glycosides treatment of acute facial nerve inflammation clinical effect is remarkable.

  9. Acute hepatitis A virus infection is associated with a limited type I interferon response and persistence of intrahepatic viral RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanford, Robert E; Feng, Zongdi; Chavez, Deborah; Guerra, Bernadette; Brasky, Kathleen M; Zhou, Yan; Yamane, Daisuke; Perelson, Alan S; Walker, Christopher M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2011-07-05

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an hepatotropic human picornavirus that is associated only with acute infection. Its pathogenesis is not well understood because there are few studies in animal models using modern methodologies. We characterized HAV infections in three chimpanzees, quantifying viral RNA by quantitative RT-PCR and examining critical aspects of the innate immune response including intrahepatic IFN-stimulated gene expression. We compared these infection profiles with similar studies of chimpanzees infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), an hepatotropic flavivirus that frequently causes persistent infection. Surprisingly, HAV-infected animals exhibited very limited induction of type I IFN-stimulated genes in the liver compared with chimpanzees with acute resolving HCV infection, despite similar levels of viremia and 100-fold greater quantities of viral RNA in the liver. Minimal IFN-stimulated gene 15 and IFIT1 responses peaked 1-2 wk after HAV challenge and then subsided despite continuing high hepatic viral RNA. An acute inflammatory response at 3-4 wk correlated with the appearance of virus-specific antibodies and apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocytes. Despite this, HAV RNA persisted in the liver for months, remaining present long after clearance from serum and feces and revealing dramatic differences in the kinetics of clearance in the three compartments. Viral RNA was detected in the liver for significantly longer (35 to >48 wk) than HCV RNA in animals with acute resolving HCV infection (10-20 wk). Collectively, these findings indicate that HAV is far stealthier than HCV early in the course of acute resolving infection. HAV infections represent a distinctly different paradigm in virus-host interactions within the liver.

  10. A longitudinal study of respiratory viruses and bacteria in the etiology of acute otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, F W; Collier, A M; Sanyal, M A; Watkins, J M; Fairclough, D L; Clyde, W A; Denny, F W

    1982-06-10

    We analyzed data from a 14-year longitudinal study of respiratory infections in young children to determine the relative importance of viral respiratory infection and nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as factors influencing the occurrence of acute otitis media with effusion. The incidence of this disorder was increased in children with viral respiratory infections (average relative risk, 3.2; P less than 0.0001). Infection with respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus (type A or B), and adenovirus conferred a greater risk of otitis media than did infection with parainfluenza virus, enterovirus, or rhinovirus. Colonization of the nasopharynx with Str. pneumoniae or H. influenzae had a lesser effect on the incidence of the disease (average relative risk; 1.5; P less than 0.01). Infections with the viruses more closely associated with acute otitis media (respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and influenza A or B) were correlated with an increased risk of recurrent disease. Prevention of selected otitis-associated viral infections should reduce the incidence of this disease.

  11. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  12. A homosexual japanese man with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype ae, concurrent with amebic colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Kohsaku; KOBASHI, HARUHIKO; Takaki,Akinobu; Kato, Jun; Nawa,Toru; Tatsukawa, Masashi; ISHIKAWA, SHIN; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Miyake,Yasuhiro; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    We report herein a case with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype Ae, concurrent with amebic colitis. A 39-year-old homosexual Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice. Laboratory tests showed an elevation of transaminase and positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and IgM-type antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. The hepatitis B virus genotype was determined to be Ae. Furthermore, a mud-like stool with blood and mucous had sometimes been noted during the past ...

  13. Immune and inflammatory response in pigs during acute influenza caused by H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof; Czyżewska, Ewelina; Dors, Arkadiusz; Rachubik, Jarosław; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2014-10-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were studied. Nine pigs were infected intratracheally, and five served as controls. Antibodies against SIV were measured by haemagglutination inhibition assay, and the influenza-virus-specific T-cell response was measured using a proliferation assay. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) the concentrations in serum and concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in lung tissues were measured using commercial ELISAs.

  14. Efficacy of immunization against hepatitis B virus infection in acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuphan Kanti Dolai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the antibody response to combined passive-active immunization versus active immunization against hepatitis B in 71 patients with acute leukemia with negative hepatitis B virus serology at presentation. Materials and Methods: The first group (n=28 received a double dose of hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1, 2 and 6 months and immunoglobin (HBIG at 0 and 1 month concurrently with vaccine but at a different intramuscular site. The second group (n=43 received double dose of hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1, 2, and 6 months. HBsAg and anti-HBs titers were determined one month after the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th doses of vaccine. Results: In the vaccine-only group, 2.56%, 8.33%, 14.28% and 34.29% of patients developed anti-HBs titer ≥10 IU/L after the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th doses of vaccine, respectively. In the HBIG group, 91.30%, 91.30%, 69.56% and 73.91% of patients developed anti-HBs titer ≥10 IU/L after the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th doses of vaccine, respectively. Those in the vaccine-HBIG group maintained their anti-HBs titer ≥10 IU/L from the 1st to the 4th doses. In the vaccine-only group, 34.29% of patients gained protective antibody titer after receiving the 4th dose of vaccine. Subgroup analysis of age (pediatric vs adult and disease (acute lymphoblastic leukemia vs acute myeloid leukemia groups showed no effect of either on the development of protective antibody titer. The incidence of HBsAg positivity one month after the 4th dose of vaccine was 8.62%. No patient became positive for anti-HCV or HIV antibody before or after chemo therapy.Conclusion: Combined HBIG and vaccine may protect acute leukemia patients during the intensive chemotherapy period.

  15. Vocal cord paralysis in a fighter pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Stephen; Brennan, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    We present in this case report the return to flying duty of a pilot with vocal cord paralysis secondary to removal of a thymoma. We discuss the importance of glottic function as it pertains to the unique aviation environment. We also discuss the anatomy and physiology of the glottis, the evaluation for vocal cord paralysis, and surgical approaches for paralyzed vocal cords. Although the incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis is low in the military aviation community, it is important to recognize that its sequelae can be managed so that the aviator may return to flight duties.

  16. CLINICAL ANALYSIS ON THE TREATMENT OF FACIAL PARALYSIS BY ACUPUNCTURE, MOXIBUSTION PLUS CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-sha; SHEN Wei-hong

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To observe the therapeutic effect of the integrated acupuncture-moxibustion and herbal therapies for facial paralysis. Methods: A total of 68 cases of facial paralysis were treated by integration of acupuncture-moxibustion and herbal therapies. For facial palsy patients with wind-phlegm blocking meridian-collaterals and wind-stirring due to yin deficiency types in the acute stage, Modified respectively; and for those in convalescent stage and sequela stage, Replenishing Blood) + Qian Zheng San (Powder for Treating Wry-mouth) and Recuperation) were employed. Results: After the treatment, the curative rate of the 68 cases accounted for 90% of the total cases, the remarkably effective 6%, the improved 3% and the poor 1% respectively. Conclusion: The therapeutic effectiveness of the integrated treatment of acupuncture-moxibustion and herbal therapies for facial paralysis is certain.

  17. Different cytokine profile and eosinophil activation are involved in rhinovirus- and RS virus-induced acute exacerbation of childhood wheezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masahiko; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Yoshizumi, Masakazu; Saitoh, Mika; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Maruyama, Kenichi; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2011-02-01

    Because little information is available on eosinophil activation and cytokine response in virus-induced wheezing, we attempted to detect respiratory viruses and measure eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and 27 types of cytokines/chemokines in both serum and nasal secretions from children with wheezing. This study was an observational, case-control investigation of 267 subjects, who were visited and/or hospitalized with acute respiratory symptoms (with wheezing: men, 115; women, 59; mean/median age, 3.6/3.0 years) or who were visited for regular physical examination and treatment (non-symptomatic wheezing: men, 48; women, 31; mean/median, 5.0/4.7 years), and 14 control subjects (controls: men, 9; women, 5; mean/median, 3.6/3.7 years). We detected viruses in nasal secretions from 174 patients with acute exacerbations of wheezing using antigen detection kits or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, followed by direct DNA sequencing analysis. We measured peripheral eosinophil counts, and serum concentrations of ECP and 27 cytokines/chemokines using a multiplex bead-based assay in patients with wheezing or non-symptomatic wheezing. We also examined nasal ECP and 27 cytokines/chemokines in patients with wheezing. Of 174 samples from wheezing exacerbations, rhinovirus was detected in 59; respiratory syncytial (RS) virus in 44; enterovirus in 17; other viruses in 19; and no viruses in 35. Serum concentrations of ECP, IL-5, IL-6, IL-1ra, and IP-10 were significantly elevated in rhinovirus-induced wheezing compared with non-symptomatic wheezing. Similarly, serum ECP, IL-5, and IP-10 were significantly higher in rhinovirus-induced wheezing than in controls. On the other hand, IL-1ra and IP-10, but not ECP and IL-5 were significantly higher in RS virus-induced wheezing than in controls. Furthermore, only IL-5 was significantly elevated in the rhinovirus group compared with the RS virus group in both serum and nasal secretions. Different cytokine profile and

  18. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.;

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time coronary...... angiography. A total of 48 HIV-infected patients were identified from a national database. Coronary angiography showed that the HIV-infected patients had significantly fewer lesions with classification B2/C than the 2 control groups (p...

  19. Does Fasciola hepatica infection modify the response of acute hepatitis C virus infection to IFN-α treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Isler, Mehmet; Senol, Altug; Demirci, Mustafa; Aydın, Zeynep Dilek

    2005-01-01

    Immunologic response to acute hepatitis C is mainly a Th1 response, whereas fasciolopsiasis is associated with a diverse T-cell response. Interferon-alpha has immunomodulatory effects and enhances Th1 immune response. Fasciola infection could theoretically interfere with the Th1 immune response, even when acquired after an initial response to interferon-alpha treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We report here the case of a male patient who acquired Fasciola hepatica infection after an initial response to IFN-alpha therapy with a favorable outcome PMID:16437701

  20. Does Fasciola hepatica infection modify the response of acute hepatitis C virus infection to IFN-α treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Sahin; Mehmet Isler; Altug Senol; Mustafa Demirci; Zeynep Dilek Aydin

    2005-01-01

    Immunologic response to acute hepatitis C is mainly a Th1 response, whereas fasciolopsiasis is associated with a diverse T-cell response. Interferon-alpha has immunomodulatory effects and enhances Th1 immune response. Fasciola infection could theoretically interfere with the Th1 immune response, even when acquired after an initial response to interferon-alpha treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We report here the case of a male patient who acquired Fasciola hepatica infection after an initial response to IFN-alpha therapy with a favorable outcome

  1. Differential expression pattern of Vago in bumblebee (Bombus terrestris), induced by virulent and avirulent virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jinzhi; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-09-29

    Viruses are one of the main drivers of the decline of domesticated and wild bees but the mechanisms of antiviral immunity in pollinators are poorly understood. Recent work has suggested that next to the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway other immune-related pathways play a role in the defense of the bee hosts against viral infection. In addition, Vago plays a role in the cross-talk between the innate immune pathways in Culex mosquito cells. Here we describe the Vago orthologue in bumblebees of Bombus terrestris, and investigated its role upon the infection of two different bee viruses, the virulent Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) and the avirulent slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV). Our results showed that BtVago was downregulated upon the infection of IAPV that killed all bumblebees, but not with SBPV where the workers survived the virus infection. Thus, for the first time, Vago/Vago-like expression appears to be associated with the virulence of virus and may act as a modulator of antiviral immunity.

  2. [Summery and recommendations for acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Qiang; Yu, Su; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2011-12-01

    Articles on acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were picked up from CNKI database. The retrieved original studies were evaluated and summarized. The problems of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were analyzed, and concrete solutions were proposed. Problems that differential diagnosis, prognosis, treatment of severe facial paralysis, and identification of sequelae and compliation were not embasized in clinical treatment of facial paralysis. Consequently, the effectiveness of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis will be improved by sloving above problems.

  3. Prevalence of hepatitis viruses in patients with acute hepatitis and characterization of the detected genotype 4 hepatitis E virus sequences in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Baasanjav, Nachin; Nyamkhuu, Dulmaa; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis E is considered to be a worldwide public health problem. Although the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies in healthy individuals is noted to be 11%, no patients with acute hepatitis E have previously been identified in Mongolia. Three hundred two consecutive patients (183 males and 119 females; median age of 22.0 [Interquartile range: 18.3-25.0] years) who were clinically diagnosed with sporadic acute hepatitis during 2012-2013 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, were studied. By serological and/or molecular approaches, 77 (25.5%), 93 (30.8%), 19 (6.3%), 48 (15.9%), and 12 (4.0%) of the patients were diagnosed with acute hepatitis of types A, B, C, D (superinfection of hepatitis delta virus on a background of chronic hepatitis B virus infection) and E, respectively, while the cause of hepatitis was unknown in the remaining 53 patients (17.5%). The 12 hepatitis E patients had no history of travel abroad in the 3 months before the onset of disease, and lived separately in fixed or movable houses with water supplied via pipe, tank or well, denying transmission from a common water supply. The 12 HEV isolates obtained from the patients showed high nucleotide identities of 99.7-100%, and a representative HEV isolate, MNE13-227, was closest to the Chinese isolates of genotype 4, with the highest identity of 97.3% in the 304-nt ORF2 sequence and 92.1% over the entire genome. The present study revealed the occurrence of autochthonous acute hepatitis E in Mongolia, caused by a monophyletic genotype 4 HEV strain.

