WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute ozone exposure

  1. Does the acute pulmonary response to ozone depend on the cumulative exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In experimental conditions, repeated ozone exposure induces adaptive phenomena that attenuate lung function and inflammatory responses. But this study did not find that lifetime cumulative exposure had a protective effect; indeed, it found the contrary. (author)

  2. Pulmonary arachidonic acid metabolism following acute exposures to ozone and nitrogen dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, R.B.; Driscoll, K.E.; Gunnison, A.F.; Zelikoff, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) are common air pollutants, and exposure to these gases has been shown to affect pulmonary physiology, biochemistry, and structure. This study examined their ability to modulate arachidonic acid metabolites (eicosanoids) in the lungs. Rabbits were exposed for 2 h to O 3 at 0.1, 0.3, or 1 ppm; NO 2 at 1, 3, or 10 ppm; or to a mixture of 0.3 ppm O 3 and 3 ppm NO 2 . Groups of animals sacrificed either immediately or 24 h after each exposure underwent broncho-pulmonary lavage. Selected eicosanoids were assessed in lavage fluid by radioimmunoassay. Increases in prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) were found immediately after exposure to 1 ppm O 3 . Exposure to 10 ppm NO 2 resulted in a depression of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, while thromboxane B2 (TxB2) was elevated after exposure to 1 ppm NO 2 and depressed following 3 and 10 ppm. The O 3 /NO 2 mixture resulted in synergistic increases in PGE2 and PGF2 alpha, with the response appearing to be driven by O 3 . This study has demonstrated that acute exposure to either O 3 or NO 2 can alter pulmonary arachidonic acid metabolism and that the responses to these oxidants differ, both quantitatively and qualitatively

  3. Bittersweet: Real-Time, Dynamic Changes in Blood Glucose Levels during an Acute Ozone Exposure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    In humans and rats, acute exposures to ozone have been shown to activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes to induce multi-organ metabolic alterations including impaired glucose homeostasis. These findings have largely been gleaned from on...

  4. Regional differences in DNA replication in nasal epithelium following acute ozone or cigarette smoke exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.F.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity is composed of four cell types, squamous, respiratory, cuboidal, and olfactory cells. We monitored proliferation In these tissues by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdUrd) incorporation; the labeled cells were identified by using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes BrdUrd. The respiratory, cuboidal and olfactory epithelia had low cell turnover (1-labeled ceIl/mm basal lamina). Squamous epithelium contained 40-labeled cells per mm basal lamina. Following exposure to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke, a transient, but marked increase in DNA replication was seen in the cuboidal epithelium. In contrast, ozone exposure was associated with DNA replication in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium, as well as in the cuboidal epithelium. These studies show that the sensitivity of nasal epithelium to irritants can be assayed by measuring DNA replication. (author)

  5. Regional differences in DNA replication in nasal epithelium following acute ozone or cigarette smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N F; Hotchkiss, J A; Harkema, J R; Henderson, R F; Mauderly, J L; Cuddihy, R G

    1988-12-01

    The epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity is composed of four cell types, squamous, respiratory, cuboidal, and olfactory cells. We monitored proliferation In these tissues by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdUrd) incorporation; the labeled cells were identified by using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes BrdUrd. The respiratory, cuboidal and olfactory epithelia had low cell turnover (1-labeled ceIl/mm basal lamina). Squamous epithelium contained 40-labeled cells per mm basal lamina. Following exposure to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke, a transient, but marked increase in DNA replication was seen in the cuboidal epithelium. In contrast, ozone exposure was associated with DNA replication in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium, as well as in the cuboidal epithelium. These studies show that the sensitivity of nasal epithelium to irritants can be assayed by measuring DNA replication. (author)

  6. Effects of Acute Ozone Exposure and Methyl Jasmonate Treatment on White Pine Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, C. L.; Wagner, D.; Allwine, E.; Harley, P. C.; Vanreken, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced by plants and include monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and their oxygenated derivatives. These BVOCs are one of the principal factors influencing the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere in forested regions, and impact both ozone concentration and secondary organic aerosol formation. Under unstressed conditions, the release of BVOCs to the atmosphere is primarily controlled by the vapor pressure of the relevant compounds within the plant tissue, which is in turn dependent on temperature as well as complex biochemical production processes. However, various natural and anthropogenic stressors can alter both the quantity and composition of the BVOCs emitted by plants. Many potential stressors are expected to become stronger as climate change effects escalate. The impacts of most stressors on BVOC emissions have not been well characterized, particularly in a field setting where changes in BVOC emissions could have influential feedbacks with climate. This study investigated the effects of two stressors on monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission rates at a field site in northern Michigan: acute ozone exposure and treatment with methyl jasmonate, an herbivory proxy. The study included six repetitions of the same experiment, each time using a new set of sub-canopy eastern white pine specimens. For each experiment, dynamic branch enclosures were simultaneously used on three specimens for sample collection: one ozone treatment tree, one methyl jasmonate treatment tree, and one control tree. Sampling lines were placed in each enclosure and VOCs were collected onto cartridges packed with Tenax GR adsorbent. Samples were collected several times per day for at least two days before treatment and for five days after treatment. Cartridges were analyzed via thermodesorption with an Agilent GC/MS/FID. This analysis allowed the identification and quantification of several monoterpene and sesquiterpene species in the samples

  7. Modeled population exposures to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population exposures to ozone from APEX modeling for combinations of potential future air quality and demographic change scenarios. This dataset is not publicly...

  8. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  9. Ozone exposure is associated with acute changes in inflammation, fibrinolysis, and endothelial cell function in coronary artery disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Air pollution is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, of which ozone is a major contributor. Several studies have found associations between ozone and cardiovascular morbidity, but the results have been inconclusive. We investigated associations between oz...

  10. Acute Ozone (O3) Exposure Accelerates Diet-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Metabolic Alterations in a Rat Model of Type II Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for Society of Toxicology, March 22-25, 2015, San Diego, CAAcute Ozone (O3) Exposure Accelerates Diet-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Metabolic Alterations in a Rat Model of Type II DiabetesS.J. Snow1,3, D. Miller2, V. Bass2, M. Schladweiler3, A. Ledbetter3, J. Richards3, C...

  11. Role of surfactant protein-A (SP-A) in lung injury in response to acute ozone exposure of SP-A deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Rizwanul; Umstead, Todd M.; Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Guo Xiaoxuan; Hawgood, Samuel; Phelps, David S.; Floros, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Millions are exposed to ozone levels above recommended limits, impairing lung function, causing epithelial damage and inflammation, and predisposing some individuals to pneumonia, asthma, and other lung conditions. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) plays a role in host defense, the regulation of inflammation, and repair of tissue damage. We tested the hypothesis that the lungs of SP-A(-/-) (KO) mice are more susceptible to ozone-induced damage. We compared the effects of ozone on KO and wild type (WT) mice on the C57BL/6 genetic background by exposing them to 2 parts/million of ozone for 3 or 6 h and sacrificing them 0, 4, and 24 h later. Lungs were subject to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or used to measure endpoints of oxidative stress and inflammation. Despite more total protein in BAL of KO mice after a 3 h ozone exposure, WT mice had increased oxidation of protein and had oxidized SP-A dimers. In KO mice there was epithelial damage as assessed by increased LDH activity and there was increased phospholipid content. In WT mice there were more BAL PMNs and elevated macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Changes in MIP-2 and MCP-1 were observed in both KO and WT, however mRNA levels differed. In KO mice MIP-2 mRNA levels changed little with ozone, but in WT levels they were significantly increased. In summary, several aspects of the inflammatory response differ between WT and KO mice. These in vivo findings appear to implicate SP-A in regulating inflammation and limiting epithelial damage in response to ozone exposure

  12. Ozone's impact on public health: Contributions from indoor exposures to ozone and products of ozone-initiated chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The associations between ozone concentrations measured outdoors and both morbidity and mortality may be partially due to indoor exposures to ozone and ozone-initiated oxidation products. In this article I examine the contributions of such indoor exposures to overall ozone-related heal...

  13. Ozone Exposure Increases Circulating Stress Hormones and Lipid Metabolites in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Air pollution has been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We have shown that acute ozone exposure in rats induces release of stress hormones, hyperglycemia, leptinemia, and gluoose intolerance that are assoc...

  14. Iron decreases biological effects of ozone exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTEXT: Ozone (0(3)) exposure is associated with a disruption of iron homeostasis and increased availability of this metal which potentially contributes to an oxidative stress and biologicaleffects. OBJECTIVE: We tested the postulate that increased concentrations of iron in c...

  15. Systemic metabolic derangement, pulmonary effects, and insulin insufficiency following subchronic ozone exposure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Desinia B.; Snow, Samantha J.; Henriquez, Andres; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy E.; Andrews, Debora L.; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2016-01-01

    Acute ozone exposure induces a classical stress response with elevated circulating stress hormones along with changes in glucose, protein and lipid metabolism in rats, with similar alterations in ozone-exposed humans. These stress-mediated changes over time have been linked to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that acute ozone-induced stress response and metabolic impairment would persist during subchronic episodic exposure and induce peripheral insulin resistance. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to air or 0.25 ppm or 1.00 ppm ozone, 5 h/day, 3 consecutive days/week (wk) for 13 wks. Pulmonary, metabolic, insulin signaling and stress endpoints were determined immediately after 13 wk or following a 1 wk recovery period (13 wk + 1 wk recovery). We show that episodic ozone exposure is associated with persistent pulmonary injury and inflammation, fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, as well as, elevated circulating adrenaline and cholesterol when measured at 13 wk, however, these responses were largely reversible following a 1 wk recovery. Moreover, the increases noted acutely after ozone exposure in non-esterified fatty acids and branched chain amino acid levels were not apparent following a subchronic exposure. Neither peripheral or tissue specific insulin resistance nor increased hepatic gluconeogenesis were present after subchronic ozone exposure. Instead, long-term ozone exposure lowered circulating insulin and severely impaired glucose-stimulated beta-cell insulin secretion. Thus, our findings in young-adult rats provide potential insights into epidemiological studies that show a positive association between ozone exposures and type 1 diabetes. Ozone-induced beta-cell dysfunction may secondarily contribute to other tissue-specific metabolic alterations following chronic exposure due to impaired regulation of glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. - Highlights: • Subchronic episodic ozone exposure caused pulmonary and metabolic effects. • These

  16. Systemic metabolic derangement, pulmonary effects, and insulin insufficiency following subchronic ozone exposure in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Desinia B. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Snow, Samantha J. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Henriquez, Andres [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy E.; Andrews, Debora L. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Acute ozone exposure induces a classical stress response with elevated circulating stress hormones along with changes in glucose, protein and lipid metabolism in rats, with similar alterations in ozone-exposed humans. These stress-mediated changes over time have been linked to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that acute ozone-induced stress response and metabolic impairment would persist during subchronic episodic exposure and induce peripheral insulin resistance. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to air or 0.25 ppm or 1.00 ppm ozone, 5 h/day, 3 consecutive days/week (wk) for 13 wks. Pulmonary, metabolic, insulin signaling and stress endpoints were determined immediately after 13 wk or following a 1 wk recovery period (13 wk + 1 wk recovery). We show that episodic ozone exposure is associated with persistent pulmonary injury and inflammation, fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, as well as, elevated circulating adrenaline and cholesterol when measured at 13 wk, however, these responses were largely reversible following a 1 wk recovery. Moreover, the increases noted acutely after ozone exposure in non-esterified fatty acids and branched chain amino acid levels were not apparent following a subchronic exposure. Neither peripheral or tissue specific insulin resistance nor increased hepatic gluconeogenesis were present after subchronic ozone exposure. Instead, long-term ozone exposure lowered circulating insulin and severely impaired glucose-stimulated beta-cell insulin secretion. Thus, our findings in young-adult rats provide potential insights into epidemiological studies that show a positive association between ozone exposures and type 1 diabetes. Ozone-induced beta-cell dysfunction may secondarily contribute to other tissue-specific metabolic alterations following chronic exposure due to impaired regulation of glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. - Highlights: • Subchronic episodic ozone exposure caused pulmonary and metabolic effects. • These

  17. Modelling of individual subject ozone exposure response kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, Edward S; Adams, William C; Walby, William F; Marion, M Susan

    2012-06-01

    A better understanding of individual subject ozone (O(3)) exposure response kinetics will provide insight into how to improve models used in the risk assessment of ambient ozone exposure. To develop a simple two compartment exposure-response model that describes individual subject decrements in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) induced by the acute inhalation of O(3) lasting up to 8 h. FEV(1) measurements of 220 subjects who participated in 14 previously completed studies were fit to the model using both particle swarm and nonlinear least squares optimization techniques to identify three subject-specific coefficients producing minimum "global" and local errors, respectively. Observed and predicted decrements in FEV(1) of the 220 subjects were used for validation of the model. Further validation was provided by comparing the observed O(3)-induced FEV(1) decrements in an additional eight studies with predicted values obtained using model coefficients estimated from the 220 subjects used in cross validation. Overall the individual subject measured and modeled FEV(1) decrements were highly correlated (mean R(2) of 0.69 ± 0.24). In addition, it was shown that a matrix of individual subject model coefficients can be used to predict the mean and variance of group decrements in FEV(1). This modeling approach provides insight into individual subject O(3) exposure response kinetics and provides a potential starting point for improving the risk assessment of environmental O(3) exposure.

  18. Exposure to ozone modulates human airway protease/antiprotease balance contributing to increased influenza A infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Kesic

    Full Text Available Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with increased respiratory morbidities and susceptibility to infections. Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known. The greater Mexico City area was the primary site for the spring 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic, which also coincided with high levels of environmental ozone. Proteolytic cleavage of the viral membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA is essential for influenza virus infectivity. Recent studies suggest that HA cleavage might be cell-associated and facilitated by the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2, whose activities are regulated by antiproteases, such as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI. Based on these observations, we sought to determine how acute exposure to ozone may modulate cellular protease/antiprotease expression and function, and to define their roles in a viral infection. We utilized our in vitro model of differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (NECs to determine the effects of ozone on influenza cleavage, entry, and replication. We show that ozone exposure disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance within the airway liquid. We also determined that functional forms of HAT, TMPRSS2, and SLPI are secreted from human airway epithelium, and acute exposure to ozone inversely alters their expression levels. We also show that addition of antioxidants significantly reduces virus replication through the induction of SLPI. In addition, we determined that ozone-induced cleavage of the viral HA protein is not cell-associated and that secreted endogenous proteases are sufficient to activate HA leading to a significant increase in viral replication. Our data indicate that pre-exposure to ozone disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance found in the human airway, leading to increased influenza susceptibility.

  19. Combined anaerobic–ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: Removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzi, Marisa, E-mail: marisa.punzi@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Filip [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Anbalagan, Anbarasan [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, Britt-Marie [School of Education and Environment, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad (Sweden); Jönsson, Karin [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • COD and UV absorbance were effectively reduced. • The treated effluents were non-toxic to Artemia salina and Vibrio fischeri. • The real textile wastewater was mutagenic. • Mutagenicity persisted after bio treatment and even more after a short ozonation. • Higher ozone doses completely remove mutagenicity. - Abstract: A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  20. PARAMETER EVALUATION AND MODEL VALIDATION OF OZONE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT USING HARVARD SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CHRONIC OZONE EXPOSURE STUDY DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    To examine factors influencing long-term ozone exposures by children living in urban communities, we analyzed longitudinal data on personal, indoor, and outdoor ozone concentrations as well as related housing and other questionnaire information collected in the one-year-long Harv...

  1. A probabilistic assessment of health risks associated with short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, R.G; Biller, W.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Keisler, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    The work described in this report is part of a larger risk assessment sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Earlier efforts developed exposure-response relationships for acute health effects among populations engaged in heavy exertion. Those efforts also developed a probabilistic national ambient air quality standards exposure model and a general methodology for integrating probabilistic exposure-response relation- ships and exposure estimates to calculate overall risk results. Recently published data make it possible to model additional health endpoints (for exposure at moderate exertion), including hospital admissions. New air quality and exposure estimates for alternative national ambient air quality standards for ozone are combined with exposure-response models to produce the risk results for hospital admissions and acute health effects. Sample results explain the methodology and introduce risk output formats.

  2. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and

  3. Ozone exposure increases respiratory epithelial permeability in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrl, H.R.; Vincent, L.M.; Kowalsky, R.J.; Horstman, D.H.; O'Neil, J.J.; McCartney, W.H.; Bromberg, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ozone is a respiratory irritant that has been shown to cause an increase in the permeability of the respiratory epithelium in animals. We used inhaled aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-labeled diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) to investigate whether human respiratory epithelial permeability is similarly affected by exposure to ozone. In a randomized, crossover double-blinded study, 8 healthy, nonsmoking young men were exposed for 2 h to purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone while performing intermittent high intensity treadmill exercise (minute ventilation = 66.8 L/min). SRaw and FVC were measured before and at the end of exposures. Seventy-five minutes after the exposures, the pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was measured by sequential posterior lung imaging with a computer-assisted gamma camera. Ozone exposure caused respiratory symptoms in all 8 subjects and was associated with a 14 +/- 2.8% (mean +/- SEM) decrement in FVC (p less than 0.001) and a 71 +/- 22% increase in SRaw (p = 0.04). Compared with the air exposure day, 7 of the 8 subjects showed increased /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance after the ozone exposure, with the mean value increasing from 0.59 +/- 0.08 to 1.75 +/- 0.43%/min (p = 0.03). These data show that ozone exposure sufficient to produce decrements in the pulmonary function of human subjects also causes an increase in /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

  4. Differential expression of ozone-induced gene during exposures to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential expression of ozone-induced gene during exposures to salt stress in Polygonum sibiricum Laxm leaves, stem and underground stem. ... PcOZI-1 mRNA in untreated plants was detected at low levels in underground stem, leaves and at higher levels in stem. PcOZI-1 mRNA accumulation was transiently induced ...

  5. CORRELATION BETWEEN OZONE EXPOSURE AND VISIBLE FOLIAR INJURY IN PONDEROSA AND JEFFREY PINES. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure was related to ozone-induced visible foliar injury in ponderosa and Jeffrey pines growing on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Measurements of ozone exposure, chlorotic mottle and fascicle retention were collected during the years ...

  6. Ozone exposure, uptake, and response of different-sized black cherry trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd S. Frederickson; John M. Skelly; Kim C. Steiner; Thomas E. Kolb

    1996-01-01

    Differences in exposure, uptake and relative sensitivity to ozone between seedling, sapling, and canopy black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) trees were characterized during two growing seasons in north central Pennsylvania. Open-grown trees of all sizes received a similar amount of ozone exposure. Seedlings had greater foliar ozone injury, expressed...

  7. Attenuated response to repeated daily ozone exposures in asthmatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, H. Jr.; Linn, W.S. [Rancho Low Amigos Medical Center, Downey, CA (United States); McManus, M.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The development of attenuated response ({open_quotes}tolerance{close_quotes}) to daily ozone (O{sub 3}) exposures in the laboratory is well established in healthy adult volunteers. However, the capability of asthmatics to develop tolerance during multiday ozone exposures in unclear. We exposed 10 adult volunteers with mild asthma to 0.4 ppm O{sub 3} in filtered air for 3 h/d on 5 consecutive d. Two similar filtered-air exposures during the preceding week served as controls. Follow-up O{sub 3} exposures were performed 4 and 7 d after the most recent consecutive exposure. All exposures were performed in an environmental chamber at 31 {degrees}C and 35% relative humidity. The subjects performed moderate exercise (mean ventilation rate of 32 l/min) for 15 min of each half-hour. Responses were measured with spirometry and symptom evaluations before and after each exposure, and a bronchial reactivity test (methacholine challenge) was conducted after each exposure. All response measurements showed clinically and statistically significant day-to-day variation. Symptom and forced-expiratory-volume-in-1-s responses were similarly large on the 1st and 2nd O{sub 3} exposure days, after which they diminished progressively, approaching filtered air response levels by the 5th consecutive O{sub 3} day. This tolerance was partially lost 4 and 7 d later. Bronchial reactivity peaked after the first O{sub 3} exposure and remained somewhat elevated after all subsequent O{sub 3} exposures, relative to its control level following filtered-air exposures. Individual responses varied widely; more severe initial responses to O{sub 3} predicted less rapid attenuation. We concluded that asthmatics can develop tolerance to frequent high-level O{sub 3} exposures in much the same manner as normal subjects, although the process may be slower and less fully effective in asthmatics. 27 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. AN EVALUATION OF OZONE EXPOSURE METRICS FOR A SEASONALLY DROUGHT STRESSED PONDEROSA PINE ECOSYSTEM. (R826601)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone stress has become an increasingly significant factor in cases of forest decline reported throughout the world. Current metrics to estimate ozone exposure for forest trees are derived from atmospheric concentrations and assume that the forest is physiologically active at ...

  9. PLASMA AND LUNG MACROPHAGE CAROTENOID RESPONSIVENESS TO SUPPLEMENTATION AND OZONE EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE:: To examine the effect of ozone exposure and vegetable juice supplementation on plasma and lung macrophage concentrations of carotenoids. DESIGN:: A randomized trial. SETTING:: Subjects were exposed to ambient air prior to antioxidant supplementation and to ozone after...

  10. Controlled human exposure to indoor air, dust, and ozone; XDOZ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Grethe; Bønløkke, Jakob; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2017-01-01

    . All participants were subjected to four different exposure scenarios in the climate chamber.Exp. 1: Dust (250 – 300 µg/m3)Exp. 2: Ozone (100 ppb)Exp. 3: Dust (250 – 300 µg/m3) + ozone (100 ppb)Exp. 4: Filtered air (<20µg/m3)The exposure time was 5½ hours for each session.The health effects were...... evaluated at baseline and specific follow-up times in relation to selected respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes, such as; nasal volume, exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometry (FEV1 and FVC), exhaled breath condensate (EBC), nasal lavage, blood samples, EndoPat. Questionnaires were used for assessment...

  11. Atrophic rhinitis and other nasal lesions induced by a 1-month exposure of F344 rats to 0.25 or 0.5 ppm ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; Wacnik, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone, the principal oxidant pollutant of photochemical smog, is a common inhaled toxicant for metropolitan area residents. The effects of acute and chronic ozone exposure on inflammatory cell influx, hyperplasia, and secretory cell metaplasia within the surface epithelium lining rat nasal airways have previously been reported. On the other hand, there is a paucity of data describing the effects of ozone exposure on the subepithelial tissues (i.e., lamina propria and bone) of nasal turbinates. However, recently, a significant decrease in nasal turbinate bone area in rats chronically exposed (20 mo) to 1 ppm ozone was reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 1-mo ozone exposure on subepithelial tissue compartments of maxilloturbinates in the anterior nasal cavity of rats

  12. Ozone exposure triggers the emission of herbivore-induced plant volatiles, but does not disturb tritrophic signalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, Terhi; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2004-09-01

    We evaluated the similarities between ozone-induced and mite-induced emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from lima beans, and tested the response of the natural enemies of herbivores to these emissions using trophic system of two-spotted spider mites and predatory mites. The acute ozone-exposure and spider mite-infestation induced the emission of two homoterpenes, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Only plants with spider mite-infestation emitted the monoterpene (E)-{beta}-ocimene. Predatory mites were equally attracted to ozone-exposed and unexposed plants, but discriminated between spider mite-infested and uninfested plants, when both were exposed to ozone. The similarities between ozone and herbivore-induced VOCs suggest that plant defence against phytotoxic ozone and the production of VOCs for attraction of the natural enemies of herbivores may have adaptive coevolution. However, the expected elevated ozone concentrations in future may not disturb tritrophic signalling, unless herbivore-induced VOCs are lost in the process of aerosol formation.

  13. Ozone exposure triggers the emission of herbivore-induced plant volatiles, but does not disturb tritrophic signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, Terhi; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the similarities between ozone-induced and mite-induced emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from lima beans, and tested the response of the natural enemies of herbivores to these emissions using trophic system of two-spotted spider mites and predatory mites. The acute ozone-exposure and spider mite-infestation induced the emission of two homoterpenes, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Only plants with spider mite-infestation emitted the monoterpene (E)-β-ocimene. Predatory mites were equally attracted to ozone-exposed and unexposed plants, but discriminated between spider mite-infested and uninfested plants, when both were exposed to ozone. The similarities between ozone and herbivore-induced VOCs suggest that plant defence against phytotoxic ozone and the production of VOCs for attraction of the natural enemies of herbivores may have adaptive coevolution. However, the expected elevated ozone concentrations in future may not disturb tritrophic signalling, unless herbivore-induced VOCs are lost in the process of aerosol formation

  14. Comparison of acute ozone-induced nasal and pulmonary inflammatory responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, J A; Harkema, J R; Sun, J D; Henderson, R F

    1988-12-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of acute ozone exposure in the nose and lungs of rats. Rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.12, 0.80, or 1.5 ppm O{sub 3} for 6 h and were sacrificed immediately, 3,18, 42, or 66 h after exposure. Cellular inflammatory responses were assessed by quantitating polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) recovered by nasal lavage (NL) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and morphometric quantitation of PMN within the nasal mucosa and pulmonary centriacinar region. Rats exposed to 0.12 ppm O{sub 3} had a transient nasal PMN response 18 h after exposure but no increase in pulmonary PMN. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm O{sub 3} had a marked increase in nasal PMN immediately after exposure but the number of PMN within the nasal cavity decreased as the number of pulmonary PMN increased with time after exposure. Rats exposed to 1.5 ppm O{sub 3} had an increase in pulmonary PMN beginning 3 h post-exposure, but no increase in nasal PMN at any time. Our results suggest that at high O{sub 3} concentrations, the acute nasal inflammatory response is attenuated by a simultaneous, competing, inflammatory response within the lung. (author)

  15. Comparison of acute ozone-induced nasal and pulmonary inflammatory responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; Sun, J.D.; Henderson, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of acute ozone exposure in the nose and lungs of rats. Rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.12, 0.80, or 1.5 ppm O 3 for 6 h and were sacrificed immediately, 3,18, 42, or 66 h after exposure. Cellular inflammatory responses were assessed by quantitating polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) recovered by nasal lavage (NL) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and morphometric quantitation of PMN within the nasal mucosa and pulmonary centriacinar region. Rats exposed to 0.12 ppm O 3 had a transient nasal PMN response 18 h after exposure but no increase in pulmonary PMN. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm O 3 had a marked increase in nasal PMN immediately after exposure but the number of PMN within the nasal cavity decreased as the number of pulmonary PMN increased with time after exposure. Rats exposed to 1.5 ppm O 3 had an increase in pulmonary PMN beginning 3 h post-exposure, but no increase in nasal PMN at any time. Our results suggest that at high O 3 concentrations, the acute nasal inflammatory response is attenuated by a simultaneous, competing, inflammatory response within the lung. (author)

  16. Elevation of susceptibility to ozone-induced acute tracheobronchial injury in transgenic mice deficient in Clara cell secretory protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plopper, C.G.; Mango, G.W.; Hatch, G.E.; Wong, V.J.; Toskala, E.; Reynolds, S.D.; Tarkington, B.K.; Stripp, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in Clara cell abundance or cellular expression of Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) may cause increased tolerance of the lung to acute oxidant injury by repeated exposure to ozone (O 3 ). This study defines how disruption of the gene for CCSP synthesis affects the susceptibility of tracheobronchial epithelium to acute oxidant injury. Mice homozygous for a null allele of the CCSP gene (CCSP-/-) and wild type (CCSP+/+) littermates were exposed to ozone (0.2 ppm, 8 h; 1 ppm, 8 h) or filtered air. Injury was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the abundance of necrotic, ciliated, and nonciliated cells was estimated by morphometry. Proximal and midlevel intrapulmonary airways and terminal bronchioles were evaluated. There was no difference in airway epithelial composition between CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice exposed to filtered air, and exposure to 0.2 ppm ozone caused little injury to the epithelium of both CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice. After exposure to 1.0 ppm ozone, CCSP-/- mice suffered from a greater degree of epithelial injury throughout the airways compared to CCSP+/+ mice. CCSP-/- mice had both ciliated and nonciliated cell injury. Furthermore, lack of CCSP was associated with a shift in airway injury to include proximal airway generations. Therefore, we conclude that CCSP modulates the susceptibility of the epithelium to oxidant-induced injury. Whether this is due to the presence of CCSP on the acellular lining layer surface and/or its intracellular distribution in the secretory cell population needs to be defined

  17. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities. Part I: Ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure indices at urban and suburban sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of a European research project on air quality in urban agglomerations, data on ozone concentrations from 23 automated urban and suburban monitoring stations in 11 cities from seven countries were analysed and evaluated. Daily and summer mean and maximum concentrations were computed...... based on hourly mean values, and cumulative ozone exposure indices (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40), AOT20) were calculated. The diurnal profiles showed a characteristic pattern in most city centres, with minimum values in the early morning hours, a strong rise during the morning......, by contrast, maximum values were lower and diurnal variation was much smaller. Based on ozone concentrations as well as on cumulative exposure indices, a clear north-south gradient in ozone pollution, with increasing levels from northern and northwestern sites to central and southern European sites...

  18. TOWARDS RELIABLE AND COST-EFFECTIVE OZONE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: PARAMETER EVALUATION AND MODEL VALIDATION USING THE HARVARD SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CHRONIC OZONE EXPOSURE STUDY DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate assessment of chronic human exposure to atmospheric criteria pollutants, such as ozone, is critical for understanding human health risks associated with living in environments with elevated ambient pollutant concentrations. In this study, we analyzed a data set from a...

  19. Effects of ozone exposure on lung function in man: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folinsbee, L J

    1981-01-01

    Ozone, an important component of photochemical smog, has a decided impact on lung function in man. In this review, the effects of zone on human lung function are discussed with particular attention to levels which are near the threshold of producing no effect. Attempts to define dose-response relationships and effects on sensitive subject populations are described. The relationship between exercise and ozone toxicity is presented in addition to the potential impact of ambient ozone exposure on athletic performance. Effects of ozone on respiratory symptoms and the interaction of ozone with other pollutants are briefly examined. Considerable attention has been directed at the phenomenon of adaptation to repeated ozone exposure and to possible mechanism of action of ozone.

  20. Evaluation of ozone emissions and exposures from consumer products and home appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Jenkins, P L

    2017-03-01

    Ground-level ozone can cause serious adverse health effects and environmental impacts. This study measured ozone emissions and impacts on indoor ozone levels and associated exposures from 17 consumer products and home appliances that could emit ozone either intentionally or as a by-product of their functions. Nine products were found to emit measurable ozone, one up to 6230 ppb at a distance of 5 cm (2 inches). One use of these products increased room ozone concentrations by levels up to 106 ppb (mean, from an ozone laundry system) and personal exposure concentrations of the user by 12-424 ppb (mean). Multiple cycles of use of one fruit and vegetable washer increased personal exposure concentrations by an average of 2550 ppb, over 28 times higher than the level of the 1-h California Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone (0.09 ppm). Ozone emission rates ranged from 1.6 mg/h for a refrigerator air purifier to 15.4 mg/h for a fruit and vegetable washer. The use of some products was estimated to contribute up to 87% of total daily exposures to ozone. The results show that the use of some products may result in potential health impacts. © 2016 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations following exposure to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, W J; Adamson, G L; Lindgren, F T; Schooley, J.C.

    1984-07-01

    The effects of exposure to ozone (O/sub 3/) on concentrations of serum lipids and lipoproteins were investigated. Male and female guinea pigs were exposed to O/sub 3/ at 1 ppm for two weeks. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, low density (LDL) and very low density (VLDL) lipoproteins were elevated after O/sub 3/ exposure, particularly in males. During O/sub 3/ exposure the food intake per day decreased (for a constant body weight), suggesting that metabolic rate and possibly basal metabolic rate was lower. Lung wet weights increased during O/sub 3/ exposure by 87% for males and 45% for females. When individual lung weight/body weight ratios were correlated with cholesterol and LDL values from the same animal, a high correlation is found for males (r . 0.81, P less than 0.05), suggesting that there may be a relationship between lipoprotein elevations and lung damage for males. Because elevated concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins in humans increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), the lipoprotein results suggest that an epidemiological study of the incidence of CHD with metropolitan O/sub 3/ levels may be warranted.

  2. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Inflammation are Modulated by Adrenal-Derived Stress Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure promotes pulmonary injury and inflammation. Previously we have characterized systemic changes that occur immediately after acute ozone exposure and are mediated by neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Both HPA axis and sympathetic tone alterations induce the rel...

  3. Ozone exposure of a weed community produces adaptive changes in seed populations of Spergula arvensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B Landesmann

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone is one of the major drivers of global change. This stress factor alters plant growth and development. Ozone could act as a selection pressure on species communities composition, but also on population genetic background, thus affecting life history traits. Our objective was to evaluate the consequences of prolonged ozone exposure of a weed community on phenotypic traits of Spergulaarvensis linked to persistence. Specifically, we predicted that the selection pressure exerted by high ozone concentrations as well as the concomitant changes in the weed community would drive population adaptive changes which will be reflected on seed germination, dormancy and longevity. In order to test seed viability and dormancy level, we conducted germination experiments for which we used seeds produced by S. arvensis plants grown within a weed community exposed to three ozone treatments during four years (0, 90 and 120 ppb. We also performed a soil seed bank experiment to test seed longevity with seeds coming from both the four-year ozone exposure experiment and from a short-term treatment conducted at ambient and added ozone concentrations. We found that prolonged ozone exposure produced changes in seed germination, dormancy and longevity, resulting in three S. arvensis populations. Seeds from the 90 ppb ozone selection treatment had the highest level of germination when stored at 75% RH and 25 °C and then scarified. These seeds showed the lowest dormancy level when being subjected to 5 ºC/5% RH and 25 ºC/75% followed by 5% RH storage conditions. Furthermore, ozone exposure increased seed persistence in the soil through a maternal effect. Given that tropospheric ozone is an important pollutant in rural areas, changes in seed traits due to ozone exposure could increase weed persistence in fields, thus affecting weed-crop interactions, which could ultimately reduce crop production.

  4. Ozone exposure of a weed community produces adaptive changes in seed populations of Spergula arvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesmann, Jennifer B; Gundel, Pedro E; Martínez-Ghersa, M Alejandra; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the major drivers of global change. This stress factor alters plant growth and development. Ozone could act as a selection pressure on species communities composition, but also on population genetic background, thus affecting life history traits. Our objective was to evaluate the consequences of prolonged ozone exposure of a weed community on phenotypic traits of Spergulaarvensis linked to persistence. Specifically, we predicted that the selection pressure exerted by high ozone concentrations as well as the concomitant changes in the weed community would drive population adaptive changes which will be reflected on seed germination, dormancy and longevity. In order to test seed viability and dormancy level, we conducted germination experiments for which we used seeds produced by S. arvensis plants grown within a weed community exposed to three ozone treatments during four years (0, 90 and 120 ppb). We also performed a soil seed bank experiment to test seed longevity with seeds coming from both the four-year ozone exposure experiment and from a short-term treatment conducted at ambient and added ozone concentrations. We found that prolonged ozone exposure produced changes in seed germination, dormancy and longevity, resulting in three S. arvensis populations. Seeds from the 90 ppb ozone selection treatment had the highest level of germination when stored at 75% RH and 25 °C and then scarified. These seeds showed the lowest dormancy level when being subjected to 5 ºC/5% RH and 25 ºC/75% followed by 5% RH storage conditions. Furthermore, ozone exposure increased seed persistence in the soil through a maternal effect. Given that tropospheric ozone is an important pollutant in rural areas, changes in seed traits due to ozone exposure could increase weed persistence in fields, thus affecting weed-crop interactions, which could ultimately reduce crop production.

  5. Ozone exposure and stomatal sluggishness in different plant physiognomic classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoletti, Elena, E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.i [IPP-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Grulke, Nancy E. [US Forest Service, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Gas exchange responses to static and variable light were tested in three species: snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, two cultivars), California black oak (Quercus kelloggii), and blue oak (Q. douglasii). The effects of 1-month (snap beans) and 2-month (oaks) O{sub 3} (ozone) exposure (70 ppb over 8 h per day in open-top chambers) were investigated. A delay in stomatal responses (i.e., 'sluggish' responses) to variable light was found to be both an effect of O{sub 3} exposure and a reason for increased O{sub 3} sensitivity in snap bean cultivars, as it implied higher O{sub 3} uptake during times of disequilibrium. Sluggishness increased the time to open (thus limiting CO{sub 2} uptake) and close stomata (thus increasing transpirational water loss) after abrupt changes in light level. Similar responses were shown by snap beans and oaks, suggesting that O{sub 3}-induced stomatal sluggishness is a common trait among different plant physiognomic classes. - Sluggish stomatal responses are suggested to be both an effect of O{sub 3} exposure and a reason of increased O{sub 3} sensitivity in plants.

  6. Acute Peritonitis and Nonspecific Resistance Factors in the Administration of Ozonized Perfluorane (Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effect of ozonized perfluorane on the natural course of acute of fecal peritonitis and congenital (nonspecific immunity factors during its intraperitoneal administration. Materials and methods. Perfluorane and saline solution were ozonized bubbling with a mixture of ozone and oxygen at a rate of 0.5 l/min and at a preset ozone concentration of 3000 flg/l on a Medozons — BM AOT — H-01-Arz-91 ozonator (OAO «Arzamasskiy Priborostroitelnyi Zavod» for 15 minutes. The concentration of ozone was measured in the solutions on a NF 254/1 spectrophotometer. Experiments were carried out on 200 non-inbred albino male rats in 4 series of experiments. After simulating fecal peritonitis by the procedure developed by S. S. Remennik, the animals were intraperitoneally injected ozonized perfluorane (Series 1, ozonized saline solution (Series 2, perfluorane (Series 3, and saline solution (Series 4 on the basis of 1.5 ml per 100 g of weight. Nine intact rats were used as a control. Results. The congenital immunity parameters (phagocytic block, intracellular and serum bactericidal activities were studied. An association was found between the clinical course and the degree of nonspecific immunity suppression. The ozonized perfluorane was ascertained to have a more significant protective action on nonspecific immunity factors than perfluorane or the ozonized saline solution. The factors under study were significantly decreased when saline solution was administered, and with this there was a mass mortality of Series 4 rats on days 2—14 of the experiment. Conclusion. The therapeutic effect of the ozonized perfluorane is due to the activation of phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes and their increased count, to the antibacterial activity of ozone and the protective action on the nonspecific link of the body’s immunological resistance.

  7. Sampling Ozone Exposure of Canadian Forests at Different Scales: Some Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Cox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of passive samplers in extensive monitoring, such as that used in national forest health monitoring plots, indicates that these devices are able to determine both spatial and temporal differences in ozone exposure of the plots. This allows for categorisation of the plots and the potential for cause-effect analysis of certain forest health responses. Forest exposure along a gradient of air pollution deposition demonstrates large variation in accumulated exposures. The efficacy of using passive samplers for in situ monitoring of forest canopy exposure was also demonstrated. The sampler data produced weak relationships with ozone values from the nearest �continuous� monitor, even though data from colocated samplers showed strong relationships. This spatial variation and the apparent effect of elevation on ozone exposure demonstrate the importance of topography and tree canopy characteristics in plant exposure on a regional scale. In addition, passive sampling may identify the effects of local pollutant gases, such as NO, which may scavenge ozone locally only to increase the production of this secondary pollutant downwind, as atmospheric reactions redress the equilibrium between concentrations of this precursor and those of the generated ozone. The use of passive samplers at the stand level is able to resolve vertical profiles within the stand and edge effects that are important in exposure of understorey and ground flora. Recent case studies using passive samplers to determine forest exposure to ozone indicate a great potential for the development of spatial models on a regional, landscape, and stand level scale.

  8. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension augments lung injury and airway reactivity caused by ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zychowski, Katherine E.; Lucas, Selita N.; Sanchez, Bethany; Herbert, Guy; Campen, Matthew J., E-mail: mcampen@salud.unm.edu

    2016-08-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3})-related cardiorespiratory effects are a growing public health concern. Ground level O{sub 3} can exacerbate pre-existing respiratory conditions; however, research regarding therapeutic interventions to reduce O{sub 3}-induced lung injury is limited. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypoxia-associated pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a frequent comorbidity that is difficult to treat clinically, yet associated with increased mortality and frequency of exacerbations. In this study, we hypothesized that established HPH would confer vulnerability to acute O{sub 3} pulmonary toxicity. Additionally, we tested whether improvement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity via rho-kinase inhibition could mitigate pulmonary inflammation and injury. To determine if O{sub 3} exacerbated HPH, male C57BL/6 mice were subject to either 3 weeks continuous normoxia (20.9% O{sub 2}) or hypoxia (10.0% O{sub 2}), followed by a 4-h exposure to either 1 ppm O{sub 3} or filtered air (FA). As an additional experimental intervention fasudil (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally prior to and after O{sub 3} exposures. As expected, hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular pressure and hypertrophy. O{sub 3} exposure in normoxic mice caused lung inflammation but not injury, as indicated by increased cellularity and edema in the lung. However, in hypoxic mice, O{sub 3} exposure led to increased inflammation and edema, along with a profound increase in airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Fasudil administration resulted in reduced O{sub 3}-induced lung injury via the enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity. These results indicate that increased pulmonary vascular pressure may enhance lung injury, inflammation and edema when exposed to pollutants, and that enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity may alleviate such vulnerability. - Highlights: • Environmental exposures can exacerbate chronic obstructive

  9. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension augments lung injury and airway reactivity caused by ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zychowski, Katherine E.; Lucas, Selita N.; Sanchez, Bethany; Herbert, Guy; Campen, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 )-related cardiorespiratory effects are a growing public health concern. Ground level O 3 can exacerbate pre-existing respiratory conditions; however, research regarding therapeutic interventions to reduce O 3 -induced lung injury is limited. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypoxia-associated pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a frequent comorbidity that is difficult to treat clinically, yet associated with increased mortality and frequency of exacerbations. In this study, we hypothesized that established HPH would confer vulnerability to acute O 3 pulmonary toxicity. Additionally, we tested whether improvement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity via rho-kinase inhibition could mitigate pulmonary inflammation and injury. To determine if O 3 exacerbated HPH, male C57BL/6 mice were subject to either 3 weeks continuous normoxia (20.9% O 2 ) or hypoxia (10.0% O 2 ), followed by a 4-h exposure to either 1 ppm O 3 or filtered air (FA). As an additional experimental intervention fasudil (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally prior to and after O 3 exposures. As expected, hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular pressure and hypertrophy. O 3 exposure in normoxic mice caused lung inflammation but not injury, as indicated by increased cellularity and edema in the lung. However, in hypoxic mice, O 3 exposure led to increased inflammation and edema, along with a profound increase in airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Fasudil administration resulted in reduced O 3 -induced lung injury via the enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity. These results indicate that increased pulmonary vascular pressure may enhance lung injury, inflammation and edema when exposed to pollutants, and that enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity may alleviate such vulnerability. - Highlights: • Environmental exposures can exacerbate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). • It is unknown if comorbid

  10. Effects of ozone exposures on epicuticular wax of ponderosa pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Turunen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Two-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) seedlings were exposed during the 1989 and 1990 growing seasons to ozone in open-top chambers placed in a forested location at Shirley Meadow, Greenhorn Mountain Range, Sierra Nevada. The ozone treatments were as follows: charcoal-filtered air (CF); charcoal-filtered air with addition of ambient concentrations of ozone (CF + O 3 ); and charcoal-filtered air with addition of doubled concentrations of ozone (CF + 2 x O 3 ). Ozone effects on ponderosa pine seedlings progressed and accumulated over two seasons of exposure. Throughout the first season, increased visible injury and accelerated senescence of the foliage were noted. Subsequently, during the second season of ozone exposure, various physiological and biochemical changes in the foliage took place. All these changes led to reduced growth and biomass of the seedlings. Epistomatal waxes of needles from the CA + 2 x O 3 treatment had an occluded appearance. This phenomenon may be caused by earlier phenological development of needles from the high-ozone treatments and disturbed development and synthesis of waxes. It may also be caused by chemical degradation of waxes by exposures to high ozone concentrations. (orig.)

  11. Germination of fungal conidia after exposure to low concentration ozone atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The germinability of conidia of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium expansum, or Penicillium italicum was determined periodically during exposure for approximately 100 days to a humid atmosphere of air alone or air containing 150 ppb ozone ...

  12. Acute Hemolysis Caused by Incidental Trichlorfon Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ling Wu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichlorfon (o-o-dimethyl-2,2,2-trichloro-hydroxyethylphosphate, an organophosphate, has a moderately potent anti-cholinesterase activity. Organophosphate poisoning is well known for its characteristic symptoms and signs, but acute hemolysis caused by trichlorfon is rarely reported. We present a patient who developed acute hemolysis and renal function impairment after percutaneous trichlorfon exposure. A 54-year-old man applied trichlorfon powder to his dog to kill its parasites. Half an hour later, the dog was suspected to die of cholinergic crisis and the patient felt abdominal cramping pain. Later, he developed severe nausea, vomiting, chills, high fever, and cold sweat. Laboratory work-up disclosed a picture of acute hemolysis, jaundice, renal function impairment and leukocytosis. However, there were no clinical features of acute cholinergic syndrome except gastrointestinal symptoms, and blood cholinesterase activities were also normal. He eventually had a full recovery. Trichlorfon should be added to the toxins known to cause acute hemolysis.

  13. Enhanced response to ozone exposure during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, S.D.; Adams, W.C.; Brookes, K.A.; Lasley, B.L. (Univ. of Calfornia, Davis (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Exposure to ozone (O[sub 3]), a toxic component of photochemical smog, results in significant airway inflammation, respiratory discomfort, and pulmonary function impairment. These effects can be reduced via pretreatment with anti-inflammatory agents. Progesterone, a gonadal steroid, is known to reduce general inflammation in the uterine endometrium. However, it is not known whether fluctuation in blood levels of progesterone, which are experienced during the normal female menstrual cycle, could alter O[sub 3] inflammatory-induced pulmonary responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that young, adult females are more responsive to O[sub 3] inhalation with respect to pulmonary function impairment during their follicular (F) menstrual phase when progesterone levels are lowest that during their mid-luteal (ML) phase when progesterone levels are highest. Nine subjects with normal ovarian function were exposed in random order for 1 hour each to filtered air and to 0.30 ppm O[sub 3] in their F and ML menstrual phases. Ozone responsiveness was measured by percent change in pulmonary function from pre- to postexposure. Significant gas concentration effects (filtered air versus O[sub 3]) were observed for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV[sub 1]), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF[sub 25-75]), showed a significant menstrual phase and gas concentration interaction effect, with larger decrements observed in the F menstrual phase when progesterone concentrations were significantly lower. We conclude that young, adult females appear to be more responsive to acute O[sub 3] exposure during the F phase than during the ML phase of their menstrual cycles. This difference in pulmonary function response could be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of increased progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase.

  14. Association between outdoor ozone and compensated acute respiratory diseases among workers in Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Labrèche, France; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Brand, Allan; Duguay, Patrice; Fournier, Michel; Zayed, Joseph; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory effects of ozone in the workplace have not been extensively studied. Our aim was to explore the relationship between daily average ozone levels and compensated acute respiratory problems among workers in Quebec between 2003 and 2010 using a time-stratified case-crossover design. Health data came from the Workers' Compensation Board. Daily concentrations of ozone were estimated using a spatiotemporal model. Conditional logistic regressions, with and without adjustment for temperature, were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs, per 1 ppb increase of ozone), and lag effects were assessed. Relationships with respiratory compensations in all industrial sectors were essentially null. Positive non-statistically significant associations were observed for outdoor sectors, and decreased after controlling for temperature (ORs of 0.98; 1.01 and 1.05 at Lags 0, 1 and 2 respectively). Considering the predicted increase of air pollutant concentrations in the context of climate change, closer investigation should be carried out on outdoor workers.

  15. Prolonged ozone exposure in an allergic airway disease model: Adaptation of airway responsiveness and airway remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chang-Soo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term exposure to high concentrations of ozone has been shown to increase airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR. Because the changes in AHR and airway inflammation and structure after chronic ozone exposure need to be determined, the goal of this study was to investigate these effects in a murine model of allergic airway disease. Methods We exposed BALB/c mice to 2 ppm ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. We measured the enhanced pause (Penh to methacholine and performed cell differentials in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We quantified the levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the supernatants of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids using enzyme immunoassays, and examined the airway architecture under light and electron microscopy. Results The groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks demonstrated decreased Penh at methacholine concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/ml, with a dose-response curve to the right of that for the filtered-air group. Neutrophils and eosinophils increased in the group exposed to ozone for 4 weeks compared to those in the filtered-air group. The ratio of IL-4 to INF-γ increased significantly after exposure to ozone for 8 and 12 weeks compared to the ratio for the filtered-air group. The numbers of goblet cells, myofibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells showed time-dependent increases in lung tissue sections from the groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the increase in AHR associated with the allergic airway does not persist during chronic ozone exposure, indicating that airway remodeling and adaptation following repeated exposure to air pollutants can provide protection against AHR.

  16. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Zheng, Youfei; Li, Ting; Wei, Li; Guan, Qing

    2018-03-29

    Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m³, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively.

  17. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Youfei; Li, Ting; Wei, Li; Guan, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m3, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00–4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. PMID:29596366

  18. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m3, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00–4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively.

  19. Within season and carry-over effects following exposure of grassland species mixtures to increasing background ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Felicity, E-mail: fhay@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Mills, Gina; Harmens, Harry; Wyness, Kirsten [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Few studies have investigated effects of increased background ozone in the absence of episodic peaks, despite a predicted increase throughout the northern hemisphere over the coming decades. In this study Leontodon hispidus was grown with Anthoxanthum odoratum or Dactylis glomerata and exposed in the UK to one of eight background ozone concentrations for 20 weeks in solardomes. Seasonal mean ozone concentrations ranged from 21.4 to 102.5 ppb. Ozone-induced senescence of L. hispidus was enhanced when grown with the more open canopy of A. odoratum compared to the denser growing D. glomerata. There was increased cover with increasing ozone exposure for both A. odoratum and D. glomerata, which resulted in an increase in the grass:Leontodon cover ratio in both community types. Carry-over effects of the ozone exposure were observed, including delayed winter die-back of L. hispidus and acceleration in the progression from flowers to seed-heads in the year following ozone exposure. - Highlights: > Increased background ozone concentrations increased the grass:forb cover ratio. > Competing grass species influenced ozone enhanced senescence of Leontodon hispidus. > Ozone delayed winter die-back of leaves of L. hispidus. > Flowering was accelerated for L. hispidus in the year following ozone exposure. - Increased background ozone enhanced leaf senescence and caused carry-over effects including reduced winter die-back and an acceleration in flowering the next year.

  20. Chloroplastic responses of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings to ozone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul D; Palmer, Brent; Houpis, James L J; Smith, Mary K; Pushnik, James C

    2003-06-01

    Integrity of chloroplast membranes is essential to photosynthesis. Loss of thylakoid membrane integrity has been proposed as a consequence of ozone (O(3)) exposure and therefore may be a mechanistic basis for decreased photosynthetic rates commonly associated with ozone exposure. To investigate this hypothesis, Pinus ponderosa seedlings were exposed to ambient air or ozone concentrations maintained at 0.15 or 0.30 microliter l(-1) for 10 h day(-1) for 51 days during their second growing season. Over the course of the study, foliage samples were periodically collected for thylakoid membrane, chlorophyll and protein analyses. Additionally, gas-exchange measurements were made in conjunction with foliage sampling to verify that observed chloroplastic responses were associated with ozone-induced changes in photosynthesis. Needles exposed to elevated ozone exhibited decreases in chlorophyll a and b content. The decreases were dependent on the duration and intensity of ozone exposure. When based on equal amounts of chlorophyll, ozone-exposed sample tissue exhibited an increase in total protein. When based on equal amounts of protein, ozone-exposed samples exhibited an increase in 37 kDa proteins, possibly consisting of breakdown products, and a possible decrease in 68 kDa proteins, Rubisco small subunit. There was also a change in the ratio of Photosystem I protein complexes CPI and CPII that may have contributed to decreased photosynthesis. Net photosynthetic rates were decreased in the high ozone treatment suggesting that observed structural and biochemical changes in the chloroplast were associated with alterations of the photosynthetic process.

  1. Accuracy and practicality of a portable ozone monitor for personal exposure estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Jessica A.; Weisel, Clifford P.; Meng, Qingyu

    2018-02-01

    Accurate measurements of personal exposure to atmospheric pollutants such as ozone are important for understanding health risks. We tested a new personal ozone monitor (POM; 2B Technologies) for accuracy, precision, and ease of use. The POM's measurements were compared to simultaneous ozone measurements from a 2B Model 205 monitor and a ThermoScientific 49i monitor, and multiple POMs were placed side-by-side to check precision. Tests were undertaken in a controlled environmental facility, outdoors, and in a private residence. Additionally, ten volunteers wore a POM for five days and answered a questionnaire about its ease of use. The POM measured ozone accurately compared to the 49i ozone monitor, with average relative differences of less than 8%. In the controlled environment tests, the POM's ozone measurements did not change in the presence of additional atmospheric constituents with similar absorption lines to ozone, though there may have been a small decrease in precision and accuracy. Precision between POMs varied by environment (r2 = 0.98 outdoors; r2 = 0.3 to 0.9 in controlled lab conditions). Volunteers reported that the POM was reasonably comfortable to wear, although all reported that they felt that it was too noisy. Overall, the POM is a viable option for personal ozone monitoring.

  2. Effects and mechanism on Kapton film under ozone exposure in a ground near space simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Yang, Guimin; Liu, Gang; Jiang, Haifu; Zhang, Tingting

    2018-05-01

    The effect on aircraft materials in the near space environment is a key part of air-and-space integration research. Ozone and aerodynamic fluids are important organizational factors in the near space environment and both have significant influences on the performance of aircraft materials. In the present paper a simulated ozone environment was used to test polyimide material that was rotated at the approximate velocity of 150-250 m/s to form an aerodynamic fluid field. The goal was to evaluate the performance evolution of materials under a comprehensive environment of ozone molecular corrosion and aerodynamic fluids. The research results show that corrosion and sputtering by ozone molecules results in Kapton films exhibiting a rugged "carpet-like" morphology exhibits an increase in surface roughness. The morphology after ozone exposure led to higher surface roughness and an increase in surface optical diffuse reflection, which is expressed by the lower optical transmittance and the gradual transition from light orange to brown. The mass loss test, XPS, and FTIR analysis show that the molecular chains on the surface of the Kapton film are destroyed resulting in Csbnd C bond breaking to form small volatile molecules such as CO2 or CO, which are responsible for a linear increase in mass loss per unit area. The Csbnd N and Csbnd O structures exhibit weakening tendency under ozone exposure. The present paper explores the evaluation method for Kapton's adaptability under the ozone exposure test in the near space environment, and elucidates the corrosion mechanism and damage mode of the polyimide material under the combined action of ozone corrosion and the aerodynamic fluid. This work provides a methodology for studying materials in the near-space environment.

