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Sample records for acute organophosphorus pesticide

  1. Acute Toxicity of Four Organophosphorus Pesticide Products

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity of phoxim,acephate,isofenphos-methyl and isocarbophos on male SD rats of clean grade was carried out by gastric lavage method at room temperature of 18℃. These rats are 4 to 5 months old with body weight of 180 to 220 kg. The results indicate that the orders of the toxicity of these four pesticides on SD rats are isofenphos-methyl,isocarbophos,acephate,phoxim. We found that the median lethal concentration of phoxim in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 3. 892 g /kg,3. 051 g /kg,2. 618 g /kg and 2. 458 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isofenphos-methyl in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 015 g /kg,0. 013g /kg,0. 012g /kg and 0. 011 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isocarbophos in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 049 g /kg,0. 046 g /kg,0. 043 g /kg,0. 041 g /kg respectively; and the median lethal concentration of acephate in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 137 g /kg,0. 113 g /kg,0. 100 g /kg,0. 085 g /kg respectively. Finally,we evaluated the characteristics of toxicity effect and safe concentration of these pesticides to SD rats.

  2. Medical treatment of acute poisoning with organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides.

    Jokanović, Milan

    2009-10-28

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are used as pesticides and developed as warfare nerve agents such as tabun, soman, sarin, VX and others. Exposure to even small amounts of an OP can be fatal and death is usually caused by respiratory failure. The mechanism of OP poisoning involves inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to inactivation of the enzyme which has an important role in neurotransmission. AChE inhibition results in the accumulation of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptor sites, producing continuous stimulation of cholinergic fibers throughout the nervous systems. During more than five decades, pyridinium oximes have been developed as therapeutic agents used in the medical treatment of poisoning with OP. They act by reactivation of AChE inhibited by OP. However, they differ in their activity in poisoning with pesticides and warfare nerve agents and there is still no universal broad-spectrum oxime capable of protecting against all known OP. In spite of enormous efforts devoted to development of new pyridinium oximes as potential antidotes against poisoning with OP only four compounds so far have found its application in human medicine. Presently, a combination of an antimuscarinic agent, e.g. atropine, AChE reactivator such as one of the recommended pyridinium oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime and HI-6) and diazepam are used for the treatment of OP poisoning in humans. In this article the available data related to medical treatment of poisoning with OP pesticides are reviewed and the current recommendations are presented.

  3. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Acute Poisoning with Organophosphorus Pesticide: Patients Admitted to A Hospital in Bijapur, Karnataka.

    Indira A. Hundekari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus compounds are the pesticides most often involved in human poisoning. Toxicity of these compounds is due to the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase at cholinergic junctions of the nervous system. Aims & Objectives: Toxicities of OP pesticidescause adverse effects on many organs and systems hence the present study was planned to study the plasma Cholinesterase, serumcholesterol and thyroid function tests in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Materials and Methods: Plasma ChE, serumcholesterol and serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid stimulating hormone levels were estimated using standard methods.Result: In our study we found the maximum (95% cases were suicidal poisoning. We found that the incidence of poisoning was more common among age group between 15-35 years and males (57% were more likely to attempt suicide as compared to females (38%. Among the organophosphorus compounds the most commonly used were dimethoate,monocrotophos, chlorpyriphos. 79% organophosphorus poisoned patients recovered, while 21% died. Plasma Cholinesterase levels were significantly (p<0.001 decreased in all grades of organophosphate poisoning as compared to controls. Inhibition of Plasma Cholinesterase occurs at the time of admission due to toxic effect of organophosphorus compounds; but the levels significantly (p<0.001 normalized after treatment i.e. on the last day of hospitalization. Serum total cholesterol levels significantly decreased (p<0.001 in all grades of organophosphate poisoning cases as compared to controls without any change after treatment as compared with the patients before treatment. There was a slight and nonsignificant decrease in serum triiodothyronine and serum thyroxine levels in organophosphorus poisoning cases without anysignificant change in serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels as compared to control. The organophosphorus poisoned patients after treatment do not show more changes in their

  5. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  6. Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

  7. A phase II clinical trial to assess the safety of clonidine in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Karunatilake Harindra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 2–3 million people are acutely poisoned by organophosphorus pesticides each year, mostly in the developing world. There is a pressing need for new affordable antidotes and clonidine has been shown to be effective in animal studies. Our aim was to determine the safety of clonidine given as an antidote in adult patients presenting with signs or symptoms of acute organophosphate ingestion. Methods This study was a dose finding, open-label, multicentre, phase II trial. Forty eight patients with acute organophosphate poisoning were randomized to receive either clonidine or placebo: Four to receive placebo and twelve to receive clonidine at each dose level. The first dose level was an initial loading dose of 0.15 mg followed by an infusion of 0.5 mg of clonidine over 24 hours. The initial loading dose was increased to 0.3 mg, 0.45 and 0.6 mg. at all dosing levels however the subsequent infusion remained at 0.5 mg of clonidine over 24 hours. Results The baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. The trial was stopped after completion of the 3rd dosing level. At the 1st and 2nd dosing level there were no reported adverse drug reactions. At the 3rd dosing level 5 patients (42% developed significant hypotension during clonidine treatment that responded to intravenous fluids. There were no statistical differences in ventilation rate, pre and post GCS, and mortality rates over all levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest use of moderate doses of clonidine in acute organophosphate poisoning can be used without causing frequent clinical problems but that higher doses are associated with a high incidence of hypotension requiring intervention. Further studies are needed to study the efficacy of clonidine as an antidote in organophosphate poisoning. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial ISRCTN89917816.

  8. Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Cao YuPing

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphorus (OP pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine overdoses in developed countries and may be irrelevant to OP poisoning in Asia. Chinese clinical experience suggests that OP remains in the stomach for several hours or even days after ingestion. Thus, there may be reasons for doing single or multiple gastric lavages for OP poisoning. There have been no randomised controlled trials (RCTs to assess this practice of multiple lavages. Since it is currently standard therapy in China, we cannot perform a RCT of no lavage vs. a single lavage vs. multiple lavages. We will compare a single gastric lavage with three gastric lavages as the first stage to assess the role of gastric lavage in OP poisoning. Methods/Design We have designed an RCT assessing the effectiveness of multiple gastric lavages in adult OP self-poisoning patients admitted to three Chinese hospitals within 12 hrs of ingestion. Patients will be randomised to standard treatment plus either a single gastric lavage on admission or three gastric lavages at four hour intervals. The primary outcome is in-hospital mortality. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. On the basis of the historical incidence of OP at the study sites, we expect to enroll 908 patients over three years. This projected sample size provides sufficient power to evaluate the death rate; and a variety of other exposure and outcome variables, including particular OPs and ingestion time. Changes of OP level will be analyzed in order to provide some toxic kinetic data. Discussion the GLAOP study is a novel, prospective cohort study that will explore to the toxic

  9. Relationship between Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning and Damages Induced by Free Radicals

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between abnormal reactions of free radicals in bodies of patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP) and damages induced by free radicals. Methods 58 AOPP patients and 58 healthy adult volunteers (HAV) were enrolled in an independent samples control design, in which spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and lipoperoxides (LPO) in plasma, and LPO in erythrocytes, vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and b-carotene (b-CAR) in plasma as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in erythrocytes. Results Compared with the average values of every biochemical parameter in the HAV group, the average values of LPO in plasma and in erythrocytes, and NO in plasma in the AOPP group were significantly increased (P=0.000001), while the average values of VC, VE, a-CAR in plasma as well as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and AChE in erythrocytes in the AOPP group were significantly decreased (P=0.000001). The findings of Pearson product-moment correlation analysis between the value of AChE in erythrocytes and the values of above biochemical parameters for 58 AOPP patients showed that there was a significant linear negative correlation between AChE in erythrocytes and LPO, NO in plasma, and LPO in erythrocytes (P=0.000001~0.001319), while there was a significant linear positive correlation between AChE in erythrocytes and VC, VE, a-CAR in plasma as well as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px in erythrocytes (P=0.000013~0.000824). The results of discriminant analysis of above chemical parameters for 58 AOPP patients and 58 HAV suggested that the correct rates of discriminant analysis were increased to 100 % when the values of AChE and LPO in plasma and in erythrocytes, or AChE and others, were jointly used for the discriminant analysis. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that a series of free radical

  10. Further assessment of an in vitro screen that may help identify organophosphorus pesticides that are more acutely toxic to the young.

    Padilla, S; Sung, H-J; Moser, V C

    2004-09-24

    Some, but not all, organophosphorus pesticides are more acutely toxic to the young as compared to adults. We have developed an in vitro assay that measures the detoxification potential (via carboxylesterase and A-esterases) of tissues. Previous results using this in vitro screen correlated with the marked in vivo sensitivity of the young to chlorpyrifos and also correlated with the equal sensitivity of the young and adult to methamidophos (Padilla et al., 2000). We have now extended these observations to two other pesticides that have already been shown in the literature to be more toxic to the young: parathion (paraoxon) and malathion (malaoxon). In our in vitro assay, liver or plasma from 7-d-old rats were much less efficacious than adult tissues at detoxification of the active metabolites of these two pesticides. Using our in vitro assay we also tested the active metabolite of diazinon, diazoxon, and again found that young liver or plasma possessed much less detoxification capability than adult tissues. From these results, we predicted that young animals would be more sensitive to diazinon, which, in fact, was the case: When postnatal day (PND) 17 or adult rats were given a dosage of 75 mg/kg diazinon, adult brain cholinesterase (ChE) was only inhibited 38%, while the brain ChE in the PND 17 animals showed much more inhibition (75%). We conclude that our in vitro screen may prove to be a useful, quick, convenient test for identifying which organophosphorus pesticides may be more acutely toxic to the young as compared to adults.

  11. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters.

    Acero, Juan L; Benítez, F Javier; Real, Francisco J; González, Manuel

    2008-05-01

    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 degrees C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M(-1) s(-1) for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.

  12. Compound specific isotope analysis of organophosphorus pesticides.

    Wu, Langping; Yao, Jun; Trebse, Polonca; Zhang, Ning; Richnow, Hans H

    2014-09-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has been established as a tool to study the environmental fate of a wide range of contaminants. In this study, CSIA was developed to analyse the stable carbon isotope signatures of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides: dichlorvos, omethoate and dimethoate. The linearity of the GC-C-IRMS system was tested for target pesticides and led to an acceptable isotope composition within the uncertainty of the instrument. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed method, the effect of the evaporation procedure on measured carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) values was studied and showed that concentration by evaporation of solvents had no significant isotope effect. The CSIA was then applied to investigate isotope fractionation of the hydrolysis and photolysis of selected pesticides. The carbon isotope fractionation of tested pesticides was quantified by the Rayleigh model, which revealed a bulk enrichment factor (ε) of -0.2±0.1‰ for hydrolysis of dichlorvos, -1.0±0.1‰ and -3.7±1.1‰ for hydrolysis and photolysis of dimethoate respectively. This study is a first step towards the application of CSIA to trace the transport and degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment.

  13. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  14. Clinical Observation Hemoperfusion Treatment of Acute Severe Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning%血液灌流治疗急性重度有机磷农药中毒的临床观察

    王旭亮

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hemoperfusion treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (acute severe organophosphorous pesticide poisoning). Methods from August 2009 to December 2012, our department treated 40 cases of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide, in conventional medical treatment with hemoperfusion treatment of 21 cases as treatment group,for only given conventional medical treatment 19 cases as control group. Results In comparison with control group, patients in treatment group needed shorter time for waking from coma, shorter recovery time of cholinesterase activity and shorter time for hospitalization, and intermediate syndrome incidence decline in this group were reduced (P<0.01). Moreover ,total dose of atropine applied in treatment group were lower (P<0.01), and fatality rate were lower in this group (P<0.05). Conclusion the hemoperfusion can quickly remove toxins in the body and can improve the rescue success rate in patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的探讨血液灌流治疗急性重度有机磷农药中毒(acute severe organophosphorous pesticide poisoning)的效果。方法2009年08月~2012年12月我科收治急性重度有机磷农药40例,对在常规内科治疗上加用血液灌流治疗的21例作为治疗组,对仅给予常规内科治疗的19例作为对照组。结果治疗组和对照组比较,患者昏迷至清醒时间、胆碱酯酶活力恢复时间、住院时间明显缩短,中间综合征发生率下降,应用阿托品总量减少(P均<0.01),病死率降低(P<0.05)。结论血液灌流能迅速清除体内毒物,可提高急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者抢救成功率。

  15. Biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by soil bacteria

    de Pasquale, C.; Fodale, R.; Lo Piccolo, L.; Palazzolo, E.; Alonzo, G.; Quatrini, P.

    2009-04-01

    A number of studies in the 1980s and 1990s showed that crop-protection products, applied to drained fields, could move downwards through the soil profile and to the groundwater. Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are used all over the world for crop protection, for other agricultural practices such as sheep dipping and, in aquaculture, for the control of sea lice. Ops besides showing a specific neurotoxicity and have also been related to various modern diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) and the Gulf War syndrome. Although OPs are less persistent than Organoclorine pesticides (OCs), they still constitute an environmental risks thus increasing the social concern about their levels in soils, surface waters, and ground waters. Degradation of OPs by microorganisms has been assessed for a few bacterial strains. In the present study the OPs degrading potential of indigenous soil microorganisms was investigated. Using enrichment cultures in which parathion was the only C and energy sources many bacterial strains were isolated from OPs contaminated and pristine agricultural soils characterized by different physico-chemical properties. More than 40 potential OPs degraders were isolated and grouped in operational taxonomic units (OTU) using analysis of polymorphism showed by the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates of each OTU revealed that most of them belong to Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. All the analyzed soils showed the presence of putative OPs degraders: the highest diversity was found in organic cultivated soils, the lowest in chemically cultivated soils. Degradation of different OPs, characterized by different physical and chemical properties, was obtained by different selected representative strains using SPME GC-MS analysis on water and soil microcosms. The results showed that, after the incubation period, the amount of pesticide residues were in the range 20-80%. Some of the

  16. Clinical analysis of 85 cases with acute treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%85例急性有机磷农药中毒救治的临床分析

    朱华; 赵春秋; 钟伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the treatment experience of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods:We record the treatment process and analyze the treatment effect of the 85 patients with organophosphate poisoning who were admitted by hospital.Results:In 85 cases of patients with acute pesticide poisoning of organic phosphorus,80 cases were cured,5 deaths,the success rate was 94%.Conclusion:Thorough effective repeated gastric lavage, rapid application of anticholinergics penehyclidine hydrochloride (Changtuoning) and cholinesterase agents (pralidoxime chloride) was the key to rescue the patients who with critical acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and we found that active prevention of complications occurrence can improve the success rate.%目的:探讨急性有机磷农药中毒的救治经验与体会。方法:对85例有机磷农药中毒患者的治疗过程进行记录,分析治疗效果。结果:85例急性有机磷农药中毒患者,救治成功80例,死亡5例,成功率94%。结论:急性有机磷农药中毒的抢救关键是尽快、彻底、有效反复地洗胃,快速应用抗胆碱药盐酸戊乙奎醚(长托宁)及胆碱酯酶复能剂(氯磷定),积极预防并发症的发生,可提高抢救成功率。

  17. The experience of emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的急救与体会

    张海燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的急救经验。方法:2011年2月-2013年12月救治急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒患者30例,对其实施救治措施。结果:本组30例患者经过救治,意识转清醒时间(1.83±1.2)天,胆碱酯酶活性恢复时间(3.2±1.6)天,住院时间(7.3±2.6)天。临床疗效:治愈29例,治愈率96.7%,死亡1例,死亡率3.3%。结论:清洗被污染的皮肤,彻底洗胃,眼污染时用微温水、2%碳酸氢钠溶液清洗,导泻,阿托品的应用以及早期足量使用氯磷定等,是急救急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的重要措施。%Objective:To summary the experience of emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods:30 cases with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected from February 2011 to December 2013. They were treated with first aid measures.Results:After treatment,the average time of 30 cases from consciousness turned to clear was(1.83 ± 1.2)days.Cholinesterase recovery time was(3.2 ± 1.6)days.Hospitalization time was(7.3 ± 2.6)days.Clinical curative effect:29 cases were cured,and the cure rate was 96.7%.1 cases died,and the mortality was 3.3%.Conclusion: There are important measures for emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,including:washing the contaminated skin,complete gastric lavage,If eye pollution cleaning its with lukewarm water and 2% sodium bicarbonate solution,catharsis, atropine application,early and adequate use of pralidoxime chloride poisoning.

  18. Mechanical ventilation nursing of patients with respiratory failure caused by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒致呼吸衰竭行机械通气的护理

    何芹香

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨急性有机磷农药中毒致呼吸衰竭患者行机械通气的护理方法.方法 对40例急性有机磷农药中毒致呼吸衰竭患者行机械通气的护理过程及效果进行同顾性分析.结果 本组36例治愈出院,自动出院4例,抢救成功率90.0%.结论 急性有机磷农药中毒导致呼吸衰竭救治的关键是机械通气.同时加强机械通气过程中的护理,严密观察病情变化,监测和调整呼吸机参数,加强气道管理,预防感染,重视心理护理,能提高治愈率,减少并发症,促进患者早日康复.%Objective To investigate the mechanical ventilation nursing strategies for patients with respiratory failure caused by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Forty patients with respiratory failure caused by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning received mechanical ventilation. The effect and the nursing process were analyzed retrospectively. Results A total of 36 patients were cured and discharged, and 4 patients gave up treatment. The success rate reached 90% . Conclusion The key to treat acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory failure is mechanical ventilation. In the course of mechanical ventilation, nursing should be intensified with a close observation of patients' conditions. The respirator parameters should be monitored and properly adjusted. The airway management should be enhanced to prevent infection. Equal attention should be paid to the psychological nursing. All of these measures can reduce complications and contribute to the early recovery of patients.

  19. Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition by neurotoxic organophosphorus pesticides.

    Quistad, G B; Sparks, S E; Casida, J E

    2001-05-15

    Organophosphorus (OP) compound-induced inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and neuropathy target esterase explains the rapid onset and delayed neurotoxic effects, respectively, for OP insecticides and related compounds but apparently not a third or intermediate syndrome with delayed onset and reduced limb mobility. This investigation tests the hypothesis that fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), a modulator of endogenous signaling compounds affecting sleep (oleamide) and analgesia (anandamide), is a sensitive target for OP pesticides with possible secondary neurotoxicity. Chlorpyrifos oxon inhibits 50% of the FAAH activity (IC50 at 15 min, 25 degrees C, pH 9.0) in vitro at 40--56 nM for mouse brain and liver, whereas methyl arachidonyl phosphonofluoridate, ethyl octylphosphonofluoridate (EOPF), oleyl-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxide (oleyl-BDPO), and dodecyl-BDPO give IC50s of 0.08--1.1 nM. These BDPOs and EOPF inhibit mouse brain FAAH in vitro with > or =200-fold higher potency than for AChE. Five OP pesticides inhibit 50% of the brain FAAH activity (ED50) at diazinon, and methamidophos occurs near acutely toxic levels, profenofos and tribufos are effective at asymptomatic doses. Two BDPOs (dodecyl and phenyl) and EOPF are potent inhibitors of FAAH in vivo (ED50 0.5--6 mg/kg). FAAH inhibition of > or =76% in brain depresses movement of mice administered anandamide at 30 mg/kg ip, often leading to limb recumbency. Thus, OP pesticides and related inhibitors of FAAH potentiate the cannabinoid activity of anandamide in mice. More generally, OP compound-induced FAAH inhibition and the associated anandamide accumulation may lead to reduced limb mobility as a secondary neurotoxic effect.

  20. 急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者死亡危险因素分析%Analysis on risk factors of mortality in patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    孙玮艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of mortality in patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Forty-four patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poison were retrospectively analyzed.Various risk factors were statistically evaluated and mortality of patients was compared between groups.Results Hospital mortality in 44 patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning was 22.7%.The mortality was significantly different between APACHE Ⅱ score ≥20 group and APACHE Ⅱ score<20 group (P <0.01),between age ≥ 60 group and age< 60 group (P <0.01),between hypotensive group and non-hypotensive group (P < 0.05 ),between hypoxemia group and non-hypoxemia group (P < 0.05 ),between metabolic acidosis group and non-metabolic acidosis group (P < 0.05 ).Conclusion APACHE Ⅱ score,age, hypotension, hypoxemia, metabolic acidosis may be the risk factors of mortality in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,and the items can be used to assess the severity of disease and mortality risk in clinic.%目的:探讨急性重度有机磷农药中毒死亡的危险因素。方法回顾性分析急性重度有机磷农药中毒44例患者的临床资料,对各项危险因素进行统计分析,比较患者的病死率。结果44例急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者住院期间病死率22.7%(10/44),其中急性生理学及慢性健康状况评分(APACHE)≥20分和<20分、年龄≥60岁和<60岁、合并低血压和未合并低血压、合并低氧血症和未合并低氧血症、合并代谢性酸中毒和未合并代谢性酸中毒的患者病死率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05或<0.01)。结论 APACHEⅡ分值、高龄、低血压、低氧血症、代谢性酸中毒可能是急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者死亡的危险因素,在临床中可以用于评估患者病情严重程度与死亡风险。

  1. Study on the best marker for myocardial damage of acute organophos-phorus pesticide poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒心肌损伤最佳标志物的研究

    陈士轩; 滕哈乐; 牛红霞; 褚晓雯; 黄金洪; 肖青; 夏于新; 韩颖

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the best marker for myocardial injury after 6 hours of acute organophosphorus pesti-cide poisoning (AOPP). Methods 86 cases of AOPP patients in Department of Emergency, Electric Power Teaching Hospital of Capital Medical University ("our hospital"for short) from May 2006 to November 2014 were selected as ob-servation group. They were divided into mild poisoning group, moderate poisoning group and severe poisoning group ac-cording to the Occupational Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning (GBZ8-2002). All patients were routinely done for 12 lead ECG examination and examined for CK, CK-MB, cTnI in 6 hours after taking poison. Control group was from our hospital outpatient health examination, and CK, CK-MB, cTnI levels were examined the same day. The above three indicators of each group were observed. Results There were statistical differences in CK, CK-MB, cTnI levels between observation group and control group (P 0.05), and there was statistical difference in cTnI level be-tween mild poisoning group and control group (P 0.05). There was statistical difference in CK-MB level between severe poisoning group and moderate poisoning group (P0.05),cTnI水平差异有统计学意义(P0.05),CK-MB水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),cTnI水平差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论cTnI是判断AOPP心肌损伤的最敏感指标,是AOPP心肌损伤的最佳标志物,CK-MB次之。 CK和心电图对判断AOPP心肌损伤及损伤程度价值不大。

  2. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1

    Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Wang, Daosheng [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Hua, Rimao, E-mail: rimaohua@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Tang, Xinyun [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Li, Qing X. [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1955 East–West Road, Honolulu, HI 957822 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Stenotrophomonas sp. G1 was isolated from chlorpyrifos contaminated sludge. • Strain G1 is closest to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. • Strain G1 can efficiently degrade 8 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). • Intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase is responsible for the OP degradation. • Three factors were orthogonally optimized for degradation of methyl parathion. - Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation.

  3. 17 cases of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning combined with acute pancreatitis%有机磷农药中毒并发急性胰腺炎17例

    蔡海英; 张茂

    2010-01-01

    @@ 急性有机磷农药中毒(acute organophosphorous pesticides poisoning,AOPP)是急诊科较为常见的急症之一,尤其在基层医院更为多见.中、重度AOPP病情变化较多,并发神经、心脏及呼吸系统损害较为常见且报道较多,但对并发胰腺炎往往不被认识,容易导致误诊和漏诊,从而延误治疗甚至危及生命.

  4. Cumulative risk assessment of the intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in the Danish diet

    Jensen, A. F.; Petersen, Annette; Granby, Kit

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides that act through a common mechanism of toxicity, and to assess the long- and short-term risks for the Danish population. The intake estimates are based on dietary intake data collected...... in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction...... of pesticide levels by rinsing and peeling, were applied in the exposure assessment. The "Toxicity Equivalence Factor" (TEF) approach was used to normalise the toxicity of the different organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Cumulative chronic exposure of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides via...