  4. Curative Effect of Electro-acupuncture at Meridian Sinew Nodal Point on Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke of Paralysis%电针经筋结点对缺血性脑卒中急性期偏瘫的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛国滨; 孟悦; 唐英

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察电针经筋结点治疗缺血性脑卒中急性期下肢瘫痪的临床疗效。方法:将48例缺血性脑卒中急性期下肢瘫痪患者以随机数字法随机分为观察组与对照组,各24例。观察组予电针经筋结点治疗,对照组予常规穴位电针治疗,疗程均为2周(每周7天,每日1次)。于治疗前后采用肌力6级分级法及修改的Ashworth法评定偏瘫下肢运动功能。结果:治疗后,观察组和对照组的肌力疗效比较差异无统计学意义,肌张力疗效比较差异有统计学意义,观察组肌张力达I和I+水平为83.33%,肌痉挛率为0%,对照组肌张力达I和I+水平为66.67%,肌痉挛率为8.33%,肌痉挛发生率观察组明显低于对照组,两组分别比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:电针经筋结点治疗缺血性脑卒中急性期下肢瘫痪疗效显著。%Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of electro -acupuncture at meridian sinew nodal point on lower limb paralysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke .Methods:Forty-eight patients with lower limb paralysis after acute ischemic stroke were randomized into an observation group and a control group , 24 cases in each group .The observation group was treated by electro -acupuncture at meridian sinew nodal point , while the con-trol group was intervened by conventional electro -acupuncture .Treatment was conducted for 2 weeks ( seven days per-week and once a day ) .Muscle strength classification method and modified Ashworth rating scale of each participator in both groups were assessed for two times ( once at admission and once after the final interven-tion).Results:After the treatment,the difference of the muscle strength in the observation group and control group was not statistically significant .The difference of the muscle tension between the observation group and the control group was statistically significant (P<0.05).The incidence of muscle

  5. 蜡疗对治疗手足口病合并急性迟缓性麻痹的疗效探讨%Investigation of the Effect of Wax Therapy on Acute Flaccid Paralysis Caused by Hand-foot-and-mouth Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩; 尚清; 马彩云; 刘冬芝

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨蜡疗对手足口病合并急性迟缓性麻痹的临床疗效。方法随机选择该院2014年3月-2015年3月收治的80例手足口病合并急性迟缓性麻痹患儿,随机分为蜡疗组和对照组各40例。对照组给予运动训练,作业疗法,电子生物反馈等康复治疗,蜡疗组在对照组基础上加用蜡疗,观察时间为2个月,采用粗大运动功能评估量表比较两组在治疗前后运动功能变化。结果治疗2个月后,GMFM评分蜡疗组(26.87±3.90)高于对照组(22.71±4.31),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗中两组均未见明显不良反应。结论加用蜡疗可提高手足口病合并急性迟缓性麻痹的康复效果,且无明显不良反应。%Objective To investigation the clinical curative effect of wax therapy on acute flaccid paralysis caused by hand-foot-and-mouth disease. Methods 80 cases with acute flaccid paralysis caused by hand-foot-and-mouth disease admitted to our hospital from March 2014 to March 2015 were selected and randomly divided into the wax therapy and the control group with 40 cases in each. Both groups were given exercise therapy, occupational therapy and bioedback therapy and oth-er rehabilitation therapy for 2 months, the observation group was additionally given wax therapy. The motor function was e-valuated in the two groups by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) before and after 2 months of treatment. Results The GMFM scores were much higher in the wax therapy group than those in the control group [(26.87±3.90) points vs (22.71±4.31) points], there was statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). There was no untoward reaction in the two groups during treatment. Conclusion Wax therapy combined with rehabilitation therapy can improve the effect of rehabilitation in acute flaccid paralysis caused by hand-foot-and-mouth disease without any obvious adverse reac-tions.

  6. Outbreak of acute hepatitis C following the use of anti-hepatitis C virus--screened intravenous immunoglobulin therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Healey, C J; Sabharwal, N K; Daub, J.; Davidson, F; Yap, P L; Fleming, K A; Chapman, R. W.; Simmonds, P; Chapel, H

    1996-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with intravenous (IV) immunoglobulin (Ig), and plasma donations used to prepare IV Ig are now screened to prevent transmission. Thirty-six patients from the United Kingdom received infusions from a batch of anti-HCV antibody-screened intravenous Ig (Gammagard; Baxter Healthcare Ltd., Thetford, Norfolk, England) that was associated with reports of acute hepatitis C outbreak in Europe. The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology o...

  7. Analysis of the Molecular Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes in Symptomatic Acute Infections in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Rodrigo

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a globally distributed human pathogen that leads to both self-limited and chronic infections. At least eight genotypes (A-H with distinct geographical allocations and phylodynamic behaviors have been described. They differ substantially in many virological and probably some clinical parameters. The aim of this study was to analyze full-length HBV genome sequences from individuals with symptomatic acute HBV infections using phylogenetic and coalescent methods. The phylogenetic analysis resulted in the following subgenotype distribution: F1b (52.7%, A2 (18.2%, F4 (18.2% and A1, B2, D3 and F2a 1.8% each. These results contrast with those previously reported from chronic infections, where subgenotypes F1b, F4, A2 and genotype D were evenly distributed. This differential distribution might be related to recent internal migrations and/or intrinsic biological features of each viral genotype that could impact on the probability of transmission. The coalescence analysis showed that after a diversification process started in the 80s, the current sequences of subgenotype F1b were grouped in at least four highly supported lineages, whereas subgenotype F4 revealed a more limited diversification pattern with most lineages without offspring in the present. In addition, the genetic characterization of the studied sequences showed that only two of them presented mutations of clinical relevance at S codifyng region and none at the polymerase catalytic domains. Finally, since the acute infections could be an expression of the genotypes currently being transmitted to new hosts, the predominance of subgenotype F1b might have epidemiological, as well as, clinical relevance due to its potential adverse disease outcome among the chronic cases.

  8. Analysis of the Molecular Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes in Symptomatic Acute Infections in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María Belén; Mojsiejczuk, Laura Noelia; Torres, Carolina; Sevic, Ina; González López Ledesma, María Mora; Perez, Paula Soledad; Bouzas, María Belén; Galdame, Omar; Marciano, Sebastián; Fainboim, Hugo; Flichman, Diego Martín; Campos, Rodolfo Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a globally distributed human pathogen that leads to both self-limited and chronic infections. At least eight genotypes (A-H) with distinct geographical allocations and phylodynamic behaviors have been described. They differ substantially in many virological and probably some clinical parameters. The aim of this study was to analyze full-length HBV genome sequences from individuals with symptomatic acute HBV infections using phylogenetic and coalescent methods. The phylogenetic analysis resulted in the following subgenotype distribution: F1b (52.7%), A2 (18.2%), F4 (18.2%) and A1, B2, D3 and F2a 1.8% each. These results contrast with those previously reported from chronic infections, where subgenotypes F1b, F4, A2 and genotype D were evenly distributed. This differential distribution might be related to recent internal migrations and/or intrinsic biological features of each viral genotype that could impact on the probability of transmission. The coalescence analysis showed that after a diversification process started in the 80s, the current sequences of subgenotype F1b were grouped in at least four highly supported lineages, whereas subgenotype F4 revealed a more limited diversification pattern with most lineages without offspring in the present. In addition, the genetic characterization of the studied sequences showed that only two of them presented mutations of clinical relevance at S codifyng region and none at the polymerase catalytic domains. Finally, since the acute infections could be an expression of the genotypes currently being transmitted to new hosts, the predominance of subgenotype F1b might have epidemiological, as well as, clinical relevance due to its potential adverse disease outcome among the chronic cases. PMID:27433800

  9. New Immunochromatographic Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Acute Puumala Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujakka, Helena; Koistinen, Vesa; Eerikäinen, Pekka; Kuronen, Ilpo; Mononen, Ilkka; Parviainen, Markku; Lundkvist, Åke; Vaheri, Antti; Närvänen, Ale; Vapalahti, Olli

    2001-01-01

    A new immunochromatographic rapid test, POC PUUMALA (Erilab Ltd., Kuopio, Finland), for detection of acute-phase Puumala virus (PUUV) infection was developed based on a highly purified baculovirus-expressed PUUV nucleocapsid protein antigen and lateral immunodiffusion techniques. After addition of sample (5 μl of serum, plasma, or fingertip blood) and buffer, PUUV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, if present, together with the gold-conjugated anti-human IgM, formed a specific colored line in 5 min. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated with 200 serum samples and 30 fingertip blood samples. The reference method for the serum samples was a μ-capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgM and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for IgG antibodies. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 100 and 99%, respectively, for unfrozen serum samples (n = 103; 12 PUUV IgM-positive samples). When freeze-thawed serum samples were used, the sensitivity and specificity were each 97.1% (n = 70; 35 PUUV IgM-positive samples). The specificity of the test was 96.2% for 27 serum samples with nonspecific IgM antibodies or rheumatoid factor (RF). The fingertip blood samples (n = 30) were negative, but they gave clear positive results when spiked with IgM-positive sera (n = 20). The results were in good agreement with the standard diagnostic methods. The rapid performance, the lack of need for refined laboratory equipment, and the high specificity with fresh serum and fingertip blood samples indicate that the developed POC PUUMALA rapid test is a useful tool for fast diagnosis of acute PUUV infection. PMID:11376049

  10. Tick paralysis: first zoonosis record in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosabah, Amira A Abd El-rahman; Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-04-01

    Tick paralysis caused by the secretion of toxin with saliva while taking a blood meal is an important veterinary disease, but is rare in humans. Although it has certain geographical proclivities, it exists worldwide. Tick paralysis was demonstrated for the first time in Egypt among four children living in rural area at Giza Governorate. The clinical pictures were confused with rabies; myasthensia gravis; botulism; diphtheritic polyneuropathy encountered in rural areas. The recovery of tick infesting the four little children and negative clinical and laboratory data of all diseases denoted tick paralysis. The encountered ticks infesting their animals were Rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs, Hyalomma dromedarii on camels and Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and Haemaphysalis sp. on goats. The case was recognized as first record of tick paralysis in Egypt.

  11. DIAGNOSTICATION OF HYPERKALEMIC PERIODIC PARALYSIS IN HORSES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S.E. GEORGESCU; MARIA ADINA MANEA; ANCA DINISCHIOTU; C.D. TESIO; MARIETA COSTACHE

    2013-01-01

    Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP) is a muscle disease which has been firstreported in 1985 in the USA, in a group of 4 horses with episodic weaknessassociated with intermittent serum hyperkalemia...

  12. Voltage Sensors in Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at the National Hospital, Queen Square, London, UK, conducted automated DNA sequencing of the S4 regions of CACNA1S and SCN4A in 83 patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP.

  13. Concurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary periodic paralysis is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of ion-channel dysfunction, manifested by episodic flaccid paresis secondary to abnormal sarcolemma excitability. Membrane destabilization involving Na, K-ATPase has been hypothesized to be a biological etiology of the bipolar disorder (BD and the mechanisms underlying lithium therapy have been linked to it. To date, there has been only one reported case of BD comorbid with periodic paralysis. Herein, we reported another case of concurrent bipolar mania and hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP, one special form of periodic paralysis. Consistent with the previous case, our patient responded well to lithium treatment for both bipolar mania and HPP. This might provide some support to the hypothesis that the therapeutic effects of lithium in both BD and HPP could be due to the correction of the underlying common pathophysiology.

  14. Full-Breadth Analysis of CD8+ T-Cell Responses in Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Early Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Georg M.; Lucas, Michaela; Timm, Joerg; Ouchi, Kei; Kim, Arthur Y.; Day, Cheryl L.; zur Wiesch, Julian Schulze; Paranhos-Baccala, Glaucia; Sheridan, Isabelle; Casson, Deborah R.; Reiser, Markus; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Li, Bin; Allen, Todd M.; Chung, Raymond T.; Klenerman, Paul; Walker, Bruce D.

    2005-01-01

    Multispecific CD8+ T-cell responses are thought to be important for the control of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but to date little information is actually available on the breadth of responses at early time points. Additionally, the influence of early therapy on these responses and their relationships to outcome are controversial. To investigate this issue, we performed comprehensive analysis of the breadth and frequencies of virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses on the single epitope level in eight acutely infected individuals who were all started on early therapy. During the acute phase, responses against up to five peptides were identified. During therapy, CD8+ T-cell responses decreased rather than increased as virus was controlled, and no new specificities emerged. A sustained virological response following completion of treatment was independent of CD8+ T-cell responses, as well as CD4+ T-cell responses. Rapid recrudescence also occurred despite broad CD8+ T-cell responses. Importantly, in vivo suppression of CD3+ T cells using OKT3 in one subject did not result in recurrence of viremia. These data suggest that broad CD8+ T-cell responses alone may be insufficient to contain HCV replication, and also that early therapy is effective independent of such responses. PMID:16189000

  15. [Surgical facial reanimation after persisting facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    Facial reanimation following persistent facial paralysis can be managed with surgical procedures of varying complexity. The choice of the technique is mainly determined by the cause of facial paralysis, the age and desires of the patient. The techniques most commonly used are the nerve grafts (VII-VII, XII-VII, cross facial graft), dynamic muscle transfers (temporal myoplasty, free muscle transfert) and static suspensions. An intensive rehabilitation through specific exercises after all procedures is essential to archieve good results.

  16. The serological markers of acute infection with hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and G viruses revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondé, Robério Amorim de Almeida

    2017-09-07

    Viral hepatitis is a liver infection caused by one of the six hepatitis viruses: hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, and G virus (HAV to HEV and HGV). These agents differ in their biological, immunological, pathological and epidemiological characteristics. They cause infections that, when symptomatic, lead to clinical manifestations and laboratory findings that are not specific to a particular virus, often making differential diagnosis difficult, especially when no knowledge is available regarding the patient's medical history or the epidemiological background. A number of acute-phase serological markers, such as anti-HAV, anti-HBc, anti-HDV and anti-HEV IgM antibodies, are able to provide a clear indication of an infection caused by HAV, HBV, HDV or HEV. Anti-HCV antibodies and HGV/RNA are used for the diagnosis of HCV and HGV infections. The importance of each of these markers will be reviewed, and different factors that can interfere with the diagnosis of acute infections caused by these viruses will be described.

  17. Immunohistochemical detection of virus through its nuclear cytopathic effect in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia other than acute exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. dos Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias include complex diseases that have a strong interaction between genetic makeup and environmental factors. However, in many cases, no infectious agent can be demonstrated, and these clinical diseases rapidly progress to death. Theoretically, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias could be caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis C virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and herpesvirus, which may be present in such small amounts or such configuration that routine histopathological analysis or viral culture techniques cannot detect them. To test the hypothesis that immunohistochemistry provides more accurate results than the mere histological demonstration of viral inclusions, this method was applied to 37 open lung biopsies obtained from patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. As a result, immunohistochemistry detected measles virus and cytomegalovirus in diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 38 and 10% of the cases, respectively. Alveolar epithelium infection by cytomegalovirus was observed in 25% of organizing pneumonia patterns. These findings were coincident with nuclear cytopathic effects but without demonstration of cytomegalovirus inclusions. These data indicate that diffuse alveolar damage-related cytomegalovirus or measles virus infections enhance lung injury, and a direct involvement of these viruses in diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns is likely. Immunohistochemistry was more sensitive than the histological demonstration of cytomegalovirus or measles virus inclusions. We concluded that all patients with diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns should be investigated for cytomegalovirus and measles virus using sensitive immunohistochemistry in conjunction with routine procedures.

  18. Equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis: review and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, J M

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to present an up-to-date summary of the signs, diagnosis, treatment, and implications of equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. The review encompasses all original articles published between 1986 and early 1993. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is the result of a genetic mutation in the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait; most affected horses are heterozygotes. The classical signs are muscle fasciculation, spasm, and weakness associated with hyperkalemia. However, these signs are only rarely observed in affected horses. Potential sequelae to attacks are abrasions and involuntary recumbency; these problems are not specific for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, but they occur more frequently in hyperkalemic periodic paralysis-affected horses. It is also likely that hyperkalemic periodic paralysis results in greater muscle mass. There are suggestions that homozygotes may be more severely affected and show signs of upper respiratory obstruction as foals. The practitioner needs to be aware of the tests for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, and their limitations, so that he can properly diagnose this condition. The industry has the difficult problem of deciding whether or not testing should be mandatory and the fate of positive horses.