  3. Ozone exposure and pulmonary effects in panel and human clinical studies: Considerations for design and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Annette C

    2018-04-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding the pulmonary effects of ozone, a photochemical pollutant produced by the reaction of nitrogen oxide and volatile organic precursors in the presence of sunlight. This paper focuses on epidemiological panel studies and human clinical studies of ozone exposure, and discusses issues specific to this pollutant that may influence study design and interpretation as well as other, broader considerations relevant to ozone-health research. The issues are discussed using examples drawn from the wider literature. The recent panel and clinical literature is also reviewed. Health outcomes considered include lung function, symptoms, and pulmonary inflammation. Issues discussed include adversity, reversibility, adaptation, variability in ozone exposure metric used and health outcomes evaluated, co-pollutants in panel studies, influence of temperature in panel studies, and multiple comparisons. Improvements in and standardization of panel study approaches are recommended to facilitate comparisons between studies as well as meta-analyses. Additional clinical studies at or near the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 70 ppb are recommended, as are clinical studies in sensitive subpopulations such as asthmatics. The pulmonary health impacts of ozone exposure have been well documented using both epidemiological and chamber study designs. However, there are a number of specific methodological and related issues that should be considered when interpreting the results of these studies and planning additional research, including the standardization of exposure and health metrics to facilitate comparisons among studies.

  4. Ozone exposure affects leaf wettability and tree water balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.D.J.; Hove, van L.W.A.; Brewer, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the influences of growing-season background ozone (O3) concentrations on leaf cuticles and foliar water loss. Using fumigation chambers, leaf wettability and foliar water loss were studied in two poplar species, Populus nigra and P. euramericana, and a conifer,

  5. Are Bavarian Forests (southern Germany) at risk from ground-level ozone? Assessment using exposure and flux based ozone indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgarten, Manuela; Huber, Christian; Bueker, Patrick; Emberson, Lisa; Dietrich, Hans-Peter; Nunn, Angela J.; Heerdt, Christian; Beudert, Burkhard; Matyssek, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Exposure and flux-based indices of O 3 risk were compared, at 19 forest locations across Bavaria in southern Germany from 2002 to 2005; leaf symptoms on mature beech trees found at these locations were also examined for O 3 injury. O 3 flux modelling was performed using continuously recorded O 3 concentrations in combination with meteorological and soil moisture data collected from Level II forest sites. O 3 measurements at nearby rural open-field sites proved appropriate as surrogates in cases where O 3 data were lacking at forest sites (with altitude-dependent average differences of about 10% between O 3 concentrations). Operational thresholds of biomass loss for both O 3 indices were exceeded at the majority of the forest locations, suggesting similar risk under long-term average climate conditions. However, exposure-based indices estimated higher O 3 risk during dry years as compared to the flux-based approach. In comparison, minor O 3 -like leaf injury symptoms were detected only at a few of the forest sites investigated. Relationships between flux-based risk thresholds and tree response need to be established for mature forest stands for validation of predicted growth reductions under the prevailing O 3 regimes. - Exposure- and flux-based ozone indices suggest Bavarian forests to be at risk from ozone; the flux-based index offers a means of incorporating stand-specific and ecological variables that influence risk.

  6. Structural and functional localization of airway effects from episodic exposure of infant monkeys to allergen and/or ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joad, Jesse P.; Kott, Kayleen S.; Bric, John M.; Peake, Janice L.; Plopper, Charles G.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2006-01-01

    Both allergen and ozone exposure increase asthma symptoms and airway responsiveness in children. Little is known about how these inhalants may differentially modify airway responsiveness in large proximal as compared to small distal airways. We evaluated whether bronchi and respiratory bronchioles from infant monkeys exposed episodically to allergen and/or ozone differentially develop intrinsic hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and whether eosinophils and/or pulmonary neuroendocrine cells play a role. Infant monkeys were exposed episodically for 5 months to: (1) filtered air, (2) aerosolized house dust mite allergen, (3) ozone 0.5 ppm, or (4) house dust mite allergen + ozone. Studying the function/structure relationship of the same lung slices, we evaluated methacholine airway responsiveness and histology of bronchi and respiratory bronchioles. In bronchi, intrinsic responsiveness was increased by allergen exposure, an effect reduced by bombesin antagonist. In respiratory bronchioles, intrinsic airway responsiveness was increased by allergen + ozone exposure. Eosinophils were increased by allergen and allergen + ozone exposure in bronchi and by allergen exposure in respiratory bronchioles. In both airways, exposure to allergen + ozone resulted in fewer tissue eosinophils than did allergen exposure alone. In bronchi, but not in respiratory bronchioles, the number of eosinophils and neuroendocrine cells correlated with airway responsiveness. We conclude that episodically exposing infant monkeys to house dust mite allergen with or without ozone increased intrinsic airway responsiveness to methacholine in bronchi differently than in respiratory bronchioles. In bronchi, eosinophils and neuroendocrine cells may play a role in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness

  7. Stratospheric ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Nowack

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of geoengineering have been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Methods which aim to modify the Earth's energy balance by reducing insolation are often subsumed under the term solar radiation management (SRM. Here, we present results of a standard SRM modelling experiment in which the incoming solar irradiance is reduced to offset the global mean warming induced by a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For the first time in an atmosphere–ocean coupled climate model, we include atmospheric composition feedbacks for this experiment. While the SRM scheme considered here could offset greenhouse gas induced global mean surface warming, it leads to important changes in atmospheric composition. We find large stratospheric ozone increases that induce significant reductions in surface UV-B irradiance, which would have implications for vitamin D production. In addition, the higher stratospheric ozone levels lead to decreased ozone photolysis in the troposphere. In combination with lower atmospheric specific humidity under SRM, this results in overall surface ozone concentration increases in the idealized G1 experiment. Both UV-B and surface ozone changes are important for human health. We therefore highlight that both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone changes must be considered in the assessment of any SRM scheme, due to their important roles in regulating UV exposure and air quality.

  8. Stratospheric ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Peer Johannes; Abraham, Nathan Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John Adrian

    2016-03-01

    Various forms of geoengineering have been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Methods which aim to modify the Earth's energy balance by reducing insolation are often subsumed under the term solar radiation management (SRM). Here, we present results of a standard SRM modelling experiment in which the incoming solar irradiance is reduced to offset the global mean warming induced by a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For the first time in an atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, we include atmospheric composition feedbacks for this experiment. While the SRM scheme considered here could offset greenhouse gas induced global mean surface warming, it leads to important changes in atmospheric composition. We find large stratospheric ozone increases that induce significant reductions in surface UV-B irradiance, which would have implications for vitamin D production. In addition, the higher stratospheric ozone levels lead to decreased ozone photolysis in the troposphere. In combination with lower atmospheric specific humidity under SRM, this results in overall surface ozone concentration increases in the idealized G1 experiment. Both UV-B and surface ozone changes are important for human health. We therefore highlight that both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone changes must be considered in the assessment of any SRM scheme, due to their important roles in regulating UV exposure and air quality.

  9. Loblolly pine seedling growth after inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, B.L.; Enebak, S.A.; Chappelka, A.H. [Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (United States). School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences

    2004-07-01

    The conifer tree species with the greatest economic importance in south eastern United States plantations is Loblolly pine. Plantations require intensive fertilization, pesticide application, and irrigation. In these cases growth-promoting rhizobacteria are useful in pest control. While it was once thought that ozone in the troposphere was limited to urban areas, it is now known that it is transported far from its place of origin. Ozone is known to impact plant growth negatively. There have been no previous studies on whether growth-promoting rhizobacteria can decrease the negative effects of ozone. In this study seedlings of Loblolly pine were inoculated with either Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn or Paenibacillus macerans (Schardinger) Ash. These were exposed to controlled amounts of ozone for 8-12 weeks. All plants showed decreased biomass and increased foliar damage compared to plants that were not exposed to ozone. B. subtilis inoculated plants showed less foliar damage than un-inoculated ones and root dimensions were increased. The use of growth-promoting rhizobacteria is not ready for large-scale commercial application in forestry, but this demonstration of the possible beneficial effects on ozone exposure warrants further investigation. 44 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Passive monitoring techniques for evaluating atmospheric ozone and nitrogen exposure and deposition to California ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Susan L. Schilling

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the exposure of ecosystems to ecologically relevant pollutants is needed for evaluating ecosystem effects and to identify regions and resources at risk. In California, ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) pollutants are of greatest concern for ecological effects. "Passive" monitoring methods have been developed to obtain spatially...

  11. Climate change, ozone depletion and the impact on ultraviolet exposure of human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, Brian

    2004-01-01

    For 30 years there has been concern that anthropogenic damage to the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer will lead to an increase of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface, with a consequent adverse impact on human health, especially to the skin. More recently, there has been an increased awareness of the interactions between ozone depletion and climate change (global warming), which could also impact on human exposure to terrestrial UV. The most serious effect of changing UV exposure of human skin is the potential rise in incidence of skin cancers. Risk estimates of this disease associated with ozone depletion suggest that an additional peak incidence of 5000 cases of skin cancer per year in the UK would occur around the mid-part of this century. Climate change, which is predicted to lead to an increased frequency of extreme temperature events and high summer temperatures, will become more frequent in the UK. This could impact on human UV exposure by encouraging people to spend more time in the sun. Whilst future social trends remain uncertain, it is likely that over this century behaviour associated with climate change, rather than ozone depletion, will be the largest determinant of sun exposure, and consequent impact on skin cancer, of the UK population. (topical review)

  12. Pulmonary Ozone Exposure Alters Essential Metabolic Pathways involved in Glucose Homeostasis in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary Ozone Exposure Alters Essential Metabolic Pathways involved in Glucose Homeostasis in the Liver D.B. Johnson, 1 W.O. Ward, 2 V.L. Bass, 2 M.C.J. Schladweiler, 2A.D. Ledbetter, 2 D. Andrews, and U.P. Kodavanti 2 1 Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC School of Medicine, Cha...

  13. The missing piece: Valuing averting behavior for children's ozone exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Carol; Reed Johnson, F.; Van Houtven, George [Research Triangle Institute, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Individuals can reduce their exposure to air pollution by reducing the amount of time they spend outdoors. Reducing outdoor time is an example of an averting behavior that should be measured as part of willingness to pay (WTP) for improvements in air quality. In this paper, we estimate parents' WTP to prevent restrictions on a child's outdoor time from a stated-preference (SP) conjoint survey. We combine this WTP measure with an estimate of reductions in time spent outdoors on high-ozone days from an activity-diary study to estimate this averting behavior component of WTP for reductions in ozone pollution. (author)

  14. Incorporation of glucose carbons into rat lung lipids after exposure to 0.6 ppm ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, D.J.; Rabinowitz, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous exposure to low concentrations of ozone has previously been associated with proliferation of lung alveolar type II epithelial cells. In this study, 14 C incorporation into tissue lipids was determined in isolated rat lungs by perfusion with [U- 14 C]glucose, at a time of maximal hyperplasia brought about by 3 days continuous exposure to 0.6 ppm ozone. Ozone exposed lungs exhibited increased rates of glycolytic energy production, indicated by an 89% increase in 3 H 2 O generation on perfusion with [5-3H]glucose. Ozone exposure resulted in enhanced 14 C incorporations into glyceride-glycerol and fatty acid moieties of lung lipids of 95 and 180%, respectively, with a greater proportion of label being recovered in shorter chain fatty acids. Although increased labeling was observed in both neutral and phospholipids, the pattern of 14 C recovery suggested a relative increased glucose carbon incorporation into lung free fatty acids, phosphatidic acid, and such membrane associated lipids as phosphatidylinositol and those containing sphingosine. These results are consistent with the needs of a dividing cell population for enhanced energy production and synthesis of new lipids

  15. Acute respiratory bronchiolitis: an ultrastructural and autoradiographic study of epithelial cell injury and renewal in Rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, W.L.; Dungworth, D.L.; Schwartz, L.W.; Tyler, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acute respiratory bronchiolitis was examined in Rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.8 ppM ozone for 4 to 50 hours. Epithelial injury and renewal were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by correlated techniques of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light-microscopic autoradiography following labeling with tritiated thymidine. Extensive degeneration and necrosis of Type 1 epithelial cells occurred on the respiratory bronchiolar wall during the initial 4 to 12 hours of exposure. Increased numbers of labeled epithelial cells were present in this region after 18 hours of exposure, and the highest labeling index (18%) was measured after 50 hours of exposure. Most (67 to 80%) of the labeled cells and all the mitotic epithelial cells (22) observed ultrastructurally were cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. Of the labeled epithelial cells, 20 to 33% were Type 2 epithelial cells. After 50 hours of exposure the respiratory bronchiolar epithelium was hyperplastic. The predominant inflammatory cell in respiratory bronchiolar exudate was the alveolar macrophage. Monkeys that were exposed for 50 hours and allowed to recover in unozonized air for 7 days had incomplete resolution of respiratory bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. The results indicate that Type 1 epithelial cells lining respiratory bronchioles are the cell types most sensitive to injury and that both cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells and Type 2 epithelial cells function as stem cells in epithelial renewal

  16. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A.; Avdalovic, M.V.; Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A.; Hyde, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O 3 ) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O 3 ) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O 3 alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  17. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Avdalovic, M.V. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Hyde, D.M., E-mail: dmhyde@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  18. Ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, P. J.; Abraham, N. L.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Various forms of geoengineering have been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Methods which aim to modify the Earth's energy balance by reducing insolation are often subsumed under the term Solar Radiation Management (SRM). Here, we present results of a standard SRM modelling experiment in which the incoming solar irradiance is reduced to offset the global mean warming induced by a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For the first time in an atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, we include atmospheric composition feedbacks such as ozone changes under this scenario. Including the composition changes, we find large reductions in surface UV-B irradiance, with implications for vitamin D production, and increases in surface ozone concentrations, both of which could be important for human health. We highlight that both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone changes should be considered in the assessment of any SRM scheme, due to their important roles in regulating UV exposure and air quality.

  19. Environmental ozone exposure and oxidative DNA damage in adult residents of Florence, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palli, Domenico, E-mail: d.palli@ispo.toscana.i [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute (ISPO), Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Sera, Francesco, E-mail: f.sera@ispo.toscana.i [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute (ISPO), Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Giovannelli, Lisa, E-mail: lisag@pharm.unifi.i [Department of Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale G.Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Masala, Giovanna, E-mail: g.masala@ispo.toscana.i [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute (ISPO), Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Grechi, Daniele [Regional Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany (ARPAT), Via Porpora 22, 50144 Florence (Italy); Bendinelli, Benedetta, E-mail: b.bendinelli@ispo.toscana.i [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute (ISPO), Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Caini, Saverio, E-mail: s.caini@ispo.toscana.i [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute (ISPO), Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Dolara, Piero, E-mail: piero.dolara@unifi.i [Department of Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale G.Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Saieva, Calogero, E-mail: c.saieva@ispo.toscana.i [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute (ISPO), Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    In 71 adults residing in Florence, Italy, enrolled in a prospective study, we investigated the correlation between individual levels of oxidative DNA damage detected by the Comet assay in circulating lymphocytes, and a specific ozone exposure score calculated in 10 different time-windows (0-5 to 0-90 days) before blood drawing, based on daily measurements provided by the local environmental monitoring system. Overall, statistically significant positive correlations between average ozone concentrations and DNA damage emerged in almost all time-windows considered; correlations were more evident among males, non-smokers, and traffic-exposed workers. Multivariate regression analyses taking into account selected individual characteristics, showed an independent effect on DNA damage of average ozone concentrations in the last 60-90 days before blood drawing. Local residents showed a divergent pattern with correlations restricted to shorter time-windows. Our results suggest that ozone concentrations at ground levels modulate oxidative DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes of residents of polluted areas. - Ozone concentrations over the 60-90 days before blood drawing correlated with DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes of adults living in the metropolitan area of Florence, Italy.

  20. Environmental ozone exposure and oxidative DNA damage in adult residents of Florence, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palli, Domenico; Sera, Francesco; Giovannelli, Lisa; Masala, Giovanna; Grechi, Daniele; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Caini, Saverio; Dolara, Piero; Saieva, Calogero

    2009-01-01

    In 71 adults residing in Florence, Italy, enrolled in a prospective study, we investigated the correlation between individual levels of oxidative DNA damage detected by the Comet assay in circulating lymphocytes, and a specific ozone exposure score calculated in 10 different time-windows (0-5 to 0-90 days) before blood drawing, based on daily measurements provided by the local environmental monitoring system. Overall, statistically significant positive correlations between average ozone concentrations and DNA damage emerged in almost all time-windows considered; correlations were more evident among males, non-smokers, and traffic-exposed workers. Multivariate regression analyses taking into account selected individual characteristics, showed an independent effect on DNA damage of average ozone concentrations in the last 60-90 days before blood drawing. Local residents showed a divergent pattern with correlations restricted to shorter time-windows. Our results suggest that ozone concentrations at ground levels modulate oxidative DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes of residents of polluted areas. - Ozone concentrations over the 60-90 days before blood drawing correlated with DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes of adults living in the metropolitan area of Florence, Italy.

  1. Growth response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature tree branches to acid rain and ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J.; Helms, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    Forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada in California have been subjected to chronic damage by ozone and other atmospheric pollutants for the past several decades. Until recently, pollutant exposure of northern Sierra Nevada forests has been mild but increasing population and changes in land use throughout the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may lead to increased pollutant damage in these forests. Although, better documented in other regions of the United States, little is known regarding the potential for acidic precipitation damage to Sierra Nevada forests. Only recently have studies directed towards understanding the potential interactive effects of ozone and acidic precipitation been undertaken. A key issue in resolving potential regional impacts of pollutants on forests is the extent to which research results can be scaled across genotypes and life-stages. Most of the pollution research to date has been performed using seedlings with varying degrees of genetic control. It is important to determine if the results obtained in such studies can be extrapolated to mature trees and to different genetic sources. In this paper, we present results from a one-year study examining the interactive effects of foliar exposure to acidic rain and ozone on the growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a conifer known to be sensitive to ozone. The response to pollutants is characterized for both seedlings and mature tree branches of three genotypes grown in a common environment

  2. Effect of Gaseous Ozone Exposure on the Bacteria Counts and Oxidative Properties of Ground Hanwoo Beef at Refrigeration Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngjae; Muhlisin; Choi, Ji Hye; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Lee, Sung Ki

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the effect of ozone exposure on the bacteria counts and oxidative properties of ground Hanwoo beef contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 at refrigeration temperature. Ground beef was inoculated with 7 Log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from domestic pigs and was then subjected to ozone exposure (10×10(-6) kg O3 h(-1)) at 4℃ for 3 d. E. coli O157:H7, total aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth and oxidative properties including instrumental color changes, TBARS, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were evaluated. Ozone exposure significantly prohibited (pgenerator inside a refrigerator. Further studies regarding the ozone concentrations and exposure times are needed.

  3. Chronic bronchiolitis in non-human primates after prolonged ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustis, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    Bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) were exposed to 0.0, 0.5, and 0.8 ppM ozone for 7, 28, or 90 consecutive d, eight h per d. Changes in the lung evoked by prolonged oxidant exposure were evaluated by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, autoradiography, and morphometry. Morphological changes were principally characterized as a low-grade chronic respiratory bronchiolitis. Proximal generations of respiratory bronchioles were the most consistently affected region of the pulmonary acinus. Major features of the bronchiolitis were intraluminal accumulations of macrophages and hypertrophy and hyperplasia of cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. The degree of inflammation was greatest at the 0.8 ppM ozone concentration at each exposure period. The number of inflammatory cells observed at 90 d, however, was about one-half that observed at 7 d. Tritiated thymidine labeling and differential cell counts of respiratory bronchiolar epithelium demonstrated a proliferative response and an increase in the proportion of cubiodal bronchiolar cells which presumably function as the progenitor cell during cell renewal and repair of the epithelium. The labeling index remained elevated above control values through 90 d of ozone exposure despite a reduction below 7 d values at both 28 and 90 d. The epithelial hyperplasia persisted through 90 d at a level similar to but slightly above that present at 7 d. Since cell differentials remained shifted at 28 and 90 d, it appears that persistent ozone exposure delayed maturation and transformation of cubiodal bronchiolar cells to their mature phenotype

  4. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac function responses to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that show acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the data supporting these findings are increasingly more convincing, the immediate impact of PM inhala...

  5. Commuters’ Personal Exposure to Ambient and Indoor Ozone in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystallia K. Kalimeri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to monitor the residential/office indoor, outdoor, and personal levels of ozone for people living, working, and commuting in Athens, Greece. Participants (16 persons of this study worked at the same place. Passive sampling analysis results did not indicate any limit exceedance (Directive 2008/50/EC: 120 µg/m3, World Health Organization (WHO Air Quality Guidelines 2005: 100 µg/m3. The highest “house-outdoor” concentration was noticed for participants living in the north suburbs of Athens, confirming the photochemical ozone formation at the northern parts of the basin during southwestern prevailing winds. The residential indoor to outdoor ratio (I/O was found to be significantly lower than unity, underlying the outdoor originality of the pollutant. The highest “office-indoor” concentration was observed in a ground-level building, characterized by the extensive use of photocopy machines and printers. Personal ozone levels were positively correlated only with indoor-office concentrations. A clear correlation of personal ozone levels to the time spent by the individuals during moving/staying outdoors was observed. On the other hand, no correlation was observed when focusing only on commuting time, due to the fact that transit time includes both on-foot and in-vehicle time periods, therefore activities associated with increased exposure levels, but also with pollutants removal by recirculating air filtering systems, respectively.

  6. Trends in Pinus ponderosa foliar pigment concentration due to chronic exposure of ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, L.; Houpis, J.; Anderson, P.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effects of ozone and acid rain on mature Ponderosa pine trees, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. has collaborated with University of California Berkeley, University of California Davis, California State University Chico, and the US Forest Service at the latter's Chico Tree Improvement Center. Foliar tissue from mature grafted scions of Pinus ponderosa were exposed to two times ambient ozone for ten months and to acid rain (3.0 pH) weekly for 10 weeks using branch exposure chambers. Pigment extracts were analyzed spectrophotometrically for concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid pigments, at 662 nm, 644 nm, and 470 nm, respectively. Pigment concentrations were expressed on a surface area basis. Preliminary results revealed that chlorophyll a showed a downward trend due to the ozone treatment. Acid rain caused no effects on these three pigments, however, chlorophyll b showed an upward trend due to the interaction of ozone and acid rain. The carotenoid pigments showed no changes due to the treatments either singly, or in combination

  7. Adaptation of radish Raphanus sativus L. in response to continuous exposure to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmsley, L.; Ashmore, M.R.; Bell, J.N.B.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made between the development of radish Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle in clean air and under continuous exposure to 0 x 17 ppm (340 ..mu..g m/sup -3/) of ozone. The area and dry weight of the individual leaves, and the dry weight of other plant organs, were determined at frequent, regular intervals throughout the experiment. Although the commercial yield of the ozone-treated plants, expressed as hypocotyl dry weight, was significantly reduced, changes in the pattern of development of these plants were observed which were of adaptive value. The pattern of assimilate distribution was altered so that new leaves were produced more rapidly in the ozone-treated plants. These later leaves were more resistant to ozone, showing a slower rate of senescence than the cotyledons or first leaves. Measurements of stomatal resistance suggested that this was an acquired, rather than an inherent, characteristic of the later leaves. By the end of the experiment, the relative growth rates in the two treatments did not differ significantly.

  8. The effect of ozone exposure on the airway response to inhaled allergens; Die Wirkung der Einatmung von Ozon auf die allergische Reaktion des Bronchialsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerres, R. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie; Nowak, D. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie; Magnussen, H. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie

    1995-06-01

    The aim of our study was to determine whether a short-term exposure to ozone enhances the bronchial response to allergens in subjects with allergic asthma, or facilitates a bronchial response in subjects with allergic rhinitis. In the first part of the study we investigated 57 subjects with mild stable asthma, 29 subjects with allergic rhinitis only and 32 healthy subjects. They were exposed to 250 ppb ozone for 3 hrs of intermittent exercise. The effects of ozone on symptoms, lung function parameters and methacholine responsiveness were no markedly different between groups. Twenty-four subjects with asthma and a proven bronchial response to an inhaled allergen, 12 subjects with allergic rhinitis and 10 healthy subjects participated in the second part of the study. In randomized order, subjects breathed 250 ppb ozone or filtered air (FA) for 3 hrs of intermittent exercise. Lung function and airway responsiveness to methacholine were determined before and after exposures, and allergen inhalation challenges were performed 3 hrs after exposures. The 5 subjects with asthma showed increased airway responsiveness to the inhaled allergen after ozone. The subjects with rhinitis showed a slight bronchial response when a high dose of allergen was inhalated after ozone exposure. The changes in lung function, methacholine and allergen responsiveness induced by ozone did not correlate with each other. Our data suggest that a short-term exposure to ozone can increase bronchial allergen responsiveness in subjects with asymptomatic to mild asthma and that this effect is not directly related to other functional changes induced by ozone. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Unsere Untersuchung widmete sich der Frage, ob die Einatmung von Ozon das Auftreten oder die Auspraegung einer allergischen Reaktion der Atemwege beeinflussen kann. Zunaechst prueften wir 57 Probanden mit allergischem Asthma bronchiale, 29 mit allergischer Rhinitis ohne Asthma und 32 gesunde Kontrollpersonen auf die

  9. Morphological study of the effects of ozone on rat lung. I. Short-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshima, K.; Kohno, T.; Owada, H.; Hayashi, Y.

    1987-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of ozone on lungs and the course of cell renewal after damage, young male rats were exposed to 3 ppm of ozone for 4 hr. They were killed at 1, 6, 12, and 18 hr and 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 days after exposure. One hour before the killing, dividing cells were labeled with tritiated thymidine. Type 1 cells of centriacinar location and bronchiolar cells were severely damaged after exposure. Labeling indices of type 2 cells and bronchiolar nonciliated cells increased 1 day after exposure. Hyperplasia of type 2 cells and bronchiolar nonciliated cells was observed 2 and 3 days after exposure. Ciligenesis of bronchiolar ciliated cells occurred 4 days after exposure. Our study shows that injured type 1 cells are repaired by proliferation of type 2 cells and that injured bronchiolar ciliated and Clara cells are repaired by proliferation of bronchiolar nonciliated cells. These undifferentiated cells are probably progenitors of ciliated cells and Clara cells, and some nonciliated cells are in a transitional form between nonciliated and type 2 cells

  10. Ozone and limonene in indoor air: a source of submicron particle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainman, T; Zhang, J; Weschler, C J; Lioy, P J

    2000-12-01

    overall particle exposure. This study provides data for assessing the impact of outdoor ozone on indoor particles. This is important to determine the efficacy of the mass-based particulate matter standards in protecting public health because the indoor secondary particles can vary coincidently with the variations of outdoor fine particles in summer.

  11. Standing operating procedures for developing acute exposure guideline levels for hazardous chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

    2001-01-01

    Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals contains a detailed and comprehensive methodology for developing acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs...

  12. Exposure-plant response of ambient ozone over the tropical Indian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deb Roy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution regional chemistry-transport model has been used to study the distribution of exposure-plant response index (AOT40, Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb, expressed as ppb h over the Indian geographical region for the year 2003 as case study. The directives on ozone pollution in ambient air provided by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE and World Health Organization (WHO for vegetation protection (AOT40 have been used to assess the air quality. A substantial temporal and spatial variation in AOT40 values has been observed across the Indian region. Large areas of India show ozone values above the AOT40 threshold limit (3000 ppb h for 3 months. Simulated AOT40 values are found to be substantially higher throughout the year over the most fertile Indo-Gangetic plains than the other regions of India, which can have an adverse effect on plants and vegetation in this region. The observed monthly AOT40 values reported from an Indian station, agree reasonably well with model simulated results. There is an underestimation of AOT40 in the model results during the periods of highest ozone concentration from December to March. We find that the simulated AOT40 target values for protection of vegetation is exceeded even in individual months, especially during November to April. Necessary and effective emission reduction strategies are therefore required to be developed in order to curb the surface level ozone pollution to protect the vegetation from further damage in India whose economy is highly dependent on agricultural sector and may influence the global balance.

  13. OXIDATIVE STRESS-DEPENDENT ALTERED IMMUNE RESPONSES AND CELL DEATH IN SUBSTANTIA NIGRA AFTER OZONE EXPOSURE IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selva eRivas - Arancibia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease has been associated with the selective loss of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role. The resulting increase in reactive oxygen species triggers a sequence of events that leads to cell damage, activation of microglia cells and neuroinflammatory responses. Our objective was to study whether chronic exposure to low doses of ozone, which produces oxidative stress itself, induces progressive cell death in conjunction with glial alterations in the substantia nigra. Animals were exposed to an ozone-free air stream (control or to low doses of ozone for 7, 15, 30, 60, or 90 days. Each group underwent 1 spectrophotometric analysis for protein oxidation; 2 western blot testing for microglia reactivity and nuclear factor kappa B expression levels; and 3 immunohistochemistry for cytochrome c, GFAP, Iba-1, NFkB and COX-2. Our results indicate that ozone induces an increase in protein oxidation levels, changes in activated astrocytes and microglia, and cell death. NFkB and cytochrome c showed an increase until 30 days of exposure, while cyclooxygenase 2 in the substantia nigra increased from 7 days up to 90 days of repetitive ozone exposure. These results suggest that oxidative stress caused by ozone exposure induces changes in inflammatory responses and progressive cell death in the substantia nigra in rats, which could also be occurring in Parkinson’s disease.

  14. Impact of temporal upscaling and chemical transport model horizontal resolution on reducing ozone exposure misclassification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Serre, Marc L.; Reyes, Jeanette M.; Vizuete, William

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) framework that integrates observations from a surface monitoring network and predictions from a Chemical Transport Model (CTM) to create improved exposure estimates that can be resolved into any spatial and temporal resolution. The flexibility of the framework allows for input of data in any choice of time scales and CTM predictions of any spatial resolution with varying associated degrees of estimation error and cost in terms of implementation and computation. This study quantifies the impact on exposure estimation error due to these choices by first comparing estimations errors when BME relied on ozone concentration data either as an hourly average, the daily maximum 8-h average (DM8A), or the daily 24-h average (D24A). Our analysis found that the use of DM8A and D24A data, although less computationally intensive, reduced estimation error more when compared to the use of hourly data. This was primarily due to the poorer CTM model performance in the hourly average predicted ozone. Our second analysis compared spatial variability and estimation errors when BME relied on CTM predictions with a grid cell resolution of 12 × 12 km2 versus a coarser resolution of 36 × 36 km2. Our analysis found that integrating the finer grid resolution CTM predictions not only reduced estimation error, but also increased the spatial variability in daily ozone estimates by 5 times. This improvement was due to the improved spatial gradients and model performance found in the finer resolved CTM simulation. The integration of observational and model predictions that is permitted in a BME framework continues to be a powerful approach for improving exposure estimates of ambient air pollution. The results of this analysis demonstrate the importance of also understanding model performance variability and its implications on exposure error.

  15. Increased CCL24/eotaxin-2 with postnatal ozone exposure in allergen-sensitized infant monkeys is not associated with recruitment of eosinophils to airway mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Debbie L.; Gerriets, Joan E.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Miller, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiology supports a causal link between air pollutant exposure and childhood asthma, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have previously reported that ozone exposure can alter the anatomic distribution of CD25+ lymphocytes in airways of allergen-sensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Here, we hypothesized that ozone may also affect eosinophil trafficking to allergen-sensitized infant airways. To test this hypothesis, we measured blood, lavage, and airway mucosa eosinophils in 3-month old monkeys following cyclical ozone and house dust mite (HDM) aerosol exposures. We also determined if eotaxin family members (CCL11, CCL24, CCL26) are associated with eosinophil location in response to exposures. In lavage, eosinophil numbers increased in animals exposed to ozone and/or HDM. Ozone + HDM animals showed significantly increased CCL24 and CCL26 protein in lavage, but the concentration of CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 was independent of eosinophil number for all exposure groups. In airway mucosa, eosinophils increased with exposure to HDM alone; comparatively, ozone and ozone + HDM resulted in reduced eosinophils. CCL26 mRNA and immunofluorescence staining increased in airway mucosa of HDM alone animals and correlated with eosinophil volume. In ozone + HDM animal groups, CCL24 mRNA and immunofluorescence increased along with CCR3 mRNA, but did not correlate with airway mucosa eosinophils. Cumulatively, our data indicate that ozone exposure results in a profile of airway eosinophil migration that is distinct from HDM mediated pathways. CCL24 was found to be induced only by combined ozone and HDM exposure, however expression was not associated with the presence of eosinophils within the airway mucosa. -- Highlights: ► Ozone can modulate the localization of eosinophils in infant allergic airways. ► Expression of eotaxins within the lung is affected by ozone and allergen exposure. ► CCL24 induction by ozone and allergen exposure is not linked to eosinophilia.

  16. Increased CCL24/eotaxin-2 with postnatal ozone exposure in allergen-sensitized infant monkeys is not associated with recruitment of eosinophils to airway mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Debbie L.; Gerriets, Joan E. [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schelegle, Edward S.; Hyde, Dallas M. [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Miller, Lisa A., E-mail: lmiller@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Epidemiology supports a causal link between air pollutant exposure and childhood asthma, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have previously reported that ozone exposure can alter the anatomic distribution of CD25+ lymphocytes in airways of allergen-sensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Here, we hypothesized that ozone may also affect eosinophil trafficking to allergen-sensitized infant airways. To test this hypothesis, we measured blood, lavage, and airway mucosa eosinophils in 3-month old monkeys following cyclical ozone and house dust mite (HDM) aerosol exposures. We also determined if eotaxin family members (CCL11, CCL24, CCL26) are associated with eosinophil location in response to exposures. In lavage, eosinophil numbers increased in animals exposed to ozone and/or HDM. Ozone + HDM animals showed significantly increased CCL24 and CCL26 protein in lavage, but the concentration of CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 was independent of eosinophil number for all exposure groups. In airway mucosa, eosinophils increased with exposure to HDM alone; comparatively, ozone and ozone + HDM resulted in reduced eosinophils. CCL26 mRNA and immunofluorescence staining increased in airway mucosa of HDM alone animals and correlated with eosinophil volume. In ozone + HDM animal groups, CCL24 mRNA and immunofluorescence increased along with CCR3 mRNA, but did not correlate with airway mucosa eosinophils. Cumulatively, our data indicate that ozone exposure results in a profile of airway eosinophil migration that is distinct from HDM mediated pathways. CCL24 was found to be induced only by combined ozone and HDM exposure, however expression was not associated with the presence of eosinophils within the airway mucosa. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ozone can modulate the localization of eosinophils in infant allergic airways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of eotaxins within the lung is affected by ozone and allergen exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCL24 induction by

  17. The Variable Effects of Ozone and/or Diesel Particulate Inhalation Exposure on Allergic Airways Responses in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particle matter (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbates asthma. Likewise, similar effects have been reported with exposure to the oxidizing air pollutant ozone (O3). Since levels of both pollutants in ambient air are e...

  18. Spatial associations between social groups and ozone air pollution exposure in the Beijing urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyi; Cheng, Hongguang; He, Siyuan; Cui, Xiangfen; Pu, Xiao; Lu, Lu

    2018-07-01

    Few studies have linked social factors to air pollution exposure in China. Unlike the race or minority concepts in western countries, the Hukou system (residential registration system) is a fundamental reason for the existence of social deprivation in China. To assess the differences in ozone (O 3 ) exposure among social groups, especially groups divided by Hukou status, we assigned estimates of O 3 exposure to the latest census data of the Beijing urban area using a kriging interpolation model. We developed simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models that account for spatial autocorrelation to identify the associations between O 3 exposure and social factors. Principal component regression was used to control the multicollinearity bias as well as explore the spatial structure of the social data. The census tracts (CTs) with higher proportions of persons living alone and migrants with non-local Hukou were characterized by greater exposure to ambient O 3 . The areas with greater proportions of seniors had lower O 3 exposure. The spatial distribution patterns were similar among variables including migrants, agricultural population and household separation (population status with separation between Hukou and actual residences), which fit the demographic characteristics of the majority of migrants. Migrants bore a double burden of social deprivation and O 3 pollution exposure due to city development planning and the Hukou system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ozone exposure, vitamin C intake, and genetic susceptibility of asthmatic children in Mexico City: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Macías Hortensia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that asthmatic children with GSTM1 null genotype may be more susceptible to the acute effect of ozone on the small airways and might benefit from antioxidant supplementation. This study aims to assess the acute effect of ozone on lung function (FEF25-75 in asthmatic children according to dietary intake of vitamin C and the number of putative risk alleles in three antioxidant genes: GSTM1, GSTP1 (rs1695, and NQO1 (rs1800566. Methods 257 asthmatic children from two cohort studies conducted in Mexico City were included. Stratified linear mixed models with random intercepts and random slopes on ozone were used. Potential confounding by ethnicity was assessed. Analyses were conducted under single gene and genotype score approaches. Results The change in FEF25-75 per interquartile range (60 ppb of ozone in persistent asthmatic children with low vitamin C intake and GSTM1 null was −91.2 ml/s (p = 0.06. Persistent asthmatic children with 4 to 6 risk alleles and low vitamin C intake showed an average decrement in FEF25-75 of 97.2 ml/s per 60 ppb of ozone (p = 0.03. In contrast in children with 1 to 3 risk alleles, acute effects of ozone on FEF25-75 did not differ by vitamin C intake. Conclusions Our results provide further evidence that asthmatic children predicted to have compromised antioxidant defense by virtue of genetic susceptibility combined with deficient antioxidant intake may be at increased risk of adverse effects of ozone on pulmonary function.

  20. Characterizing the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposures to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Kathie L; Nolte, Christopher G; Spero, Tanya L; Graham, Stephen; Caraway, Nina; Foley, Kristen M; Isaacs, Kristin K

    2017-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human and environmental health is of critical concern. Population exposures to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors are influenced by a wide range of air quality, meteorological, behavioral, and housing-related factors, many of which are also impacted by climate change. An integrated methodology for modeling changes in human exposures to tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) owing to potential future changes in climate and demographics was implemented by linking existing modeling tools for climate, weather, air quality, population distribution, and human exposure. Human exposure results from the Air Pollutants Exposure Model (APEX) for 12 US cities show differences in daily maximum 8-h (DM8H) exposure patterns and levels by sex, age, and city for all scenarios. When climate is held constant and population demographics are varied, minimal difference in O 3 exposures is predicted even with the most extreme demographic change scenario. In contrast, when population is held constant, we see evidence of substantial changes in O 3 exposure for the most extreme change in climate. Similarly, we see increases in the percentage of the population in each city with at least one O 3 exposure exceedance above 60 p.p.b and 70 p.p.b thresholds for future changes in climate. For these climate and population scenarios, the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposure to O 3 are much larger than the impacts of changing demographics. These results indicate the potential for future changes in O 3 exposure as a result of changes in climate that could impact human health.

  1. [The effects of exposure to ozone on sperm quality in Wuhan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X J; Wang, X C; Ye, B; Li, C L; Zhang, Y; Ma, L

    2017-03-06

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of exposure to ozone (O(3)) on sperm quality during different stages of spermatogenesis. Methods: All 1 780 subjects attending to the Reproductive Medicine Center in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University were recruited from April, 4, 2013 to June, 30, 2015. The subjects were living in Wuhan more than 3 months before attending to the program, aged 20 to 40 years. Semen quality (sperm concentration and sperm count) were measured according to standardized protocols. Corresponding daily 8 hours average concentration of O(3), other polluted concentration, average temperature and relative humidity were collected in different time, including lag 0, 10, 70 and 90 d, and lag 0-9 d, lag 10-14 d, lag 70-90 d and lag 0-90 d. After controlling the age, BMI, education level and other confounders, generalized linear Model was used to investigate the association between O(3) and sperm quality during different stages of spermatogenesis. Results: Average daily concentration of O(3) during the study period was (114.20±74.88) μg/m(3) and the mean values of sperm concentration and count were (76.32±50.17) millions/ml and (164.77 ± 133.05) millions/sample, respectively. Exposure to O(3) was associated with decreasing sperm concentration and count. For every 1 μg/m(3) increase of O(3), the decrease of sperm concentration during lag 10, lag 0-9 and lag 10-14 days exposure windows were 0.040 (95% CI: 0.004-0.077) millions/ml, 0.081 (95% CI: 0.003-0.158) millions/ml and 0.059 (95% CI: 0.001-0.116) millions/ml, respectively. And the decrease of sperm count during lag 10, lag 0-9 days exposure windows were 0.105 (95% CI: 0.008-0.202) millions/sample and 0.221 (95% CI: 0.016-0.426) millions/sample. After stratification, in the ozone concentration sperm concentration was 0.249 (95% CI: 0.028-0.470) millions/ml. After sensitivity analysis, the effects of exposure to ozone on sperm concentration and sperm count remained relatively unchanged. Conclusion: Our

  2. Exposure to environmentally-relevant levels of ozone negatively influence pollen and fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, Colin; Stabler, Daniel; Tallentire, Eva; Goumenaki, Eleni; Barnes, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    A combination of in vitro and in vivo studies on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Triton) revealed that environmentally-relevant levels of ozone (O_3) pollution adversely affected pollen germination, germ tube growth and pollen-stigma interactions – pollen originating from plants raised in charcoal-Purafil"® filtered air (CFA) exhibited reduced germ tube development on the stigma of plants exposed to environmentally-relevant levels of O_3. The O_3-induced decline in in vivo pollen viability was reflected in increased numbers of non-fertilized and fertilized non-viable ovules in immature fruit. Negative effects of O_3 on fertilization occurred regardless of the timing of exposure, with reductions in ovule viability evident in O_3 × CFA and CFA × O_3 crossed plants. This suggests O_3-induced reductions in fertilization were associated with reduced pollen viability and/or ovule development. Fruit born on trusses independently exposed to 100 nmol mol"−"1 O_3 (10 h d"−"1) from flowering exhibited a decline in seed number and this was reflected in a marked decline in the weight and size of individual fruit – a clear demonstration of the direct consequence of the effects of the pollutant on reproductive processes. Ozone exposure also resulted in shifts in the starch and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) content of fruit that were consistent with accelerated ripening. The findings of this study draw attention to the need for greater consideration of, and possibly the adoption of weightings for the direct impacts of O_3, and potentially other gaseous pollutants, on reproductive biology during ‘risk assessment’ exercises. - Highlights: • Environmentally-relevant levels of ozone exert negative effects on pollen viability that translate into direct impacts on fruit yield. • Negative impacts of O_3 pollution on reproductive processes were evident regardless of the stage of plant development. • Exposure to environmentally-relevant levels of O_3

  3. Determinants of personal exposure to ozone in school children. Results from a panel study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Grivas, Georgios; Samoli, Evangelia; Rodopoulou, Sophia; Spyratos, Dionisis; Papakosta, Despoina; Karakatsani, Anna; Chaloulakou, Archontoula; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2017-04-01

    In the wider framework of the RESPOZE (ReSPiratory effects of OZone Exposure in Greek children) panel study, we investigated possible determinants of O 3 exposure of school children, measured with personal passive samplers, in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece. Personal exposure to O 3 was measured for five weeks spread along the academic year 2013-14, in 186 school children in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece. At the same time, at-school outdoor measurements were performed and ambient levels of 8-h daily maximum O 3 from fixed sites were collected. We also collected information on lifestyle and housing characteristics through an extended general questionnaire (GQ) and each participant completed daily time activity diaries (TADs) during the study period. Mean outdoor concentrations were higher during the warmer months, in the suburbs of the cities and in Athens. Personal exposure concentrations were significantly lower compared to outdoor. Daily levels of at-school outdoor and ambient levels of O 3 from fixed sites were significant determinants of personal exposure to O 3 . For a 10μg/m 3 increase in at-school outdoor O 3 concentrations and PM 10 measurements a 20.9% (95% CI: 13%, 28%) increase in personal exposure to O 3 was found. For a half an hour more spent in transportation an average increase of 7% (95% CI: 0.3%, 14.6%) in personal exposure to O 3 was observed. Among other possible determinants, time spent in transportation (TAD variable) and duration of open windows were the ones associated with personal O 3 exposure levels. Our results support the use of outdoor and ambient measurements from fixed sites in epidemiological studies as a proxy of personal exposure to O 3 , but this has to be calibrated taking into account personal measurements and time-activity patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of ozone exposure and associated injury mechanisms on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lazcano, Juan Carlos; González-Guevara, Edith; del Carmen Rubio, María; Franco-Pérez, Javier; Custodio, Verónica; Hernández-Cerón, Miguel; Livera, Carlos; Paz, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a component of photochemical smog, which is a major air pollutant and demonstrates properties that are harmful to health because of the toxic properties that are inherent to its powerful oxidizing capabilities. Environmental O3 exposure is associated with many symptoms related to respiratory disorders, which include loss of lung function, exacerbation of asthma, airway damage, and lung inflammation. The effects of O3 are not restricted to the respiratory system or function - adverse effects within the central nervous system (CNS) such as decreased cognitive response, decrease in motor activity, headaches, disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle, neuronal dysfunctions, cell degeneration, and neurochemical alterations have also been described; furthermore, it has also been proposed that O3 could have epigenetic effects. O3 exposure induces the reactive chemical species in the lungs, but the short half-life of these chemical species has led some authors to attribute the injurious mechanisms observed within the lungs to inflammatory processes. However, the damage to the CNS induced by O3 exposure is not well understood. In this review, the basic mechanisms of inflammation and activation of the immune system by O3 exposure are described and the potential mechanisms of damage, which include neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, and the signs and symptoms of disturbances within the CNS caused by environmental O3 exposure are discussed.

  5. Meta-analysis of the association between short-term exposure to ambient ozone and respiratory hospital admissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Meng; Bell, Michelle L; Cohan, Daniel S

    2011-01-01

    Ozone is associated with health impacts including respiratory outcomes; however, results differ across studies. Meta-analysis is an increasingly important approach to synthesizing evidence across studies. We conducted meta-analysis of short-term ozone exposure and respiratory hospitalizations to evaluate variation across studies and explore some of the challenges in meta-analysis. We identified 136 estimates from 96 studies and investigated how estimates differed by age, ozone metric, season, lag, region, disease category, and hospitalization type. Overall results indicate associations between ozone and various kinds of respiratory hospitalizations; however, study characteristics affected risk estimates. Estimates were similar, but higher, for the elderly compared to all ages and for previous day exposure compared to same day exposure. Comparison across studies was hindered by variation in definitions of disease categories, as some (e.g., asthma) were identified through ≥ 3 different sets of ICD codes. Although not all analyses exhibited evidence of publication bias, adjustment for publication bias generally lowered overall estimates. Emergency hospitalizations for total respiratory disease increased by 4.47% (95% interval: 2.48, 6.50%) per 10 ppb 24 h ozone among the elderly without adjustment for publication bias and 2.97% (1.05, 4.94%) with adjustment. Comparison of multi-city study results and meta-analysis based on single-city studies further suggested publication bias.

  6. Driver exposure to volatile organic compounds, CO, ozone, and NO2 under different driving conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changchuan Chan; Oezkaynak, H.; Spengler, J.D.; Sheldon, L.

    1991-01-01

    The in-vehicle concentrations of 24 gasoline-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and three criteria air pollutants, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide, were measured in the summer of 1988, in Raleigh, NC. Two four-door sedan of different ages were used to evaluate in-vehicle concentrations of these compounds under different driving conditions. Factors that could influence driver exposure, such as different traffic patterns, car model, vehicle ventilation conditions, and driving periods, were evaluated. Isopentane was the most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon and toluene was the most abundant aromatic VOC measured inside the vehicles. In-vehicle VOC and CO concentrations were highest for the urban roadway, second highest for the interstate highway, and lowest for the rural road. The median concentration ratio of urban/interstate/rural for each VOC was about 10/6/1. No differences in in-vehicle VOC concentrations were found between morning and afternoon rush hour driving, but higher in-vehicle ozone and NO 2 concentrations were found during afternoon driving. In-vehicle VOC levels were lowest with the air conditioner on and highest when the vent was open with the fan on. The in-vehicle/car exterior concentration ratio for VOCs, CO, and NO 2 was slightly higher than 1. The VOC concentration measured by a pedestrian on the urban sidewalk was lower than the in-vehicle measurements but higher than the fixed-site measurements but higher than the fixed-site measurements on urban roadways 50 m from streets. The VOC measurements were positively correlated with the CO measurement and negatively correlated with the ozone measurement

  7. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-induced systemic effects are modulated through activation of the neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Adrenal demedullation (DEMED)or bilateral total adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits systemic and pulmonary effect of acute ozone exposure. To understand the influence of adrenal-derived stress hormones in mediating ozone-induced lung injury/inflammation, we assessed global gene expression (mRNA sequencing) and selected proteins in lung tissues from male Wistar-Kyoto rats that underwent DEMED, ADREX, or sham surgery (SHAM)prior to their exposure to air or ozone (1 ppm),4 h/day for 1 or 2days. Ozone exposure significantly changed the expression of over 2300 genes in lungs of SHAM rats, and these changes were markedly reduced in DEMED and ADREX rats. SHAM surgery but not DEMED or ADREX resulted in activation of multiple ozone-responsive pathways, including glucocorticoid, acute phase response, NRF2, and Pl3K-AKT.Predicted targets from sequencing data showed a similarity between transcriptional changes induced by ozone and adrenergic and steroidal modulation of effects in SHAM but not ADREX rats. Ozone-induced Increases in lung 116 in SHAM rats coincided with neutrophilic Inflammation, but were diminished in DEMED and ADREX rats. Although ozone exposure in SHAM rats did not significantly alter mRNA expression of lfny and 11-4, the IL-4 protein and ratio of IL-4 to IFNy (IL-4/IFNy) proteins increased suggesting a tendency for a Th2 response. This did not occur

  8. Pulmonary sensitivity to ozone exposure in sedentary versus chronically trained, female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher J; Phillips, Pamela M; Beasley, Tracey E; Ledbetter, A; Aydin, Cenk; Snow, Samantha J; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Johnstone, Andrew F

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that a sedentary lifestyle may contribute to increased susceptibility for some environmental toxicants. We developed an animal model of active versus sedentary life style by providing female Sprague-Dawley rats with continuous access to running wheels. Sedentary rats were housed in standard cages without wheels. After training for 12 wks, rats were exposed to 0, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 ppm ozone [O3 for 5 h/d, 1 d/wk, for 6 wk (N = 10 per group)]. Body composition (%fat, lean and fluid) was monitored noninvasively over the course of the study. Ventilatory parameters [tidal volume, minute ventilation, frequency and enhanced pause (Penh)] were assessed using whole-body plethysmography prior to O3 and 24 h after the 5th O3 exposure. Trained rats lost ∼2% body fat after 12 wk of access to running wheels. Peak wheel activity was reduced by 40% after exposure to 1.0 ppm O3. After the 5th O3 exposure, body weight and %fat were reduced in sedentary but not trained rats. Penh was significantly elevated in sedentary but not trained rats the day after exposure to 1.0 ppm O3. However, lung lavage cell counts and biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation measured 1 day after the final exposure were inconsistently affected by training. Wheel running led to marked physiological responses along with some indication of improved pulmonary recovery from O3 exposure. However, wheel running with O3 exposure may also be a detriment for some pulmonary endpoints. Overall, a sedentary lifestyle may increase susceptibility to O3, but additional studies are needed.

  9. Compensation processes of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) to ozone exposure and drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inclan, R.; Gimeno, B.S.; Dizengremel, P.; Sanchez, M.

    2005-01-01

    A long-term experiment was performed to study the effects of O 3 and drought-stress (DS) on Aleppo pine seedlings (Pinus halepensis Mill.) exposed in open-top chambers. Ozone reduced gas exchange rates, ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity (Rubisco), aboveground C and needle N concentrations and C/N ratio and Ca concentrations of the twigs under 3 mm (twigs Pd ), C/N ratio, twigs<3 Ca, plant growth, aerial biomass and increased N, twigs with a diameter above 3 mm P and Mg concentrations. The combined exposure to both stresses increased N concentrations of twigs<3 and roots and aboveground biomass K content and decreased root C, maximum daily assimilation rate and instantaneous water use efficiency. The sensitivity of Aleppo pine to both stresses is determined by plant internal resource allocation and compensation mechanisms to cope with stress. - Ozone and drought stress induce the activation of similar processes related to C and N metabolism

  10. Co-exposure to ultrafine particulate matter and ozone causes electrocardiogram changes indicative of increased arrhythmia risk in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous studies have shown a relationship between acute air pollution exposure and increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to the inherent complexity of air pollution, recent studies have focused on co-exposures to better understand potential interactions....

  11. Exposure to environmentally-relevant levels of ozone negatively influence pollen and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Colin; Stabler, Daniel; Tallentire, Eva; Goumenaki, Eleni; Barnes, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    A combination of in vitro and in vivo studies on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Triton) revealed that environmentally-relevant levels of ozone (O3) pollution adversely affected pollen germination, germ tube growth and pollen-stigma interactions - pollen originating from plants raised in charcoal-Purafil(®) filtered air (CFA) exhibited reduced germ tube development on the stigma of plants exposed to environmentally-relevant levels of O3. The O3-induced decline in in vivo pollen viability was reflected in increased numbers of non-fertilized and fertilized non-viable ovules in immature fruit. Negative effects of O3 on fertilization occurred regardless of the timing of exposure, with reductions in ovule viability evident in O3 × CFA and CFA × O3 crossed plants. This suggests O3-induced reductions in fertilization were associated with reduced pollen viability and/or ovule development. Fruit born on trusses independently exposed to 100 nmol mol(-1) O3 (10 h d(-1)) from flowering exhibited a decline in seed number and this was reflected in a marked decline in the weight and size of individual fruit - a clear demonstration of the direct consequence of the effects of the pollutant on reproductive processes. Ozone exposure also resulted in shifts in the starch and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) content of fruit that were consistent with accelerated ripening. The findings of this study draw attention to the need for greater consideration of, and possibly the adoption of weightings for the direct impacts of O3, and potentially other gaseous pollutants, on reproductive biology during 'risk assessment' exercises. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ozone Exposure-Response in Field Grown Soybean: Characterizing Intraspecific Variability of Physiology and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop losses due to rising tropospheric ozone concentrations ([ozone]) in 2000 were estimated to cost $1.8 to $3.9 billion in the U.S. and $3.0 to $5.5 billion in China, and are expected to grow with the predicted 25% increase in background [ozone] over the next 30 to 50 years. This challenge provide...