  5. Fluorescent Chemosensors for Toxic Organophosphorus Pesticides: A Review

    Kenneth Fletcher

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many organophosphorus (OP based compounds are highly toxic and powerful inhibitors of cholinesterases that generate serious environmental and human health concerns. Organothiophosphates with a thiophosphoryl (P=S functional group constitute a broad class of these widely used pesticides. They are related to the more reactive phosphoryl (P=O organophosphates, which include very lethal nerve agents and chemical warfare agents, such as, VX, Soman and Sarin. Unfortunately, widespread and frequent commercial use of OP-based compounds in agricultural lands has resulted in their presence as residues in crops, livestock, and poultry products and also led to their migration into aquifers. Thus, the design of new sensors with improved analyte selectivity and sensitivity is of paramount importance in this area. Herein, we review recent advances in the development of fluorescent chemosensors for toxic OP pesticides and related compounds. We also discuss challenges and progress towards the design of future chemosensors with dual modes for signal transduction.

  6. Levels of organophosphorus pesticides in medicinal plants commonly consumed in Iran

    Sarkhail Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The frequent occurrence of pesticide residues in herbal materials was indicated by previous studies. In this study, the concentration of some of the organophosphorus pesticides including parathion, malathion, diazinon and pirimiphos methyl in different kinds of medicinal plants were determined. The samples were collected randomly from ten local markets of different areas of Iran. At the detection limit of 0.5 ng g-1, parathion and pirimiphos methyl were not detected in any of the samples. Some amounts of malathion and diazinon were found in Zataria, Matricaria chamomile, Spearmint and Cumin Seed samples while, the concentrations of target organophosphorus pesticides in Borage samples were below the detection limits of the methods which could be a result of intensive transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by Borage. In addition the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all of the samples below the maximum residue levels (MRLs proposed by the international organizations.

  7. Importance and toxicological effects of organophosphorus pesticides: A comprehensive review

    M. Kazemi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental risk assessment is an estimate of the likelihood or probability of an adverse impact on the environment resulting from human activities such as applying of pesticides against of target pests (insects, plant pathogens, weeds, nematodes, microbes, mollusks, birds, mammals, fish and so on in the agriculture. Since the Withdrawal of organochlorine pesticides from use, organophosphorus pesticides (OPs have become the most widely used pesticides available today in the entire world especially in the Iran. The use of OPs has a number of health advantages, including control of insect vector borne diseases and increasing the food and agriculture productions. However, the use of these toxic compounds on man, animals or in his immediate environment has caused potential hazards that seriously are baneful for public health. There has been increasing awareness and concern on the part of food and health officials and of the dairy industry about the presence OPs in milk and other milk products. In this article, we reviewed some printed articles about OP poisoning and its management.

  8. A nano-silver enzyme electrode for organophosphorus pesticide detection.

    Zheng, Qiqi; Yu, Yonghua; Fan, Kai; Ji, Feng; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin

    2016-08-01

    A nano-silver electrode immobilizing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) for the detection of organophosphorus (OPPs) pesticides is reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface structure of two kinds of electrodes fabricated with different sizes of silver powders and the interface between chitosan layer and nano-silver powder layer. Cyclic voltammetry was carried out to characterize the response of silver/chitosan electrode in the absence and in the presence of thiocholine (TCh). It was also used to evaluate the insulativity of the chitosan layer. An amperometric method was performed to measure the response of the electrode to TCh, which is the product of the enzymatic reaction for detecting organophosphorus pesticides indirectly. Although there are many kinds of nanoparticles, silver was chosen for its internal advantage in detecting TCh at low potential without further modification. The result shows nano-silver powder has better performance than usual silver powder, and the limit of detection of paraoxon is 4 ppb under optimized conditions. One percent (w/v) chitosan solution was used as binder for the immobilization of nano-silver powder and AChE, which made it possible for independent electrode fabrication at room temperature, whereas 3% (w/v) chitosan solution was used as insulating compound for controlling the electrode area. Unlike traditional organic insulating ink, chitosan is safe and environmentally friendly, and it is used as insulating material for the first time. The flexible nano-silver/AChE/chitosan electrode was evaluated in Chinese chives and cabbage, and the recoveries of standard addition were 105.11 and 96.41%, respectively. Owing to the antibacterial property of nano-silver and the biocompatibility, safety, and biodegradability of chitosan, the proposed method is safe, facile, environmentally friendly, and has great potential in organophosphorus pesticide detection for food safety. Graphical Abstract Current

  9. Recent approaches to improving selectivity and sensitivity of enzyme-based biosensors for organophosphorus pesticides: A review.

    Songa, Everlyne A; Okonkwo, Jonathan O

    2016-08-01

    Pesticide determination has attracted great attention due to the fact that they exhibit high acute toxicity and can cause long-term damage to the environment and human lives even at trace levels. Although classical analytical methods (including gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) have been effectively used for analysis of pesticides in contaminated samples, they present certain limitations such as time-consuming sample preparation, complexity, and the requirement of expensive instrumentation and highly skilled personnel. For these reasons, there is an expanding need for analytical methods able to provide simple, rapid, sensitive, selective, low cost and reliable detection of pesticides at trace levels. Over the past decades, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensors have emerged as simple, rapid and ultra-sensitive tools for toxicity detection of pesticides in the environment and food. These biosensors have the potential to complement or replace the classical analytical methods by simplifying or eliminating sample preparation and making field-testing easier and faster with significant decrease in cost per analysis. With the recent engineering of more sensitive AChE enzymes, the development of more reliable immobilization matrices and the progress in the area of microelectronics, AChE biosensors could become competitive for multi-analyte screening and soon be used for the development of portable instrumentation for rapid toxicity testing of samples. The enzymes organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) and organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA) have also shown considerable potential in OP biosensor applications and they have been used for direct detection of OPs. This review presents the recent advances in the fabrication of enzyme biosensors for organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and their possible applications for toxicity monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide residues in real samples. The focus will

  10. 急性有机磷中毒临床综合治疗分析%The combined therapy of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning clinical observation

    丁宗发; 伍松涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study on acute organophosphate poisoning of clinical characteristic and clinical treatment Methods; A retrospective analysis of 55 cases in our hospital with acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning patients with clinical data from JAN 20005 to JAN 2010. Observe the clinical characteristics. Results: 55 cases with acute organophosphate poisoning pass a system comprehensive treatment of the cure rate reaches a percentage of 94. 55. Extensive skin contact and respiratory suction poisoning patients cure rate was a percentage of 100%, two cases death. Conclusion: Clinicians should be timely, accurate, rapid and complete gastric lavage as soon as possible, in sufficient quantities, repeated, sustained the right of use of atropine and atropine rapidly as soon as possible for the first time in sufficient quantities to use PAM, it is key to prevent complications place.%目的:探讨急性有机磷中毒的临床特点和临床诊治方法.方法:回顾性分析我院2005年1月-2010年1月救治的55例急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床资料,观察其临床特点.结果:55例急性有机磷中毒的患者,经过系统的综合治疗治愈率达94.55%.广泛皮肤接触和呼吸道吸中毒的患者治愈率为100%,死亡2例.结论:及早、正确、快速、彻底洗胃,及早、足量、反复、特续,正确使用阿托品及快速阿托品化,及早,首次足量使用解磷,并注意患者饮食以及积极防治相关并发症等都是保障患者康复的关键.

  11. Modulation of Immune Response by Organophosphorus Pesticides: Fishes as a Potential Model in Immunotoxicology

    K. J. G. Díaz-Resendiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune response is modulated by different substances that are present in the environment. Nevertheless, some of these may cause an immunotoxic effect. In this paper, the effect of organophosphorus pesticides (frequent substances spilled in aquatic ecosystems on the immune system of fishes and in immunotoxicology is reviewed. Furthermore, some cellular and molecular mechanisms that might be involved in immunoregulation mechanisms of organophosphorus pesticides are discussed.

  12. Modulation of Immune Response by Organophosphorus Pesticides: Fishes as a Potential Model in Immunotoxicology

    Díaz-Resendiz, K. J. G.; Toledo-Ibarra, G. A.; Girón-Pérez, M. I.

    2015-01-01

    Immune response is modulated by different substances that are present in the environment. Nevertheless, some of these may cause an immunotoxic effect. In this paper, the effect of organophosphorus pesticides (frequent substances spilled in aquatic ecosystems) on the immune system of fishes and in immunotoxicology is reviewed. Furthermore, some cellular and molecular mechanisms that might be involved in immunoregulation mechanisms of organophosphorus pesticides are discussed. PMID:25973431

  13. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1.

    Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao; Wang, Daosheng; Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Xinyun; Li, Qing X

    2015-10-30

    Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation.

  14. Microsomal transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by white rot fungi.

    Jauregui, Juan; Valderrama, Brenda; Albores, Arnulfo; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2003-12-01

    The enzymatic mechanism for the transformation of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) by different white-rot fungi strains was studied. With the exception of Ganoderma applanatum 8168, all strains from a collection of 17 different fungi cultures were able to deplete parathion. Three strains showing the highest activities were selected for further studies: Bjerkandera adusta 8258, Pleurotus ostreatus 7989 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium 3641. These strains depleted 50 to 96% of terbufos, azinphos-methyl, phosmet and tribufos after four-days exposure to the pesticides. In order to identify the cellular localization of the transformation activity, the extracellular and microsomal fractions of Pleuronts ostreatus 7989 were evaluated in vitro. While the activities of ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase) were detected in the extracellular fraction, no enzymatic modification of any of the five pesticides tested could be found, suggesting the intracellular origin of the transformation activity. In accordance with this observation the microsomal fraction was found able to transform three OPPs with the following rates: 10 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for phosmet, 5.7 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for terbufos, and 2.2 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for azinphos-methyl. The products from these reactions and from the transformation of trichlorfon and malathion, were identified by mass-spectrometry. These results, supported by specific inhibition experiments and the stringent requirement for NADPH during the in vitro assays suggest the involvement of a cytochrome P450.

  15. A rapid spectrophotometric assay of some organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetable samples

    Mathew, Sunitha B.; Pillai, Ajai K.; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2007-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of some organophosphorus insecticides, i.e. malathion, dimethoate and phorate is described. It is based on the oxidation of organophosphorus pesticide with slight excess of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and the unconsumed NBS is determined with rhodamine B (lambda max: 550 nm). Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 0.108-1.08, 0.056-0.56 and 0.028-0.28 μg mL -1 for malathion, phorate and dimethoate, respectively. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in various vegetable samples.

  16. Spectroscopic Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides Using Colorimetric Reactions

    Amit Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    The UV-Vis and infrared (IR)absorption spectra of organophosphorus (OP)pesticides have been studied.A correlation in spectra was developed to optimize the OP pesticides in the environments.The spec-troscopic (UV-Vis and IR)spectrum of OP pesticides like methyl parathion,malathion and parathion has been interpreted in detail.A complete calculation of the normal frequencies and absolute intensities of UV-Vis and IR absorption bands are interpreted with the help of corresponding experimental data.In the colorimetric reac-tions,the bands appear at 2 077,1 637,1 455,1 015,655 cm-1 for malathion;2 081,1 639,1 316,1 015, 794,683 cm-1 for parathion;2 078,1 632,1 032,794 cm-1 for methyl parathion were used for quantitative or qualitative analysis.All these IR spectra were acquired by averaging 100 scans at a resolution of 4 cm-1 .It is determined experimentally in the region 200~450 nm for UV-Vis absorption bands and in the region 400~4 000 cm-1 for IR absorption bands.It is concluded that the mainly optically active groups (P—OH, C—O, P—O, C—O—C,P—O—C, P—S, —OH)present in pesticides which are responsible in change in sig-nificant data for quantitative and qualitative analysis.The various optical properties like wavelength,band en-ergy,wave number,and frequency,also are calculated.

  17. Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides with Colorimetry and Computer Image Analysis.

    Li, Yanjie; Hou, Changjun; Lei, Jincan; Deng, Bo; Huang, Jing; Yang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) represent a very important class of pesticides that are widely used in agriculture because of their relatively high-performance and moderate environmental persistence, hence the sensitive and specific detection of OPs is highly significant. Based on the inhibitory effect of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) induced by inhibitors, including OPs and carbamates, a colorimetric analysis was used for detection of OPs with computer image analysis of color density in CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) color space and non-linear modeling. The results showed that there was a gradually weakened trend of yellow intensity with the increase of the concentration of dichlorvos. The quantitative analysis of dichlorvos was achieved by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modeling, and the results showed that the established model had a good predictive ability between training sets and predictive sets. Real cabbage samples containing dichlorvos were detected by colorimetry and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. The results showed that there was no significant difference between colorimetry and GC (P > 0.05). The experiments of accuracy, precision and repeatability revealed good performance for detection of OPs. AChE can also be inhibited by carbamates, and therefore this method has potential applications in real samples for OPs and carbamates because of high selectivity and sensitivity.

  18. Relationship between blood alcohol concentration on admission and outcome in dimethoate organophosphorus self-poisoning

    Eddleston, Michael; Gunnell, David; von Meyer, Ludwig; Eyer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    center dot Acute alcohol intoxication often complicates acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.center dot No data are available on how alcohol intoxication affects outcome in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.center dot In particular, the relationships between plasma alcohol concentration and plasma organophosphorus concentration or outcome are unclear.WHAT THIS STUDY ADDScenter dot Alcohol co-ingestion is associated with higher concentrations of the organophosphorus insecticide ...

  19. Comparative Toxicological Study between Exposed and Non-Exposed Farmers to Organophosphorus Pesticides

    Fariba Taghavian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this work was to compare DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity, inflammatory markers and clinical symptoms in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides to individuals that had no pesticide exposure. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a total of 134 people. The subject group consisted of 67 farmers who were exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. The control group consisted of 67 people without any contact with pesticides matched with the subject group in terms of age, gender, and didactics. Oxidative DNA damage, the activities of AChE, interleukin-6 (IL6, IL10 and C-reactive protein (CRP in serum were measured and clinical examinations conducted in order to register all clinical signs. Results: Compared with the control group, substantial gains were observed in the farmers’ levels of oxidative DNA damage, IL10 and CRP. There was significantly less AChE activity in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. The levels of IL6 in both groups did not significantly differ. Conclusion: The outcomes show that exposure to organophosphorus pesticides may cause DNA oxidative damage, inhibit AChE activity and increase the serum levels of inflammatory markers. Using biological materials instead of chemical pesticides and encouraging the use of safety equipment by farmers are some solutions to the adverse effects of exposure to organophosphorous pesticides.

  20. Comparative Toxicological Study between Exposed and Non-Exposed Farmers to Organophosphorus Pesticides

    Taghavian, Fariba; Vaezi, Gholamhassan; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Malekirad, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this work was to compare DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, inflammatory markers and clinical symptoms in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides to individuals that had no pesticide exposure. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a total of 134 people. The subject group consisted of 67 farmers who were exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. The control group consisted of 67 people without any contact with pesticides matched with the subject group in terms of age, gender, and didactics. Oxidative DNA damage, the activities of AChE, interleukin-6 (IL6), IL10 and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum were measured and clinical examinations conducted in order to register all clinical signs. Results Compared with the control group, substantial gains were observed in the farmers’ levels of oxidative DNA damage, IL10 and CRP. There was significantly less AChE activity in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. The levels of IL6 in both groups did not significantly differ. Conclusion The outcomes show that exposure to organophosphorus pesticides may cause DNA oxidative damage, inhibit AChE activity and increase the serum levels of inflammatory markers. Using biological materials instead of chemical pesticides and encouraging the use of safety equipment by farmers are some solutions to the adverse effects of exposure to organophosphorous pesticides. PMID:27054123

  1. 急性中重度有机磷农药中毒对认知功能的影响%Effect of Acute Moderately Severe Organophosphorus Pesticides Poisoning on Cognitive Function

    杨琴; 田仰华; 周姝; 李景荣; 程景林

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of acute moderately severe organophosphorus pesticides poisoning on cognitive function. Methods 29 patients with acute moderately severe organophosphorus pesticides poisoning,who had been hospitalized in Department of Emergency Internal Medicine of the Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University from November 2010 to October 2014 and met the inclusion criteria,were selected as the research group,and 29 healthy volunteers after physical examination in the same hospital during the same period were also enrolled as the control group. Patients in research group received corresponding treatment like timely gastric lavage. All patients' cognitive function were evaluated by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment(MoCA). The MoCA various dimensional score and total score of control group at the enrolling time and of research group 1 week,1 month and 6 months after treatment were compared in this study. Results The MoCA total score of 1 month and 6 months after treatment was higher than that of 1 week after treatment in the research group(P 0. 05). In the research group,the scores of naming,attention,abstraction,delayed recall and orientation of 1 month and 6 months after treatment were higher than those 1 week after treatment,and the scores of visual space and executive function and language 6 months after treatment were higher than those 1 week after treatment(P < 0. 05);the scores of visual space and executive function,attention,language,abstraction,delayed recall and orientation 6 months after treatment were higher than those 1 month after treatment(P < 0. 05). The scores of visual space and executive function,naming,attention, language,abstraction,delayed recall and orientation in the control group were higher than those in the research group 1 week after treatment(P < 0. 05);the scores of attention,language,delayed recall and orientation in the control group were higher than those in the research group 1 month after treatment(P < 0. 05

  2. 28 Cases of Delayed Polyneuropathy Acute Induced by Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒致迟发性多发性神经病28例分析

    傅继荣; 史家安

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨急性有机磷农药中毒后迟发性多发性神经病的临床特点、发病机制,以提高早期诊断及治疗效果.方法 回顾28例迟发性多发性神经病发生的时间、症状及体症,结合辅助检查,进行系统分析.结果 28例迟发性多发性神经病患者均为口服中毒,潜伏期为10~32 d,平均18 d.主要表现为肢体末端开始的感觉和运动障碍,表现为疼痛、麻木、无力、肌肉萎缩、腱反射减弱或消失,肌电图示神经源性损害.用糖皮质激素、B族维生素等综合治疗,大部分预后良好.结论 迟发性多发性神经病经早期诊断,积极治疗,预后一般良好,激素治疗可加速神经功能恢复.%Objective To explore the clinical features and pathogenesis of the delayed polyneuropathy induced by acute organ-ophosphorus pesticide poisoning,and improve the curative effects of early diagnosis and treatment. Methods The onset time,symptoms and physical signs of 28 eases of delayed polyneuropathy were recalled and analyzed combined with supplementary ex-amination retrospectively. Results 28 delayed polyneuropathy were all oral poisoning, the incubation period was of 10 to 32 days, with an average of 18 days. Dyskinesia and abnormity of sense started from the end of limbs, such as pain, numbness, weak-ness, muscle atrophy, weakening or disappearance of tendon reflexes, neurogenie damage showed by electromyography, were the main clinical manifestation. The comprehensive treatment with glueocortieoid and B vitamins eould improve prognosis.Conclusion The delayed polyneuropathy has a good prognosis by early diagnosis and active treatment, and hormone therapy may accelerate the recovery of neurological function.

  3. BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY SURFACE-EXPRESSED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R823663)

    Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) was displayed and anchored onto the surface ofEscherichia coli using an Lpp-OmpA fusion system. Production of the fusion proteins in membranefractions was verified by immunoblotting with OmpA antisera. inclusion of the organophosphorus...

  4. Detoxification of organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents through RSDL: efficacy evaluation by (31)P NMR spectroscopy.

    Elsinghorst, Paul W; Worek, Franz; Koller, Marianne

    2015-03-04

    Intoxication by organophosphorus compounds, especially by pesticides, poses a considerable risk to the affected individual. Countermeasures involve both medical intervention by means of antidotes as well as external decontamination to reduce the risk of dermal absorption. One of the few decontamination options available is Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), which was originally developed for military use. Here, we present a (31)P NMR spectroscopy based methodology to evaluate the detoxification efficacy of RSDL with respect to a series of organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents. Kinetic analysis of the obtained NMR data provided degradation half-lives proving that RSDL is also reasonably effective against organophosphorus pesticides. Unexpected observations of different RSDL degradation patterns are presented in view of its reported oximate-catalyzed mechanism of action.

  5. 机械通气抢救急性有机磷农药中毒呼吸衰竭47例%Rescue mechanical ventilation in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory failure of 47 Cases

    饶惠平

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨机械通气治疗重度有机磷农药中毒呼吸衰竭的临床意义.方法 重度有机磷农药中毒呼吸衰竭患者患者83例,按是否机械通气分为治疗组47例和对照组36例.两组均常规给予洗胃、应用阿托品、氯磷定及对症支持治疗等综合措施,治疗组给予机械通气.结果 治疗组抢救成功率(89%)明显高于对照组(69%)(P<0.05).结论 早期建立人工气道机械通气是有机磷农药中毒并呼吸衰竭抢救成功的关键.%Objective To investigate the mechanical ventilation in the treatment of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning in the clinical significance of respiratory failure.Methods Uinical data of admitted to our hospital with severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning respiratory failure in 83 cases were analyzed,according to whether mechanical ventilation,they were divided into treatment group(47 cases) and control group 36 cases,the efficacy were observed.Both groups were given routine gastric lavage,atropine,PAM,and symptomatic supportive care and other comprehensive measures,the treatment group,was given an extra mechanical ventilation.Results The treatment group had significantly higher success rate of resuscitation,the two groups were significantly different (P<0.05).Conclusion Early establishment of artificial airway mechanical ventilation is a key step to rescue organophosphate pesticide poisoning,and respiratory failure to rescue key.

  6. Effects of the organophosphorus pesticide Folisuper 600 (methyl parathion on the heart function of bullfrog tadpoles, Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802

    M. J. Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the heart function of bullfrog tadpoles (25 Gosner stage is affected by their acute exposure (48 h to a sub-lethal concentration (10 µg.L–1 of the active principle of the organophosphorus pesticide Folisuper 600R (methyl parathion - MP. Our results demonstrated that MP causes not only a reduction in tadpoles’ cardiac ventricular mass, resulting in a marked reduction in their cardiac twitch force, but also impairs their swimming performance, irrespective of increasing their heart rate. Together, these findings indicate that low and realistic concentration of MP have a negative impact on tadpoles’ performance, jeopardizing their survival.

  7. Organophosphorus pesticides effect on early stages of the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Caudata).

    Robles-Mendoza, C; García-Basilio, C; Cram-Heydrich, S; Hernández-Quiroz, M; Vanegas-Pérez, C

    2009-02-01

    Ambystoma mexicanum is an endemic salamander of Xochimilco, a wetland of the basin of Mexico valley. Nowadays, axolotl populations are decreasing due environmental stressors. Particularly, studies about organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs; i.e. chlorpyrifos and malathion) toxicity are of great importance due to their intensive use in agricultural activities in Xochimilco. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate under controlled conditions the toxicity of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and malathion (MLT) on embryos and larvae (stage 44 and 54) of A. mexicanum. Embryos and larvae were exposure 96h from 0.5 to 3mg CPFL(-1) and from 10 to 30mg MLTL(-1) in independent tests. Embryos at the end of this period were maintained 9d without pesticide in order to identify possible recuperation. Differences obtained in mortality, hatching success, development, morphological abnormalities, behaviour and activity, suggest that toxicity of CPF and MLT differs in embryos and larval stages. Embryos were less sensitive to OPPs acute exposure than axolotl larvae; additionally, toxicity of CPF in larval stages was greater than MLT. On the other hand, data obtained in axolotl embryos during the period of recuperation to CPF in particular as delay and inhibition of development, malformations and success of hatching, indicated that these responses turned out more sensitive than mortality. This study allowed to identify the toxicological potential of OPPs on early developmental stages of A. mexicanum and it is a valuable contribution for the future management of the axolotl wild population.

  8. RESEARCH OF HEAVY METALS, ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES IN POWDERED INFANT FORMULA

    M.C. Abete

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period between october 2007 and november 2008 were collected 60 samples of powdered infant formula. The analysis for the detection of heavy metals, organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides show that the environmental situation is under control and powdered infant formula satisfies this health requisite.

  9. Assessing the Developmental Neurotoxicity of 27 Organophosphorus Pesticides Using a Zebrafish Behavioral Assay

    Assessing the Developmental Neurotoxicity of 27 Organophosphorus Pesticides Using a Zebrafish Behavioral Assay, Waalkes, M., Hunter, D.L., Jarema, K., Mundy, W., and S. Padilla. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize organophosphor...