  19. Prolonged period of acute bronchitis with late progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome as possible result of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsi, Samer; Milojkovic, Natasa; Alawad, Bashar; Homsi, Yamen

    2012-09-01

    Young adults with underlying medical conditions who are infected with the H1N1 virus are at risk of quickly progressing from mild upper airways infection to severe ARDS within 4 to 5 days after the onset of the illness. Here, we report the case of a 46-year-old morbidly obese and diabetic woman infected with the H1N1 virus who developed acute bronchitis that lasted for 4 weeks and then progressed to ARDS. We discuss the month-long persistence of the H1N1 viral bronchitis and its late progression to ARDS which may reflect prolonged viral activity. Such a prolonged, rather than quick, course of deterioration can cause clinicians to misdiagnose the etiology of the ARDS and may cause the patient to receive a prolonged treatment with steroids to treat bronchitis symptoms. These steroids may cause increased viral replication and promote parenchymal involvement and the development of ARDS.

  20. Survival and prognostic factors in hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Huang; Jin-Hua Hu; Hui-Fen Wang; Wei-Ping He; Jing Chen; Xue-Zhang Duan; Ai-Min Zhang; Xiao-Yan Liu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the survival rates and prognostic ffactors in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver ffailure (HBV-ACLF).METHODS: Clinical data in hospitalized patients with HBV-ACLF admitted ffrom 2006 to 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Their general conditions and survival were analyzed by survival analysis and Cox regression analysis.RESULTS: A total off 190 patients were included in this study. The overall 1-year survival rate was 57.6%. Patients not treated with antiviral drugs had a significantly higher mortality [relative risk (RR) = 0.609, P = 0.014].The highest risk off death in patients with ACLF was associated with hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) (RR = 2.084, P =0.026), while other significant factors were electrolyte disturbances (RR = 2.062, P = 0.010), and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (RR = 1.879, P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Antiviral therapy has a strong effffect on the prognosis off the patients with HBV-ACLF by improving their 1-year survival rate. HRS, electrolyte disturbances,and HE also affffect patient survival.

  1. Acute hepatitis C virus infection in a nurse trainee following a needlestick injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaggiante, Renzo; Chemello, Liliana; Rinaldi, Roberto; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after biological accident (needlestick injury) is a rare event. This report describes the first case of acute HCV infection after a needlestick injury in a female nursing student at Padua University Hospital. The student nurse was injured on the second finger of the right hand when recapping a 23-gauge needle after taking a blood sample. The patient who was the source was a 72-year-old female with weakly positive anti-HCV test results. Three months after the injury, at the second step of follow-up, a relevant increase in transaminases with a low viral replication activity (350 IU/mL) was observed in the student, indicating HCV infection. The patient tested positive for the same genotype (1b) of HCV as the injured student. A rapid decline in transaminases, which was not accompanied by viral clearance, and persistently positive HCV-RNA was described 1 mo later. Six months after testing positive for HCV, the student was treated with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin for 24 wk. A rapid virological response was observed after 4 wk of treatment, and a sustained virological response (SVR) was evident 6 mo after therapy withdrawal, confirming that the patient was definitively cured. Despite the favourable IL28B gene (rs12979860) CC- polymorphism observed in the patient, which is usually predictive of a spontaneous clearance and SVR, spontaneous viral clearance did not take place; however, infection with this genotype was promising for a sustained virological response after therapy. PMID:23382640

  2. [Acute outbreak of hepatitis C in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rebollar, Maria; Mallolas, Josep; Pérez, Iñaki; González-Cordón, Ana; Loncà, Montserrat; Torres, Berta; Rojas, Jhon-Fredy; Monteiro, Polyana; Blanco, José-Luis; Martínez, Esteban; Gatell, José-María; Laguno, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest an increased incidence of acute infection with hepatitisC virus (AHC) in men who have sex with men (MSM) co-infected with HIV. Early treatment with interferon-alpha, alone or in combination with ribavirin, significantly reduces the risk of chronic evolution. This retrospective study includes all HIV patients with AHC in our centre from 2003 to March 2013. AHC was defined by seroconversion of HCV antibodies and detection of serum HCV RNA. 93 episodes of AHC were diagnosed in 89 patients. All but three were MSM with a history of unprotected sex. Thirty-seven (40%) patients had other associated sexually transmitted disease. The 29% (27) had any symptoms suggestive of AHC. HCV genotype 4 was the most common (41%), followed by genotype1. Seventy patients started treatment with interferon-alfa and weight-adjusted ribavirin. Currently 46 have completed treatment and follow-up, reaching 26 of them (56.5%) sustained viral response. The incidence of AHC in HIV MSM patients from our centre has increased exponentially in recent years; sexual transmission remains the main route of infection. Early treatment with interferon-alpha and ribavirin achieved a moderate response in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION IN CHILDREN IN THE AGE ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Rovny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features of laboratory-confirmed acute respiratory syncytial virus infection (ARSVI are described in 221 children of the age from 1 month to 5 years. Febrile fever has been recorded in 76% of patients with ARSVI, and significantly more often in children in the second year of life (92%, but the difference in the temerature or duration has not been found. 98% of children have had symptoms of the lower respiratory tract lesions. The most common ARSVI manifestations in the patients of the first year of life were obstructive diseases of the lower respiratory tract (obstructive bronchitis in 53% and bronchiolitis in 11% of children, in the patients of the second year of life — pneumonia (28%, p < 0,05 and catarrhal otitis (26%; p < 0,05. Bronchial obstruction syndrome in children of the first year of life was characterized by the significantly higher frequency (73% and the maximal duration (9,7 ± 1,08 days. The largest number of cases of the severe respiratory failure has been recorded among patients of the second year of life (3 degree of respiratory failure in 22% of patients, p < 0,05.

  4. Infection of rhesus macaques with a pool of simian immunodeficiency virus with the envelope genes from acute HIV-1 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Kendall C; Tian, Meijuan; Asmal, Mohammed; Ling, Binhua; Nelson, Kenneth; Henry, Kenneth; Gibson, Richard; Li, Yuejin; Han, Weining; Shattock, Robin J; Veazey, Ronald S; Letvin, Norman; Arts, Eric J; Gao, Yong

    2016-11-25

    New simian-human immunodeficiency chimeric viruses with an HIV-1 env (SHIVenv) are critical for studies on HIV pathogenesis, vaccine development, and microbicide testing. Macaques are typically exposed to single CCR5-using SHIVenv which in most instances does not reflect the conditions during acute/early HIV infection (AHI) in humans. Instead of individual and serial testing new SHIV constructs, a pool of SHIVenv_B derived from 16 acute HIV-1 infections were constructed using a novel yeast-based SHIV cloning approach and then used to infect macaques. Even though none of the 16 SHIVenvs contained the recently reported mutations in env genes that could significantly enhance their binding affinity to RhCD4, one SHIVenv (i.e. SHIVenv_B3-PRB926) established infection in macaques exposed to this pool. AHI SHIVenv_B viruses as well as their HIVenv_B counterparts were analyzed for viral protein content, function, and fitness to identify possible difference between SHIVenv_B3-PRB926 and the other 15 SHIVenvs in the pool. All of the constructs produced SHIV or HIV chimeric with wild type levels of capsid (p27 and p24) content, reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, and expressed envelope glycoproteins that could bind to cell receptors CD4/CCR5 and mediate virus entry. HIV-1env_B chimeric viruses were propagated in susceptible cell lines but the 16 SHIVenv_B variants showed only limited replication in macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and 174×CEM.CCR5 cell line. AHI chimeric viruses including HIVenv_B3 showed only minor variations in cell entry efficiency and kinetics as well as replicative fitness in human PBMCs. Reduced number of N-link glycosylation sites and slightly greater CCR5 affinity/avidity was the only distinguishing feature of env_B3 versus other AHI env's in the pool, a feature also observed in the HIV establishing new infections in humans. Despite the inability to propagate in primary cells and cell lines, a pool of 16 SHIVenv viruses could

  5. [Observation on therapeutic effect of aponeurotic system penetration needling on peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai-sheng; Huang, Man-wei; Wang, Qiong-mei

    2006-03-01

    To observe therapeutic effect of aponeurotic system penetration needling on peripheral facial paralysis. One hundred and ten cases of peripheral facial paralysis were randomly divided into a Jingjin group (n=68) and a control group (n=42). The therapeutic effects of acute stage, resting stage and sequela stage, and the relation between the facial nerve lesion degree and the therapeutic effect were investigated. The effective rates of the two needling methods were respectively 98.5% and 90.5%, the Jing1in group being better than the control group (P acupuncture was obvious, and the therapeutic effect at the sequela stage and for the patient of nerve faulty type in the Jingjin group were better than that of the control group (P Acupuncture and moxibustion has definite therapeutic effect on facial paralysis at the acute stage and in the patient of nerve active type, and aponeurotic system penetration needling can be used for the patient of facial paralysis at the sequela stage or with nerve faulty type.

  6. An Epstein-Barr virus encoded inhibitor of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 signaling is an important determinant for acute and persistent EBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Makoto; Fogg, Mark H; Orlova, Nina; Quink, Carol; Wang, Fred

    2012-12-01

    Acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is the most common cause of Infectious Mononucleosis. Nearly all adult humans harbor life-long, persistent EBV infection which can lead to development of cancers including Hodgkin Lymphoma, Burkitt Lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and lymphomas in immunosuppressed patients. BARF1 is an EBV replication-associated, secreted protein that blocks Colony Stimulating Factor 1 (CSF-1) signaling, an innate immunity pathway not targeted by any other virus species. To evaluate effects of BARF1 in acute and persistent infection, we mutated the BARF1 homologue in the EBV-related herpesvirus, or lymphocryptovirus (LCV), naturally infecting rhesus macaques to create a recombinant rhLCV incapable of blocking CSF-1 (ΔrhBARF1). Rhesus macaques orally challenged with ΔrhBARF1 had decreased viral load indicating that CSF-1 is important for acute virus infection. Surprisingly, ΔrhBARF1 was also associated with dramatically lower virus setpoints during persistent infection. Normal acute viral load and normal viral setpoints during persistent rhLCV infection could be restored by Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-induced immunosuppression prior to oral inoculation with ΔrhBARF1 or infection of immunocompetent animals with a recombinant rhLCV where the rhBARF1 was repaired. These results indicate that BARF1 blockade of CSF-1 signaling is an important immune evasion strategy for efficient acute EBV infection and a significant determinant for virus setpoint during persistent EBV infection.

  7. An Epstein-Barr virus encoded inhibitor of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 signaling is an important determinant for acute and persistent EBV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ohashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection is the most common cause of Infectious Mononucleosis. Nearly all adult humans harbor life-long, persistent EBV infection which can lead to development of cancers including Hodgkin Lymphoma, Burkitt Lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and lymphomas in immunosuppressed patients. BARF1 is an EBV replication-associated, secreted protein that blocks Colony Stimulating Factor 1 (CSF-1 signaling, an innate immunity pathway not targeted by any other virus species. To evaluate effects of BARF1 in acute and persistent infection, we mutated the BARF1 homologue in the EBV-related herpesvirus, or lymphocryptovirus (LCV, naturally infecting rhesus macaques to create a recombinant rhLCV incapable of blocking CSF-1 (ΔrhBARF1. Rhesus macaques orally challenged with ΔrhBARF1 had decreased viral load indicating that CSF-1 is important for acute virus infection. Surprisingly, ΔrhBARF1 was also associated with dramatically lower virus setpoints during persistent infection. Normal acute viral load and normal viral setpoints during persistent rhLCV infection could be restored by Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-induced immunosuppression prior to oral inoculation with ΔrhBARF1 or infection of immunocompetent animals with a recombinant rhLCV where the rhBARF1 was repaired. These results indicate that BARF1 blockade of CSF-1 signaling is an important immune evasion strategy for efficient acute EBV infection and a significant determinant for virus setpoint during persistent EBV infection.

  8. Vocal cord paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ericka F; Blumin, Joel H

    2009-12-01

    Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is an increasingly commonly identified problem in the pediatric patient. Diagnostic and management techniques honed in adult laryngologic practice have been successfully applied to children. Iatrogenic causes, including cardiothoracic procedures, remain a common cause of unilateral VFP. Neurologic disorders predominate in the cause of bilateral VFP. Diagnosis with electromyography is currently being evaluated in children. Treatment of VFP is centered around symptomology, which is commonly divided between voice and airway concerns. Speech therapy shows promise in older children. Surgical management for unilateral VFP with injection laryngoplasty is commonly performed and well tolerated. Laryngeal reinnervation is currently being applied to the pediatric population as a permanent treatment and offers several advantages over laryngeal framework procedures. For bilateral VFP, tracheotomy is still commonly performed. Glottic dilation procedures are performed both openly and endoscopically with a high degree of success. VFP is a well recognized problem in pediatric patients with disordered voice and breathing. Some patients will spontaneously recover their laryngeal function. For those who do not, a variety of reliable techniques are available for rehabilitative treatment.

  9. Rescue of avian leukosis subgroup-J-associated acutely transforming viruses carrying different lengths of the v-fps oncogene and analysis of their tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Fang, Lichun; Li, Jianliang; Li, Yang; Cui, Shuai; Sun, Xiaolong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2016-12-01

    In our previous study, six subgroup J strains of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J)-associated acutely transforming viruses carrying different lengths of the v-fps oncogene, designated as Fu-J and Fu-J1-5, were isolated and characterized from fibrosarcomas in ALV-J-infected chickens. In the present study, the oncogenic potential of Fu-J and Fu-J1-5 was investigated using a reverse genetics technique. Six replication-defective viruses, named rFu-J and rFu-J1-5, were rescued with the replication-competent rescued ALV-J strain rSDAU1005 as a helper virus by co-transfection of chicken embryo fibroblast monolayers with infectious clone plasmids. Experimental bird studies were performed, demonstrating that only the rescued rFu-J virus carrying the complete v-fps oncogene with rSDAU1005 as the helper virus could induce acute fibrosarcoma after inoculation in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. These results provide direct evidence that the replication-defective acutely transforming Fu-J virus, with the complete v-fps oncogene, was associated with acute fibrosarcoma in chickens infected with ALV-J in the field, as reported previously.