  13. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  14. Occupational exposure to solvents and acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Lehtinen-Jacks, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to assess the relation between occupational exposure to solvents and the risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS: Altogether, this study comprises 15 332 incident cases of AML diagnosed in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Iceland from 1961-2005 and 76...

  15. Acute Neurological Symptoms During Hypobaric Exposure: Consider Cerebral Air Embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, Robert P.; Hollmann, Markus W.; van Hulst, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    WEENINK RP, HOLLMANN MW, VAN HULST RA. Acute neurological symptoms during hypobaric exposure: consider cerebral air embolism. Aviat Space Environ Med 2012; 83:1084-91. Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is well known as a complication of invasive medical procedures and as a risk in diving and

  16. Exposure- and flux-based assessment of ozone risk to sugarcane plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Bárbara Baêsso; Hoshika, Yasutomo; Ribeiro, Rafael Vasconcelos; Paoletti, Elena

    2018-03-01

    Ozone (O3) is a toxic oxidative air pollutant, with significant detrimental effects on crops. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop with no O3 risk assessment performed so far. This study aimed to assess O3 risk to sugarcane plants by using exposure-based indices (AOT40 and W126) based on O3 concentrations in the air, and the flux-based index (PODy, where y is a threshold of uptake) that considers leaf O3 uptake and the influence of environmental conditions on stomatal conductance (gsto). Two sugarcane genotypes (IACSP94-2094 and IACSP95-5000) were subjected to a 90-day Free-Air Controlled Experiment (FACE) exposure at three levels of O3 concentrations: ambient (Amb); Amb x1.2; and Amb x1.4. Total above-ground biomass (AGB), stalk biomass (SB) and leaf biomass (LB) were evaluated and the potential biomass production in a clean air was estimated by assuming a theoretical clean atmosphere at 10 ppb as 24 h O3 average. The Jarvis-type multiplicative algorithm was used to parametrize gsto including environmental factors i.e. air temperature, light intensity, air vapor pressure deficit, and minimum night-time temperature. Ozone exposure caused a negative impact on AGB, SB and LB. The O3 sensitivity of sugarcane may be related to its high gsto (∼535 mmol H2O m-2 s-1). As sugarcane is adapted to hot climate conditions, gsto was restricted when the current minimum air temperature (Tmin) was below ∼14 °C and the minimum night-time air temperature of the previous day (Tnmin) was below ∼7.5 °C. The flux-based index (PODy) performed better than the exposure-based indices in estimating O3 effect on biomass losses. We recommend a y threshold of 2 nmol m-2 s-1 to incorporate O3 effects on both AGB and SB and 1 nmol m-2 s-1 on LB. In order not to exceed 4% reduction in the growth of these two sugarcane genotypes, we recommend the following critical levels: 1.09 and 1.04 mmol m-2 POD2 for AGB, 0.91 and 0.96 mmol m-2 POD2 for SB, and 3.00 and 2.36 mmol m-2 POD1 for

  17. Development of acute exposure guideline levels for airborne exposures to hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewski, Daniel; Bakshi, Kulbir; Garrett, Roger; Falke, Ernest; Rusch, George; Gaylor, David

    2004-04-01

    Hazardous substances can be released into the atmosphere due to industrial and transportation accidents, fires, tornadoes, earthquakes, and terrorists, thereby exposing workers and the nearby public to potential adverse health effects. Various enforceable guidelines have been set by regulatory agencies for worker and ambient air quality. However, these exposure levels generally are not applicable to rare lifetime acute exposures, which possibly could occur at high concentrations. Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) provide estimates of concentrations for airborne exposures for an array of short durations that possibly could cause mild (AEGL-1), severe, irreversible, potentially disabling adverse health effects (AEGL-2), or life threatening effects (AEGL-3). These levels can be useful for emergency responders and planners in reducing or eliminating potential risks to the public. Procedures and methodologies for deriving AEGLs are reviewed in this paper that have been developed in the United States, with direct input from international representatives of OECD member-countries, by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guidelines for Hazardous Substances and reviewed by the National Research Council. Techniques are discussed for the extrapolation of effects across different exposure durations. AEGLs provide a viable approach for assisting in the prevention, planning, and response to acute airborne exposures to toxic agents.

  18. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuling; Jiang Enhai; Sun Feifei; Zhang Bin; Wang Xiaoguang; Wang Guilin

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  19. Acute behavioural dysfunctions following exposure to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mayank; Haridas, Seenu; Manda, Kailash

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations (IR) has been reported to have many ill effects. These are manifested immediately after exposure and may persist or develop long after the incident. The severity and manifestation is dependent on the absorbed dose and type of the IR. These have been reported extensively in human subjects; especially among the victims of the accidental exposure and radiotherapy patients. Additionally, there have been a plethora of studies in animal models which support these findings, and are being used to test radio-mitigative or radio-protective strategies. The vulnerability of neuronal tissue to IR is well known, however the acute dose-dependent behavioural consequences have yet to be understood. Thus, our laboratory has been trying to decipher the dose-dependent behavioural dysfunctions which have occurred 24-72 hours post IR exposure and possible radio-protective strategies. We are utilizing mouse models of studying the behavioural processes, in a test battery conceptualized to study the affective and cognitive skills as well as motor skills of the animals. Additionally, we have observed cellular damage to different areas of the brain and subsequent correlations to behavioural dysfunctions. This has being carried out by using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The findings show that after exposure to sub-lethal γ-rays, there are significant changes that occur in all the behavioural parameters. The most sensitive area has been found to be the Hippocampus as visualized by DTI and the SCGE. Consequently, short term and long term memory functions have been shown to be disrupted within 24-72 hours of exposure. Acute dysfunctions of affective functions have also been demonstrated to materialise within 24 hours post exposure. Unexpectedly, the behavioural dysfunctions were seen to be dose independent. Thus, this study provides a foundation to help decipher the acute behavioural manifestations of IR exposure

  20. Changes in the carbon dioxide expirogram in response to ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Adekemi B.; Lee, Genea M.; Nellore, Kavitha; Ben-Jebria, Abdellaziz; Ultman, James S.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify pulmonary responses to ozone (O 3 ) exposure by parameters computed from the carbon dioxide expirogram and to compare these responses to decrements in forced expired spirometry. Anatomical dead space (V D ) was determined from the pure dead space and transition regions of the expirogram. Four alternative parameters were computed from the alveolar plateau: slope (S), normalized slope (NS), peripheral cross-sectional area (A P ) and well-mixed peripheral volume (V MP ). Forty-seven healthy nonsmokers (25 men and 22 women) participated in two research sessions in which they exercised on a cycle ergometer for 1 h while orally inhaling either room air at a minute ventilation of 30.6 ± 3.6 L or room air mixed with 0.252 ± 0.029 ppm O 3 at a minute ventilation of 29.9 ± 3.7 L. Carbon dioxide expirograms were measured before exposure, 10 min after exposure and 70 min after exposure. Percent changes (mean ± SD) in expirogram parameters were significant (P ≤ 0.002) at both 10 and 70 min after O 3 exposure: V D (-4.2 ± 5.1, -3.3 ± 6.9), S(16.4 ± 17.9, +15.1 ± 20.2), NS(17.5 ± 15.4, +15.9 ± 19.2), A P (-8.1 ± 7.6, -7.7 ± 9.8) and V MP (-15.4 ± 13.0, -13.0 ± 15.2). Percent decrements of forced expired volume in one second (FEV 1 ) were also significant at both 10 min (-13.3 ± 13.4) and 70 min (-11.1 ± 9.2) following O 3 exposure. Changes in the expirogram as well as decrements in FEV 1 were not significant at either time point after air exposure. Thus, the CO 2 expirogram is useful for characterizing the effect of O 3 exposure on gas transport, and for supplementing forced expired spirometry that is frequently used to quantify lung mechanics

  1. Acute effects of ozone on mortality from the "Air pollution and health : A European approach" project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryparis, A; Forsberg, B; Katsouyanni, K; Analitis, A; Touloumi, G; Schwartz, J; Samoli, E; Medina, S; Anderson, HR; Niciu, EM; Wichmann, HE; Kriz, B; Kosnik, M; Skorkovsky, J; Vonk, JM; Dortbudak, Z

    2004-01-01

    In the Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach (APHEA2) project, the effects of ambient ozone concentrations on mortality were investigated. Data were collected on daily ozone concentrations, the daily number of deaths, confounders, and potential effect modifiers from 23 cities/areas for at

  2. The effect of chronic ozone exposure on the activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Rodríguez-Martínez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The chronic exposure to low doses of ozone, like in environmental pollution, leads to a state of oxidative stress, which has been proposed to contribute to neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. It induces an increase of calcium in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, which produces ER stress. On the other hand, different studies show that, in diseases such as Alzheimer’s, there exist disturbances in protein folding where ER plays an important role. The objective of this study was to evaluate the state of chronic oxidative stress on ER stress and its relationship with apoptotic death in the hippocampus of rats exposed to low doses of ozone. We used 108 male Wistar rats randomly divided into five groups. The groups received one of the following treatments: 1 Control (air, 2 Ozone (O3 7 days, 3 O3 15 days, 4 O3 30 days, 5 O3 60 days, and 6 O3 90 days. Two hours after each treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the hippocampus was extracted. Afterwards, the tissue was processed for western blot and immunohistochemistry using the following antibodies: ATF6, GRP8 and caspase 12. It was also performed TUNEL assay and electronic microscopy. Our results show an increase in ATF6, GRP78 and caspase 12 as well as ER ultrastructural alterations and an increase of TUNEL positive cells after 60 and 90 days of exposure to ozone. With the obtained results, we can conclude that oxidative stress induced by chronic exposure to low doses of ozone leads to ER stress. ER stress activates ATF6 inducing the increase of GRP78 in the cytoplasm, which leads to the increase in the nuclear translocation of ATF6. Finally, the translocation creates a vicious cycle that, together with the activation of the cascade for apoptotic cell death, contributes to the maintenance of ER stress. These events potentially contribute in the neurodegeneration processes in diseases like Alzheimer’s Disease.

  3. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.; Dranitsaris, P.; Baynes, C.J.

    1984-11-01

    A literature review was conducted of the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF) with emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF. The data and findings of the relevant references were summarized under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure and industrial exposure. These were critically reviewed and then lethal concentration-time relationships were developed for humans, corresponding to LCsub(LO), LCsub(10) and LCsub(50) levels. The effects of age, health and other physiological variables on the sensitivity to HF were discussed, as well as antagonistic and synergistic effects with other substances

  4. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2013-01-01

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased α 2 -macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone metabolic

  5. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, V. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cascio, W.E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Phillips, P.M. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Andrews, D. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Doerfler, D.L. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, U.P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased α{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone

  6. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-induced systemic effects are modulated through activation of the neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Adrenal demedullation (DEMED)or bilateral total adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits systemic and pulmonary effect of acute ozone exposure. To understand the influence of adre...

  7. Acute and recent air pollution exposure and cardiovascular events at labour and delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männistö, Tuija; Mendola, Pauline; Grantz, Katherine Laughon; Leishear, Kira; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Sherman, Seth; Ying, Qi; Liu, Danping

    2017-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between acute air pollution exposure and cardiovascular events during labour/delivery. Methods The Consortium on Safe Labor (2002–2008), an observational US cohort with 223 502 singleton deliveries provided electronic medical records. Air pollution exposure was estimated by modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models. Cardiovascular events (cardiac failure/arrest, stroke, myocardial infarcts and other events) were recorded in the hospital discharge records for 687 pregnancies (0.3%). Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations estimated the relationship between cardiovascular events and daily air pollutant levels for delivery day and the 7 days preceding delivery. Results Increased odds of cardiovascular events were observed for each IQR increase in exposure to nitric oxides at 5 and 6 days prior to delivery (OR=1.17, 99% CI 1.04 to 1.30 and OR=1.15, 1.03 to 1.28, respectively). High exposure to toxic air pollution species such as ethylbenzene (OR=1.50, 1.08 to 2.09), m-xylene (OR=1.54, 1.11 to 2.13), o-xylene (OR=1.51, 1.09 to 2.09), p-xylene (OR=1.43, 1.03 to 1.99) and toluene (OR=1.42, 1.02 to 1.97) at 5 days prior to delivery were also associated with cardiovascular events. Decreased odds of events were observed with exposure to ozone. Conclusions Air pollution in the days prior to delivery, especially nitrogen oxides and some toxic air pollution species, was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events during the labour/delivery admission. PMID:26105036

  8. Ambient Ozone Exposure in Czech Forests: A GIS-Based Approach to Spatial Distribution Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hůnová, I.; Horálek, J.; Schreiberová, M.; Zapletal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ambient ozone (O3) is an important phytotoxic pollutant, and detailed knowledge of its spatial distribution is becoming increasingly important. The aim of the paper is to compare different spatial interpolation techniques and to recommend the best approach for producing a reliable map for O3 with respect to its phytotoxic potential. For evaluation we used real-time ambient O3 concentrations measured by UV absorbance from 24 Czech rural sites in the 2007 and 2008 vegetation seasons. We considered eleven approaches for spatial interpolation used for the development of maps for mean vegetation season O3 concentrations and the AOT40F exposure index for forests. The uncertainty of maps was assessed by cross-validation analysis. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the map was used as a criterion. Our results indicate that the optimal interpolation approach is linear regression of O3 data and altitude with subsequent interpolation of its residuals by ordinary kriging. The relative uncertainty of the map of O3 mean for the vegetation season is less than 10%, using the optimal method as for both explored years, and this is a very acceptable value. In the case of AOT40F, however, the relative uncertainty of the map is notably worse, reaching nearly 20% in both examined years. PMID:22566757

  9. Effect of ozone exposure on maximal airway narrowing in non-asthmatic and asthmatic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiltermann, T J; Stolk, J; Hiemstra, P S; Fokkens, P H; Rombout, P J; Sont, J K; Sterk, P J; Dijkman, J H

    1995-01-01

    1. Ozone is a major constituent of air pollution in the summer. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that there is an increase in hospital admissions for respiratory diseases 1 day after peak levels of ambient ozone. This may be due to an increase in the responsiveness of the airways to

  10. Comparison of spatiotemporal prediction models of daily exposure of individuals to ambient nitrogen dioxide and ozone in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Stephane; Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Crouse, Dan L; Smargiassi, Audrey; Burnett, Richard T; Logan, Travis; Cavellin, Laure Deville; Goldberg, Mark S

    2017-07-01

    In previous studies investigating the short-term health effects of ambient air pollution the exposure metric that is often used is the daily average across monitors, thus assuming that all individuals have the same daily exposure. Studies that incorporate space-time exposures of individuals are essential to further our understanding of the short-term health effects of ambient air pollution. As part of a longitudinal cohort study of the acute effects of air pollution that incorporated subject-specific information and medical histories of subjects throughout the follow-up, the purpose of this study was to develop and compare different prediction models using data from fixed-site monitors and other monitoring campaigns to estimate daily, spatially-resolved concentrations of ozone (O 3 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) of participants' residences in Montreal, 1991-2002. We used the following methods to predict spatially-resolved daily concentrations of O 3 and NO 2 for each geographic region in Montreal (defined by three-character postal code areas): (1) assigning concentrations from the nearest monitor; (2) spatial interpolation using inverse-distance weighting; (3) back-extrapolation from a land-use regression model from a dense monitoring survey, and; (4) a combination of a land-use and Bayesian maximum entropy model. We used a variety of indices of agreement to compare estimates of exposure assigned from the different methods, notably scatterplots of pairwise predictions, distribution of differences and computation of the absolute agreement intraclass correlation (ICC). For each pairwise prediction, we also produced maps of the ICCs by these regions indicating the spatial variability in the degree of agreement. We found some substantial differences in agreement across pairs of methods in daily mean predicted concentrations of O 3 and NO 2 . On a given day and postal code area the difference in the concentration assigned could be as high as 131ppb for O 3 and 108ppb

  11. Long-term exposure to ambient ozone and mortality: a quantitative systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R W; Butland, B K; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Heal, M R; Stedman, J R; Carslaw, N; Jarvis, D; Heaviside, C; Vardoulakis, S; Walton, H; Anderson, H R

    2016-02-23

    While there is good evidence for associations between short-term exposure to ozone and a range of adverse health outcomes, the evidence from narrative reviews for long-term exposure is suggestive of associations with respiratory mortality only. We conducted a systematic, quantitative evaluation of the evidence from cohort studies, reporting associations between long-term exposure to ozone and mortality. Cohort studies published in peer-reviewed journals indexed in EMBASE and MEDLINE to September 2015 and PubMed to October 2015 and cited in reviews/key publications were identified via search strings using terms relating to study design, pollutant and health outcome. Study details and estimate information were extracted and used to calculate standardised effect estimates expressed as HRs per 10 ppb increment in long-term ozone concentrations. 14 publications from 8 cohorts presented results for ozone and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We found no evidence of associations between long-term annual O3 concentrations and the risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, or lung cancer. 4 cohorts assessed ozone concentrations measured during the warm season. Summary HRs for cardiovascular and respiratory causes of death derived from 3 cohorts were 1.01 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.02) and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.05) per 10 ppb, respectively. Our quantitative review revealed a paucity of independent studies regarding the associations between long-term exposure to ozone and mortality. The potential impact of climate change and increasing anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors on ozone levels worldwide suggests further studies of the long-term effects of exposure to high ozone levels are warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Spatiotemporal prediction of daily ambient ozone levels across China using random forest for human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yu; Luo, Yuzhou; Deng, Xunfei; Grieneisen, Michael L; Zhang, Minghua; Di, Baofeng

    2018-02-01

    In China, ozone pollution shows an increasing trend and becomes the primary air pollutant in warm seasons. Leveraging the air quality monitoring network, a random forest model is developed to predict the daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentrations ([O 3 ] MDA8 ) across China in 2015 for human exposure assessment. This model captures the observed spatiotemporal variations of [O 3 ] MDA8 by using the data of meteorology, elevation, and recent-year emission inventories (cross-validation R 2  = 0.69 and RMSE = 26 μg/m 3 ). Compared with chemical transport models that require a plenty of variables and expensive computation, the random forest model shows comparable or higher predictive performance based on only a handful of readily-available variables at much lower computational cost. The nationwide population-weighted [O 3 ] MDA8 is predicted to be 84 ± 23 μg/m 3 annually, with the highest seasonal mean in the summer (103 ± 8 μg/m 3 ). The summer [O 3 ] MDA8 is predicted to be the highest in North China (125 ± 17 μg/m 3 ). Approximately 58% of the population lives in areas with more than 100 nonattainment days ([O 3 ] MDA8 >100 μg/m 3 ), and 12% of the population are exposed to [O 3 ] MDA8 >160 μg/m 3 (WHO Interim Target 1) for more than 30 days. As the most populous zones in China, the Beijing-Tianjin Metro, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Sichuan Basin are predicted to be at 154, 141, 124, and 98 nonattainment days, respectively. Effective controls of O 3 pollution are urgently needed for the highly-populated zones, especially the Beijing-Tianjin Metro with seasonal [O 3 ] MDA8 of 140 ± 29 μg/m 3 in summer. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first statistical modeling work of ambient O 3 for China at the national level. This timely and extensively validated [O 3 ] MDA8 dataset is valuable for refining epidemiological analyses on O 3 pollution in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Growth response of seedlings of six Betula pubescens Ehrh. provenances to six ozone exposure regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L.M. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Horticulture and Crop Science

    1998-07-01

    Seedlings of six provenances of Betula pubescens Ehrh. from different latitudes (59-70 deg N) were grown under six ozone exposure regimes by combining different concentrations and daily exposure periods. The different treatments at increasing O{sub 3} exposure over 40 nmol/mol (AOT40 given in parentheses) were: 19 nmol mol{sup -1}/24 h day{sup -1} (0.1 {mu}mol/mol-h), 42 nmol mol{sup -1}/12 h day{sup -1} (2.5 {mu}mol/mol-h), 44 nmol mol{sup -1}/24 h day{sup -1} (7.1 {mu}mol/mol-h), 76 nmol mol{sup -1}/6 day{sup -1} (9.4 {mu}mol/mol-h), 75 nmol mol{sup -1}/12 h day{sup -1} (17.8 {mu}mol/mol{sup -1}) and 116 nmol mol{sup -1}/6 h day{sup -1} (19.8 {mu}mol/mol{sup -1}) for 40 days at a 24 h day{sup -1} photoperiod in growth chambers placed in a greenhouse. The effect of increasing the O{sub 3} exposure from 19 nmol mol{sup -1}/24 h to 42 nmol mol{sup -1}/12 h was a decrease in root but not shoot dry weight. A further increase in the exposure to 44 nmol mol{sup -1}/24 h also decreased the shoot dry weight. An increase in the O{sub 3} concentration to 75 and 116 nmol mol{sup -1} further decreased shoot and root dry weights. A moderate O{sub 3} exposure (42 nmol mol{sup -1}/12 h) increased the plant height and leaf size, while a further increase in O{sub 3} concentration and exposure time decreased both of these variables. The birch provenances generally had a similar response to the O{sub 3} treatments. The accumulated O{sub 3} exposure over the 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nmol mol{sup -1} concentrations (AOT0, AOT10, AOT20, AOT30, AOT40 and AOT50, respectively) was calculated for all O{sub 3} treatments. The shoot and root dry weights were correlated best with AOT40 and AOT30, and were estimated to decrease by 10% at an AOT40 of 7.0 and 5.5 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}-h, respectively. The development of O{sub 3} injury (yellow stipples/chlorosis) was most marked when correlated with AOT40 26 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  14. Acute symptoms following exposure to grain dust in farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, J; Holford-Strevens, V; Cheang, M; Warren, C P

    1986-01-01

    History of acute symptoms (cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, fever, stuffy nose, and skin itching/rash) following exposure to grain dust was obtained from 661 male and 535 female current and former farmers. These symptoms were relatively common: 60% of male and 25% of female farmers reported at least one such symptom on exposure to grain dust. Association of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and stuffy nose with skin reactivity and capacity to form IgE is consistent with an allergic nature of these symptoms. Barley and oats dust were perceived as dust most often producing symptoms. On the other hand, grain fever showed a different pattern, i.e., it was not associated with either skin reactivity or total IgE. Smoking might modify the susceptibility to react to grain dust with symptoms. Only those who reported wheezing on exposure to grain dust may have an increased risk to develop chronic airflow obstruction. PMID:3709486

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities and environmental exposures in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, M.M.; Keating, M.J.; Trujillo, J.M.; Labarthe, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are present in bone marrow of approximately 50% of newly diagnostic acute nonlymphatic leukemia (ANLL) patients, but their etiologic significance, if any, is unclear. The frequency of environmental exposures, gathered by questionnaire from patients or relatives, was compared in 127 newly diagnosed ANLL patients with marrow abnormalities (AA) and 109 ANLL patients with cytogenetically normal marrow. These represented 73% of de novo patients treated at M. D. Anderson Hospital between 1976 and 1983. AA patients were more likely than NN patients to: report cytotoxic treatment for prior medical conditions, smoke cigarettes, drink alcoholic beverages, and work at occupations with possible exposure to mutagens. No statistically significant associations between aneuploidy and use of other tobacco, avocational exposure to chemicals or exposure to animals were present. Associations between specific abnormalities and prior cytotoxic therapy (deletion of chromosome 7), smoking (extra chromosome 8, inversion chromosome 16), and occupation at the time of diagnosis (translocation between chromosomes 8 and 21) were noted. No association between occupational exposure to benzene or ionizing radiation and the 6 most common chromosomal abnormalities in ANLL patients were noted, although these agents are known to be leukemogenic. Problems with interpreting the above associations, including the high nonresponse rate, a high proportion of surrogate respondents, and the large number of significance tests that were performed, are discussed. These results are consistent with those from previously reported series, and suggest that tumor-specific markers may be present for some exposures in this disease

  16. Pre-exposure to nitric oxide modulates the effect of ozone on oxidative defenses and volatile emissions in lima bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Silvia R.; Blande, James D.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2013-01-01

    The roles that ozone and nitric oxide (NO), the chief O 3 precursor, play in the antioxidative balance and inducible volatile emissions of lima bean were assessed. Exposure to O 3 inhibited APX, CAT, and GR, decreased GSH content and induced emissions of (E)-β-ocimene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (E)-DMNT, 2-butanone and nonanal. O 3 did not induce emissions of (E)-β-caryophyllene and appeared to reduce the antioxidative capacity of plants to a greater extent than NO and NO followed by O 3 (NO/O 3 ) treatments. There were significant differences in emissions of (E)-β-ocimene and linalool between NO/O 3 treated plants and controls, but no differences in antioxidant concentrations. A model to explain the relationships between the ascorbate–glutathione cycle and O 3 and NO inducible volatiles was proposed. Our findings suggest that prior exposure to NO modulates the oxidative effect of ozone by the process of cross-tolerance, which might regulate the antioxidative system and induction of volatile organic compounds. -- Highlights: •NO and O 3 disturb antioxidant defenses and cause lipid peroxidation in lima bean plants. •Exposure to NO before exposure to O 3 does not alter the antioxidant defenses and malondialdehyde levels. •The total sum of induced volatiles is reduced in plants that are exposed to NO and then O 3 . •The antioxidant system and induced VOC emission were balanced by pre-exposure to NO before O 3 . -- Capsule: Nitric oxide modulates the ozone-induced oxidative stress in lima bean by cross-tolerance effect

  17. Assessment of rice yield loss due to exposure to ozone pollution in Southern Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danh, Ngo Thanh; Huy, Lai Nguyen; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim, E-mail: kimoanh@ait.ac.th

    2016-10-01

    The study domain covered the Eastern region of Southern of Vietnam that includes Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and five other provinces. Rice production in the domain accounted for 13% of the national total with three crop cycles per year. We assessed ozone (O{sub 3}) induced rice production loss in the domain for 2010 using simulated hourly surface O{sub 3} concentrations (WRF/CAMx; 4 km resolution). Simulated O{sub 3} was higher in January–February (largely overlaps the first crop) and September–December (third crop), and lower in March–June (second crop). Spatially, O{sub 3} was higher in downwind locations of HCMC and were comparable with observed data. Relative yield loss (RYL) was assessed for each crop over the respective growing period (105 days) using three metrics: AOT40, M7 and flux-based O{sub 3} dose of POD{sub 10}. Higher RYL was estimated for the downwind of HCMC. Overall, the rice production loss due to O{sub 3} exposure in the study domain in 2010 was the highest for the first crop (up to 25,800 metric tons), the second highest for the third crop (up to 21,500 tons) and the least for the second crop (up to 6800 tons). The low RYL obtained for the second crop by POD{sub 10} may be due to the use of a high threshold value (Y = 10 nmol m{sup −2} s{sup −1}). Linear regression between non-null radiation POD{sub 0} and POD{sub 10} had similar slopes for the first and third crop when POD{sub 0} was higher and very low slope for the second crop when POD{sub 0} was low. The results of this study can be used for the rice crop planning to avoid the period of potential high RYL due to O{sub 3} exposure. - Highlights: • Simulated O{sub 3} was used to assess rice yield loss in a domain of Southern Vietnam. • Exposure metrics of AOT40, M7, POD{sub 0} and POD{sub 10} were considered. • POD{sub 10} gave the highest rice production loss. • Higher production loss was found downwind of Ho Chi Minh City.

  18. Assessment of rice yield loss due to exposure to ozone pollution in Southern Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danh, Ngo Thanh; Huy, Lai Nguyen; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2016-01-01

    The study domain covered the Eastern region of Southern of Vietnam that includes Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and five other provinces. Rice production in the domain accounted for 13% of the national total with three crop cycles per year. We assessed ozone (O 3 ) induced rice production loss in the domain for 2010 using simulated hourly surface O 3 concentrations (WRF/CAMx; 4 km resolution). Simulated O 3 was higher in January–February (largely overlaps the first crop) and September–December (third crop), and lower in March–June (second crop). Spatially, O 3 was higher in downwind locations of HCMC and were comparable with observed data. Relative yield loss (RYL) was assessed for each crop over the respective growing period (105 days) using three metrics: AOT40, M7 and flux-based O 3 dose of POD 10 . Higher RYL was estimated for the downwind of HCMC. Overall, the rice production loss due to O 3 exposure in the study domain in 2010 was the highest for the first crop (up to 25,800 metric tons), the second highest for the third crop (up to 21,500 tons) and the least for the second crop (up to 6800 tons). The low RYL obtained for the second crop by POD 10 may be due to the use of a high threshold value (Y = 10 nmol m −2 s −1 ). Linear regression between non-null radiation POD 0 and POD 10 had similar slopes for the first and third crop when POD 0 was higher and very low slope for the second crop when POD 0 was low. The results of this study can be used for the rice crop planning to avoid the period of potential high RYL due to O 3 exposure. - Highlights: • Simulated O 3 was used to assess rice yield loss in a domain of Southern Vietnam. • Exposure metrics of AOT40, M7, POD 0 and POD 10 were considered. • POD 10 gave the highest rice production loss. • Higher production loss was found downwind of Ho Chi Minh City.

  19. Human Physiological Responses to Acute and Chronic Cold Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Jodie M.; Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Tipton, Michael J.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2001-01-01

    When inadequately protected humans are exposed to acute cold, excessive body heat is lost to the environment and unless heat production is increased and heat loss attenuated, body temperature will decrease. The primary physiological responses to counter the reduction in body temperature include marked cutaneous vasoconstriction and increased metabolism. These responses, and the hazards associated with such exposure, are mediated by a number of factors which contribute to heat production and loss. These include the severity and duration of the cold stimulus; exercise intensity; the magnitude of the metabolic response; and individual characteristics such as body composition, age, and gender. Chronic exposure to a cold environment, both natural and artificial, results in physiological alterations leading to adaptation. Three quite different, but not necessarily exclusive, patterns of human cold adaptation have been reported: metabolic, hypothermic, and insulative. Cold adaptation has also been associated with an habituation response, in which there is a desensitization, or damping, of the normal response to a cold stress. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the human physiological and pathological responses to cold exposure. Particular attention is directed to the factors contributing to heat production and heat loss during acute cold stress, and the ability of humans to adapt to cold environments.

  20. Pulmonary sensitivity to ozone exposure in sedentary versus chronically trained, female rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pulmonary effects to ozone with rats that have chronically exercised or have been continuously sedentary. Also includes body composition of both groups throughout...

  1. Suppression and recovery of the alveolar macrophage phagocytic system during continuous exposure to 0. 5 ppm ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, M.I.; Hmieleski, R.R.; Stafford, E.A.; Jakab, G.J. (Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Short-term exposures to ozone (O3) are known to impair pulmonary antibacterial defenses and alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis in a dose-related manner. To determine the effect of prolonged O3 exposure, Swiss mice were exposed continuously to 0.5 ppm O3. At 1, 3, 7, and 14 days, intrapulmonary killing was assessed by inhalation challenge with Staphylococcus aureus or Proteus mirabilis and by comparing the number of viable bacteria remaining in the lungs at 4 h between O3-exposed and control animals. To evaluate the effects of O3 on the functional capacity of the AMs, Fc-receptor mediated phagocytosis was assessed. Ozone exposure impaired the intrapulmonary killing of S. aureus at 1 and 3 days; however, with prolonged exposure, the bactericidal capacity of the lungs returned to normal. This trend of an initial suppression followed by recovery was reflected in the phagocytic capacity of the AMs. In contrast to S. aureus, when P. mirabilis was used as the challenge organism, O3 exposure had no suppressive effect on pulmonary bactericidal activity, which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell population in the lungs. Morphologic examination of the lavaged macrophages showed that after 1 day of O3 exposure, the AMs were more foamy, and contained significantly more vacuoles. There was also a significant increase in binucleated cells at 3 days. These studies demonstrate that continuous exposure to O3 modulates AM-dependent lung defenses and points to the importance of the challenge organism and exposure protocol in establishing the adverse effect of O3.

  2. Acute skin lesions due to localized ''hot particle'' radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small ( 2 at 70μm depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit

  3. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  4. Impact of chronic and acute pesticide exposures on periphyton communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlili, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.tlili@cemagref.fr [CEMAGREF, UR MAEP, 3 quai Chauveau CP 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Montuelle, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.montuelle@cemagref.fr [CEMAGREF, UR MAEP, 3 quai Chauveau CP 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); INRA UMR CARRTEL, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203, Thonon Cedex (France); Berard, Annette, E-mail: annette.berard@avignon.inra.fr [INRA UMR EMMAH 1114, Domaine Saint-Paul-Site Agroparc 84914 Avignon Cedex 9 (France); Bouchez, Agnes, E-mail: agnes.bouchez@thonon.inra.fr [INRA UMR CARRTEL, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203, Thonon Cedex (France)

    2011-05-01

    Aquatic ecosystems face variable exposure to pesticides, especially during floodings which are associated with short bursts of high contaminant concentrations that influence biological systems. A study was undertaken to highlight the impact of the herbicide diuron applied in mixture with the fungicide tebuconazole on natural periphyton during flooding events. Periphyton were grown in two series of two lotic outdoor mesocosms: one series was non-contaminated while the other was exposed to chronic contamination. After 4 weeks, one channel of each series was exposed to three successive pulses, with each pulse followed by one week of recovery. Impacts on periphyton were assessed by using Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis to characterize eukaryotic community structure. At a functional scale, photosynthetic efficiency was quantified during each pulse, and the induced tolerance to diuron was estimated by performing short-term inhibition tests based on photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, pesticide concentrations in the water column and periphyton matrix were measured. Diuron was adsorbed in the periphyton during each pulse and desorbed 13 h after pulse end. The different pulses affected the eukaryotic community structures of the control biofilms, but not of the chronically exposed ones. During the first pulse, photosynthetic efficiency was correlated with pesticide concentration in the water phase, and there was no difference between periphyton from chronically contaminated channels and control channels. However, during the second and third pulses, the photosynthetic efficiency of periphyton chronically exposed to pesticides appeared to be less impacted by the acute pulsed exposure of pesticide. These changes were consistent with the acquisition of induced tolerance to diuron since only after the third pulse that periphyton from chronic channel became tolerant to diuron. Our experimental study indicates that the effects of pulsed acute exposures to pesticides on

  5. Impact of chronic and acute pesticide exposures on periphyton communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlili, Ahmed; Montuelle, Bernard; Berard, Annette; Bouchez, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems face variable exposure to pesticides, especially during floodings which are associated with short bursts of high contaminant concentrations that influence biological systems. A study was undertaken to highlight the impact of the herbicide diuron applied in mixture with the fungicide tebuconazole on natural periphyton during flooding events. Periphyton were grown in two series of two lotic outdoor mesocosms: one series was non-contaminated while the other was exposed to chronic contamination. After 4 weeks, one channel of each series was exposed to three successive pulses, with each pulse followed by one week of recovery. Impacts on periphyton were assessed by using Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis to characterize eukaryotic community structure. At a functional scale, photosynthetic efficiency was quantified during each pulse, and the induced tolerance to diuron was estimated by performing short-term inhibition tests based on photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, pesticide concentrations in the water column and periphyton matrix were measured. Diuron was adsorbed in the periphyton during each pulse and desorbed 13 h after pulse end. The different pulses affected the eukaryotic community structures of the control biofilms, but not of the chronically exposed ones. During the first pulse, photosynthetic efficiency was correlated with pesticide concentration in the water phase, and there was no difference between periphyton from chronically contaminated channels and control channels. However, during the second and third pulses, the photosynthetic efficiency of periphyton chronically exposed to pesticides appeared to be less impacted by the acute pulsed exposure of pesticide. These changes were consistent with the acquisition of induced tolerance to diuron since only after the third pulse that periphyton from chronic channel became tolerant to diuron. Our experimental study indicates that the effects of pulsed acute exposures to pesticides on

  6. Effects of asphalt fume condensate exposure on acute pulmonary responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.Y.C.; Barger, M.W.; Castranova, V. [Health Effects Lab. Div., National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kriech, A.J. [Heritage Research Group, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the effects of in vitro exposure to paving asphalt fume condensate (AFC) on alveolar macrophage (AM) functions and to monitor acute pulmonary responses to in vivo AFC exposure in rats. Methods: For in vitro studies, rat primary AM cultures were incubated with various concentrations of AFC for 24 h at 37 C. AM-conditioned medium was collected and assayed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a marker of cytotoxicity. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) production were assayed in AM-conditioned medium to monitor AM function. The effect of AFC on chemiluminescence (CL) generated by resting AM or AM in response to zymosan or PMA stimulation was also determined as a marker of AM activity. For in vivo studies, rats received either (1) a single intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline, or 0.1 mg or 0.5 mg AFC and were killed 1 or 3 days later; or (2) IT instillation of saline, or 0.1, 0.5, or 2 mg AFC for three consecutive days and were killed the following day. Differential counts of cells harvested by bronchoalveolar lavage were measured to monitor inflammation. Acellular LDH and protein content in the first lavage fluid were measured to monitor damage. CL generation, TNF-{alpha} and IL-1 production by AM were assayed to monitor AM function. Results: In vitro AFC exposure at <200 {mu}g/ml did not induce cytotoxicity, oxidant generation, or IL-1 production by AM, but it did cause a small but significant increase in TNF-{alpha} release from AM. In vitro exposure of AM to AFC resulted in a significant decline of CL in response to zymosan or PMA stimulation. The in vivo studies showed that AFC exposure did not induce significant neutrophil infiltration or alter LDH or protein content in acellular lavage samples. Macrophages obtained from AFC-exposed rats did not show significant differences in oxidant production or cytokine secretion at rest or in response to LPS in comparison with control

  7. γδ T cells are required for pulmonary IL-17A expression after ozone exposure in mice: role of TNFα.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel A Mathews

    Full Text Available Ozone is an air pollutant that causes pulmonary symptoms. In mice, ozone exposure causes pulmonary injury and increases bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages and neutrophils. We have shown that IL-17A is important in the recruitment of neutrophils after subacute ozone exposure (0.3 ppm for 24-72 h. We hypothesized that γδ T cells are the main producers of IL-17A after subacute ozone. To explore this hypothesis we exposed wildtype mice and mice deficient in γδ T cells (TCRδ-/- to ozone or room air. Ozone-induced increases in BAL macrophages and neutrophils were attenuated in TCRδ-/- mice. Ozone increased the number of γδ T cells in the lungs and increased pulmonary Il17a mRNA expression and the number of IL-17A+ CD45+ cells in the lungs and these effects were abolished in TCRδ-/- mice. Ozone-induced increases in factors downstream of IL-17A signaling, including G-CSF, IL-6, IP-10 and KC were also decreased in TCRδ-/- versus wildtype mice. Neutralization of IL-17A during ozone exposure in wildtype mice mimicked the effects of γδ T cell deficiency. TNFR2 deficiency and etanercept, a TNFα antagonist, also reduced ozone-induced increases in Il17a mRNA, IL-17A+ CD45+ cells and BAL G-CSF as well as BAL neutrophils. TNFR2 deficient mice also had decreased ozone-induced increases in Ccl20, a chemoattractant for IL-17A+ γδ T cells. Il17a mRNA and IL-17A+ γδ T cells were also lower in obese Cpefat versus lean WT mice exposed to subacute ozone, consistent with the reduced neutrophil recruitment observed in the obese mice. Taken together, our data indicate that pulmonary inflammation induced by subacute ozone requires γδ T cells and TNFα-dependent recruitment of IL-17A+ γδ T cells to the lung.

  8. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  9. Acute neurological symptoms during hypobaric exposure: consider cerebral air embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weenink, Robert P; Hollmann, Markus W; van Hulst, Robert A

    2012-11-01

    Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is well known as a complication of invasive medical procedures and as a risk in diving and submarine escape. In the underwater environment, CAGE is caused by trapped air, which expands and leads to lung vessel rupture when ambient pressure decreases during ascent. Pressure decrease also occurs during hypobaric activities such as flying and, therefore, CAGE may theoretically be a risk in hypobaric exposure. We reviewed the available literature on this subject. Identified were 12 cases of CAGE due to hypobaric exposure. Based on these cases, we discuss pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CAGE due to hypobaric exposure. The low and slow pressure decrease during most hypobaric activities (as opposed to diving) account for the low incidence of CAGE during these exposures and suggest that severe air trapping must be present to cause barotrauma. This is also suggested by the large prevalence of air filled cysts in the case reports reviewed. We recommend considering CAGE in all patients presenting with acute central neurological injury during or shortly after pressure decrease such as flying. A CT scan of head and chest should be performed in these patients. Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be initiated as soon as possible in cases of proven or probable CAGE.

  10. Acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, M.L.; Lemen, R.J.; Quan, S.F.; Sobonya, R.E.; Roseberry, H.; Stevenson, J.L.; Clayton, J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors measured lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA) as an index of alveolar epithelial permeability in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighteen rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 equal-size groups: control, all smoke exposure (ASE), and limited smoke exposure (LSE). Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 20-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biologic half-life (T 1 / 2 ). Mean T 1 / 2 minimum was significantly lower for ASE and LSE rabbits than by control rabbits. They observed a significant difference at 20 and 30 breath exposures between the control and ASE group mean values for T 1 / 2 , arterial blood pressure, and peak airway pressure. A combination of light and electron microscopy showed focal alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the ASE and LSE groups but no alveolar-capillary membrane damage. In summary, acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability as measured by /sup 99m/TcDTPA clearance, but there was no detectable ultrastructural alteration of the alveolar-capillary membrane

  11. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomarkers of oxidative stress study V: ozone exposure of rats and its effect on lipids, proteins, and DNA in plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiiska, Maria B; Basu, Samar; Brot, Nathan; Cooper, Christopher; Saari Csallany, A; Davies, Michael J; George, Magdalene M; Murray, Dennis M; Jackson Roberts, L; Shigenaga, Mark K; Sohal, Rajindar S; Stocker, Roland; Van Thiel, David H; Wiswedel, Ingrid; Hatch, Gary E; Mason, Ronald P

    2013-08-01

    Ozone exposure effect on free radical-catalyzed oxidation products of lipids, proteins, and DNA in the plasma and urine of rats was studied as a continuation of the international Biomarker of Oxidative Stress Study (BOSS) sponsored by NIEHS/NIH. The goal was to identify a biomarker for ozone-induced oxidative stress and to assess whether inconsistent results often reported in the literature might be due to the limitations of the available methods for measuring the various types of oxidative products. The time- and dose-dependent effects of ozone exposure on rat plasma lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, F2-isoprostanes, protein carbonyls, methionine oxidation, and tyrosine- and phenylalanine oxidation products, as well as urinary malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostanes were investigated with various techniques. The criterion used to recognize a marker in the model of ozone exposure was that a significant effect could be identified and measured in a biological fluid seen at both doses at more than one time point. No statistically significant differences between the experimental and the control groups at either ozone dose and time point studied could be identified in this study. Tissue samples were not included. Despite all the work accomplished in the BOSS study of ozone, no available product of oxidation in biological fluid has yet met the required criteria of being a biomarker. The current negative findings as a consequence of ozone exposure are of great importance, because they document that in complex systems, as the present in vivo experiment, the assays used may not provide meaningful data of ozone oxidation, especially in human studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Quantification of ozone exposure- and stomatal uptake-yield response relationships for soybean in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Feng, Zhaozhong; Wang, Xiaoke; Liu, Xiaobing; Hu, Enzhu

    2017-12-01

    High ground-level O 3 is a new threat to agricultural production in Northeast China with the increasing ambient O 3 concentration. Little is known about its impacts on soybean production in this key agricultural region. Accumulated O 3 exposure-response and stomatal O 3 flux-response relationships were developed during two continuous growing seasons to evaluate O 3 -induced yield reduction of four typical soybean cultivars in Northeast China. Results showed that critical levels of AOT40 (accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40nmol·mol -1 ), SUM06 (sum of all hourly average O 3 concentrations over 0.06μmol·mol -1 ) and W126 (sum of O 3 concentrations weighted by a sigmoidal function) in relation to 5% reduction in relative seed yield were 4.2, 7.6 and 6.8μmol·mol -1 ·h, respectively. The effect of O 3 on plants was influenced by leaf position in canopy. An improved Jarvis stomatal conductance model including leaf (node) position fitted well with field measurements. The best linear relationship between stomatal O 3 flux and relative soybean yield was obtained when phytotoxic ozone dose was integrated over a threshold of 9.6nmol·m -2 ·s -1 (POD 9.6 ) to represent the detoxification capacity of soybean. POD 9.6 and the commonly used POD 6 in relation to 5% reduction in relative seed yield of soybean were 0.9mmol·m -2 and 1.8mmol·m -2 , respectively. O 3 concentrations above ~38nmol·mol -1 contributed to POD 9.6 and caused seed yield loss in soybean. Current annual yield loss of soybean at ambient O 3 was estimated to range between 23.4% and 30.2%. The O 3 dose-response relationships and corresponding thresholds obtained here will benefit regional O 3 risk assessment on soybean production in Northeast China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute effects of acrolein in human volunteers during controlled exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Aishwarya M; Johanson, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Johnny C; Palmberg, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Ernstgård, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde mainly formed by combustion. The critical effect is considered to be irritation of the eyes and airways; however, the scarce data available make it difficult to assess effect levels. The aim of the study was to determine thresholds for acute irritation for acrolein. Nine healthy volunteers of each sex were exposed at six occasions for 2 h at rest to: clean air, 15 ppm ethyl acetate (EA), and 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm acrolein with and without EA (15 ppm) to mask the potential influence of odor. Symptoms related to irritation and central nervous system effects were rated on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. The ratings of eye irritation were slightly but significantly increased during exposure to acrolein in a dose-dependent manner (p acrolein alone but not during any of the other five exposure conditions. Based on subjective ratings, the present study showed minor eye irritation by exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein.

  15. Influence of high carbohydrate versus high fat diet in ozone induced pulmonary injury and systemic metabolic impairment in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model of healthy aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution has been recently linked to the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. It has been postulated that dietary risk factors might exacerbate air pollution-induced metabolic impairment. We have recently reported that ozone exposure induces acute systemic ...

  16. Ozone for removal of acute toxicity from wood yard run-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenaitis, G.; Duff, S.J.B. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Environmental regulators are increasingly concerned about stormwater run-off from wood handling facilities. The authors discussed the use of ozone in the development of treatment methods to deal with toxic run-off from wood yard and dryland sorts. Two sawmills were selected, one located on the north coast of British Columbia (mill A), while mill B was located on Vancouver Island. Balsam fir, western hemlock, Sitka spruce,and western red cedar were processed at mill A, while mill B processed a wide range of species, where it is not unusual to undergo a complete change in a 24-hour period. Water samples from the run-off were obtained at the two mills, which were then kept in 20-L plastic containers stored in the dark at 4 Celsius upon receipt. Ozone was used to treat the centrifuged samples in a lab-scale reactor. Results indicated an 80-90 per cent reduction in toxicity through ozonation, a 90-95 per cent reduction for tannin and lignin (TL), and a 95-100 per cent reduction in dehydroabietic acid (DHA). Neutral solutions tended to improve slightly the toxicity and DHA removal when compared to acidic solutions. The influence of mass transfer effects, the influence of non-toxic dissolved organics, and the potential gains through the use of catalysts are still being investigated. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  18. Acute symptoms during non-inhalation exposure to combinations of toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    To study the acute effect of exposure to a mixture of three commonly used solvents in humans using a route of exposure not involving the nose and lungs, in this case a gastrointestinal application....

  19. Establishing a cause and effect relationship for ambient ozone exposure and tree growth in the forest: Progress and an experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, William J.

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written about the effects of ambient ozone on tree growth. Cause and effect has been established with seedlings in chambers. Results from multi-year studies with older tree seedlings, in open-top chambers, have been inconclusive, due to chamber effects. Extrapolation of results from chambers to trees in the forest is not possible. Predictive models for forest tree growth reductions caused by ozone have been developed, but not verified. Dendrochronological methods have been used to establish correlations between radial growth reductions in forest trees and ambient ozone exposure. The protective chemical ethylenediurea (EDU) has been used to protect tree seedlings from ozone injury. An experimental approach is advocated here that utilizes forest trees selected for sensitivity and non-sensitivity to ozone, dendrochronological methods, the protective chemical EDU, and monitoring data for ambient ozone, stomatal conductance, soil moisture potential, air temperature, PAR, etc. in long-term investigations to establish cause and effect relationships. - Progress is reviewed and an experimental approach is proposed to demonstrate a cause and effect relationship for ambient ozone and forest tree growth

  20. Seasonal differences and within-canopy variations of antioxidants in mature spruce (Picea abies) trees under elevated ozone in a free-air exposure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, Nora; Alexou, Maria; Heerdt, Christian; Loew, Markus; Werner, Herbert; Matyssek, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz; Haberer, Kristine

    2008-01-01

    The effect of free-air ozone fumigation and crown position on antioxidants were determined in old-growth spruce (Picea abies) trees in the seasonal course of two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). Levels of total ascorbate and its redox state in the apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) were increased under double ambient ozone concentrations (2 x O 3 ), whilst ascorbate concentrations in needle extracts were unchanged. Concentrations of apoplastic and symplastic ascorbate were significantly higher in 2003 compared to 2004 indicating a combined effect of the drought conditions in 2003 with enhanced ozone exposure. Elevated ozone had only weak effects on total glutathione levels in needle extracts, phloem exudates and xylem saps. Total and oxidised glutathione concentrations were higher in 2004 compared to 2003 and seemed to be more affected by enhanced ozone influx in the more humid year 2004 compared to the combined effect of elevated ozone and drought in 2003 as observed for ascorbate. - Antioxidant defence in sun and shade needles of Picea abies under free-air ozone fumigation in the seasonal course of two consecutive years

  1. Dose-response relationships of acute exposure to sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englehardt, F.R.; Holliday, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Acute toxicity effects of sulphur dioxide are reviewed, and the derivation of a dose-lethality curve (presented as LC 50 vs. time) for human exposure to sulphur dioxide is attempted for periods ranging from ten seconds to two hours. As an aid to assessment of the hazards involved in operating heavy water manufacturing facilities, the fact that sulphur dioxide would be produced by the combustion of hydrogen sulphide was briefly considered in an appendix. It is suggested that sulphuric acid, a much more toxic substance than sulphur dioxide, may also be formed in such an event. It is concluded, therefore, that an overall hazard evaluation may have to address the contributory effects of sulphuric acid. (author)

  2. Effects of long-term ambient ozone exposure on biomass and wood traits in poplar treated with ethylenediurea (EDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriero, G.; Emiliani, G.; Giovannelli, A.; Hoshika, Y.; Manning, W.J.; Traversi, M.L.; Paoletti, E.

    2015-01-01

    This is the longest continuous experiment where ethylenediurea (EDU) was used to protect plants from ozone (O 3 ). Effects of long-term ambient O 3 exposure (23 ppm h AOT40) on biomass of an O 3 sensitive poplar clone (Oxford) were examined after six years from in-ground planting. Trees were irrigated with either water or 450 ppm EDU. Above (−51%) and below-ground biomass (−47%) was reduced by O 3 although the effect was significant only for stem and coarse roots. Ambient O 3 decreased diameter of the lower stem, and increased moisture content along the stem of not-protected plants (+16%). No other change in the physical wood structure was observed. A comparison with a previous assessment in the same experiment suggested that O 3 effects on biomass partitioning to above-ground organs depend on the tree ontogenetic stage. The root/shoot ratios did not change, suggesting that previous short-term observations of reduced allocation to tree roots may be overestimated. - Highlights: • 6-y ambient O 3 exposure was investigated in a sensitive poplar clone. • EDU irrigation protected poplar against ambient O 3 exposure. • O 3 reduced biomass of roots and stem, but did not change biomass allocation. • O 3 decreased stem diameter only in the lower third of the stem. • O 3 increased moisture content of the wood along the stem. - Ozone exposure reduced lateral branching, leaves and roots in younger trees, and affected stem and roots in older trees, while shoot/root ratios did not change.

  3. Products of Ozone-initiated Chemistry during 4-hour Exposures of Human Subjects in a Simulated Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Wisthaler, Armin; Tamás, Gyöngyi

    2006-01-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to examine organic compounds in the air of a simulated aircraft cabin under four conditions: low ozone, low air exchange rate; low ozone, high air exchange rate; high ozone, low air exchange rate; high ozone, high air exchange rate....... The results showed large differences in the chemical composition of the cabin air between the low and high ozone conditions. These differences were more pronounced at the low air exchange condition....