  10. 急性有机磷农药中毒致呼吸衰竭的影响因素分析%Study on correlated clinical factors of respiratory failure induced by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    陶贤洲; 王佐

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析急性有机磷农药中毒( AOPP)致呼吸衰竭的相关临床因素,为制订有效的预防及干预措施提供科学依据。方法回顾分析94例重性AOPP患者临床资料,根据血气分析结果将患者分为呼吸衰竭组(41例)和非呼吸衰竭组(53例),观察患者的APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶、血糖、血清淀粉酶、肝肾功能及心肌酶谱等指标。结果胆碱酯酶水平呼吸衰竭组患者低于非呼吸衰竭组患者(P<0.05);APACHEⅡ评分、血清淀粉酶、肝肾功能及心肌酶谱等,呼吸衰竭组患者高于非呼吸衰竭组患者(P<0.05);Logistic回归分析显示APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶及血清淀粉酶与呼吸衰竭相关。结论 APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶及血清淀粉酶水平可作为AOPP引起呼吸衰竭的预测指标。%Objective To investigate the correlated clinical factors of respiratory failure induced by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning ( AOPP) ,and to provide relevant data for prevention and intervention of respiratory failure .Methods This retrospective study in-cluded 94 patients with severe AOPP ,and all patients were divided into respiratory failure group ( n=41 ) and non-respiratory failure group (n=53) according to arterial blood gas analysis .We observed APACHEⅡscores,cholinesterase,blood glucose,serum amylase,hepatic func-tion,renal function and myocardial enzyme between the two groups .Results Cholinesterase level in the respiratory failure group was lower than that in non-respiratory failure group (P<0.05);APACHEⅡ scores,serum amylase,hepatic function,renal function and myocardial enzyme in the respiratory failure group were higher than those of non-respiratory failure group (P<0.05).Spearman correlation analysis and Logistic regression analyses showed APACHEⅡscores,cholinesterase and serum amylase were related to respiratory failure ,and they had sig-nificant predictive effects on respiratory failure

  11. Carboxylic Esterase and Its Associations With Long-term Effects of Organophosphorus Pesticides

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine a) the effect of organophosphorus pesticide exposure on activity of carboxylic esterases, namely butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase (CarbE) and paraoxonase (PonE); and b) the association of polymorphisms of BChE and PonE with individual genetic susceptibility to organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 75 workers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides and 100 non-exposed controls. The serum activity of these enzymes was measured. Variant forms of BCHE-K, PON-192, and PON-55 were detected. A symptom score was developed as a proxy measure of clinical outcomes. Results Activities of both BChE and CarbE were lower in exposed exposed workers with BCHE-K genotype UU (61 cases), genotype UK (12 cases) and genotype KK (2 cases) was 105.05, 84.42 activity in the exposed workers with PON-192 genotype BB (37), genotype AB (27) and genotype AA (11) was 116.8, 91.2, and 9.20. The symptom score was the highest in individuals with abnormal homozygote for each of the three gene loci. Conclusions Long-term exposure to organophosphorus pesticides can inhibit BChE and CarbE activity, but exerts no inhibitory effect on PonE activity. Different genotypes of BCHE-K, PON-192, and PON-55 may be related to the severity of adverse health effects of organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Implications of potentially higher susceptibility of workers with mutant homozygotes should be evaluated to reduce health risks.

  12. Upconversion nanoparticle-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for organophosphorus pesticides.

    Long, Qian; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-06-15

    This paper reports a novel nanosensor for organophosphorus pesticides based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The detection mechanism is based on the facts that AuNPs quench the fluorescence of UCNPs and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (ATC) into thiocholine. Under the optimized conditions, the logarithm of the pesticides concentration was proportional to the inhibition efficiency. The detection limits of parathion-methyl, monocrotophos and dimethoate reached 0.67, 23, and 67 ng/L, respectively. Meanwhile, the biosensor shows good sensitivity, stability, and could be successfully applied to detection of OPs in real food samples, suggesting the biosensor has potentially extensive application clinic diagnoses assays.

  13. 急性有机磷农药中毒84例的抢救及护理%The rescue and nursing of 84 cases of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    袁晓春

    2015-01-01

    目的:迅速清除毒物,及时使用解毒剂和尽快达到阿托品化以对抗烟碱样症状、毒蕈碱样症状、中枢神经系统症状,减轻对重要器官的损害,提高抢救成功率,防止反跳与猝死的发生。方法:催吐、洗胃、清除毒物,尽早快速使用解毒剂,使其短期达到阿托品化,对症处置。结果:84例有机磷农药中毒患者经及时抢救,精心护理,80例痊愈出院,4例死于呼吸、循环衰竭。结论:有机磷农药中毒抢救的关键是早期及时应用解毒剂,短期达到阿托品化,迅速彻底清除毒物,密切观察病情,采取有效的护理措施,可大大提高抢救成功率。%Objective:In order to fight against nicotine symptoms,muscarinic symptoms,central nervous system symptoms,to alleviate the damage of the vital organs,improve the success rate of rescue,prevent the occurrence of rebound and sudden death by quickly remove poisons,timely use of antidotes and reach atropinization as soon as possible.Methods: The use of emetic,gastric lavage,clean up the poison,early rapid use antidote,make its short-term reach atropinization and symptomatic disposal.Results:84 cases of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients with timely rescue,careful nursing,80 cases were cured,4 cases died of respiratory and circulatory failure.Conclusion:The key to rescue organophosphorus pesticide poisoning is that the early and timely application of antidote,short-term reach atropinization,quickly and thoroughly remove poison,close observation of disease,take effective nursing measures,which can greatly improve the success rate of rescue.

  14. Integrated microwave processing system for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables.

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-03-01

    A simple and efficient integrated microwave processing system (IMPS) was firstly assembled and validated for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables. Two processes under microwave irradiation, dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) and microwave-accelerated solvent elution (MASE), were integrated for simplifying the pretreatment of the sample. Extraction, separation, enrichment and elution were finished in a simple step. The organophosphorus pesticides were extracted from the fresh vegetables into hexane with DMAE, and then the extract was directly introduced into the enrichment column packed with active carbon fiber (ACF). Subsequently, the organophosphorus pesticides trapped on the ACF were eluted with ethyl acetate under microwave irradiation. No further filtration or cleanup was required before analysis of the eluate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Some experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, such as microwave output power, kind and volume of extraction solvent, extraction time, amount of sorbent, elution microwave power, kind and volume of elution solvent, elution solvent flow rate. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries were in the range of 71.5-105.2%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 11.6%. The experiment results prove that the present method is a simple and effective sample preparation method for the determination of pesticides in solid samples.

  15. A screen-printed, amperometric biosensor for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples

    Junfeng Dou; Fuqiang Fan; Aizhong Ding; Lirong Cheng; Raju Sekar; Hongting Wang; Shuairan Li

    2012-01-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) was developed for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples.The extent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) deactivation was determined and quantified for pesticideconcentrations in water samples.An enzyme immobilization adsorption procedure and polyacrylamide gel matrix polymerization were used for fabrication of the biosensor,with minimal losses in enzyme activity.The optimal conditions for enzyme catalytic reaction on the SPEs surfaces were acetylthiocholine chloride (ATChC(1)) concentration of 5 mmol/L,pH 7 and reaction time of 4 min.The detectionlimits for three organophosphorus pesticides (dichlorvos,monocrotophs and parathion) were in the range of 4 to 7 μg/L when an AChE amount of 0.1 U was used for immobilization.

  16. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN GREEK VIRGIN OLIVE OIL: LEVELS, DIETARY INTAKE AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    Tsoutsi, Charoula; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Hela, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the occurrence of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and metabolite residues was investigated in 167 samples of Greek virgin olive oil during a two-year (2004–2005) sampling campaign. A total of 30.5% of samples contained detectable residues while only one sample contained dimethoate residues higher than the maximum residue limits. Among the seven detected OPs, fenthion and fenthion sulfoxide residues were detected in 10.8% and 14.4% of the samples...

  17. Study on the toxic effect of the mixture of organophosphorus pesticide on perinatal rats

    2007-01-01

    Objective To observe the toxic effect of the mixture of organophosphorus pesticide (MOP) on maternal rats and on the growth and development of their offspring. Methods Totally 40 Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were randomly divided into three MOP dose groups and one control to which their offspring would be assigned. The experimental dosage of MOP and distilled water were administered orally starting on gestation day 15 and continued for 35 days. The physical development indices and the learning ability of F1...

  18. Effect of rhubarb and Glauber's salt cathartic intervention on acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%大黄加芒硝导泻治疗有机磷农药中毒的效果观察

    朱茄英; 陈茶花; 鄢小莲; 肖玲; 黄敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of nasal tube feeding of rhubarb solution and umbilical compress of Glauber's salt for purgation in the treatment of patients with severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP).Methods A retrospective study was conducted.Eighty patients with severe AOPP were dividedinto two groups according to different treatment,with 40 patients in each group.A thorough gastric lavage was done,followed by cholinesterase complex agent and atropine were given for all the patients.On the base of this treatment,one group of patients were given nasogastric feeding of rhubarb solution (200 ml) and Glauber's salt solution ( 100 g) for umbilical compress (rhubarb plus Glauher group),and another group of patients were fed with 20% mannitol (200 ml)as a control group (mannitol group).The time of first defecation,number of passing stools,the time of normalization of cholinesterase (ChE) activity,time of atropinization,dosage of atropinization,and total amount of atropine given,incidence of adverse reactions,and hospital stay in two groups were observed,a statistical analysis of the data was conducted.Results In rhubarb plus Glauber group,all the conditions were improved better than those of mannitol group [first defecation time (minutes):134.13 ± 31.31 vs.154.35 ± 34.78,the number of stools (times/d):2.60 ±0.81 vs.2.14 ± 0.63,time of ChE activity returned to normal (days):9.65 ± 1.42 vs.10.66 ± 1.74,atropinization time ( hours ):3.00 ± 0.73 vs.3.56 ± 1.02,dosage of atropinization (mg):51.43 ± 7.03 vs.57.65 ± 7.74,the total amount of atropine given (mg):229.78 ± 28.96 vs.248.41 ± 31.45,the incidence of adverse reactions:abdominal pain 0 vs.17.5%,abdominal distention 0 vs.20.0%,hospital stay (days):10.43 ± 1.68 vs.11.59 ± 2.121,and all the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.01).Conclusion Combination usage with aqueous rhubarb solution and Glauber's salt in AOPP patients could yield quick clearance of toxin

  19. Monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables of agricultural area in Venezuela.

    Quintero, América; Caselles, María J; Ettiene, Gretty; de Colmenares, Nélida G; Ramírez, Tibisay; Medina, Deisy

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the residues of seven pesticides organophosphorus (methamidophos, diazinon, chlorpyriphos, parathion-methyl, dimethoate, malathion and tetrachlorvinphos), in some vegetables like: potato, lettuce, tomato, onion, red pepper and green onion cultivated in José María Vargas County in Táchira State, Venezuela. The research permitted to detect that 48.0% of the samples were contaminated with some of the pesticides studied. Methamidophos was founded in the vegetables in the rank of 6.3%-65.5%. The results show that 16.7% of the samples tested have residues higher than the maximum limits permitted.

  20. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis)

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang, E-mail: ceszf@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Ouyang, Gangfeng, E-mail: cesoygf@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC–MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production. - Highlights: • In vivo SPME was employed to sample organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables. • Uptake and elimination of OPPs were traced in cabbage and aloe. • In vivo tracing of fenthion demonstrated its metabolites could be rather dangerous. • The risks of OPPs were assessed based on the in vivo tracing data.

  1. The comparison of the applications of strong ion gap, blood glucose and other indexes in the acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%强离子隙和血糖等指标在急性有机磷农药中毒中的应用比较

    顾旭东; 袁雪丰; 聂时南

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较急性有机磷农药中毒( AOPP)患者的强离子隙( SIG)、血淀粉酶( AMS)、天门冬氨基酸转移酶( AST)、磷酸激酶同工酶( CK-MB)、血糖( BG)等指标与其预后的相关性。方法回顾性研究2014-01~2014-12共69例AOPP患者,根据预后分为生存组和死亡组,比较中毒早期SIG、AMS、AST、CK-MB、BG等指标水平以及其他一般资料结果,并通过分析优势比( odds ratio, OR)以及建立ROC曲线比较SIG、BG等指标对AOPP患者的预后有效性。结果异常的BG较正常的指标有更高的死亡风险,SIG较BG对致死率具有更高意义的ORs(P<0.05)。结论随着早期SIG、BG水平的升高,AOPP患者的死亡风险增加,且SIG对患者死亡预后的预测更有效。%Objective To compare the strong ion gap ( SIG) and AMS, AST, CK-MB, blood glucose ( BG) index predicting the prognosis of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning ( AOPP ) patients. Methods This retrospective study included 69 cases who were diagnosed by AOPP from January to December 2014. According to the prognosis they were divided into death group and survival group. By analyzing the odds ratio (ORs) and establishing ROC curve, we evaluated the effectiveness of SIG and BG in predicting the prognosis of patients with AOPP. Results The abnormal index of blood glucose (P=0. 001) indicated a higher risk of death than the normal index, SIG showed higher ORs for fatality than BG (P <0. 05). In the ROC curve, the area under the curve of the SIG, BG on the prognosis of fatality was 0. 856, 0. 817, respectively. Conclusion With early SIG and BG level increase, the risk of death will increase in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, and SIG is a more effective marker than index of BG on the prognosis of death.

  2. Organophosphorus pesticides decrease M2 muscarinic receptor function in guinea pig airway nerves via indirect mechanisms.

    Becky J Proskocil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Intravenous administration of paraoxon, but not parathion, caused acute frequency-dependent potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and increased electrical field stimulation (EFS-induced contractions in isolated trachea independent of AChE inhibition. However, paraoxon had no effect on vagally-induced bradycardia in intact guinea pigs or EFS-induced contractions in isolated ileum, suggesting mechanisms other than pharmacologic antagonism of M2 receptors. Paraoxon did not alter M2 receptor expression in cultured cells at the mRNA or protein level as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and radio-ligand binding assays, respectively. Additionally, a biotin-labeled fluorophosphonate, which was used as a probe to identify molecular targets phosphorylated by OPs, did not phosphorylate proteins in guinea pig cardiac membranes that were recognized by M2 receptor antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that neither direct pharmacologic antagonism nor downregulated expression of M2 receptors contributes to OP inhibition of M2 function in airway nerves, adding to the growing evidence of non-cholinergic mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity.

  3. Investigation of the toxicity of some organophosphorus pesticides in a repeated dose study in rats.

    Baconi, Daniela Luiza; Bârcă, Maria; Manda, Gina; Ciobanu, Anne Marie; Bălălău, C

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to the investigation of the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides malathion (MLT) and diazinon (DZN) in Wistar rats in a repeated dose study for 35 days. MLT and DZN in corn oil vehicle were oral administered. Body and organs weights, plasma and brain cholinesterase activities, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, histopathological changes in liver and kidney, and some parameters of the immune function, such as leukocyte formula, spleen weight and cellularity, spleen lymphocytes proliferation in response to concanavalin A (Con A) were investigated; the potential oxidative stress (malondialdehyde in plasma and brain, and blood catalase activity) was also evaluated. No clinical toxicity signs attributed to pesticides were noted; no significant changes in the organ weights have been found. Body weight tends slightly to increase, predominantly in DZN treated rats. The results suggest that plasma cholinesterase is more susceptible than brain cholinesterase to the inhibitory effect of DZN and MLT. Other serum biochemical parameters showed no significant difference. DZN produced a marked increase of the number of spleen lymphocytes without a significant gain of the relative spleen weight. The both pesticides produced an increase of the number of mononuclear cells÷weight spleen. The splenic lymphocyte proliferation has not been influenced by MLT or DZN treatment. Histopathological observations identified some changes (vasodilatation, microvacuoles, and granular dystrophy) in the liver, with MLT, inducing macrovacuolar steatosis. The study indicates that repeated exposure, at subclinical doses, to organophosphorus MLT and DZN causes some biochemical, histopathological and immune alterations in rats.

  4. Confirmed organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in South African wildlife (2009–2014

    Christo J. Botha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During a six-year period (from January 2009 to December 2014, specimens collected from 344 cases of suspected organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in wildlife, including birds, were submitted to the Toxicology Laboratory (ARC-OVI for analysis. A positive diagnosis was made in 135 (39% of these cases. The majority of cases were from birds, which included Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres and African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus and bateleur eagles (Terathopius ecaudatus. In one incident 49 vultures were killed when a farmer intentionally laced carcasses with carbofuran in an attempt to control jackal predation. There were 22 incidents of poisoning in helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris. On nine different occasions blue cranes (Anthropoides paradiseus were poisoned, in one incident 14 birds were reported to have been killed. Over the period of investigation, there were 20 cases of poisoning involving mammalian species, the majority being vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus. The carbamate pesticides were responsible for 57 incidents of poisoning. Aldicarb, carbofuran and methomyl were detected in 26, 18 and 12 cases respectively. The majority of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings were caused by diazinon (n = 19, monocrotophos (n = 13 and methamidophos (n = 10.

  5. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    Korrapati Kotinagu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077. Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167. The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX.

  6. 活性炭和甘露醇联合应用对急性有机磷农药中毒的疗效%Effect of joint of activated charcoal and mannitol on the efficacy of treating acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    段新旺; 黄亮; 赖谋锋

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of oral administration of activated charcoal and mannitol on removing toxicant after acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). Method A total of 41 patients with severe AOPP were randomly divided into experiment group (activated charcoal used as adsorbent and mannitol used as cathartics, n =21)and control group (without adsorbent and cathartics, n = 20). Patients of both groups received routine treatment for AOPP after admission to hospital. The differences in duration of atropinization, the length of hospitalization and the success rate of treatment were compared between two groups. Results There were significant differences in duration of atropinization, the success rate of treatment and hospitalization time between the two groups. Conclusions The combination of activated charcoal and mannitol is more effective than the conventional gastric lavage on removal of organophosphorus pesticides from G-I tract, shorting the duration of atropinization time and hospital stays, and enhancing the success rate of rescue as well as improving the outcome of patients after organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的 探讨口服活性炭和甘露醇对急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)的毒物清除作用.方法 2004年1月至2009年12月南昌大学第一附属医院收治的41例重症AOPP患者随机分为试验组(活性炭吸附毒物和甘露醇导泻治疗组,n=21)和对照组(未用活性炭吸附毒物和甘露醇导泻治疗组,n=20).两组患者均进行AOPP急救常规治疗,观察两组患者阿托品化时间、抢救成功率和住院时间的差异.结果 试验组阿托品化时间、抢救成功率和住院时间与对照组比较差异[(3.60±1.6)h vs.(17.5±13.4)h;(4.1±1.45)d vs.(8.00±2.13)d;100% vs.(70.0±4.7)]均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 活性炭和甘露醇联合应用较传统洗胃法更能有效清除进入体内的有机磷农药,且能缩短患者阿托品化时间和住院时间,进一步提

  7. Simple, specific analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediments using column extraction and gas chromatography

    Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A simple, specific procedure was developed for the analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediment. The wet soil was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate to bind water and the residues were column extracted in acetone:methylene chloride (1:l,v/v). Coextracted water was removed by additional sodium sulfate packed below the sample mixture. The eluate was concentrated and analyzed directly by capillary gas chromatography using phosphorus and nitrogen specific detectors. Recoveries averaged 93 % for sediments extracted shortly after spiking, but decreased significantly as the samples aged.

  8. Gestational Hypertension and Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Caterina Ledda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. High blood pressure (BP with diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg and/or systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg arising after week 22 of pregnancy and resolving after delivery is defined as gestational hypertension (GHY. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether occupational and/or environmental exposure to organophosphorus (OP pesticide affects GHY. Women at approximately 22 weeks of gestation were recruited. OP pesticide exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy was classified into four categories: no exposure, indirect exposure, domestic exposure, and occupational exposure. Application of the exclusion criteria left 2203 participants (mean age 30.4 ± 11.6 years. Data analysis showed that in women with indirect OP pesticide exposure the incidence of GHY was slightly higher than that in the world population, whereas domestic exposure involved a 7% increase and occupational exposure a 12% increase. Analysis of the pesticides used by participants highlighted a possible role for malathion and diazinon (adjusted OR 1.09 and 1.14, resp.. Further investigation of exposed workers and the general population is clearly warranted given the broad diffusion of OP pesticides and their possible public health impact, maybe by including a wider range of health outcomes.

  9. Influence of organophosphorus pesticides on peroxidase and chlorination activity of human myeloperoxidase.

    Lazarević-Pašti, Tamara; Momić, Tatjana; Radojević, Miloš M; Vasić, Vesna

    2013-09-01

    Inhibitory effects of five organophosphorus pesticides (diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl and phorate) and their oxo-analogs on human myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were investigated. While inspecting separately peroxidase and chlorination activity, it was observed that investigated OPs affect peroxidase activity, but not chlorination activity. Among investigated pesticides, malathion and malaoxon have showed the highest power to inhibit MPO peroxidase activity with IC50 values of the order of 3×10(-7) and 5×10(-9) M, respectively. It was proposed that inhibition trend is rendered by molecular structure which invokes steric hindrance for OPs interaction with MPO active center responsible for peroxidase activity. In addition, it was concluded that physiological function of MPO is not affected by any of the investigated OPs.

  10. Interaction of malathion, an organophosphorus pesticide with Rhizopus oryzae biomass

    Chatterjee, Subhankar; Das, Sujoy K.; Chakravarty, Rajdeep; Chakrabarti, Adrita [Department of Biological Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ghosh, Subrata [West Bengal Pollution Control Board, Paribesh Bhawan, Kakinara, 24 Parganas (N), PIN - 743126 (India); Guha, Arun K., E-mail: bcakg@mahendra.iacs.res.in [Department of Biological Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2010-02-15

    Adsorption of malathion on Rhizopus oryzae biomass (ROB) with special reference to binding mechanism has been described. ROB has been found to adsorb {approx}85% of malathion from its aqueous solution as against 47-68% by other fungal biomasses. Hydrogen ion concentration does not influence the adsorption of malathion by ROB which follows Langmuir-Freundlich dual equilibrium isotherm model (r{sup 2} = 0.998). Both physical and chemical interactions are responsible for binding of malathion on ROB. Scanning electron micrographs and EDXA spectra exhibit adsorption of the pesticide on cell surface of ROB. Studies with cell surface polysaccharides show that chitosan through its amine groups contributes largely in the adsorption of malathion. Extraction of lipids from ROB decreases its adsorption capacity to the extent of 36.37-94.02%, depending on the polarity of the solvent.

  11. a Enzyme-Based Electrochemical Sensor for Sensitive Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides

    Zhou, Nong; Li, Chengyong; Mo, Rijian; Zhang, Peng; He, Lei; Nie, Fanghong; Su, Weiming; Liu, Shucheng; Gao, Jing; Shao, Haiyan; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Ji, Hongwu

    2016-12-01

    A sensitive and fast sensor for quantitative detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) is obtained using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor based on graphene oxide (GO)-chitosan (CS) composite film. This new biosensor is prepared via depositing GO-CS composite film on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and then assembling AChE on the composite film. The GO-CS composite film shows an excellent biocompatibility with AChE and enhances immobilization efficiency of AChE. GO homogeneously disperses in the GO-CS composite films and exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity to thiocholine oxidation, which is from acetylthiocholine catalyzed by AChE. The results show that the inhibition of carbaryl/trichlorfon on AChE activity is proportional to the concentration of carbaryl/trichlorfon. The detection of linear range for carbaryl is from 10nM to 100nM and the correlation coefficients of 0.993. The detection limit for carbaryl is calculated to be about 2.5nM. In addition, the detection of linear range for trichlorfon is from 10nM to 60nM and the correlation coefficients of 0.994. The detection limit for trichlorfon is calculated to be about 1.2nM. This biosensor provides a new promising tool for trace organophosphorus pesticide detection.