  10. Successful vaccination strategies that protect aged mice from lethal challenge from influenza virus and heterologous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Timothy; Whitmore, Alan; Long, Kristin; Ferris, Martin; Rockx, Barry; Funkhouser, William; Donaldson, Eric; Gralinski, Lisa; Collier, Martha; Heise, Mark; Davis, Nancy; Johnston, Robert; Baric, Ralph S

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging viruses often circulate as a heterogeneous swarm in wild animal reservoirs prior to their emergence in humans, and their antigenic identities are often unknown until an outbreak situation. The newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and reemerging influenza virus cause disproportionate disease in the aged, who are also notoriously difficult to successfully vaccinate, likely due to immunosenescence. To protect against future emerging strains, vaccine platforms should induce broad cross-reactive immunity that is sufficient to protect from homologous and heterologous challenge in all ages. From initial studies, we hypothesized that attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particle (VRP) vaccine glycoproteins mediated vaccine failure in the aged. We then compared the efficacies of vaccines bearing attenuated (VRP(3014)) or wild-type VEE glycoproteins (VRP(3000)) in young and aged mice within novel models of severe SARS-CoV pathogenesis. Aged animals receiving VRP(3000)-based vaccines were protected from SARS-CoV disease, while animals receiving the VRP(3014)-based vaccines were not. The superior protection for the aged observed with VRP(3000)-based vaccines was confirmed in a lethal influenza virus challenge model. While the VRP(3000) vaccine's immune responses in the aged were sufficient to protect against lethal homologous and heterologous challenge, our data suggest that innate defects within the VRP(3014) platform mediate vaccine failure. Exploration into the mechanism(s) of successful vaccination in the immunosenescent should aid in the development of successful vaccine strategies for other viral diseases disproportionately affecting the elderly, like West Nile virus, influenza virus, norovirus, or other emerging viruses of the future.

  11. Treatment of acute hepatitis C virus infection with interferon-α 2b and ribavirin: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunbul Mustafa

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection becomes chronic in about 85 % of individuals as demonstrated by the persistence of HCV. It is necesseray to treat acute hepatitis C infection. Interferon-α is generally used for the treatment of acute HCV infection. Case presentation A 55-year-old woman with a history of fatique and icter was diagnosed as acute hepatitis C virus infection. She was treated with interferon-α 2b 3 million unite sc three times in a week and ribavirin 1000 mg daily for 6 months. Within 2 weeks of therapy, the alanine aminotransferase (ALT had became normal. At the end of the 3 months of therapy, HCV RNA was negative and remained negative 6 months after the end of interferon treatment (sustained response. Conclusion This report suggests that interferon-α 2b and ribavirin may have a role in treatment of acute hepatitis C virus infection.

  12. Acute leukemia viruses E26 and avian myeloblastosis virus have related transformation-specific RNA sequences but different genetic structures, gene products, and oncogenic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bister, Klaus; Nunn, Michael; Moscovici, Carlo; Perbal, Bernard; Baluda, Marcel A.; Duesberg, Peter H.

    1982-01-01

    Replication-defective acute leukemia viruses E26 and myeloblastosis virus (AMV) cause distinct leukemias although they belong to the same subgroup of oncogenic avian tumor viruses based on shared transformation-specific (onc) RNA sequences. E26 causes predominantly erythroblastosis in chicken and in quail, whereas AMV induces a myeloid leukemia. However, upon cultivation in vitro for >1 month, a majority of surviving hemopoietic cells of E26-infected animals bear myeloid markers similar to those of AMV-transformed cells. We have analyzed the genetic structure and gene products of E26 virus for a comparison with those of AMV. An E26/helper virus complex was found to contain two RNA species: a 5.7-kilobase (kb) RNA that hybridizes with cloned AMV-specific proviral DNA and hence is probably the E26 genome; and an 8.5-kb RNA that is unrelated to AMV and represents helper virus RNA. Thus, E26 RNA is smaller than 7.5-kb AMV RNA. Hybridization of size-selected poly(A)-terminating E26 RNA fragments with AMV-specific DNA indicated that the shared specific sequences are located in the 5′ half of the E26 genome as opposed to a 3′ location in AMV RNA. In nonproducer cells transformed in vitro by E26, a gag-related nonstructural 135,000-dalton protein (p135) was found. No gag(Pr76) or gag-pol (Pr180) precursors of essential virion proteins, which are present in AMV nonproducer cells, were observed. p135 was also found in cultured E26 virus producing cells of several leukemic chickens, and its intracellular concentration relative to that of the essential virion proteins encoded by the helper virus correlates with the ratio of E26 to helper RNA in virions released by these cells. p135 is phosphorylated but not glycosylated; antigenically it is not related to the pol or env gene products. It appears to be coded for by a partial gag gene and by E26-specific RNA sequences, presumably including those shared with AMV. Hence, AMV and E26 appear to use different strategies for the

  13. Kinetics of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-10, and virus neutralising antibodies during acute ephemeral fever virus infections in Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barigye, R; Melville, L F; Davis, S; Walsh, S; Hunt, N; Hunt, R; Elliot, N

    2015-12-15

    While fever and inflammation are hallmark features of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), the cytokine networks that underlie the acute phase of the disease have not been empirically defined in cattle. This study characterised the plasma kinetics of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and IL-10 during acute BEF and elucidated on the relationship between the onset of the virus neutralizing antibody response and resolution of viraemia in natural BEF virus (BEFV) infections in cattle. Plasma from three BEFV-infected and three uninfected cattle was tested for the study cytokines by a cELISA, viraemia monitored by qRT-PCR, and virus neutralizing antibody titres determined using a standard protocol. Unlike the negative controls, plasma concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were consistently increased in the three virus-infected animals. Two of the infected heifers were recumbent and pyrexic on the first day of monitoring and increased cytokine production was already in progress by the time viraemia was detected in all the three infected animals. In all the virus-infected heifers, IL-1β was the most strongly expressed cytokine, IL-6 and IL-10 manifested intermediate plasma concentrations while TNF-α was the least expressed and demonstrated bi-phasic peaks three and five days after the onset of pyrexia. In two of the BEFV-infected heifers, viraemia resolved on the day of seroconversion while in the other infected animal, viral RNA was detectable up to three days after seroconversion. The present data document variable increase in plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 during natural BEFV infections and the fact that upregulation of all but TNF-α precedes seroconversion. In addition to virus neutralising antibodies, it is likely that cytokine-mediated cellular mechanisms may be required for resolution of viraemia in BEF. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of IL-10, its upregulation may potentially antagonise the fever response in BEFV

  14. Urinary BK virus excretion in children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Raeesi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: To demonstrate the role of BK virus in inducing ALL or increasing the number of relapses, prospective studies on larger scale of population and evaluating both serum and urine for BK virus are recommended.

  15. Clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infections due to 13 respiratory viruses detected by multiplex PCR in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Sook Lim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : This study was performed to investigate the epidemiologic and clinical features of 13 respiratory viruses in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs. Methods : Nasopharyngeal aspirates were prospectively obtained from 325 children aged 15 years or less from May 2008 to April 2009 and were tested for the presence of 13 respiratory viruses by multiplex real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results : Viruses were identified in 270 children (83.1%. Co-infections with ?#242; viruses were observed in 71 patients (26.3 %. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV was the most common virus detected (33.2%, followed by human rhinovirus (hRV (19.1%, influenza virus (Flu A (16.9%, human metapneumovirus (hMPV (15.4%, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs (8.3%, human bocavirus (hBoV (8.0%, adenovirus (ADV (5.8%, and human coronavirus (hCoV (2.2%. Clinical diagnoses of viral ALRIs were bronchiolitis (37.5%, pneumonia (34.5%, asthma exacerbation (20.9%, and croup (7.1%. Clinical diagnoses of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia were frequently demonstrated in patients who tested positive for RSV, hRV, hMPV, or Flu A. Flu A and hRV were most commonly identified in children older than 3 years and were the 2 leading causes of asthma exacerbation. hRV C was detected in 14 (4.3% children, who were significantly older than those infected with hRV A (mean±SD, 4.1±3.5 years vs. 1.7±2.3 years; P=0.009. hBoV was usually detected in young children (2.3±3.4 years with bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Conclusion : This study described the features of ALRI associated with 13 respiratory viruses in Korean children. Additional investigations are required to define the roles of newly identified viruses in children with ALRIs.

  16. Miocarditis fulminante y enfermedad diarreica aguda por Coxsackie virus B6 Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Málaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven que presentó choque cardiogénico por virus Coxsakie B6. La paciente acudió a una clínica particular con un cuadro clínico compatible con gastroenterocolitis aguda a la que después de una hora de estar recibiendo hidratación y manejo del cuadro diagnosticado, se agregó hipotensión que llegó al estado de choque, hipoxemia severa y compromiso pulmonar bilateral intersticial por lo que ingresó a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde recibió manejo de soporte. Debido al cuadro clínico y elevación de enzimas cardiacas se sospechó de compromiso cardiaco, la ecocardiografía evidenció cambios sugerentes de miocarditis. La evolución fue favorable y se le pudo dar de alta después de una semana. El diagnóstico etiológico del cuadro se hizo en el seguimiento, presentando serología con elevación de títulos para virus Coxsakie B6.We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  17. 2011-2014年河北省急性弛缓性麻痹病例中脊髓灰质炎病毒同源性分析%Etiological monitoring and analysis of cases of acute flaccid paralysis in Hebei Province in 2011-2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玫; 崔志强; 李静; 赵娜; 张俊棉; 郭玉; 张振国; 李琦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify poliomyelitis (polio) virus,the VPI gene,and its nucleotide sequence in fecal samples from patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Hebei Province in 2011-2014.Methods A surveillance system for AFP was established in Hebei Province in 2011-2014 and registered in 2014.Stool samples,each weighing 5 g,were collected from 1 504,15-year-old symptomatic patients with AFP,resulting in a total of 3 001 samples (1 497 patients provided duplicate samples and 7 provided single specimens).Poliovirus nucleic acid was extracted,the RNA was reverse transcribed,and a VP1 gene fragment was amplified with real-time PCR.The PCR products were sequenced to construct a phylogenetic tree and check the relatedness of the strains to the Sabin vaccine strain.A x2 test was used to compare the differences in the incidence of infection in different years.Results Poliovirus was isolated from 50 (1.7%) of the 3 001 stool samples,10 of which were type Ⅰ strains,15 were type Ⅱ strains,16 were type Ⅲ strains,and 9 were mixed-type strains.The positive rates for poliovirus in the years 2011-2014 were 1.0% (9/890),1.5% (12/824),2.2% (17/770),and 2.3% (12/517),respectively (x2=2.24,P=0.525).Analyses of the VP1 nucleotide and amino acid sequence homologies revealed that the type Ⅰ,type Ⅱ,and type Ⅲ poliovirus strains shared nucleotide sequence homologies with the Sabin vaccine strain of 98.8%-100%,99.1%-100%,and 99.2%-100%,respectively,and amino acid sequence homologies of 98.6%-100%,98.3%-100% and 98.6%-100%,respectively.A VP1-based phylogenetic analysis showed that the variation rates for the poliovirus type Ⅰ,type Ⅱ,and type Ⅲ strains were 0.66%,0.66%,and 0.55%,respectively.Conelusion Only one poliovirus strain was detected in Hebei Province in 2011-2014,except for the type Ⅱ vaccine-derived poliovirus.The remaining strains were all similar to the Sabin vaccine strain,with high VP1 homology.%目的 检测2011

  18. Serological profile of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyper-endemic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoola Ayobanji

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Located in the south western part of Saudi Arabia, the Gizan region is largely a rural community in which hepatitis B and chronic liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma are highly prevalent. Aim of study: To determine the relative frequencies of acute hepatitis A, B, C and E in acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyperendemic hepatitis B infection. Methods and materials: In a prospective study 246 consecutive patients (179 males and 67 females diagnosed in a 2-year period were tested for markers of Hepatitis A virus (HAV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis E virus (HEV. Results: Of the patients tested, 131 (53.3% were children (< 10 years, and 42 (17% were 11 - 20 years in age. Ig M anti -HAV, IgM anti-HBV, anti- HCV and IgM anti-HEV were positive in 37%, 19.1%, 3.7% and 13.7% respectively. Markers of these viruses were absent in 24.4%. Among 131 children (< 10 years the commonest cause of AVH was HAV occurring in 57.3% of the cases. In adults (> 21 years HBV was found in 35.6% and IgM anti -HAV was detected in only 6.8%. In contrast to the age- related decline in the frequency of acute HA, the proportion of acute HE were similar in all age groups (13.7% in children, 16.7% in adolescents and 11.0% in adults. Conclusion: The study indicated that HAV is still a common cause of AVH particularly among children in Gizan. Acute 1-113 had a low occurrence among the children, evidently as a consequence of the integration of HB vaccine into the Saudi Arabian national EPI, 10 years ago. With the availability of combined HB and HA vaccines, It should be possible to graft the vaccination against HAV on to the existing program in Saudi Arabia. Affecting 13.4% of the group studied, sporadic HEV constitute a significant cause of AVH in this population. Until HEV vaccine becomes widely available, its prevention would be mainly by the improvement of socio - economic and hygienic standards of the population.

  19. Hypokalemic paralysis in a professional bodybuilder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Florian B; Domanovits, Hans; Laggner, Anton N

    2012-09-01

    Severe hypokalemia is a potentially life-threatening disorder and is associated with variable degrees of skeletal muscle weakness, even to the point of paralysis. On rare occasions, diaphragmatic paralysis from hypokalemia can lead to respiratory arrest. There may also be decreased motility of smooth muscle, manifesting with ileus or urinary retention. Rarely, severe hypokalemia may result in rhabdomyolysis. Other manifestations of severe hypokalemia include alteration of cardiac tissue excitability and conduction. Hypokalemia can produce electrocardiographic changes such as U waves, T-wave flattening, and arrhythmias, especially if the patient is taking digoxin. Common causes of hypokalemia include extrarenal potassium losses (vomiting and diarrhea) and renal potassium losses (eg, hyperaldosteronism, renal tubular acidosis, severe hyperglycemia, potassium-depleting diuretics) as well as hypokalemia due to potassium shifts (eg, insulin administration, catecholamine excess, familial periodic hypokalemic paralysis, thyrotoxic hypokalemic paralysis). Although the extent of diuretic misuse in professional bodybuilding is unknown, it may be regarded as substantial. Hence, diuretics must always be considered as a cause of hypokalemic paralysis in bodybuilders.