  4. Acute exposure to air pollution triggers atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Mark S; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Schwartz, Joel; Mittleman, Murray A; Wessler, Benjamin; Gold, Diane R; Dockery, Douglas W; Laden, Francine

    2013-08-27

    This study sought to evaluate the association of air pollution with the onset of atrial fibrillation (AF). Air pollution in general and more specifically particulate matter has been associated with cardiovascular events. Although ventricular arrhythmias are traditionally thought to convey the increased cardiovascular risk, AF may also contribute. Patients with dual chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) were enrolled and followed prospectively. The association of AF onset with air quality including ambient particulate matter pollution between 2 and 48 h prior to the AF were examined. Of 176 patients followed for an average of 1.9 years, 49 patients had 328 episodes of AF lasting ≥ 30 s. Positive but nonsignificant associations were found for PM2.5 in the prior 24 h, but stronger associations were found with shorter exposure windows. The odds of AF increased by 26% (95% confidence interval: 8% to 47%) for each 6.0 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 in the 2 h prior to the event (p = 0.004). The odds of AF were highest at the upper quartile of mean PM2.5. PM was associated with increased odds of AF onset within hours following exposure in patients with known cardiac disease. Air pollution is an acute trigger of AF, likely contributing to the pollution-associated adverse cardiac outcomes observed in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: Screening for sensitization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M.; Copeland, Lisa B.; Vallanat, Beena; Boykin, Elizabeth; Ward, Marsha D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens following an acute exposure in naive individuals. Female BALB/c mice received a single intratracheal aspiration exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) or HBSS alone. Mice were terminated after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated to determine total and differential cellularity, total protein concentration and LDH activity. RNA was isolated from lung tissue for microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. MACA administration induced a rapid increase in BALF neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and total protein compared to BSA or HBSS. Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in cytokine production, signaling, inflammatory cell recruitment, adhesion and activation in 3 and 12 h MACA-treated samples compared to BSA or HBSS. Further analyses allowed identification of ∼ 100 candidate biomarker genes. Eleven genes were selected for further assessment by qRT-PCR. Of these, 6 demonstrated persistently increased expression (Ccl17, Ccl22, Ccl7, Cxcl10, Cxcl2, Saa1), while C3ar1 increased from 6-24 h. In conclusion, a single respiratory exposure of mice to an allergenic mold extract induces an inflammatory response which is distinct in phenotype and gene transcription from the response to a control protein. Further validation of these biomarkers with additional allergens and irritants is needed. These biomarkers may facilitate improvements in screening methods.

  6. Bayesian Hierarchical Distributed Lag Models for Summer Ozone Exposure and Cardio-Respiratory Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Huang; Francesca Dominici; Michelle Bell

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we develop Bayesian hierarchical distributed lag models for estimating associations between daily variations in summer ozone levels and daily variations in cardiovascular and respiratory (CVDRESP) mortality counts for 19 U.S. large cities included in the National Morbidity Mortality Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) for the period 1987 - 1994. At the first stage, we define a semi-parametric distributed lag Poisson regression model to estimate city-specific relative rates of CVDRESP ...

  7. Effect of Tin Electrode (Sn, Electrode Distance and Thin Layer Size of Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc to Resistance Changes With Ozone Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Mogi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect of tin electrode distances and the thickness of a thin layer of ZnPc (Zinc phtyalocyanine toward changes in resistance with ozone exposure. Tin deposition on the glass surface was conducted using spraying method. The reaction between ozone and ZnPc produces electrical properties that can be read through the resistance value of the multimeter. Based on this study, it was investigated that the smaller a distance between the electrode and the thicker deposition of ZnPc lead to the less resistance. This showed that a thin layer of the conductivity increases along with the longer exposure to ozone gas. The movement of electrons with the hole was free.

  8. Effects of Drought Stress and Ozone Exposure on Isoprene Emissions from Oak Seedlings in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madronich, M. B.; Harte, A.; Schade, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Isoprene is the dominant hydrocarbon emitted by plants to the atmosphere with an approximate global emission of 550 Tg C yr-1. Isoprene emission studies have elucidated plants' isoprene production capacity, and the controlling factors of instantaneous emissions. However, it is not yet well understood how long-term climatic factors such as drought and increasing ozone concentrations affect isoprene emission rates. Drought reduces photosynthetic activity and is thus expected to reduce isoprene emission rate, since isoprene production relies on photosynthates. On the other hand, ozone is also known to negatively affect photosynthesis rates, but can instead increase isoprene emissions. These apparent inconsistencies and a lack of experimental data make it difficult to accurately parameterize isoprene emission responses to changing environmental conditions. The objective of this work is to reduce some of these uncertainties, using oak seedlings as a study system. Our project focuses on isoprene emission responses of oak trees to typical summer drought and high ozone conditions in Texas. We report on experiments conducted using a laboratory whole-plant chamber and leaf-level data obtained from greenhouse-grown seedlings. The chamber experiment studied the effects of ozone and drought on isoprene emissions from >3 year old oak seedlings under controlled conditions of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature, soil-moisture and the chamber's air composition. Stress in plants was induced by manipulating potted soil-moisture and ozone concentration in the chamber. The greenhouse study focused on understanding the effects of drought under Texas climatic conditions. For this study we used two year old seedlings of water oak (Quercus nigra) and post oak (Quercus stellata). Temperature, humidity and light in the greenhouse followed local conditions. Leaf-level conductance, photosynthesis measurements and isoprene sampling were carried out under controlled leaf

  9. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  10. Health Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live.

  11. Short-term respiratory effects of 0. 12 ppm ozone exposure in volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, W.S.; Fischer, D.A.; Medway, D.A.; Anzar, U.T.; Spier, C.E.; Valencia, L.M.; Venet, T.G.; Hackney, J.D.

    1982-06-01

    Twenty-five volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of mild to moderately severe degree underwent 1-h exposures to 0.12 ppm ozone (O/sub 2/) in purified air with intermittent mild exercise. Their responses were assessed in terms of forced expiratory performance, ear oximetry, and reported symptoms. Control studied consisted of similar exposures to purified air alone. Control studies were separated from O/sub 2/ exposures by 1 month, and the order was randomized. All studies took place in a controlled-environment chamber, and were preceded by approximately 1 h of rest in a purified-air environment. No significant disturbances in forced expiratory performance or symptoms attributable to O/sub 2/ exposure were found. A slight but significant tendency to decreased arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO/sub 2/) during exercise in O/sub 2/ was observed. The decrement in SaO/sub 2/ with O/sub 2/ relative to clean air (mean 1.3%) was near the limit of resolution of the ear oximeter test and was detected by signal averaging, thus its physiologic or clinical significance is uncertain.

  12. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scebba, Francesca [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Canaccini, Francesca [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Castagna, Antonella [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bender, Juergen [Institute of Agroecology, FAL, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Weigel, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Agroecology, FAL, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Ranieri, Annamaria [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: aranieri@agr.unipi.it

    2006-08-15

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l{sup -1} O{sub 3} (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l{sup -1} O{sub 3}. Significant O{sub 3} effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O{sub 3} induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O{sub 3}-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O{sub 3} depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O{sub 3} when in mixture with Achillea. - The competition between species modulates the ozone effect in a short-term.

  13. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scebba, Francesca; Canaccini, Francesca; Castagna, Antonella; Bender, Juergen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2006-01-01

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l -1 O 3 (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l -1 O 3 . Significant O 3 effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O 3 induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O 3 -induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O 3 depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O 3 when in mixture with Achillea. - The competition between species modulates the ozone effect in a short-term

  14. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R.

    1993-01-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min)

  15. Photochemical oxidants injury in rice plants. III. Effect of ozone on physiological activities in rice plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H; Saka, H

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were made to determine the effect of photochemical oxidants on physiological activities of rice plants. Rice plants were fumigated with ozone at concentrations of 0.12-0.20 ppm for 2-3 hr to investigate acute injury and at 0.05 and 0.09 ppm for daily exposure from 3.0 leaf stage to assess the effect of ozone on growth. It was observed that malondialdehyde produced by disruption of the components of the membrane increased in the leaves exposed to ozone. Ozone reduced the RuBP-carboxylase activity in both young and old leaves 12-24 hr after fumigation. In the young leaves the activity of this enzyme recovered to some extent after 48 hr, but it did not show any recovery in the old leaves. On the other hand, ozone remarkably increased the peroxidase activity and slightly increased acid phosphatase in all leaves. Abnormally high ethylene evolution and oxygen uptake were detected in leaves soon after ozone fumigation. In general, high molecular protein and chlorophyll contents in the detached leaves decreased with incubation in dark, particularly in the old ones. These phenomena were more accelerated by ozone fumigation. Kinetin and benzimidazole showed significant effects on chlorophyll retention in ozone-exposed leaves. Reduction of plant growth and photosynthetic rate was recognized even in low concentration of ozone in daily exposure at 0.05 and 0.09 ppm. From these results it was postulated that ozone may cause the senescence of leaves in rice plants.

  16. Residual insufficiency of hematopoiesis after acute or chronic exposure to gamma radiation or neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangenheim, K.H. v.; Peterson, H.P.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of the stem cell quality is possible after acute exposure to 500 rad γ radiation up to a period of 6 months. Beyond this data, a significant residual damage remains. The same applies to quantitative stem cell recovery. Chronic γ exposure leads to less radiation damage than acute exposure. After a total accumulation of 500 rad, the proliferation factors after chronic exposure were, on an average 20% higher than after acute radiation exposure. 6 MeV neutron exposure reduced the stem cell quality and stem cell count much more efficiently than γ exposure. The relative biological effect of neutrons is at least 2.5 times as high as the γ effect, both for the stem cell count and the stem cell quality. (orig.) [de

  17. Association of short-term exposure to ground-level ozone and respiratory outpatient clinic visits in a rural location – Sublette County, Wyoming, 2008–2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pride, Kerry R., E-mail: hgp3@cdc.gov [Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Peel, Jennifer L. [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Robinson, Byron F. [Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Busacker, Ashley [Field Support Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Grandpre, Joseph [Chronic Disease Epidemiologist, Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Bisgard, Kristine M. [Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 600 Clifton Road, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Yip, Fuyuen Y. [Air Pollution and Respiratory Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 600 Clifton Rd, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Murphy, Tracy D. [Wyoming Department of Health, 101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Objective: Short-term exposure to ground-level ozone has been linked to adverse respiratory and other health effects; previous studies typically have focused on summer ground-level ozone in urban areas. During 2008–2011, Sublette County, Wyoming (population: ~10,000 persons), experienced periods of elevated ground-level ozone concentrations during the winter. This study sought to evaluate the association of daily ground-level ozone concentrations and health clinic visits for respiratory disease in this rural county. Methods: Clinic visits for respiratory disease were ascertained from electronic billing records of the two clinics in Sublette County for January 1, 2008–December 31, 2011. A time-stratified case-crossover design, adjusted for temperature and humidity, was used to investigate associations between ground-level ozone concentrations measured at one station and clinic visits for a respiratory health concern by using an unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days and single-day lags of 0 day, 1 day, 2 days, and 3 days. Results: The data set included 12,742 case-days and 43,285 selected control-days. The mean ground-level ozone observed was 47±8 ppb. The unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days was consistent with a null association (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.001; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.990–1.012); results for lags 0, 2, and 3 days were consistent with the null. However, the results for lag 1 were indicative of a positive association; for every 10-ppb increase in the 8-h maximum average ground-level ozone, a 3.0% increase in respiratory clinic visits the following day was observed (aOR: 1.031; 95% CI: 0.994–1.069). Season modified the adverse respiratory effects: ground-level ozone was significantly associated with respiratory clinic visits during the winter months. The patterns of results from all sensitivity analyzes were consistent with the a priori model. Conclusions: The results demonstrate an association of increasing ground

  18. Association of short-term exposure to ground-level ozone and respiratory outpatient clinic visits in a rural location – Sublette County, Wyoming, 2008–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pride, Kerry R.; Peel, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Byron F.; Busacker, Ashley; Grandpre, Joseph; Bisgard, Kristine M.; Yip, Fuyuen Y.; Murphy, Tracy D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Short-term exposure to ground-level ozone has been linked to adverse respiratory and other health effects; previous studies typically have focused on summer ground-level ozone in urban areas. During 2008–2011, Sublette County, Wyoming (population: ~10,000 persons), experienced periods of elevated ground-level ozone concentrations during the winter. This study sought to evaluate the association of daily ground-level ozone concentrations and health clinic visits for respiratory disease in this rural county. Methods: Clinic visits for respiratory disease were ascertained from electronic billing records of the two clinics in Sublette County for January 1, 2008–December 31, 2011. A time-stratified case-crossover design, adjusted for temperature and humidity, was used to investigate associations between ground-level ozone concentrations measured at one station and clinic visits for a respiratory health concern by using an unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days and single-day lags of 0 day, 1 day, 2 days, and 3 days. Results: The data set included 12,742 case-days and 43,285 selected control-days. The mean ground-level ozone observed was 47±8 ppb. The unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days was consistent with a null association (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.001; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.990–1.012); results for lags 0, 2, and 3 days were consistent with the null. However, the results for lag 1 were indicative of a positive association; for every 10-ppb increase in the 8-h maximum average ground-level ozone, a 3.0% increase in respiratory clinic visits the following day was observed (aOR: 1.031; 95% CI: 0.994–1.069). Season modified the adverse respiratory effects: ground-level ozone was significantly associated with respiratory clinic visits during the winter months. The patterns of results from all sensitivity analyzes were consistent with the a priori model. Conclusions: The results demonstrate an association of increasing ground

  19. Injury to skeletal muscle of mice following acute and sub-acute pregabalin exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moshiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pregabalin (PGB is a new antiepileptic drug that has received FDA approval for patient who suffers from central neuropathic pain, partial seizures, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and sleep disorders. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible adverse effects of PGB on the muscular system of mice. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of PGB on skeletal muscle, the animals were exposed to a single dose of 1, 2 or 5 g /kg or daily doses of 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg for 21 days, intraperitoneally (IP. Twaenty-four hr after the last drug administration, all animals were sacrificed. The level of fast-twitch skeletal muscle troponin I and CK-MM activity were evaluated in blood as an indicator of muscle injury. Skeletal muscle pathological findings were also reported as scores ranging from 1 to 3 based on the observed lesion. Results: In the acute and sub-acute toxicity assay IP injection of PGB significantly increased the activity and levels of CK-MM and fsTnI compared to the control group. Sub-acute exposure to PGB caused damages that include muscle atrophy, infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. Conclusion: PGB administration especially in long term care causes muscle atrophy with infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. The fsTnI and CK-MM are reliable markers in PGB-related muscle injury. The exact mechanisms behind the muscular damage are unclear and necessitate further investigations.

  20. Ozone exposure alters temporal fluctuations of 14C-labeled assimilate pools in leaves of Pinus taeda L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friend, A.L.; Tomlinson, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of O 3 on uptake and distribution of 14 C within current-year foliage of 3-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings were studied using open-top exposure chambers that delivered ozone at three concentrations: sub-ambient O 3 [charcoal-filtered air (CF)]; ambient O 3 (AMB); and twice-ambient O 3 (2X). Seedlings were exposed to O 3 from May to Oct. of 1987, 1988, and 1989. In July, Aug., and Sept. 1989, individual foliage fascicles were labeled with 14 CO 2 ; harvested at 0, 0.5, 4, 24, and 48h after labeling; and analyzed for 14 C in lipids and pigments, protein, starch, residue, sugars, organic acids, and amino acids. O 3 affected initial (0 h) incorporation of 14 C into different chemical fractions, and the relative distribution of 14 C among fractions at specific points in time. Starch dynamics were particularly responsive to and negatively affected by O 3 . In 2X treatments, only 39-46% of the initial (0 h) 14 C incorporated into starch remained after 48h, compared with a range of 56-90% remaining in CF treatments. The percentage of 14 C in the starch fraction after 48 h decreased by nearly three-fold in August from CF to 2X treatments [%total 14 C in starch: 31% (CF), 17% (AMB), and 11% (2X)]. The authors data indicated that foliar starch synthesis and/or retention was depressed by ozone exposure during late-season months, and supported the concept that O 3 decreases growth by depleting carbohydrate reserves. Other findings will be discussed

  1. Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in setting acute exposure guideline levels for methylene chloride.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Peter Martinus Jozef; Zeilmaker, Marco Jacob; Eijkeren, Jan Cornelis Henri van

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) are derived to protect the human population from adverse health effects in case of single exposure due to an accidental release of chemicals into the atmosphere. AEGLs are set at three different levels of increasing toxicity for exposure durations ranging from

  2. Ozone exposure- and flux-based response relationships with photosynthesis of winter wheat under fully open air condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Calatayud, Vicent; Zhu, Jianguo; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2018-04-01

    Five winter wheat cultivars were exposed to ambient (A-O 3 ) and elevated (E-O 3 , 1.5 ambient) O 3 in a fully open-air fumigation system in China. Ozone exposure- and flux based response relationships were established for seven physiological variables related to photosynthesis. The performance of the fitting of the regressions in terms of R 2 increased when second order regressions instead of first order ones were used, suggesting that effects of O 3 were more pronounced towards the last developmental stages of the wheat. The more robust indicators were those related with CO 2 assimilation, Rubisco activity and RuBP regeneration capacity (A sat , J max and Vc max ), and chlorophyll content (Chl). Flux-based metrics (POD y , Phytotoxic O 3 Dose over a threshold ynmolO 3 m -2 s -1 ) predicted slightly better the responses to O 3 than exposure metrics (AOTX, Accumulated O 3 exposure over an hourly Threshold of X ppb) for most of the variables. The best performance was observed for metrics POD 1 ( A sat , J max and Vc max ) and POD 3 (Chl). For this crop, the proposed response functions could be used for O 3 risk assessment based on physiological effects and also to include the influence of O 3 on yield or other variables in models with a photosynthetic component. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Short-term UV-B radiation and ozone exposure effects on aromatic secondary metabolite accumulation and shoot growth of flavonoid-deficient Arabidopsis mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormrod, D.P.; Landry, L.G.; Conklin, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    The presence of UV-absorptive substances in the epidermal cells of leaves is thought to protect mesophyll tissues from the harmful effects of UV-B radiation. We examined the influence of short-term UV-B exposures on UV-absorptive (330 nm) sinapates and flavonols, and on shoot growth of the Arabidopsis wild type ecotype Landsberg erecta and two mutants. 114 deficient in chalcone synthase, and 115, deficient in chalcone/flavonone isomerase. Sequential ozone exposures were used to determine the effects of oxidative stress The levels of sinapates and flavonols on a leaf fresh weight basis increased substantially in the wild type and sinapates increased in the 114 mutant in vegetative vegetative/reproductive transitional and reproductive stage plants in response to short-term (48h) UV-B radiation. When UV-B was discontinued the levels generally decreased lo pre-exposure levels after 48 h in vegetative/reproductive but not in reproductive plants. Exposure to ozone before or alter UV-B treatment did not consistently affect the levels of these UV-absorptive compounds. Dry matter accumulation was less affected by UV-B at the vegetative and reproductive stages than at the vegetative/reproductive stage. At the vegetative/reproductive stage, shoot growth of all 3 genotypes was retarded by UV-B. Growth was not retarded by short-term ozone exposure alone but when exposure to ozone followed UV-B exposure, growth was reduced in all genotypes. Leaf cupping appeared on 115 plants exposed to UV-B

  4. Neurobehavioral development of CD-1 mice after combined gestational and postnatal exposure to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell` Omo, G [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Fiore, M [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Petruzzi, S [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Alleva, E [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bignami, G [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    Outbred CD-1 mice were exposed continuously to ozone (O{sub 3}, 0.6 ppm) from 6 days prior to the formation of breeding pairs to the time of weaning of the offspring on postnatal day 22 (PND 22) or to PND 26. One half of the mice in each of eight O{sub 3} and eight control litters were subjected on PND 24 to a 20-min open-field test after IP treatment by either saline or scopolamine (2 mg/kg). The remaining mice (those exposed until PND 26) were subjected on PNDs 28-31 to a conditioned place preference (CPP) test, using a short schedule with a single IP injection on PND 29 of either d-amphetamine (3.3 mg/kg) or saline. Subsequently, the saline mice of the open-field experiment were used on PND 59 for an activity test in one of the CPP apparatus compartments after IP treatment by either d-amphetamine (same dose) or saline. In addition, the saline mice of the CPP experiment underwent a multitrial, step-through passive avoidance (PA) acquisition test on PND 59 or 60, followed 24 h later by a single-trial retention test. In the absence of effects on reproductive performance (proportion of successful pregnancies, litter size, offspring viability, and sex ratio), O{sub 3} offspring showed a long-lasting reduction in body weight without modification of sec differences. Ozone effects on neurobehavioral development were not large and quite selective, including: attenuation of the sex differences in several responses (rearing and sniffing in the open-field, activity in the final CPP test session); a change in response choices in the final CPP test, in the absence of a main effect on conditioning; a reduction of grooming in the activity test on PND 29; and impairment of PA acquisition limited to the initial period of training. (orig.)

  5. Neurobehavioral development of CD-1 mice after combined gestational and postnatal exposure to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Omo, G; Fiore, M; Petruzzi, S; Alleva, E; Bignami, G

    1995-01-01

    Outbred CD-1 mice were exposed continuously to ozone (O3, 0.6 ppm) from 6 days prior to the formation of breeding pairs to the time of weaning of the offspring on postnatal day 22 (PND 22) or to PND 26. One half of the mice in each of eight O3 and eight control litters were subjected on PND 24 to a 20-min open-field test after IP treatment by either saline or scopolamine (2 mg/kg). The remaining mice (those exposed until PND 26) were subjected on PNDs 28-31 to a conditioned place preference (CPP) test, using a short schedule with a single IP injection on PND 29 of either d-amphetamine (3.3 mg/kg) or saline. Subsequently, the saline mice of the open-field experiment were used on PND 59 for an activity test in one of the CPP apparatus compartments after IP treatment by either d-amphetamine (same dose) or saline. In addition, the saline mice of the CPP experiment underwent a multi-trial, step-through passive avoidance (PA) acquisition test on PND 59 or 60, followed 24 h later by a single-trial retention test. In the absence of effects on reproductive performance (proportion of successful pregnancies, litter size, offspring viability, and sex ratio), O3 offspring showed a long-lasting reduction in body weight without modification of sex differences. Ozone effects on neurobehavioral development were not large and quite selective, including: attenuation of the sex differences in several responses (rearing and sniffing in the open-field, activity in the final CPP test session); a change in response choices in the final CPP test, in the absence of a main effect on conditioning; a reduction of grooming in the activity test on PND 29; and impairment of PA acquisition limited to the initial period of training.

  6. Effect of ultrasonic and ozone pre-treatments on pharmaceutical waste activated sludge's solubilisation, reduction, anaerobic biodegradability and acute biological toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jin; Yao, Hong; Wang, Hui; Shan, Dan; Jiang, Yichen; Ma, Lanqianya; Yu, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonic and ozone pre-treatment technologies were employed in this study to improve the anaerobic digestion efficiency of pharmaceutical waste activated sludge. The sludge solubilisation achieved 30.01% (150,000 kJ/kg TS) and 28.10% (0.1g O3/g TS) after ultrasonic treatment and ozone treatment. The anaerobic biodegradability after ultrasonic treatment was higher compared to ozonation due to the higher cumulative methane volume observed after 6 days (249 ml vs 190 ml). The ozonated sludge released the highest concentration of Cu(2+) into the liquid phase (6.640 mg L(-1)) compared to 0.530 mg/L for untreated sludge and 0.991 mg/L for sonicated sludge. The acute toxicity test measured by luminescent bacteria showed that anaerobic digestion could degrade toxic compounds and result in a reduction in toxicity. The main mechanism of action led to some differences in the treated sludge exhibiting higher potential for methane production from pharmaceutical waste sludge with ultrasonic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Low Ozone Concentrations and Short Exposure Times on the Mortality of Immature Stages of the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia Interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivanloo Ensieh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Iran, the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, is one of the most important pests of such stored products as date fruits and pistachio nuts. Ozone was applied as a gas at four concentrations (0, 2, 3, and 5 ppm for four different periods (30, 60, 90, and 120 min on the immature stages of P. interpunctella. The results indicated that by increasing the concentration and exposure time, the rate of mortality increased for all tested stages. This study showed that 12-day-old larvae were more susceptible than other stages when exposed to 5 ppm ozone for 120 min. The next in order of susceptibility were pupae, then 5-day-old larvae, and 17-dayold larvae had the highest sensitivity to ozonation. At the highest concentration of ozone, for the longest time, the least mortality rate was recorded for one-day-old eggs. According to the results, a reduction in the population density of P. interpunctella in laboratory experiments is promising. However, validation studies will be necessary to fully determine the potential of ozone as a replacement for the current post harvest chemical control of P. interpunctella on either pistachio nuts or date fruits.

  8. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  9. Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).......To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)....

  10. Exposure to Acute Stress Enhances Decision-Making Competence: Evidence for the Role of DHEA

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Grant S.; Lam, Jovian C. W.; Trainor, Brian C.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations b...

  11. 75 FR 14153 - National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ..., the various aspects of the acute toxicity and the development of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels... request. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Mark Hopkins Inter- Continental Hotel, Number One Nob... Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number of the EPA/DC Public Reading Room is (202) 566...

  12. Human Exposure to Dynamic Air Pollutants: Ozone in Airplanes and Ultrafine Particles in Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    original source of my love of learning. All her grandchildren have had to tolerate, at least temporarily, being ignored while she was immersed in a book ...Indoor Air 17, 372-383. Klepeis NE, Nazaroff WW, 2006a. Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4393...4407. Klepeis NE, Nazaroff WW, 2006b. Mitigating residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4408-4422. 84

  13. Growth of Chironomus dilutus larvae exposed to ozone-treated and untreated oil sands process water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.; Wiseman, S.; Franz, E.; Jones, P.; Liber, K.; Giesy, J.; Gamal El-Din, M.; Marin, J.

    2010-01-01

    Oil sand processing operations require large quantities of freshwater and produce large volumes of oil sands process water (OSPW) which must be stored on-site. This presentation reviewed various treatment methods for remediating OSPW in order to eliminate downstream toxicity. Naphthenic acids are the most important target fractions for treatment because they are primarily responsible for the acute toxicity of OSPW. Although ozonation has shown promise for reducing OSPW toxicity, the effects of ozonation on aquatic invertebrates remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of exposure to untreated and ozonated OSPW in Chironomus dilutus larvae. OSPW was treated with either a 50 or 80 mg O 3 /L dose of ozonation. The effects of ozonation levels on C. dilutus survival and growth were examined. The study showed that after a 10-day exposure, there were pronounced effects on survival of larvae exposed to ozone-treated or untreated OSPW. Larvae exposed to OSPW were 64-77 percent smaller than their respective controls, but the mean wet mass of organisms exposed to 50 mg O 3 /L ozonated OSPW was not much different from that of the controls. Larvae exposed to 80 mg O 3 /L ozone-treated OSPW were 40 percent smaller than the freshwater controls, and the mean wet mass was also much larger than the untreated OSPW. It was concluded that the toxicity of OSPW to benthic invertebrates may be reduced by ozone treatment.

  14. Using air quality modeling to study source-receptor relationships between nitrogen oxides emissions and ozone exposures over the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Daniel Q; Muller, Nicholas Z; Kan, Haidong; Mendelsohn, Robert O

    2009-11-01

    Human exposure to ambient ozone (O(3)) has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects. The ozone level at a location is contributed by local production, regional transport, and background ozone. This study combines detailed emission inventory, air quality modeling, and census data to investigate the source-receptor relationships between nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions and population exposure to ambient O(3) in 48 states over the continental United States. By removing NO(x) emissions from each state one at a time, we calculate the change in O(3) exposures by examining the difference between the base and the sensitivity simulations. Based on the 49 simulations, we construct state-level and census region-level source-receptor matrices describing the relationships among these states/regions. We find that, for 43 receptor states, cumulative NO(x) emissions from upwind states contribute more to O(3) exposures than the state's own emissions. In-state emissions are responsible for less than 15% of O(3) exposures in 90% of U.S. states. A state's NO(x) emissions can influence 2 to 40 downwind states by at least a 0.1 ppbv change in population-averaged O(3) exposure. The results suggest that the U.S. generally needs a regional strategy to effectively reduce O(3) exposures. But the current regional emission control program in the U.S. is a cap-and-trade program that assumes the marginal damage of every ton of NO(x) is equal. In this study, the average O(3) exposures caused by one ton of NO(x) emissions ranges from -2.0 to 2.3 ppm-people-hours depending on the state. The actual damage caused by one ton of NO(x) emissions varies considerably over space.

  15. Calcium-dependent behavioural responses to acute copper exposure in Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S.B.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Aarestrup, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Using rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, the present study demonstrated that: (1) calcium (Ca) increased the range of copper (Cu) concentrations that O. mykiss avoided; (2) Ca conserved the maintenance of pre-exposure swimming activity during inescapable acute (10 min) Cu exposure. Data showed th...

  16. Standing operating procedures for developing acute exposure guideline levels for hazardous chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

    2001-01-01

    ... Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, origina...

  17. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  18. Baseline gene expression in conjunction with GSTM1 status predicts ozone exposure response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution exposure causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality and has been linked to the deaths of 7 million people every year by the World Health Organization. Approximately 40% of the population lack expression of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione S-transfer...

  19. Acute and chronic effects from pulse exposure of D. magna to silver and copper oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Rasmussen, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity testing of nanoparticles (NPs) is challenged by their dynamic behavior in test suspensions. The resulting difficulties in controlling and characterizing exposure concentrations are detrimental to the generation of concentration-response data needed for hazard identification of NPs...... is an environmentally relevant exposure scenario for NPs, which for AgNPs and CuONPs enables more stable exposures and cause acute immobility of D. magna comparable to continuous 24 h exposures. Pulse exposure is likely relevant and applicable for other toxic and dissolving metal NPs, but this requires further research....

  20. Effect of 3 years' free-air exposure to elevated ozone on mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needle epicuticular wax physicochemical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, Kevin E.; Manninen, Sirkku; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Heerdt, C.; Werner, H.; Henderson, Gary W.; Matyssek, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect of ozone (O 3 ) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) needle epicuticular wax over three seasons at the Kranzberg Ozone Fumigation Experiment. Exposure to 2x ambient O 3 ranged from 64.5 to 74.2 μl O 3 l -1 h AOT40, and 117.1 to 123.2 nl O 3 l -1 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average O 3 concentration. The proportion of current-year needle surface covered by wax tubes, tube aggregates, and plates decreased (P = 0.011) under 2x O 3 . Epistomatal chambers had increased deposits of amorphous wax. Proportion of secondary alcohols varied due to year (P = 0.004) and O 3 treatment (P = 0.029). Secondary alcohols were reduced by 9.1% under 2x O 3 . Exposure to 2x O 3 increased (P = 0.037) proportions of fatty acids by 29%. Opposing trends in secondary alcohols and fatty acids indicate a direct action of O 3 on wax biosynthesis. These results demonstrate O 3 -induced changes in biologically important needle surface characteristics of 50-year-old field-grown trees. - Free-air ozone exposure induced changes in needle wax characteristics of mature Picea abies.

  1. Effect of 3 years' free-air exposure to elevated ozone on mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needle epicuticular wax physicochemical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percy, Kevin E., E-mail: kpercy@nbnet.nb.c [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre, 1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5P7 (Canada); Manninen, Sirkku [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 56, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Heerdt, C.; Werner, H. [Ecoclimatology, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Henderson, Gary W. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre, 1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5P7 (Canada); Matyssek, Rainer [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    We examined the effect of ozone (O{sub 3}) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) needle epicuticular wax over three seasons at the Kranzberg Ozone Fumigation Experiment. Exposure to 2x ambient O{sub 3} ranged from 64.5 to 74.2 mul O{sub 3} l{sup -1} h AOT40, and 117.1 to 123.2 nl O{sub 3} l{sup -1} 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average O{sub 3} concentration. The proportion of current-year needle surface covered by wax tubes, tube aggregates, and plates decreased (P = 0.011) under 2x O{sub 3}. Epistomatal chambers had increased deposits of amorphous wax. Proportion of secondary alcohols varied due to year (P = 0.004) and O{sub 3} treatment (P = 0.029). Secondary alcohols were reduced by 9.1% under 2x O{sub 3}. Exposure to 2x O{sub 3} increased (P = 0.037) proportions of fatty acids by 29%. Opposing trends in secondary alcohols and fatty acids indicate a direct action of O{sub 3} on wax biosynthesis. These results demonstrate O{sub 3}-induced changes in biologically important needle surface characteristics of 50-year-old field-grown trees. - Free-air ozone exposure induced changes in needle wax characteristics of mature Picea abies.

  2. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scebba, Francesca; Canaccini, Francesca; Castagna, Antonella; Bender, Jürgen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2006-08-01

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l(-1) O3 (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l(-1) O3. Significant O3 effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O3 induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O3-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O3 depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O3 when in mixture with Achillea.

  3. Exposure of Norway spruce to ozone increases the sensitivity of current year needles to photoinhibition and desiccation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    1994-01-01

    decreases in net photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence (FN/FM) were found during periods with co-occurrence of high ozone concentrations And high light intensities, indicating interactions between effects of ozone and photoinhibition. After termination of fumigation enhanced rates of photosynthesis...

  4. Sensitivity of Trout to Chronic Acute Exposure to Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Nielsen, M. Gissel

    1978-01-01

    Trout were exposed to selenite (Na2SeO3) solutions of varying concentrations (0.1-100 ppm Se) for periods of up to 4 wk. A chronic exposure to 0.1 ppm Se or less is non-lethal to trout. Lethality at higher concentrations depends on the length of exposure. Trout that survive for 10 days in tap...

  5. Comparison of seasonal variations of ozone exposure and fluxes in a Mediterranean Holm oak forest between the exceptionally dry 2003 and the following year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerosa, Giacomo; Finco, Angelo; Mereu, Simone; Vitale, Marcello; Manes, Fausto; Denti, Antonio Ballarin

    2009-01-01

    Ozone and energy fluxes have been measured using the eddy covariance technique, from June to December 2004 in Castelporziano near Rome (Italy), and compared to similar measurements made in the previous year. The studied ecosystem consisted in a typical Mediterranean Holm oak forest. Stomatal fluxes have been calculated using the resistance analogy and by inverting the Penmann-Monteith equation. Results showed that the average stomatal contribution accounts for 42.6% of the total fluxes. Non-stomatal deposition proved to be enhanced by increasing leaf wetness and air humidity during the autumnal months. From a comparison of the two years, it can be inferred that water supply is the most important limiting factor for ozone uptake and that prolonged droughts alter significantly the stomatal conductance, even 2 months after the soil water content is replenished. Ozone exposure, expressed as AOT40, behaves similarly to the cumulated stomatal flux in dry conditions whereas a different behaviour for the two indices appears in wet autumnal conditions. A difference also occurs between the two years. - Ozone fluxes to a Holm oak coastal forest show inter-annual variations depending on meteorological conditions and water availability.

  6. Pulmonary CT findings in acute mercury vapour exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Sato, Kimihiko; Heianna, Jyouiti; Hirano, Yoshinori; Omachi, Kohiti; Izumi, Jyunichi; Watarai, Jiro

    2001-01-01

    AIM: We describe the pulmonary computed tomography (CT) findings in acute mercury poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initial (n= 8) and follow-up (n= 6) chest CT examinations in eight patients exposed to mercury vapour while cutting pipes in a sulphuric acid plant were reviewed. Of the eight patients, two were asymptomatic and had normal CT results, two were asymptomatic but had abnormalities on CT, and four had both acute symptoms and positive CT results. The patients were all men whose ages ranged from 37 to 54 years (mean, 49 years). RESULTS: Poorly defined nodules were present in five of six patients with positive CT findings, present alone in two patients or as part of a mixed pattern in three. They were random in distribution. Alveolar consolidation (n= 3) and areas of ground-glass opacity (n= 4) were observed and were more prominent in the most severely affected patients with the highest blood and urine level of mercury, predominantly in the upper and/or middle zone. These abnormal findings on CT resolved with (n= 1) or without (n= 5) steroid therapy. Pathological findings (n= 1) demonstrated acute interstitial changes predominantly with oedema. CONCLUSION: We report CT findings in eight patients acutely exposed to mercury vapour. The pulmonary injury was reversible on CT in these cases. Hashimoto, M. (2001)

  7. An assessment of the acute dietary exposure to glyphosate using deterministic and probabilistic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, C L; Harris, C A; Clarke, R

    2018-02-01

    Use of glyphosate in crop production can lead to residues of the active substance and related metabolites in food. Glyphosate has never been considered acutely toxic; however, in 2015 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) proposed an acute reference dose (ARfD). This differs from the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) who in 2016, in line with their existing position, concluded that an ARfD was not necessary for glyphosate. This paper makes a comprehensive assessment of short-term dietary exposure to glyphosate from potentially treated crops grown in the EU and imported third-country food sources. European Union and global deterministic models were used to make estimates of short-term dietary exposure (generally defined as up to 24 h). Estimates were refined using food-processing information, residues monitoring data, national dietary exposure models, and basic probabilistic approaches to estimating dietary exposure. Calculated exposures levels were compared to the ARfD, considered to be the amount of a substance that can be consumed in a single meal, or 24-h period, without appreciable health risk. Acute dietary intakes were Probabilistic exposure estimates showed that the acute intake on no person-days exceeded 10% of the ARfD, even for the pessimistic scenario.

  8. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Kathi A.; Frame, Elizabeth R.; Gulland, Frances; Hansen, John D.; Kendrick, Preston S.; Beyer, Richard P.; Bammler, Theo K.; Farin, Frederico M.; Hiolski, Emma M.; Smith, Donald R.; Marcinek, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA), is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  9. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Kathi A; Frame, Elizabeth R; Gulland, Frances; Hansen, John D; Kendrick, Preston S; Beyer, Richard P; Bammler, Theo K; Farin, Frederico M; Hiolski, Emma M; Smith, Donald R; Marcinek, David J

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA), is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  10. Maternal exposure to ozone and PM{sub 2.5} and the prevalence of orofacial clefts in four U.S. states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ying, E-mail: yzhou2@cdc.gov [Environmental Health Tracking Branch, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gilboa, Suzanne M. [Birth Defects Branch, Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Herdt, Michele L. [New York State Department of Health, Center for Environmental Health, Albany, NY (United States); State University of New York at Albany, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Rensselaer, NY (United States); Lupo, Philip J. [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Flanders, W. Dana [Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Liu, Yang [Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shin, Mikyong [Environmental Health Tracking Branch, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Canfield, Mark A. [Birth Defects Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, Texas Department of State Health Services, Austin, TX (United States); Kirby, Russell S. [Department of Community and Family Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Background: While there is some evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with orofacial clefts in offspring, the epidemiologic studies have been largely equivocal. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to elevated county-level ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of orofacial clefts. Methods: Birth data consisting of 4.7 million births from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from National Birth Defects Prevention Network for four states — Arizona, Florida, New York (excluding New York City), and Texas. The air pollution exposure assessment for gestational weeks 5–10 was based on county-level average concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} and ozone data generated using a Bayesian fusion model available through CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Two outcomes were analyzed separately: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate alone. In logistic regression analyses, we adjusted for factors that were suspected confounders or modifiers of the association between the prevalence of orofacial clefts and air pollution, i.e., infant sex, race-ethnicity, maternal education, smoking status during pregnancy, whether this was mother's first baby, maternal age. Results: Each 10 µg/m{sup 3} increase in PM{sub 2.5} concentration was significantly associated with cleft palate alone (OR =1.43, 95% CI: 1.11–1.86). There was no significant association between PM{sub 2.5} concentration and cleft lip with or without cleft palate. No associations were observed between ozone exposure and the two outcomes of orofacial clefts. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM{sub 2.5} significantly increased the risk of cleft palate alone, but did not change the incidence of cleft lip with or without palate. Ozone levels did not correlate with incidence of orofacial clefts. - Highlights: • This is a large study with about 4

  11. Maternal exposure to ozone and PM2.5 and the prevalence of orofacial clefts in four U.S. states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ying; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Herdt, Michele L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Flanders, W. Dana; Liu, Yang; Shin, Mikyong; Canfield, Mark A.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: While there is some evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with orofacial clefts in offspring, the epidemiologic studies have been largely equivocal. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to elevated county-level ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) and ozone during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of orofacial clefts. Methods: Birth data consisting of 4.7 million births from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from National Birth Defects Prevention Network for four states — Arizona, Florida, New York (excluding New York City), and Texas. The air pollution exposure assessment for gestational weeks 5–10 was based on county-level average concentrations of PM 2.5 and ozone data generated using a Bayesian fusion model available through CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Two outcomes were analyzed separately: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate alone. In logistic regression analyses, we adjusted for factors that were suspected confounders or modifiers of the association between the prevalence of orofacial clefts and air pollution, i.e., infant sex, race-ethnicity, maternal education, smoking status during pregnancy, whether this was mother's first baby, maternal age. Results: Each 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 concentration was significantly associated with cleft palate alone (OR =1.43, 95% CI: 1.11–1.86). There was no significant association between PM 2.5 concentration and cleft lip with or without cleft palate. No associations were observed between ozone exposure and the two outcomes of orofacial clefts. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM 2.5 significantly increased the risk of cleft palate alone, but did not change the incidence of cleft lip with or without palate. Ozone levels did not correlate with incidence of orofacial clefts. - Highlights: • This is a large study with about 4.7 million births and 7000

  12. The acute exposure effects of inhaled nickel nanoparticles on murine endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N; Cuevas, Azita K; Qu, Qingshan; Chen, Lung Chi

    2014-08-01

    The discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may help to explain observed cardiovascular effects associated with inhaled nickel nanoparticle exposures, such as increases in vascular inflammation, generation of reactive oxygen species, altered vasomotor tone and potentiated atherosclerosis in murine species. Following an acute whole body inhalation exposure to 500 µg/m(3) of nickel nanoparticles for 5 h, bone marrow EPCs from C57BL/6 mice were isolated. EPCs were harvested for their RNA or used in a variety of assays including chemotaxis, tube formation and proliferation. Gene expression was assessed for important receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing using RT-PCR methods. EPCs, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs), circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were quantified on a BD FACSCalibur to examine endothelial damage and repair associated with the exposure. Acute exposure to inhaled nickel nanoparticles significantly increased both bone marrow EPCs as well as their levels in circulation (CEPCs). CECs were significantly elevated indicating that endothelial damage occurred due to the exposure. There was no significant difference in EMPs between the two groups. Tube formation and chemotaxis, but not proliferation, of bone marrow EPCs was impaired in the nickel nanoparticle exposed group. These results coincided with a decrease in the mRNA of receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing. These data provide new insight into how an acute nickel nanoparticle exposure to half of the current Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit may adversely affect EPCs and exacerbate cardiovascular disease states.

  13. Tetracycline degradation by ozonation in the aqueous phase: Proposed degradation intermediates and pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Hammad; Bae, Hyokwan; Jung, Jin-Young

    2010-01-01

    During the ozonation of tetracycline (TC) in aqueous media at pHs 2.2 and 7.0, the effects of pH variations, protonation and dissociation of functional groups and variation in free radical exposure were investigated to elucidate the transformation pathway. Liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detected around 15 ozonation products, and uncovered their production and subsequent degradation patterns. During ozonation at pH 2.2, the TC degradation pathway was proposed on the basis of the structure, ozonation chemistry and mass spectrometry data of TC. Ozonation of TC at the C11a-C12 and C2-C3 double bonds, aromatic ring and amino group generated products of m/z 461, 477, 509 and 416, respectively. Further ozonation at the above mentioned sites gave products of m/z 432, 480, 448, 525 and 496. The removal of TOC reached a maximum of ∼40% after 2 h of ozonation, while TC was completely removed within 4-6 min at both pHs. The low TOC removal efficiency might be due to the generation of recalcitrant products and the low ozone supply for high TC concentration. Ozonation decreased the acute toxicity of TC faster at pH 7.0 than pH 2.2, but the maximum decrease was only about 40% at both pHs after 2 h of ozonation. In this study, attempts were made to understand the correlation between the transformation products, pathway, acute toxicity and quantity of residual organics in solution. Overall, ozonation was found to be a promising process for removing TC and the products initially generated.

  14. Effects of maternal high-fat diet and sedentary lifestyle on susceptibility of adult offspring to ozone exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M; Schmid, J; Schladweiler, M C; Ledbetter, A; Snow, S J; Kodavanti, U P

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O 3 ). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O 3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be manifested by maternal obesity. Thirty-day-old female Long-Evans rats were fed a control (CD) or high-fat (HF) (60% calories) diet for 6 wks and then bred. GD1 rats were then housed with a running wheel (RW) or without a wheel (SED) until parturition, creating four groups of offspring: CD-SED, CD-RW, HF-SED and HF-RW. HF diet was terminated at PND 35 and all offspring were placed on CD. Body weight and %fat of dams were greatest in order; HF-SED > HF-RW > CD-SED > CD-RW. Adult offspring were exposed to O 3 for two consecutive days (0.8 ppm, 4 h/day). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT), ventilatory parameters (plethysmography), and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) cell counts and protein biomarkers were performed to assess response to O 3 . Exercise and diet altered body weight and %fat of young offspring. GTT, ventilation and BALF cell counts were exacerbated by O 3 with responses markedly exacerbated in males. HF diet and O 3 led to significant exacerbation of several BALF parameters: total cell count, neutrophils and lymphocytes were increased in male HF-SED versus CD-SED. Males were hyperglycemic after O 3 exposure and exhibited exacerbated GTT responses. Ventilatory dysfunction was also exacerbated in males. Maternal exercise had minimal effects on O 3 response. The results of this exploratory study suggest a link between maternal obesity and susceptibility to O 3 in their adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

  15. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Commuters’ air pollution exposure and acute health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, M.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    People spend a substantial proportion of their time in traffic. In Europe, the average daily time in traffic is one to one and a half hour. Because of high in-traffic exposures and because most of the journeys are made during rush hours, the one to one and a half hour in traffic contributes

  17. Mathematical Models of Human Hematopoiesis Following Acute Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    response of 11 subjects from Chernobyl 1986 . . . . . . 104 B.8 Chernobyl case studies: Platelet data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 B...9 Chernobyl case studies: Granulocyte data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 B.10 Chernobyl case studies: Lymphocyte data...information for use in nuclear disaster preparedness planning. Understanding how biological systems change after radiation exposure provides insight on the

  18. Conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on diesel particulate matter upon exposure to ppm levels of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaeck, L.; Van Cauwenberghe, K.

    Diesel exhaust particlulate matter samples were collected from a dilution tunnel using a Hi-Vol cascade impactor. The fraction of the aerosol with aerodynamic diameter below 0.5 μm, retained on the glass fiber back-up filter, was exposed to a flow of ozonised particle free air for periods of 0.5-4 h (1.5 ppm of O 3, flow rate about 40 m 3 h -1). Both exposed and non-exposed reference niters were Soxhlet-extracted with benzene and methanol, and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fraction (PAH) was isolated by a liquid-liquid partition procedure described in the literature, using cyclohexane and dimethylformamid-water as solvents, modified for quantitative recovery of PAH. The conversion yields of PAH upon exposure to O 3 were determined by single ion monitoring mass spectrometry using a fused silica capillary column for their separation. Significant conversion was observed for PAH from molecular weight 226 to 276. Approximate half lives are of the order of 0.5-1 h for most PAH measured. This high reactivity of PAH on a carbonaceous matrix is probably related to the large specific surface of soot particles as well as to their high adsorptive capacity for gaseous compounds. Lower molecular weight PAH up to chrysene also undergo important physical losses by volatilisation and the extent to which chemical transformations occurred could not be determined accurately. Different reactivities are observed for several isomeric pairs of PAH: benzo(a)pyrene is much faster converted than benzo(e)pyrene, benz(a)anthracene reacts faster than chrysene. The benzo-fluoranthenes are most resistant toward O 3 attack. The implications of these results with respect to atmospheric degradation of PAH, as well as to the occurrence of artefactual conversion upon Hi-Vol sampling are discussed.

  19. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    visual perception, colour vision, vigilance as well as the psychomotor functions. However, the influence on the performance tests was not seen in all studies. Variations in the air concentration of toluene with peaks op to 300 ppm causes fluctuation in the alveolar concentrations, but no acute effect...... of printers occupationally exposed to mixtures of solvents were compared with a matched unexposed control group. There was no difference between printers and controls in the performance in the psychological test, but in two of the tests there were tendencies to increased sensitivity to toluene in the group...

  20. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels...... concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin increased significantly in response to the stressors (P...... in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin...

  1. Cumulative Exposure to Prior Collective Trauma and Acute Stress Responses to the Boston Marathon Bombings

    OpenAIRE

    Garfin, DR; Holman, EA; Silver, RC

    2015-01-01

    © The Author(s) 2015 The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metrop...

  2. Pathogenesis of Acute and Delayed Corneal Lesions after Ocular Exposure to Sulfur Mustard Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    14. ABSTRACT See reprint. 15. SUBJECT TERMS mustard gas keratopathy, ocular toxicity , vapor exposure , sulfur mustard, chemical warfare agent, medical...had poor outcomes . Using a rabbit corneal vapor exposure model, we previously demonstrated a clinical progression with acute and chronic sequelae...the appearance of BCN between one and two weeks suggests that necrosis is either due to delayed SM toxicity or a second-order effect indirectly

  3. Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, Gil Soon; OAK, Chulho; CHUN, Bong-Kwon; WILSON, Donald; JANG, Tae Won; KIM, Hee-Kyoo; JUNG, Mannhong; TUTKUN, Engin; PARK, Eun-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1 h after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24 h, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24 h. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24705802

  4. Cement dust exposure and acute lung function: A cross shift study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moen Bente E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have been carried out on acute effects of cement dust exposure. This study is conducted to investigate the associations between current "total" dust exposure and acute respiratory symptoms and respiratory function among cement factory workers. Methods A combined cross-sectional and cross-shift study was conducted in Dire Dawa cement factory in Ethiopia. 40 exposed production workers from the crusher and packing sections and 20 controls from the guards were included. Personal "total" dust was measured in the workers' breathing zone and peak expiratory flow (PEF was measured for all selected workers before and after the shift. When the day shift ended, the acute respiratory symptoms experienced were scored and recorded on a five-point Likert scale using a modified respiratory symptom score questionnaire. Results The highest geometric mean dust exposure was found in the crusher section (38.6 mg/m3 followed by the packing section (18.5 mg/m3 and the guards (0.4 mg/m3. The highest prevalence of respiratory symptoms for the high exposed workers was stuffy nose (85% followed by shortness of breath (47% and "sneezing" (45%. PEF decreased significantly across the shift in the high exposed group. Multiple linear regression showed a significant negative association between the percentage cross-shift change in PEF and total dust exposure. The number of years of work in high-exposure sections and current smoking were also associated with cross-shift decrease in PEF. Conclusions Total cement dust exposure was related to acute respiratory symptoms and acute ventilatory effects. Implementing measures to control dust and providing adequate personal respiratory protective equipment for the production workers are highly recommended.

  5. Ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with asthma: role of neutrophil-derived serine proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltermann, T J; Peters, E A; Alberts, B; Kwikkers, K; Borggreven, P A; Hiemstra, P S; Dijkman, J H; van Bree, L A; Stolk, J

    1998-04-01

    Proteinase inhibitors may be of potential therapeutic value in the treatment of respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. Our aim was to study the role of neutrophils, and neutrophil-derived serine proteinases in an acute model in patients with asthma. Exposure to ozone induces an acute neutrophilic inflammatory reaction accompanied by an increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. It is thought that these two effects of ozone are linked, and that neutrophil-derived serine proteinases (i.e. elastase) may play a role in the ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Therefore, we examined the effect of recombinant antileukoprotease (rALP), one of the major serine proteinase inhibitors in the lung, on ozone-induced changes in airway hyperresponsiveness in this model. We observed that 16 h after exposure to ozone, airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine was increased both following placebo and rALP treatment. There was no significant difference between placebo and rALP treatment (change in area under the dose-response curve to methacholine: 117.3+/-59.0 vs 193.6+/-59.6 % fall x DD; p=.12). Moreover, the immediate decrease in FEV1 after ozone exposure was not significantly different between the two groups (placebo: -29.6+/-6.7%; rALP: -20.9+/-3.8%; p=.11). In addition, no significant differences were observed in plasma levels of fibrinogen degradation products generated by neutrophil serine proteinases before and after exposure to ozone. We conclude that neutrophil-derived serine proteinases are not important mediators for ozone-induced hyperresponsiveness.

  6. Effect of sub-acute exposure to bonny light crude oil on plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sub-acute exposure to bonny light crude oil on plasma biochemistry and liver histopathology of albino rat. Christopher Efe Oritseweyinmi Ikanone, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye, Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, Samuel Olatunbosun Omotainse, Olusola Lawrence Ajayi, Tolumide Michael Shopein ...

  7. Openness to experience and adapting to change: Cardiovascular stress habituation to change in acute stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Súilleabháin, Páraic S; Howard, Siobhán; Hughes, Brian M

    2018-05-01

    Underlying psychophysiological mechanisms of effect linking openness to experience to health outcomes, and particularly cardiovascular well-being, are unknown. This study examined the role of openness in the context of cardiovascular responsivity to acute psychological stress. Continuous cardiovascular response data were collected for 74 healthy young female adults across an experimental protocol, including differing counterbalanced acute stressors. Openness was measured via self-report questionnaire. Analysis of covariance revealed openness was associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP; p = .016), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; p = .036) responsivity across the protocol. Openness was also associated with heart rate (HR) responding to the initial stress exposure (p = .044). Examination of cardiovascular adaptation revealed that higher openness was associated with significant SBP (p = .001), DBP (p = .009), and HR (p = .002) habituation in response to the second differing acute stress exposure. Taken together, the findings suggest persons higher in openness are characterized by an adaptive cardiovascular stress response profile within the context of changing acute stress exposures. This study is also the first to demonstrate individual differences in cardiovascular adaptation across a protocol consisting of differing stress exposures. More broadly, this research also suggests that future research may benefit from conceptualizing an adaptive fitness of openness within the context of change. In summary, the present study provides evidence that higher openness stimulates short-term stress responsivity, while ensuring cardiovascular habituation to change in stress across time. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  9. ACUTE BEHAVORIAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO TWO-STROKE ENGINE EXHAUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits of changing from two-stroke to four-stroke engines (and other remedial requirements) can be evaluated (monetized) from the standpoint of acute behavioral effects of human exposure to exhaust from these engines. The monetization process depends upon estimates of the magn...