  12. Application of Current Hapten in the Production of Broad Specificity Antibodies Against Organophosphorus Pesticides

    LIU Xian-jin; YAN Chun-rong; LIU Yuan; YU Xiang-yang; ZHANG Cun-zheng

    2008-01-01

    Diethylphosphono acetic acid (DPA) was used as a current hapten to generate broad specificity polycolonal antibodies against a group of organophosphorus pesticides. Six New Zealand white rabbits were immunized with immunogens synthesized by the active ester method (AEM) or 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodimide method (EDC). The titers of antisera reached 25 600 by AEM and 6 400 by EDC, respectively. Polyclonal antibodies raised against DPA were screened and selected for the competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA). A CI-ELISA for DPA was developed with a detection limit of 3.536 ng mL-1 and an I50 value of 0.182 ug mL-1. The assay specificity was evaluated by obtaining competitive curves for several structurally related compounds as competitors. The antiserum showed high affinities to chlorpyrifos, diazinon, omethoate, parathion-ethyl and profenofos with I50 of 0.12, 0.15, 0.21, 0.88, 0.97 and 2.5 ug mL-1, respectively. The results indicate that the assay could be a screening tool for quantitation and semi-quantitation determination of the above former five organophosphorus pesticides.

  13. Organophosphorus Pesticide Extraction and Cleanup from Soils and Measurement Using GC-NPD

    WANG Li-Gang; JIANG Xin; MAO Ying-Ming; ZHAO Zhen-Hua; BIAN Yong-Rong

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to optimize instrumental parameters and conditions for analysis of selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) (GC-NPD); to select an appropriate solvent system; to conduct a comparison of sonication and shaking extractions; and to select an appropriate procedure for extracting organophosphorus pesticides from soils. Procedure Ⅰ consisted of n-hexane or petroleum ether together with acetone used as solvents, while Procedure Ⅱ contained several solvents including acetone,methanol, dichloromethane, and n-hexane or petroleum ether. Experimental results indicated that a mixture of petroleum ether/acetone (2:1, v/v) could be used in place of n-hexane/acetone (2:1, v/v) as it was a less expensive solvent system.In addition, shaking under a water bath at 20 ℃ was more effective than sonication. Also, Procedure Ⅰ was more effective,safer, and more timesaving than Procedure Ⅱ. Procedure I was applied to three soil types of different organic matter content, with recoveries of the OPPs from the yellow-brown soils, which had a higher organic matter content, being lower than those from the yellow and red soils.

  14. Determination of polar organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables and fruits using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: Selection of extraction solvent

    Mol, H.G.J.; Dam, R.C.J. van; Steijger, O.M.

    2003-01-01

    A method based on liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS was developed for sensitive determination of a number of less gas chromatography (GC)-amenable organophosphorus pesticides (OPs; acephate, methamidophos, monocrotophos, omethoate, oxydemeton-methyl and vamidothion) in cabbage and

  15. Determination of polar organophosphorus pesticides in aqueous samples by direct injection using liquid chromatography : tandem mass spectrometry

    Ingelse, B.A.; Dam, R.C.J. van; Vreeken, R.J.; Mol, H.G.J.; Steijger, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    It was demonstrated that four out of six of the very polar organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), i.e. acephate, methamidophos, monocrotophos, omethoate, oxydemeton-methyl and vamidothion, could not be extracted from water using commonly available SPE cartridges. In addition, GC analysis on all six comp

  16. Adsorption of organophosphorus pesticides in tropical soils: The case of karst landscape of northwestern Yucatan.

    Alfonso, Lorenzo-Flores; Germán, Giácoman Vallejos; María Del Carmen, Ponce Caballero; Hossein, Ghoveisi

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the adsorption of four organophosphorus pesticides-diazinon, dimethoate, methyl parathion, and sulfotep-in soil samples from four sites-Komchén, Xcanatún, Chablekal and Mocochá- in the northwest of Yucatan, Mexico. These pesticides have been detected in groundwater at concentrations greater than 5 (μg/L) during recent monitoring campaigns in the study area. In this region, groundwater contamination is exacerbated by its karst aquifer, which is susceptible to contamination and is considered very vulnerable. The experimental work was carried out using the batch equilibrium technique. Pesticide analyses by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography were performed. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Henry, Langmuir and Freundlich models. The results indicate that the Freundlich model provides the best correlation of the experimental data. Freundlich adsorption coefficients Kf were in the range of 1.62-2.35 for sulfotep, 2.43 to 3.25 for dimethoate, from 5.54 to 9.27 for methyl parathion, and 3.22 to 5.17 for diazinon. Freundlich adsorption coefficients were normalized to the content of organic carbon in the soil to estimate the sorption coefficient of organic carbon (KOC). KOC values were in the range of 9.45-71.80, indicated that four pesticides have low adsorption on the four studied soils, which represents a high risk of contamination to the aquifer.

  17. Nanomaterials - Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme Matrices for Organophosphorus Pesticides Electrochemical Sensors: A Review

    Shen-Ming Chen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is an important cholinesterase enzyme present in the synaptic clefts of living organisms. It maintains the levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction of acetylcholine to thiocholine. This catalytic activity of AChE is drastically inhibited by trace amounts of organophosphorus (OP pesticides present in the environment. As a result, effective monitoring of OP pesticides in the environment is very desirable and has been done successfully in recent years with the use of nanomaterial-based AChE sensors. In such sensors, the enzyme AChE has been immobilized onto nanomaterials like multiwalled carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles, zirconia nanoparticles, cadmium sulphide nano particles or quantum dots. These nanomaterial matrices promote significant enhancements of OP pesticide determinations, with the thiocholine oxidation occurring at much lower oxidation potentials. Moreover, nanomaterial-based AChE sensors with rapid response, increased operational and long storage stability are extremely well suited for OP pesticide determination over a wide concentration range. In this review, the unique advantages of using nanomaterials as AChE immobilization matrices are discussed. Further, detection limits, sensitivities and correlation coefficients obtained using various electroanalytical techniques have also been compared with chromatographic techniques.

  18. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis).

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production.

  19. A Survey of Determination for Organophosphorus Pesticide Residue in Agricultural Products

    Wen Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to find a fast, high efficient determination method of Organophosphorus Pesticides (OPPs residue because OPPs widely used in crops pest control fields in China are causing fearful risks for environment as well as animals and human health, traditional and advanced determination methods were discussed in the study. Based on the spectrum analysis technology combined colorimetric OPPs residue detection experiments in leafy vegetables showed that the absorbance of color reaction between OPPs residues and suitable colorimetric reagents can be distinguished in ppm level of OPPs residues. The detection limit of chlorpyrifos after color reaction with 0.5% Pbcl2 in acetic acid solution is 0.5 ppm. The conclusion was drawn that the detection technologies were diversified, however, a simple, efficient, rapid and nondestructive detection method is lacking and the spectrum analysis technology combined colorimetric can be a new fast and efficient determination method in the future.

  20. A review on the molecular mechanisms involved in insulin resistance induced by organophosphorus pesticides.

    Lasram, Mohamed Montassar; Dhouib, Ines Bini; Annabi, Alya; El Fazaa, Saloua; Gharbi, Najoua

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing evidence reporting that organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) impair glucose homeostasis and cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is a complex metabolic disorder that defies explanation by a single etiological pathway. Formation of advanced glycation end products, accumulation of lipid metabolites, activation of inflammatory pathways and oxidative stress have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Ultimately, these molecular processes activate a series of stress pathways involving a family of serine kinases, which in turn have a negative effect on insulin signaling. Experimental and clinical data suggest an association between these molecular mechanisms and OPs compounds. It was first reported that OPs induce hyperglycemia. Then a concomitant increase of blood glucose and insulin was pointed out. For some years only, we have begun to understand that OPs promote insulin resistance and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Overall, this review outlines various mechanisms that lead to the development of insulin resistance by OPs exposure.

  1. Organohalogen and organophosphorus pesticides in mixed feed rations: findings from FDA's domestic surveillance during fiscal years 1989-1994.

    Lovell, R A; McChesney, D G; Price, W D

    1996-01-01

    During Fiscal Years 1989-1994, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collected and analyzed 545 domestic surveillance samples of mixed feed rations (172 for cattle, 125 for poultry, 83 for swine, 61 for pets, 56 for fish, and 48 miscellaneous). All samples were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography for organohalogen and organophosphorus pesticides. Of the 545 samples, 88 (16.1%) did not contain detectable pesticide residues. In the 457 samples with detectable pesticide levels, 804 residues (654 quantitable and 150 trace) were found. None of these 804 residues exceeded regulatory guidance. Malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and pirimiphos-methyl were the most commonly detected pesticides. These 5 organophosphorus pesticides accounted for 93.4% of all pesticide residues detected (malathion, 52.9%; chlorpyrifos-methyl, 25.2%; diazinon, 7.7%; chlorpyrifos, 4.9%; and pirimiphos-methyl, 2.7%). Their median values in samples containing quantitable levels ranged from 0.014 to 0.098 ppm. The most commonly detected organohalogen compounds were methoxychlor, DDE, PCB, dieldrin, pentachloronitrobenzene, and lindane. These 6 compounds combined accounted for only 4.1% of all residues detected. FDA is continuing its pesticide surveillance of feeds to help ensure animal safety and prevent violative residues in food derived from animals.

  2. Comparison of Two Procedures for Extraction and Clean-up of Organophosphorus and Pyrethroid Pesticides in Sediment

    WANG Li-Gang; JIANG Xin; YAN Dong-Yun; S.FORSTER; D.MARTENS

    2004-01-01

    Two procedures were compared for extraction and clean-up of 20 organophosphorus and 19 pyrethroid pesticides in sediment to identify the more effective procedure for groups of pesticides or individual compounds. In Procedure Ⅰ,methanol/water and n-hexane were used for extraction,and 1:10 (v/v) dichloromethane in n-hexane and acetone were used as eluents for eluting the analyte through the cartridge,with one evaporating steps on a rotary evaporator and two eluting steps on the cartridge. n-hexane/acetone (2:1,v/v) was used for extraction and elution in Procedure Ⅱ with one evaporating step on a rotary evaporator and one eluting step on the cartridge. All extractions were performed under an ultrasonic bath and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were utilized for measurements. Procedure Ⅱ was developed as a rapid,timesaving,less costly and safer substitute for Procedure Ⅰ which was an old method. Procedure Ⅱ was more effective for ahnost all the organophosphorus pesticides tested and 11 of the 19 pyrethroid pesticides,while Procedure Ⅰ was more appropriate for analysis of 5 pyrethroid pesticides. However,recoveries of most pyrethroid pesticides were fairly low. Thus,further studies should focus on adjustment and formulation of solvents for more efficient extraction and clean-up of pyrethroid pesticides from sediment samples.

  3. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

    Abu Saleh Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Acute poisoning with organophosphorus (OP pesticides is a common method of suicide and entails considerable mortality in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcomes of a protocol for treatment of OP poisoning that included titrated incremental atropine as loading dose and slow infusion for maintenance.  Methods:In this prospective descriptive case series, definitive OP poisoned patients were enrolled in an adult medicine unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Clinical examinations were done as soon as the patient entered the ward. Patient’s demographics, comorbid conditions and the occurrence of specific clinical outcomes including death, need for assisted ventilation and clinical complications were recorded. The patients were treated according to the protocol. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled over the study period. The median age of the study population was 22.5 years. Most patients were men (67.8%. The most common clinical presentation was miosis (58.9%. In total, 11 patients died (19.6%. Intermediate syndrome developed in 12 patients (21.4% and 6 of them died. Assisted ventilation was required in 16 cases (28.5. Patients with diastolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mmHg and/or GCS ≤ 10 were significantly less likely to survive (P = 0.02, 0.006, respectively. Moreover, early respiratory failure (P < 0.001 and the need for assisted ventilation (P < 0.001 were significantly higher among deceased cases. The mortality rate in this study was similar to previous studies. The frequency of atropine toxicity in the present study (1.8% was considerably lower than conventional regimen used in previous studies. Conclusion:Using the new protocol, lower rate of atropine toxicity developed in victims. Hence, the new protocol appears to be safer and its effectiveness should be further evaluated in case control studies in Bangladesh.    How to cite this article: Ahmed AS

  4. Quantum dot-DNA aptamer conjugates coupled with capillary electrophoresis: A universal strategy for ratiometric detection of organophosphorus pesticides.

    Tang, Tingting; Deng, Jingjing; Zhang, Min; Shi, Guoyue; Zhou, Tianshu

    2016-01-01

    Based on the highly sensitivity and stable-fluorescence of water-soluble CdTe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) with broad-specificity DNA aptamers, a novel ratiometric detection strategy was proposed for the sensitive detection of organophosphorus pesticides by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF). The as-prepared QDs were first conjugated with the amino-modified oligonucleotide (AMO) by amidation reaction, which is partial complementary to the DNA aptamer of organophosphorus pesticides. Then QD-labeled AMO (QD-AMO) was incubated with the DNA aptamer to form QD-AMO-aptamer duplex. When the target organophosphorus pesticides were added, they could specifically bind the DNA aptamer, leading to the cleavage of QD-AMO-aptamer duplex, accompany with the release of QD-AMO. As a result, the ratio of peak height between QD-AMO and QD-AMO-aptamer duplex changed in the detection process of CE-LIF. This strategy was subsequently applied for the detection of phorate, profenofos, isocarbophos, and omethoate with the detection limits of 0.20, 0.10, 0.17, and 0.23μM, respectively. This is the first report about using QDs as the signal indicators for organophosphorus pesticides detection based on broad-specificity DNA aptamers by CE-LIF, thus contributing to extend the scope of application of QDs in different fields. The proposed method has great potential to be a universal strategy for rapid detection of aptamer-specific small molecule targets by simply changing the types of aptamer sequences.

  5. Biosensors and their applications in detection of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment.

    Hassani, Shokoufeh; Momtaz, Saeideh; Vakhshiteh, Faezeh; Maghsoudi, Armin Salek; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the past and recent advancements of biosensors focusing on detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) due to their exceptional use during the last decades. Apart from agricultural benefits, OPs also impose adverse toxicological effects on animal and human population. Conventional approaches such as chromatographic techniques used for pesticide detection are associated with several limitations. A biosensor technology is unique due to the detection sensitivity, selectivity, remarkable performance capabilities, simplicity and on-site operation, fabrication and incorporation with nanomaterials. This study also provided specifications of the most OPs biosensors reported until today based on their transducer system. In addition, we highlighted the application of advanced complementary materials and analysis techniques in OPs detection systems. The availability of these new materials associated with new sensing techniques has led to introduction of easy-to-use analytical tools of high sensitivity and specificity in the design and construction of OPs biosensors. In this review, we elaborated the achievements in sensing systems concerning innovative nanomaterials and analytical techniques with emphasis on OPs.

  6. Biosensor based on Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for detection of organophosphorus pesticides

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Aidong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-07-13

    We demonstrate a facile procedure to efficiently prepare Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide (PBNCs/rGO) nanocomposite by directly mixing Fe3+ and [Fe(CN)6]3 in the presence of GO in polyethyleneimine aqueous solution, resulting in a novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). The obtained nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. It was clearly observed that the nanosheet has been decorated with cubic PB nanoparticles and nearly all the nanoparticles are distributed uniformly only on the surface of the reduced GO. No isolated PB nanoparticles were observed, indicating the strong interaction between PB nanocubes and the reduced GO and the formation of PBNCs/rGO nanocomposite. The obtained PBNCs/rGO based AChE biosensor make the peak potential shift negatively to 220 mV. The AChE biosensor shows rapid response and high sensitivity for detection of monocrotophos. These results suggest that the PBNCs/rGO hybrids nanocomposite exhibited high electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of thiocholine, which lead to the sensitive detection of OP pesticides.

  7. Identification and isolation of bacteria containing OPH enzyme for biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticide diazinon from contaminated agricultural soil

    Sara Mobarakpoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus insecticide diazinon has been widely used in agriculture and has the ability to transfer and accumulate in soil, water and animal tissues, and to induce toxicity in plants, animals and humans. In humans, diazinon inhibits nerve transmission by inactivating acetylcholinesterase enzyme. The present study was carried out to identify bacteria containing OPH enzyme for biodegradation of diazinon from contaminated agricultural soil. Methods: In this study, 8 contaminated agricultural soil samples that were exposed to pesticides, especially diazinon in the last two decades, were collected from the farms of Hamedan province. After preparing the media, for isolation of several bacterial strains containing OPH enzyme that are capable of biodegrading organophosphorus pesticides by diazinon enzymatic hydrolysis, bacterial genomic DNA extraction, plasmid product sequencing, phylogenetic sequence processing and phylogenetic tree drawing were carried out. Results: Eight bacterial strains, capable of secreting OPH enzyme, were isolated from soil samples, one of which named BS-1 with 86% similarity to Bacillus safensis displayed the highest organophosphate-hydrolyzing capability and can be used as a source of carbon and phosphorus. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the isolated bacterial strain identified in this study with OPH enzyme secretion has the potential for biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides, especially diazinon in invitro conditions. Also, further studies such as the environmental stability and interaction, production strategies, safety, cost-benefit, environmental destructive parameters, and, toxicological, genetic and biochemical aspects are recommended prior to the application of bacterial strains in the field-scale bioremediation.

  8. Suitability of microwave-assisted extraction coupled with solid-phase extraction for organophosphorus pesticide determination in olive oil.

    Fuentes, Edwar; Báez, María E; Quiñones, Adalí

    2008-10-17

    A systematic study of the microwave-assisted extraction coupled to solid-phase extraction of nine organophosphorus pesticides (dimethoate, diazinon, pirimiphos methyl, parathion methyl, malathion, fenthion, chlorpyriphos, methidathion and azinphos methyl) from olive oil is described. The method is based on microwave-assisted liquid-liquid extraction with partition of organophosphorus pesticides between an acetonitrile-dichloromethane mixture and oil. Cleanup of extracts was performed with ENVI-Carb solid-phase extraction cartridge using dichloromethane as the elution solvent. The determination of pesticides in the final extracts was carried out by gas chromatography-flame photometric detection and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, using a triple quadrupole mass analyzer, for confirmative purposes. The study and optimization of the method was achieved through experimental design where recovery of compounds using acetonitrile for partition ranged from 62 to 99%. By adding dichloromethane to the extracting solution, the recoveries of more hydrophobic compounds were significantly increased. Under optimized conditions recoveries of pesticides from oil were equal to or higher than 73%, except for fenthion and chlorpyriphos at concentrations higher than 0.06microgg(-1) and diazinon at 0.03microgg(-1), with RSDs equal to or lower than 11% and quantification limits ranging from 0.007 to 0.020microgg(-1). The proposed method was applied to residue determination of the selected pesticides in commercial olive and avocado oil produced in Chile.

  9. Degradation of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Water during UV/H2O2 Treatment: Role of Sulphate and Bicarbonate Ions

    Am Fadaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photodegradation of two organophosphorus pesticides, malathian and diazinon, by sulfate radicals and bicarbonate radicals in aqueous solution were studied. The effect of the operational parameters such as pH, salt concentration, water type, H2O2 concentration and initial concentration of pesticides was studied. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC–MS was used for analyses of pesticides. When salt effect was studied, it was found that sodium bicarbonate was the most powerful inhibitor used, while sodium sulfate was the weakest one. The highest degradation in UV/H2O2 process for malathion was found in alkaline condition and for diazinon in acidic condition. The photodegradation in all waters used in this work exhibited first order kinetics. Photodegradation rate in distilled water was higher than real water. The degradation of pesticides increased with increasing of H2O2 concentration.

  10. Determination of Carbamate and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetable Samples and the Efficiency of Gamma-Radiation in Their Removal

    Muhammed Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena (n=16, purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide residual levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the efficiency of gamma radiation on pesticide removal in three different types of vegetables was also studied. Many (50% of the samples contained pesticides, and three samples had residual levels above the maximum residue levels determined by the World Health Organisation. Three carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, and pirimicarb and six organophosphates (phenthoate, diazinon, parathion, dimethoate, phosphamidon, and pirimiphos-methyl were detected in eggplant samples; the highest carbofuran level detected was 1.86 mg/kg, while phenthoate was detected at 0.311 mg/kg. Gamma radiation decreased pesticide levels proportionately with increasing radiation doses. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and phosphamidon were reduced by 40–48%, 35–43%, and 30–45%, respectively, when a radiation strength of 0.5 kGy was utilized. However, when the radiation dose was increased to 1.0 kGy, the levels of the pesticides were reduced to 85–90%, 80–91%, and 90–95%, respectively. In summary, our study revealed that pesticide residues are present at high amounts in vegetable samples and that gamma radiation at 1.0 kGy can remove 80–95% of some pesticides.

  11. Zirconium(IV) functionalized magnetic nanocomposites for extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from environmental water samples.

    Jiang, Li; Huang, Tengjun; Feng, Shun; Wang, Jide

    2016-07-22

    The widespread use of organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) in agriculture leads to residue accumulation in the environment which is dangerous to human health and disrupts the ecological balance. In this work, one nanocomposite immobilized zirconium (Zr, IV) was prepared and used as the affinity probes to quickly and selectively extract organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from water samples. The Fe3O4-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)@Zr(IV) nanocomposites (NPs) were prepared by simply mixing Zr(IV) ions with Fe3O4-EDTA NPs synthesized by one-pot chemical co-precipitation method. The immobilized Zr(IV) ions were further utilized to capture OPPs based on their high affinity for the phosphate moiety in OPPs. Coupled with GC-MS, four OPPs were used as models to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection for target OPPs were in the range of 0.10-10.30ngmL(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.61-4.40% (n=3), respectively. The linear ranges were over three orders of magnitudes (correlation coefficients, R(2)>0.9995). The Fe3O4-EDTA@Zr(IV) NPs were successfully applied to extract OPPs samples with recoveries of 86.95-112.60% and RSDs of 1.20-10.42% (n=3) from two spiked real water. By the proposed method, the matrix interference could be effectively eliminated. We hope our finding can provide a promising alternative for the fast extraction of OPPs from complex real samples.

  12. A role for solvents in the toxicity of agricultural organophosphorus pesticides.

    Eddleston, Michael; Street, Jonathan M; Self, Ian; Thompson, Adrian; King, Tim; Williams, Nicola; Naredo, Gregorio; Dissanayake, Kosala; Yu, Ly-Mee; Worek, Franz; John, Harald; Smith, Sionagh; Thiermann, Horst; Harris, John B; Eddie Clutton, R

    2012-04-11

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticide self-poisoning is responsible for about one-quarter of global suicides. Treatment focuses on the fact that OP compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE); however, AChE-reactivating drugs do not benefit poisoned humans. We therefore studied the role of solvent coformulants in OP toxicity in a novel minipig model of agricultural OP poisoning. Gottingen minipigs were orally poisoned with clinically relevant doses of agricultural emulsifiable concentrate (EC) dimethoate, dimethoate active ingredient (AI) alone, or solvents. Cardiorespiratory physiology and neuromuscular (NMJ) function, blood AChE activity, and arterial lactate concentration were monitored for 12h to assess poisoning severity. Poisoning with agricultural dimethoate EC40, but not saline, caused respiratory arrest within 30 min, severe distributive shock and NMJ dysfunction, that was similar to human poisoning. Mean arterial lactate rose to 15.6 [SD 2.8] mM in poisoned pigs compared to 1.4 [0.4] in controls. Moderate toxicity resulted from poisoning with dimethoate AI alone, or the major solvent cyclohexanone. Combining dimethoate with cyclohexanone reproduced severe poisoning characteristic of agricultural dimethoate EC poisoning. A formulation without cyclohexanone showed less mammalian toxicity. These results indicate that solvents play a crucial role in dimethoate toxicity. Regulatory assessment of pesticide toxicity should include solvents as well as the AIs which currently dominate the assessment. Reformulation of OP insecticides to ensure that the agricultural product has lower mammalian toxicity could result in fewer deaths after suicidal ingestion and rapidly reduce global suicide rates.

  13. [Contamination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Residue in Fresh Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Changchun, China].