  20. Hypokalemic paralysis in a young obese female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Chang, Chin-Chun; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2012-08-16

    Profound hypokalemia with paralysis usually poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report on a 28-y-old obese Chinese female presenting with sudden onset of flaccid quadriparesis upon awaking in the morning. There is no family history of hyperthyroidism. She experienced body weight loss of 7 kg in 2 months. The most conspicuous blood biochemistry is marked hypokalemia (1.8 mmol/l) and hypophosphatemia (0.5 mmol/l) associated with low urine K(+) and phosphate excretion. Surreptitious laxatives and/or diuretics abuse-related hypokalemic paralysis were tentatively made. However, her relatively normal blood acid-base status and the absence of low urine Na(+) and/or Cl(-) excretion made these diagnoses unlikely. Furthermore, she developed rebound hyperkalemia (5.7 mmol/l) after only 80 mmol K(+) supplementation. Thyroid function test confirmed hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. Control of the hyperthyroidism completely abolished her periodic paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) should be kept in mind as a cause of paralysis in female, even with obesity, despite its predominance in adult males. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Thyrotoxic, hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP) in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zubeidi, Hiba; Demeterco, Carla; Jones, Kenneth Lee

    2015-01-01

    Periodic paralysis associated with hyperthyroidism and hypokalemia is an uncommon disorder reported primarily in Asian males and rarely in children. We report three Hispanic adolescent males who were seen with Graves' disease (GD) and THPP. The method used was chart review. Two of these boys presented with episodes of paralysis and were diagnosed with GD. The third was initially seen with hyperthyroidism and developed weakness and paralysis when his disease progressed because of therapeutic noncompliance. Hypokalemia was documented in two of the three patients with the third not seen during paralysis. Intravenous K⁺ was required in only one case. All three boys were treated with antithyroid medications and β blockers, and the musculoskeletal symptoms resolved in all three when hyperthyroidism was controlled after 2 weeks of treatment. The duration for each episode of weakness and paralysis varied in each case and resolved within 15 min to 2 h in case 1, 1-5 h in case 2, and 24 h in case 3. THPP is considered uncommon except in Asian males and rare in childhood and adolescence. Its occurrence in these three Hispanic boys suggests that it may occur more frequently in the young and in the USA than has been suspected, especially with the changing national demographics. We believe that our experience should raise the awareness of THPP among pediatric care providers.

  2. 2007-2011年吉安市急性弛缓性麻痹病例监测运行情况分析%Epidemic Status of Acute Flaccid Paralysis in Ji'an City, 2007-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文胜; 刘晓东; 黄光明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the operational conditions of the flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance work, so as to facilitate maintaining polio - free status. Methods Descriptive methods were applied to analyze data of AFP cases monitoring system from 2007 to 2011. Results Totally 74 AFP cases were reported and 72 cases were confirmed. Amount of 15 cases were reported in 2007, 17 cases in 2008, 10 cases in 2009 and 15 cases in 2010 -2011 each. Children under the age of non polio AFP incidence rates were 1. 37/105, 1. 55 /105, 1. 085 /105, 1. 61/105 and 1. 61/105, from 2007 to 2011 respectively. Conclusion The incidence of non polio AFP cases among children under 15 years old in Jian met the requirements of both WHO and National Ministry of Health. High sensitivity was kept in AFP case surveillance system.%目的 评价吉安市急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例监测系统运转状况,促进维持无脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)状态工作.方法 采用描述性流行病学方法对吉安市2007-2011年急性弛缓性麻痹病例监测系统运行情况进行分析.结果 吉安市2007-2011年AFP监测系统共报告AFP病例74例,排除AFP病例2例,确认AFP病例72例,均为(番)脊灰AFP病例.2007年报告15例,2008年17例,2009年10例,2010年15例,2011年15例,15岁以下儿童非脊灰AFP病例报告发病率分别为1.37/10万、1.55/10万、1.085/10万、1.61/10万、1.61/10万.结论 2007-2011年吉安市15岁以下儿童非脊灰AFP病例报告发病率连续5年达到世界卫生组织和国家卫生部的指标要求(≥1/10万),保持了AFP病例监测系统较高的敏感性.

  3. Detection of West Nile virus genome and specific antibodies in Iranian encephalitis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, S; Javadi, A; Ataei, B;

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which circulates in birds, horses and humans. An estimated 80% of WNV infections are asymptomatic. Fewer than 1% of infected persons develop neuroinvasive disease, which typically presents as encephalitis, meningitis, or acute flaccid paralysis...... with evidence of meningitis being excluded. Patients' CSF and serum were diagnosed by serological and molecular assays. A total of 632 patients with fever and loss of consciousness were tested by CSF analyses. Samples of the remaining patients (39·4%) were referred for WNV investigation. Three (1...

  4. The acute phase response of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) in cattle undergoing experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Godson, D.L.; Toussaint, M.J.M.;

    2000-01-01

    respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), analysing the induction of the two most dominant bovine acute phase proteins haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA). Strong and reproducible acute phase responses were detected for both proteins, peaking at around 7-8 days after inoculation of BRSV, while no response...... was seen in mock-inoculated control animals. The serum concentrations reached for SAA and haptoglobin during the BRSV-induced acute phase response were generally the same or higher than previously reported for bacterial infections in calves. The magnitude and the duration of the haptoglobin response......The ability of a pure virus infection to induce an acute phase protein response is of interest as viral infections are normally considered to be less efficient in inducing an acute phase protein response than bacterial infections. This was studied in a bovine model for infection with bovine...

  5. Unilateral facial paralysis caused by Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Flávia P; Guskuma, Marcos H; Luvizuto, Eloá R; Faco, Eduardo F S; Magro-Filho, Osvaldo; Hochuli-Vieira, Eduardo

    2011-09-01

    The Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a rare disease caused by an infection of the geniculate ganglion by the varicella-zoster virus. The main clinical features of the syndrome are as follows: Bell palsy unilateral or bilateral, vesicular eruptions on the ears, ear pain, dizziness, preauricular swelling, tingling, tearing, loss of taste sensation, and nystagmus. We describe a 23-year-old white woman, who presented with facial paralysis on the left side of the face, pain, fever, ear pain, and swelling in the neck and auricular region on the left side. She received appropriate treatment with acyclovir, vitamin B complex, and CMP nucleus. After 30 days after presentation, the patient did not show any signs or symptoms of the syndrome. At follow-up at 1 year, she showed no relapse of the syndrome.

  6. [Observation on therapeutic effect of acupuncture on early peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-hu

    2007-07-01

    To observe therapeutic effects of acupuncture at different opportunities on peripheral facial paralysis. Fifty-two cases were randomly divided into a treatment group (n=28) and a control group (n=24). The treatment group at the acute stage (1-10 days) were treated with acupuncture at Dicang (ST 4), Jiache (ST 6), Yangbai (GB 14), etc., with less than 4 points selected on the face and with shallow puncture, and 10 days later electroacupuncture were added at acupoints selected routinely; the control group were treated with the same methods as the treatment group but acupuncture was not given at the acute stage. The cured rate of 78.6% in the treatment group was significantly higher than 50.0% in the control group (P acupuncture is a key for achieving the best therapeutic effect on facial paralysis.

  7. Normokalemic periodic paralysis revisited: does it exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, Patrick F; Walls, Timothy J; Hanna, Michael G; Bates, David; Fawcett, Peter R W

    2002-08-01

    Normokalemic periodic paralysis (normoKPP) is well established in the literature, but there are doubts as to whether it exists as a discrete entity. Retrospective clinical and molecular analysis has confirmed suspicions that most normoKPP families actually have a variant of hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (hyperKPP) due to a mutation of the muscle-specific sodium channel gene (SCN4A). However, the original normoKPP family described by Poskanzer and Kerr (Poskanzer DC, Kerr DNS. A third type of periodic paralysis, with normokalemia and favourable response to sodium chloride. Am J Med 1961;31:328-342) has remained unchallenged. We identified the Met1592Val mutation of SCN4A in an affected descendent of this original normoKPP family. This is the final piece in the puzzle: normoKPP is actually a variant of hyperKPP and is not a distinct disorder.

  8. [Facial paralysis: functional and aesthetic rehabilitation techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveze, A; Paris, J

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of a permanent facial paralysis can be devastating to a patient, because of the cosmetic, functional and psychological disorders. Our society places on physical appearance and leads to isolation of patients who are embarrassed with their paralyzed face. The objectives of the facial rehabilitation is to correct the functional and cosmetic losses of the patient. The main functional goals are to protect the eye and reestablish oral competence. The primary cosmetic goals are to create balance and symmetry of the face at rest and to reestablish the coordinated movement of the facial musculature. The surgeon should be familiar with the variety of options available so that an individual plan can be developed based on each patient's clinical picture. History of the facial paralysis, its etiology and the duration of the paralysis are of particular interest as they orientate the rehabilitation plan strategy.

  9. Ulnar nerve paralysis after forearm bone fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Ruschel, Paulo Henrique; Huyer, Rodrigo Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Paralysis or nerve injury associated with fractures of forearm bones fracture is rare and is more common in exposed fractures with large soft-tissue injuries. Ulnar nerve paralysis is a rare condition associated with closed fractures of the forearm. In most cases, the cause of paralysis is nerve contusion, which evolves with neuropraxia. However, nerve lacerations and entrapment at the fracture site always need to be borne in mind. This becomes more important when neuropraxia appears or worsens after reduction of a closed fracture of the forearm has been completed. The importance of diagnosing this injury and differentiating its features lies in the fact that, depending on the type of lesion, different types of management will be chosen.

  10. Ulnar nerve paralysis after forearm bone fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Schwartsmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Paralysis or nerve injury associated with fractures of forearm bones fracture is rare and is more common in exposed fractures with large soft-tissue injuries. Ulnar nerve paralysis is a rare condition associated with closed fractures of the forearm. In most cases, the cause of paralysis is nerve contusion, which evolves with neuropraxia. However, nerve lacerations and entrapment at the fracture site always need to be borne in mind. This becomes more important when neuropraxia appears or worsens after reduction of a closed fracture of the forearm has been completed. The importance of diagnosing this injury and differentiating its features lies in the fact that, depending on the type of lesion, different types of management will be chosen.

  11. An outbreak of post-vaccinal rabies (rage de laboratoire) in Fortaleza, Brazil, in 1960. Residual fixed virus as the etiological agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pará, M

    1965-01-01

    The repeated isolation of fixed rabies virus from the CNS tissues of victims of an acute and lethal outbreak of encephalomyelitis in Fortaleza, Brazil, in November 1960, following vaccination with a locally produced killed-virus anti-rabies vaccine of the Fermi type is considered as definitive evidence of the rabic etiology (vaccinal fixed-virus rabies, rage de laboratoire) of this outbreak. Eighteen persons were affected, all of whom died.The clinical picture of paralytic rabies was recognizable in all of these 18 patients. The well-marked characteristics of an acute infection permit the easy differentiation of the paralysis caused by fixed rabies virus from post-vaccinal accidents that occur as allergic reactions.The incriminated anti-rabies vaccine was found to contain fixed live rabies virus at a titre of 10(-3.0). After one year of storage under refrigeration, the vaccine still contained fixed rabies virus, at a titre of 0,2x10(-1.0).Subsequent laboratory studies tend to indicate that the curve of inactivation of fixed virus by phenol does not follow a linear function but rather resembles the curve of inactivation of poliomyelitis virus by heat and formol according to the Salk technique. It is suggested that the antigenicity of the so-called "killed-virus" anti-rabies vaccines is actually due to the presence in them of residual amounts of live virus.

  12. Acute infection with venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles catalyzes a systemic antiviral state and protects from lethal virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Jennifer L; Thompson, Joseph M; Whitmore, Alan C; Webb, Drue L; Johnston, Robert E

    2009-12-01

    The host innate immune response provides a critical first line of defense against invading pathogens, inducing an antiviral state to impede the spread of infection. While numerous studies have documented antiviral responses within actively infected tissues, few have described the earliest innate response induced systemically by infection. Here, utilizing Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particles (VRP) to limit infection to the initially infected cells in vivo, a rapid activation of the antiviral response was demonstrated not only within the murine draining lymph node, where replication was confined, but also within distal tissues. In the liver and brain, expression of interferon-stimulated genes was detected by 1 to 3 h following VRP footpad inoculation, reaching peak expression of >100-fold over that in mock-infected animals. Moreover, mice receiving a VRP footpad inoculation 6, 12, or 24 h prior to an otherwise lethal VEE footpad challenge were completely protected from death, including a drastic reduction in challenge virus titers. VRP pretreatment also provided protection from intranasal VEE challenge and extended the average survival time following intracranial challenge. Signaling through the interferon receptor was necessary for antiviral gene induction and protection from VEE challenge. However, VRP pretreatment failed to protect mice from a heterologous, lethal challenge with vesicular stomatitis virus, yet conferred protection following challenge with influenza virus. Collectively, these results document a rapid modulation of the host innate response within hours of infection, capable of rapidly alerting the entire animal to pathogen invasion and leading to protection from viral disease.

  13. Periodic paralysis: clinical evaluation in 20 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Harumi Tengan

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty patients with periodic paralysis were evaluated and the aspects studied included epidemiological data, clinical manifestations, ancillary tests, treatment and evolution. Sixteen patients had the hypokalemic form (5 familiar, 5 sporadic, 5 thyrotoxic and 1 secondary. No patient with the normokalemic form was detected. Predominance of men was found (14 patients, especially in the cases with hyperthyroidism (5 patients. No thyrotoxic patient was of oriental origin. Only 4 patients had the hyperkalemic form (3 familiar, 1 sporadic. Attacks of paralysis began during the first decade in the hyperkalemic form and up to the third decade in the hypokalemic. In both forms the attacks occurred preferentially in the morning with rest after exercise being the most important precipitating factor. Seventy five percent of the hyperkalemic patients referred brief attacks (<12 hours. Longer attacks were referred by 43% of the hypokalemic patients. The majority of the attacks manifested with a generalized weakness mainly in legs, and its frequency was variable. Creatinokinase was evaluated in 10 patients and 8 of them had levels that varied from 1,1 to 5 times normal. Electromyography was done in 6 patients and myotonic phenomenon was the only abnormality detected in 2 patients. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, especially acetazolamide, were used for prophylactic treatment in 9 pacients with good results in all. Although periodic paralysis may be considered a benign disease we found respiratory distress in 5 patients, permanent myopathy in 1, electrocardiographic abnormalities during crises in 4; death during paralysis occurred in 2. Therefore correct diagnosis and immediate treatment are crucial. This study shows that hyperthyroidism is an important cause of periodic paralysis in our country, even in non oriental patients. Hence endocrine investigation is mandatory since this kind of periodic paralysis will only be abated after return to the euthyroid state.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan, 2008/09-2013/14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Noriko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko; Matsushita, Tadashi; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2016-07-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a critical infectious disease that affects infants and young children throughout the world, including Japan. This retrospective study was conducted from September 2008 to August 2014 (six seasons: 2008/09-2013/14) to investigate the incidence of enteric viruses responsible for 1,871 cases of acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan. Of the 1,871 cases, 1,100 enteric viruses were detected in 978 samples, of which strains from norovirus (NoV) genogroup II (60.9%) were the most commonly detected, followed by strains of rotavirus A (RVA) (23.2%), adenovirus (AdV) type 41 (8.2%), sapovirus (SaV) (3.6%), human astrovirus (HAstV) (2.8%), and NoV genogroup I (1.3%). Sequencing of the NoV genogroup II (GII) strains revealed that GII.4 was the most common genotype, although four different GII.4 variants were also identified. The most common G-genotype of RVA was G1 (63.9%), followed by G3 (27.1%), G2 (4.7%) and G9 (4.3%). Three genogroups of SaV strains were found: GI (80.0%), GII (15.0%), and GV (5.0%). HAstV strains were genotyped as HAstV-1 (80.6%), HAstV-8 (16.1%), and HAstV-3 (3.2%). These results show that NoV GII was the leading cause of sporadic acute viral gastroenteritis, although a variety of enteric viruses were detected during the six-season surveillance period.