  10. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  11. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Time Varying Toxic Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-12

    loading rates between the density values given as Arho(b-1,k) and Arho(b,k). The line labeled ‘ extrap .’above b = 1 in Table 3 records the derived...exposure times and an inverse quadratic law for densities lower than 8.26 mg/m3. The line labeled ‘ extrap .’ at the bottom of the table gives the...6 (labeled “ extrap .” above) are simply duplicated from the adjacent band b = 5. This exponent is also used to define the lowest density value Brho

  12. Ozone exposure, defoliation of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and visible foliar symptoms on native plants in selected plots of South-Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, Marco; Calderisi, Marco; Bussotti, Filippo

    2007-01-01

    The relationships between crown defoliation of beech, visible foliar symptoms on native vegetation and ozone exposure were investigated on permanent monitoring sites in South-Western Europe in the years 2000-2002. Relationships between defoliation of beech and O 3 (seasonal mean, 2-week maximum, AOT40) were investigated by means of multiple regression models (11 plots, 1-3 years of data each) and a model based on temporal autocorrelation of defoliation data (14 plots, 1-3 years of data each). Different multiple regression techniques were used. The four models generated (R 2 = 0.71-0.85, explained variance in cross-validation 61-78%) identified several significant predictors of defoliation, with AOT40 (p = 0.008) and foliar content of phosphorous (p = 0.0002-0.0004) being common to all models. The autocorrelation model (R 2 = 0.55; p 35,000 ppbh). O 3 -like visible foliar symptoms were recorded on 65 species at 47% of the common monitoring sites in 2001 and 38% in 2002. No relationship was found between O 3 exposure, frequency of symptomatic sites and frequency of species with symptoms (R 2 = 0.11; p > 0.05). A number of questions related to the ecological and methodological basis of the survey were identified. Inherent sampling and non-sampling errors and multicollinearity of the data suggest great caution when examining results obtained from mensurational, correlative studies. - Ozone AOT40 was identified as a significant predictor of defoliation of beech, but a limited relationship was found between ozone exposure and visible symptoms on native vegetation

  13. A Method for Quantifying the Acute Health Impacts of Residential Non-Biological Exposure Via Inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Bret C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The inability to monetize the health costs of acute exposures in homes and the benefits of various control options is a barrier to justifying policies and approaches that can reduce exposure and improve health.We synthesized relationships between short-term outdoor concentration changes and health outcomes to estimate the health impacts of short-term in-home exposures. Damage and cost impacts of specific health outcomes were taken from the literature. We assessed the impact of vented and non-vented residential natural gas cooking burners on Southern California occupants for two pollutants (NO2 and CO).

  14. Acute Exposure to Low-to-Moderate Carbon Dioxide Levels and Submariner Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheffer, Christopher D; Chabal, Sarah; Clarke, John M; Fothergill, David M

    2018-06-01

    Submarines routinely operate with higher levels of ambient carbon dioxide (CO2) (i.e., 2000 - 5000 ppm) than what is typically considered normal (i.e., 400 - 600 ppm). Although significant cognitive impairments are rarely reported at these elevated CO2 levels, recent studies using the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) test have found impairments in decision-making performance during acute CO2 exposure at levels as low as 1000 ppm. This is a potential concern for submarine operations, as personnel regularly make mission-critical decisions that affect the safety and efficiency of the vessel and its crew while exposed to similar levels of CO2. The objective of this study was to determine if submariner decision-making performance is impacted by acute exposure to levels of CO2 routinely present in the submarine atmosphere during sea patrols. Using a subject-blinded balanced design, 36 submarine-qualified sailors were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 CO2 exposure conditions (600, 2500, or 15,000 ppm). After a 45-min atmospheric acclimation period, participants completed an 80-min computer-administered SMS test as a measure of decision making. There were no significant differences for any of the nine SMS measures of decision making between the CO2 exposure conditions. In contrast to recent research demonstrating cognitive deficits on the SMS test in students and professional-grade office workers, we were unable to replicate this effect in a submariner population-even with acute CO2 exposures more than an order of magnitude greater than those used in previous studies that demonstrated such effects.Rodeheffer CD, Chabal S, Clarke JM, Fothergill DM. Acute exposure to low-to-moderate carbon dioxide levels and submariner decision making. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):520-525.

  15. Ozone exposure, defoliation of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and visible foliar symptoms on native plants in selected plots of South-Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, Marco [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: m.ferretti@linnaea.it; Calderisi, Marco [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: calderisi@chemiometria.it; Bussotti, Filippo [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: filippo.bussotti@unifi.it

    2007-02-15

    The relationships between crown defoliation of beech, visible foliar symptoms on native vegetation and ozone exposure were investigated on permanent monitoring sites in South-Western Europe in the years 2000-2002. Relationships between defoliation of beech and O{sub 3} (seasonal mean, 2-week maximum, AOT40) were investigated by means of multiple regression models (11 plots, 1-3 years of data each) and a model based on temporal autocorrelation of defoliation data (14 plots, 1-3 years of data each). Different multiple regression techniques were used. The four models generated (R {sup 2} = 0.71-0.85, explained variance in cross-validation 61-78%) identified several significant predictors of defoliation, with AOT40 (p = 0.008) and foliar content of phosphorous (p = 0.0002-0.0004) being common to all models. The autocorrelation model (R {sup 2} = 0.55; p < 0.0001) was used to calculate expected defoliation on the basis of the previous year's defoliation, and model predictions were used as an estimate of expected defoliation under constant site and environmental condition. Residuals (predicted-measured) plotted against current AOT40 shows that a possible effect of ozone occurs only at very high AOT40 (>35,000 ppbh). O{sub 3}-like visible foliar symptoms were recorded on 65 species at 47% of the common monitoring sites in 2001 and 38% in 2002. No relationship was found between O{sub 3} exposure, frequency of symptomatic sites and frequency of species with symptoms (R {sup 2} = 0.11; p > 0.05). A number of questions related to the ecological and methodological basis of the survey were identified. Inherent sampling and non-sampling errors and multicollinearity of the data suggest great caution when examining results obtained from mensurational, correlative studies. - Ozone AOT40 was identified as a significant predictor of defoliation of beech, but a limited relationship was found between ozone exposure and visible symptoms on native vegetation.

  16. Acute myeloid and chronic lymphoid leukaemias and exposure to low-level benzene among petroleum workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Schnatter, A R; Tang, G; Glass, D C

    2014-01-01

    Background: High benzene exposure causes acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Three petroleum case–control studies identified 60 cases (241 matched controls) for AML and 80 cases (345 matched controls) for chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). Methods: Cases were classified and scored regarding uncertainty by two haematologists using available diagnostic information. Blinded quantitative benzene exposure assessment used work histories and exposure measurements adjusted for era-specific circumstances. Statistical analyses included conditional logistic regression and penalised smoothing splines. Results: Benzene exposures were much lower than previous studies. Categorical analyses showed increased ORs for AML with several exposure metrics, although patterns were unclear; neither continuous exposure metrics nor spline analyses gave increased risks. ORs were highest in terminal workers, particularly for Tanker Drivers. No relationship was found between benzene exposure and risk of CLL, although the Australian study showed increased risks in refinery workers. Conclusion: Overall, this study does not persuasively demonstrate a risk between benzene and AML. A previously reported strong relationship between myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (potentially previously reported as AML) at our study's low benzene levels suggests that MDS may be the more relevant health risk for lower exposure. Higher CLL risks in refinery workers may be due to more diverse exposures than benzene alone. PMID:24357793

  17. Acute phase response, inflammation and metabolic syndrome biomarkers of Libby asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannahan, Jonathan H. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Alzate, Oscar [Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Winnik, Witold M.; Andrews, Debora [Proteomics Core, Research Core Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ghio, Andrew J. [Clinical Research Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Gavett, Stephen H. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: Kodavanti.Urmila@epa.gov [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help elucidate epidemiologically-relevant biomarkers. In four experiments spanning varied protocols and temporality, healthy (Wistar Kyoto, WKY; and F344) and cardiovascular compromised (CVD) rat models (spontaneously hypertensive, SH; and SH heart failure, SHHF) were intratracheally instilled with saline (control) or LA. Serum biomarkers of cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the acute phase response (APR) were analyzed. All rat strains exhibited acute increases in α-2-macroglobulin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Among markers of inflammation, lipocalin-2 was induced in WKY, SH and SHHF and osteopontin only in WKY after LA exposure. While rat strain- and age-related changes were apparent in MetS biomarkers, no LA effects were evident. The cancer marker mesothelin was increased only slightly at 1 month in WKY in one of the studies. Quantitative Intact Proteomic profiling of WKY serum at 1 day or 4 weeks after 4 weekly LA instillations indicated no oxidative protein modifications, however APR proteins were significantly increased. Those included serine protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, t-kininogen 1 and 2, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D binding protein, serum amyloid P, and more 1 day after last LA exposure. All changes were reversible after a short recovery regardless of the acute or long-term exposures. Thus, LA exposure induces an APR and systemic inflammatory biomarkers that could have implications in systemic and pulmonary disease in individuals exposed to LA. -- Highlights: ► Biomarkers of asbestos exposure are required for disease diagnosis. ► Libby amphibole exposure is associated with increased human mortality. ► Libby amphibole increases circulating proteins involved

  18. Neuromotor effects of acute ethanol inhalation exposure in humans: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Véronique; Lamoureux, Daniel; Beuter, Anne; Charbonneau, Michel; Tardif, Robert

    2003-07-01

    Ethanol (ETOH) is added to unleaded gasoline to decrease environmental levels of carbon monoxide from automobiles emissions. Therefore, addition of ETOH in reformulated fuel will most likely increase and the involuntarily human exposure to this chemical will also increase. This preliminary study was undertaken to evaluate the possible neuromotor effects resulting from acute ETOH exposure by inhalation in humans. Five healthy non-smoking adult males, with no history of alcohol abuse, were exposed by inhalation, in a dynamic, controlled-environment exposure chamber, to various concentrations of ETOH (0, 250, 500 and 1,000 ppm in air) for six hours. Reaction time, body sway, hand tremor and rapid alternating movements were measured before and after each exposure session by using the CATSYS 7.0 system and a diadochokinesimeter. The concentrations of ETOH in blood and in alveolar air were also measured. ETOH was not detected in blood nor in alveolar air when volunteers were exposed to 250 and 500 ppm, but at the end of exposure to 1,000 ppm, blood and alveolar air concentrations were 0.443 mg/100ml and 253.1 ppm, respectively. The neuromotor tests did not show conclusively significant differences between the exposed and non-exposed conditions. In conclusion, this study suggests that acute exposure to ethanol at 1,000 ppm or lower or to concentrations that could be encountered upon refueling is not likely to cause any significant neuromotor alterations in healthy males.

  19. Ozone exposure induces the activation of leaf senescence-related processes and morphological and growth changes in seedlings of Mediterranean tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribas, Angela; Pen-tilde uelas, Josep; Elvira, Susana; Gimeno, Benjamin S.

    2005-01-01

    Four Mediterranean tree taxa, Quercus ilex subsp. ilex, Quercus ilex subsp. ballota, Olea europaea cv. vulgaris and Ceratonia siliqua, were exposed to different ozone (O 3 ) concentrations in open top chambers (OTCs) during 2 years. Three treatments were applied: charcoal-filtered air (CF), non-filtered air (NF) and non-filtered air plus 40 ppb v of O 3 (NF+). The photochemical maximal efficiency, Fv/Fm, decreased in NF+ plants during the second year of exposure, especially during the most stressful Mediterranean seasons (winter and summer). An increase of δ 13 C was found in three of the four studied species during the first year of exposure. This finding was only maintained in C. siliqua during the second year. Decreases in the chlorophyll content were detected during the first year of fumigations in all the species studied, but not during the second year. The NF+ treatment induced changes in foliar anatomical characteristics, especially in leaf mass per area (LMA) and spongy parenchyma thickness, which increased in some species. A reduction in N content and an increase in δ 15 N were found in all species during the second year when exposed in the NF+ OTCs, suggesting a change in their retranslocation pattern linked to an acceleration of leaf senescence, as also indicated by the above mentioned biochemical and anatomical foliar changes. The two Q. ilex subspecies were the most sensitive species since the changes in N concentration, δ 15 N, chlorophyll, leaf area, LMA and biomass occurred at ambient O 3 concentrations. However, C. siliqua was the most responsive species (29% biomass reduction) when exposed to the NF+ treatment, followed by the two Q. ilex subspecies (14-20%) and O. europaea (no significant reduction). Ozone resistance of the latter species was linked to some plant traits such as chlorophyll concentrations, or spongy parenchyma thickness. - Ozone induces species-specific leaf senescence-related processes and morphological and growth changes in

  20. Limited inflammatory response in rats after acute exposure to a silicon carbide nanoaerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laloy, J., E-mail: julie.laloy@unamur.be [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Lozano, O. [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Alpan, L.; Masereel, B. [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Toussaint, O. [University of Namur (UNamur), Laboratory of Cellular Biochemistry and Biology (URBC), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Dogné, J. M. [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Lucas, S. [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Inhalation represents the major route of human exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). Assessments are needed about the potential risks of NMs from inhalation on different tissues and organs, especially the respiratory tract. The aim of this limited study is to determine the potential acute pulmonary toxicity in rats exposed to a dry nanoaerosol of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles (NPs) in a whole-body exposure (WBE) model. The SiC nanoaerosol is composed of a bimodal size distribution of 92.8 and 480 nm. The exposure concentration was 4.91 mg/L, close to the highest recommended concentration of 5 mg/L by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Rats were exposed for 6 h to a stable and reproducible SiC nanoaerosol under real-time measurement conditions. A control group was exposed to the filtered air used to create the nanoaerosol. Animals were sacrificed immediately, 24 or 72 h after exposure. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rat lungs was recovered. Macrophages filled with SiC NPs were observed in the rat lungs. The greatest load of SiC and macrophages filled with SiC were observed on the rat lungs sacrificed 24 h after acute exposure. A limited acute inflammatory response was found up to 24 h after exposure characterized by a lactate dehydrogenase and total protein increase or presence of inflammatory cells in pulmonary lavage. For this study a WBE model has been developed, it allows the simultaneous exposure of six rats to a nanoaerosol and six rats to clean-filtered air. The nanoaerosol was generated using a rotating brush system (RBG-1000) and analyzed with an electrical low pressure impactor in real time.

  1. Acute Illness Among Surfers After Exposure to Seawater in Dry- and Wet-Weather Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Schiff, Kenneth C; Ercumen, Ayse; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Steele, Joshua A; Griffith, John F; Steinberg, Steven J; Smith, Paul; McGee, Charles D; Wilson, Richard; Nelsen, Chad; Weisberg, Stephen B; Colford, John M

    2017-10-01

    Rainstorms increase levels of fecal indicator bacteria in urban coastal waters, but it is unknown whether exposure to seawater after rainstorms increases rates of acute illness. Our objective was to provide the first estimates of rates of acute illness after seawater exposure during both dry- and wet-weather periods and to determine the relationship between levels of indicator bacteria and illness among surfers, a population with a high potential for exposure after rain. We enrolled 654 surfers in San Diego, California, and followed them longitudinally during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winters (33,377 days of observation, 10,081 surf sessions). We measured daily surf activities and illness symptoms (gastrointestinal illness, sinus infections, ear infections, infected wounds). Compared with no exposure, exposure to seawater during dry weather increased incidence rates of all outcomes (e.g., for earache or infection, adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27, 2.71; for infected wounds, IRR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.54, 5.98); exposure during wet weather further increased rates (e.g., for earache or infection, IRR = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.95, 5.51; for infected wounds, IRR = 4.96, 95% CI: 2.18, 11.29). Fecal indicator bacteria measured in seawater (Enterococcus species, fecal coliforms, total coliforms) were strongly associated with incident illness only during wet weather. Urban coastal seawater exposure increases the incidence rates of many acute illnesses among surfers, with higher incidence rates after rainstorms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  2. Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, and growth of young spruce trees (Picea abies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.F.D.; Braun, S.; Flueckiger, W.

    2005-01-01

    Spruce saplings were grown under different nitrogen fertilization regimes in eight chamberless fumigation systems, which were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O 3 ). After the third growing season trees were harvested for biomass and non-structural carbohydrate analysis. Nitrogen had an overall positive effect on the investigated plant parameters, resulting in increased shoot elongation, biomass production, fine root soluble carbohydrate concentrations, and also slightly increased starch concentrations of stems and roots. Only needle starch concentrations and fine root sugar alcohol concentrations were decreased. Ozone fumigation resulted in needle discolorations and affected most parameters negatively, including decreased shoot elongation and decreased starch concentrations in roots, stems, and needles. In fine roots, however, soluble carbohydrate concentrations remained unaffected or increased by ozone fumigation. The only significant interaction was an antagonistic effect on root starch concentrations, where higher nitrogen levels alleviated the negative impact of ozone. - Simultaneous ozone fumigation and nitrogen fertilization have no synergistic impacts on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, or growth of Picea abies saplings

  3. Minor effects of long-term ozone exposure on boreal peatland species Eriophorum vaginatum and Sphagnum papillosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mörsky, SK; Haapala, JK; Rinnan, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    The effects of long-term ozone fumigation on two common peatland plant species, a sedge Eriophorum vaginatum L. and a moss Sphagnum papillosum Lindb., were studied applying peatland microcosms. The peat cores with intact vegetation were cored from an oligotrophic pine fen and partially embedded...

  4. Effects of maternal high-fat diet and sedentary lifestyle on susceptibility of adult offspring to ozone exposure in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O3). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be m...

  5. A critical review and analysis of the use of exposure- and flux-based ozone indices for predicting vegetation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Musselman; Allen S. Lefohn; William J. Massman; Robert L. Heath

    2006-01-01

    Early studies of plant response to ozone (O3) utilized concentration-based metrics, primarily by summarizing the commonly monitored hourly average data sets. Research with the O3 concentration parameter led to the recognition that both peak concentrations and cumulative effects are important when relating plant response to O3. The US and Canada currently use O3...

  6. Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cazorla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

  7. The brain is a target organ after acute exposure to depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestaevel, P.; Houpert, P.; Bussy, C.; Dhieux, B.; Gourmelon, P.; Paquet, F.

    2005-01-01

    The health effects of depleted uranium (DU) are mainly caused by its chemical toxicity. Although the kidneys are the main target organs for uranium toxicity, uranium can also reach the brain. In this paper, the central effects of acute exposure to DU were studied in relation to health parameters and the sleep-wake cycle of adult rats. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with 144 ± 10 μg DU kg -1 as nitrate. Three days after injection, the amounts of uranium in the kidneys represented 2.6 μg of DU g -1 of tissue, considered as a sub-nephrotoxic dosage. The central effect of uranium could be seen through a decrease in food intake as early as the first day after exposure and shorter paradoxical sleep 3 days after acute DU exposure (-18% of controls). With a lower dosage of DU (70 ± 8 μg DU kg -1 ), no significant effect was observed on the sleep-wake cycle. The present study intends to illustrate the fact that the brain is a target organ, as are the kidneys, after acute exposure to a moderate dosage of DU. The mechanisms by which uranium causes these early neurophysiological perturbations shall be discussed

  8. The brain is a target organ after acute exposure to depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestaevel, P; Houpert, P; Bussy, C; Dhieux, B; Gourmelon, P; Paquet, F

    2005-09-01

    The health effects of depleted uranium (DU) are mainly caused by its chemical toxicity. Although the kidneys are the main target organs for uranium toxicity, uranium can also reach the brain. In this paper, the central effects of acute exposure to DU were studied in relation to health parameters and the sleep-wake cycle of adult rats. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with 144+/-10 microg DU kg-1 as nitrate. Three days after injection, the amounts of uranium in the kidneys represented 2.6 microg of DU g-1 of tissue, considered as a sub-nephrotoxic dosage. The central effect of uranium could be seen through a decrease in food intake as early as the first day after exposure and shorter paradoxical sleep 3 days after acute DU exposure (-18% of controls). With a lower dosage of DU (70+/-8 microg DU kg-1), no significant effect was observed on the sleep-wake cycle. The present study intends to illustrate the fact that the brain is a target organ, as are the kidneys, after acute exposure to a moderate dosage of DU. The mechanisms by which uranium causes these early neurophysiological perturbations shall be discussed.

  9. Cutaneous exposure to vesicant phosgene oxime: Acute effects on the skin and systemic toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama; Croutch, Claire R; Casillas, Robert P; Orlicky, David J; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model. Results from our study show that topical cutaneous exposure to CX vapor causes blanching of exposed skin with an erythematous ring, necrosis, edema, mild urticaria and erythema within minutes after exposure out to 8 h post-exposure. These clinical skin manifestations were accompanied with increases in skin thickness, apoptotic cell death, mast cell degranulation, myeloperoxidase activity indicating neutrophil infiltration, p53 phosphorylation and accumulation, and an increase in COX-2 and TNFα levels. Topical CX-exposure also resulted in the dilatation of the peripheral vessels with a robust increase in RBCs in vessels of the liver, spleen, kidney, lungs and heart tissues. These events could cause a drop in blood pressure leading to shock, hypoxia and death. Together, this is the first report on effects of CX cutaneous exposure, which could help design further comprehensive studies evaluating the acute and chronic skin injuries from CX topical exposure and elucidate the related mechanism of action to aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and mitigation of injury. - Highlights: • Phosgene oxime cutaneous exposure causes skin blanching, edema and urticaria. • Penetration of phosgene oxime causes dilation of vasculature in internal organs. • Mast cells could play an important role in phosgene oxime-induced skin injury. • Phosgene oxime could induce low blood pressure and hypoxia leading to mortality. • Data is

  10. Cutaneous exposure to vesicant phosgene oxime: Acute effects on the skin and systemic toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera, E-mail: Neera.tewari-singh@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Croutch, Claire R; Casillas, Robert P [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Orlicky, David J [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model. Results from our study show that topical cutaneous exposure to CX vapor causes blanching of exposed skin with an erythematous ring, necrosis, edema, mild urticaria and erythema within minutes after exposure out to 8 h post-exposure. These clinical skin manifestations were accompanied with increases in skin thickness, apoptotic cell death, mast cell degranulation, myeloperoxidase activity indicating neutrophil infiltration, p53 phosphorylation and accumulation, and an increase in COX-2 and TNFα levels. Topical CX-exposure also resulted in the dilatation of the peripheral vessels with a robust increase in RBCs in vessels of the liver, spleen, kidney, lungs and heart tissues. These events could cause a drop in blood pressure leading to shock, hypoxia and death. Together, this is the first report on effects of CX cutaneous exposure, which could help design further comprehensive studies evaluating the acute and chronic skin injuries from CX topical exposure and elucidate the related mechanism of action to aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and mitigation of injury. - Highlights: • Phosgene oxime cutaneous exposure causes skin blanching, edema and urticaria. • Penetration of phosgene oxime causes dilation of vasculature in internal organs. • Mast cells could play an important role in phosgene oxime-induced skin injury. • Phosgene oxime could induce low blood pressure and hypoxia leading to mortality. • Data is

  11. Tree age dependence and within-canopy variation of leaf gas exchange and antioxidative defence in Fagus sylvatica under experimental free-air ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbinger, K.; Then, Ch.; Loew, M.; Haberer, K.; Alexous, M.; Koch, N.; Remele, K.; Heerdt, C.; Grill, D.; Rennenberg, H.; Haeberle, K.-H.; Matyssek, R.; Tausz, M.; Wieser, G.

    2005-01-01

    We characterized leaf gas exchange and antioxidative defence of two-year-old seedlings and 60-year-old trees of Fagus sylvatica exposed to ambient (1xO 3 ) or two-fold ambient (2xO 3 ) O 3 concentrations (maximum of 150 ppb) in a free-air canopy exposure system throughout the growing season. Decline in photosynthesis from sun-exposed to shaded conditions was more pronounced in adult than juvenile trees. Seedling leaves and leaves in the sun-exposed canopy had higher stomatal conductance and higher internal CO 2 concentrations relative to leaves of adult trees and leaves in shaded conditions. There was a weak overall depression of photosynthesis in the 2xO 3 variants across age classes and canopy positions. Pigment and tocopherol concentrations of leaves were significantly affected by canopy position and tree age, whereas differences between 1xO 3 and 2xO 3 regimes were not observed. Glutathione concentrations were significantly increased under 2xO 3 across both age classes and canopy levels. Seedlings differed from adult trees in relevant physiological and biochemical traits in ozone response. The water-soluble antioxidative systems responded most sensitively to 2xO 3 without regard of tree age or canopy position. - Ozone effects on leaf gas exchange and antioxidative systems of beech across tree age and canopy level were investigated in a free air exposure system

  12. Tree age dependence and within-canopy variation of leaf gas exchange and antioxidative defence in Fagus sylvatica under experimental free-air ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbinger, K. [Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Universitaet Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria)]. E-mail: karin.herbinger@uni-graz.at; Then, Ch. [Bundesamt und Forschungszentrum fuer Wald, Abteilung Forstpflanzenphysiologie, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)]|[Lehrstuhl fuer Oekophysiologie der Pflanzen, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Sciences Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Loew, M.; Koch, N. [Lehrstuhl fuer Oekophysiologie der Pflanzen, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Sciences Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Haberer, K.; Alexous, M. [Institut fuer Forstbotanik und Baumphysiologie, Universitaet Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 053/054, D-79085 Freiburg (Germany); Remele, K. [Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Universitaet Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Heerdt, C. [Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Grill, D. [Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Universitaet Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Rennenberg, H. [Institut fuer Forstbotanik und Baumphysiologie, Universitaet Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 053/054, D-79085 Freiburg (Germany); Haeberle, K.-H.; Matyssek, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Oekophysiologie der Pflanzen, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Sciences Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Tausz, M. [Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Universitaet Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria)]|[[School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, University of Melbourne, Water Street, Creswick, Vic. 3363 (Australia); Wieser, G. [Bundesamt und Forschungszentrum fuer Wald, Abteilung Forstpflanzenphysiologie, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2005-10-15

    We characterized leaf gas exchange and antioxidative defence of two-year-old seedlings and 60-year-old trees of Fagus sylvatica exposed to ambient (1xO{sub 3}) or two-fold ambient (2xO{sub 3}) O{sub 3} concentrations (maximum of 150 ppb) in a free-air canopy exposure system throughout the growing season. Decline in photosynthesis from sun-exposed to shaded conditions was more pronounced in adult than juvenile trees. Seedling leaves and leaves in the sun-exposed canopy had higher stomatal conductance and higher internal CO{sub 2} concentrations relative to leaves of adult trees and leaves in shaded conditions. There was a weak overall depression of photosynthesis in the 2xO{sub 3} variants across age classes and canopy positions. Pigment and tocopherol concentrations of leaves were significantly affected by canopy position and tree age, whereas differences between 1xO{sub 3} and 2xO{sub 3} regimes were not observed. Glutathione concentrations were significantly increased under 2xO{sub 3} across both age classes and canopy levels. Seedlings differed from adult trees in relevant physiological and biochemical traits in ozone response. The water-soluble antioxidative systems responded most sensitively to 2xO{sub 3} without regard of tree age or canopy position. - Ozone effects on leaf gas exchange and antioxidative systems of beech across tree age and canopy level were investigated in a free air exposure system.

  13. A difference gel electrophoresis study on thylakoids isolated from poplar leaves reveals a negative impact of ozone exposure on membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohler, Sacha; Sergeant, Kjell; Hoffmann, Lucien; Dizengremel, Pierre; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Renaut, Jenny; Jolivet, Yves

    2011-07-01

    Populus tremula L. x P. alba L. (Populus x canescens (Aiton) Smith), clone INRA 717-1-B4, saplings were subjected to 120 ppb ozone exposure for 28 days. Chloroplasts were isolated, and the membrane proteins, solubilized using the detergent 1,2-diheptanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC), were analyzed in a difference gel electrophoresis (DiGE) experiment comparing control versus ozone-exposed plants. Extrinsic photosystem (PS) proteins and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) subunits were detected to vary in abundance. The general trend was a decrease in abundance, except for ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FNR), which increased after the first 7 days of exposure. The up-regulation of FNR would increase NAPDH production for reducing power and detoxification inside and outside of the chloroplast. Later on, FNR and a number of PS and ATPase subunits decrease in abundance. This could be the result of oxidative processes on chloroplast proteins but could also be a way to down-regulate photochemical reactions in response to an inhibition in Calvin cycle activity.

  14. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  15. Acute behavioral effects of exposure to some organic solvents -psychophysiological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winneke, G

    1982-01-01

    Acute low-level exposure to organic solvent vapours may result in prenarcotic states of CNS-depression, often characterized by behavioral dysfunction. Behavioral findings from experimental acute human exposures to toluene, trichloroethylene (TCE), and methylene chloride (MC) are covered in this review. Perceptual measures (e.g. critical flicker fusion . CFF), measures of sustained attention (vigilance), measures of psychomotor performance (as e.g. reaction time, motor speed, coordination) as well as EEG-measures (sensory evoked potentials) are used to illustrate the main effects from such studies. Progressive increase of reaction time was observed at toluene-exposures of only 300 ppm (30 minutes). No consistent behavioral deficit has been reported for trichloroethylene below 300 ppm; instead, visual and auditory evoked potentials were found to be affected at TCE vapour-concentrations between 50 and 100 ppm (3 1/2 - 7 1/2 hours of exposure). CFF-depression, vigilance-decrement and disruption of psychomotor performance has been observed during MC-exposure (200 - 800 ppm; 2-4 hours). Although such behavioral effects are usually considered reversible and of no demonstrated pathological impact, they may nevertheless contribute to accident-prone behavior in occupational settings.

  16. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halton, D M

    1995-09-01

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LC{sub LO}, LC{sub 10} and LC{sub 50} levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic toxicity from repeated airborne exposure. These publications offer important insights into the nature of HF toxicity. Several avenues of investigative research are suggested. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LC LO , LC 10 and LC 50 levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic toxicity from repeated airborne exposure. These publications offer important insights into the nature of HF toxicity. Several avenues of investigative research are suggested. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Exposure to Acute Stress Enhances Decision-Making Competence: Evidence for the Role of DHEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S.; Lam, Jovian C. W.; Trainor, Brian C.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol. PMID:26874561

  19. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute wood or coal exposure with carbon monoxide intoxication induces sister chromatid exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, S.; Vatansever, S.; Cefle, K.; Palanduz, S.; Guler, K.; Erten, N.; Erk, O.; Karan, M.A.; Tascioglu, C. [University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey). Istanbul Faculty of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effect of acute overexposure to combustion products originating from coal or wood stoves in patients presenting with acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The authors analyzed the frequency of sister chromatid exchange and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 20 consecutive patients without a history of smoking or drug use who had been treated in the Emergency Care Unit of Istanbul Medical Faculty due to acute carbon monoxide intoxication. All of these cases were domestic accidents due to dysfunctioning coal or wood stoves. The results were compared with a control group of 20 nonsmoking, nondrug-using healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and absence of other chemical exposure. It was concluded that acute exposure to combustion products of wood or coal is genotoxic to DNA. Potential causes of genotoxicity include known mutagenic compounds present in coal or wood smoke and ash, oxygen radicals formed during combustion, as well as hypoxic and reperfusion injury mechanisms initiated by carbon monoxide intoxication.

  1. Exposure to Cooking Fumes and Acute Reversible Decrement in Lung Functional Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghab, Masoud; Delikhoon, Mahdieh; Norouzian Baghani, Abbas; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2017-10-01

    Being exposed to cooking fumes, kitchen workers are occupationally at risk of multiple respiratory hazards. No conclusive evidence exists as to whether occupational exposure to these fumes is associated with acute and chronic pulmonary effects and symptoms of respiratory diseases. To quantify the exposure levels and evaluate possible chronic and acute pulmonary effects associated with exposure to cooking fumes. In this cross-sectional study, 60 kitchen workers exposed to cooking fumes and 60 unexposed employees were investigated. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among these groups was determined through completion of a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function parameters were also measured before and after participants' work shift. Moreover, air samples were collected and analyzed to quantify their aldehyde, particle, and volatile organic contents. The mean airborne concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein was 0.45 (SD 0.41), 0.13 (0.1), and 1.56 (0.41) mg/m 3 , respectively. The mean atmospheric concentrations of PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 7 , PM 10 , and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was 3.31 (2.6), 12.21 (5.9), 44.16 (16.6), 57 (21.55) μg/m 3 , and 1.31 (1.11) mg/m 3 , respectively. All respiratory symptoms were significantly (pcooking fumes is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as well as acute reversible decrease in lung functional capacity.

  2. Characterization and isolation of some genes of the shikimate pathway in sensitive and resistant Centaurea jacea plants after ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francini, A. [Dipartimento di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose ' Giovanni Scaramuzzi' , University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Nali, C. [Dipartimento di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose ' Giovanni Scaramuzzi' , University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cristina.nali@agr.unipi.it; Pellegrini, E.; Lorenzini, G. [Dipartimento di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose ' Giovanni Scaramuzzi' , University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2008-01-15

    Centaurea jacea has been suggested as a potential bioindicator for ozone, but little is known about its intraspecific variation in sensitivity, especially at molecular level. The effects of ozone (200 ppb, 5 h) on sensitive and resistant lines of Centaurea have been investigated at the end of fumigation. Sensitive plants showed characteristic symptoms of injury in the form of diffuse discoloration stipples on leaves. A PCR-based approach was used to identify and isolate a partial-length cDNA coding for PAL and CHS genes. The northern analysis of PAL showed accumulation of transcript in both lines correlated with a typical increase of PAL activity (+41 and +91% in resistant and sensitive material, respectively, compared to controls). On the contrary, the transcripts of CHS, in resistant and sensitive plants, did not change after treatment. Total phenols were not affected by ozone, while anthocyanins were quickly utilised by resistant clone as antioxidant compounds. - Characterization and isolation of PAL and CHS genes in Centaurea jacea exposed to O{sub 3}.

  3. Using plutonium excretion data to predict dose from chronic and acute exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahenbuhl, M.P.; Wilde, J.L.; Slaughter, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Using fission track analysis (FTA) in conjunction with a composite theoretical model of the transport of plutonium (Pu) in the human body creates a new opportunity to estimate the exposure and dose to the general population due to plutonium in the environment. For the purposes of this study, data derived from FTA performed at the University of Utah's Center for Excellence in Nuclear Technology, Engineering and Research (CENTER) has been used to predict doses for two populations. Both population groups have no known history of plutonium exposures. Therefore, two exposure scenarios (acute and chronic) were assumed to provide boundaries for dose estimates. Dose predictions focus on equivalent dose to lung, liver, and skeletal systems and range from 0.01 mSv to 560 mSv as a function of organ, sample collection interval and exposure type. Additionally, these reconstructions demonstrate the sensitivity of dose calculations to time of sample collection and duration of exposure. As anticipated for a class Y particle, the predicted average equivalent tissue dose to the lungs represents the highest dose to the evaluated compartments. Furthermore, the data imply that the general population receives a dose one order of magnitude lower than a radiation worker with no history of exposure for the equivalent exposure scenario. (author)

  4. [Myocardial ultrastructural changes in rats following different levels of acute +Gz exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Liu, Cheng-gang; Ren, Li; Xiao, Xiao-guang; Xu, Shu-xuan; Wang, Ping; Ji, Gui-ying

    2004-06-01

    To observe the effects of different levels of acute +Gz exposure on myocardial ultrastructure of rats and provide experimental basis for further development of anti-G measures. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=5): normal control group, +20 Gz group, +10 Gz group and +5 Gz group. Profile of the centrifuge +Gz exposure was trapezoidal, in which +20 Gz lasted for 30 s, +10 Gz for 1.5 min. +5 Gz exposure was repeated for 3 times with 30 min interval and each for 1.5 min. Myocardial tissue of left ventricle was sampled for transmission electron microscopy 5 h after exposure. +20 Gz and +10 Gz exposure caused obvious edema of myocardial and endothelial cells, myofibril disorder and injuries of mitochondria and nucleus. Breaks of myocardial fiber, formation of contraction bands and rupture of mitochondria were also observed in +20 Gz group. In +5 Gz group, there was still slight edema of myocardial and endothelial cells, while organic changes of myocardial ultrastructure were not observed. High +Gz exposure can cause myocardial ultrastructural injury in rats. Slight reversible injured response can also be observed in myocardial cell after repeated moderate level of +Gz exposure. This indicates that attention should be paid to the study of the effect of high +Gz on heart in pilots.

  5. Exposure and acute exposure-effects before and after modification of a contaminated humidification system in a synthetic-fibre plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, TM; de Monchy, JGR; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    Objective: Follow-up study of exposure and acute exposure-effects after modification to steam humidification of a contaminated cold water system which had caused an outbreak of humidifier fever in a synthetic-fibre plant. Methods: Before and after modification of the system aerobiological

  6. The effect of acute heat exposure on rat pituitary corticotroph activation: the role of vasopressin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Djurasevic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased ambient temperature affects the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. Since the correlation among vasopressin (VP, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT responses to various stressors have been long recognized, the aim of this study was to reveal the aforementioned hormones production and morphology of the pituitary gland after exposure to acute heat. Rats were exposed to high ambient temperature (38 °C for 20 or 60 minutes. The circulating hormones were determined by an ELISA test or chemiluminescence's method. The results obtained show the elevation in ACTH and CORT secretion depending on the duration of heat exposure. The VP concentration increased only after prolonged exposure to heat (60 min. The pituitary morphology was examined by routine and fluorescent immunohistochemistry as well as electron microscopy. Observed changes in the anterior and posterior pituitary well corresponded to circulating hormones, regarding the volume density of ACTH-immunopositive cells, percentage of ACTH immunopositive area v. total area and number of VP-immunopositive containing varicose fibers per total area. Acute heat exposure also induced changes in shapes of ACTH-immunopositive cells. Cells appeared stellate with numerous slender cytoplasmic processes and degranulated, which is the most obvious after 20 min. In addition, immunopositivity of endothelial and anterior pituitary cells for VP suggests its influence on ACTH secretion.

  7. The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minqi; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yingying; Su, Ying-Chu; Chen, Qingwei; Hsiao, Fan-Chi; Ji, Yanran; Yang, Chien-Ming; Zhou, Guofu

    2018-03-15

    Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K) alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K) three times); continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure. Each light exposure was conducted during the three hours before bedtime. Fifteen healthy volunteers (20 ± 3.4 years; seven males) were scheduled to stay in the sleep laboratory for four separated nights (one for adaptation and the others for the light exposures) with a period of at least one week between nights. The results showed that when compared with dim light, both intermittent light and continuous bright light significantly increased subjective alertness and decreased sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep time (TST). Intermittent light significantly increased objective alertness than dim light did during the second half of the light-exposure period. Our results suggested that intermittent light was as effective as continuous bright light in their acute effects in enhancing subjective and objective alertness and in negatively impacting subsequent sleep.

  8. The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minqi Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K three times; continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure. Each light exposure was conducted during the three hours before bedtime. Fifteen healthy volunteers (20 ± 3.4 years; seven males were scheduled to stay in the sleep laboratory for four separated nights (one for adaptation and the others for the light exposures with a period of at least one week between nights. The results showed that when compared with dim light, both intermittent light and continuous bright light significantly increased subjective alertness and decreased sleep efficiency (SE and total sleep time (TST. Intermittent light significantly increased objective alertness than dim light did during the second half of the light-exposure period. Our results suggested that intermittent light was as effective as continuous bright light in their acute effects in enhancing subjective and objective alertness and in negatively impacting subsequent sleep.

  9. Prior exposure to repeated immobilization or chronic unpredictable stress protects from some negative sequels of an acute immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Ciurana, Jordi; Rabasa, Cristina; Ortega-Sánchez, Juan A; Sanchís-Ollè, Maria; Gabriel-Salazar, Marina; Ginesta, Marta; Belda, Xavier; Daviu, Núria; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2014-05-15

    Exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) is gaining acceptance as a putative animal model of depression. However, there is evidence that chronic exposure to stress can offer non-specific stress protection from some effects of acute superimposed stressors. We then compared in adult male rats the protection afforded by prior exposure to CUS with the one offered by repeated immobilization on boards (IMO) regarding some of the negative consequences of an acute exposure to IMO. Repeated exposure to IMO protected from the negative consequences of an acute IMO on activity in an open-field, saccharin intake and body weight gain. Active coping during IMO (struggling) was markedly reduced by repeated exposure to the same stressor, but it was not affected by a prior history of CUS, suggesting that our CUS protocol does not appear to impair active coping responses. CUS exposure itself caused a strong reduction of activity in the open-field but appeared to protect from the hypo-activity induced by acute IMO. Moreover, prior CUS offered partial protection from acute IMO-induced reduction of saccharin intake and body weight gain. It can be concluded that a prior history of CUS protects from some of the negative consequences of exposure to a novel severe stressor, suggesting the development of partial cross-adaptation whose precise mechanisms remain to be studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehinto, Alvine C.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S.; Vulpe, Christopher D.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  11. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehinto, Alvine C., E-mail: alvinam@sccwrp.org [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prucha, Melinda S. [Department of Human Genetics, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vulpe, Christopher D. [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  12. El Salvador earthquakes: relationships among acute stress disorder symptoms, depression, traumatic event exposure, and resource loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; de Alvarado, Ana Maria Glower; de Castro, Norma Blandon; Male, Robert Van; Zetino, A M; Vega, Raphael

    2006-12-01

    Four and seven weeks after powerful earthquakes in El Salvador, the authors examined the relationships among demographics, traumatic event exposure, social support, resource loss, acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, depression, and posttraumatic growth. Participants were 253 college students (Study 1) and 83 people in the community (Study 2). In Study 1, female gender, traumatic event exposure, low social support, and loss of personal characteristic, condition, and energy resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. In Study 2, damage to home and loss of personal characteristic and object resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. Posttraumatic growth was not associated with ASD symptoms or depression. Findings support the conservation of resources stress theory (Hobfoll, 1998). Resource loss spirals, excessive demands on coping, and exposure to multiple disasters are discussed.

  13. Influence of chitosan and melanin-glucan complex onto gamma-exposure with low doses and acute stressful reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyuk, O.F.; Tarasenko, P.D.; Pazukhin, Eh.M.; Gorovoj, L.F.; Varlamov, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    Possibilities of prevention and reduction of consequences of acute exposure on the background of immobilization stress with the help of chitosan preparations and of melanin - glucan complex of highest bazidiomicetes (fungi) were studied. Tested preparations were capable to protect hematological and immunological homeostasis of line BALB/c mice from stressful reaction provoked by acute exposure and two-hour immobilization. The most expressed normalizing and adapting effect had the mixture composed of chitosan and melanin-glucan complex

  14. Acute but not chronic ethanol exposure impairs retinol oxidation in the small and large intestine of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Ellendt, K.; Lindros, K.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ethanol has been shown to inhibit retinol oxidation at the level of alcohol dehydrogenase in liver and colon but not previously in the small intestine. In the present study we investigated how chronic alcohol feeding and acute ethanol exposure affects retinol dehydrogenase...... higher, respectively). While chronic alcohol feeding did not affect these parameters, acute ethanol exposure reduced V(max) and V(max)/K(m) dose-dependently (p

  15. Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selin, N E; Nam, K M; Reilly, J M; Paltsev, S; Prinn, R G; Webster, M D; Wu, S

    2009-01-01

    We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impacts in sixteen world regions. We compare the costs of ozone pollution under scenarios with 2000 and 2050 ozone precursor and greenhouse gas emissions (using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario). We estimate that health costs due to global ozone pollution above pre-industrial levels by 2050 will be $580 billion (year 2000$) and that mortalities from acute exposure will exceed 2 million. We find that previous methodologies underestimate costs of air pollution by more than a third because they do not take into account the long-term, compounding effects of health costs. The economic effects of emissions changes far exceed the influence of climate alone.

  16. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehinto, Alvine C; Prucha, Melinda S; Colli-Dula, Reyna C; Kroll, Kevin J; Lavelle, Candice M; Barber, David S; Vulpe, Christopher D; Denslow, Nancy D

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level - 2.6μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly increased in the liver including genes encoding for the rate limiting steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the catalytic enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. Integration of the transcriptomic data using functional enrichment analyses revealed a number of enriched gene networks associated with previously reported adverse outcomes of cadmium exposure such as liver toxicity and impaired reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Exposure to Cooking Fumes and Acute Reversible Decrement in Lung Functional Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Neghab

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being exposed to cooking fumes, kitchen workers are occupationally at risk of multiple respiratory hazards. No conclusive evidence exists as to whether occupational exposure to these fumes is associated with acute and chronic pulmonary effects and symptoms of respiratory diseases. Objective: To quantify the exposure levels and evaluate possible chronic and acute pulmonary effects associated with exposure to cooking fumes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 kitchen workers exposed to cooking fumes and 60 unexposed employees were investigated. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among these groups was determined through completion of a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function parameters were also measured before and after participants' work shift. Moreover, air samples were collected and analyzed to quantify their aldehyde, particle, and volatile organic contents. Results: The mean airborne concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein was 0.45 (SD 0.41, 0.13 (0.1, and 1.56 (0.41 mg/m3, respectively. The mean atmospheric concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs was 3.31 (2.6, 12.21 (5.9, 44.16 (16.6, 57 (21.55 μg/m3, and 1.31 (1.11 mg/m3, respectively. All respiratory symptoms were significantly (p<0.05 more prevalent in exposed group. No significant difference was noted between the pre-shift mean of spirometry parameters of exposed and unexposed group. However, exposed workers showed cross-shift decrease in most spirometry parameters, significantly lower than the pre-shift values and those of the comparison group. Conclusion: Exposure to cooking fumes is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as well as acute reversible decrease in lung functional capacity.

  18. Chromosomal Bands Affected by Acute Oil Exposure and DNA Repair Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Giraldo, Jesús; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Espinosa, Ana; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Verea, Hector; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Gómez, Federico P.; Antó, Josep M.; Coll, Maria Dolors; Barberà, Joan Albert; Fuster, Carme

    2013-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we showed that individuals who had participated in oil clean-up tasks after the wreckage of the Prestige presented an increase of structural chromosomal alterations two years after the acute exposure had occurred. Other studies have also reported the presence of DNA damage during acute oil exposure, but little is known about the long term persistence of chromosomal alterations, which can be considered as a marker of cancer risk. Objectives We analyzed whether the breakpoints involved in chromosomal damage can help to assess the risk of cancer as well as to investigate their possible association with DNA repair efficiency. Methods Cytogenetic analyses were carried out on the same individuals of our previous study and DNA repair errors were assessed in cultures with aphidicolin. Results Three chromosomal bands, 2q21, 3q27 and 5q31, were most affected by acute oil exposure. The dysfunction in DNA repair mechanisms, expressed as chromosomal damage, was significantly higher in exposed-oil participants than in those not exposed (p= 0.016). Conclusion The present study shows that breaks in 2q21, 3q27 and 5q31 chromosomal bands, which are commonly involved in hematological cancer, could be considered useful genotoxic oil biomarkers. Moreover, breakages in these bands could induce chromosomal instability, which can explain the increased risk of cancer (leukemia and lymphomas) reported in chronically benzene-exposed individuals. In addition, it has been determined that the individuals who participated in clean-up of the oil spill presented an alteration of their DNA repair mechanisms two years after exposure. PMID:24303039

  19. [Health impact of ozone in 13 Italian cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitis, Francesco; Iavarone, Ivano; Martuzzi, Marco

    2007-01-01

    to estimate the health impact of ozone in 13 Italian cities over 200,000 inhabitants and to produce basic elements to permit the reproducibility of the study in other urban locations. the following data have been used: population data (2001), health data (2001 or from scientific literature), environmental data (2002-2004), from urban background monitoring station and concentration/response risk coefficients derived from recent metanalyses. The indicators SOMO35 and SOMO0 have been used as a proxi of the average exposure to calcolate attributable deaths (and years of life lost) and several causes of morbility for ozone concentrations over 70 microg/m3. acute mortality for all causes and for cardiovascular mortality, respiratory-related hospital admissions in elderly, asthma exacerbation in children and adults, minor restricted activity days, lower respiratory symptoms in children. over 500 (1900) deaths, the 0.6% (2.1%) of total mortality, equivalent to about 6000 (22,000) years of life lost are attributable to ozone levels over 70 microg/m3 in the 13 Italian cities under study. Larger figures, in the order of thousands, are attributable to less severe morbidity outcomes. The health impact of ozone in Italian towns is relevant in terms of acute mortality and morbidity, although less severe than PM10 impact. Background ozone levels are increasing. Abatement strategies for ozone concentrations should consider the whole summer and not only "peak" days and look at policies limiting the concentration of precursors produced by traffic sources. Relevant health benefits can be obtained also under levels proposed as guidelines in the present environmental regulations.

  20. Effect of Acute, Subacute, and Repeated Exposure to High Altitude (5050 m on Psychomotor Vigilance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiram Pun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: High altitude (HA hypoxia may affect cognitive performance and sleep quality. Further, vigilance is reduced following sleep deprivation. We investigated the effect on vigilance, actigraphic sleep indices, and their relationships with acute mountain sickness (AMS during very HA exposure, acclimatization, and re-exposure.Methods: A total of 21 healthy altitude-naive individuals (25 ± 4 years; 13 females completed 2 cycles of altitude exposure separated by 7 days at low altitude (LA, 520 m. Participants slept at 2900 m and spent the day at HA, (5050 m. We report acute altitude exposure on Day 1 (LA vs. HA1 and after 6 days of acclimatization (HA1 vs. HA6. Vigilance was quantified by reaction speed in the 10-min psychomotor vigilance test reaction speed (PVT-RS. AMS was evaluated using the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire Cerebral Score (AMS-C score. Nocturnal rest/activity was recorded to estimate sleep duration using actigraphy.Results: In Cycle 1, PVT-RS was slower at HA1 compared to LA (4.1 ± 0.8 vs. 4.5 ± 0.6 s-1, respectively, p = 0.029, but not at HA6 (4.6 ± 0.7; p > 0.05. In Cycle 2, PVT-RS at HA1 (4.6 ± 0.7 and HA6 (4.8 ± 0.6 were not different from LA (4.8 ± 0.6, p > 0.05 and significantly greater than corresponding values in Cycle 1. In both cycles, AMS scores were higher at HA1 than at LA and HA6 (p < 0.05. Estimated sleep durations (TST at LA, 1st and 5th nights were 431.3 ± 28.7, 418.1 ± 48.6, and 379.7 ± 51.4 min, respectively, in Cycle 1 and they were significantly reduced during acclimatization exposures (LA vs. 1st night, p > 0.05; LA vs. 5th night, p = 0.012; and 1st vs. 5th night, p = 0.054. LA, 1st and 5th nights TST in Cycle 2 were 477.5 ± 96.9, 430.9 ± 34, and 341.4 ± 32.2, respectively, and we observed similar deteriorations in TST as in Cycle 1 (LA vs. 1st night, p > 0.05; LA vs. 5th night, p = 0.001; and 1st vs. 5th night, p < 0.0001. At HA1, subjects who reported higher AMS-C scores exhibited slower

  1. Self-Reported Acute Health Effects and Exposure to Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Dufour, A P; Sams, E A; Wade, T J

    2016-06-01

    To understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms [e.g. gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, dermatological], it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar animals can result in a variety of health symptoms related to infection, irritation and allergy; however, few studies have examined this association in a large-scale cohort setting. Cross-sectional data collected from 50 507 participants in the United States enrolled from 2003 to 2009 were used to examine associations between animal contact and acute health symptoms during a 10-12 day period. Fixed-effects multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confident intervals (CI) for associations between animal exposures and outcomes of GI illness, respiratory illness and skin/eye symptoms. Two-thirds of the study population (63.2%) reported direct contact with animals, of which 7.7% had contact with at least one unfamiliar animal. Participants exposed to unfamiliar animals had significantly higher odds of self-reporting all three acute health symptoms, when compared to non-animal-exposed participants (GI: AOR = 1.4, CI = 1.2-1.7; respiratory: AOR = 1.5, CI = 1.2-1.8; and skin/eye: AOR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.3), as well as when compared to participants who only had contact with familiar animals. Specific contact with dogs, cats or pet birds was also significantly associated with at least one acute health symptom; AORs ranged from 1.1 to 1.5, when compared to participants not exposed to each animal. These results indicate that contact with animals, especially unfamiliar animals, was significantly associated with GI, respiratory and skin/eye symptoms. Such associations could be attributable to zoonotic infections and allergic reactions. Etiological models for acute health symptoms should consider contact with companion animals, particularly exposure to unfamiliar animals

  2. Development of Toxicological Risk Assessment Models for Acute and Chronic Exposure to Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke S. Reichwaldt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alert level frameworks advise agencies on a sequence of monitoring and management actions, and are implemented so as to reduce the risk of the public coming into contact with hazardous substances. Their effectiveness relies on the detection of the hazard, but with many systems not receiving any regular monitoring, pollution events often go undetected. We developed toxicological risk assessment models for acute and chronic exposure to pollutants that incorporate the probabilities that the public will come into contact with undetected pollution events, to identify the level of risk a system poses in regards to the pollutant. As a proof of concept, we successfully demonstrated that the models could be applied to determine probabilities of acute and chronic illness types related to recreational activities in waterbodies containing cyanotoxins. Using the acute model, we identified lakes that present a ‘high’ risk to develop Day Away From Work illness, and lakes that present a ‘low’ or ‘medium’ risk to develop First Aid Cases when used for swimming. The developed risk models succeeded in categorising lakes according to their risk level to the public in an objective way. Modelling by how much the probability of public exposure has to decrease to lower the risks to acceptable levels will enable authorities to identify suitable control measures and monitoring strategies. We suggest broadening the application of these models to other contaminants.

  3. Stress hormonal changes in the brain and plasma after acute noise exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Gyun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, So Young; Park, Shi Nae

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of acute noise stress on two amine stress hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the brain and plasma of mice after noise exposure. Mice were grouped into the control and noise groups. Mice in the noise group were exposed to white noise of 110dB sound pressure level for 60min. Auditory brainstem response thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the organ of Corti grading scores, western blots of NE/5-HIAA in the whole brain and hippocampus, and the plasma levels of NE/5-HIAA were compared between the two groups. Significant hearing loss and cochlear damage were demonstrated in the noise group. NE and 5-HIAA in the hippocampus were elevated in the noise group (p=0.019/0.022 for NE/5-HIAA vs. the control). Plasma levels of NE and 5-HIAA were not statistically different between the groups (p=0.052/0.671 for NE/5-HIAA). Hearing loss with outer hair cell dysfunction and morphological changes of the organ of Corti after noise exposure in C57BL/6 mice proved the reliability of our animal model as an acute noise stress model. NE and 5-HIAA are suggested to be the potential biomarkers for acute noise stress in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Susceptibility of adult and senescent brown norway rats to repeated ozone exposure: An assessment of behavior, serum biochemistry and cardiopulmonary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropospheric ozone (03) is a pervasive air pollutant that produces pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunction and there is growing evidence suggesting neurological dysfunction as well. Young and old individuals are generally recognized as being susceptible to ozone toxicity; howeve...