    Yu, Rui; Liu, Jing-shuang; Wang, Qi-cun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Yang

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in fresh vegetables. A total of Z14 samples from seven types of vegetables were collected from the suburb in Changchun City. The OPs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). Target hazard quotients (THQ) were applied to estimate the potential health risk to inhabitants. Results showed that OPs concentrations exceeded the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in more than 23. 4% samples, and were not detected in only 7. 9% samples. Detection rates of OPs was as follow in the decreased order: diazinon (82. 2%) > phorate (45. 8%) > dimethoate (29. 4%) > parathion-methyl (27. 6%) > omethoate (23. 8%) > dichlorvos (22. 9%) > fenitrothion (21%) > fenthion (18. 7%) > parathion (18. 2%) > methamidophos (17. 3%) > malathion (12. 1%). The percentages above MRL for leaves were higher than for non-leafy vegetables. The order of percentages of OPs above MRL was as follows: green onion (82. 5%) > radish (37. 5%) > red pepper (17. 2%) > Chinese vegetable (14. 3%) > cucumber (3. 2%) > eggplant (2. 9%) > tomato (0%). 49. 5% vegetables samples showed more than one OP. The average target hazard quotients (ave THQ) were all less than one and the average Hazard Index (ave HI) was 0. 462, so that inhabitants who expose average OP levels may not experience adverse health effects.

  14. Computational Enzymology and Organophosphorus Degrading Enzymes: Promising Approaches Toward Remediation Technologies of Warfare Agents and Pesticides.

    Ramalho, Teodorico C; de Castro, Alexandre A; Silva, Daniela R; Silva, Maria Cristina; Franca, Tanos C C; Bennion, Brian J; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    The re-emergence of chemical weapons as a global threat in hands of terrorist groups, together with an increasing number of pesticides intoxications and environmental contaminations worldwide, has called the attention of the scientific community for the need of improvement in the technologies for detoxification of organophosphorus (OP) compounds. A compelling strategy is the use of bioremediation by enzymes that are able to hydrolyze these molecules to harmless chemical species. Several enzymes have been studied and engineered for this purpose. However, their mechanisms of action are not well understood. Theoretical investigations may help elucidate important aspects of these mechanisms and help in the development of more efficient bio-remediators. In this review, we point out the major contributions of computational methodologies applied to enzyme based detoxification of OPs. Furthermore, we highlight the use of PTE, PON, DFP, and BuChE as enzymes used in OP detoxification process and how computational tools such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics have and will continue to contribute to this very important area of research.

  15. Partitioning of organophosphorus pesticides into phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles studied by second-derivative spectrophotometry.

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitamura, Keisuke; Ohsugi, Mayuko; Ito, Aya; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2015-06-15

    In order to quantitatively examine the lipophilicity of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) chlorfenvinphos (CFVP), chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPFM), diazinon (DZN), fenitrothion (FNT), fenthion (FT), isofenphos (IFP), profenofos (PFF) and pyraclofos (PCF), their partition coefficient (Kp) values between phosphatidylcholine (PC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and water (liposome-water system) were determined by second-derivative spectrophotometry. The second-derivative spectra of these OPs in the presence of PC SUV showed a bathochromic shift according to the increase in PC concentration and distinct derivative isosbestic points, demonstrating the complete elimination of the residual background signal effects that were observed in the absorption spectra. The Kp values were calculated from the second-derivative intensity change induced by addition of PC SUV and obtained with a good precision of R.S.D. below 10%. The Kp values were in the order of CPFM>FT>PFF>PCF>IFP>CFVP>FNT⩾DZN and did not show a linear correlation relationship with the reported partition coefficients obtained using an n-octanol-water system (R(2)=0.530). Also, the results quantitatively clarified the effect of chemical-group substitution in OPs on their lipophilicity. Since the partition coefficient for the liposome-water system is more effective for modeling the quantitative structure-activity relationship than that for the n-octanol-water system, the obtained results are toxicologically important for estimating the accumulation of these OPs in human cell membranes.

  16. Sensitive spectrophotometric methods for determination of some organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable samples

    MAGDA A. AKL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Three rapid, simple, reproducible and sensitive spectrophotometric methods (A, B and C are described for the determination of two organophosphorus pesticides, (malathion and dimethoate in formulations and vegetable samples. The methods A and B involve the addition of an excess of Ce4+ into sulphuric acid medium and the determination of the unreacted oxidant by decreasing the red color of chromotrope 2R (C2R at a suitable lmax = 528 nm for method A, or a decrease in the orange pink color of rhodamine 6G (Rh6G at a suitable lmax = = 525 nm. The method C is based on the oxidation of malathion or dimethoate with the slight excess of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS and the determination of unreacted oxidant by reacting it with amaranth dye (AM in hydrochloric acid medium at a suitable lmax = 520 nm. A regression analysis of Beer-Lambert plots showed a good correlation in the concentration range of 0.1-4.2 μg mL−1. The apparent molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, the detection and quantification limits were calculated. For more accurate analysis, Ringbom optimum concentration ranges are 0.25-4.0 μg mL−1. The developed methods were successfully applied to the determination of malathion, and dimethoate in their formulations and environmental vegetable samples.

  17. Study on the toxic effect of the mixture of organophosphorus pesticide on perinatal rats

    2007-01-01

    Objective To observe the toxic effect of the mixture of organophosphorus pesticide (MOP) on maternal rats and on the growth and development of their offspring. Methods Totally 40 Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were randomly divided into three MOP dose groups and one control to which their offspring would be assigned. The experimental dosage of MOP and distilled water were administered orally starting on gestation day 15 and continued for 35 days. The physical development indices and the learning ability of F1 rats were measured during lactation. The pathological changes of uterus and liver of F0 rats were observed after weaning, while the weight ratio of uterus and some viscera to body of the F1 were examined. Results There were obvious changes of uterus and liver in the high-dose group of F0. The body-weight accretion of the F1 in high-dose group was obviously lower than that in control group (P<0.05). Some of the MOP F1 rats development indices delayed significantly (P<0.05), the learning ability decreased obviously, and the time of setting up memory prolonged (P<0.05). The ratio of the uterus weight to body-weight in the F1 MOP groups was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The experiment doses of MOP are proved to have significant reproductive toxicity on perinatal rats.

  18. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples by using a new sensitive luminescent probe of Eu (III) complex

    Azab, Hassan A., E-mail: azab2@yahoo.com; Anwar, Z.M.; Rizk, M.A.; Khairy, Gasser M.; El-Asfoury, M.H.

    2015-01-15

    This work describes the application of fluorescence for investigating the interactions of Eu(III)-TAN-1,10 phenanthroline (where TAN=4,4,4-Trifluoro-1-(2-naphthyl)-1,3-butanedione) with pesticides Chlorpyrifos, Malathion, Endosulfan, Heptachlor. The complex was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, x-ray spectroscopy, solid fluorescence and thermal analysis. The results indicated that the composition of this complex is [Eu(TAN){sub 2}(Phen)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]Cl. The luminescence properties of the complex in different solvents and at different pH values have been investigated. The results show that the complex exhibits more efficient luminescence at pH=7.5. The interactions of Eu-complex with different pesticides (Chlorpyrifos, Malathion, Endosulfan, and Heptachlor) in aqueous medium have been investigated by fluorescence measurements. The luminescence intensity of the probe is quenched by Malathion and enhanced by (Endosulfan, Heptachlor, and Chlorpyrifos). Direct methods for the determination of the pesticides under investigation have been developed using the luminescence variations of the probe in solution. The detection limits are 0.47, 1.02, 0.66, 0.64 µmol/L for Chlorpyrifos, Endosulfan, Heptachlor, and Malathion, respectively. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters of the pesticides with probe were evaluated. The emission quantum yield (QY=0.71) of Eu(III)-complex was determined using tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate. A thermodynamic analysis showed that the reaction is spontaneous with negative ΔG. Effect of some relevant interferents on the detection of pesticides has been investigated. The new method was applied to the determination of the pesticides in different types of water samples (tap, river, and waste water). - Highlights: • A new luminescent probe of Eu (III) complex has been developed for sensing some organophosphorus pesticides. • Four guest pesticides Chlorpyrifos, Malathion

  19. Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p'-DDT followed by ,p,p'-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and γ-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p'-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p'-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and ethyl parathion were the most frequent organophosphate pesticide detected in 100% and 62.5% of the samples with average concentrations of 25.20 and 47.48 μg kg(-1), respectively. More research is needed to establish the background levels of pesticides in agricultural soils and their potential ecological and human health effects in this region.

  20. Mechanism and kinetics study on the OH-initiated oxidation of organophosphorus pesticide trichlorfon in atmosphere

    Bao, Yuan; Zhang, Chenxi; Yang, Wenbo; Hu, Jingtian [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Sun, Xiaomin, E-mail: sxmwch@sdu.edu.cn [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy Of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2012-03-01

    Trichlorfon [O,O-dimethyl-(2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxy-ethyl) phosphonate] (TCF) is a kind of widely used organophosphorus pesticides. In this paper, the mechanism and possible oxidation products for the OH-initiated reactions of TCF are studied at the MPWB1K/6-311 + G(3df,2p)//MPWB1K/6-31 + G(d,p) level. The study shows that H abstraction reaction from the CH{sub 3} group and the CH group as well as OH addition reaction to the P atom are energetically favorable for the reactions of TCF and the main products are (CH{sub 3}O){sub 2}POOH (P1), CCl{sub 3}CHOHPOOH(OCH{sub 3}) (P2), CH{sub 3}OPO{sub 2} (P3), CCl{sub 3}COPO(OCH{sub 3}){sub 2} (P6) and HCHO. On the basis of the quantum chemical information, the kinetic calculation is performed and the rate constants are calculated over a temperature range of 200-800 K using the transition state theory and canonical variational transition state theory with small-curvature tunneling effect. The Arrhenius formulas of rate constants with the temperature are fitted and the lifetimes of the reaction species in the troposphere are estimated according to the rate constants, which can provide helpful information for the model simulation study. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The H-abstracted reaction and OH addition reaction are favorable channels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Arrhenius formulas of rate constants with the temperature are fitted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rate constants of TCF relative to OH radical is 4.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}.

  1. Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Soil by Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction and Gas Chromatography

    Yang, Zhonghua; Liu, Yu; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a rapid and sensitive sample pretreatment technique for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in soil samples is developed by using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography–flame photometric detection. Experimental conditions, including the kind of extraction and disperser solvent and their volumes, the extraction time, and the salt addition, are investigated, and the following experiment factors are used: 20 µL chlorobenzene as the extraction solvent; 1.0 mL acetonitrile as the disperser solvent; no addition of salt; and an extraction time of 1 min. Under the optimum conditions, the linearities for the three target OPPs (ethoprophos, chlorpyriphos, and profenofos) are obtained by five points in the concentration range of 2.5–1500 µg/kg, and three replicates are used for each point. Correlation coefficients vary from 0.9987 to 0.9997. The repeatability is tested by spiking soil samples at a concentration level of 5.0 µg/kg. The relative standard deviation (n = 3) varied between 2.0% and 6.6%. The limits of detection, based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, range from 200 to 500 pg/g. This method is applied to the analysis of the spiked samples S1, S2, and S3, which are collected from the China Agriculture University's orchard, lawn, and garden, respectively. The recoveries for each target analyte are in the range between 87.9% and 108.0%, 87.4% and 108.0%, and 86.7% and 107.2%, respectively. PMID:22291051

  2. Rapid and sensitive suspension array for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides based on silica-hydrogel hybrid microbeads.

    Wang, Xuan; Mu, Zhongde; Shangguan, Fengqi; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong

    2014-05-30

    A technique for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides has been developed using a suspension array based on silica-hydrogel hybrid microbeads (SHHMs). The main advantage of SHHMs, which consist of both silica and hydrogel materials, is that they not only could be distinguished by their characteristic reflection peak originating from the stop-band of the photonic crystal but also have low non-specific adsorption of proteins. Using fluorescent immunoassay, the LODs for fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenthion, carbaryl and metolcarb were measured to be 0.02ng/mL, 0.012ng/mL, 0.04ng/mL, 0.05ng/mL and 0.1ng/mL, respectively, all of which are much lower than the maximum residue limits, as reported in the European Union pesticides database. All the determination coefficients for these five pesticides were greater than 0.99, demonstrating excellent correlations. The suspension array was specific and had no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. The results for the detection of pesticide residues collected from agricultural samples using this method agree well with those from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed that this simple method is suitable for simultaneous detection of these five pesticides residues in fruits and vegetables.

  3. 庫存血液膽碱酯酶水平變化及其在重症有機磷中毒搶救中應用選擇%Alteration of Banked Blood Cholinesterase Level and Its Significance in Emergency Treatment of Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    鍾沛霖; 王勤鷹; 盛慧球

    2002-01-01

    目的觀察庫血保存天數與血漿膽碱酯酶(CHE)水平變化關係;探討重症有機磷農藥中毒(AOPP)搶救中合理選擇血源.方法輸血前隨機留取保留不同天數的庫血測定血漿CHE值;血液中心採血當日留取正常人血漿、即日測定CHE值作對照組.CHE測定用BM公司膽碱酯酶試劑盒,Roch公司的Cobas-FaraⅡ自動分析儀測定.結果庫血保存天數為第一天的血漿CHE值與正常對照組比較無顯著差異(p>o.05),其他各組均顯著低於對照組(P>0.05).各組與正常對照組相比較其下降百分比約19%-83%.保存天數與CHE值呈負相關(r=-0.7929,P<0.01).曲線回歸Y=-1 823.3Ln(X)+6229.4.結論隨採血後庫血保存天數的增加,血漿CHE值逐漸下降.在重度AOPP搶救中,以使用保留天數為一天以內新鮮血液最為適宜,以免浪費血源,貽( )搶救時機.本報告為強調輸入新鮮血液,保證高活性膽碱酯酶輸入提供實驗依據,並可供臨床參考.%Objective To observe the relationship between the preservation days of banked blood and the alteration level of plasma cholinesterase(CHE) with the aim of making proper selection of banked blood in emergency treatment of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). Methods We selected at random the banked blood that has been stored for different length of time before blood transfusion so as to determine the plasma cholinesterase value. The normal plasma cholinesterase value was determined on blood samples in the Blood Center which served as a control group. The cholinesterase value was determined with a kit of the BM Company and the Cobas-Fara Ⅱ automatic analysis of the Roch Company. Results It was found that there was no significant difference of plasma cholinesterase value between the one-day banked blood and the normal control group (P>0.05), but the plasma cholinesterase values of the other experiment groups were all significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.05). As

  4. Urinary Concentrations of Dialkylphosphate Metabolites of Organophosphorus Pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Maribel Gallegos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus (OP insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 1999–2004. We measured six dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides to assess OP pesticide exposure. In NHANES 2003–2004, dimethylthiophosphate was detected most frequently with median and 95th percentile concentrations of 2.03 and 35.3 µg/L, respectively. Adolescents were two to three times more likely to have diethylphosphate concentrations above the 95th percentile estimate of 15.5 µg/L than adults and senior adults. Conversely, for dimethyldithiophosphate, senior adults were 3.8 times and 1.8 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than adults and adolescents, respectively, while adults were 2.1 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than the adolescents. Our data indicate that the most vulnerable segments of our population—children and older adults—have higher exposures to OP pesticides than other population segments. However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels.

  5. Urinary Concentrations of Dialkylphosphate Metabolites of Organophosphorus Pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Wong, Lee-Yang; Bravo, Roberto; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Restrepo, Paula; Kim, Do-Gyun; Fernandez, Carolina; Whitehead, Ralph D.; Perez, Jose; Gallegos, Maribel; Williams, Bryan L.; Needham, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2004. We measured six dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides to assess OP pesticide exposure. In NHANES 2003–2004, dimethylthiophosphate was detected most frequently with median and 95th percentile concentrations of 2.03 and 35.3 μg/L, respectively. Adolescents were two to three times more likely to have diethylphosphate concentrations above the 95th percentile estimate of 15.5 μg/L than adults and senior adults. Conversely, for dimethyldithiophosphate, senior adults were 3.8 times and 1.8 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than adults and adolescents, respectively, while adults were 2.1 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than the adolescents. Our data indicate that the most vulnerable segments of our population—children and older adults—have higher exposures to OP pesticides than other population segments. However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels. PMID:21909292

  6. Luminescence recognition of different organophosphorus pesticides by the luminescent Eu(III)-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid probe

    Azab, Hassan A., E-mail: azab2@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt); Duerkop, Axel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo and Biosensors, Regensburg University, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Anwar, Z.M.; Hussein, Belal H.M.; Rizk, Moustafa A.; Amin, Tarek [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt)

    2013-01-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Europium (III) luminescence quenching has been used for sensing organophosphorous pesticides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four guest pesticides chlorfenvinphos, malathion, azinphos, and paraxon ethyl were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sensitive rapid, cheap direct method for the determination of the pesticides has been developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was applied to the determination of the OPs in tap, river, mineral, and waste waters. - Abstract: Luminescence quenching of a novel long lived Eu(III)-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid probe of 1:2 stoichiometric ratio has been studied in 0.10 volume fraction ethanol-water mixture at pH 7.5 (HEPES buffer) in the presence of the organophosphorus pesticides chlorfenvinphos (P1), malathion (P2), azinphos (P3), and paraxon ethyl (P4). The luminescence intensity of Eu(III)-(PDCA){sub 2} probe decreases as the concentration of the pesticide increases. It was observed that the quenching due to P3 and P4 proceeds via both diffusional and static quenching processes. Direct methods for the determination of the pesticides under investigation have been developed using the luminescence quenching of Eu(III)-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid probe in solution. The linear range for determination of the selected pesticides is 1.0-35.0 {mu}M. The detection limits were 0.24-0.55 {mu}M for P3, P4, and P1 and 2.5 {mu}M for P2, respectively. The binding constants (K), and thermodynamic parameters of the OPs with Eu(III)-(PDCA){sub 2} were evaluated. Positive and negative values of entropy ({Delta}S) and enthalpy ({Delta}H) changes for Eu(III)-(PDCA){sub 2}-P1 ternary complex were calculated. As the waters in this study do not contain the above mentioned OPs over the limit detectable by the method, a recovery study was carried out after the addition of the adequate amounts of the organophosphorus pesticides under investigation.

  7. Towards a Capacitive Enzyme Sensor for Direct Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides: Fundamental Studies and Aspects of Development

    Ashok Mulchandani

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The realisation of a miniaturised potentiometric enzyme biosensor is presented. The biosensor chip utilises the enzyme organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH for the direct determination of pesticides. The transducer structure of the sensors chip consists of a pH-sensitive capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS structure that reacts towards pH changes caused by the OPH-catalised hydrolysis of the organophosphate compounds. The biosensor is operated versus a conventional Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Measurements were performed in the capacitance/voltage (C/V and the constant capacitance (ConCap mode for the two different pesticides paraoxon and parathion. For the development of this new type of biosensor, different immobilisation strategies, influence of buffer composition and concentration, transducer material, detection limit, long-term stability and selectivity have been studied.

  8. Novel restricted access materials combined to molecularly imprinted polymers for selective solid-phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from honey.

    He, Juan; Song, Lixin; Chen, Si; Li, Yuanyuan; Wei, Hongliang; Zhao, Dongxin; Gu, Keren; Zhang, Shusheng

    2015-11-15

    A novel restricted access materials (RAM) combined to molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), using malathion as template molecule and glycidilmethacrylate (GMA) as pro-hydrophilic co-monomer, were prepared for the first time. RAM-MIPs with hydrophilic external layer were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and recognition and selectivity properties were compared with the restricted access materials-non-molecularly imprinted polymers (RAM-NIPs) and unmodified MIPs. RAM-MIPs were used as the adsorbent enclosed in solid phase extraction column and several important extraction parameters were comprehensively optimized to evaluate the extraction performance. Under the optimum extraction conditions, RAM-MIPs exhibited comparable or even higher selectivity with greater extraction capacity toward six kinds of organophosphorus pesticides (including malathion, ethoprophos, phorate, terbufos, dimethoate, and fenamiphos) compared with the MIPs and commercial solid phase extraction columns. The RAM-MIPs solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography was successfully applied to simultaneously determine six kinds of organophosphorus pesticides from honey sample. The new established method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-1.0 μg mL(-1), low limits of detection (0.0005-0.0019 μg mL(-1)), acceptable reproducibility (RSD, 2.26-4.81%, n = 6), and satisfactory relative recoveries (90.9-97.6%). It was demonstrated that RAM-MIPs solid phase extraction with excellent selectivity and restricted access function was a simple, rapid, selective, and effective sample pretreatment method.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and effects on serum cholinesterase activities of organophosphorus pesticides acephate and chlorpyrifos in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes.

    Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sota, Shigeto; Kuronuma, Miyuki; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides acephate and chlorpyrifos in foods have potential to impact human health. The aim of the current study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of acephate and chlorpyrifos orally administered at lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level doses in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. Absorbed acephate and its metabolite methamidophos were detected in serum from wild type mice and chimeric mice orally administered 150mg/kg. Approximately 70% inhibition of cholinesterase was evident in plasma of chimeric mice with humanized liver (which have higher serum cholinesterase activities than wild type mice) 1day after oral administrations of acephate. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents from chimeric mice studies were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Estimated plasma concentrations of acephate and chlorpyrifos in humans were consistent with reported concentrations. Acephate cleared similarly in humans and chimeric mice but accidental/incidental overdose levels of chlorpyrifos cleared (dependent on liver metabolism) more slowly from plasma in humans than it did in mice. The data presented here illustrate how chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes in combination with a simple PBPK model can assist evaluations of toxicological potential of organophosphorus pesticides.

  10. Rapid and sensitive suspension array for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides based on silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads

    Wang, Xuan [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Mu, Zhongde; Shangguan, Fengqi [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Yin, Lihong, E-mail: lhyin@seu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads were used to develop suspension array. • The results in detecting pesticides agree well with those from LC–MS/MS. • The method showed the good capability for multiplex analysis of pesticides residues. - Abstract: A technique for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides has been developed using a suspension array based on silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads (SHHMs). The main advantage of SHHMs, which consist of both silica and hydrogel materials, is that they not only could be distinguished by their characteristic reflection peak originating from the stop-band of the photonic crystal but also have low non-specific adsorption of proteins. Using fluorescent immunoassay, the LODs for fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenthion, carbaryl and metolcarb were measured to be 0.02 ng/mL, 0.012 ng/mL, 0.04 ng/mL, 0.05 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL, respectively, all of which are much lower than the maximum residue limits, as reported in the European Union pesticides database. All the determination coefficients for these five pesticides were greater than 0.99, demonstrating excellent correlations. The suspension array was specific and had no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. The results for the detection of pesticide residues collected from agricultural samples using this method agree well with those from liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed that this simple method is suitable for simultaneous detection of these five pesticides residues in fruits and vegetables.

  11. Human hepatic cytochrome P450-specific metabolism of the organophosphorus pesticides methyl parathion and diazinon.

    Ellison, Corie A; Tian, Yuan; Knaak, James B; Kostyniak, Paul J; Olson, James R

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are a public health concern due to their worldwide use and documented human exposures. Phosphorothioate OPs are metabolized by cytochrome P450s (P450s) through either a dearylation reaction to form an inactive metabolite, or through a desulfuration reaction to form an active oxon metabolite, which is a potent cholinesterase inhibitor. This study investigated the rate of desulfuration (activation) and dearylation (detoxification) of methyl parathion and diazinon in human liver microsomes. In addition, recombinant human P450s were used to determine the P450-specific kinetic parameters (K(m) and V(max)) for each compound for future use in refining human physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models of OP exposure. The primary enzymes involved in bioactivation of methyl parathion were CYP2B6 (K(m) = 1.25 μM; V(max) = 9.78 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), CYP2C19 (K(m) = 1.03 μM; V(max) = 4.67 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), and CYP1A2 (K(m) = 1.96 μM; V(max) = 5.14 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), and the bioactivation of diazinon was mediated primarily by CYP1A1 (K(m) = 3.05 μM; V(max) = 2.35 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), CYP2C19 (K(m) = 7.74 μM; V(max) = 4.14 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), and CYP2B6 (K(m) = 14.83 μM; V(max) = 5.44 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)). P450-mediated detoxification of methyl parathion only occurred to a limited extent with CYP1A2 (K(m) = 16.8 μM; V(max) = 1.38 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)) and 3A4 (K(m) = 104 μM; V(max) = 5.15 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), whereas the major enzyme involved in diazinon detoxification was CYP2C19 (K(m) = 5.04 μM; V(max) = 5.58 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)). The OP- and P450-specific kinetic values will be helpful for future use in refining human PBPK/PD models of OP exposure.