  15. Deformed wing virus implicated in overwintering honeybee colony losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Andrea C; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C M; Noël, Laure M-L J; Hall, Matthew J; Martin, Stephen J; Schroeder, Declan C

    2009-11-01

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses.

  16. Evaluation and management of the patient with postoperative facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlock, Tessa

    2012-05-01

    Postoperative facial paralysis comprises a spectrum of injuries ranging from mild, temporary weakness to severe, permanent paralysis, affecting as little as one muscle group to as much as the full hemiface. Herein is presented an introductory review of iatrogenic facial paralysis, from initial evaluation and decision making to the full range of conservative and operative management.

  17. [HYPP: hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in the horse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    1999-03-15

    Hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis(HYPP) is characterized by intermittent episodes of muscular tremor, weakness, and collapse, and is probably caused by abnormal electrolyte transport in the muscle cell membrane. During an episode of HYPP, most animals are severely hyperkalaemic. HYPP is a hereditary disease and occurs only in American Quarter horses or crossbreds. Because these horses are now being imported into the Netherlands, HYPP should be included in the differential diagnosis of horses showing signs of muscle tremor, paresis, or paralysis. The present article reviews the literature on HYPP and describes a case showing typical signs of the disease.

  18. Vocal cord paralysis caused by stingray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Jin; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Foreign bodies in the oral cavity and pharynx are commonly encountered in the emergency room and outpatient departments, and the most frequently observed of these foreign bodies are fish bones. Among the possible complications resulting from a pharyngeal foreign body, vocal cord fixation is extremely rare, with only three cases previously reported in the English literature. The mechanisms of vocal cord fixation can be classified into mechanical articular fixation, direct injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, or recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis secondary to inflammation. The case discussed here is different from previous cases. We report a rare case of vocal cord paralysis caused by the venom of a stingray tail in the hypopharynx.

  19. Management of the Eye in Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John J

    2016-02-01

    The preoperative assessment of the eye in facial paralysis is a critical component of surgical management. The degree of facial nerve paralysis, lacrimal secretion, corneal sensation, and lower eyelid position must be assessed accurately. Upper eyelid loading procedures are standard management of lagophthalmos. Lower eyelid tightening repositions the lower eyelid and helps maintain the aqueous tear film. Eyelid reanimation allows an aesthetic symmetry with blinking and restores protective functions vital to ocular preservation. Patients often have multiple nervous deficits, including corneal anesthesia. Other procedures include tarsorrhaphy, spring implantation, and temporalis muscle transposition; associated complications have rendered them nearly obsolete.

  20. Treatment of hypokalemic periodic paralysis with topiramate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Darren M; Strober, Jonathan B

    2011-01-01

    Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoPP), the most common form of periodic paralysis, is a disorder characterized by attacks of transient muscle weakness associated with a drop in serum potassium level.The mainstay of treatment is potassium supplementation and drugs that inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. In this report we describe 11-year-old twins with hypoPP who were treated with topiramate, an anti-epileptic drug known to have carbonic anhydrase inhibitory properties. The patients experienced a decrease in the severity of their attacks upon initiation of treatment. Topiramate may warrant further investigation as a treatment option in hypoPP.

  1. A case of benign acute childhood myositis associated with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliou, M; Hadjiloizou, S; Ourani, S; Demosthenous, A; Hadjidemetriou, A

    2010-02-01

    Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a rare transient condition usually occurring at the early convalescent phase of a viral upper respiratory tract illness, normally influenza A, and, more frequently, influenza B infection. It is characterized by acute-onset difficulty in walking as a result of severe bilateral calf pain and by elevated muscle enzymes including creatinine kinase. It is self-limiting because there is rapid full recovery usually within 1 week. We describe the first case of BACM in association with the new pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in an 11-year-old boy from Cyprus. The child had the typical clinical and laboratory characteristics of this clinical syndrome. Prompt diagnosis of this clinical entity is essential to prevent unnecessary investigations and therapeutic interventions and to reassure the patient and parents of the excellent prognosis.

  2. Metagenomic analysis of RNA viruses in a fresh water lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appolinaire Djikeng

    Full Text Available Freshwater lakes and ponds present an ecological interface between humans and a variety of host organisms. They are a habitat for the larval stage of many insects and may serve as a medium for intraspecies and interspecies transmission of viruses such as avian influenza A virus. Furthermore, freshwater bodies are already known repositories for disease-causing viruses such as Norwalk Virus, Coxsackievirus, Echovirus, and Adenovirus. While RNA virus populations have been studied in marine environments, to this date there has been very limited analysis of the viral community in freshwater. Here we present a survey of RNA viruses in Lake Needwood, a freshwater lake in Maryland, USA. Our results indicate that just as in studies of other aquatic environments, the majority of nucleic acid sequences recovered did not show any significant similarity to known sequences. The remaining sequences are mainly from viral types with significant similarity to approximately 30 viral families. We speculate that these novel viruses may infect a variety of hosts including plants, insects, fish, domestic animals and humans. Among these viruses we have discovered a previously unknown dsRNA virus closely related to Banna Virus which is responsible for a febrile illness and is endemic to Southeast Asia. Moreover we found multiple viral sequences distantly related to Israeli Acute Paralysis virus which has been implicated in honeybee colony collapse disorder. Our data suggests that due to their direct contact with humans, domestic and wild animals, freshwater ecosystems might serve as repositories of a wide range of viruses (both pathogenic and non-pathogenic and possibly be involved in the spread of emerging and pandemic diseases.

  3. Metagenomic analysis of RNA viruses in a fresh water lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djikeng, Appolinaire; Kuzmickas, Ryan; Anderson, Norman G; Spiro, David J

    2009-09-29

    Freshwater lakes and ponds present an ecological interface between humans and a variety of host organisms. They are a habitat for the larval stage of many insects and may serve as a medium for intraspecies and interspecies transmission of viruses such as avian influenza A virus. Furthermore, freshwater bodies are already known repositories for disease-causing viruses such as Norwalk Virus, Coxsackievirus, Echovirus, and Adenovirus. While RNA virus populations have been studied in marine environments, to this date there has been very limited analysis of the viral community in freshwater. Here we present a survey of RNA viruses in Lake Needwood, a freshwater lake in Maryland, USA. Our results indicate that just as in studies of other aquatic environments, the majority of nucleic acid sequences recovered did not show any significant similarity to known sequences. The remaining sequences are mainly from viral types with significant similarity to approximately 30 viral families. We speculate that these novel viruses may infect a variety of hosts including plants, insects, fish, domestic animals and humans. Among these viruses we have discovered a previously unknown dsRNA virus closely related to Banna Virus which is responsible for a febrile illness and is endemic to Southeast Asia. Moreover we found multiple viral sequences distantly related to Israeli Acute Paralysis virus which has been implicated in honeybee colony collapse disorder. Our data suggests that due to their direct contact with humans, domestic and wild animals, freshwater ecosystems might serve as repositories of a wide range of viruses (both pathogenic and non-pathogenic) and possibly be involved in the spread of emerging and pandemic diseases.

  4. [Analysis of evidence-based clinical practices on timing factor in acupuncture treatment for facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Wan, Jun

    2011-01-01

    By using the evidence-based medicine approach to analyze the optimum timing in acupuncture treatment for facial paralysis, to provide the scientific evidence for acupuncture clinical practices. Computer searches were conducted in the CNKI literature database from January 1994 to August 2009, using the keywords "facial paralysis", "acupuncture" and "acupuncture timing/treatment timing". According to the standard of Cochrane, the literatures were retrieved and conducted with evidence-based analysis. The SPSS 13.0 Software was used for the statistical analysis. Among the 133 retrieved literatures which met the inclusion criteria of the study, there were 11 literatures on the effect of acupuncture or electroacupuncture treatment in acute phase observation group and conventional medical treatment group. Using Mann-Whitney U test, the difference of treatment effect is statistically significant (P acupuncture treatment for facial paralysis in acute phase can improve the efficacy and promote neurological recovery. In the acute phase, animal experiments and clinical observations provide evidence to support the application of electric needle and traditional acupuncture treatments.

  5. The use of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase for the taxonomic assignment of Picorna-like viruses (order Picornavirales infecting Apis mellifera L. populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder Declan C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-stranded RNA viruses, infectious to the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. are known to reside at low levels in colonies, with typically no apparent signs of infection observed in the honeybees. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR of regions of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp is often used to diagnose their presence in apiaries and also to classify the type of virus detected. Results Analysis of RdRp conserved domains was undertaken on members of the newly defined order, the Picornavirales; focusing in particular on the amino acid residues and motifs known to be conserved. Consensus sequences were compiled using partial and complete honeybee virus sequences published to date. Certain members within the iflaviruses, deformed wing virus (DWV, Kakugo virus (KV and Varroa destructor virus (VDV; and the dicistroviruses, acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV, Israeli paralysis virus (IAPV and Kashmir bee virus (KBV, shared greater than 98% and 92% homology across the RdRp conserved domains, respectively. Conclusion RdRp was validated as a suitable taxonomic marker for the assignment of members of the order Picornavirales, with the potential for use independent of other genetic or phenotypic markers. Despite the current use of the RdRp as a genetic marker for the detection of specific honeybee viruses, we provide overwhelming evidence that care should be taken with the primer set design. We demonstrated that DWV, VDV and KV, or ABPV, IAPV and KBV, respectively are all recent descendents or variants of each other, meaning caution should be applied when assigning presence or absence to any of these viruses when using current RdRp primer sets. Moreover, it is more likely that some primer sets (regardless of what gene is used are too specific and thus are underestimating the diversity of honeybee viruses.

  6. Swine-origin influenza-virus-induced acute lung injury:Novel or classical pathogenesis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoyoshi; Maeda; Toshimitsu; Uede

    2010-01-01

    Influenza viruses are common respiratory pathogens in humans and can cause serious infection that leads to the development of pneumonia.Due to their hostrange diversity,genetic and antigenic diversity,and potential to reassort genetically in vivo,influenza A viruses are continual sources of novel influenza strains that lead to the emergence of periodic epidemics and outbreaks in humans.Thus,newly emerging viral diseases are always major threats to public health.In March 2009,a novel influenza virus suddenly emerged and caused a worldwide pandemic.The novel pandemic influenza virus was genetically and antigenically distinct from previous seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 viruses;it was identified to have originated from pigs,and further genetic analysis revealed it as a subtype of A/H1N1,thus later called a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1.Since the novel virus emerged,epidemiological surveys and research on experimental animal models have been conducted,and characteristics of the novel influenza virus have been determined but the exact mechanisms of pulmonary pathogenesis remain to be elucidated.In this editorial,we summa-rize and discuss the recent pandemic caused by the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 with a focus on the mechanism of pathogenesis to obtain an insight into potential therapeutic strategies.

  7. A human-like H1N2 influenza virus detected during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in swine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rejane; Rech, Raquel Rubia; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Mauricio Egídio; da Silva, Marcia Cristina; Silveira, Simone; Zanella, Janice Reis Ciacci

    2015-01-01

    Passive monitoring for detection of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in pigs has been carried out in Brazil since 2009, detecting mostly the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. Since then, outbreaks of acute respiratory disease suggestive of influenza A virus infection have been observed frequently in Brazilian pig herds. During a 2010-2011 influenza monitoring, a novel H1N2 influenza virus was detected in nursery pigs showing respiratory signs. The pathologic changes were cranioventral acute necrotizing bronchiolitis to subacute proliferative and purulent bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Lung tissue samples were positive for both influenza A virus and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus based on RT-qPCR of the matrix gene. Two IAVs were isolated in SPF chicken eggs. HI analysis of both swine H1N2 influenza viruses showed reactivity to the H1δ cluster. DNA sequencing was performed for all eight viral gene segments of two virus isolates. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the HA and NA genes clustered with influenza viruses of the human lineage (H1-δ cluster, N2), whereas the six internal gene segments clustered with the A(H1N1)pdm09 group. This is the first report of a reassortant human-like H1N2 influenza virus derived from pandemic H1N1 virus causing an outbreak of respiratory disease in pigs in Brazil. The emergence of a reassortant IAV demands the close monitoring of pigs through the full-genome sequencing of virus isolates in order to enhance genetic information about IAVs circulating in pigs.

  8. Immune Complex Mediated Glomerulonephritis with Acute Thrombotic Microangiopathy following Newly Detected Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Salter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV presents a risk to patients and staff in renal units. To minimise viral transmission, there are international and UK guidelines recommending HBV immunisation for patients commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT and HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients. We report the case of a 56-year-old male who was immunised against HBV before starting haemodialysis. He received a deceased donor kidney transplant three years later, at which time there was no evidence of HBV infection. After a further six years he developed an acute kidney injury; allograft biopsy revealed an acute thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA with glomerulitis, peritubular capillaritis, and C4d staining. Due to a “full house” immunoprofile, tests including virological screening were undertaken, which revealed acute HBV infection. Entecavir treatment resulted in an improvement in viral load and kidney function. HBV genotyping demonstrated a vaccine escape mutant, suggesting “past resolved” infection that reactivated with immunosuppression, though posttransplant acquisition cannot be excluded. This is the first reported case of acute HBV infection associated with immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis and TMA. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients, which although addressed by UK guidelines is not currently practiced in all UK units.

  9. Immune Complex Mediated Glomerulonephritis with Acute Thrombotic Microangiopathy following Newly Detected Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Hannah; Douthwaite, Sam; Newsholme, William; Horsfield, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) presents a risk to patients and staff in renal units. To minimise viral transmission, there are international and UK guidelines recommending HBV immunisation for patients commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT) and HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients. We report the case of a 56-year-old male who was immunised against HBV before starting haemodialysis. He received a deceased donor kidney transplant three years later, at which time there was no evidence of HBV infection. After a further six years he developed an acute kidney injury; allograft biopsy revealed an acute thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) with glomerulitis, peritubular capillaritis, and C4d staining. Due to a “full house” immunoprofile, tests including virological screening were undertaken, which revealed acute HBV infection. Entecavir treatment resulted in an improvement in viral load and kidney function. HBV genotyping demonstrated a vaccine escape mutant, suggesting “past resolved” infection that reactivated with immunosuppression, though posttransplant acquisition cannot be excluded. This is the first reported case of acute HBV infection associated with immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis and TMA. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients, which although addressed by UK guidelines is not currently practiced in all UK units.