  5. Analysis of Dextromethorphan and Dextrorphan in Skeletal Remains Following Differential Microclimate Exposure: Comparison of Acute vs. Repeated Drug Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lucas M; Unger, Kirk A; Watterson, James H

    2017-07-01

    Analysis of dextromethorphan (DXM) and its metabolite dextrorphan (DXT) in skeletal remains of rats following acute (ACU, 75 mg/kg, IP, n = 10) or three repeated (REP, 25 mg/kg, IP, n = 10, 40-min interval) doses of DXM is described. Following dosing and euthanasia, rats decomposed outdoors to skeleton in two different microclimate environments (n = 5 ACU and n = 5 REP at each site): Site A (shaded forest microenvironment) and Site B (rocky substrate exposed to direct sunlight, 600 m from Site A). Two drug-free rats at each site served as negative controls. Skeletal elements (vertebrae, ribs, pelvic girdles, femora, tibiae, skulls and scapulae) were recovered, pulverized and underwent methanolic microwave assisted extraction (MAE). Extracts were analyzed by GC-MS following clean-up by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Drug levels, expressed as mass-normalized response ratios and the ratios of DXT and DXM levels (RRDXT/RRDXM) were compared between drug exposures, microclimate sites, and across skeletal elements. DXM levels differed significantly (P < 0.05) between corresponding bone elements across exposure groups (5/7-site A; 4/7-site B), but no significant differences in DXT levels were observed between corresponding elements. RRDXT/RRDXM differed significantly (P < 0.05) between corresponding bone elements across exposure groups (6/7-site A; 5/7-site B). No significant differences were observed in levels of DXM, DXT or RRDXT/RRDXM between corresponding elements from either group between sites. When data from all bone elements was pooled, levels of DXM and RRDXT/RRDXM differed significantly between exposure groups at each site, while those of DXT did not. For both exposure groups, comparison of pooled data between sites showed no significant differences in levels of DXM, DXT or RRDXT/RRDXM. Different decomposition microclimates did not impede the discrimination of DXM exposure patterns from the analyses of DXM, DXT and RRDXT/RRDXM in bone samples. © The Author 2017

  6. Ozone exposure induces the activation of leaf senescence-related processes and morphological and growth changes in seedlings of Mediterranean tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribas, Angela [CSIC-CEAB-CREAF Ecophysiology Unit, CREAF-Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: a.ribas@creaf.uab.es; Pen-tilde uelas, Josep [CSIC-CEAB-CREAF Ecophysiology Unit, CREAF-Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: josep.penuelas@uab.es; Elvira, Susana [CIEMAT, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, Benjamin S. [CIEMAT, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    Four Mediterranean tree taxa, Quercus ilex subsp. ilex, Quercus ilex subsp. ballota, Olea europaea cv. vulgaris and Ceratonia siliqua, were exposed to different ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations in open top chambers (OTCs) during 2 years. Three treatments were applied: charcoal-filtered air (CF), non-filtered air (NF) and non-filtered air plus 40 ppb{sub v} of O{sub 3} (NF+). The photochemical maximal efficiency, Fv/Fm, decreased in NF+ plants during the second year of exposure, especially during the most stressful Mediterranean seasons (winter and summer). An increase of {delta}{sup 13}C was found in three of the four studied species during the first year of exposure. This finding was only maintained in C. siliqua during the second year. Decreases in the chlorophyll content were detected during the first year of fumigations in all the species studied, but not during the second year. The NF+ treatment induced changes in foliar anatomical characteristics, especially in leaf mass per area (LMA) and spongy parenchyma thickness, which increased in some species. A reduction in N content and an increase in {delta}{sup 15}N were found in all species during the second year when exposed in the NF+ OTCs, suggesting a change in their retranslocation pattern linked to an acceleration of leaf senescence, as also indicated by the above mentioned biochemical and anatomical foliar changes. The two Q. ilex subspecies were the most sensitive species since the changes in N concentration, {delta}{sup 15}N, chlorophyll, leaf area, LMA and biomass occurred at ambient O{sub 3} concentrations. However, C. siliqua was the most responsive species (29% biomass reduction) when exposed to the NF+ treatment, followed by the two Q. ilex subspecies (14-20%) and O. europaea (no significant reduction). Ozone resistance of the latter species was linked to some plant traits such as chlorophyll concentrations, or spongy parenchyma thickness. - Ozone induces species-specific leaf senescence

  7. Histopathological alterations of white seabass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thophon, S.; Kruatrachue, M.; Upatham, E.S.; Pokethitiyook, P.; Sahaphong, S.; Jaritkhuan, S

    2003-03-01

    White seabass responded differently to cadmium at chronic and subchronic levels. - Histopathological alterations to white seabass, Lates calcarifer aged 3 months in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The 96-h LC{sub 50} values of cadmium to L. calcarifer was found to be 20.12{+-}0.61 mg/l and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 7.79 mg/l. Fish were exposed to 10 and 0.8 mg/l of Cd (as CdCl{sub 2}H{sub 2}O) for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. The study showed that gill lamellae and kidney tubules were the primary target organs for the acute toxic effect of cadmium while in the subchronic exposure, the toxic effect to gills was less than that of kidney and liver. Gill alterations included edema of the epithelial cells with the breakdown of pillar cell system, aneurisms with some ruptures, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of epithelial and chloride cells. The liver showed blood congestion in sinusoids and hydropic swelling of hepatocytes, vacuolation and dark granule accumulation. Lipid droplets and glycogen content were observed in hepatocytes at the second and third month of subchronic exposure. The kidney showed hydropic swelling of tubular cell vacuolation and numerous dark granule accumulation in many tubules. Tubular degeneration and necrosis were seen in some areas.

  8. Behavioural responses of Acroneuria lycoria (Ins. Plecopt. ) Larvae to acute and chronic acid exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNichol, R.E.; Scherer, E.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the responses of a perlid stonefly, Acroneuria lycorias (Newman), to acute and chronic acid exposure. Larvae of this species are common in streams and rivers impacted by acidic precipitation. It is also a suggested standard toxicity test species, which in previous studies has proven to be very sensitive to some toxicants. The effects of acute and chronic acid exposure on the locomotor activity, microdistribution, and drift behaviour of the stonefly larvae were studied in laboratory streams. When subjected to a reduction in pH from 8.1 to 2.5 over an 8-h period, larvae showed little behavioural response down to pH 4.2. As the pH fell to 3.0, head-rubbing activity appeared and increased in frequency. At pH 3.0 and below, larvae showed increased gill-ventilatory movements and locomotor activity. Most larvae died within 14 h of exposure to pH 2.5; however, they did not abandon their preferred refuges before death. Larvae exposed to 5 pH levels between 4.5 and 8.2 for 30-50 d displayed no significant changes in locomotor activity, drift behaviour or microdistribution when compared to control animals. Results indicate that later instar larvae of this species are relatively acid tolerant. 29 refs 4 figs 1 tab

  9. Acute Cocaine Exposure elicits rises in calcium in Arousal Related Laterodorsal Tegmental Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Mads; Ipsen, Theis; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2017-01-01

    Cocaine has strong reinforcing properties, which underlie its high addiction potential. Reinforcement of use of addictive drugs is associated with rises in dopamine (DA) in mesoaccumbal circuitry. Excitatory afferent input to mesoaccumbal circuitry sources from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus...... (LDT). Chronic, systemic cocaine exposure has been shown to have cellular effects on LDT cells, but acute actions of local application have never been demonstrated. Using calcium imaging, we show that acute application of cocaine to mouse brain slices induces calcium spiking in cells of the LDT....... Spiking was attenuated by tetrodotoxin (TTX) and low calcium solutions, and abolished by prior exhaustion of intracellular calcium stores. Further, DA receptor antagonists reduced these transients, whereas DA induced rises with similar spiking kinetics. Amphetamine, which also results in elevated levels...

  10. Medical management of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushmanov, A.; Nadezhina, N.; Kretov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Medical management during acute period in a case of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure includes 3 stages. During the fist stage patient got conservative treatment according to the common pathogenetic mechanisms of LRI (dis aggregating therapy, stimulation of regeneration, dis intoxication therapy, antibiotic therapy, pain relief therapy, Local anti-burn therapy-specific non-adhesive bandage with antiseptic and anti-burn medicaments); estimation of severity, deepness and area of injury by clinical picture and dates of instrumental methods of examining; defining necessity and volume of surgical treatment; preparing arrangements for surgical treatment. This stage ends with forming of demarcation line of a very hard severity of a Local Radiation Injure. The second stage includes necrectomy of the area of a very hard severity with microsurgical plastic by re vascularized flap and auto dermoplastic. The third stage - adaptation of re vascularized flap and total epithelization of injured area. (author)

  11. Temporal changes in rat liver gene expression after acute cadmium and chromium exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Madejczyk

    Full Text Available U.S. Service Members and civilians are at risk of exposure to a variety of environmental health hazards throughout their normal duty activities and in industrial occupations. Metals are widely used in large quantities in a number of industrial processes and are a common environmental toxicant, which increases the possibility of being exposed at toxic levels. While metal toxicity has been widely studied, the exact mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. In order to further elucidate these mechanisms and identify candidate biomarkers, rats were exposed via a single intraperitoneal injection to three concentrations of CdCl2 and Na(2Cr(2O(7, with livers harvested at 1, 3, or 7 days after exposure. Cd and Cr accumulated in the liver at 1 day post exposure. Cd levels remained elevated over the length of the experiment, while Cr levels declined. Metal exposures induced ROS, including hydroxyl radical (•OH, resulting in DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, ROS and cellular damage appeared to increase with time post-exposure in both metals, despite declines in Cr levels. Differentially expressed genes were identified via microarray analysis. Both metals perturbed gene expression in pathways related to oxidative stress, metabolism, DNA damage, cell cycle, and inflammatory response. This work provides insight into the temporal effects and mechanistic pathways involved in acute metal intoxication, leading to the identification of candidate biomarkers.

  12. Acute exposure to crystalline silica reduces macrophage activation in response to bacterial lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Lee Beamer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have examined the relationship between alveolar macrophages (AM and crystalline silica (SiO2 using in vitro and in vivo immunotoxicity models; however, exactly how exposure to SiO2 alters the functionality of AM and the potential consequences for immunity to respiratory pathogens remains largely unknown. Because recognition and clearance of inhaled particulates and microbes is largely mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRR on the surface of AM, we hypothesized that exposure to SiO2 limits the ability of AM to respond to bacterial challenge by altering PRR expression. Alveolar and bone marrow-derived macrophages downregulate TLR2 expression following acute SiO2 exposure (e.g. 4 hours. Interestingly, these responses were dependent upon interactions between SiO2 and the class A scavenger receptor CD204, but not MARCO. Furthermore, SiO2 exposure decreased uptake of fluorescently labeled Pam2CSK4 and Pam3CSK4, resulting in reduced secretion of IL-1β, but not IL-6. Collectively, our data suggest that SiO2 exposure alters AM phenotype, which in turn affects their ability to uptake and respond to bacterial lipoproteins.

  13. Evaluation of three physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling tools for emergency risk assessment after acute dichloromethane exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, R. Z.; Olie, J. D N; van Eijkeren, J. C H; Bos, P. M J; Hof, B. G H; de Vries, I.; Bessems, J. G M; Meulenbelt, J.; Hunault, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models may be useful in emergency risk assessment, after acute exposure to chemicals, such as dichloromethane (DCM). We evaluated the applicability of three PBPK models for human risk assessment following a single exposure to DCM: one model

  14. Acute cataract in the rat after exposure to radiation in the 300 nm wavelength region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological data indicate a correlation between exposure to UV radiation and cataract morbidity. UV radiation induced cataract is thought to be evoked by photochemical mechanisms. The present investigation resolves the macroscopical events in the rat lens after a one dose exposure to spectrally and radiometrically well defined UV radiation, as revealed in light- and dark-field illumination. The macroscopic sequence of events is related to the morphology as revealed by light- and electron microscopy. The radiation was found to alter the chromation pattern and to induce morphological changes indicating a disturbance of the cellular water balance. The latter is assumed to cause the acute UV radiation induced opacification of the lens. It is suggested that future investigations of the toxic effects of UV radiation in the lens should focus on how UV radiation effects the chromatin and the cellular water balance. (author)

  15. Acute Inhalation Exposure to Titanium Ethanolate as a Possible Cause of Metal Fume Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadimanesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational inhalation exposure to noxious agents is not uncommon. Herein, we present a 26-year-old male student who had accidental acute inhalation exposure to a large quantity of titanium ethanolate and hydrogen chloride in chemistry lab. He was referred to the emergency department of our hospital with low-grade fever, dyspnea, headache, fatigue and myalgia. After 24 hrs of symptomatic treatment (oxygen therapy and acetaminophen, the fever was subsided and the patient discharged home in a good clinical condition. The presented symptoms could be interpreted as a form of metal fume fever. It can therefore be concluded that organo-metallic compound of titanium metal may have the potential to produce metal fume fever in human.

  16. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of acute metal exposures in male zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Baer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture global responses to metal poisoning and mechanistic insights into metal toxicity, gene expression changes were evaluated in whole adult male zebrafish following acute 24 h high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebrafish were exposed to nickel chloride, cobalt chloride or sodium dichromate at concentrations corresponding to their respective 96 h LC20, LC40 and LC60 (i.e. 96 h concentrations at which 20%, 40% and 60% lethality is expected, respectively. Histopathology was performed on a subset of metal-exposed zebrafish to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with each metal exposure. Here we describe in detail the contents and quality controls for the gene expression and other data associated with the study published by Hussainzada and colleagues in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology (Hussainzada et al., 2014 with the data uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE50648.

  17. Nitrogen soil emissions and belowground plant processes in Mediterranean annual pastures are altered by ozone exposure and N-inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, L.; Bermejo-Bermejo, V.; García-Torres, L.; Alonso, R.; de la Cruz, A.; Calvete-Sogo, H.; Vallejo, A.

    2017-09-01

    Increasing tropospheric ozone (O3) and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition alter the structure and composition of pastures. These changes could affect N and C compounds in the soil that in turn can influence soil microbial activity and processes involved in the emission of N oxides, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), but these effects have been scarcely studied. Through an open top chamber (OTC) field experiment, the combined effects of both pollutants on soil gas emissions from an annual experimental Mediterranean community were assessed. Four O3 treatments and three different N input levels were considered. Fluxes of nitric (NO) and nitrous (N2O) oxide, CH4 and CO2 were analysed as well as soil mineral N and dissolved organic carbon. Belowground plant parameters like root biomass and root C and N content were also sampled. Ozone strongly increased soil N2O emissions, doubling the cumulative emission through the growing cycle in the highest O3 treatment, while N-inputs enhanced more slightly NO; CH4 and CO2 where not affected. Both N-gases had a clear seasonality, peaking at the start and at the end of the season when pasture physiological activity is minimal; thus, higher microorganism activity occurred when pasture had a low nutrient demand. The O3-induced peak of N2O under low N availability at the end of the growing season was counterbalanced by the high N inputs. These effects were related to the O3 x N significant interaction found for the root-N content in the grass and the enhanced senescence of the community. Results indicate the importance of the belowground processes, where competition between plants and microorganisms for the available soil N is a key factor, for understanding the ecosystem responses to O3 and N.

  18. Acute and chronic effects of erythromycin exposure on oxidative stress and genotoxicity parameters of Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, S., E-mail: up201208875@fc.up.pt [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto (FCUP), Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169–007 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Antunes, S.C. [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto (FCUP), Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169–007 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Correia, A.T. [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Fernando Pessoa (FCS-UFP), Rua Carlos da Maia, 296, 4200–150, Porto (Portugal); Nunes, B. [Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810–193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810–193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-03-01

    Erythromycin (ERY) is a macrolide antibiotic used in human and veterinary medicine, and has been detected in various aquatic compartments. Recent studies have indicated that this compound can exert biological activity on non-target organisms environmentally exposed. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of ERY in Oncorhynchus mykiss after acute and chronic exposures. The here adopted strategy involved exposure to three levels of ERY, the first being similar to concentrations reported to occur in the wild, thus ecologically relevant. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers in gills and liver. Genotoxic endpoints, reflecting different types of genetic damage in blood cells, were also determined, by performing analysis of genetic damage (determination of the genetic damage index, GDI, measured by comet assay) and of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs). The results suggest the occurrence of a mild, but significant, oxidative stress scenario in gills. For acutely exposed organisms, significant alterations were observed in CAT and GRed activities, and also in TBARS levels, which however are modifications with uncertain biological interpretation, despite indicating involvement of an oxidative effect and response. After chronic exposure, a significant decrease of CAT activity, increase of GPx activity and TBARS levels in gills was noticed. In liver, significant decrease in TBARS levels were observed in both exposures. Comet and ENAs assays indicated significant increases on genotoxic damage of O. mykiss, after erythromycin exposures. This set of data (acute and chronic) suggests that erythromycin has the potential to induce DNA strand breaks in blood cells, and demonstrate the induction of chromosome breakage and/or segregational abnormalities. Overall results indicate that both DNA damaging effects induced by

  19. Acute and chronic effects of erythromycin exposure on oxidative stress and genotoxicity parameters of Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, S.; Antunes, S.C.; Correia, A.T.; Nunes, B.

    2016-01-01

    Erythromycin (ERY) is a macrolide antibiotic used in human and veterinary medicine, and has been detected in various aquatic compartments. Recent studies have indicated that this compound can exert biological activity on non-target organisms environmentally exposed. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of ERY in Oncorhynchus mykiss after acute and chronic exposures. The here adopted strategy involved exposure to three levels of ERY, the first being similar to concentrations reported to occur in the wild, thus ecologically relevant. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers in gills and liver. Genotoxic endpoints, reflecting different types of genetic damage in blood cells, were also determined, by performing analysis of genetic damage (determination of the genetic damage index, GDI, measured by comet assay) and of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs). The results suggest the occurrence of a mild, but significant, oxidative stress scenario in gills. For acutely exposed organisms, significant alterations were observed in CAT and GRed activities, and also in TBARS levels, which however are modifications with uncertain biological interpretation, despite indicating involvement of an oxidative effect and response. After chronic exposure, a significant decrease of CAT activity, increase of GPx activity and TBARS levels in gills was noticed. In liver, significant decrease in TBARS levels were observed in both exposures. Comet and ENAs assays indicated significant increases on genotoxic damage of O. mykiss, after erythromycin exposures. This set of data (acute and chronic) suggests that erythromycin has the potential to induce DNA strand breaks in blood cells, and demonstrate the induction of chromosome breakage and/or segregational abnormalities. Overall results indicate that both DNA damaging effects induced by

  20. Neonatal maternal separation increases susceptibility to experimental colitis and acute stress exposure in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella M. Fuentes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing early life stress can result in maladjusted stress response via dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and serves as a risk factor for developing chronic pelvic pain disorders. We investigated whether neonatal maternal separation (NMS would increase susceptibility to experimental colitis or exposure to acute or chronic stress. Male mice underwent NMS from postnatal day 1–21 and as adults were assessed for open field behavior, hindpaw sensitivity, and visceromotor response (VMR to colorectal distension (CRD. VMR was also measured before and after treatment with intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS or exposure to acute or chronic water avoidance stress (WAS. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, proinflammatory gene and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF receptor expression were measured in distal colon. Baseline VMR was not affected by NMS, but undergoing CRD increased anxiety-like behaviors and mechanical hindpaw sensitivity of NMS mice. Treatment with TNBS dose-dependently decreased body weight and survival only in NMS mice. Following TNBS treatment, IL-6 and artemin mRNA levels were decreased in the distal colon of NMS mice, despite increased MPO activity. A single WAS exposure increased VMR during CRD in NMS mice and increased IL-6 mRNA and CRF2 protein levels in the distal colon of naïve mice, whereas CRF2 protein levels were heightened in NMS colon both at baseline and post-WAS exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that NMS in mice disrupts inflammatory- and stress-induced gene expression in the colon, potentially contributing towards an exaggerated response to specific stressors later in life.

  1. Impacts of ozone on trees and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felzer, B.S.; Cronina, T.; Melillo, J.M.; Reilly, J.M.; Xiaodong, Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and other plant functions. Ozone formation in the atmosphere is a product of NO x , which are also a source of nitrogen deposition. Reduced carbon sequestration of temperate forests resulting from ozone is likely offset by increased carbon sequestration from nitrogen fertilization. However, since fertilized crop-lands are generally not nitrogen-limited, capping ozone-polluting substances in the USA, Europe, and China can reduce future crop yield loss substantially. (authors)

  2. The effect of acute heat exposure on rat pituitary corticotroph activation: the role of vasopressin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Jasnic

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased ambient temperature affects the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. Since thecorrelation among vasopressin (VP, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT responses to variousstressors have been long recognized, the aim of this study was to reveal the aforementioned hormones production andmorphology of the pituitary gland after exposure to acute heat. Rats were exposed to high ambient temperature (38°C for20 or 60 minutes. The circulating hormones were determined by an ELISA test or chemiluminescence's method. The resultsobtained show the elevation in ACTH and CORT secretion depending on the duration of heat exposure. The VP concentrationincreased only after prolonged exposure to heat (60 min. The pituitary morphology was examined by routine and fluorescentimmunohistochemistry as well as electron microscopy. Observed changes in the anterior and posterior pituitarywell corresponded to circulating hormones, regarding the volume density of ACTH-immunopositive cells, percentage ofACTH immunopositive area v. total area and number of VP-immunopositive containing varicose fibers per total area. Acuteheat exposure also induced changes in shapes of ACTH-immunopositive cells. Cells appeared stellate with numerous slendercytoplasmic processes and degranulated, which is the most obvious after 20 min. In addition, immunopositivity ofendothelial and anterior pituitary cells for VP suggests its influence on ACTH secretion.

  3. Exposure to Discrimination and Heart Rate Variability Reactivity to Acute Stress among Women with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Lampert, Rachel; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to racial discrimination has been linked to physiological reactivity. This study investigated self-reported exposure to racial discrimination and parasympathetic [high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV)] and sympathetic (norepinephrine and cortisol) activity at baseline and then again after acute laboratory stress. Lifetime exposure to racial discrimination was measured with the Schedule of Racist Events scale. Thirty-two women (16 Black and 16 White) with type 2 diabetes performed a public speaking stressor. Beat-to-beat intervals were recorded on electrocardiograph recorders, and HF-HRV was calculated using spectral analysis and natural log transformed. Norepinephrine and cortisol were measured in blood. Higher discrimination predicted lower stressor HF-HRV, even after controlling for baseline HF-HRV. When race, age, A1c and baseline systolic blood pressure were also controlled, racial discrimination remained a significant independent predictor of stressor HF-HRV. There was no association between lifetime discrimination and sympathetic markers. In conclusion, preliminary data suggest that among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), exposure to racial discrimination is adversely associated with parasympathetic, but not sympathetic, reactivity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Gene expression changes in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain in response to acute exposure to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Chris; Knoebl, Iris; Pope, Marie; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxicant and endocrine disruptor that accumulates in aquatic systems. Previous studies have shown suppression of hormone levels in both male and female fish, suggesting effects on gonadotropin regulation in the brain. The gene expression profile in adult female zebrafish whole brain induced by acute (96 h) MeHg exposure was investigated. Fish were exposed by injection to 0 or 0.5(mu or u)g MeHg/g. Gene expression changes in the brain were examined using a 22,000-feature zebrafish microarray. At a significance level of pexposure. Individual genes exhibiting altered expression in response to MeHg exposure implicate effects on glutathione metabolism in the mechanism of MeHg neurotoxicity. Gene ontology (GO) terms significantly enriched among altered genes included protein folding, cell redox homeostasis, and steroid biosynthetic process. The most affected biological functions were related to nervous system development and function, as well as lipid metabolism and molecular transport. These results support the involvement of oxidative stress and effects on protein structure in the mechanism of action of MeHg in the female brain. Future studies will compare the gene expression profile induced in response to MeHg with that induced by other toxicants and will investigate responsive genes as potential biomarkers of MeHg exposure.

  5. Modulation of pulmonary defense mechanisms by acute exposures to nitrogen dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakab, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of acute exposures to NO 2 on the antibacterial defenses of the murine lung was assessed following inhalation challenges with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica. With S. aureus pulmonary antibacterial defenses were suppressed at NO 2 levels of 4.0 ppm and greater. Exposure to 10.0 ppm enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of P. mirabilis which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell populations lavaged from the lungs; at 20.0 ppm bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis was impaired. Pulmonary antibacterial defenses against P. pneumotropica were impaired at 10.0 ppm which correlated with a decrease in the retrieved phagocytic lung cell population. Reversing the order of treatment (ie., NO 2 exposure prior to bacterial challenge) raised the threshold concentration for NO 2 -induced impairment of intrapulmonary bacterial killing. With S. aureus the effect was not observed at 5.0 ppm but at 10.0 ppm and with P. mirabilis not at 20.0 ppm but at 30.0 ppm intrapulmonary killing was enhanced. Exposures up to 20.0 ppm of NO 2 did not effect the physical translocation mechanisms of the lung as quantitated by declines in pulmonary radiotracer activity following aerogenic challenge with 32 P-labeled staphylococci

  6. Simulated root dynamics of a 160-year-old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree with and without ozone exposure using the TREGRO model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzlaff, W. A.; Weinstein, D. A.; Laurence, J. A.; Gollands, B.

    1996-01-01

    Because of difficulties in directly assessing root responses of mature forest trees exposed to atmospheric pollutants, we have used the model TREGRO to analyze the effects of a 3- and a 10-year exposure to ozone (O(3)) on root dynamics of a simulated 160-year-old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree. We used existing phenological, allometric, and growth data to parameterize TREGRO to produce a simulated 160-year-old tree. Simulations were based on literature values for sugar maple fine root production and senescence and the photosynthetic responses of sugar maple seedlings exposed to O(3) in open-top chambers. In the simulated 3-year exposure to O(3), 2 x ambient atmospheric O(3) concentrations reduced net carbon (C) gain of the 160-year-old tree. This reduction occurred in the C storage pools (total nonstructural carbohydrate, TNC), with most of the reduction occurring in coarse (woody) roots. Total fine root production and senescence were unaffected by the simulated 3-year exposure to O(3). However, extending the simulated O(3) exposure period to 10 years depleted the TNC pools of the coarse roots and reduced total fine root production. Similar reductions in TNC pools have been observed in forest-grown sugar maple trees exhibiting symptoms of stress. We conclude that modeling can aid in evaluating the belowground response of mature forest trees to atmospheric pollution stress and could indicate the potential for gradual deterioration of tree health under conditions of long-term stress, a situation similar to that underlying the decline of sugar maple trees.

  7. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  8. Caffeine improves performance in double poling during acute exposure to 2,000-m altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadheim, H K; Nossum, E M; Olsen, R; Spencer, M; Jensen, J

    2015-12-15

    There is limited research on the physiological effects of caffeine (CAF) ingestion on exercise performance during acute hypoxia. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the effect of placebo (PLA) and CAF (4.5 mg/kg) on double poling (DP) performance during acute hypoxia. Thirteen male subelite cross-country skiers (V̇o2max 72.6 ± 5.68 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were included. Performance was assessed as 1) an 8-km cross-country DP time-trial (C-PT), and 2) time until task failure at a set workload equal to ∼90% of DP V̇o2max. Testing was carried out in a hypobaric chamber, at 800 mbar (Pio2: ∼125 mmHg) corresponding to ∼2,000 m above sea level in a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. CAF improved time to task failure from 6.10 ± 1.40 to 7.22 ± 1.30 min (P performance during acute exposure to altitude. Mechanisms underpinning improvements seem related to reduced pain RPE and increased heart rate during CAF C-PTs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. SUM06 Index for Damage to Flora from Ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In addition to health effects in humans, Ozone exposure also causes damage to plants. One index used in calculating the potential damage to plants from Ozone...

  10. Cumulative toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures to Chironomus dilutus under acute exposure scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin M; Morrissey, Christy A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Liber, Karsten

    2017-11-01

    Extensive agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticide products has resulted in the presence of neonicotinoid mixtures in surface waters worldwide. Although many aquatic insect species are known to be sensitive to neonicotinoids, the impact of neonicotinoid mixtures is poorly understood. In the present study, the cumulative toxicities of binary and ternary mixtures of select neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) were characterized under acute (96-h) exposure scenarios using the larval midge Chironomus dilutus as a representative aquatic insect species. Using the MIXTOX approach, predictive parametric models were fitted and statistically compared with observed toxicity in subsequent mixture tests. Single-compound toxicity tests yielded median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 4.63, 5.93, and 55.34 μg/L for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, respectively. Because of the similar modes of action of neonicotinoids, concentration-additive cumulative mixture toxicity was the predicted model. However, we found that imidacloprid-clothianidin mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-level-dependent synergism, clothianidin-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated concentration-additive synergism, and imidacloprid-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-ratio-dependent synergism, with toxicity shifting from antagonism to synergism as the relative concentration of thiamethoxam increased. Imidacloprid-clothianidin-thiamethoxam ternary mixtures demonstrated response-additive synergism. These results indicate that, under acute exposure scenarios, the toxicity of neonicotinoid mixtures to C. dilutus cannot be predicted using the common assumption of additive joint activity. Indeed, the overarching trend of synergistic deviation emphasizes the need for further research into the ecotoxicological effects of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures in field settings, the development of better toxicity models for neonicotinoid mixture

  11. Acute and long-term effects of exposure to sodium monofluoroacetate (1080 in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Gooneratne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of a single, relative lyhigh oral dose (0.25a nd 0.30 mg/kg of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080 on the survival and productivity of sheep were evaluated to establish a better understanding of 1080 poisoning and identify more specific changes diagnostic of toxicosis. In survivors, clinical signs of acute 1080 toxicosis such as salivation and lethar gywere generally very mild. Fasted animals were more prone to 1080 toxicity. In animals that died, more severe signs, including tachypnoea, dyspnoea, and tremors occurred for 15-20 min prior to death. 1080 concentrations were highest in the blood> heart> skeletal muscle> liver. 1080 could not be detected in any of these organs of the animals that survived. Serum citratec oncentratione were elevated for 4 days after dosing. No clinical or biochemical abnormalities were found in any animal after 4 days. Histopathological lesions were most marked in the heart and lung with inflammation, necrosis, and scattered foci of fibrous tissue in the myocardium, pulmonary oedema and inflammation of the lung. No adverse longterm effects on general health or reproductive performance were observed in any sheep that survived the first 4 days following exposure to 1080. The most reliable diagnostic in dicators of 1080 exposure in sheep were measurement of its residues in blood, skeletal muscle and ruminal contents, increased serum citratec oncentratione; l evated heart rate,and characteristic electrocardiograpchh anges(up to 4 days after exposure. Death from 1080 is most likely to occur within 96 h, and animals that survived this period appeared normal.

  12. Ozone decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

  13. Ozone modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIllvaine, C M

    1994-07-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO{sub x} concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO{sub x} coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO{sub x} ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented.

  14. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIllvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO x concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO x coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO x ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  15. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    and methamidophos. RPF values derived from the literature were used in the calculations. We calculated the cumulative acute exposure to 1.8% and 0.8% of the acute reference dose (ARfD) of 100 mu g kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) of chlorpyrifos as an index compound at the 99.9th percentile (P99.5) for children...

  16. Assessment of locomotion behavior in adult Zebrafish after acute exposure to different pharmacological reference compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the present study was to assess locomotor behavior of adult zebrafish after acute exposure to different pharmacological reference compounds. Materials and Methods: Adult zebrafish of 4-5-months-old were exposed to different concentrations of known reference compounds for 15 min. The test was conducted separately for each drug concentration as well as control. Locomotor activity parameters viz. distance travelled, speed, total mobile time, and total immobile time were recorded for each animal during the exposure period. Results: Out of 11 compounds tested, nine compounds showed decrease in locomotor behavior with significant changes in distance travelled, speed, total mobile time, and total immobile time. Caffeine exhibited biphasic response in locomotion behavior, while scopolamine failed to induce any significant changes. Conclusion: In view of the above findings, these results suggested that exposure of adult zebrafish with different known compounds produce the expected changes in the locomotion behavior; therefore, adult zebrafish can be used an alternative approach for the assessment of new chemical entities for their effect on locomotor behavior.

  17. Content of carbon monoxide in the tissues of rats intoxicated with carbon monoxide in various conditions of acute exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokal, J.A.; Majka, J.; Palus, J.

    1984-12-01

    Tissue carbon monoxide (CO) content was investigated in rats severely intoxicated with CO under various exposure conditions: 1% CO for 4 min, 0.4% CO for 40 min and 0.12% CO for 12 h. Extravascular CO was determined in the heart and skeletal muscles immediately after termination of exposure, and carboxymyoglobin (MbCO) percent saturation was calculated. Total brain CO was estimated immediately after termination of exposure and after the time periods of restitution. After the same exposure conditions, MbCO percent saturation was higher in the heart than in skeletal muscle. In both types of muscle, saturation on myoglobin (Mb) with CO depended on blood carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) level and not on the duration of exposure. The time course of CO elimination was the same for blood and brain, irrespective of CO exposure conditions. The results obtained showed that acute CO intoxication induced by long duration exposures did not involve CO accumulation in the tissues.

  18. Differential effects of airway anesthesia on ozone-induced pulmonary responses in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, E S; Eldridge, M W; Cross, C E; Walby, W F; Adams, W C

    2001-04-01

    We examined the effect of tetracaine aerosol inhalation, a local anesthetic, on lung volume decrements, rapid shallow breathing, and subjective symptoms of breathing discomfort induced by the acute inhalation of 0.30 ppm ozone for 65 min in 22 ozone-sensitive healthy human subjects. After 50 min of ozone inhalation FEV(1) was reduced 24%, breathing frequency was increased 40%, tidal volume was decreased 31%, and total subjective symptom score was increased (71.2, compared with 3.8 for filtered air exposure). Inhalation of tetracaine aerosol resulted in marked reductions in ozone-induced subjective symptoms of throat tickle and/or irritation (92.1%), cough (78.5%), shortness of breath (72.5%), and pain on deep inspiration (69.4%). In contrast, inhalation of tetracaine aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter of 3.52 microm with a geometric standard deviation of 1.92) resulted in only minor and inconsistent rectification of FEV(1) decrements (5.0%) and breathing frequency (-3.8%) that was not significantly different from that produced by saline aerosol alone (FEV(1), 5.1% and breathing frequency, -2.7%). Our data are consistent with afferent endings located within the large conducting airways of the tracheobronchial tree being primarily responsible for ozone-induced subjective symptoms and provides strong evidence that ozone-induced inhibition of maximal inspiratory effort is not dependent on conscious sensations of inspiratory discomfort.

  19. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  20. Acute Acrolein Exposure Induces Impairment of Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Liu

    Full Text Available Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants. Porcine vocal fold epithelia were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 500, 900 or 1300 μM of acrolein for 3 hours; the metabolic activity, epithelial resistance, epithelial permeability, tight junction protein (occludin and claudin 3 expression, cell membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation were investigated. The data demonstrated that acrolein exposure at 500 μM significantly reduced vocal fold epithelial metabolic activity by 27.2% (p≤0.001. Incubation with 100 μM acrolein caused a marked increase in epithelial permeability by 130.5% (p<0.05 and a reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER by 180.0% (p<0.001. While the expression of tight junctional protein did not change in acrolein-treated samples, the cell membrane integrity was significantly damaged with a 45.6% increase of lipid peroxidation as compared to controls (p<0.05. Taken together, these data provide evidence that acute acrolein exposure impairs vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Lipid peroxidation-induced cell membrane damage may play an important role in reducing the barrier function of the epithelium.

  1. Telomere dynamics in human mesenchymal stem cells after exposure to acute oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, M.; Koelvraa, S.; Serakinci, N.

    2012-01-01

    mesenchymal stem cells, either primary or hTERT immortalized, were exposed to sub-lethal doses of hydrogen peroxide, and the short term effect on telomere dynamics was monitored by Universal STELA and TRF measurements. Both telomere measures were then correlated with the percentage of senescent cells......A gradual shortening of telomeres due to replication can be measured using the standard telomere restriction fragments (TRF) assay and other methods by measuring the mean length of all the telomeres in a cell. In contrast, stress-induced telomere shortening, which is believed to be just...... estimated by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining. The exposure to acute oxidative stress resulted in an increased number of ultra-short telomeres, which correlated strongly with the percentage of senescent cells, whereas a correlation between mean telomere length and the percentage...

  2. BIS impulsivity and acute nicotine exposure are associated with discounting global consequences in the Harvard game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Stillwell, David J; Tunney, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) provides a transdiagnostic marker for a number of psychiatric conditions and drug abuse, but the precise psychological trait(s) tapped by this questionnaire remain obscure. To address this, 51 smokers completed in counterbalanced order the BIS, a delay discounting task and a Harvard game that measured choice between a response that yielded a high immediate monetary payoff but decreased opportunity to earn money overall (local choice) versus a response that yielded a lower immediate payoff but afforded a greater opportunity to earn overall (global choice). Individual level of BIS impulsivity and self-elected smoking prior to the study were independently associated with increased preference for the local over the global choice in the Harvard game, but not delay discounting. BIS impulsivity and acute nicotine exposure reflect a bias in the governance of choice by immediate reward contingencies over global consequences, consistent with contemporary dual-process instrumental learning theories. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Heavy metals toxicity after acute exposure of cultured renal cells. Intracellular accumulation and repartition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodja, Hicham; Carriere, Marie; Avoscan, Laure; Gouget, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and uranium (U) present no known biological function but are toxic in various concentration ranges. Pb and Cd lead generally to nephrotoxicity consisting in proximal renal tubular dysfunction and accumulation while U has been reported to induce chemical kidney toxicity, functional and histological damages being as well mainly observed in proximal tubule cells. This work address the question of Cd, Pb, and U cytotoxicity, intracellular accumulation and repartition after acute intoxication of renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. After cells exposure to different concentrations of metals for various times, morphological changes were observed and intracellular concentrations and distributions of toxic metals were specified by PIXE coupled to RBS. Cell viability, measured by biochemical tests, was used as toxicity indicator. A direct correlation between cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation in renal epithelial cells have been established. Finally, intracellular Pb and U localizations were detected while Cd was found to be uniformly distributed in renal cells. (author)

  4. Two cases of acute lead poisoning due to occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masanori; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Ryuichi; Endo, Yoko

    2008-04-01

    We experienced two cases of acute lead poisoning due to occupational exposure to lead. The patients were engaged in stripping off antirust compounds including Pb from a bridge and re-painting it at the same work place. Both patients exhibited colic, arthralgia, and anemia. Blood lead levels were 73.1 microg/dl and 96.3 microg/dl. Intravenous CaEDTA chelation therapy was therefore performed. After chelation, blood lead levels decreased and symptoms gradually disappeared. Although the patients were working with protective equipment, the workplace was in the mountains and there was no water for washing. The patients were thus unable to washing their hands and faces. We assume that they swallowed lead dust left on their hands and faces when they removed their clothing, and believe that this poisoning occurred due to lack of knowledge sufficient for protection.

  5. Comprehensive analysis of the renal transcriptional response to acute uranyl nitrate exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argiles Angel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and radiological toxicities related to uranium acute exposure have been widely studied in nuclear fuel workers and military personnel. It is well known that uranyl nitrate induces acute renal failure (ARF. However, the mechanisms of this metal-induced injury are not well defined at the molecular level. Results Renal function and histology were assessed in mice receiving uranyl nitrate (UN(+ and controls (UN(-. To identify the genomic response to uranium exposure, serial analysis gene expression (SAGE of the kidney was performed in both groups. Over 43,000 mRNA SAGE tags were sequenced. A selection of the differentially expressed transcripts was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. UN(+ animals developed renal failure and displayed the characteristic histological lesions of UN nephropathy. Of the >14,500 unique tags identified in both libraries, 224 had a modified expression level; they are known to participate in inflammation, ion transport, signal transduction, oxidative stress, apoptosis, metabolism, and catabolism. Several genes that were identified had not previously been evaluated within the context of toxic ARF such as translationally controlled tumor protein, insulin like growth factor binding protein 7 and ribosomal protein S29, all apoptosis related genes. Conclusion We report a comprehensive description of the UN induced modifications in gene expression levels, including the identification of genes previously unrelated to ARF. The study of these genes and the metabolisms they control should improve our understanding of toxic ARF and enlighten on the molecular targets for potential therapeutic interventions.

  6. Effect of acute exposure to moderate altitude on muscle power: hypobaric hypoxia vs. normobaric hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Feriche

    Full Text Available When ascending to a higher altitude, changes in air density and oxygen levels affect the way in which explosive actions are executed. This study was designed to compare the effects of acute exposure to real or simulated moderate hypoxia on the dynamics of the force-velocity relationship observed in bench press exercise. Twenty-eight combat sports athletes were assigned to two groups and assessed on two separate occasions: G1 (n = 17 in conditions of normoxia (N1 and hypobaric hypoxia (HH and G2 (n = 11 in conditions of normoxia (N2 and normobaric hypoxia (NH. Individual and complete force-velocity relationships in bench press were determined on each assessment day. For each exercise repetition, we obtained the mean and peak velocity and power shown by the athletes. Maximum power (Pmax was recorded as the highest P(mean obtained across the complete force-velocity curve. Our findings indicate a significantly higher absolute load linked to P(max (∼ 3% and maximal strength (1 RM (∼ 6% in G1 attributable to the climb to altitude (P<0.05. We also observed a stimulating effect of natural hypoxia on P(mean and P(peak in the middle-high part of the curve (≥ 60 kg; P<0.01 and a 7.8% mean increase in barbell displacement velocity (P<0.001. No changes in any of the variables examined were observed in G2. According to these data, we can state that acute exposure to natural moderate altitude as opposed to simulated normobaric hypoxia leads to gains in 1 RM, movement velocity and power during the execution of a force-velocity curve in bench press.

  7. Effects of Acutely Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure on Running Economy and Physical Performance in Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilding, Andrew E; Dobson, Bryan P; Ikeda, Erika

    2016-07-01

    Kilding, AE, Dobson, BP, and Ikeda, E. Effects of acutely intermittent hypoxic exposure on running economy and physical performance in basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2033-2042, 2016-The aim of this study was to determine the effect of short duration intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) on physical performance in basketball players. Using a single-blind placebo-controlled group design, 14 trained basketball players were subjected to 15 days of passive short duration IHE (n = 7), or normoxic control (CON, n = 7), using a biofeedback nitrogen dilution device. A range of physiological, performance, and hematological variables were measured at baseline, and 10 days after IHE. After intervention, the IHE group, relative to the CON group, exhibited improvements in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (+4.8 ± 1.6%; effect size [ES]: 1.0 ± 0.4) and repeated high-intensity exercise test performance (-3.5 ± 1.6%; ES: -0.4 ± 0.2). Changes in hematological parameters were minimal, although soluble transferrin receptor increased after IHE (+9.2 ± 10.1%; ES: 0.3 ± 0.3). Running economy at 11 km·h (-9.0 ± 9.7%; ES: -0.7 ± 0.7) and 13 km·h was improved (-8.2 ± 6.9%; ES: -0.7 ± 0.5), but changes to V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, HRpeak, and lactate were unclear. In summary, acutely IHE resulted in worthwhile changes in physical performance tests among competitive basketball players. However, physiological measures explaining the performance enhancement were in most part unclear.

  8. Acute Noise Exposure Is Associated With Intrinsic Apoptosis in Murine Central Auditory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Gröschel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Noise that is capable of inducing the hearing loss (NIHL has a strong impact on the inner ear structures and causes early and most obvious pathophysiological changes in the auditory periphery. Several studies indicated that intrinsic apoptotic cell death mechanisms are the key factors inducing cellular degeneration immediately after noise exposure and are maintained for days or even weeks. In addition, studies demonstrated several changes in the central auditory system following noise exposure, consistent with early apoptosis-related pathologies. To clarify the underlying mechanisms, the present study focused on the noise-induced gene and protein expression of the pro-apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (APAF1 and the anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 related protein a1a (BCL2A1A in the cochlear nucleus (CN, inferior colliculus (IC and auditory cortex (AC of the murine central auditory pathway. The expression of Bcl2a1a mRNA was upregulated immediately after trauma in all tissues investigated, whereas the protein levels were significantly reduced at least in the auditory brainstem. Conversely, acute noise has decreased the expression of Apaf1 gene along the auditory pathway. The changes in APAF1 protein level were not statistically significant. It is tempting to speculate that the acoustic overstimulation leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of apoptosis by regulation of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins. The inverse expression pattern on the mRNA level of both genes might reflect a protective response to decrease cellular damage. Our results indicate the immediate presence of intrinsic apoptosis following noise trauma. This, in turn, may significantly contribute to the development of central structural deficits. Auditory pathway-specific inhibition of intrinsic apoptosis could be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of acute (noise-induced hearing loss to prevent irreversible neuronal injury in auditory brain structures

  9. Acute exposure to lead increases myocardial contractility independent of hypertension development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioresi, M.; Furieri, L.B.; Simões, M.R.; Ribeiro, R.F. Junior; Meira, E.F.; Fernandes, A.A.; Stefanon, I.; Vassallo, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of the acute administration of small doses of lead over time on hemodynamic parameters in anesthetized rats to determine if myocardial contractility changes are dependent or not on the development of hypertension. Male Wistar rats received 320 µg/kg lead acetate iv once, and their hemodynamic parameters were measured for 2 h. Cardiac contractility was evaluated in vitro using left ventricular papillary muscles as were Na + ,K + -ATPase and myosin Ca 2+ -ATPase activities. Lead increased left- (control: 112 ± 3.7 vs lead: 129 ± 3.2 mmHg) and right-ventricular systolic pressures (control: 28 ± 1.2 vs lead: 34 ± 1.2 mmHg) significantly without modifying heart rate. Papillary muscles were exposed to 8 µM lead acetate and evaluated 60 min later. Isometric contractions increased (control: 0.546 ± 0.07 vs lead: 0.608 ± 0.06 g/mg) and time to peak tension decreased (control: 268 ± 13 vs lead: 227 ± 5.58 ms), but relaxation time was unchanged. Post-pause potentiation was similar between groups (n = 6 per group), suggesting no change in sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, evaluated indirectly by this protocol. After 1-h exposure to lead acetate, the papillary muscles became hyperactive in response to a β-adrenergic agonist (10 µM isoproterenol). In addition, post-rest contractions decreased, suggesting a reduction in sarcolemmal calcium influx. The heart samples treated with 8 µM lead acetate presented increased Na + ,K + -ATPase (approximately 140%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) and myosin ATPase (approximately 30%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) activity. Our results indicated that acute exposure to low lead concentrations produces direct positive inotropic and lusitropic effects on myocardial contractility and increases the right and left ventricular systolic pressure, thus potentially contributing to the early development of hypertension

  10. Elemental carbon exposure at residence and survival after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Klot, Stephanie; Gryparis, Alexandros; Tonne, Cathryn; Yanosky, Jeffrey; Coull, Brent A; Goldberg, Robert J; Lessard, Darleen; Melly, Steven J; Suh, Helen H; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-07-01

    Particulate air pollution has been consistently related to cardiovascular mortality. Some evidence suggests that particulate matter may accelerate the atherosclerotic process. Effects of within-city variations of particulate air pollution on survival after an acute cardiovascular event have been little explored. We conducted a cohort study of hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction (MI) from the Worcester, MA, metropolitan area to investigate the long-term effects of within-city variation in traffic-related air pollution on mortality. The study builds on an ongoing community-wide investigation examining changes over time in MI incidence and case-fatality rates. We included confirmed cases of MI in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, and 2003. Long-term survival status was ascertained through 2005. A validated spatiotemporal land use regression model for traffic-related air pollution was developed and annual averages of elemental carbon at residence estimated. The effect of estimated elemental carbon on the long-term mortality of patients discharged after MI was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model, controlling for a variety of demographic, medical history, and clinical variables. Of the 3895 patients with validated MI, 44% died during follow-up. Exposure to estimated elemental carbon in the year of entry into the study was 0.44 microg/m on average. All-cause mortality increased by 15% (95% confidence interval = 0.03%-29%) per interquartile range increase in estimated yearly elemental carbon (0.24 microg/m) after the second year of survival. No association between traffic-related pollution and all-cause mortality was observed during the first 2 years of follow-up. Chronic traffic-related particulate air pollution is associated with increased mortality in hospital survivors of acute MI after the second year of survival.

  11. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Nicotine Patch Administration Among Nonsmokers Based on Acute and Chronic Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo; Kodet, Jonathan; Robertson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large amount that is known about the physical health effects of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure, little is known about the behavioral health effects. Nicotine, the principle psychoactive substance in SHS, elicits subjective mood and physiological responses in nonsmokers. However, no studies have examined the subjective mood or physiological responses to nicotine in nonsmokers while accounting for prior chronic or acute SHS exposure. A 7-mg nicotine patch was administered to 17 adult nonsmokers for 2 hr. Main outcome measures obtained at ½ hr, 1 hr, and 2 hr were subjective behavioral drug effects (based on eleven 10-cm Visual Analog Scales [VASs]) and the physiological measures of heart rate, blood pressure, and serum nicotine levels. Analysis of outcome data was based on participants' chronic (using hair nicotine) or acute (using saliva cotinine) SHS exposure. Greater chronic SHS exposure was negatively associated with pleasurable responses to nicotine administration ("drug feels good" score at 2-hr time point, Spearman's ρ = -.65, p < .004), whereas greater acute SHS exposure was associated with positive responses ("like feeling of drug" score at 2-hr time point, Spearman's ρ = .63, p < .01). There were no associations between chronic or acute exposure and physiological changes in response to nicotine administration. The findings of this study may be useful in providing preliminary empirical data for future explorations of the mechanism whereby SHS exposure can influence behavioral outcomes in nonsmokers. Such studies can inform future interventions to reduce the physical and behavioral health risks associated with SHS exposure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Effects of chronic elevated ozone exposure on gas exchange responses of adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) as related to the within-canopy light gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Loew, Markus; Heerdt, Christian; Grams, Thorsten E.E.; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    The effects of elevated O 3 on photosynthetic properties in adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) were investigated in relation to leaf mass per area as a measure of the gradually changing, within-canopy light availability. Leaves under elevated O 3 showed decreased stomatal conductance at unchanged carboxylation capacity of Rubisco, which was consistent with enhanced δ 13 C of leaf organic matter, regardless of the light environment during growth. In parallel, increased energy demand for O 3 detoxification and repair was suggested under elevated O 3 owing to enhanced dark respiration. Only in shade-grown leaves, light-limited photosynthesis was reduced under elevated O 3 , this effect being accompanied by lowered F v /F m . These results suggest that chronic O 3 exposure primarily caused stomatal closure to adult beech trees in the field regardless of the within-canopy light gradient. However, light limitation apparently raised the O 3 sensitivity of photosynthesis and accelerated senescence in shade leaves. - Across leaf differentiation in adult beech crowns, elevated ozone acted through stomatal closure on gas exchange although enhancing photosynthetic sensitivity of shaded leaves

  13. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  14. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Campbell, James A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2004-01-01

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk

  15. Single-centre experience of radiation exposure in acute surgical patients: assessment of therapeutic impact and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Gerard J; Brown, Robin; Cranley, Brian; Conlon, Enda F; Todd, R Alan J; O'Donnell, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    Radiological investigations have become a key adjunct in patient management and consequently radiation exposure to patients is increasing. The study objectives were to examine the use of radiological investigations in the management of acute surgical patients and to assess whether a guideline-based radiation exposure risk/benefit analysis can aid in the choice of radiological investigation used. A prospective observational study was completed over a 12-week period from April to July 2008 for all acute surgical admissions. Data recorded included demographics, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, investigations, surgical interventions, and final clinical outcome. The use of radiological investigative modalities as an adjunct to clinical assessment was then evaluated against The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines. A total of 380 acute surgical admissions (M = 174, F = 185, children = 21) were assessed during the study period. Seven hundred thirty-four radiological investigations were performed with a mean of 1.93 investigations per patient. Based on the RCR guidelines, 680 (92.6%) radiological investigations were warranted and included 142 CT scans (19.3%), 129 chest X-rays (17.6%), and 85 abdominal X-rays (11.6%). Clinically, radiological imaging complemented surgical management in 326 patients (85.8%) and the management plan remained unchanged for the remaining 54 patients (14.2%). This accounted for an average radiation dose of 4.18 millisievert (mSv) per patient or 626 days of background radiation exposure. CT imaging was responsible for the majority of the radiation exposure, with a total of 1310 mSv (82.6%) of the total radiation exposure being attributed to CT imaging in 20.8% of acute admissions. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that 92.8% of the CT scans performed were appropriate. Radiation exposure was generally low for the majority of acute surgical admissions. However, it is recommended that CT imaging requests be evaluated carefully

  16. Effects of acute exposure to magnetic field on ionic composition of frog sciatic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, A.; Hafedh, A.; Mohsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the possible interaction between magnetic field and cadmium on ionic composition of frog sciatic nerve. Design: The combined effect of magnetic field and cadmium (1.5mg/kg; in lymphatic sac) were studied in frog sciatic nerves (Rana Esculenta). Sciatic nerve samples were extracted, weighed and mixed in bidistilled water in order to analyze by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionic composition. Setting: Frogs (Rana Esculenta) were reared in swimming-pool (Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, Tunisia). Frogs were cared for under the Tunisian Code of Practice for the Care and Use of Animals for Scientific purpose and the Experimental Protocols were approved by the Ethics Committee. Subjects: Treated and control groups (n=6) weighing 50-100g at the time of experiments were housed in the same condition three weeks before the beginning of the experiments. Results: Acute exposure to magnetic field increased significantly the calcium (+298%, p<0.05) and iron (+50%, p<0.05) contents of frog sciatic nerve, whereas magnesium and copper contents remained unchanged. The association between magnetic field and cadmium, induced marked increase of calcium (+360%, p<0.05), whereas magnesium content remained stable. Conclusions: Magnetic field exposure alters the ionic composition in the frog sciatic nerve, especially calcium and iron. Magnetic field magnifies the effect of cadmium on calcium homeostasis. (author)

  17. Acute stress exposure preceding transient global brain ischemia exacerbates the decrease in cortical remodeling potential in the rat retrosplenial cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuna, Nobuo; Yamashita, Akiko; Eriguchi, Takashi; Oshima, Hideki; Suma, Takeshi; Sakatani, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Yoshino, Atsuo; Katayama, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Doublecortin (DCX)-immunoreactive (-ir) cells are candidates that play key roles in adult cortical remodeling. We have previously reported that DCX-ir cells decrease after stress exposure or global brain ischemia (GBI) in the cingulate cortex (Cg) of rats. Herein, we investigate whether the decrease in DCX-ir cells is exacerbated after GBI due to acute stress exposure preconditioning. Twenty rats were divided into 3 groups: acute stress exposure before GBI (Group P), non-stress exposure before GBI (Group G), and controls (Group C). Acute stress or GBI was induced by a forced swim paradigm or by transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, respectively. DCX-ir cells were investigated in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and retrosplenial cortex (RS). The number of DCX-ir cells per unit area (mm(2)) decreased after GBI with or without stress preconditioning in the ACC and in the RS (ANOVA followed by a Tukey-type test, P<0.001). Moreover, compared to Group G, the number in Group P decreased significantly in RS (P<0.05), though not significantly in ACC. Many of the DCX-ir cells were co-localized with the GABAergic neuronal marker parvalbumin. The present study indicates that cortical remodeling potential of GABAergic neurons of Cg decreases after GBI, and moreover, the ratio of the decrease is exacerbated by acute stress preconditioning in the RS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of acute exposure to air pollution on the cardiorespiratory performance of military firemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of acute short-term exposure to air pollution on the cardiorespiratory performance of military fireman living and working in the city of Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-five healthy non-smoking firemen aged 24 to 45 years had about 1 h of exposure to low and high levels of air pollution. The tests consisted of two phases: phase A, in Bertioga, a town with low levels of air pollution, and phase B, in Cubatão, a polluted town, with a 7-day interval between phases. The volunteers remained in the cities (Bertioga/Cubatão only for the time required to perform the tests. Cumulative load 10 ± 2 min-long exertion tests were performed on a treadmill, consisting of a 2-min stage at a load of 7 km/h, followed by increasing exertion of 1 km h-1 min-1 until the maximum individual limit. There were statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 in anaerobic threshold (AT between Cubatão (35.04 ± 4.91 mL kg-1 min-1 and Bertioga (36.98 ± 5.62 mL kg-1 min-1; P = 0.01, in the heart rate at AT (AT HR; Cubatão 152.08 ± 14.86 bpm, Bertioga 157.44 ± 13.64 bpm; P = 0.001, and in percent maximal oxygen consumption at AT (AT%VO2max; Cubatão 64.56 ± 6.55%, Bertioga 67.40 ± 5.35%; P = 0.03. However, there were no differences in VO2max, maximal heart rate or velocity at AT (ATvel observed in firemen between towns. The acute exposure to pollutants in Cubatão, SP, caused a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion.