  12. One-step extraction for gas chromatography with flame photometric detection of 18 organophosphorus pesticides in Chinese medicine health wines.

    Liu, Qianzhen; Kong, Weijun; Qiu, Feng; Wei, Jianhe; Yang, Shihai; Zheng, Yuguo; Yang, Meihua

    2012-02-15

    An easy, rapid and selective gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) method was established for simultaneously determining 18 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in 80 Chinese medicine (CM) health wines. This method was based on a simple one-step extraction procedure using a little solvent without any further cleanup steps. The optimized extraction solvent for the pesticides is acetone:dichloromethane (1:1, V/V) with extraction recovery of 79.0-109.1% and relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.36-12.68%, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) of the established GC-FPD method for all investigated pesticides ranged from 1 to 15ngmL(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 4 to 50ngmL(-1). Out of all 80 CM health wines, 18 OPPs were found in 8 samples at low concentrations of 8.2-37.9ngmL(-1). These pesticides were successfully confirmed by GC-MS. This is the first report of determining OPPs in CM health wines, providing references for monitoring the quality of CM health wine in routine analysis.

  13. Determination of no-observed effect level (NOEL-biomarker equivalents to interpret biomonitoring data for organophosphorus pesticides in children

    Bouchard Michèle

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental exposure to organophosphorus pesticides has been characterized in various populations, but interpretation of these data from a health risk perspective remains an issue. The current paper proposes biological reference values to help interpret biomonitoring data related to an exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in children for which measurements of alkylphosphate metabolites are available. Methods Published models describing the kinetics of malathion and chlorpyrifos in humans were used to determine no-observed effect level – biomarker equivalents for methylphosphates and ethylphosphates, respectively. These were expressed in the form of cumulative urinary amounts of alkylphosphates over specified time periods corresponding to an absorbed no-observed effect level dose (derived from a published human exposure dose and assuming various plausible exposure scenarios. Cumulative amounts of methylphosphate and ethylphosphate metabolites measured in the urine of a group of Quebec children were then compared to the proposed biological reference values. Results From a published no-observed effect level dose for malathion and chlorpyrifos, the model predicts corresponding oral biological reference values for methylphosphate and ethylphosphate derivatives of 106 and 52 nmol/kg of body weight, respectively, in 12-h nighttime urine collections, and dermal biological reference values of 40 and 32 nmol/kg of body weight. Out of the 442 available urine samples, only one presented a methylphosphate excretion exceeding the biological reference value established on the basis of a dermal exposure scenario and none of the methylphosphate and ethylphosphate excretion values were above the obtained oral biological reference values, which reflect the main exposure route in children. Conclusion This study is a first step towards the development of biological guidelines for organophophorus pesticides using a toxicokinetic modeling

  14. Recovery evaluation of organophosphorus pesticides from bee pollen by matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction using sorbents based on silica and titania

    Torres-Perea, C.; Muñoz-Rodríguez, D.; Medina-Peralta, S.; Carrera-Figueiras, C.; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y. B.

    2013-06-01

    This work focused on the evaluation of the recovery of organophosphorus pesticides from bee pollen after matrix solid phase-dispersion extraction (MSPD). Materials based on silica, titania and titania modified with polivylnylimidazole or polyestirene were used as adsorbents for the extraction of pesticides. Small amounts of fortified pollen (0.1 g, at 1 micro-g/g of pesticides), adsorbent (0.4 g) and solvent elution (1 mL de acetonitrile - ACN) were used in the extractions. For recovery evaluation, pollen extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

  15. A new method for analysis of the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide, dimethoate on rotifer based on response surface methodology.

    Guo, Ruixin; Ren, Xinkun; Ren, Hongqiang

    2012-10-30

    This study analyzed the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide, dimethoate on freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, using swimming angular and linear speed alteration as the sub-lethal endpoints. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied in experimental design and data analysis to consider two related factors: toxic concentration, exposure time and their interaction. In general, inhibition effect of the pesticide on rotifer swimming was observed clearly at any given toxicant concentration. The highest inhibition rates in angular and linear speed were obtained in the shortest exposure time (11.36 min) and the highest dimethoate concentration (1.85 mg L(-1)). The RSM used for the analysis of treatment combinations showed that a cubic polynomial regression model was in good agreement with experimental results, with R(2)=0.992 and 0.9997, for swimming angular speed inhibition rate and linear speed inhibition rate (p<0.01, F-test, respectively). 3D reference surface plots and contour plots showed that the toxic effect was influenced not only by dimethoate concentration, but also by the exposure time. A time-step effect was observed clearly. Thus, the pesticide dimethoate had toxic stress on the swimming behavior of rotifers.

  16. Application of Box-Behnken design for the removal of two organophosphorus pesticides by used Tea leaves

    Albanis, Triantafyllos; Valileios, Sakkas; Islam, Azharul M.

    2016-04-01

    Removal of two organophosphorus pesticides bromophos methyl [BM: O, O- dimethyl - O - (2, 5-dichloro -4 bromophenyl) phosphorothioate] and quinalphos [QP: O, O-diethyl O-2-quinoxalinyl phosphorothioate] on used tea leaves were studied by batch equilibration method. Adsorption isotherms were conformed well to Langmuir for quinalphos and Freundlich equation for bromophos methyl. The kinetic data fitted well by the pseudo second order model for both pesticides. Box-Behnken design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of results. The interactions of pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dose on two pesticides adsorption by used tea leaves were investigated by this model. The optimum pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dose with their corresponding removal efficiency were found to be 7.88, 11.94 mg L-1, 0.37g and 100% for bromophos methyl respectively, for quinalphos 8.72, 6.44 mg L-1, 0.39g and 93.98% respectively. Keywords: Box-Behnken; quinalphos; bromophos methyl; Kinetics; used tea leaves

  17. Colorimetric and Phosphorimetric Dual-Signaling Strategy Mediated by Inner Filter Effect for Highly Sensitive Assay of Organophosphorus Pesticides.

    Zhang, Rong; Li, Na; Sun, Junyong; Gao, Feng

    2015-10-14

    We describe here a colorimetric and phosphorimetric dual-signaling strategy for sensitive assay of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs). The principle for assay depends on the phenomenon that the phosphorescence of Mn-ZnS quantum dots (QDs) can be dramatically quenched by Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) through the inner filter effect (IFE) and the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that catalytically hydrolyzes acetylthiocholine to thiocholine that can be inhibited by OPPs. By virtue of the variations of absorbance and phosphorescence of the analytical system, a dual-readout assay for OPPs has been proposed. The limits of detection for different OPPs including paraoxon, parathion, omethoate, and dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP) are found to be 0.29, 0.59, 0.67, and 0.44 ng/L, respectively. The proposed assay was allowed to detect pesticides in real spiked samples and authentic contaminated apples with satisfactory results, suggesting its potential applications to detect pesticides in complicated samples.

  18. Pralidoxime in acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning--a randomised controlled trial.

    Michael Eddleston

    2009-06-01

    benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Despite clear reactivation of red cell acetylcholinesterase in diethyl organophosphorus pesticide poisoned patients, we found no evidence that this regimen improves survival or reduces need for intubation in patients with organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. The reason for this failure to benefit patients was not apparent. Further studies of different dose regimens or different oximes are required.

  19. Exposure to the mixture of organophosphorus pesticides is embryotoxic and teratogenic on gestational rats during the sensitive period.

    Yu, Yan; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Liu, Xiaofei; Xue, Jianjun; Zhang, Jinghua; Yang, Aimin

    2017-01-01

    Mixture of organophosphorus pesticides (MOPs) has been used worldwide to increase food production. The MOPs are harmful, and the exposure to them is both agricultural and nonagricultural through contaminated food. The neurotoxicity of MOPs has received more consideration recently due to the increased cases of malformed fetuses suspected to be caused by the MOPs exposure during gestation; however, relevant studies in animal model are rare. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis and demonstrated potential perinatal embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of MOPs exposure. As results, we found that MOPs decreased in utero fetal growth and alter the ratio of organs to whole body weight of the pregnant rats. MOPs also had been shown to disturb the balance of sex hormones and affect the reproduction of rats. Furthermore, we found various significantly elevated deformities in MOPs exposed embryos, confirming the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of maternal exposure to MOPs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 139-146, 2017.

  20. Analysis of six organophosphorus pesticide residues in apples and pears using cloud-point extraction coupled with HPLC-UV.

    Zhang, Lijin; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Wenhuan; Pan, Canping

    2014-01-01

    A cloud-point extraction (CPE) method with Triton X-114 has been developed for analysis of six organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in apples and pears. In this CPE procedure, the effects of the surfactant volume, mass of sodium chloride, equilibrium temperature, equilibrium time, and pH on the extraction procedure were investigated. Under the optimal CPE conditions, the analytes were enriched 20-fold and the LODs dropped to 0.44-5.20 microg/kg. Furthermore, the proposed extraction method was validated by the correlation coefficient (R2) of the calibration curve, repeatability (RSD, n = 6), and fortified recoveries, which were 0.9967-0.9993, 2.7-6.5, and 74.7-104.5%, respectively. Based on these results, it could be concluded that the proposed CPE method with Triton X-114 was suitable for the effective extraction and enrichment of OPP residues in the apple and pear samples.

  1. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables from farms, markets, and a supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake of Northern Thailand.

    Sapbamrer, Ratana; Hongsibsong, Surat

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated organophosphorus (OP) residues in vegetables from 27 farms, 106 markets, and 1 supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake, Northern Thailand, between August and September 2013. Types of vegetables sampled were all vegetables cultivated or sold around the study site. The most common OP pesticides detected in farm samples were chlorpyrifos (50 %), malathion (31.8 %), monocrotophos (31.8 %), diazinon (13.6 %), omethoate (13.6 %), and dicrotophos (9.1 %). The most common OP pesticides detected in market samples were chlorpyrifos (33.9 %), diazinon (18.6 %), parathion-methyl (3.4 %), profenofos (3.4 %), primiphos-ethyl (3.4 %), and fenitrothion (1.7 %). The OP pesticides detected in supermarket samples were chlorpyrifos (33.3 %), and diazinon (66.7 %). Among the compounds detected, chlorpyrifos was detected in most of the vegetable samples from all sources. The highest chlorpyrifos level in farm samples were found in lemon balm (2.423 mg/kg) followed by Vietnamese coriander (0.835 mg/kg), and cowpea (0.027 mg/kg). The highest level in markets samples were found in garlic (7.785 mg/kg) followed by Chinese cabbage (2.864 mg/kg) and Vietnamese coriander (1.308 mg/kg). Residues from supermarket samples were found only in parsley (0.027 mg/kg). The findings showed that 16 samples (59.3 %) from farms and 14 samples (13.2 %) from markets contained OP residues at or above the maximum residue limits established by the European Union. It is concluded that awareness, safety education, and strict regulation of pesticide use are necessary.

  2. Development of a passive air sampler to measure airborne organophosphorus pesticides and oxygen analogs in an agricultural community.

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Yost, Michael G; Fenske, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides are some of the most widely used insecticides in the US, and spray drift may result in human exposures. We investigate sampling methodologies using the polyurethane foam passive air sampling device to measure cumulative monthly airborne concentrations of OP pesticides chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, and oxygen analogs. Passive sampling rates (m(3)d(-1)) were determined using calculations using chemical properties, loss of depuration compounds, and calibration with side-by-side active air sampling in a dynamic laboratory exposure chamber and in the field. The effects of temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity on outdoor sampling rates were examined at 23 sites in Yakima Valley, Washington. Indoor sampling rates were significantly lower than outdoors. Outdoor rates significantly increased with average wind velocity, with high rates (>4m(3)d(-1)) observed above 8ms(-1). In exposure chamber studies, very little oxygen analog was observed on the PUF-PAS, yet substantial amounts chlorpyrifos-oxon and azinphos methyl oxon were measured in outdoor samples. PUF-PAS is a practical and useful alternative to AAS because it results in little artificial transformation to the oxygen analog during sampling, it provides cumulative exposure estimates, and the measured sampling rates were comparable to rates for other SVOCs. It is ideal for community based participatory research due to low subject burden and simple deployment in remote areas.

  3. Effects of organophosphorus pesticides and their ozonation byproducts on gap junctional intercellular communication in rat liver cell line.

    Wu, Jiguo; Lin, Li; Luan, Tiangang; Chan Gilbert, Yuk Sing; Lan, Chongyu

    2007-10-01

    The effects of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), oxons and their ozonation byproducts on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) on cultured BRL cell line were investigated using scrape loading and dye transfer (SL/DT) technique. The neutral red uptake assay was used to identify the non-cytotoxic levels of diazinon, parathion and methyl-parathion applied to GJIC assay. The concentration-dependent inhibition of GJIC was observed over a range of 50-350 mg/l diazinon, parathion and methyl-parathion after 90 min incubation compared with the vehicle control. However, oxons and ozonation byproducts of OPs had no inhibition effect on GJIC at any of the concentrations tested. The inhibition of GJIC by OPs was reversible after removal of the tested pesticides followed by incubation with fresh medium. The present study suggested that the ozonation treatment could be used for the detoxification of drinking water and food crops contaminated with diazinon, parathion and methyl-parathion without formation of GJIC toxicity.

  4. 重度有机磷农药中毒的抢救治疗分析%Analysis on the Treatment of Severe Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    刘胜利

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the methods and experiences in the treatment of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods: Analysis of 105 cases of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients treated in our hospital emergency department. Results: 105 cases of poisoning patients, 99 cases were cured, 6 cases died, the cure rate was 93.4%.Conclusion:For the patients with severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning is a dangerous disease, rapid development, individual differences and close observation at the same time, the reasonable adjustment of therapy is the key to rescue.%目的:总结重度有机磷农药中毒抢救的方法和经验。方法:分析我院急诊科收治的105例重度有机磷农药中毒患者的救治资料。结果:105例中毒患者,治愈99例,死亡6例,治愈率为93.4%。结论:重度有机磷农药中毒病情凶险,发展迅速,个体差异大,密切观察同时合理调整治疗方案是救治的关键。

  5. Assessing intermittent pesticide exposure from flea control collars containing the organophosphorus insecticide tetrachlorvinphos.

    Davis, M Keith; Boone, J Scott; Moran, John E; Tyler, John W; Chambers, Janice E

    2008-11-01

    Fleas are a persistent problem for pets that require implementation of control measures. Consequently, pesticide use by homeowners for flea control is common and may increase pesticide exposure for adults and children. Fifty-five pet dogs (23 in study 1; 22 in study 2) of different breeds and weights were treated with over-the-counter flea collars containing tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP). During study 1, fur of treated dogs was monitored for transferable TCVP residues using cotton gloves to pet the dogs during 5-min rubbings post-collar application. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was also measured in treated dogs. Average amounts of TCVP transferred from the fur of the neck (rubbing over the collar) and from the back to gloves at 3 days post-collar application were 23,700+/-2100 and 260+/-50 microg/glove, respectively. No inhibition of plasma ChE was observed. During study 2, transferable TCVP residues to cotton gloves were monitored during 5-min rubbings post-collar application. Transferable residues were also monitored on cotton tee shirts worn by children and in the first morning urine samples obtained from adults and children. Average amounts of TCVP transferred to gloves at 5 days post-collar application from the neck (over the collar) and from the back were 22,400+/-2900 and 80+/-20 microg/glove, respectively. Tee shirts worn by children on days 7-11 contained 1.8+/-0.8 microg TCVP/g shirt. No significant differences were observed between adults and children in urinary 2,4,5-trichloromandelic acid (TCMA) levels; however, all TCMA residues (adults and children) were significantly greater than pretreatment concentrations (alpha=0.05). The lack of ChE inhibition in dogs and the low acute toxicity level of TCVP (rat oral LD(50) of 4-5 g/kg) strongly suggest that TCVP is rapidly detoxified and excreted and therefore poses a very low toxicological risk, despite these high residues.

  6. Comparison Between the Efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Process and Coagulation for Removal Organophosphorus and Carbamat Pesticides

    A.R. Rahmani; M.T Samadi; M Khodadadi

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Water pollution by pesticides has adverse effects on the environment and human health, as well .In recent years, advanced oxidation processes, have been gone through to a very high degree for pesticides removal. Poly-Aluminum chloride (PAC) used for water treatment, can be effective on pesticides removal. The aim of this research was to study the use of UV/O3 and PAC in the removal of pesticides from drinking water.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive- an...

  7. RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION IN RAW MILK IN TURIN DEPARTEMENT : HEAVY METALS, P.C.B, ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES – YEARS 2005 – 2008

    S. Cavallera

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the period between 2005 and 2008 was carried out a survey on 252 samples of raw bovine milk collected in Turin departement to certain levels of contamination by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Hg, Pb, Zn, PCB and organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides. These results argue that the levels of heavy metals, PCB and pesticides are well below what is expected by the European legislation and that the situation is under control and that raw milk meets the hygiene requirements for human health.

  8. A novel layer-by-layer assembled multi-enzyme/CNT biosensor for discriminative detection between organophosphorus and non-organophosphrus pesticides.

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Arugula, Mary A; Wales, Melinda; Wild, James; Simonian, Aleksandr L

    2015-05-15

    Organophosphate compounds are heavily used in agriculture and military activities, while non-organophosphate pesticides are mostly used in agriculture and home defense. Discriminative detection of such toxic compounds is very challenging and requires sophisticated and bulky instrumentation. Meanwhile, multi-enzyme biosensors may offer an effective solution to the problem and may become a versatile analytical tool for discriminative detection of different neurotoxins. In this study, we report for the first time a novel bi-enzyme biosensing system incorporating electrostatically interacted enzyme-armored MWCNT-OPH and MWCNT-AChE along with a set of cushioning bilayers consisting of MWCNT-polyethyleneimine and MWCNT-DNA on glassy carbon electrode for discriminative detection of organophosphorus (OP) and non-organophosphorus (non-OP) pesticides. LbL interfaces were characterized by surface plasmon resonance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, demonstrating stepwise assembly and electron conductivity studies. The detection limit was found to be ~0.5 for OP pesticide paraoxon and 1 μM for non-OP pesticide carbaryl, in a wide linear range. The biosensor performance was also validated using apple samples. Remarkable discriminative and straightforward detection between OP and non-OP neurotoxins was successfully achieved with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-vis methods on the MWCNT-(PEI/DNA)2/OPH/AChE biosensor, showing great potential in large screening of OP and non-OP pesticides in practical applications.

  9. The Research Progress of Degradation Method for Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues from Vegetables%蔬菜中有机磷农药残留降解方法的研究进展

    何迪; 李明浩; 李晓东

    2012-01-01

    At present,organophosphorus pesticide is one of the most widely used chemical pesticides and mainly applied in vegetables. Organophosphorus pesticide residues brought serious threat to human health. Degradation methods for organophosphorus pesticide residues mainly include physical degradation,chemical degradation and biodegradation,during which biodegradation has the most widely application prospect.%目前有机磷农药是应用最为广泛的化学农药之一,蔬菜是其主要作用对象,有机磷农药带来的药残严重威胁人类的健康.对于有机磷药残的降解方法主要有物理降解、化学降解和生物降解,其中生物降解法是应用前景最为广泛的降解方法之一.

  10. Interaction of organophosphorus pesticides with DNA nucleotides on a Boron-doped diamond electrode

    Garbellini, Gustavo S.; Uliana, Carolina V.; Yamanaka, Hideko, E-mail: gustgarb@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2013-12-01

    Diamond electrode was used to evaluate the interaction of the nucleotides guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) with the pesticides chlorpyrifos, methamidophos and monocrotophos. Changes were observed in the currents and peak potentials of the nucleotide voltammograms in the presence of the pesticides, with dependence on the pesticide concentration (from 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} to 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1}) and the interaction time (from 1 min to 4 h). This is probably due to binding of the pesticides to the nitrogenous bases present in the nucleotides, which could lead to problems in the DNA replication and biological functions of nucleotides. The pesticides showed stronger interaction with AMP than with GMP. Studies of the interaction of 50 Micro-Sign g mL{sup -1} DNA with the pesticides (from 30 min to 4 h and from 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 6.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1}) did not reveal any peaks relating to double helix opening or DNA unwinding. (author)

  11. Innovative approach for the electrochemical detection of non-electroactive organophosphorus pesticides using oxime as electroactive probe

    Dong, Jing; Hou, Juying; Jiang, Jianxia; Ai, Shiyun, E-mail: ashy@sdau.edu.cn

    2015-07-23

    Highlights: • Novel approach for electrochemical detection of non-electroactive OPs was proposed. • PAM was used as electroactive probe for the first time. • The detection system displayed high sensitivity and promptness. • The developed sensor was used in real samples with satisfactory results. - Abstract: An innovative approach for sensitive and simple electrochemical detection of non-electroactive organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was described in this report. The novel strategy emphasized the fabrication of an oxime-based sensor via attaching pralidoxime (PAM) on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified glassy carbon electrode. The introduction of GQDs significantly increased the effective electrode area, and then enlarged the immobilization quantity of PAM. Thus, the oxidation current of PAM was obviously increased. Relying on the nucleophilic substitution reaction between oxime and OPs, fenthion was detected using PAM as the electroactive probe. Under optimum conditions, the difference of oxidation current of PAM was proportional to fenthion concentration over the range from 1.0 × 10{sup −11} M to 5.0 × 10{sup −7} M with a detection limit of 6.8 × 10{sup −12} M (S/N = 3). Moreover, the favorable detection performance in water and soil samples heralded the promising applications in on-site OPs detection.

  12. Application of solid-phase microextraction for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in textiles by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Zhu, Fang; Ruan, Wenhong; He, Minheng; Zeng, Feng; Luan, Tiangang; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Tongbu; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2009-09-21

    A method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the determination of 18 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in textiles is described. Commercially available SPME fibers, 100 microm PDMS and 85 microm PA, were compared and 85 microm PA exhibited better performance to the OPPs. Various parameters affecting SPME, including extraction and desorption time, extraction temperature, salinity and pH, were studied. The optimized conditions were: 35 min extraction at 25 degrees C, 5% NaSO4 content, pH 7.0, and 3.5 min desorption in GC injector port at 250 degrees C. The linear ranges of the SPME-GC/MS method were 0.1-500 microg L(-1) for most of the OPPs. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.01 microg L(-1) (for bromophos-ethyl) to 55 microg L(-1) (for azinphos-methyl) and the RSDs were between 0.66% and 9.22%. The optimized method was then used to analyze 18 OPPs in textile sample, and the determined recoveries were ranged from 76.7% to 126.8%. Moreover, the distribution coefficients of the OPPs between 85 microm PA fiber and simulative sweat solution (K(pa/s)) were determined. The determined K(pa/s) of the OPPs correlated well with their octanol-water partition coefficients (r=0.764 and 0.678) and water solubility (r=-0.892 and -0.863).

  13. Detrmination of Organophosphorus Pesticides (Diazinon and Chlorpyrifos in Water Resources in Barzok, Kashan

    Rouhollah Dehghani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growing population and increasing needs to agricultural products increased use of pesticides resulting in contamination of the environment, including water. The purpose of this study was to determination of pesticide residues in agricultural water resources in Barzok city of Kashan in 2011.Materials and Methods: This study as a descriptive and cross-sectional study that was conducted at spring season. That totals of 135 samples of the agricultural water resources of Barzok were collected randomly and mixtures from different stations. After extraction and preparation of samples, the pesticide residues were determined by using the HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography devices and CATS4 software. Finally, obtained data were analyzed by using ANOVA statistical methods.Results: The results of this study showed that maximum amount of diazinon and chlorpyrifos has been 22.43 and 11.79 ppm respectively, and the pesticide residues have declined gradually overtime of (p<0.001.Furthermore, after a month 95.9% of Chlorpyrifos and 88.8% of diazinon is degraded.Conclusion: Accordingly, the remaining of diazinon and chlorpyrifos after a month of spraying was higher than determined limited standards. Because Chlorpyrifos is broken down rapidly more than diazinon, it is recommended that besides educating farmers on the proper use of pesticides, unnecessary contact with the water resources of this region must stop at least one month after spraying.

  14. Microwave-assisted extraction at atmospheric pressure coupled to different clean-up methods for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in olive and avocado oil.