  10. Acute hepatitis C virus infection induces anti-host cell receptor antibodies with virus-neutralizing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawar, Rajiv G; Colpitts, Che C; Timm, Jörg; Fehm, Tanja; Roggendorf, Michael; Meisel, Helga; Meyer, Nicolas; Habersetzer, François; Cosset, François-Loïc; Berg, Thomas; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Baumert, Thomas F

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes persistent infection in the majority of infected individuals. The mechanisms of persistence and clearance are only partially understood. Antibodies (Abs) against host cell entry receptors have been shown to inhibit HCV infection in cell culture and animal models. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether anti-receptor Abs are induced during infection in humans in vivo and whether their presence is associated with outcome of infection. We established an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay using a recombinant CD81-claudin-1 (CLDN1) fusion protein to detect and quantify Abs directed against extracellular epitopes of the HCV CD81-CLDN1 coreceptor complex. The presence of anti-receptor Abs was studied in serum of patients from a well-defined cohort of a single-source HCV outbreak of pregnant women and several control groups, including uninfected pregnant women, patients with chronic hepatitis B and D virus (HBV/HDV) infection, and healthy individuals. Virus-neutralizing activity of Abs was determined using recombinant cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc). Our results demonstrate that HCV-infected patients have statistically significantly higher anti-CD81/CLDN1 Ab titers during the early phase of infection than controls. The titers were significantly higher in resolvers compared to persisters. Functional studies using immunoadsorption and HCV cell culture models demonstrate that HCV-neutralizing anti-receptor Abs are induced in the early phase of HCV infection, but not in control groups. The virus-neutralizing properties of these Abs suggest a role for control of viral infection in conjunction with antiviral responses. Characterization of these anti-receptor Abs opens new avenues to prevent and treat HCV infection. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Equine infectious anemia virus replication is upregulated during differentiation of blood monocytes from acutely infected horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Sellon, D C; Walker, K M; Russell, K E; Perry, S T; Covington, P; Fuller, F J

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus that replicates in mature tissue macrophages of horses. Ponies were infected with equine infectious anemia virus. During febrile episodes, proviral DNA was detectable, but viral mRNA was not detectable. As cultured blood monocytes from these ponies differentiated into macrophages, viral expression was upregulated. In situ hybridization confirmed that viral transcription occurred in mature macrophages.

  12. Epidemiological, immunological and virological aspects of acute and chronic hepatitis C virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, X.V.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus classified as a member of the Hepacivirus genus in the family Flavirviridae, and was first described by Choo et al. in 1989 as the causative agent of non-A-non-B post-transfusion hepatitis. HCV is a major cause of blood-borne infe

  13. Cultural variation in the clinical presentation of sleep paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Joop T V M

    2005-03-01

    Sleep paralysis is one of the lesser-known and more benign forms of parasomnias. The primary or idiopathic form, also called isolated sleep paralysis, is illustrated by showing how patients from different cultures weave the phenomenology of sleep paralysis into their clinical narratives. Clinical case examples are presented of patients from Guinea Bissau, the Netherlands, Morocco, and Surinam with different types of psychopathology, but all accompanied by sleep paralysis. Depending on the meaning given to and etiological interpretations of the sleep paralysis, which is largely culturally determined, patients react to the event in specific ways.

  14. GOLD WEIGHTS IN FACIAL PARALYSIS (REVISITED)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZECHA, PJ; ROBINSON, PH; VANOORT, RP; COENRAADS, PJ

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective study of 11 patients with facial paralysis was undertaken. Correction of lagophthalmos was accomplished by inserting a dental gold weight into the upper eyelid. All weights were assessed and adjusted to fit the patient's individual need. The primary objective was to achieve adequate

  15. GOLD WEIGHTS IN FACIAL PARALYSIS (REVISITED)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZECHA, PJ; ROBINSON, PH; VANOORT, RP; COENRAADS, PJ

    A retrospective study of 11 patients with facial paralysis was undertaken. Correction of lagophthalmos was accomplished by inserting a dental gold weight into the upper eyelid. All weights were assessed and adjusted to fit the patient's individual need. The primary objective was to achieve adequate

  16. 漯河市2012年急性弛缓性麻痹病例监测系统运转情况分析%Analysis on working status of surveillance system for acute flaccid paralysis case in Luohe in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾孝提; 陈翠花; 李卫华; 万红军

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解漯河市2012年急性弛缓性麻痹( AFP )病例监测系统运行情况,提高监测质量,维持无脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)状态。方法使用描述流行病学方法分析个案数据。结果2012年AFP病例监测系统共报告25例,其中AFP病例22例,非AFP病例3例。各项监测指标均符合卫生部相关要求,AFP病例首诊报告率63.64%,异地报告率9.10%。结论漯河市2012年AFP病例监测系统保持较高的运行质量,仍需提高AFP病例首诊报告率,确保监测系统敏感性。%Objective In order to know the working status of surveillance system for acute flaccid paralysis case in Luohe in 2012, improve the quality of surveillance and maintain Polio-free status.Methods The epidemiological method was carried out in analyzing the case data .Results 25 AFP cases were reported in 2012 ,based on the standard for virological classification, all cases were excluded from polio case .All the surveillance indicators are in conformation with the related requirements of ministry of health .The rate of reporting at the first consultation was 63.64%, with the rate of reporting by other places was 9.10%.Conclusion The surveillence system for AFP was run well in 2012, and it is important for im-proving the reporting rate of first diagnosis and maintaining the sensitivity of AFP surveillance .

  17. Molecular basis for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R H

    At least one form of periodic paralysis is a direct consequence of a mutation in a skeletal muscle, voltage-sensitive sodium channel--it was observed that many individual with this disease developed low serum potassium levels during paralytic episodes. Some families had hyperkalemic paralysis with serum potassium levels of 6 or 7 mEg/L during paralytic crises. In both hypokalemic and hyperkalemic paralysis one of the precipitants is a period of rest after exertion. In hypokalemic periodic paralysis carbohydrates may initiate weakness. In both hyper- and hypokalemic forms, the disorder is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. During hypokalemic and hyperkalemic paralysis, one might respectively anticipate muscle hyperpolarization or depolarization. Has been observed a potassium-related abnormality of sodium conductance in the pathogenesis at least of the hyperkalemic form of periodic paralysis. The fact that TTX reverses the physiological defect suggested the hypothesis that the primary problem might be a mutation in a TTX-sensitive sodium channel. The protein consists of some 2000 amino acids with characteristic intracytoplasmic and extracellular domains as well a four remarkably conserved membrane spanning domains, each composed of six transmembrane of a polymorphism of the human sodium channel with hyperkalemic paralysis. When multipoint analysis was used to test for coinheritance of the disease with both Na-2 and growth hormone polymorphisms, a lod score of 7 was obtained. That is, the ratio of the probability of linkage to non-linkage is 10 million to one. When extracellular potassium is increased to 10 mM, the affected myotubes demonstrate strikingly abnormal channel behavior characterized by prolonged open times or repetitive opens throughout the voltage step. Potassium implicate as a primary factor triggering an abnormal sodium channel gating mode and, as a result, aberrant sodium current behavior. It was estimated that, for the normal channel, the

  18. Affinity maturation of a broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody that prevents acute hepatitis C virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Zhen-Yong; Wang, Yong; Lau, Patrick; Lund, Garry; Rangarajan, Sneha; Fauvelle, Catherine; Liao, Grant C; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Warfield, Kelly L; Aman, M Javad; Pierce, Brian G; Fuerst, Thomas R; Bailey, Justin R; Baumert, Thomas F; Mariuzza, Roy A; Kneteman, Norman M; Foung, Steven K H

    2016-12-01

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have led to a high cure rate in treated patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but this still leaves a large number of treatment failures secondary to the emergence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs). To increase the barrier to resistance, a complementary strategy is to use neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) to prevent acute infection. However, earlier efforts with the selected antibodies led to RAVs in animal and clinical studies. Therefore, we identified an HMAb that is less likely to elicit RAVs for affinity maturation to increase potency and, more important, breadth of protection. Selected matured antibodies show improved affinity and neutralization against a panel of diverse HCV isolates. Structural and modeling studies reveal that the affinity-matured HMAb mediates virus neutralization, in part, by inducing conformational change to the targeted epitope, and that the maturated light chain is responsible for the improved affinity and breadth of protection. A matured HMAb protected humanized mice when challenged with an infectious HCV human serum inoculum for a prolonged period. However, a single mouse experienced breakthrough infection after 63 days when the serum HMAb concentration dropped by several logs; sequence analysis revealed no viral escape mutation. The findings suggest that a single broadly neutralizing antibody can prevent acute HCV infection without inducing RAVs and may complement DAAs to reduce the emergence of RAVs. (Hepatology 2016;64:1922-1933). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. RNA-Sequencing Analysis of 5' Capped RNAs Identifies Many New Differentially Expressed Genes in Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret S. E. Heale

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the first report of RNA sequencing of 5' capped (Pol II RNAs isolated from acutely hepatitis C virus (HCV infected Huh 7.5 cells that provides a general approach to identifying differentially expressed annotated and unannotated genes that participate in viral-host interactions. We identified 100, 684, and 1,844 significantly differentially expressed annotated genes in acutely infected proliferative Huh 7.5 cells at 6, 48, and 72 hours, respectively (fold change ≥ 1.5 and Bonferroni adjusted p-values < 0.05. Most of the differentially expressed genes (>80% and biological pathways (such as adipocytokine, Notch, Hedgehog and NOD-like receptor signaling were not identified by previous gene array studies. These genes are critical components of host immune, inflammatory and oncogenic pathways and provide new information regarding changes that may benefit the virus or mediate HCV induced pathology. RNAi knockdown studies of newly identified highly upregulated FUT1 and KLHDC7B genes provide evidence that their gene products regulate and facilitate HCV replication in hepatocytes. Our approach also identified novel Pol II unannotated transcripts that were upregulated. Results further identify new pathways that regulate HCV replication in hepatocytes and suggest that our approach will have general applications in studying viral-host interactions in model systems and clinical biospecimens.

  20. Acute phase protein response during subclinical infection of pigs with H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2012-10-12

    In the present study acute phase proteins (APPs) responses in pigs after subclinical infection with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) were evaluated. Fourteen 5 weeks old, seronegative piglets, both sexes were used. Ten of them were infected intranasally with SwH1N1. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. No significant clinical signs were observed in any of the infected pigs, however, all infected animals developed specific antibodies against SwH1N1 and viral shedding was observed from 2 to 5 dpi. Only concentrations of Hp and SAA were significantly induced after infection, with mean maximum levels from days 1 to 2 post infection (dpi). The concentrations of CRP and Pig-MAP remained generally unchanged, however in half of infected pigs the concentration of CRP tended to increase at 1 dpi (but without statistical significance). The results of our study confirmed that monitoring of APPs may be useful for detection of subclinically infected pigs. The use of SAA or Hp and Pig-MAP may be a valuable in combination [i.e. Hp (increased concentration) and Pig-MAP (unchanged concentration)] to detect subclinically SIV infected pigs, or to identify pigs actually producing a large amount of virus. Additional studies need to be done in order to confirm these findings.

  1. Follow-up after acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by influenza a (H1N1 virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Toufen Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no reports on the long-term follow-up of patients with swine-origin influenza A virus infection that progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: Four patients were prospectively followed up with pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography for six months after admission to an intensive care unit. RESULTS: Pulmonary function test results assessed two months after admission to the intensive care unit showed reduced forced vital capacity in all patients and low diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide in two patients. At six months, pulmonary function test results were available for three patients. Two patients continued to have a restrictive pattern, and none of the patients presented with abnormal diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. All of them had a diffuse ground-glass pattern on high-resolution computed tomography that improved after six months. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the marked severity of lung disease at admission, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by swine-origin influenza A virus infection presented a late but substantial recovery over six months of follow-up.

  2. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe acute respiratory infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in children under 5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe acute respiratory infection in children under 5 years old with and without infection due to respiratory syncytial virus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study in a sample of 65 cases and 65 controls in children under 5 years old with acute respiratory infection (SARI treated at the Pediatric Emergency Hospital during 2014. The diagnosis of RSV test was performed using direct inmufluorescencia (IFD in nasal and throat samples (D3 Ultra DFA Respiratory Virus 8 ™ Screening & ID Kit. The results were expressed in absolute and relative terms; the analysis was performed by measures of central tendency, chi-square, “t” Student and Mann Whitney tests. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between cases and controls in the average age in the month of infection, the average respiratory rate, use of mechanical ventilation in antibiotic treatment and diagnosis of bronchiolitis at medical discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that there are clinical and epidemiological differences between the cases and controls

  3. Serum levels of chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) during virus infections; indication that chicken MBL is an acute phase reactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Jensenius, J. C.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum collectin which is believed to be an opsonin of the innate immune defence against various microorganisms. MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in man. We investigated the concentration of serum MBL in chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV...... levels returned to normal values 6-10 days after infection. The results indicated that MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in chickens....

  4. IAPV, a bee-affecting virus associated with Colony Collapse Disorder can be silenced by dsRNA ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maori, E; Paldi, N; Shafir, S; Kalev, H; Tsur, E; Glick, E; Sela, I

    2009-02-01

    Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has been associated with Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV). CCD poses a serious threat to apiculture and agriculture as a whole, due to the consequent inability to provide the necessary amount of bees for pollination of critical crops. Here we report on RNAi-silencing of IAPV infection by feeding bees with double-stranded RNA, as an efficient and feasible way of controlling this viral disease. The association of CCD with IAPV is discussed, as well as the potential of controlling CCD.

  5. Coexistence of IgM antihepatitis A virus and IgM antihepatitis E virus in acute viral hepatitis: a prospective, multicentre study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J-H; Jung, Y M; Kim, J S; Lee, S H; Kim, J-W; Hwang, S G; Rim, K S; Park, S J; Park, Y M; Kang, S-K; Lee, H S; Yun, H; Kim, J-H; Jeong, S-H

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the clinical, serological and molecular characteristics of coexistence of both immunoglobulin M (IgM) antihepatitis A virus (HAV) and IgM antihepatitis E virus (HEV) in acute viral hepatitis using a prospective, multicentre design. Among a total of 771 symptomatic cases with acute viral hepatitis enrolled in a Korean city from September 2006 to August 2008, coexistence of IgM anti-HAV and IgM anti-HEV was found in 43 patients (A+E group; 6%), while the existence of IgM anti-HAV alone was found in 595 patients (A group; 77%) and that of IgM anti-HEV alone in 14 patients (E group; 2%). Clinical data analysis and measurement of IgM and IgG anti-HEV were performed using two different commercial kits, and HAV RNA and HEV RNA were detected in available serum or stool samples. The clinical features of the A+E group were similar to those of the A group. HAV RNA detection rates in the A+E and A group were similar, while HEV RNA was detected only in the stool samples of the E group, not in the A+E group. Comparative testing of anti-HEV using two different ELISA kits showed markedly discordant results for IgM anti-HEV positivity and consistently low positivity for IgG anti-HEV in the A+E group. Coexistence of IgM anti-HEV measured by the Genelabs ELISA kit in the setting of hepatitis A appears to yield false-positive results in nonendemic areas of HEV infection. Diagnosis of hepatitis E using IgM anti-HEV should be made with caution.