  19. Ozone reaction on slime mold. [Physarum polycephalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoh, F.

    1972-01-01

    To determine the effect of ozone, the motive force responsible for protoplasmic streaming in the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum was measured by the Double chamber method which was developed by Kamiya. The effects of ozone on the motive force were investigated by comparison of the Dynamoplasmogram of controls with that of ozone exposure. In the case of high concentration exposure, thickening of plasmagel, inversion of the period of flow and reduction of the extreme point were observed. Succinoxidase of exposed homogenates showed stronger activity than that of controls. It is certain that the Pasteur reaction takes place when plasmodium is kept under high ozone exposure condition. It appears that ozone inhibited a part of the process of glycolysis. 32 references, 8 figures.

  20. Ozone sensitivity of plants in natural communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treshow, M; Stewart, D

    1973-07-01

    Field fumigation studies conducted in grassland, oak, aspen, and conifer, communities established the injury threshold of prevalent plant species to ozone. Several important species, including Bromus tectorum, Quercus gambelii, and Populus tremuloides, were injured by a single 2-hours exposure to 15 pphM ozone. Over half the perennial forbs and woody species studied were visibly injured at concentrations of 30 pphM ozone or less. It is postulated that lower concentrations at prolonged or repeated exposures to ozone may impair growth and affect community vigor and stability. Continued exposure of natural plant communities to ozone is expected to initiate major shifts in the plant composition of communities. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  1. Evaluating the acute effects of oral, non-combustible potential reduced exposure products marketed to smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, C O; Weaver, M F; Eissenberg, T

    2010-10-01

    Non-combustible potential reduced exposure products (PREPs; eg, Star Scientific's Ariva; a variety of other smokeless tobacco products) are marketed to reduce the harm associated with smoking. This marketing occurs despite an absence of objective data concerning the toxicant exposure and effects of these PREPs. Methods used to examine combustible PREPs were adapted to assess the acute effects of non-combustible PREPs for smokers. 28 overnight abstinent cigarette smokers (17 men, 14 non-white) each completed seven, Latin-squared ordered, approximately 2.5 h laboratory sessions that differed by product administered: Ariva, Marlboro Snus (Philip Morris, USA), Camel Snus (RJ Reynolds, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA), Commit nicotine lozenge (GlaxoSmithKline; 2 mg), own brand cigarettes, Quest cigarettes (Vector Tobacco; delivers very low levels of nicotine) and sham smoking (ie, puffing on an unlit cigarette). In each session, the product was administered twice (separated by 60 min), and plasma nicotine levels, expired air CO and subjective effects were assessed regularly. Non-combustible products delivered less nicotine than own brand cigarettes, did not expose smokers to CO and failed to suppress tobacco abstinence symptoms as effectively as combustible products. While decreased toxicant exposure is a potential indicator of harm reduction potential, a failure to suppress abstinence symptoms suggests that currently marketed non-combustible PREPs may not be a viable harm reduction strategy for US smokers. This study demonstrates how clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the short-term effects of non-combustible PREPs for smokers.

  2. Modeling the acute health effects of astronauts from exposure to large solar particle events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; McClellan, Gene E; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-04-01

    Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events (SPE) presents a significant health concern for astronauts for exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth's magnetic field, which could impair their performance and result in the possibility of failure of the mission. Assessing the potential for early radiation effects under such adverse conditions is of prime importance. Here we apply a biologically based mathematical model that describes the dose- and time-dependent early human responses that constitute the prodromal syndromes to consider acute risks from SPEs. We examine the possible early effects on crews from exposure to some historically large solar events on lunar and/or Mars missions. The doses and dose rates of specific organs were calculated using the Baryon radiation transport (BRYNTRN) code and a computerized anatomical man model, while the hazard of the early radiation effects and performance reduction were calculated using the Radiation-Induced Performance Decrement (RIPD) code. Based on model assumptions we show that exposure to these historical events would cause moderate early health effects to crew members inside a typical spacecraft or during extra-vehicular activities, if effective shielding and medical countermeasure tactics were not provided. We also calculate possible even worse cases (double intensity, multiple occurrences in a short period of time, etc.) to estimate the severity, onset and duration of various types of early illness. Uncertainties in the calculation due to limited data on relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate modifying factors for protons and secondary radiation, and the identification of sensitive sites in critical organs are discussed.

  3. Effects of acute ethanol exposure on cytokine production by primary airway smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Kalita, Mridul [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Calhoun, William J., E-mail: William.Calhoun@utmb.edu [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Both chronic and binge alcohol abuse can be significant risk factors for inflammatory lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, metabolic basis of alcohol-related lung disease is not well defined, and may include key metabolites of ethanol [EtOH] in addition to EtOH itself. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EtOH, acetaldehyde [ACE], and fatty acid ethyl esters [FAEEs] on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (p)-NF-κB p65 in primary human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells stimulated to produce cytokines using LPS exposure. Both FAEEs and ACE induced evidence of cellular oxidative stress and ER stress, and increased p-NF-κB in nuclear extracts. EtOH and its metabolites decreased p-AMPKα activation, and induced expression of fatty acid synthase, and decreased expression of sirtuin 1. In general, EtOH decreased secretion of IP-10, IL-6, eotaxin, GCSF, and MCP-1. However, FAEEs and ACE increased these cytokines, suggesting that both FAEEs and ACE as compared to EtOH itself are proinflammatory. A direct effect of EtOH could be consistent with blunted immune response. Collectively, these two features of EtOH exposure, coupled with the known inhibition of innate immune response in our model might explain some clinical manifestations of EtOH exposure in the lung. - Highlights: • Metabolic basis for EtOH toxicity was studied in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. • In HASM cells, EtOH metabolites were found to be relatively more toxic than EtOH itself. • EtOH metabolites mediate deactivation of AMPK via oxidative stress and ER stress. • EtOH metabolites were found to be more proinflammatory than EtOH itself in HASM cells.

  4. Effects of acute ethanol exposure on cytokine production by primary airway smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Kalita, Mridul; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Both chronic and binge alcohol abuse can be significant risk factors for inflammatory lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, metabolic basis of alcohol-related lung disease is not well defined, and may include key metabolites of ethanol [EtOH] in addition to EtOH itself. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EtOH, acetaldehyde [ACE], and fatty acid ethyl esters [FAEEs] on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (p)-NF-κB p65 in primary human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells stimulated to produce cytokines using LPS exposure. Both FAEEs and ACE induced evidence of cellular oxidative stress and ER stress, and increased p-NF-κB in nuclear extracts. EtOH and its metabolites decreased p-AMPKα activation, and induced expression of fatty acid synthase, and decreased expression of sirtuin 1. In general, EtOH decreased secretion of IP-10, IL-6, eotaxin, GCSF, and MCP-1. However, FAEEs and ACE increased these cytokines, suggesting that both FAEEs and ACE as compared to EtOH itself are proinflammatory. A direct effect of EtOH could be consistent with blunted immune response. Collectively, these two features of EtOH exposure, coupled with the known inhibition of innate immune response in our model might explain some clinical manifestations of EtOH exposure in the lung. - Highlights: • Metabolic basis for EtOH toxicity was studied in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. • In HASM cells, EtOH metabolites were found to be relatively more toxic than EtOH itself. • EtOH metabolites mediate deactivation of AMPK via oxidative stress and ER stress. • EtOH metabolites were found to be more proinflammatory than EtOH itself in HASM cells.

  5. Foliar injury response of petunia and kidney bean to simultaneous and alternate exposures to ozone and PAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Mayumi, H.; Yamazoe, F.

    1984-01-01

    Petunia at about 6 weeks old and kidney bean at two growing stages (6-7 days old and 16-18 days old) were exposed separately to O/sub 3/ (0-0.40 ppm) and PAN (0-0.25 ppm) for 4 h and to the mixture for the same time. In addition, petunia was exposed to O/sub 3/ (0.10-0.40 ppm) and then PAN (0.010-0.040 ppm) for 4 h, respectively. Foliar injury of petunia and kidney bean in exposures to the mixtures of O/sub 3/ and PAN was significantly smaller than that induced by each oxidant, with the exception of PAN injury on young leaves of 16-18 day-old kidney bean. The percentage of foliar injury caused by either of the mixed pollutants decreased with an increase of the concentration of the other oxidant, and was found to approximate a logarithmic function of the combined pollutant concentrations expressed as O/sub 3/ minum PAN or vice versa. Alternate exposures caused no additive or synergistic injuries. 23 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  6. Foliar injury response of petunia and kidney bean to simultaneous and alternate exposures to ozone and pan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Isamu; Mayumi, Hirokazu; Yamazoe, Fumio

    Petunia at about 6 weeks old and kidney bean at two growing stages (6-7 days old and 16-18 days old) were exposed separately to O 3, (0-0.40 ppm) and PAN (0-0.25 ppm) for 4 h and to the mixture for the same time. In addition, petunia was exposed to O, (0.10-0.40 ppm) and then PAN (0.010-0.040 ppm) for 4 h, respectively. Foliar injury of petunia and kidney bean in exposures to the mixtures of O 3 and PAN was significantly smaller than that induced by each oxidant, with the exception of PAN injury on young leaves of 16-18 day-old kidney bean. The percentage of foliar injury caused by either of the mixed pollutants decreased with an increase of the concentration of the other oxidant, and was found to approximate a logarithmic function of the combined pollutant concentrations expressed as O 3, minum PAN or vice versa. Alternate exposures caused no additive or synergistic injuries.

  7. Does interspecific competition alter effects of early season ozone exposure on plants from wet grasslands? Results of a three-year experiment in open-top chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneijck, A E G; Franzaring, J; Brouwer, G; Metselaar, K; Dueck, Th A

    2004-09-01

    Chronic effects of ozone on wet grassland species early in the growing season might be altered by interspecific competition. Individual plants of Holcus lanatus, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Molinia caerulea and Plantago lanceolata were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Agrostis capillaris. Mesocosms were exposed to charcoal-filtered air plus 25 nl l(-1) ozone (CF+25), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered air plus 25 nl l(-1) ozone (NF+25) and non-filtered air plus 50 nl l(-1) ozone (NF+50) early in the growing seasons of 2000 through 2002. Ozone-enhanced senescence and visible foliar injury were recorded on some of the target plants in the first year only. Ozone effects on biomass production were minimal and plant response to ozone did not differ between monocultures and mixed cultures. After three years, above-ground biomass of the plants in mixed culture compared to monocultures was three times greater for H. lanatus and two to four times smaller for the other species.

  8. Does interspecific competition alter effects of early season ozone exposure on plants from wet grasslands? Results of a three-year experiment in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Franzaring, J.; Brouwer, G.; Metselaar, K.; Dueck, Th.A

    2004-09-01

    Chronic effects of ozone on wet grassland species early in the growing season might be altered by interspecific competition. Individual plants of Holcus lanatus, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Molinia caerulea and Plantago lanceolata were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Agrostis capillaris. Mesocosms were exposed to charcoal-filtered air plus 25 nl l{sup -1} ozone (CF + 25), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered air plus 25 nl l{sup -1} ozone (NF + 25) and non-filtered air plus 50 nl l{sup -1} ozone (NF + 50) early in the growing seasons of 2000 through 2002. Ozone-enhanced senescence and visible foliar injury were recorded on some of the target plants in the first year only. Ozone effects on biomass production were minimal and plant response to ozone did not differ between monocultures and mixed cultures. After three years, above-ground biomass of the plants in mixed culture compared to monocultures was three times greater for H. lanatus and two to four times smaller for the other species.

  9. Does interspecific competition alter effects of early season ozone exposure on plants from wet grasslands? Results of a three-year experiment in open-top chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Franzaring, J.; Brouwer, G.; Metselaar, K.; Dueck, Th.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chronic effects of ozone on wet grassland species early in the growing season might be altered by interspecific competition. Individual plants of Holcus lanatus, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Molinia caerulea and Plantago lanceolata were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Agrostis capillaris. Mesocosms were exposed to charcoal-filtered air plus 25 nl l -1 ozone (CF + 25), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered air plus 25 nl l -1 ozone (NF + 25) and non-filtered air plus 50 nl l -1 ozone (NF + 50) early in the growing seasons of 2000 through 2002. Ozone-enhanced senescence and visible foliar injury were recorded on some of the target plants in the first year only. Ozone effects on biomass production were minimal and plant response to ozone did not differ between monocultures and mixed cultures. After three years, above-ground biomass of the plants in mixed culture compared to monocultures was three times greater for H. lanatus and two to four times smaller for the other species

  10. Ozone modelling in Eastern Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.; Kromp-Kolb, H. [Univ. of Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology and Physics; Winiwater, W. [Austrian Research Centre, Seibersdorf (Austria); Baumann, R.; Spangl, W. [Federal Environmental Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    High ozone concentrations are frequently observed in Eastern Austria, often exceeding local as well as international health standards, both for short-term as well as for long-term exposures. The maximum concentrations are produced in urban plumes, e.g. of the city of Vienna, whereas regional-scale transport and production of ozone is more important for the long-term concentrations. The Pannonian Ozone Project (POP) is an Austrian research initiative to model photochemical processes on a regional as well as on a local scale with a Lagrangian model to better understand the mechanisms leading to the high ozone concentrations and to develop abatement strategies. Up to now, focus has been on the regional scale. Aircraft, tethered balloon, tetroon and intensified ground measurements are carried out to validate the model. Although the major measurement campaign will be held in summer 1995, first results from a measurement campaign in summer 1994 are already available

  11. Chronic and acute exposures to the world trade center disaster and lower respiratory symptoms: area residents and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Carey B; Friedman, Stephen M; Pillai, Parul S; Reibman, Joan; Berger, Kenneth I; Goldring, Roberta; Stellman, Steven D; Farfel, Mark

    2012-06-01

    We assessed associations between new-onset (post-September 11, 2001 [9/11]) lower respiratory symptoms reported on 2 surveys, administered 3 years apart, and acute and chronic 9/11-related exposures among New York City World Trade Center-area residents and workers enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. World Trade Center-area residents and workers were categorized as case participants or control participants on the basis of lower respiratory symptoms reported in surveys administered 2 to 3 and 5 to 6 years after 9/11. We created composite exposure scales after principal components analyses of detailed exposure histories obtained during face-to-face interviews. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine associations between lower respiratory symptoms and composite exposure scales. Both acute and chronic exposures to the events of 9/11 were independently associated, often in a dose-dependent manner, with lower respiratory symptoms among individuals who lived and worked in the area of the World Trade Center. Study findings argue for detailed assessments of exposure during and after events in the future from which potentially toxic materials may be released and for rapid interventions to minimize exposures and screen for potential adverse health effects.

  12. Persistence of Breakage in Specific Chromosome Bands 6 Years after Acute Exposure to Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Francés

    251 breakpoints in exposed individuals were identified, showing a non-uniform distribution in the human ideogram. Ten chromosome bands were found to be especially prone to breakage through both statistical methods. By comparing these bands with those observed in certain exposed individuals who had already participated the previous study, it was found in both studies that four bands (2q21, 3q27, 5q31 and 17p11.2 are particularly sensitive to breakage. Additionally, the dysfunction in DNA repair mechanisms was not significantly higher in oil-exposed individuals than in non-exposed individuals.The sample size and the possibility of some kind of selection bias should be considered. Genotoxic results cannot be extrapolated to the high number of individuals who participated occasionally in clean-up tasks.Our findings show the existence of at least four target bands (2q21, 3q27, 5q31 and 17p11.2 with a greater propensity to break over time after an acute exposure to oil. The breaks in these bands, which are commonly involved in hematological cancer, may explain the increase of cancer risk reported in chronically benzene-exposed individuals. In addition, a more efficiency of the DNA repair mechanisms has been detected six years after in fishermen who were highly exposed to the oil spill. To date, only this study, performed by our group on the previous and present genotoxic effects, has analyzed the chromosomal regions affected by breakage after an acute oil exposure.

  13. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  14. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mikania laevigata Extract on DNA Damage Caused by Acute Coal Dust Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Heuser, V.D.; Tavares, P.; Leffa, D.D.; da Silva, G.A.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.R.T.; Pinho, R.A.; Streck, E.L.; Andrade,V.M. [University of Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    We report data on the possible antigenotoxic activity of Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) after acute intratracheal instillation of coal dust using the comet assay in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and liver cells and the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of Wistar rats. The animals were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution (groups 1 and 2) or MLE (100 mg/kg) (groups 3 and 4). On day 15, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg), and gross mineral coal dust (3 mg/0.3 mL saline) (groups 2 and 4) or saline solution (0.3 mL) (groups 1 and 3) was administered directly in the lung by intratracheal administration. Fifteen days after coal dust or saline instillation, the animals were sacrificed, and the femur, liver, and peripheral blood were removed. The results showed a general increase in the DNA damage values at 8 hours for all treatment groups, probably related to surgical procedures that had stressed the animals. Also, liver cells from rats treated with coal dust, pretreated or not with MLE, showed statistically higher comet assay values compared to the control group at 14 days after exposure. These results could be expected because the liver metabolizes a variety of organic compounds to more polar by-products. On the other hand, the micronucleus assay results did not show significant differences among groups. Therefore, our data do not support the antimutagenic activity of M. laevigata as a modulator of DNA damage after acute coal dust instillation.

  15. Social identity influences stress appraisals and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Meaney, Sarah; Muldoon, Orla T

    2014-09-01

    This study tested a recent theoretical development in stress research to see whether group membership influenced cardiovascular reactions following exposure to acute stress. Participants (N = 104) were exposed to a message in which a maths test was described as stressful or challenging by an ingroup member (a student) or outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout a standard reactivity study. As expected, a significant interaction was found; relative to those who were told that the task was challenging, ingroup members reported more stress and had higher DBP and HR reactivity when told by an ingroup member that the maths task was stressful; task information did not have the same effect for outgroup members. These results indicate that informational support is not constant but varies as a function of group membership. Finally, this recent development in stress research may prove useful for those interested in investigating the interactions between social, psychological and physiological processes underlying health disparities. What is already known on this subject? Stress is a common risk factor for hypertension and coronary heart disease. Social support has been found to reduce cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. The influence of social support on stress varies as a consequence of social identity. What does this study add? The social group that one belongs to influences how one appraises and responds to stress. Social identity provides a useful framework for understanding how social processes are associated with health disparities. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Adrenergic and steroid hormone modulation of ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: We have shown that acute ozone inhalation promotes activation of the sympathetic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis leading to release of cortisol and epinephrine from the adrenals. Adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits ozone-induced pulmonary vascular leakage and ...

  17. Acute exposure to lead increases myocardial contractility independent of hypertension development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fioresi, M. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Departamento de Enfermagem, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Furieri, L.B.; Simões, M.R.; Ribeiro, R.F. Junior; Meira, E.F.; Fernandes, A.A.; Stefanon, I. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Vassallo, D.V. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro de Ciências da Saúde de Vitória, Escola Superior de Ciências da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2013-02-01

    We studied the effects of the acute administration of small doses of lead over time on hemodynamic parameters in anesthetized rats to determine if myocardial contractility changes are dependent or not on the development of hypertension. Male Wistar rats received 320 µg/kg lead acetate iv once, and their hemodynamic parameters were measured for 2 h. Cardiac contractility was evaluated in vitro using left ventricular papillary muscles as were Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase and myosin Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities. Lead increased left- (control: 112 ± 3.7 vs lead: 129 ± 3.2 mmHg) and right-ventricular systolic pressures (control: 28 ± 1.2 vs lead: 34 ± 1.2 mmHg) significantly without modifying heart rate. Papillary muscles were exposed to 8 µM lead acetate and evaluated 60 min later. Isometric contractions increased (control: 0.546 ± 0.07 vs lead: 0.608 ± 0.06 g/mg) and time to peak tension decreased (control: 268 ± 13 vs lead: 227 ± 5.58 ms), but relaxation time was unchanged. Post-pause potentiation was similar between groups (n = 6 per group), suggesting no change in sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, evaluated indirectly by this protocol. After 1-h exposure to lead acetate, the papillary muscles became hyperactive in response to a β-adrenergic agonist (10 µM isoproterenol). In addition, post-rest contractions decreased, suggesting a reduction in sarcolemmal calcium influx. The heart samples treated with 8 µM lead acetate presented increased Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase (approximately 140%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) and myosin ATPase (approximately 30%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) activity. Our results indicated that acute exposure to low lead concentrations produces direct positive inotropic and lusitropic effects on myocardial contractility and increases the right and left ventricular systolic pressure, thus potentially contributing to the early development of hypertension.

  18. Effects of acute chlorpyrifos exposure on in vivo acetylcholine accumulation in rat striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanth, Subramanya; Liu, Jing; Mirajkar, Nikita; Pope, Carey

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the acute effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinesterase inhibition and acetylcholine levels in the striatum of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml/kg) or CPF (84, 156 or 279 mg/kg, sc) and functional signs of toxicity, body weight and motor activity recorded. Microdialysis was conducted at 1, 4 and 7 days after CPF exposure for measurement of acetylcholine levels in striatum. Rats were then sacrificed and the contralateral striatum and diaphragm were collected for biochemical measurements. Few overt signs of cholinergic toxicity were noted in any rats. Body weight gain was significantly affected in the high-dose (279 mg/kg) group only, while motor activity (nocturnal rearing) was significantly reduced in all CPF-treated groups at one day (84 mg/kg) or from 1-4 days (156 and 279 mg/kg) after dosing. Cholinesterase activities in both diaphragm and striatum were markedly inhibited (50-92%) in a time-dependent manner, but there were relatively minimal dose-related changes. In contrast, time- and dose-dependent changes in striatal acetylcholine levels were noted, with significantly higher levels noted in the high-dose group compared to other groups. Maximal increases in striatal acetylcholine levels were observed at 4-7 days after dosing (84 mg/kg, 7-9-fold; 156 mg/kg, 10-13-fold; 279 mg/kg, 35-57-fold). Substantially higher acetylcholine levels were noted when an exogenous cholinesterase inhibitor was included in the perfusion buffer, but CPF treatment-related differences were substantially lower in magnitude under those conditions. The results suggest that marked differences in acetylcholine accumulation can occur with dosages of CPF eliciting relatively similar degrees of cholinesterase inhibition. Furthermore, the minimal expression of classic signs of cholinergic toxicity in the presence of extensive brain acetylcholine accumulation suggests that some

  19. Acute posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression after exposure to the 2005 Saskatchewan Centennial Air Show disaster: prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Carleton, R Nicholas; Brundin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of acute distress-that is, clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression-and to identify predictors of each in a sample of people who witnessed a fatal aircraft collision at the 2005 Saskatchewan Centennial Air Show. Air Show attendees (N = 157) were recruited by advertisements in the local media and completed an Internet-administered battery of questionnaires. Based on previously established cut-offs, 22 percent respondents had clinically significant PTSS and 24 percent had clinically significant depressive symptoms. Clinically significant symptoms were associated with posttrauma impairment in social and occupational functioning. Acute distress was associated with several variables, including aspects of Air Show trauma exposure, severity of prior trauma exposure, low posttrauma social support (ie, negative responses by others), indices of poor coping (eg, intolerance of uncertainty, rumination about the trauma), and elevated scores on anxiety sensitivity, the personality trait of absorption, and dissociative tendencies. Results suggest that clinically significant acute distress is common in the aftermath of witnessed trauma. The statistical predictors (correlates) of acute distress were generally consistent with the results of studies of other forms of trauma. People with elevated scores on theoretical vulnerability factors (eg, elevated anxiety sensitivity) were particularly likely to develop acute distress.

  20. Exposure to professional pest control treatments and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen D; Armstrong, Bruce K; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Fritschi, Lin; Attia, John; Scott, Rodney J; Smibert, Elizabeth; Milne, Elizabeth

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that exposure to pesticides increases the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aim of this analysis was to investigate whether professional pest treatments in or around the home before birth or during childhood increased the risk of childhood ALL. Data from 388 cases and 870 frequency-matched controls were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for study matching variables and potential confounders, to calculate odds ratios (ORs). A meta-analysis of our findings with the published findings of previous studies was also conducted. The ORs for any professional pest control treatments were 1.19 (95% CI 0.83, 1.69) in the year before pregnancy, 1.30 (95% CI 0.86, 1.97) during pregnancy and 1.24 (95% CI 0.93, 1.65) for those done after the child's birth. The ORs for exposure after birth were highest when it occurred between the ages of two and three years. ORs were elevated for termite treatments before birth. ORs were higher for pre-B than T cell ALL and for t(12;21) (ETV6-Runx-1) than other cytogenetic sub-types. The pooled OR from a meta-analysis of our study with three previous studies of professional pest control treatments during pregnancy was 1.37 (95% CI 1.00, 1.88). Our results, and those of our meta-analysis, provide some evidence of a modestly increased risk of ALL for professional pest control treatments done during the index pregnancy and possibly in the child's early years. The analysis of pooled data from international collaborations may provide more certainty regarding these potentially important associations. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  1. Acute vs chronic exposure to high fat diet leads to distinct regulation of PKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Edra; Nesterova, Maria; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2017-07-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is an essential regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism that plays a critical role in energy homeostasis. The impact of diet on PKA signaling has not been defined, although perturbations in individual PKA subunits are associated with changes in adiposity, physical activity and energy intake in mice and humans. We hypothesized that a high fat diet (HFD) would elicit peripheral and central alterations in the PKA system that would differ depending on length of exposure to HFD; these differences could protect against or promote diet-induced obesity (DIO). 12-week-old C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned to a regular diet or HFD and weighed weekly throughout the feeding studies (4 days, 14 weeks; respectively), and during killing. PKA activity and subunit expression were measured in liver, gonadal adipose tissue (AT) and brain. Acute HFD-feeding suppressed basal hepatic PKA activity. In contrast, hepatic and hypothalamic PKA activities were significantly increased after chronic HFD-feeding. Changes in AT were more subtle, and overall, altered PKA regulation in response to chronic HFD exposure was more profound in female mice. The suppression of hepatic PKA activity after 4 day HFD-feeding was indicative of a protective peripheral effect against obesity in the context of overnutrition. In response to chronic HFD-feeding, and with the development of DIO, dysregulated hepatic and hypothalamic PKA signaling was a signature of obesity that is likely to promote further metabolic dysfunction in mice. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Effects of Acute and Chronic Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, and Zn Exposure on Sea Cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted with sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus exposed to heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96 h LC50 were 2.697, 0.133, and 1.574 mg L−1 for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, and were ranked in order of toxicity: Cu > Cd > Zn. Under chronic metal exposure the specific growth rates of sea cucumbers decreased with the increase of metal concentration for all the three metals. After acute metal exposure, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR decreased. The OCRs in all groups were significantly different than control (P muscle > intestine in natural sea water. After chronic Zn, Cu, and Cd exposure, the change pattern of HK and PK in respiratory tree, muscle, and intestine varied slightly. However, the activity of the enzyme showed a general trend of increase and then decrease and the higher the exposure concentration was, the earlier the highest point of enzyme activity was obtained.

  3. Influence of ozone on RNA and protein content of Lemna minor L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L E

    1972-01-01

    The amount of RNA and protein in Lemna minor L. plants decreased after exposure to ozone, as compared with control plants receiving no ozone treatment. Differences in RNA and protein content between control and ozone-treated Lemna plants were detectable immediately following ozone treatments and remained throughout the 24 h sampling time.

  4. Dysfunctional information processing in individuals with acute exposure to sexual abuse: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changwoo; Park, Minkyung; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Park, Su Mi; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2018-06-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may occur after traumatic event and also cause significant life time impairment. P300 event-related potential (ERP) is a potential biological marker for PTSD and can reflect cognitive impairment in information processing and attention. Despite the usefulness of ERP, there are few attempts to reveal relationships between ASD and P300. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the P300 of the patients who were the victims of sexual abuse reflected the quantitative trait of ASD or if P300 is applicable as a state marker for predicting the risk of PTSD.Fifteen female victims of sexual abuse diagnosed with ASD and 18 healthy controls (HCs) without trauma exposure participated in this study. We investigated the P300 ERPs in patients with ASD to compare them with those of HCs. ERPs were acquired from female adults during an auditory oddball task. Between-group differences in amplitudes or latencies of P300 were investigated using repeated-measures analysis of variance.The ASD groups showed reduced P300 amplitudes at the midline centroparietal site as well as reduced accuracy rates during an auditory oddball task compared with the HCs.These results indicate that ASD have abnormalities in the P300 compared to those in HCs. Moreover, the reduction in P300 could be considered a candidate neurophysiological marker for ASD.

  5. Acute effects of 30 minutes of exposure to a smartphone call on in vitro platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Brocco, Giorgio; Gelati, Matteo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina

    2017-05-01

    Significant concerns are now regularly raised about the safety of excessive mobile phone use. This study was aimed to assess the acute effects of radiofrequency waves emitted by a commercial smartphone on platelet function. Two sequential citrated blood samples were collected from 16 healthy volunteers recruited from laboratory staff. The first sample was placed in a plastic rack, 1 cm distant from a commercial smartphone receiving a 30-min call and emitting 900 MHz radiofrequency waves. The second sample was placed in another plastic rack, isolated from radiofrequency wave sources, for the same period. The platelet count and the mean platelet volume were then assessed in all blood samples, whereas platelet function was evaluated using the platelet function analyser-100 (PFA-100). A 30-min exposure of citrated blood to smartphone radiofrequency waves induced significant prolongation of collagen-epinephrine aggregation (median increase, 10%) and a considerable increase of mean platelet volume (median increase, 5%), whereas collagen-adenosine diphosphate aggregation and platelet count remained unchanged. This study demonstrates that smartphone radiofrequency waves induce significant perturbation of platelet structure and function, thus providing further support to concerns regarding excessive use of mobile phones. Caution should also be taken with regards to blood products containing platelets, which should be kept far away from mobile phones and smartphones throughout the production pipeline and storage period.

  6. Ozone modifies the metabolic and endocrine response to glucose: Reproduction of effects with the stress hormone corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Errol M; Pilon, Shinjini; Guénette, Josée; Williams, Andrew; Holloway, Alison C

    2018-03-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased incidence of metabolic disease (e.g. metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes); however, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Air pollutants increase the release of stress hormones (human cortisol, rodent corticosterone), which could contribute to metabolic dysregulation. We assessed acute effects of ozone, and stress axis involvement, on glucose tolerance and on the metabolic (triglyceride), endocrine/energy regulation (insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, leptin, ghrelin, corticosterone), and inflammatory/endothelial (TNF, IL-6, VEGF, PAI-1) response to exogenous glucose. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed to clean air or 0.8 ppm ozone for 4 h in whole body chambers. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis involvement in ozone effects was tested through subcutaneous administration of the glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (50 mg/kg body weight), corticosterone (10 mg/kg body weight), or vehicle (40% propylene glycol) prior to exposure. A glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg body weight glucose) was conducted immediately after exposure, with blood samples collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Ozone exposure impaired glucose tolerance, an effect accompanied by increased plasma triglycerides but no impairment of insulin release. Ozone diminished glucagon, GLP-1, and ghrelin responses to glucose, but did not significantly impact inflammatory/endothelial analytes. Metyrapone reduced corticosterone but increased glucose and triglycerides, complicating evaluation of the impact of glucocorticoid inhibition. However, administration of corticosterone reproduced the profile of ozone effects, supporting a role for the HPA axis. The results show that ozone-dependent changes in glucose tolerance are accompanied by altered metabolic and endocrine responses to glucose challenge that are reproduced by exogenous stress hormone. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  8. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Büker, Patrick; Khalid, Sofia; Van Den Berg, Leon; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Wahid, Abdul; Emberson, Lisa; Power, Sally A.; Ashmore, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ► Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ► The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ► Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ► Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ► These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  9. Acute myeloid leukemia induction in CBA/H mice by irradiation with fission neutrons as a function of exposure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huiskamp, R.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in male CBA/H mice was used as a model for investigation of the effect of reduced fast fission neutron exposure rates on radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Groups of about 90 male CBA/H mice were irradiated or sham-irradiated at the age of 15-20 weeks. The animals were exposed to 400 mGy fast fission neutrons at exposure rates of 2, 10 or 100 mGy/min. The investigation clearly showed that reducing the exposure rate of high-LET fast fission neutrons had no influence on the incidence of AML or on the survival of the irradiated mice. In contrast, a higher incidence of lymphosarcomas was observed in mice irradiated with higher exposure rates. (orig./MG)

  10. Acute myeloid leukemia induction in CBA/H mice by irradiation with fission neutrons as a function of exposure rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huiskamp, R [Stichting Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland, Petten (Netherlands). Radiobiology and Radio-Ecology Unit

    1991-06-01

    Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in male CBA/H mice was used as a model for investigation of the effect of reduced fast fission neutron exposure rates on radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Groups of about 90 male CBA/H mice were irradiated or sham-irradiated at the age of 15-20 weeks. The animals were exposed to 400 mGy fast fission neutrons at exposure rates of 2, 10 or 100 mGy/min. The investigation clearly showed that reducing the exposure rate of high-LET fast fission neutrons had no influence on the incidence of AML or on the survival of the irradiated mice. In contrast, a higher incidence of lymphosarcomas was observed in mice irradiated with higher exposure rates. (orig./MG).

  11. Chronic marijuana smoke exposure in the rhesus monkey. IV: Neurochemical effects and comparison to acute and chronic exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S F; Newport, G D; Scallet, A C; Paule, M G; Bailey, J R; Slikker, W

    1991-11-01

    THC is the major psychoactive constituent of marijuana and is known to produce psychopharmacological effects in humans. These studies were designed to determine whether acute or chronic exposure to marijuana smoke or THC produces in vitro or in vivo neurochemical alterations in rat or monkey brain. For the in vitro study, THC was added (1-100 nM) to membranes prepared from different regions of the rat brain and muscarinic cholinergic (MCh) receptor binding was measured. For the acute in vivo study, rats were injected IP with vehicle, 1, 3, 10, or 30 mg THC/kg and sacrificed 2 h later. For the chronic study, rats were gavaged with vehicle or 10 or 20 mg THC/kg daily, 5 days/week for 90 days and sacrificed either 24 h or 2 months later. Rhesus monkeys were exposed to the smoke of a single 2.6% THC cigarette once a day, 2 or 7 days a week for 1 year. Approximately 7 months after the last exposure, animals were sacrificed by overdose with pentobarbital for neurochemical analyses. In vitro exposure to THC produced a dose-dependent inhibition of MCh receptor binding in several brain areas. This inhibition of MCh receptor binding, however, was also observed with two other nonpsychoactive derivatives of marijuana, cannabidiol and cannabinol. In the rat in vivo study, we found no significant changes in MCh or other neurotransmitter receptor binding in hippocampus, frontal cortex or caudate nucleus after acute or chronic exposure to THC. In the monkey brain, we found no alterations in the concentration of neurotransmitters in caudate nucleus, frontal cortex, hypothalamus or brain stem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Assimilation of carbon and transport of assimilates in coniferous trees under the influence of airborne pollutants. Photosynthesis rate and assimilate distribution in young fir trees (Picea abies [L.]Karst.) under controlled exposure to ozone. Final report; Assimilation von Kohlenstoff und der Assimilattransport in Coniferen unter dem Einfluss von Luftschadstoffen. Photosyntheseleistung und Assimilatverteilung in jungen Fichten (Picea abies [L.]Karst.) unter kontrollierter Ozon-Exposition. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willenbrink, J.; Schatten, T.

    1992-12-31

    In this project, effects of long-term, low-level ozone exposure on CO{sub 2}fixation and assimilate partitioning in 4-years spruces old were studied. 1. In October, ozone exposure resulted in a 40% decrease of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll content was not altered. Depression of net photosynthesis by ozone exposure fluctuates. At least partly, this depression of net photosynthesis might reflect an increase of respiration. After 6 weeks of ozone exposure, both stomatal conductivity and transpiration seemed to be lowered. However, internal [CO{sub 2}] and water use efficiency were not significantly altered. 2. Compared with the control, needles of ozone-exposed plants exhibited a shift of the {sup 14}C-ratio of {beta}-carotene/xanthophylls which effect faded away with the season (October). 3. In August and October, translocation of {sup 14}C-assimilates from the {sup 14}C-fed source leaves seems to be impeded by ozone exposure. 4. No O{sub 3}-related differences were found for the lipophilic as well as for the fractions of organic or amino acids. For the sink tissues (twig, stem, root), less label was found in non-starch residue in August (main growth season), in O{sub 3}-exposed plants. 5. Starch and sugar content of cortex, cambium, xylem, and of the root follow annual cycles. Under ozon exposure, levels of {sup 14}C-starch and {sup 14}C-sucrose are lowered whereas in the needles, build-up of {sup 14}C-starch was detected. 6. Obviously, long-term low-level ozone affects allocation of assimilates. Secondary effects on chloroplasts by the treatment cannot be excluded. (orig./UWA) [Deutsch] Unter Labor- bzw. Gewaechshausbedingungen wurde der Einfluss einer kontrollierten Ozonexposition auf die Photosyntheseleistung und die Assimilatverteilung in 4-jaehrigen Fichten untersucht. 1. Unter Ozon-Exposition wird die Netto-Photosyntheserate in den jungen Nadeln zum Herbst hin reduziert, waehrend der Chlorophyllgehalt unbeeinflusst bleibt. Die Photosyntheserate der jungen Nadeln

  13. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  14. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze [Toxicology Unit, INERIS, Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2006-07-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  15. PEDIC - A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO ESTIMATE THE EFFECT OF EVACUATION ON POPULATION EXPOSURE FOLLOWING ACUTE RADIONUCLIDE RELEASES TO THE ATOMSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D. L.; Peloquin, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The computer program PEDIC is described for estimation of the effect of evacuation on population exposure. The program uses joint frequency, annual average meteorological data and a simple population evacuation model to estimate exposure reduction due to movement of people away from radioactive plumes following an acute release of activity. Atmospheric dispersion is based on a sector averaged Gaussian model with consideration of plume rise and building wake effects. Appendices to the report provide details of the computer program design, a program listing, input card preparation instructions and sample problems.

  16. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR): A community-wide effort to quantify tropospheric ozone in a rapidly changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, O. R.; Schultz, M.; Paoletti, E.; Galbally, I. E.; Naja, M. K.; Tarasick, D. W.; Evans, M. J.; Thompson, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. Since 1990 a large portion of the anthropogenic emissions that react in the atmosphere to produce ozone has shifted from North America and Europe to Asia. This rapid shift, coupled with limited ozone monitoring in developing nations, left scientists unable to answer the most basic questions: Which regions of the world have the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution? Is ozone continuing to decline in nations with strong emissions controls? To what extent is ozone increasing in the developing world? How can the atmospheric sciences community facilitate access to the ozone metrics necessary for quantifying ozone's impact on human health and crop/ecosystem productivity? To answer these questions the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) initiated the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR). With over 220 member scientists and air quality specialists from 36 nations, TOAR's mission is to provide the research community with an up-to-date scientific assessment of tropospheric ozone's global distribution and trends from the surface to the tropopause. TOAR has also built the world's largest database of surface ozone observations and generated ozone exposure and dose metrics at thousands of measurement sites around the world, freely accessible for research on the global-scale impact of ozone on climate, human health and crop/ecosystem productivity. Plots of these metrics show the regions of the world with the greatest ozone exposure for humans and crops/ecosystems, at least in areas where observations are available. The results also highlight regions where air quality is improving and where it has degraded. TOAR has also conducted the first intercomparison of tropospheric column ozone from ozonesondes and multiple satellite instruments, which provide similar estimates of the present-day tropospheric ozone burden.

  17. Ambient Ozone Pollution and Daily Mortality: A Nationwide Study in 272 Chinese Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng; Chen, Renjie; Wang, Lijun; Meng, Xia; Liu, Cong; Niu, Yue; Lin, Zhijing; Liu, Yunning; Liu, Jiangmei; Qi, Jinlei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng; Kan, Haidong

    2017-11-21

    Few large multicity studies have been conducted in developing countries to address the acute health effects of atmospheric ozone pollution. We explored the associations between ozone and daily cause-specific mortality in China. We performed a nationwide time-series analysis in 272 representative Chinese cities between 2013 and 2015. We used distributed lag models and over-dispersed generalized linear models to estimate the cumulative effects of ozone (lagged over 0-3 d) on mortality in each city, and we used hierarchical Bayesian models to combine the city-specific estimates. Regional, seasonal, and demographic heterogeneity were evaluated by meta-regression. At the national-average level, a 10-μg/m 3 increase in 8-h maximum ozone concentration was associated with 0.24% [95% posterior interval (PI): 0.13%, 0.35%], 0.27% (95% PI: 0.10%, 0.44%), 0.60% (95% PI: 0.08%, 1.11%), 0.24% (95% PI: 0.02%, 0.46%), and 0.29% (95% PI: 0.07%, 0.50%) higher daily mortality from all nonaccidental causes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, coronary diseases, and stroke, respectively. Associations between ozone and daily mortality due to respiratory and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease specifically were positive but imprecise and nonsignificant. There were no statistically significant differences in associations between ozone and nonaccidental mortality according to region, season, age, sex, or educational attainment. Our findings provide robust evidence of higher nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in association with short-term exposure to ambient ozone in China. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1849.

  18. Ozone Enhances Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP-Induced Interleukin-8 (IL-8 Gene Expression in Human Airway Epithelial Cells through Activation of Nuclear Factors- κB (NF-κB and IL-6 (NF-IL6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kelley

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, a highly reactive oxidant gas is a major component of photochemical smog. As an inhaled toxicant, ozone induces its adverse effects mainly on the lung. Inhalation of particulate matter has been reported to cause airway inflammation in humans and animals. Furthermore, epidemiological evidence has indicated that exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5-10, including diesel exhaust particles (DEP has been correlated with increased acute and chronic respiratory morbidity and exacerbation of asthma. Previously, exposure to ozone or particulate matter and their effect on the lung have been addressed as separate environmental problems. Ozone and particulate matter may be chemically coupled in the ambient air. In the present study we determined whether ozone exposure enhances DEP effect on interleukin-8 (IL-8 gene expression in human airway epithelial cells. We report that ozone exposure (0.5 ppm x 1 hr significantly increased DEP-induced IL-8 gene expression in A549 cells (117 ± 19 pg/ml, n = 6, p < 0.05 as compared to cultures treated with DEP (100 μg/ml x 4 hr alone (31 ± 3 pg/ml, n = 6, or cultures exposed to purified air (24 ± 6 pg/ml, n = 6. The increased DEP-induced IL-8 gene expression following ozone exposure was attributed to ozone-induced increase in the activity of the transcription factors NF-κB and NF-IL6. The results of the present study indicate that ozone exposure enhances the toxicity of DEP in human airway epithelial cells by augmenting IL-8 gene expression, a potent chemoattractant of neutrophils in the lung.

  19. Repeated Exposure to Conditioned Fear Stress Increases Anxiety and Delays Sleep Recovery Following Exposure to an Acute Traumatic Stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Thompson, Robert S.; Opp, Mark R.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep–wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by human beings, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the develo...

  20. Interaction of ozone with plastic and metallic materials in a dynamic flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altshuller, A P; Wartburg, A F

    1961-01-01

    The loss of ozone in the p.p.h.m. range after passing through or over various plastic and metallic substances has been investigated. The materials used include Teflon, glass, stainless steel, aluminium, polyethylene and polyvinyl tubing, Mylar film, and aluminium foil. Unused Teflon passes ozone without loss. Glass tubing, after a short exposure to ozone, passes ozone without loss. Stainless steel tubing, aluminum tubing or foil and Mylar film must be exposed to ozone in the p.p.h.m. range for several hours before 90% or more of the ozone initially present can be passed through or over these materials. More rapid conditioning to ozone can be achieved by several five to fifteen-minute exposures to about 10 p.p.m. of ozone. Polyethylene and Nalgon tubing even after many hours of exposure to ozone will pass only 75 to 80% of the ozone initially present in the gas stream. Some types of polyvinyl tubing are unsatisfactory for use with ozone irrespective of the amount of exposure to ozone. Flowrates below 1000 c/sup 3//min. will increase losses of ozone. Except for Teflon and glass, materials should not be used in ozone analysis under any circumstances at low flowrates until they are thoroughly conditioned. Results obtained with stainless steel, aluminium and polyethylene indicate that conditioning to ozone once obtained will persist for at least two weeks.

  1. Investigating ozone-induced decomposition of surface-bound permethrin for conditions in aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, B K; Wells, J R; Nazaroff, W W

    2010-02-01

    The reaction of ozone with permethrin can potentially form phosgene. Published evidence on ozone levels and permethrin surface concentrations in aircraft cabins indicated that significant phosgene formation might occur in this setting. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene with a lower limit of detection of 2 ppb. Chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated materials (glass, carpet, seat fabric, and plastic) exposed to ozone under cabin-relevant conditions (150 ppb O(3), 4.5/h air exchange rate, means of material-balance modeling indicates that the upper limit on the phosgene level in aircraft cabins resulting from this chemistry is approximately 1 microg/m(3) or approximately 0.3 ppb. It was thus determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in aircraft cabins, is not likely to exceed relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines. Phosgene formation from ozone-initiated oxidation of permethrin in the aircraft cabin environment, if it occurs, is estimated to generate levels below the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment acute reference exposure level of 4 microg/m(3) or approximately 1 ppb.

  2. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  3. High Resolution ECG for Evaluation of QT Interval Variability during Exposure to Acute Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupet, P.; Finderle, Z.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Starc, V.

    2010-01-01

    Ventricular repolarization instability as quantified by the index of QT interval variability (QTVI) is one of the best predictors for risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Because it is difficult to appropriately monitor early signs of organ dysfunction at high altitude, we investigated whether high resolution advanced ECG (HR-ECG) analysis might be helpful as a non-invasive and easy-to-use tool for evaluating the risk of cardiac arrhythmias during exposure to acute hypoxia. 19 non-acclimatized healthy trained alpinists (age 37, 8 plus or minus 4,7 years) participated in the study. Five-minute high-resolution 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded (Cardiosoft) in each subject at rest in the supine position breathing room air and then after breathing 12.5% oxygen for 30 min. For beat-to-beat RR and QT variability, the program of Starc was utilized to derive standard time domain measures such as root mean square of the successive interval difference (rMSSD) of RRV and QTV, the corrected QT interval (QTc) and the QTVI in lead II. Changes were evaluated with paired-samples t-test with p-values less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. As expected, the RR interval and its variability both decreased with increasing altitude, with p = 0.000 and p = 0.005, respectively. Significant increases were found in both the rMSSDQT and the QTVI in lead II, with p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively. There was no change in QTc interval length (p = non significant). QT variability parameters may be useful for evaluating changes in ventricular repolarization caused by hypoxia. These changes might be driven by increases in sympathetic nervous system activity at ventricular level.

  4. Cardioprotection after acute exposure to simulated high altitude in rats. Role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Padula, Pablo H; Etchegoyen, Melisa; Czerniczyniec, Analia; Piotrkowski, Barbara; Arnaiz, Silvia Lores; Milei, Jose; Costa, Lidia E

    2018-02-28

    In previous studies, upregulation of NOS during acclimatization of rats to sustained hypobaric hypoxia was associated to cardioprotection, evaluated as an increased tolerance of myocardium to hypoxia/reoxygenation. The objective of the present work was to investigate the effect of acute hypobaric hypoxia and the role of endogenous NO concerning cardiac tolerance to hypoxia/reoxygenation under β-adrenergic stimulation. Rats were submitted to 58.7 kPa in a hypopressure chamber for 48 h whereas their normoxic controls remained at 101.3 kPa. By adding NOS substrate L-arg, or blocker L-NNA, isometric mechanical activity of papillary muscles isolated from left ventricle was evaluated at maximal or minimal production of NO, respectively, under β-adrenergic stimulation by isoproterenol, followed by 60/30 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation. Activities of NOS and cytochrome oxidase were evaluated by spectrophotometric methods and expression of HIF1-α and NOS isoforms by western blot. Eosin and hematoxiline staining were used for histological studies. Cytosolic expression of HIF1-α, nNOS and eNOS, and NO production were higher in left ventricle of hypoxic rats. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase activity was decreased by hypobaric hypoxia and this effect was reversed by L-NNA. After H/R, recovery of developed tension in papillary muscles from normoxic rats was 51-60% (regardless NO modulation) while in hypobaric hypoxia was 70% ± 3 (L-arg) and 54% ± 1 (L-NNA). Other mechanical parameters showed similar results. Preserved histological architecture was observed only in L-arg papillary muscles of hypoxic rats. Exposure of rats to hypobaric hypoxia for only 2 days increased NO synthesis leading to cardioprotection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhalation exposure to three-dimensional printer emissions stimulates acute hypertension and microvascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, A B; LeBouf, R F; Duling, M G; Yi, J; Abukabda, A B; McBride, C R; Nurkiewicz, T R

    2017-11-15

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM™), or three-dimensional (3D) printing has become routine in industrial, occupational and domestic environments. We have recently reported that 3D printing emissions (3DPE) are complex mixtures, with a large ultrafine particulate matter component. Additionally, we and others have reported that inhalation of xenobiotic particles in this size range is associated with an array of cardiovascular dysfunctions. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3DPE aerosols via nose-only exposure for ~3h. Twenty-four hours later, intravital microscopy was performed to assess microvascular function in the spinotrapezius muscle. Endothelium-dependent and -independent arteriolar dilation were stimulated by local microiontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). At the time of experiments, animals exposed to 3DPE inhalation presented with a mean arterial pressure of 125±4mmHg, and this was significantly higher than that for the sham-control group (94±3mmHg). Consistent with this pressor response in the 3DPE group, was an elevation of ~12% in resting arteriolar tone. Endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation was significantly impaired after 3DPE inhalation across all iontophoretic ejection currents (0-27±15%, compared to sham-control: 15-120±21%). Endothelium-independent dilation was not affected by 3DPE inhalation. These alterations in peripheral microvascular resistance and reactivity are consistent with elevations in arterial pressure that follow 3DPE inhalation. Future studies must identify the specific toxicants generated by FDM™ that drive this acute pressor response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in Glutamate/NMDA Receptor Subunit 1 Expression in Rat Brain after Acute and Subacute Exposure to Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walailuk Kerdsan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a psychostimulant drug of abuse that produces long-term behavioral changes including behavioral sensitization, tolerance, and dependence. METH has been reported to induce neurotoxic effects in several areas of the brain via the dopaminergic system. Changes of dopamine function can induce malfunction of the glutamatergic system. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of METH administration on the expression of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NMDAR1 in frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampal formation after acute and subacute exposure to METH by western blotting. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 8 mg/kg METH, 4 mg/kg/day METH for 14 days and saline in acute, subacute, and control groups, respectively. A significant increase in NMDAR1 immunoreactive protein was found in frontal cortex in the subacute group (P=.036 but not in the acute group (P=.580. Moreover, a significant increase in NMDAR1 was also observed in striatum in both acute (P=.025 and subacute groups (P=.023. However, no significant differences in NMDAR1 in hippocampal formation were observed in either acute or subacute group. The results suggest that an upregulation of NMDA receptor expression may be a consequence of glutamatergic dysfunction induced by METH.

  7. Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Rivera Maria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s. In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an

  8. Ozone killing action against bacterial and fungal species; microbiological testing of a domestic ozone generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyas, A; Boughton, B J; Das, B C

    1983-10-01

    The action of ozone generated from a small domestic device was examined with a view to using it in clinical isolation units accommodating immunosuppressed patients. Over a six-hour period in an average size room the device did not generate sufficient ozone to suppress bacterial and fungal growth. A useful bactericidal action, against a variety of human pathogens was achieved with ozone concentrations between 0.3 to 0.9 ppm. Bactericidal ozone concentrations are close to the limit permitted for human exposure however and further experiments are indicated.