    Fuentes, Edwar; Báez, María E; Díaz, Juan

    2009-12-18

    An effective extraction method was devised for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in olive and avocado oil samples, using atmospheric pressure microwave-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (APMAE) and solid-phase extraction or low-temperature precipitation as clean-up step. A simple glass system equipped with an air-cooled condenser was designed as an extraction vessel. The pesticides were partitioned between acetonitrile and oil solution in hexane. Analytical determinations were carried out by gas chromatography-flame photometric detection and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, using a triple quadrupole mass analyzer, for confirmation purposes. Several factors influencing the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized through fractional factorial design and Doehlert design. Under optimal conditions the recovery of pesticides from oil at 0.025 microg g(-1) ranged from 71% to 103%, except for fenthion in avocado oil, with RSDs avocado oils produced in Chile. Detectable residues of different OPPs were observed in 85% of samples.

  15. Glutathione S-transferase conjugation of organophosphorus pesticides yields S-phospho-, S-aryl-, and S-alkylglutathione derivatives.

    Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Casida, John E

    2007-08-01

    Pesticide detoxification is a central feature of selective toxicity and safety evaluation. Two of the principal enzymes involved are GSH S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450s acting alone and together. More than 100 pesticides are organophosphorus (OP) compounds, but with few exceptions, their GSH conjugates have not been directly observed in vitro or in vivo. The major insecticides chlorpyrifos (CP) and diazinon are of particular interest as multifunctional substrates with diverse metabolites, while ClP(S)(OEt) 2 and the cotton defoliant tribufos are possible precursors of phosphorylated GSH conjugates. Formation of GSH conjugates by GST with GSH was studied in vitro with and without metabolic activation by human liver microsomes or P450 3A4 with NADPH. Metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Five GSH conjugates were identified from CP and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), i.e., GSCP and GSCPO in which the 6-chloro substituent of CP and CPO, respectively, is displaced by GSH; S-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl)glutathione; S-(3,5-dichloro-6-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)glutathione; and S-ethylglutathione. GST of a human liver microsomal preparation but not P450 3A4 with GSH metabolized CP to GSCP. With GST and GSH, diazinon and diazoxon gave S-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyrimidin-6-yl)glutathione and ClP(S)(OEt) 2 yielded GSP(S)(OEt) 2. With microsomes, NADPH, GST, and GSH tribufos gave GSP(O)(SBu) 2. The liver of intraperitoneally treated mice contained GSCP from CP, GSP(S)(OEt) 2 from ClP(S)(OEt) 2, and GSP(O)(SBu) 2 from tribufos. GSP(S)(OEt) 2 and GSP(O)(SBu) 2 are the first S-phosphoglutathione metabolites observed in vitro and in vivo directly by LC-ESI-MS. Nine other OP pesticides gave only O-dealkylation in the GST/GSH system. GST-catalyzed metabolism joins P450s and hydrolases as important contributors to OP detoxification.

  16. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes...

  17. Mechanism and kinetic properties for OH-initiated atmospheric degradation of the organophosphorus pesticide diazinon

    Zhou, Qin; Sun, Xiaoyan; Gao, Rui; Hu, Jingtian

    2011-06-01

    Diazinon is a member of the organophosphorus class of insecticides. It has been regarded as an important atmospheric pollutant because of its high detection-frequency in the air and potential adverse effects on humans and wildlife. In this paper, the reaction mechanism and possible degradation products for the OH-initiated atmospheric degradation of diazinon were investigated and the rate constants of crucial elementary steps over the temperature range of 180-370 K were predicted. Present results show that OH addition to C4 atom in the pyrimidyl ring, H abstraction from the -CH- moiety as well as OH addition to P atom are the dominant pathways for the reaction of diazinon with OH radicals. The dominant degradation products are diazoxon, SO 2, P3, CH 3CHO, P4, CH 3CO, P14 as well as CH 3CHCH 3. This work provides a comprehensive investigation of the OH-initiated atmospheric degradation of diazinon and should help to clarify its potential risk to non-targets.

  18. Ultrapreconcentration and determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Chen, Junhua; Zhou, Guangming; Deng, Yongli; Cheng, Hongmei; Shen, Jie; Gao, Yi; Peng, Guilong

    2016-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed as an ultra-preconcentration method for the determination of four organophosphorus pesticides (isocarbophos, parathion-methyl, triazophos and fenitrothion) in water samples. The analytes considered in this study were rapidly extracted and concentrated from large volumes of aqueous solutions (100 mL) by solid-phase extraction coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Experimental variables including type and volume of elution solvent, volume and flow rate of sample solution, salt concentration, type and volume of extraction solvent and sample solution pH were investigated for the solid-phase extraction coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with these analytes, and the best results were obtained using methanol as eluent and ethylene chloride as extraction solvent. Under the optimal conditions, an exhaustive extraction for four analytes (recoveries >86.9%) and high enrichment factors were attained. The limits of detection were between 0.021 and 0.15 μg/L. The relative standard deviations for 0.5 μg/L of the pesticides in water were in the range of 1.9-6.8% (n = 5). The proposed strategy offered the advantages of simple operation, high enrichment factor and sensitivity and was successfully applied to the determination of four organophosphorus pesticides in water samples.

  19. [Determination of 21 organophosphorus pesticides in tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes based on dispersive solid-phase extraction].

    Rong, Jiefeng; Wei, Hang; Li, Yijun; Huang, Huoshui; Xu, Meizhu

    2016-02-01

    A rapid determination method of 21 organophosphorus pesticides in tea was developed by QuEChERS method using modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-OH), primary-secondary amine (PSA) and MgSO4 coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The pesticide residues in tea were extracted with a hexane-acetone (2:1, v/v) mixture, and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction using MWCNTs-OH and primary-secondary amine (PSA) as the sorbents. After centrifugation and filtration, the target compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantified by the external standard method. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities were obtained in the range of 0. 01- 0. 50 mg/kg. The average recoveries were in the range of 81. 5% -109. 4% at three spiked levels, with relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5 ) of 2. 3% - 10. 6%. The limits of quantification were 0. 001-0. 040 mg/kg. This method is simple, fast, sensitive, cheap, and can meet the requirements of the rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticides in tea.

  20. Enantiomeric separation of organophosphorus pesticides by high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis and their applications to environmental fate and toxicity assays.

    Li, Ling; Zhou, Shanshan; Jin, Lixia; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Weiping

    2010-05-15

    In recent years, the continuous evolution of the field of stereochemistry has produced a heightened awareness of the applications of pure enantiomers of agrochemicals. This review describes reports of the enantiomeric separation of commercial organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and the applications of these methods to research on the enantioselectivity of the toxicity and environmental fate of these compounds. Chiral OPs can be analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE). These different separation techniques for OP enantiomers are briefly discussed, and their applications are presented.

  1. Slow Repetitive Nerve Stimulation in Patients with Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning after Clinical Recovery

    Sudheera Jayasinghe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged inhibition of acetylcholine esterase may lead to the intermediate syndrome. Neuromuscular junction (NMJ dysfunction has been shown with repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS. Subclinical NMJ dysfunction may also occur. We aimed to examine the NMJ function following acute organophosphorus (OP poisoning by using exercise modified slow RNS. Methods: A cohort study was conducted with matched controls. Patients with acute OP poisoning were enrolled. NMJ function, muscle power and tendon reflexes were assessed at discharge and six weeks after exposure. NMJ function was assessed with exercise modified supramaximal slow RNS of the median nerve. Results: There were 68 patients and 71 controls. Mean (SD age of patients and controls were 32 (12 and 33 (12 years. In some particular amplitude, the decrement response was statistically significant. They were decrement response at rest, at fourth amplitude (95% CI: -0.2 to -2.7 and two minutes post-exercise at fourth and fifth amplitudes (95% CI: -0.8 to -5, -1 to -5 respectively in the second assessment compared to controls, decrement response at rest at fourth and fifth amplitudes (95% CI: -4 to -0.5, -3.9 to -0.01 respectively and two minutes post-exercise at fourth amplitude (95% CI: -5 to -0.8 in the second assessment compared to the first assessment. Patients in the first assessment and controls showed more than 8% decrement response either to the second, fourth or fifth stimuli in seven and five occasions respectively. Conclusion:  There was no significant neuromuscular junction dysfunction assessed by exercise modified slow repetitive stimulation following acute exposure to OP. Since, NMJ dysfunctions are likely to occur following OP poisoning, other electrodiagnostic modalities such as SF-EMG are probably more efficient to assess these abnormalities.

  2. Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh

    Nurul Karim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Bangladesh during the last few decades. Twenty seven water samples collected from both paddy and vegetable fields in the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organo-phosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran pesticide residues. A high performance liquid chromatograph instrument equipped with a photodiode array detector was used to determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Diazinon and carbofuran were detected in water samples collected from Savar Upazila at 0.9 μg/L and 198.7 μg/L, respectively. Malathion was also detected in a single water sample at 105.2 μg/L from Dhamrai Upazila. Carbaryl was the most common pesticide detected in Dhamrai Upazila at 14.1 and 18.1 μg/L, while another water sample from Dhamrai Upazila was contaminated with carbofuran at 105.2 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos was not detected in any sample. Overall, the pesticide residues detected were well above the maximum acceptable levels of total and individual pesticide contamination, at 0.5 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively, in water samples recommended by the European Economic Community (Directive 98/83/EC. The presence of these pesticide residues may be attributed by their intense use by the farmers living in these areas. Proper handling of these pesticides should be ensured to avoid direct or indirect exposure to these pesticides.

  3. A Disposable Organophosphorus Pesticides Enzyme Biosensor Based on Magnetic Composite Nano-Particles Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrode

    Weigang Wen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A disposable organophosphorus pesticides (OPs enzyme biosensor based on magnetic composite nanoparticle-modified screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCE has been developed. Firstly, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE-coated Fe3O4/Au (GMP magnetic nanoparticulate (GMP-AChE was synthesized. Then, GMP-AChE was absorbed on the surface of a SPCE modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs/nano-ZrO2/prussian blue (PB/Nafion (Nf composite membrane by an external magnetic field. Thus, the biosensor (SPCE|CNTs/ZrO2/PB/Nf|GMP-AChE for OPs was fabricated. The surface of the biosensor was characterized by scanning electron micrography (SEM and X-ray fluorescence spectrometery (XRFS and its electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV. The degree of inhibition (A% of the AChE by OPs was determined by measuring the reduction current of the PB generated by the AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (ATCh. In pH = 7.5 KNO3 solution, the A was related linearly to the concentration of dimethoate in the range from 1.0 × 10-3–10 ng•mL-1 with a detection limit of 5.6 × 10-4 ng•mL-1. The recovery rates in Chinese cabbage exhibited a range of 88%–105%. The results were consistent with the standard gas chromatography (GC method. Compared with other enzyme biosensors the proposed biosensor exhibited high sensitivity, good selectivity with disposable, low consumption of sample. In particular its surface can be easily renewed by removal of the magnet. The convenient, fast and sensitive voltammetric measurement opens new opportunities for OPs analysis.

  4. Polyacrylic acid-coated cerium oxide nanoparticles: An oxidase mimic applied for colorimetric assay to organophosphorus pesticides.

    Zhang, Shi-Xiang; Xue, Shi-Fan; Deng, Jingjing; Zhang, Min; Shi, Guoyue; Zhou, Tianshu

    2016-11-15

    It is important and urgent to develop reliable and highly sensitive methods that can provide on-site and rapid detection of extensively used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) for their neurotoxicity. In this study, we developed a novel colorimetric assay for the detection of OPs based on polyacrylic acid-coated cerium oxide nanoparticles (PAA-CeO2) as an oxidase mimic and OPs as inhibitors to suppress the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Firstly, highly dispersed PAA-CeO2 was prepared in aqueous solution, which could catalyze the oxidation of TMB to produce a color reaction from colorless to blue. And the enzyme of AChE was used to catalyze the substrate of acetylthiocholine (ATCh) to produce thiocholine (TCh). As a thiol-containing compound with reducibility, TCh can decrease the oxidation of TMB catalyzed by PAA-CeO2. Upon incubated with OPs, the enzymatic activity of AChE was inhibited to produce less TCh, resulting in more TMB catalytically oxidized by PAA-CeO2 to show an increasing blue color. The two representative OPs, dichlorvos and methyl-paraoxon, were tested using our proposed assay. The novel assay showed notable color change in a concentration-dependent manner, and as low as 8.62 ppb dichlorvos and 26.73 ppb methyl-paraoxon can be readily detected. Therefore, taking advantage of such oxidase-like activity of PAA-CeO2, our proposed colorimetric assay can potentially be a screening tool for the precise and rapid evaluation of the neurotoxicity of a wealth of OPs.

  5. Biodegradation and bioremediation potential of diazinon-degrading Serratia marcescens to remove other organophosphorus pesticides from soils.

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Żmijowska, Agnieszka; Wójcik, Marcin; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2013-03-15

    The ability of diazinon-degrading Serratia marcescens to remove organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), i.e. chlorpyrifos (CP), fenitrothion (FT), and parathion (PT) was studied in a mineral salt medium (MSM) and in three soils of different characteristics. This strain was capable of using all insecticides at concentration of 50 mg/l as the only carbon source when grown in MSM, and 58.9%, 70.5%, and 82.5% of the initial dosage of CP, FT, and PT, respectively was degraded within 14 days. The biodegradation experiment showed that autochthonous microflora in all soils was characterized by a degradation potential of all tested OPPs; however, the initial lag phases for degradation of CP and FT, especially in sandy soil, were observed. During the 42-day experiment, 45.3%, 61.4% and 72.5% of the initial dose of CP, FT, and PT, respectively, was removed in sandy soil whereas the degradation of CP, FT, and PT in the same period, in sandy loam and silty soils reached 61.4%, 79.7% and 64.2%, and 68.9%, 81.0% and 63.6%, respectively. S. marcescens introduced into sterile soils showed a higher degradation potential (5-13%) for OPPs removal than those observed in non-sterile soil with naturally occurring attenuation. Inoculation of non-sterile soils with S. marcescens enhanced the disappearance rates of all insecticides, and DT50 for CP, FT, and PT was reduced by 20.7, 11.3 and 13.0 days, and 11.9, 7.0 and 8.1 days, and 9.7, 14.5 and 12.6 days in sandy, sandy loam, and silty soils, respectively, in comparison with non-sterile soils with only indigenous microflora. This ability of S. marcescens makes it a suitable strain for bioremediation of soils contaminated with OPPs.

  6. Analysis of structure -activity relationship and toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide to plankton%有机磷农药的构效关系及其对浮游生物的毒性效应

    王娜; 刘莉莉; 孙凯峰; 段舜山

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of six organophosphorus pesticides to Scenedesmus quadricanda and Moina macrocopa were studied using quantitative structure-activity relationship theory (QSAR) and acute toxicity tests. According to QSAR theory, the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides was determined mainly by the electropositivity of center phosphorus atom, which was influenced by the type. More specifically, toxicity was reduced as P=O bonds were replaced by P=S bonds. Replacement of hydroxy(-OH) by methoxy(-CH3O), ethoxy(-CH3CH2O) and propoxy(-CH3CH2CH2O), however, successively increased. Toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides was also reduced as P-0 bond were replaced by P-C bond. Specifically, the toxicity of chlorpyrifos and phoxim was higher than four other organophosphorus pesticides as -CH3CH2O replaced -CH3O, dichlorovos and trichlorphon were more toxic than glyphosate compared, while dichlorovos was more toxic than trichlorphon. Glyphosate-isophopylammianium was the least toxic compound as hydroxy(-OH) replaced by glycine isophopylammianium. Toxicity tests demonstrated that the EC-50 concentrations of chlorpyrifos, phoxim, trichlorphon, dichlorovos, dimethoate, glyphosate-isophopylammianium on S. Quadricanda were 6.34, 6.62, 59.53, 82.12, 141.37 and 7.25 mg·L-1 at 96 h, respectively, while, those on M. Macrocopa were 0.20, 0.12, 0.28, 0.17, 1.12 and 5.03 mg·L-1 at 48 h, respectively. The toxicity of the six organophosphorus pesticide to M. Macrocopa was generally ordered as -OH>=O >-O. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of using QSAR with acute toxicity test for the assessment of ecological risks of organophosphorus pesticides to plankton.%以定量构效关系理论和实验室内急性毒性试验相结合研究了六种有机磷农药对四尾栅藻(S.quadricanda)和多刺裸腹溞(Moina macrocopa)的生态毒性.有机磷农药的毒性取决于磷原子的电正性,各取代基种类和构象对电荷分布作用显著.根据构效关系原理,磷

  7. The protection effect of benthiactzine on gut-barrier in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%宾赛克嗪对有机磷农药中毒时肠黏膜屏障功能破坏的保护作用

    王喆; 潘志远; 龙超良; 邱泽武; 汪海

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of gut-barrier function of mice in acute organophosphorus poisoning and the protection effect of benthiactzine. Method A total of 65 Kunming mice, female and male both half, were randomly assigned to five groups: normal group, DDVP poisoning(model) group, and benthiactzine 2, sured by spectrophotometric assay at 3 hours after DDVP poisoning. The variance analysis was used to deal the quantitative data. Results The DAO activity in model group significantly increased compared with normal group (P < 0.01). Whereas, the DAO activity in all pretreatment groups were significantly decreased compared with model group(all P<0.01).The effects of benthisetzine 6 mg·kg~(-1) pretrentment group was the best of all.The concentration of D-lactate in model group was significantly increased compared with normal group (P < 0.01). However, the concentration of D-lactate in pretreatment groups was significantly decreased compared with model group(all P < 0.01). The concentration of D-lactate could be decreased dose-dependently by the administration of benthiactzine. Conclusions The diamine oxidase activity and concentration of D-lactate were significantly in-creased in the DDVP poisoning mice, which means the gnt-barrier function was severely damaged. And the admin-istration of benthiactzine could alleviate the injury to the gut-barrier function.%目的 研究有机磷农药敌敌畏中毒后小鼠肠黏膜屏障功能的变化及新型抗毒剂宾赛克嗪的保护作用.方法昆明小鼠65只,雌雄各半,随机分为正常对照组、敌敌畏染毒模型组、宾赛克嗪2,6,18mg/ks预防治疗组;各预防治疗组腹腔注射预防给予相应约物,10min后灌胃给予敌敌畏55mg/ks,于染毒后3 h取血,使用紫外分光光度计检测血浆二胺氧化酶(DAO)活性及D-乳酸质量浓度,采用单因素方差分析定量数据.结果 与正常对照组比较,模型组血浆DAO活性明显升高(P<0.01);与模型组比较,各预防治

  8. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide parathion methyl on nanostructured titania-iron mixed oxides

    Henych, Jiří; Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Janoš, Pavel; Kuráň, Pavel; Štastný, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Titania-iron mixed oxides with various Ti:Fe ratio were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of titanium(IV) oxysulphate and iron(III) sulphate with urea as a precipitating agent. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, XRF analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). These oxides were used for degradation of organophosporus pesticide parathion methyl. The highest degradation efficiency approaching degraded on the surfaces of pure oxides. In general, the highest degradation rate exhibited samples consisted of the iron or titanium oxide containing a moderate amount of the admixture. However, distinct correlations between the degradation rate and the sorbent composition were not identified.

  9. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide parathion methyl on nanostructured titania-iron mixed oxides

    Henych, Jiří, E-mail: henych@iic.cas.cz [Department of Material Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Matys Grygar, Tomáš [Department of Material Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Janoš, Pavel; Kuráň, Pavel; Štastný, Martin [Faculty of the Environment, J.E. Purkyně University, Králova Výšina 7, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • Ti–Fe mixed oxides were synthesized via low-temperature one-pot method. • Mixed oxides were used for degradation of parathion methyl. • Pure reference oxide samples showed no degradation ability. • Mixed oxides reached 70% degree of conversion of parathion methyl. - Abstract: Titania-iron mixed oxides with various Ti:Fe ratio were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of titanium(IV) oxysulphate and iron(III) sulphate with urea as a precipitating agent. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, XRF analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). These oxides were used for degradation of organophosporus pesticide parathion methyl. The highest degradation efficiency approaching <70% was found for the samples with Ti:Fe ratio 0.25:1 and 1:0.25. Contrary, parathion methyl was not degraded on the surfaces of pure oxides. In general, the highest degradation rate exhibited samples consisted of the iron or titanium oxide containing a moderate amount of the admixture. However, distinct correlations between the degradation rate and the sorbent composition were not identified.

  10. Organophosphorus pesticide and ester analysis by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    Liu, Xiangping; Li, Dengkun; Li, Jiequan [Nanjing Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Zizhulin Street, Gulou 210003, Nanjing (China); Rose, Gavin [Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Macleod Centre, Ernest Jones Drive, Macleod, Vic 3085 (Australia); Marriott, Philip J., E-mail: philip.marriott@monash.edu [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Chemistry, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton 3800 (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • GC × GC-FPD(P-mode) was applied to detection of 37 phosphorus (P)-containing compounds. • The method improves resolution of P-compounds that coelute in the first dimension. • P-compounds are analyzed with excellent sensitivity supported by cryogenic modulation. • The FPD(P-mode) selectivity allows analysis in high hydrocarbon (H/C) matrix. • Soil samples and spiked chemical weapon compounds in H/C matrix are readily screened. -- Abstract: Thirty-seven phosphorus (P)-containing compounds comprising organophosphorus pesticides and organophosphate esters were analyzed by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection in P mode (GC × GC-FPD(P)), with a non-polar/moderately polar column set. A suitable modulation temperature and period was chosen based on experimental observation. A number of co-eluting peak pairs on the {sup 1}D column were well separated in 2D space. Excellent FPD(P) detection selectivity, responding to compounds containing the P atom, produces clear 2D GC × GC plots with little interference from complex hydrocarbon matrices. Limits of detection (LOD) were within the range of 0.0021–0.048 μmol L{sup −1}, and linear calibration correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) for all 37 P-compounds were at least 0.998. The P-compounds were spiked in 2% diesel and good reproducibility for their response areas and retention times was obtained. Spiked recoveries were 88%–157% for 5 μg L{sup −1} and 80%–138% for 10 μg L{sup −1} spiked levels. Both {sup 1}t{sub R} and {sup 2}t{sub R} shifts were noted when the content of diesel was in excess of 5% in the matrix. Soil samples were analyzed by using the developed method; some P-compounds were positively detected. In general, this study shows that GC × GC-FPD(P) is an accurate, sensitive and simple method for P-compound analysis in complicated environmental samples.

  11. Sensitive Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Medicinal Plants Using Ultrasound-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Combined with Sweeping Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography.

    Wei, Jin-Chao; Hu, Ji; Cao, Ji-Liang; Wan, Jian-Bo; He, Cheng-Wei; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Hu, Hao; Li, Peng

    2016-02-03

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) combined with sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) has been developed for the determination of nine organophosphorus pesticides (chlorfenvinphos, parathion, quinalphos, fenitrothion, azinphos-ethyl, parathion-methyl, fensulfothion, methidathion, and paraoxon). The important parameters that affect the UA-DLLME and sweeping efficiency were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method provided 779.0-6203.5-fold enrichment of the nine pesticides compared to the normal MEKC method. The limits of detection ranged from 0.002 to 0.008 mg kg(-1). The relative standard deviations of the peak area ranged from 1.2 to 6.5%, indicating the good repeatability of the method. Finally, the developed UA-DLLME-sweeping-MEKC method has been successfully applied to the analysis of the investigated pesticides in several medicinal plants, including Lycium chinense, Dioscorea opposite, Codonopsis pilosula, and Panax ginseng, indicating that this method is suitable for the determination of trace pesticide residues in real samples with complex matrices.

  12. Exonuclease I-aided homogeneous electrochemical strategy for organophosphorus pesticide detection based on enzyme inhibition integrated with a DNA conformational switch.