  6. Analysis of plasma viral RNA levels during acute dengue virus infection using quantitative competitor reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiro, T M; Zivny, J; Ishiko, H; Green, S; Vaughn, D W; Kalayanarooj, S; Nisalak, A; Norman, J E; Ennis, F A; Rothman, A L

    2001-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the potential importance of viral burden in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). There is little data available, however, describing the kinetics of viral replication in humans with natural dengue virus (DV) infection. Standard procedures for measuring titers of infectious virus in clinical specimens are either laborious or insensitive. We developed a method for measurement of DV RNA in plasma samples based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using a mutant RNA target as a competitor. This technique was reproducible and accurate for samples containing any of the four DV serotypes, and could be applied to samples containing as few as 250 copies of RNA per reaction. We examined plasma viral RNA levels in 80 children with acute DV infection; sequential plasma samples were tested in 34 of these children. Plasma viral RNA levels ranged as high as 10(9) RNA copies/ml, and correlated with titers of infectious virus measured in mosquitoes (r= 0.69). Plasma viral RNA levels fell rapidly during the last several days of the febrile period. We did not find a significant difference in maximal plasma viral RNA levels between children with DHF and children with dengue fever, but peak viral RNA levels were identified in only 16 subjects. We conclude that this quantitative RT-PCR method will be valuable for further studies of natural DV infections.

  7. Multiploid CD61+ cells are the pre-dominant cell lineage infected during acute dengue virus infection in bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina B Clark

    Full Text Available Depression of the peripheral blood platelet count during acute infection is a hallmark of dengue. This thrombocytopenia has been attributed, in part, to an insufficient level of platelet production by megakaryocytes that reside in the bone marrow (BM. Interestingly, it was observed that dengue patients experience BM suppression at the onset of fever. However, few studies focus on the interaction between dengue virus (DENV and megakaryocytes and how this interaction can lead to a reduction in platelets. In the studies reported herein, BM cells from normal healthy rhesus monkeys (RM and humans were utilized to identify the cell lineage(s that were capable of supporting virus infection and replication. A number of techniques were employed in efforts to address this issue. These included the use of viral RNA quantification, nonstructural protein and infectivity assays, phenotypic studies utilizing immunohistochemical staining, anti-differentiation DEAB treatment, and electron microscopy. Cumulative results from these studies revealed that cells in the BM were indeed highly permissive for DENV infection, with human BM having higher levels of viral production compared to RM. DENV-like particles were predominantly observed in multi-nucleated cells that expressed CD61+. These data suggest that megakaryocytes are likely the predominant cell type infected by DENV in BM, which provides one explanation for the thrombocytopenia and the dysfunctional platelets characteristic of dengue virus infection.

  8. Acute retinal necrosis results in low vision in a young patient with a history of herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Sanjeet K

    2016-08-31

    Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), secondary to herpes simplex encephalitis, is a rare syndrome that can present in healthy individuals, as well as immuno-compromised patients. Most cases are caused by a secondary infection from the herpes virus family, with varicella zoster virus being the leading cause of this syndrome. Potential symptoms include blurry vision, floaters, ocular pain and photophobia. Ocular findings may consist of severe uveitis, retinal vasculitis, retinal necrosis, papillitis and retinal detachment. Clinical manifestations of this disease may include increased intraocular pressure, optic disc oedema, optic neuropathy and sheathed retinal arterioles. A complete work up is essential to rule out cytomegalovirus retinitis, herpes simplex encephalitis, herpes virus, syphilis, posterior uveitis and other conditions. Depending on the severity of the disease, the treatment options consist of anticoagulation therapy, cycloplegia, intravenous acyclovir, systemic steroids, prophylactic laser photocoagulation and pars plana vitrectomy with silicon oil for retinal detachment. An extensive history and clinical examination is crucial in making the correct diagnosis. Also, it is very important to be aware of low vision needs and refer the patients, if expressing any sort of functional issues with completing daily living skills, especially reading. In this article, we report one case of unilateral ARN 20 years after herpetic encephalitis.

  9. Detection of respiratory virus antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions from patients with acute respiratory disease by radio-immunoassay and tissue culture isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlicher, L; Hoffmann, H G; Habermehl, K O

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was made of the sensitivity and specificity of four-layer radio-immunoassays (RIA) in the detection of adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus types A and B, as well as para-influenza virus types 1, 2 and 3 from nasopharyngeal aspirates of 146 patients with acute respiratory disease. The sensitivity of RIA was comparable with that of tissue culture isolation if the total number of positives is considered. The difference may have been caused both by a higher efficiency of the RIA for detection of inactivated or non-cultivable agents and by a higher efficiency of tissue culture methods if the samples contained only small amounts of antigen. Differences between the two antigen detection systems were found in particular with respiratory syncytial virus and influenza B virus. At present, the use of tissue culture isolation together with RIA is the optimal routine laboratory procedure for the diagnosis of respiratory infections.

  10. Studies on the role of mononuclear phagocytes in resistance to acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M

    1983-01-01

    difficulty in eliminating. Adoptive transfer experiments with pre-irradiated recipients showed that T-cell-dependent virus clearance required interaction between donor-derived primary immune spleen cells and radiosensitive host cells. T cells did not seem to constitute the radiosensitive host component...... with early events in the host response to the virus. Correspondingly, carrageenan enhanced early virus multiplication. Pretreatment with carrageenan apparently did not inhibit induction of the T-cell response and had little or no direct effect on T-cell-dependent anti-viral activity. The LCMV-induced natural......, since athymic (nude) mice functioned well as recipients. Together with previously published data, this finding strongly suggests that T-cell-dependent virus clearance involves cooperation between T cells and non-committed cells, probably monocytes....

  11. An Outbreak of Acute Hepatitis Caused by Genotype IB Hepatitis A Viruses Contaminating the Water Supply in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchusatsawat, Kriangsak; Wongpiyabovorn, Jongkonnee; Kawidam, Chonthicha; Thiemsing, Laddawan; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Tatsumi, Masashi; Takeda, Naokazu; Ishii, Koji

    2016-01-01

    In 2000, an outbreak of acute hepatitis A was reported in a province adjacent to Bangkok, Thailand. To investigate the cause of the 2000 hepatitis A outbreaks in Thailand using molecular epidemiological analysis. Serum and stool specimens were collected from patients who were clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis. Water samples from drinking water and deep-drilled wells were also collected. These specimens were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the VP1/2A region of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) genome. The entire genome sequence of one of the fecal specimens was determined and phylogenetically analyzed with those of known HAV sequences. Eleven of 24 fecal specimens collected from acute viral hepatitis patients were positive as determined by semi- nested reverse transcription PCR targeting the VP1/2A region of HAV. The nucleotide sequence of these samples had an identical genotype IB sequence, suggesting that the same causative agent was present. The complete nucleotide sequence derived from one of the samples indicated that the Thai genotype IB strain should be classified in a unique phylogenetic cluster. The analysis using an adjusted odds ratio showed that the consumption of groundwater was the most likely risk factor associated with the disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Sustained viral response of a case of acute hepatitis C virus infection via needle-stick injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki Kogure; Yu Nakagome; Masashi Ninomiya; Tooru Shimosegawa; Yoshiyuki Ueno; Noriatsu Kanno; Koji Fukushima; Yoko Yamagiwa; Futoshi Nagasaki; Eiji Kakazu; Yasunori Matsuda; Osamu Kido

    2006-01-01

    A 29-year-old nurse with a hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection caused by needle-stick injury was treated with interferon-beta starting about one year after the onset of acute hepatitis. The patient developed acute hepatitis C with symptoms of general fatigues, jaundice, and ascites 4 wk after the needle-stick injury. When these symptoms were presented, the patient was pregnant by artificial insemination. She hoped to continue her pregnancy.After delivery, biochemical liver enzyme returned to normal levels. Nevertheless, HCV RNA was positive and the pathological finding indicated a progression to chronicity. The genotype was 1b with low viral load.Daily intravenous injection of interferon-beta at the dosage of six million units was started and continued for eight weeks. HCV was eradicated without severe adverse effects. In acute hepatitis C, delaying therapy is considered to reduce the efficacy but interferon-beta therapy is one of the useful treatments for hepatitis C infection in chronic phase.

  13. Equine infectious anemia virus replication is upregulated during differentiation of blood monocytes from acutely infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellon, D C; Walker, K M; Russell, K E; Perry, S T; Covington, P; Fuller, F J

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus that replicates in mature tissue macrophages of horses. Ponies were infected with equine infectious anemia virus. During febrile episodes, proviral DNA was detectable, but viral mRNA was not detectable. As cultured blood monocytes from these ponies differentiated into macrophages, viral expression was upregulated. In situ hybridization confirmed that viral transcription occurred in mature macrophages. PMID:8523576

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06239-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ig VV78X074213.4, whole genome... 42 7.2 2 ( AF486073 ) Acute bee paralysis virus isolate Poland 1, compl......us molossinus DNA, clone:MSMg01-106N17.... 32 8.4 2 ( AY053376 ) Acute bee paralysis... virus isolate Poland 4 capsid... 32 8.7 2 ( AF264692 ) Acute bee paralysis virus isolate ballapv12 struc...... 32 8.8 2 ( AF264691 ) Acute bee paralysis virus isolate ballapv8 struct... 32 8.8 2 ( AF264690 ) Acute bee paralysis... virus isolate ballapv7 struct... 32 8.8 2 ( AF264689 ) Acute bee paralysis virus isolate ballap

  15. Self-collected mid-turbinate swabs for the detection of respiratory viruses in adults with acute respiratory illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E Larios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gold standard for respiratory virus testing is a nasopharyngeal (NP swab, which is collected by a healthcare worker. Midturbinate (MT swabs are an alternative due to their ease of collection and possible self-collection by patients. The objective of this study was to compare the respiratory virus isolation of flocked MT swabs compared to flocked NP swabs. METHODS: Beginning in October 2008, healthy adults aged 18 to 69 years were recruited into a cohort and followed up for symptoms of influenza. They were asked to have NP and MT swabs taken as soon as possible after the onset of a fever or two or more respiratory symptoms with an acute onset. The swabs were tested for viral respiratory infections using Seeplex® RV12 multiplex PCR detection kit. Seventy six pairs of simultaneous NP and MT swabs were collected from 38 symptomatic subjects. Twenty nine (38% of these pairs were positive by either NP or MT swabs or both. Sixty nine (91% of the pair results were concordant. Two samples (3% for hCV OC43/HKU1 and 1 sample (1% for rhinovirus A/B were positive by NP but negative by MT. One sample each for hCV 229E/NL63, hCV OC43/HKU1, respiratory syncytial virus A, and influenza B were positive by MT but negative by NP. CONCLUSIONS: Flocked MT swabs are sensitive for the diagnosis of multiple respiratory viruses. Given the ease of MT collection and similar results between the two swabs, it is likely that MT swabs should be the preferred method of respiratory cell collection for outpatient studies. In light of this data, larger studies should be performed to ensure that this still holds true and data should also be collected on the patient preference of collection methods.

  16. Dengue and Chikungunya Virus Infections among Young Febrile Adults Evaluated for Acute HIV-1 Infection in Coastal Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoi, Carolyne N.; Price, Matt A.; Fields, Barry; Bonventure, Juma; Ochieng, Caroline; Mwashigadi, Grace; Hassan, Amin S.; Thiong’o, Alexander N.; Micheni, Murugi; Mugo, Peter; Graham, Susan; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is common among patients seeking care in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA), but causes other than malaria are rarely diagnosed. We assessed dengue and chikungunya virus infections among young febrile adults evaluated for acute HIV infection (AHI) and malaria in coastal Kenya. Methods We tested plasma samples obtained in a cross-sectional study from febrile adult patients aged 18–35 years evaluated for AHI and malaria at urgent care seeking at seven health facilities in coastal Kenya in 2014–2015. Dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were amplified using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We conducted logistic regression analyses to determine independent predictors of dengue virus infection. Results 489 samples that were negative for both AHI and malaria were tested, of which 43 (8.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.4–11.7) were positive for DENV infection. No participant was positive for CHIKV infection. DENV infections were associated with clinic visits in the rainy season (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.3–6.5) and evaluation at a private health facility (AOR 5.2, 95% CI: 2.0–13.1) or research health facility (AOR = 25.6, 95% CI: 8.9–73.2) instead of a public health facility. Conclusion A high prevalence of DENV infections was found in febrile young adult patients evaluated for AHI. Our data suggests that DENV, along with AHI and malaria, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient seeking care for fever in coastal Kenya. PMID:27942016

  17. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, particularly younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  18. Pharyngolaryngeal paralysis in a patient with pharyngeal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Masafumi; Komiyama, Sakurako; Tayama, Niro

    2015-02-01

    Pharyngeal tuberculosis is a rare disease, and its commonly reported symptoms include sore throat, dysphagia, and throat discomfort. The dysphagia in pharyngeal tuberculosis cases is not due to pharyngolaryngeal paralysis but due to odynophagia. Herein, we describe the first case of dysphagia caused by pharyngolaryngeal paralysis secondary to pharyngeal tuberculosis. An irregular mass at the right nasopharynx was detected in a 57-year-old female patient, along with dysphagia and hoarseness. She had poor right soft palate elevation, inadequate right velopharyngeal closure, poor constrictor pharyngus muscle contraction, and an immobilized right vocal cord, which collectively indicate right pharyngolaryngeal paralysis. Pathological examination and culture testing revealed pharyngeal tuberculosis. She was diagnosed with pharyngolaryngeal paralysis secondary to pharyngeal tuberculosis. The pharyngolaryngeal paralysis resolved after beginning anti-tuberculous treatment. Right pharyngolaryngeal paralysis was attributed to glossopharyngeal and vagus nerve impairment in the parapharyngeal space. Prior reports indicate that peripheral nerve paralysis, including recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis caused by tuberculous lymphadenitis, often recovers after anti-tuberculous treatment. Pharyngeal tuberculosis rarely causes dysphagia and hoarseness attributable to pharyngolaryngeal paralysis. The neuropathy may recover after anti-tuberculous treatment. Pharyngeal tuberculosis is a new potential differential diagnosis in pharyngolaryngeal paralysis.

  19. 1994-2011年梅州市急性弛缓性麻痹病例流行病学分析及监测系统评价%Epidemiological analysis on acute flaccid paralysis cases and evaluation on surveillance system in Meizhou City from 1994-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅姬; 曾国浩; 肖胜传; 杨劲英; 林立新

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析梅州市急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例流行病学特点,掌握流行规律,评价AFP监测系统.方法 对梅州市1994-2011年AFP病例进行回顾性分析.结果 1994-2011年全市共报告AFP病例289例,0~14岁儿童平均报告发病率为1.26/10万;有明显的夏秋发病高峰,以6月份发