  9. N-Acetyl Cysteine does not prevent liver toxicity from chronic low dose plus sub-acute high dose paracetamol exposure in young or old mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Alice-Elizabeth; Huizer-Pajkos, Aniko; Mach, John; McKenzie, Catriona; Mitchell, Sarah-Jayne; de Cabo, Rafael; Jones, Brett; Cogger, Victoria; Le Couteur, David G; Hilmer, Sarah-Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Paracetamol is an analgesic commonly used by people of all ages, which is well documented to cause severe hepatotoxicity with acute over-exposures. The risk of hepatotoxicity from non-acute paracetamol exposures is less extensively studied, and this is the exposure most common in older adults. Evidence on the effectiveness of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) for non-acute paracetamol exposures, in any age group, is lacking. This study aimed to examine the effect of long-term exposure to therapeutic doses of paracetamol and sub-acute paracetamol over-exposure, in young and old mice, and to investigate whether NAC was effective at preventing paracetamol hepatotoxicity induced by these exposures. Young and old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a paracetamol-containing (1.33g/kg food) or control diet for 6 weeks. Mice were then dosed orally 8 times over 3 days with additional paracetamol (250mg/kg) or saline, followed by either one or two doses of oral NAC (1200mg/kg) or saline. Chronic low-dose paracetamol exposure did not cause hepatotoxicity in young or old mice, measured by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation, and confirmed by histology and a DNA fragmentation assay. Sub-acute paracetamol exposure caused significant hepatotoxicity in young and old mice, measured by biochemistry (ALT) and histology. Neither a single nor double dose of NAC protected against this toxicity from sub-acute paracetamol in young or old mice. This finding has important clinical implications for treating toxicity due to different paracetamol exposure types in patients of all ages, and implies a need to develop new treatments for sub-acute paracetamol toxicity. PMID:26821200

  10. Studies of adaptive response and mutation induction in MCF-10A cells following exposure to chronic or acute ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manesh, Sara Shakeri; Sangsuwan, Traimate; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: Siamak.haghdoost@su.se

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 50 mGy at 1.4 mGy/h induces adaptive response in MCF-10A at mutation level. • Low dose rate γ-radiation does not induce adaptive response at survival level. • Overall, a dose rate effect is absent at the level of mutation in MCF-10A cells. - Abstract: A phenomenon in which exposure to a low adapting dose of radiation makes cells more resistant to the effects of a subsequent high dose exposure is termed radio-adaptive response. Adaptive response could hypothetically reduce the risk of late adverse effects of chronic or acute radiation exposures in humans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of such responses is of relevance for radiation protection as well as for the clinical applications of radiation in medicine. However, due to the variability of responses depending on the model system and radiation condition, there is a need to further study under what conditions adaptive response can be induced. In this study, we analyzed if there is a dose rate dependence for the adapting dose, assuming that the adapting dose induces DNA response/repair pathways that are dose rate dependent. MCF-10A cells were exposed to a 50 mGy adapting dose administered acutely (0.40 Gy/min) or chronically (1.4 mGy/h or 4.1 mGy/h) and then irradiated by high acute challenging doses. The endpoints of study include clonogenic cell survival and mutation frequency at X-linked hprt locus. In another series of experiment, cells were exposed to 100 mGy and 1 Gy at different dose rates (acutely and chronically) and then the mutation frequencies were studied. Adaptive response was absent at the level of clonogenic survival. The mutation frequencies were significantly decreased in the cells pre-exposed to 50 mGy at 1.4 mGy/h followed by 1 Gy acute exposure as challenging dose. Importantly, at single dose exposures (1 Gy or 100 mGy), no differences at the level of mutation were found comparing different dose rates.

  11. Nerve fiber layer (NFL) degeneration associated with acute q-switched laser exposure in the nonhuman primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Harry; Zuclich, Joseph A.; Stuck, Bruce E.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Lund, David J.; Glickman, Randolph D.

    1995-01-01

    We have evaluated acute laser retinal exposure in non-human primates using a Rodenstock scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) equipped with spectral imaging laser sources at 488, 514, 633, and 780 nm. Confocal spectral imaging at each laser wavelength allowed evaluation of the image plane from deep within the retinal vascular layer to the more superficial nerve fiber layer in the presence and absence of the short wavelength absorption of the macular pigment. SLO angiography included both fluorescein and indocyanine green procedures to assess the extent of damage to the sensory retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and the choroidal vasculature. All laser exposures in this experiment were from a Q-switched Neodymium laser source at an exposure level sufficient to produce vitreous hemorrhage. Confocal imaging of the nerve fiber layer revealed discrete optic nerve sector defects between the lesion site and the macula (retrograde degeneration) as well as between the lesion site and the optic disk (Wallerian degeneration). In multiple hemorrhagic exposures, lesions placed progressively distant from the macula or overlapping the macula formed bridging scars visible at deep retinal levels. Angiography revealed blood flow disturbance at the retina as well as at the choroidal vascular level. These data suggest that acute parafoveal laser retinal injury can involve both direct full thickness damage to the sensory and non-sensory retina and remote nerve fiber degeneration. Such injury has serious functional implications for both central and peripheral visual function.

  12. Transcriptional profiling of primary endometrial epithelial cells following acute HIV-1 exposure reveals gene signatures related to innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Woods, Matthew William; Dizzell, Sara; Nazli, Aisha; Mueller, Kristen M; Nguyen, Philip V; Verschoor, Chris P; Kaushic, Charu

    2018-04-01

    Genital epithelial cells (GECs) line the mucosal surface of the female genital tract (FGT) and are the first cells that interface with both commensal microbiota and sexually transmitted pathogens. Despite the protective barrier formed by GECs, the FGT is a major site of HIV-1 infection. This highlights the importance of studying the interaction of HIV-1 and GECs. Using microarray analysis, we characterized the transcriptional profile of primary endometrial GECs grown in the presence or absence of physiological levels of E2 (10 -9  mol/L) or P4 (10 -7  mol/L) following acute exposure to HIV-1 for 6 hours. Acute exposure of primary endometrial GECs to HIV-1 resulted in the expression of genes related to inflammation, plasminogen activation, adhesion and diapedesis and interferon response. Interestingly, exposure to HIV-1 in the presence of E2 and P4 resulted in differential transcriptional profiles, suggesting that the response of primary endometrial GECs to HIV-1 exposure is modulated by female sex hormones. The gene expression signature of endometrial GECs indicates that the response of these cells may be key to determining host susceptibility to HIV-1 and that sex hormones modulate these interactions. This study allows us to explore possible mechanisms that explain the hormone-mediated fluctuation of HIV-1 susceptibility in women. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Enhanced pharmaceutical removal from water in a three step bio-ozone-bio process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilt, Arnoud; van Gijn, Koen; Verhoek, Tom; Vergnes, Amber; Hoek, Mirit; Rijnaarts, Huub; Langenhoff, Alette

    2018-07-01

    Individual treatment processes like biological treatment or ozonation have their limitations for the removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary clarified effluents with high organic matter concentrations (i.e. 17 mg TOC/L). These limitations can be overcome by combining these two processes for a cost-effective pharmaceutical removal. A three-step biological-ozone-biological (BO 3 B) treatment process was therefore designed for the enhanced pharmaceutical removal from wastewater effluent. The first biological step removed 38% of ozone scavenging TOC, thus proportionally reducing the absolute ozone input for the subsequent ozonation. Complementariness between biological and ozone treatment, i.e. targeting different pharmaceuticals, resulted in cost-effective pharmaceutical removal by the overall BO 3 B process. At a low ozone dose of 0.2 g O 3 /g TOC and an HRT of 1.46 h in the biological reactors, the removal of 8 out of 9 pharmaceuticals exceeded 85%, except for metoprolol (60%). Testing various ozone doses and HRTs revealed that pharmaceuticals were ineffectively removed at 0.1 g O3/g TOC and an HRT of 0.3 h. At HRTs of 0.47 and 1.46 h easily and moderately biodegradable pharmaceuticals such as caffeine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and sulfamethoxazole were over 95% removed by biological treatment. The biorecalcitrant carbamazepine was completely ozonated at a dose of 0.4 g O 3 /g TOC. Ozonation products are likely biodegraded in the last biological reactor as a 17% TOC removal was found. No appreciable acute toxicity towards D. magna, P. subcapitata and V. fischeri was found after exposure to the influents and effluents of the individual BO 3 B reactors. The BO 3 B process is estimated to increase the yearly wastewater treatment tariff per population equivalent in the Netherlands by less than 10%. Overall, the BO 3 B process is a cost-effective treatment process for the removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary clarified effluents. Copyright

  14. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  15. Does acute radio-frequency electromagnetic field exposure affect visual event-related potentials in healthy adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Anna; Loughran, Sarah P; Verrender, Adam; Burdon, Catriona A; Taylor, Nigel A S; Croft, Rodney J

    2018-05-01

    To use improved methods to address the question of whether acute exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) affects early (80-200 ms) sensory and later (180-600 ms) cognitive processes as indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirty-six healthy subjects completed a visual discrimination task during concurrent exposure to a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-like, 920 MHz signal with peak-spatial specific absorption rate for 10 g of tissue of 0 W/kg of body mass (Sham), 1 W/kg (Low RF) and 2 W/kg (High RF). A fully randomised, counterbalanced, double-blind design was used. P1 amplitude was reduced (p = .02) and anterior N1 latency was increased (p = .04) during Exposure compared to Sham. There were no effects on any other ERP latencies or amplitudes. RF-EMF exposure may affect early perceptual (P1) and preparatory motor (anterior N1) processes. However, only two ERP indices, out of 56 comparisons, were observed to differ between RF-EMF exposure and Sham, suggesting that these observations may be due to chance. These observations are consistent with previous findings that RF-EMF exposure has no reliable impact on cognition (e.g., accuracy and response speed). Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. WHY DO THE ACUTE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OT TOLUENE IN RATS DEPEND ON THE ROUTE OF EXPOSURE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite evidence suggesting that the acute effects of organic solvents are related to their concentration in the brain, we have observed route-dependent differences in the acute behavioral effects of toluene. Whereas inhaled toluene disrupts the performance of rats on a visual si...

  17. Acute Toluene Exposure alters expression of genes associated with synaptic structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toluene (TOL), a volatile organic compound, is a ubiquitous air pollutant of interest to EPA regulatory programs. Whereas its acute functional effects are well described, several potential modes of action in the CNS have been proposed. Therefore, the genomic response to acute TOL...

  18. High Fructose/High Fat Diets Mediate Changes in Protein Carbonyl Content in the Rat Brain With and Without Ozone Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The consumption of diets rich in fat or fructose have been correlated to a rise in type-2 diabetes and obesity. These diet-induced physiological changes have been shown previously to cause an increase in responsiveness to air pollutants such as ozone (03). 03 is a pervasive air p...

  19. Effects of ozone chemistry and outside air supply on passenger self-evalua-tion of symptoms during 4-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Tamás, Gyöngyi; Myśków, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a simulated 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin, installed in a climate chamber, to determine the extent to which cabin air quality and passenger symptoms are affected by ozone chemistry. A total of 30 subjects were exposed to four conditions: two rates of outside...

  20. Does interspecific competition alter effects of early season ozone exposure on plants from wet grasslands? Results of a three-year experiment in open-top chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Franzaring, J.; Brouwer, G.; Metselaar, K.; Dueck, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chronic effects of ozone on wet grassland species early in the growing season might be altered by interspecific competition. Individual plants of Holcus lanatus, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Molinia caerulea and Plantago lanceolata were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Agrostis capillaris.

  1. Comparative response of dogs and monkeys to sublethal acute and continuous low dose-rate gamma-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Holland, L.M.; Johnson, O.S.; LaBauve, P.M.; London, J.E.; Prine, J.R.; Vigil, E.A.

    1977-02-01

    Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and dogs (beagle) were given thirteen 100-rad gamma-ray doses at 28-day intervals. The comparative response (injury and recovery) of the hematopoietic system of the two species was observed at 7-day intervals during the exposure regime. At 84 days after the thirteenth gamma-ray dose, the 1300-rad conditioned and control dogs and monkeys were challenged continuously with 35 R/day until death to determine the amount of radiation-induced injury remaining in conditioned animals as a reduction in mean survival time. Dogs (50 percent) and monkeys (8 percent) died from injury incurred during the conditioning exposures. Thus, the comparative response of dogs and monkeys to dose protraction by acute dose fractionation was similar to what might be expected from a single acute dose. Mean survival times for nonconditioned dogs and monkeys during continuous exposure at 35 R/day were the same (approximately 1400 h). Thus, hematopoietic response of the two species by this method of dose protraction was not significantly different. Mean survival times of conditioned dogs and monkeys during the continuous 35 R/day gamma-ray challenge exposure were greater than for their control counterparts. Thus, the long-term radiation-induced injury was not measurable by this method. Conditioning doses of more than four times the acute LD 50 - 30 in dogs and approximately two times that of monkeys served only to increase both mean survival time and variance in a gamma-ray stress environment with a dose rate of 35 R/day

  2. Inhaled ozone (O3)-induces changes in serum metabolomic and liver transcriptomic profiles in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Desinia B.; Karoly, Edward D.; Jones, Jan C.; Ward, William O.; Vallanat, Beena D.; Andrews, Debora L.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Snow, Samantha J.; Bass, Virginia L.; Richards, Judy E.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has been linked to increased incidence of diabetes. Recently, we showed that ozone (O 3 ) induces glucose intolerance, and increases serum leptin and epinephrine in Brown Norway rats. In this study, we hypothesized that O 3 exposure will cause systemic changes in metabolic homeostasis and that serum metabolomic and liver transcriptomic profiling will provide mechanistic insights. In the first experiment, male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed to filtered air (FA) or O 3 at 0.25, 0.50, or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for two days to establish concentration-related effects on glucose tolerance and lung injury. In a second experiment, rats were exposed to FA or 1.0 ppm O 3 , 6 h/day for either one or two consecutive days, and systemic metabolic responses were determined immediately after or 18 h post-exposure. O 3 increased serum glucose and leptin on day 1. Glucose intolerance persisted through two days of exposure but reversed 18 h-post second exposure. O 3 increased circulating metabolites of glycolysis, long-chain free fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids and cholesterol, while 1,5-anhydroglucitol, bile acids and metabolites of TCA cycle were decreased, indicating impaired glycemic control, proteolysis and lipolysis. Liver gene expression increased for markers of glycolysis, TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis, and decreased for markers of steroid and fat biosynthesis. Genes involved in apoptosis and mitochondrial function were also impacted by O 3 . In conclusion, short-term O 3 exposure induces global metabolic derangement involving glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism, typical of a stress–response. It remains to be examined if these alterations contribute to insulin resistance upon chronic exposure. - Highlights: • Ozone, an ubiquitous air pollutant induces acute systemic metabolic derangement. • Serum metabolomic approach provides novel insights in ozone-induced changes. • Ozone exposure induces leptinemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose intolerance

  3. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Poulsen

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BL/6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2 and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saa1 and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater and lasted longer than hepatic Saa1 mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length resulted in lowered SAA1/2 plasma levels. Increased SAA3 protein levels were positively related to dose and content of Mn, Mg and Co on day 1, whereas oxidation and diameter of the MWCNTs were protective on day 28 and 92, respectively. The results of this study reveal very differently controlled pulmonary and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step

  4. SYSTEMIC IMBALANCE OF ESSENTIAL METALS AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION IN RATS FOLLOWING ACUTE PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently demonstrated that PM containing water-soluble zinc may cause cardiac injury following pulmonary exposure. To investigate if pulmonary zinc exposure causes systemic metal imbalance and direct cardiac effects, we intratracheally (IT) instilled male Wistar Kyoto (WK...

  5. The effects of acute alcohol exposure on the response properties of neurons in visual cortex area 17 of cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Xia Jing; Li Guangxing; Zhou Yifeng

    2010-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral studies have demonstrated that a number of visual functions such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and motion perception can be impaired by acute alcohol exposure. The orientation- and direction-selective responses of cells in primary visual cortex are thought to participate in the perception of form and motion. To investigate how orientation selectivity and direction selectivity of neurons are influenced by acute alcohol exposure in vivo, we used the extracellular single-unit recording technique to examine the response properties of neurons in primary visual cortex (A17) of adult cats. We found that alcohol reduces spontaneous activity, visual evoked unit responses, the signal-to-noise ratio, and orientation selectivity of A17 cells. In addition, small but detectable changes in both the preferred orientation/direction and the bandwidth of the orientation tuning curve of strongly orientation-biased A17 cells were observed after acute alcohol administration. Our findings may provide physiological evidence for some alcohol-related deficits in visual function observed in behavioral studies.

  6. Differential effects of 5-HTTLPR genotypes on mood, memory, and attention bias following acute tryptophan depletion and stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firk, Christine; Markus, C Rob

    2009-05-01

    Polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) may be associated with increased vulnerability to acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) and depression vulnerability especially following stressful life events. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ATD in subjects with different 5-HTTLPR profiles before and after stress exposure on affective and cognitive-attentional changes. Eighteen subjects with homozygotic short alleles (S'/S') and 17 subjects with homozygotic long alleles (L'/L') of the 5-HTTLPR participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design to measure the effects of ATD on mood, memory, and attention before and after acute stress exposure. ATD lowered mood in all subjects independent of genotype. In S'/S' genotypes, mild acute stress increased depressive mood and in L'/L' genotypes increased feelings of vigor. Furthermore, S'/S' genotypes differed from L'/L' genotypes on measures of attention independent of treatment and memory following ATD. Polymorphisms of the 5-HTTLPR differentially affect responses to mild stress and ATD, suggesting greater vulnerability of S'/S' carriers to serotonergic manipulations and supporting increased depression vulnerability.

  7. Acute Free-Iron Exposure Does Not Explain the Impaired Haemorheology Associated with Haemochromatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony P McNamee

    Full Text Available Given the severity of the current imbalance between blood donor supply and recipient demand, discarded blood drawn from the routine venesections of haemochromatosis (HFE-HH patients may serve as a valuable alternative source for blood banks and transfusion. We investigated whether functional or biochemical differences existed between HFE-HH and control blood samples, with particular focus upon the haemorheological properties, to investigate the viability of venesected blood being subsequently harvested for blood products.Blood samples were collected from HFE-HH patients undergoing venesection treatment (n = 19 and healthy volunteers (n = 8. Moreover, a second experiment investigated the effects of a dose-response of iron (0, 40, 80, 320 mM FeCl3 on haemorheology in healthy blood samples (n = 7. Dependent variables included basic haematology, iron status, haematocrit, red blood cell (RBC aggregation (native and standardised haematocrit and "aggregability" (RBC tendency to aggregate in a standard aggregating medium; 0.4 L/L haematocrit in a Dx70, and RBC deformability.Indices of RBC deformability were significantly decreased for HFE-HH when compared with healthy controls: RBC deformability was significantly decreased at 1-7 Pa (p < 0.05, and the shear stress required for half maximal deformability was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for HFE-HH. RBC aggregation in plasma was significantly increased (p < 0.001 for HFE-HH, although when RBC were suspended in plasma-free Dx70 no differences were detected. No differences in RBC deformability or RBC aggregation/aggregability were detected when healthy RBC were incubated with varying dose of FeCl3.HFE-HH impairs the haemorheological properties of blood; however, RBC aggregability was similar between HFE-HH and controls when cells were suspended in a plasma-free medium, indicating that plasma factor(s may explain the altered haemorheology in HFE-HH patients. Acute exposure to elevated iron levels does

  8. Plants experiencing chronic internal exposure to ionizing radiation exhibit higher frequency of homologous recombination than acutely irradiated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchuk, O.; Kovalchuk, I.; Hohn, B. [Friedrich Miescher Institute, P.O. Box 2543, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); Arkhipov, A. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center of International Research, Shkolnaya Str. 6, 255620 Chernobyl (Ukraine); Barylyak, I.; Karachov, I. [Ukrainian Scientific Genetics Center, Popudrenko Str. 50, 253660 Kiev (Ukraine); Titov, V. [Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy, Galitska Str.2, 284000 Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine)

    2000-04-03

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known mutagen responsible for causing DNA strand breaks in all living organisms. Strand breaks thus created can be repaired by different mechanisms, including homologous recombination (HR), one of the key mechanisms maintaining genome stability [A. Britt, DNA damage and repair in plants, Annu. Rev. Plant. Phys. Plant Mol. Biol., 45 (1996) 75-100; H. Puchta, B. Hohn, From centiMorgans to basepairs: homologous recombination in plants, Trends Plant Sci., 1 (1996) 340-348.]. Acute or chronic exposure to IR may have different influences on the genome integrity. Although in a radioactively contaminated environment plants are mostly exposed to chronic pollution, evaluation of both kinds of influences is important. Estimation of the frequency of HR in the exposed plants may serve as an indication of genome stability. We used previously generated Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants, transgenic for non-active versions of the {beta}-glucoronidase gene (uidA) [P. Swoboda, S. Gal, B. Hohn, H. Puchta, Intrachromosomal homologous recombination in whole plants, EMBO J., 13 (1994) 484-489; H. Puchta, P. Swoboda, B. Hohn, Induction of homologous DNA recombination in whole plants, Plant, 7 (1995) 203-210.] serving as a recombination substrate, to study the influence of acute and chronic exposure to IR on the level of HR as example of genome stability in plants. Exposure of seeds and seedlings to 0.1 to 10.0 Gy 60Co resulted in increased HR frequency, although the effect was more pronounced in seedlings. For the study of the influence of chronic exposure to IR, plants were grown on two chemically different types of soils, each artificially contaminated with equal amounts of 137Cs. We observed a strong and significant correlation between the frequency of HR in plants, the radioactivity of the soil samples and the doses of radiation absorbed by plants (in all cases r0.9, n=6, P<0.05). In addition, we noted that plants grown in soils with

  9. Acute respiratory syndrome after inhalation of waterproofing sprays: a posteriori exposure-response assessment in 102 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez, David; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; De-Batz, Alice; Droz, Pierre; Lazor, Romain

    2006-05-01

    Waterproofing agents are widely used to protect leather and textiles in both domestic and occupational activities. An outbreak of acute respiratory syndrome following exposure to waterproofing sprays occurred during the winter 2002-2003 in Switzerland. About 180 cases were reported by the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre between October 2002 and March 2003, whereas fewer than 10 cases per year had been recorded previously. The reported cases involved three brands of sprays containing a common waterproofing mixture, that had undergone a formulation change in the months preceding the outbreak. A retrospective analysis was undertaken in collaboration with the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre and the Swiss Registries for Interstitial and Orphan Lung Diseases to clarify the circumstances and possible causes of the observed health effects. Individual exposure data were generated with questionnaires and experimental emission measurements. The collected data was used to conduct numeric simulation for 102 cases of exposure. A classical two-zone model was used to assess the aerosol dispersion in the near- and far-field during spraying. The resulting assessed dose and exposure levels obtained were spread on large scales, of several orders of magnitude. No dose-response relationship was found between exposure indicators and health effects indicators (perceived severity and clinical indicators). Weak relationships were found between unspecific inflammatory response indicators (leukocytes, C-reactive protein) and the maximal exposure concentration. The results obtained disclose a high interindividual response variability and suggest that some indirect mechanism(s) predominates in the respiratory disease occurrence. Furthermore, no threshold could be found to define a safe level of exposure. These findings suggest that the improvement of environmental exposure conditions during spraying alone does not constitute a sufficient measure to prevent future outbreaks of

  10. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Jackson, Petra

    2017-01-01

    of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BLI6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 lag MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels...... of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saal and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater...... limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length...

  11. Quantifying fish swimming behavior in response to acute exposure of aqueous copper using computer assisted video and digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental contaminants can be precursors of other effects such as survival, growth, or reproduction. However, these responses may be subtle, and measurement can be challenging. Using juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with copper exposures, this paper illustrates techniques used for quantifying behavioral responses using computer assisted video and digital image analysis. In previous studies severe impairments in swimming behavior were observed among early life stage white sturgeon during acute and chronic exposures to copper. Sturgeon behavior was rapidly impaired and to the extent that survival in the field would be jeopardized, as fish would be swept downstream, or readily captured by predators. The objectives of this investigation were to illustrate protocols to quantify swimming activity during a series of acute copper exposures to determine time to effect during early lifestage development, and to understand the significance of these responses relative to survival of these vulnerable early lifestage fish. With mortality being on a time continuum, determining when copper first affects swimming ability helps us to understand the implications for population level effects. The techniques used are readily adaptable to experimental designs with other organisms and stressors.

  12. Amiodarone biokinetics, the formation of its major oxidative metabolite and neurotoxicity after acute and repeated exposure of brain cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomponio, Giuliana; Zurich, Marie-Gabrielle; Schultz, Luise; Weiss, Dieter G; Romanelli, Luca; Gramowski-Voss, Alexandra; Di Consiglio, Emma; Testai, Emanuela

    2015-12-25

    The difficulty in mimicking nervous system complexity and cell-cell interactions as well as the lack of kinetics information has limited the use of in vitro neurotoxicity data. Here, we assessed the biokinetic profile as well as the neurotoxicity of Amiodarone after acute and repeated exposure in two advanced rodent brain cell culture models, consisting of both neurons and glial cells organized in 2 or 3 dimensions to mimic the brain histiotypic structure and function. A strategy was applied to evidence the abiotic processes possibly affecting Amiodarone in vitro bioavailability, showing its ability to adsorb to the plastic devices. At clinically relevant Amiodarone concentrations, known to induce neurotoxicity in some patients during therapeutic treatment, a complete uptake was observed in both models in 24 h, after single exposure. After repeated treatments, bioaccumulation was observed, especially in the 3D cell model, together with a greater alteration of neurotoxicity markers. After 14 days, Amiodarone major oxidative metabolite (mono-N-desethylamiodarone) was detected at limited levels, indicating the presence of active drug metabolism enzymes (i.e. cytochrome P450) in both models. The assessment of biokinetics provides useful information on the relevance of in vitro toxicity data and should be considered in the design of an Integrated Testing Strategy aimed to identify specific neurotoxic alerts, and to improve the neurotoxicity assay predictivity for human acute and repeated exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of acute leukemia in children: causal model, interaction of three factors-susceptibility, environmental exposure and vulnerability period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    Acute leukemias have a huge morphological, cytogenetic and molecular heterogeneity and genetic polymorphisms associated with susceptibility. Every leukemia presents causal factors associated with the development of the disease. Particularly, when three factors are present, they result in the development of acute leukemia. These phenomena are susceptibility, environmental exposure and a period that, for this model, has been called the period of vulnerability. This framework shows how the concepts of molecular epidemiology have established a reference from which it is more feasible to identify the environmental factors associated with the development of leukemia in children. Subsequently, the arguments show that only susceptible children are likely to develop leukemia once exposed to an environmental factor. For additional exposure, if the child is not susceptible to leukemia, the disease does not develop. In addition, this exposure should occur during a time window when hematopoietic cells and their environment are more vulnerable to such interaction, causing the development of leukemia. This model seeks to predict the time when the leukemia develops and attempts to give a context in which the causality of childhood leukemia should be studied. This information can influence and reduce the risk of a child developing leukemia. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of acute waterborne exposure to sublethal concentrations of molybdenum on the stress response in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea D Ricketts

    Full Text Available To determine if molybdenum (Mo is a chemical stressor, fingerling and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to waterborne sodium molybdate (0, 2, 20, or 1,000 mg l-1 of Mo and components of the physiological (plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit and cellular (heat shock protein [hsp] 72, hsp73, and hsp90 in the liver, gills, heart, and erythrocytes and metallothionein [MT] in the liver and gills stress responses were measured prior to initiation of exposure and at 8, 24, and 96 h. During the acute exposure, plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit levels remained unchanged in all treatments. Heat shock protein 72 was not induced as a result of exposure and there were no detectable changes in total hsp70 (72 and 73, hsp90, and MT levels in any of the tissues relative to controls. Both fingerling and juvenile fish responded with similar lack of apparent sensitivity to Mo exposure. These experiments demonstrate that exposure to waterborne Mo of up to 1,000 mg l(-1 did not activate a physiological or cellular stress response in fish. Information from this study suggests that Mo water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life are highly protective of freshwater fish, namely rainbow trout.

  15. The Effects of Acute Waterborne Exposure to Sublethal Concentrations of Molybdenum on the Stress Response in Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Chelsea D.; Bates, William R.; Reid, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    To determine if molybdenum (Mo) is a chemical stressor, fingerling and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to waterborne sodium molybdate (0, 2, 20, or 1,000 mg l-1 of Mo) and components of the physiological (plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit) and cellular (heat shock protein [hsp] 72, hsp73, and hsp90 in the liver, gills, heart, and erythrocytes and metallothionein [MT] in the liver and gills) stress responses were measured prior to initiation of exposure and at 8, 24, and 96 h. During the acute exposure, plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit levels remained unchanged in all treatments. Heat shock protein 72 was not induced as a result of exposure and there were no detectable changes in total hsp70 (72 and 73), hsp90, and MT levels in any of the tissues relative to controls. Both fingerling and juvenile fish responded with similar lack of apparent sensitivity to Mo exposure. These experiments demonstrate that exposure to waterborne Mo of up to 1,000 mg l-1 did not activate a physiological or cellular stress response in fish. Information from this study suggests that Mo water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life are highly protective of freshwater fish, namely rainbow trout. PMID:25629693

  16. Effects of acute exercise on fear extinction in rats and exposure therapy in humans: Null findings from five experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquart, Jolene; Roquet, Rheall F; Papini, Santiago; Powers, Mark B; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A J; Monfils, Marie-H

    2017-08-01

    Exposure therapy is an established learning-based intervention for the treatment of anxiety disorders with an average response rate of nearly 50%, leaving room for improvement. Emerging strategies to enhance exposure therapy in humans and fear extinction retention in animal models are primarily pharmacological. These approaches are limited as many patients report preferring non-pharmacological approaches in therapy. With general cognitive enhancement effects, exercise has emerged as a plausible non-pharmacological augmentation strategy. The present study tested the hypothesis that fear extinction and exposure therapy would be enhanced by a pre-training bout of exercise. We conducted four experiments with rats that involved a standardized conditioning and extinction paradigm and a manipulation of exercise. In a fifth experiment, we manipulated vigorous-intensity exercise prior to a standardized virtual reality exposure therapy session among adults with fear of heights. In experiments 1-4, exercise did not facilitate fear extinction, long-term memory, or fear relapse tests. In experiment 5, human participants showed an overall reduction in fear of heights but exercise did not enhance symptom improvement. Although acute exercise prior to fear extinction or exposure therapy, as operationalized in the present 5 studies, did not enhance outcomes, these results must be interpreted within the context of a broader literature that includes positive findings. Taken all together, this suggests that more research is necessary to identify optimal parameters and key individual differences so that exercise can be implemented successfully to treat anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, Christopher B.; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L.; Gow, Andrew J., E-mail: Gow@rci.rutgers.edu

    2014-07-01

    Acute Cl{sub 2} exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl{sub 2} inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl{sub 2} dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48 h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 h. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO{sub 3}{sup −} or NO{sub 2}{sup −}. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl{sub 2} inhalation. - Highlights: • Effect of 60 ppm*hr Cl{sub 2} gas on lung inflammation and mechanical function examined. • Pulmonary inflammation is transient and minor.

  18. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A(®)) Following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jenny R; Anderson, Stacey E; Kan, Hong; Krajnak, Kristine; Thompson, Janet A; Kenyon, Allison; Goldsmith, William T; McKinney, Walter; Frazer, David G; Jackson, Mark; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant. The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m(3), five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control). At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses. No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following methacholine (MCh) inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7. In summary, acute

  19. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny R. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant. Methods The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m 3 , five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control. At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses. Results No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following metha-choline (MCh inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure

  20. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana ePalomino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression (CB1 receptors and enzymes that produce (DAGLα/β and NAPE-PLD and degrade (MAGL and FAAH eCB were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system (glutamate synthesizing enzymes LGA and KGA, mGluR3/5 metabotropic receptors, and NR1/2A/2B/2C-NMDA and GluR1/2/3/4-AMPA ionotropic receptor subunits and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-AG production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and glutamate systems. Repeated cocaine results in normalization of glutamate receptor expression, although sustained changes in eCB is observed. We suggest that cocaine-induced alterations to cerebellar eCB should be considered when analyzing the adaptations imposed by psychostimulants that

  1. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lemoine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is connected to ozone variability and trend at Uccle and account for a large part of the total ozone and lower stratospheric ozone variability.

  2. Modifiers of short-term effects of ozone on mortality in eastern Massachusetts - A case-crossover analysis at individual level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Joel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial epidemiological studies demonstrate associations between exposure to ambient ozone and mortality. A few studies simply examine the modification of this ozone effect by individual characteristics and socioeconomic status, but socioeconomic status was usually coded at the city level. Methods This study used a case-crossover design to examine whether impacts of ozone on mortality were modified by socioeconomic status coded at the tract or characteristics at an individual level in eastern Massachusetts, US for a period May-September, 1995-2002, with a total of 157,197 non-accident deaths aging 35 years or older. We used moving averages of maximal 8-hour concentrations of ozone monitored at 8 stationary stations as personal exposure. Results A 10 ppb increase in the four-day moving average of maximal 8-hour ozone was associated with 1.68% (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.51%, 2.87%, 1.96% (95% CI: -1.83%, 5.90%, 8.28% (95% CI: 0.66%, 16.48%, 0.44% (95% CI: -1.45%, 2.37%, -0.83% (95% CI: -2.94%, 1.32%, -1.09% (95% CI: -4.27%, 2.19% and 6.5% (95% CI: 1.74%, 11.49% changes in all natural deaths, respiratory disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, heart diseases, acute myocardial infarction and stroke, respectively. We did not find any evidence that the associations were significantly modified by socioeconomic status or individual characteristics although small differences of estimates across subpopulations were demonstrated. Conclusions Exposure to ozone was associated with specific cause mortality in Eastern Massachusetts during May-September, 1995-2002. There was no evidence that effects of ozone on mortality were significantly modified by socioeconomic status and individual characteristics.

  3. Tropospheric Ozone and Photochemical Smog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillman, S.

    2003-12-01

    The question of air quality in polluted regions represents one of the issues of geochemistry with direct implications for human well-being. Human health and well-being, along with the well-being of plants, animals, and agricultural crops, are dependent on the quality of air we breathe. Since the start of the industrial era, air quality has become a matter of major importance, especially in large cities or urbanized regions with heavy automobile traffic and industrial activity.Concern over air quality existed as far back as the 1600s. Originally, polluted air in cities resulted from the burning of wood or coal, largely as a source of heat. The industrial revolution in England saw a great increase in the use of coal in rapidly growing cities, both for industrial use and domestic heating. London suffered from devastating pollution events during the late 1800s and early 1900s, with thousands of excess deaths attributed to air pollution (Brimblecombe, 1987). With increasing use of coal, other instances also occurred in continental Europe and the USA. These events were caused by directly emitted pollutants (primary pollutants), including sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulates. They were especially acute in cities with northerly locations during fall and winter when sunlight is at a minimum. These original pollution events gave rise to the term "smog" (a combination of smoke and fog). Events of this type have become much less severe since the 1950s in Western Europe and the US, as natural gas replaced coal as the primary source of home heating, industrial smokestacks were designed to emit at higher altitudes (where dispersion is more rapid), and industries were required to install pollution control equipment.Beginning in the 1950s, a new type of pollution, photochemical smog, became a major concern. Photochemical smog consists of ozone (O3) and other closely related species ("secondary pollutants") that are produced photochemically from directly

  4. Acute exposure to a sublethal dose of imidacloprid and coumaphos enhances olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sally M; Baker, Daniel D; Wright, Geraldine A

    2013-06-01

    The decline of honeybees and other pollinating insects is a current cause for concern. A major factor implicated in their decline is exposure to agricultural chemicals, in particular the neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid. Honeybees are also subjected to additional chemical exposure when beekeepers treat hives with acaricides to combat the mite Varroa destructor. Here, we assess the effects of acute sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and the organophosphate acaricide coumaphos, on honey bee learning and memory. Imidacloprid had little effect on performance in a six-trial olfactory conditioning assay, while coumaphos caused a modest impairment. We report a surprising lack of additive adverse effects when both compounds were administered simultaneously, which instead produced a modest improvement in learning and memory.

  5. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to lead on the behavior of the pond snail Helisoma trivolvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, V.T.; Copeland, J. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The behavior of aquatic invertebrates may be useful as an indicator for the presence of toxicants in both freshwater and marine environments. The pond snail Helisoma trivolvis, the red ram`s horn, was exposed to low levels of lead (0.05 ppm). Chronic exposure significantly reduced the number of head movements but had no affect on radula movement or antenna twitches. Acute exposure resulted in curling of the foot that lasted 0.5 to 14.0 minutes. Electrochemical analysis of lead levels within treated snails indicated a higher concentration of lead in the tissue than that in the treated environment. Organ analysis of the digestive gland, 1 salivary gland, reproductive organs and the cerebral ganglion is currently being studied.

  6. Growth and biochemical responses of juvenile cod to acute and chronic exposure to production water from the Hibernia oil rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burridge, L.; Lyons, M.; Blair, T.; Haya, K.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted in which the chemical characteristics of production water collected from the Hibernia oil production platform in June, 2006 were determined. Bioassays were also performed on juvenile cod in order to determine acute responses after 48 hour exposure to concentrations of production water ranging from 0.06 to 5 per cent. Of the 70 juvenile cod that were exposed continuously for 45 days to 0.05 per cent Hibernia production water, 8 were sacrificed and liver, gill muscle and plasma was collected for biochemical analysis at day 3, 14, 28 and 45 during the exposure. Length and weight data were also collected to compare growth rates of exposed fish with unexposed fish. Results did not reveal any difference in growth rate in cod exposed for 45 days to Hibernia production water compared to those held in untreated water under the same conditions. Tissues for mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction are undergoing analysis.

  7. Destruction of enzymatic activities of corn and soybean leaves exposed to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffler, H R; Cherry, J H

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of a single ozone exposure on selected enzymatic activities and chlorophyll contents of corn and soybean seedlings. Both nitrite reductase activity and chlorophyll content of the seedlings were found to be quite sensitive to ozonation and were seen to decrease as much as 50% after exposure to 80 parts per hundred million (pphm) ozone. After exposure to lower levels of ozone, less-pronounced decreases were observed. Nitrate reductase activity was reduced only after exposure to seedling leaf tissues to high concentrations of ozone. These results are discussed in relation to the concept of a two-phase response to oxidant exposure. The first phase is at the chloroplast level and is quite sensitive to the low as well as the high concentrations of ozone; the second is at the cellular level and is relatively resistant to all but the highest ozone concentrations. 27 references, 2 tables.

  8. Probabilistic acute risk assessment of cumulative exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from dietary vegetables and fruits in Shanghai populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Yuan, Yaqun; Meng, Pai; Wu, Min; Li, Shuguang; Chen, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and carbamate pesticides (CPs) are among the most widely used pesticides in China, playing a major role in protecting agricultural commodities. In this study, we determined the cumulative acute exposure to OPs and CPs of Shanghai residents from vegetables and fruits (VFs). The food consumption data were obtained from the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey (SHFCS) of 2012-14 including a total of 1973 participants aged 2-90 years. The pesticide residue data were obtained from the Shanghai monitoring programme during 2008-11 with 34 organophosphates and 11 carbamates analysed in a total of 5335 samples of VFs. A probabilistic approach was performed as recommended by the EFSA, using the optimistic model with non-detects set as zero and with processing factors (PFs) being used and the pessimistic model with non-detects replaced by limit of detection (LOD) and without PFs. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) method to normalise the various pesticides to the index compound (IC) of methamidophos and chlorpyrifos separately. Only in the pessimistic model using methamidophos as the IC was there was small risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD (3 µg kg - 1 bw day - 1 ) in the populations of preschool children (0.029%), school-age children (0.022%) and adults (0.002%). There were no risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD of methamidophos in the optimistic model and of chlorpyrifos (100 µg kg - 1 bw day - 1 ) in both optimistic and pessimistic models in all three populations. Considering the Chinese habits of overwhelmingly eating processed food (vegetables being cooked, and fruits being washed or peeled), we conclude that little acute risk was found for the exposure to VF-sourced OPs and CPs in Shanghai.

  9. The long-term effects of acute exposure to ionising radiation on survival and fertility in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarapultseva, Elena I.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2016-01-01

    The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionising radiation and chemical mutagens. However, the transgenerational effects of parental exposure on survival and fertility remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their offspring, crustacean Daphnia magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 mGy of acute γ-rays. Exposure to 1000 and 10,000 mGy significantly compromised the viability of irradiated Daphnia and their first-generation progeny, but did not affect the second-generation progeny. The fertility of F 0 and F 1 Daphnia gradually declined with the dose of parental exposure and significantly decreased at dose of 100 mGy and at higher doses. The effects of parental irradiation on the number of broods were only observed among the F 0 Daphnia exposed to 1000 and 10,000 mGy, whereas the brood size was equally affected in the two consecutive generations. In contrast, the F 2 total fertility was compromised only among progeny of parents that received the highest dose of 10,000 mGy. We propose that the decreased fertility observed among the F 2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is attributed to transgenerational effects of parental irradiation. Our results also indicate a substantial recovery of the F 2 progeny of irradiated F 0 Daphnia exposed to the lower doses of acute γ-rays. - Highlights: • Viability of irradiated daphnids and their F 1 progeny is compromised. • Viability of the F 2 progeny of irradiated parents is not affected. • Total fertility of irradiated daphnids and their F 1 progeny declines with the dose. • Total fertility of the F 2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is compromised. • The decreased fertility among the F 2 progeny is transgenerational phenomenon.

  10. A population-based case-control study on statin exposure and risk of acute diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköldberg, Filip; Svensson, Tobias; Olén, Ola; Hjern, Fredrik; Schmidt, Peter T; Ljung, Rickard

    2016-01-01

    A reduced risk of perforated diverticular disease among individuals with current statin exposure has been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether statins reduce the risk of acute diverticular disease. A nation-wide population-based case-control study was performed, including 13,127 cases hospitalised during 2006-2010 with a first-time diagnosis of colonic diverticular disease, and 128,442 control subjects (matched for sex, age, county of residence and calendar year). Emergency surgery, assumed to be a proxy for complicated diverticulitis, was performed on 906 of the cases during the index admission, with 8818 matched controls. Statin exposure was classified as "current" or "former" if a statin prescription was last dispensed ≤ 125 days or >125 days before index date, respectively. The association between statin exposure and acute diverticular disease was investigated by conditional logistic regression, including models adjusting for country of birth, educational level, marital status, comorbidities, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug/steroid exposure and healthcare utilisation. A total of 1959 cases (14.9%) and 16,456 controls (12.8%) were current statin users (crude OR 1.23 [95% CI 1.17-1.30]; fully adjusted OR 1.00 [0.94-1.06]). One hundred and thirty-two of the cases subjected to surgery (14.6%), and 1441 of the corresponding controls (16.3%) were current statin users (crude OR 0.89 [95% CI 0.73-1.08]; fully adjusted OR 0.70 [0.55-0.89]). The results do not indicate that statins affect the development of symptomatic diverticular disease in general. However, current statin use was associated with a reduced risk of emergency surgery for diverticular disease.

  11. Acute effect of copper exposure on serum biochemical characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melika Ghelichpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ambient copper was investigated on serum stress markers, sodium and enzyme levels in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. over a 14-d exposure period. Fish were exposed to 0, 25 and 100 μg L-1 copper (as copper sulfate and blood was sampled at 0, 3, 7 and 14 d after exposure. Serum profile was significantly affected by copper concentration, sampling time and their interaction. Increase in serum levels of cortisol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decrease in serum sodium levels were observed in both copper-exposed groups, 3 d after copper exposure, which lasted until the end of the experiment. It is concluded that copper exposure causes stress response and sodium loss in common carp. Likewise alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase increase after exposure which might be as results of either tissue damage or stress.

  12. Early growth rates and their relationships to mortalities of five breeds of chickens following exposure to acute gamma radiation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, B.E.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Growth and mortality responses were recorded for 541 chicks, representing five different breeds of chickens, following acute exposures to gamma radiation stress at two days of age. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the LD50/30 of the five breeds studied, Cobb broilers showed the highest (1580R) and White Leghorn bantams the lowest (980R) levels, respectively. Other breeds studied included the standard White Leghorn, Athens Randombreds and a strain of feral bantam. Growth rates of body weights were proportionately more depressed by radiation stress than were body sizes, as measured by the lengths of the culmen, tarsus, middle toe and longest primary wing feather of all 32 day-old survivors. Among these structures, the length of the culmen seemed to be the least affected by radiation stress in all of the breeds studied. Feral bantams were able to tolerate the greatest depression in weight gain before exhibiting mortality at exposures below their LD50/30' while Cobb broilers tolerated the greatest depression of weight gain at higher exposure levels. There was a suggestion that those characteristics which were strongly selected for in the course of a particular breed's development were those which experienced the greatest proportional depressions following exposure to gamma radiation stress

  13. Modulation of pulmonary defense mechanisms by acute exposures to nitrogen dioxide. [Staphylococcus aureus; Proteus mirabilis; Pasteurella pneumotropica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakab, G.J.

    1987-02-01

    The effect of acute exposures to NO/sub 2/ on the antibacterial defenses of the murine lung was assessed following inhalation challenges with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica. With S. aureus pulmonary antibacterial defenses were suppressed at NO/sub 2/ levels of 4.0 ppm and greater. Exposure to 10.0 ppm enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of P. mirabilis which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell populations lavaged from the lungs; at 20.0 ppm bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis was impaired. Pulmonary antibacterial defenses against P. pneumotropica were impaired at 10.0 ppm which correlated with a decrease in the retrieved phagocytic lung cell population. Reversing the order of treatment (ie., NO/sub 2/ exposure prior to bacterial challenge) raised the threshold concentration for NO/sub 2/-induced impairment of intrapulmonary bacterial killing. With S. aureus the effect was not observed at 5.0 ppm but at 10.0 ppm and with P. mirabilis not at 20.0 ppm but at 30.0 ppm intrapulmonary killing was enhanced. Exposures up to 20.0 ppm of NO/sub 2/ did not effect the physical translocation mechanisms of the lung as quantitated by declines in pulmonary radiotracer activity following aerogenic challenge with /sup 32/P-labeled staphylococci.

  14. Derivation of an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for methylene chloride based on acute CNS effects and relative potency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, J E; Rozman, K K

    1998-06-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methylene chloride Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) or 25 ppm is quantitatively derived from mouse tumor results observed in a high-exposure National Toxicology Program bioassay. Because this approach depends on controversial interspecies and low-dose extrapolations, the PEL itself has stimulated heated debate. Here, an alternative safety assessment for methylene chloride is presented. It is based on an acute human lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of 200 ppm for subtle central nervous system (CNS) depression. Steep, parallel exposure-response curves for anesthetic and subanesthetic CNS effects associated with compounds mechanistically and structurally related to methylene chloride are shown to support a safety factor of two to account for inter-individual variability in response. LOAEL/no-observed-adverse-effect ratios for subtle CNS effects associated with structurally related solvents are shown to support a safety factor range of two to four to account for uncertainty in identifying a subthreshold exposure level. Anesthetic relative potencies and anesthetic/subanesthetic effect level ratios are shown to be constant for the compounds evaluated, demonstrating that subanesthetic relative potencies are also constant. Relative potencies among similarly derived occupational exposure limits (OELs) for solvents structurally related to methylene chloride are therefore used to validate the derived methylene chloride OEL range of 25-50 ppm. Because this safety assessment is based on human (rather than rodent) data and empirical (rather than theoretical) exposure-response relationships and is supported by relative potency analysis, it is a defensible alternative to to the OSHA risk assessment and should positively contribute to the debate regarding the appropriate basis and value for a methylene chloride PEL.

  15. Acute Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress After Exposure to a Deployment-Related Explosive Blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Monty T; Moring, John C; Hale, Willie J; Mintz, Jim; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Bryant, Richard A; Broshek, Donna K; Barth, Jeffrey T; Villarreal, Robert; Lancaster, Cynthia L; Malach, Steffany L; Lara-Ruiz, Jose M; Isler, William; Peterson, Alan L

    2018-05-18

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are two of the signature injuries in military service members who have been exposed to explosive blasts during deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Acute stress disorder (ASD), which occurs within 2-30 d after trauma exposure, is a more immediate psychological reaction predictive of the later development of PTSD. Most previous studies have evaluated service members after their return from deployment, which is often months or years after the initial blast exposure. The current study is the first large study to collect psychological and neuropsychological data from active duty service members within a few days after blast exposure. Recruitment for blast-injured TBI patients occurred at the Air Force Theater Hospital, 332nd Air Expeditionary Wing, Joint Base Balad, Iraq. Patients were referred from across the combat theater and evaluated as part of routine clinical assessment of psychiatric and neuropsychological symptoms after exposure to an explosive blast. Four measures of neuropsychological functioning were used: the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE); the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS); the Headminder Cognitive Stability Index (CSI); and the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, Version 4.0 (ANAM4). Three measures of combat exposure and psychological functioning were used: the Combat Experiences Scale (CES); the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M); and the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS). Assessments were completed by a deployed clinical psychologist, clinical social worker, or mental health technician. A total of 894 patients were evaluated. Data from 93 patients were removed from the data set for analysis because they experienced a head injury due to an event that was not an explosive blast (n = 84) or they were only assessed for psychiatric symptoms (n = 9). This resulted in a total of 801 blast-exposed patients for data

  16. Clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological effects of xylazine in goats after acute exposure to different environmental temperature and humidity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.M. Mogoa

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the influence of xylazine administration on clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological variables after acute exposure to different environmental conditions. Xylazine hydrochloride was administered intravenously at 0.1 mg/kg body mass to 6 clinically healthy, castrated male goats. All animals were exposed for 60 min to 3 sets of climatic conditions: 14 °C, 33% relative humidity; 24 °C, 55% RH, and 34 °C, 65% RH. The variables that were measured for a period of 60 min after xylazine administration were sedation, analgesia, salivation, urination, ventilation rate, heart-rate, mean arterial blood pressure, oesophageal temperature, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Xylazine induced sedation, analgesia, salivation and urination independently of the 3 environmental conditions. Environment had no influence on the onset, duration and recovery from sedation. In the 14 °C environment, xylazine resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and heart-rate from baseline values. Significant changes in mean arterial blood pressure, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, haematocrit and red cell count were observed in the 3 environments. Total plasma protein was significantly altered at 24 °C and 34 °C. Acute exposure of goats to different environmental conditions had no significant influence on the clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological variables. Physiological changes induced by xylazine were therefore independent of the environment.

  17. Oxygen Exposure Resulting in Arterial Oxygen Tensions Above the Protocol Goal Was Associated With Worse Clinical Outcomes in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil R; Brower, Roy G; Hager, David N; Thompson, B Taylor; Netzer, Giora; Shanholtz, Carl; Lagakos, Adrian; Checkley, William

    2018-04-01

    High fractions of inspired oxygen may augment lung damage to exacerbate lung injury in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Participants enrolled in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network trials had a goal partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood range of 55-80 mm Hg, yet the effect of oxygen exposure above this arterial oxygen tension range on clinical outcomes is unknown. We sought to determine if oxygen exposure that resulted in a partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood above goal (> 80 mm Hg) was associated with worse outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Longitudinal analysis of data collected in these trials. Ten clinical trials conducted at Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network hospitals between 1996 and 2013. Critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. None. We defined above goal oxygen exposure as the difference between the fraction of inspired oxygen and 0.5 whenever the fraction of inspired oxygen was above 0.5 and when the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood was above 80 mm Hg. We then summed above goal oxygen exposures in the first five days to calculate a cumulative above goal oxygen exposure. We determined the effect of a cumulative 5-day above goal oxygen exposure on mortality prior to discharge home at 90 days. Among 2,994 participants (mean age, 51.3 yr; 54% male) with a study-entry partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fraction of inspired oxygen that met acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria, average cumulative above goal oxygen exposure was 0.24 fraction of inspired oxygen-days (interquartile range, 0-0.38). Participants with above goal oxygen exposure were more likely to die (adjusted interquartile range odds ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11-1.31) and have lower ventilator-free days (adjusted interquartile range mean difference of -0.83; 95% CI, -1.18 to -0.48) and lower hospital-free days (adjusted interquartile range mean difference of -1.38; 95

  18. NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC DIETARY AND REPEATED HIGH-LEVEL ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lots of information is available surrounding the acute toxicity of anticholinesterase pesticides, but these have been very few detailed studies on the chronic effects of these pesticides. Humans are exposed on a chronic basis and some humans believe that have been affected advers...

  19. Perceived life stress exposure modulates reward-related medial prefrontal cortex responses to acute stress in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M; Berghorst, Lisa H; Treadway, Michael T; Brooks, Nancy H; Dutra, Sunny J; Greve, Douglas N; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2015-07-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r=0.79, p=0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r=0.79) and no-stress (r=-0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC gray matter, but functional findings remained robust while accounting for structural differences. Small sample size, which warrants replication. Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Diuron exposure induces systemic and organ-specific toxicity following acute and sub-chronic exposure in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Alexandre; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Martins, Priscila Raquel; Spinardi-Barbisan, Ana Lúcia Tozzi

    2011-05-01

    Diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] is a substitute urea herbicide widely used on agricultural crops with potential mutagenic, teratogenic, reproductive and carcinogenic effects. Nonetheless, its toxic potential on the immune system needs a detailed assessment. Thus, in order to evaluate the adverse effect of this herbicide on lymphohematopoietic organs and macrophage activity, male Wistar rats were orally treated with Diuron at 125, 1250 and 2500 ppm for 14, 28 or 90 days. General signs of toxicity were observed in Diuron-treated groups (1250 and 2500 ppm), including reduced food intake and body weight gain, as well as higher relative weights for spleen, kidneys and liver (28 and 90-day toxicity studies) and elevated serum levels of ALT, albumin, total protein, creatinine and urea (28-day toxicity study). Diuron exposure caused a severe depletion of splenic white pulp compartments and cellularity, followed by a decreased number of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, increased extramedullary hematopoiesis and deposition of hemosiderin in red pulp. Despite alteration in macrophage spreading, the macrophagic activity was not significantly affected by the herbicide. Under these experimental conditions, the results suggest that Diuron exerts systemic and target-organ toxicity, mainly at higher concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Antarctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Anna E

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  2. The effects of acute and long-term exposure to CO 2 on the respiratory physiology and production performance of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) in freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Javed Rafiq; Johansen, D.; Skov, Peter Vilhelm