    Wang, Xiuzhong; Dong, Shanshan; Hou, Ting; Liu, Lei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Feng

    2016-03-07

    A novel enzyme inhibition-based homogeneous electrochemical biosensing strategy was designed for an organophosphorus pesticide assay based on exploiting the resistance of a mercury ion-mediated helper probe (HP) toward nuclease-catalyzed digestion and the remarkable diffusivity difference between HPs and the mononucleotides toward a negatively charged indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. In particular, the mercury ion-mediated T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs facilitate the HP labeled with methylene blue (MB) to fold into a hairpin structure, preventing its digestion by exonuclease I, and thus resulting in a low electrochemical response because of the large electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged ITO electrode and the HPs. The competitive binding by a thiol group (-SH), produced in the hydrolysis reaction of acetylthiocholine (ACh) chloride with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), removes mercury ions from the base pairs, causing a nuclease-catalyzed digestion, and the subsequent electrochemical response increase due to the weak electrostatic repulsion between the product-mononucleotides and the ITO electrode. Mercury ion-mediated HPs were first designed for pesticide detection and diazinon was chosen as the model target. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the approach exhibited high sensitivity for diazinon detection with a detection limit of 0.25 μg L(-1). The satisfactory results in the determination of diazinon in real samples demonstrate that the method possesses great potential for detecting organophosphorus pesticides. This new approach is expected to promote the exploitation of mercury-mediated base pair-based homogenous electrochemical biosensors in biochemical studies and in the food safety field.

  13. Quantitative 31P NMR for Simultaneous Trace Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Aqueous Media Using the Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction Method

    Ansari, S.; Talebpour, Z.; Molaabasi, F.; Bijanzadeh, H. R.; Khazaeli, S.

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of pesticides in water samples is of primary concern for quality control laboratories due to the toxicity of these compounds and their associated public health risk. A novel analytical method based on stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), followed by 31P quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (31P QNMR), has been developed for simultaneously monitoring and determining four organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in aqueous media. The effects of factors on the extraction efficiency of OPPs were investigated using a Draper-Lin small composite design. An optimal sample volume of 4.2 mL, extraction time of 96 min, extraction temperature of 42°C, and desorption time of 11 min were obtained. The results showed reasonable linearity ranges for all pesticides with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9920. The limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.1 to 2.60 mg/L, and the recoveries of spiked river water samples were from 82 to 94% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 4%. The results show that this method is simple, selective, rapid, and can be applied to other sample matrices.

  14. Application of elevated temperature-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of organophosphorus pesticides residues in aqueous samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza; Rezaee Aghdam, Samaneh; Nouri, Nina; Bamorrowat, Mahdi

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, an elevated temperature, dispersive, liquid-liquid microextraction/gas chromatography-flame ionization detection was investigated for the determination, pre-concentration, and extraction of six organophosphorus pesticides (malathion, phosalone, dichlorvos, diazinon, profenofos, and chlorpyrifos) residues in fruit juice and aqueous samples. A mixture of 1,2-dibromoethane (extraction solvent) and dimethyl sulfoxide (disperser solvent) was injected rapidly into the sample solution heated at an elevated temperature. Analytical parameters, including enrichment factors (1600-2075), linearity (r>0.994), limits of detection (0.82-2.72ngmL(-1)) and quantification (2.60-7.36ngmL(-1)), relative standard deviations (<7%) and extraction recoveries (64-83%), showed the high efficiency of the method developed for analysis of the target analytes. The proposed procedure was used effectively to analyse selected analytes in river water and fruit juice, and diazinon was found at ngmL(-1) concentrations in apple juice.

  15. Sol-gel/nanoclay composite as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples.

    Saraji, Mohammad; Jafari, Mohammad Taghi; Sherafatmand, Hossein

    2015-02-01

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coated with a sol-gel/nanoclay composite was prepared by the sol-gel technique involving the hydrolysis reaction of alkoxysilanes and the subsequent condensation reaction with hydroxyl groups of the nanoclay on a stainless steel wire. A method based on direct immersion SPME and gas chromatography-corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry was developed for the determination of four organophosphorus pesticides in aqueous samples. The effect of different experimental parameters on the extraction efficiency of the method was investigated. The sol-gel/nanoclay fiber showed higher extraction performance for the organophosphorus pesticides compared with Ppy/nanoclay, sol-gel coating, and three commercial fibers (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), PDMS/divinylbenzene (DVB), and polyacrylate (PA)). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) of the method were in the range of 0.003-0.012 and 0.01-0.02 μg L(-1), respectively. The calibration curves were linear in a concentration range from 0.01 to 2.0 μg L(-1) (r (2)  > 0.995). The relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision were 3.3-5.6 and 6.4-8.4 %, respectively. Fiber-to-fiber reproducibility for three prepared fibers was 7.4-10.2 %. Finally, the method was successfully applied for the extraction of the studied compounds from water samples. The relative recovery obtained for the spiked real-water samples were 86-104 %.

  16. In vitro skin permeation and decontamination of the organophosphorus pesticide paraoxon under various physical conditions--evidence for a wash-in effect.

    Misik, Jan; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Josse, Denis; Cabal, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2012-09-01

    Misuse of various chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents, industrial chemicals or pesticides during warfare or terrorists attacks requires adequate protection. Thus, development and evaluation of novel decontamination dispositives and techniques are needed. In this study, in vitro permeation and decontamination of a potentially hazardous compound paraoxon, an active metabolite of organophosphorus pesticide parathion, was investigated. Skin permeation and decontamination experiments were carried out in modified Franz diffusion cells. Pig skin was used as a human skin model. Commercially produced detergent-based washing solutions FloraFree(™) and ArgosTM were used as decontamination means. The experiments were done under "warm", "cold", "dry" and "wet" skin conditions in order to determine an effect of various physical conditions on skin permeation of paraoxon and on a subsequent decontamination process. There was no significant difference in skin permeation of paraoxon under warm, cold and dry conditions, whereas wet conditions provided significantly higher permeation rates. In the selected conditions, decontamination treatments performed 1 h after a skin exposure did not decrease the agent volume that permeated through the skin. An exception were wet skin conditions with non-significant decontamination efficacy 18 and 28% for the FloraFree(™) and Argos(™) treatment, respectively. In contrast, the skin permeation of paraoxon under warm, cold and dry conditions increased up to 60-290% following decontamination compared to non-decontaminated controls. This has previously been described as a skin wash-in effect.

  17. Application of statistical design of experiment with desirability function for the removal of organophosphorus pesticide from aqueous solution by low-cost material.

    Islam, M Azharul; Sakkas, Vasilios; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2009-10-15

    This paper deals with the multiple response optimization for the removal of organophosphorus pesticide quinalphos [QP: O,O-diethyl O-2-quinoxalinyl phosphorothioate] from the aqueous solution onto low-cost material and tried to overcome the drawbacks of univariate optimization. Used tea leaves were used as low-cost adsorbent and batch equilibration method was followed for this study. A Box-Behnken design was used to develop response model and desirability function was then used for simultaneous optimization of all affecting parameters in order to achieve the highest removal% of quinalphos. The optimum conditions of factors predicted for quinalphos removal% were found to be: pH 8.83, concentration 7 mg L(-1) and dose 0.40 g. Under these conditions, maximum removal% of quinalphos was obtained 96.31%. Considering the above optimum conditions, the adsorption isotherms were developed and provided adsorption capacity of 196.07 microg g(-1) by using Langmuir equation, indicating that used tea leaves may be applied as a low-cost material for pesticides removal from aqueous matrices.

  18. Microwave accelerated selective Soxhlet extraction for the determination of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in ginseng with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Zhou, Ting; Xiao, Xiaohua; Li, Gongke

    2012-07-03

    Microwave accelerated selective Soxhlet extraction (MA-SSE), a novel selective extraction technique, was investigated in this study. A Soxhlet extraction system containing a glass filter was designed as an extractor. During the procedure of MA-SSE, both the target analytes and the interfering components were extracted from the sample into the extraction solvent enhanced by microwave irradiation. After the solvent flowed though the sorbent, the interfering components were adsorbed by the sorbent, and the target analytes remaining in the solvent were collected in the extraction bottle. No cleanup or filtration was required after extraction. The efficiency of the MA-SSE approach was demonstrated in the determination of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues in ginseng by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.050-0.50 μg/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 72.0-110.1% with relative standard deviations less than 7.1%. Because of the effect of microwave irradiation, MA-SSE showed significant advantage compared with other extraction techniques. The sorbent used in this study showed good cleanup ability. The mechanism of MA-SSE was demonstrated to be based on the rupture of the cell walls according to the structural changes of ginseng samples. On the basis of the results, MA-SSE as a simple and effective sample preparation technique for the analysis of pesticide residues in complex matrixes shows great promise.

  19. Combination of dispersive solid-phase extraction and salting-out homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in cereal grains.

    Jia, Chunhong; Zhu, Xiaodan; Wang, Jihua; Zhao, Ercheng; He, Min; Chen, Li; Yu, Pingzhong

    2014-07-01

    A new analytical method for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in cereal samples was developed by combining dispersive SPE (d-SPE) and salting-out homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (SHLLE). The pesticides were first extracted from cereal grains with acetonitrile, followed by d-SPE cleanup. A 2 mL aliquot of the extract was then added to a centrifuge tube containing 9.2 mL water and 3.3 g NaCl for SHLLE. Analysis of the extract was carried out by gas chromatography coupled with flame photometric detection. The d-SPE procedure effectively provides the necessary cleanup of the extract while SHLLE is used as an efficient concentration technique. Experimental parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including amounts of added water and salt were investigated. Recovery studies were carried out at three fortification levels, yielding recoveries in the range of 57.7-98.1% with the RSD from 3.7 to 10.9%. The reported limits of determination obtained from this study were 1 μg/kg, which is better than the conventional methods. In the analysis of 40 wheat and corn samples taken from Beijing suburbs, only two wheat samples have chlorpyrifos residue over the limits of determination.

  20. Determinação de pesticidas organofosforados em água usando microextração em fase sólida e CGAR-EM Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water using SPME-GC-MS

    Fernando Carvalho Silva

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid-phase microextraction (SPME has been applied to direct extraction of 11 organophosphorus pesticides in water using a 100 mm fiber polydimethylsiloxane. The method was evaluated with respect time of exposure, detection limits (LODs, linearity and precision. The detection limits (S/N = 3 depend of each pesticide and varie about ng/L levels. The linearity was satisfactory with coefficients of correlation usually greater than 0.993. The precision of the method was determined by extraction from 4.0 mg/L aqueous standard with coefficients of variation between 5.7 to 17.2%.

  1. Evaluation of the Pollution of surface waters in the basin of west Algeria by Organo chlorine and Organophosphorus pesticides

    Hadjel, M.; Berkok, N.

    2009-07-01

    The pollutants are pesticides which cover a whole range of chemicals designed to protect plants from pests and destroy unwanted plants. There are a very large number of pesticides and we do here that some of the major families (organo chlorine insecticides, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, phenylcyclohexyl, herbicides. (Author)

  2. Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers...... in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly...... associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide...

  3. 生物酶蔬果清洗剂对有机磷农药降解效果的评价%Assessment on Degradation Effects of Bio-enzyme Cleaner on Organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetables and Fruits

    屈昌龙; 匡华; 胡拥明; 宋珊珊; 冀振野; 胥传来

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to evaluate the effects of marketed bio-enzyme cleaner on removing of the pesticide residues on thesurface of vegetables or fruits. [ Method ] The degradation of the organophosphorus pesticide in the cabbage by A brand of bio-enzyme cleanerwas determined under the treatments of ultrasonic assistance and room temperature and the degradation effects of A and B brands of bio-enzymecleaners on DDVP in the living environment of aquatic animals were investigated. [ Result] The bio-enzyme cleaners could effectively degradethe organophosphorus pesticide in the cabbage and the ultrasonic assistance treatment could promote the degradation of pesticides. The differentaquatic organisms had some differences on the sensitive degree to the organophosphorus pesticide. The appropriate application of bio-enzymecould degrade the organophosphorus pesticide in the aquatic environment. [ Conclusion ] The study provided the basis for the development ofthe family-used cleaner and cleaning equipment in the vegetables and fruits.%[目的] 对市售的生物酶蔬果清洗剂的农药去除效果进行评价.[方法] 测定超声辅助和室温处理下,A品牌生物酶蔬果清洗剂对小白菜中有机磷农药的降解情况.并考察A、B2种生物酶蔬果清洗剂对水生动物生存环境中的敌敌畏降解效果.[结果] 生物酶蔬果清洗剂可有效地降解小白菜中的有机磷农药,超声辅助可促进农药的降解.不同的水生生物对有机磷农药的敏感程度有差异,适当使用生物酶可降解水生环境中的有机磷农药.[结论] 该研究为开发适合于家庭使用的蔬果清洗试剂和清洗设备提供了依据.

  4. Effects of different washing methods on pesticide organophosphorus residues%洗涤方法对有机磷农药残留的影响

    刘振华; 王小伟; 于瑞祥; 沈一萍; 丁卓平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of different washing methods for removing of organophos-phorus pesticides residual from the vegetable samples. Methods Four non-toxic substances (rice washing water, flour water, baking soda and dietary alkali) were used for the removing of organophosphorus pesticides residual (omethoate was taken for instance) from the vegetable samples (cabbage), then detected through phosphor molydate blue after extraction and concentration. Results It was showed the least residual quantity was using flour water. Using single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment, the conditions of best clean-ing effect were flour water concentration for 3.5 g per 500 mL water, soaking time for 17 min, soaking tem-perature for 32 ℃, and the pesticide removal rate reached to 83%. A good linear range was obtained between 0.8~32.0μg/mL, and the linear equation was Y=0.011X-0.005 with correlation coefficient of 0.9955, the limit of detection was 0.8μg/mL. Conclusion It is effective to reduce pesticide residues on the fruits and vegeta-bles by using flour water, and the method is simple, convenient and cheap, and suitable for use in daily life.%  目的比较不同洗涤方法对果蔬表面有机磷农药去除效果的影响.方法利用可食用的无毒物质洗米水、面粉水、小苏打和食用碱4种洗涤溶液,对残留有机磷类农药(以氧化乐果为例)的蔬菜样品(白菜)进行清洗,经萃取、浓缩后,用磷钼蓝比色法进行测定.结果面粉水的清洗效果最好,通过对面粉水清洗效果进行单因素实验和正交实验,得出最佳清洗效果条件为面粉水浓度为3.5 g/500 mL、浸泡时间为17 min、浸泡温度为32℃,农药去除率达到83%.氧化乐果在为0.8~32.0μg/mL范围内线性范围良好,线性方程为Y=0.011X−0.005,相关系数为0.9955,检出限为0.8μg/mL.结论用面粉水对果蔬进行清洗,能够有效减少农药残留,此法简单、便捷、价廉,适合在日常生活中使用.

  5. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Hanne Klith Jensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88% had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02–1.28. The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22–0.91. These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

  6. Comparison of polyurethane foam and XAD-2 sampling matrices to measure airborne organophosphorus pesticides and their oxygen analogs in an agricultural community.

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Fenske, Richard A; Yost, Michael G; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2013-07-01

    Side-by-side active air sampling for the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its oxygen analog, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-O) was conducted with two recommended air sampling matrices: OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes with XAD-2 resin, polyurethane foam (PUF) tubes, and passive PUF deposition disks. The study compared the proportion of artificially transformed CPF-O in the laboratory and in the field during a tree fruit application in Washington State. Lab results demonstrated that the NIOSH-recommended OVS tubes artificially transformed up to 32% of CPF to CPF-O during the sampling process, whereas PUF tubes had little to no artificial transformation (⩽0.1%). In the field, the proportion of CPF-O in the sample was significantly higher on OVS tubes than on PUF tubes (p<0.001), confirming that OVS tubes were converting a significant portion of CPF to CPF-O. In addition, PUF tubes reported measurable levels CPF-O in the field even when no artificial transformation was expected. We conclude that the PUF matrix is the superior sampling medium for OP oxygen analogs when compared to XAD-two resin. Community-located PUF tube samples 24h post-application had considerably higher levels CPF-O (16-21ngm(-3)) than near field samples during application (2-14ngm(-3)), suggesting that the oxygen analog is volatile and formed during atmospheric transport. It is recommended that worker and community risk assessments begin to take into consideration the presence of the more toxic oxygen analogs when measuring for OP pesticide mixtures.

  7. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in ecological textiles by solid-phase microextraction with a siloxane-modified polyurethane acrylic resin fiber.

    Hu, Xianlei; Zhang, Mingqiu; Ruan, Wenhong; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2012-07-29

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating was prepared with siloxane-modified polyurethane acrylic resin by photo-cured technology. The ratio of two monomers was investigated to obtain good microphase separation structure and better extraction performance. The self-made fiber was then applied to organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) analysis and several factors, such as extraction/desorption time, extraction temperature, salinity, and pH, were studied. The optimized conditions were: 15 min extraction at 25 °C, 5% Na(2)SO(4) content, pH 7.0 and 4 min desorption in GC inlet. The self-made fiber coating exhibited better extraction efficiency for OPPs, compared with three commercial fiber coatings. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of 11 OPPs were from 0.03 μg L(-1) to 0.5 μg L(-1). Good recoveries and repeatabilities were obtained when the method was used to determine OPPs in ecological textile.

  8. Homogeneous Liquid-Liquid Microextraction for Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Environmental Water Samples Prior to Gas Chromatography-Flame Photometric Detection.

    Berijani, Sana; Sadigh, Mirhanif; Pournamdari, Elham

    2016-07-01

    In this study, homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction (HLLME) was developed for preconcentration and extraction of 15 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from water samples coupling with gas chromatography followed by a flame photometric detector (HLLME-GC-FPD). In this method, OPPs were extracted by the homogeneous phase in a ternary solvent system (water/acetic acid/chloroform). The homogeneous solution was excluded by the addition of sodium hydroxide as a phase separator reagent and a cloudy solution was formed. After centrifugation (3 min at 5,000 rpm), the fine particles of extraction solvent (chloroform) were sedimented at the bottom of the conical test tube (10.0 ± 0.5 µL). Furthermore, 0.5 µL of the sedimented phase was injected into the GC for separation and determination of OPPs. Optimal results were obtained under the following conditions: volume of the extracting solvent (chloroform), 53 µL; volume of the consolute solvent (acetic acid), 0.76 mL and concentration of sodium hydroxide, 40% (w/v). Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of (260-665), the extraction percent of 75.8-104%, the dynamic linear range of 0.03-300 µg L(-1) and the limits of detection of 0.004-0.03 µg L(-1) were obtained for the OPPs. This method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the OPPs in environmental water samples.

  9. CODEX-compliant eleven organophosphorus pesticides screening in multiple commodities using headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Sang, Zi-Ye; Wang, Yu-Ting; Tsoi, Yeuk-Ki; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2013-01-15

    A headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (HS-SPME-GC-MS, hereafter abbreviated as "SPME") method was developed for dedicated organophosphorus (OP) pesticides assessment in multiple vegetable and fruit commodities. Specific extraction variables were optimised to achieve harmonised extraction performance of eleven OPs in a great span of seven characteristic commodities cataloged in Codex Alimentarius Commission. Comprehensive validation study confirmed analytical robustness of the SPME treatment in turnip, green cabbage, French beans, eggplant, apple, nectarine and grapes. Based on range-specific evaluation, extraction of individual OPs was characterised by sub-ppb level sensitivity and a wide 0.01-2.5 mg L(-1) dynamic range. Effective sample clean-up afforded precise quantification (0.5-10.9% R.S.D.) within a 70-120% recovery range at the MRL levels specified for individual commodities. Compared to conventional methods currently used, the SPME treatment developed here is quick, accurate, and relatively environmental friendly; it represents an attractive, practical way to deliver international standards in OP screening routines.

  10. Polypyrrole/sol-gel composite as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water and vegetable samples.

    Saraji, Mohammad; Rezaei, Behzad; Boroujeni, Malihe Khalili; Bidgoli, Ali Akbar Hajialiakbari

    2013-03-01

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coated with polypyrrole/sol-gel composite was prepared through electrochemical deposition. The composite polymer coating was prepared using a three-electrode electrochemical system and directly deposited on a stainless steel wire by applying a constant potential (1.2V for 1000 s). The coating has porous surface structure, stable performance in high temperature, and good coating preparation reproducibility. The SPME composite coating was evaluated by analyzing some organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in water and vegetable samples followed by gas chromatography and nitrogen phosphorus detection. Different SPME parameters influencing the extraction efficiency such as coating thickness, salt concentration, stirring rate, extraction time and temperature, desorption time and desorption temperature were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the coating showed better extraction efficiency than polypyrrole and commercial SPME fibers. The detection limits were 1.5-10 ng L(-1). Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision for a single fiber were in the range of 1.1-2.9% and 2.2-4.2%, respectively. Fiber to fiber reproducibility was in the range of 6.0-10.1% (n=3). The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range from 5 to 2000 ng L(-1) (r(2)>0.9953). Finally, the developed method was applied for the analysis of cucumber, lettuce, tap and well water samples and the relative recovery was found to be in the range of 80-109%, at the optimum conditions.

  11. Application of magnetic solvent bar liquid-phase microextraction for determination of organophosphorus pesticides in fruit juice samples by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Yu, Cui; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-06-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive sample pretreatment technique, magnetic solvent bar liquid-phase microextraction (MSB-LPME) was developed for extracting organophosphorus pesticides from fruit juice. The analytes were extracted from the sample to the organic solvent immobilized in the fiber. The magnetic solvent bar not only can be used to stir the samples but also extract the analytes. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed magnetic solvent bar can be readily isolated from the sample solution by a magnet, which could greatly simplify the operation and reduce the whole pretreatment time. The bar was eluted with methanol. The elute was evaporated to dryness and residue was dissolved in hexane. Several experimental parameters were investigated and optimized, including type of extraction solvent, number of magnetic solvent bar, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 81.3-104.6%, and good reproducibilities were obtained with relative standard deviation below 6.1%.

  12. Ascorbic acid surface modified TiO₂-thin layers as a fully integrated analysis system for visual simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides.

    Li, Shunxing; Liang, Wenjie; Zheng, Fengying; Lin, Xiaofeng; Cai, Jiabai

    2014-11-01

    TiO₂ photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO₂@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO₂@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated simultaneously by the mobile phase in 12.0 min with different Rf values. After surface modification, the UV-vis wavelength response range of AA-TiO₂@PS was expanded to 650 nm. Under visible-light irradiation, all of the OPs could be photodegraded to PO₄(3-) in 25.0 min. Based on the chromogenic reaction between PO₄(3-) and chromogenic agents (ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid), OPs were quantified from color intensity images using a scanner in conjunction with image processing software. So, AA-TiO₂@PS was respectively used as the stationary phase of TLC for efficient separation of OPs, as a photocatalyst for species transformation of phosphorus, and as a colorimetric probe for on-field simultaneous visual detection of OPs in natural water. Linear calibration curves for each OP ranged from 19.3 nmol P L(-1) to 2.30 μmol P L(-1). This integrated analysis system was simple, inexpensive, easy to operate, and sensitive.

  13. Vortex-assisted low density solvent based demulsified dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples.

    Seebunrueng, Ketsarin; Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2014-05-01

    A simple, rapid, effective and eco-friendly preconcentration method, vortex-assisted low density solvent based solvent demulsified dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (VLDS-SD-DLLME), followed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis, has been developed for the first time for the determination of four organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) (e.g., azinphos-methyl, parathion-methyl, fenitrothion and diazinon) in environmental water samples. In this preconcentration procedure, an emulsion was obtained after the mixture of extraction solvent (1-dodecanol) and dispersive solvent (acetonitrile, ACN) was injected rapidly into 10 mL of the sample solution. The vortex agitator aided the dispersion of the extraction solvent into the sample solution. After the formation of an emulsion, the demulsifier (ACN) was added, resulting in the rapid separation of the mixture into two phases without centrifugation. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method provided high extraction efficiency (90-99%), good linearity range (0.5-500 ng mL(-1)), low limits of detection (0.25-1 ng mL(-1)) and good repeatability and recoveries were obtained.

  14. 盐酸戊乙奎醚治疗有机磷农药中毒临床分析%Clinical Analysis of Hydrochloric Acid Penehyclidine in Treatmentof Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    曹振强; 汪显琪

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy and clinical significance of hydrochloric acid penehyclidine in the treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Method: Chosing 126 cases of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients. Then explored the comprehensive methods of hydrochloric acid penehyclidine treatment. Result: After 3 to 5 days of comprehensive hydrochloric acid penehyclidine treatment, 122 patients escaped from danger successfully and 4 patients died. Another 15 patients responded with dry mouth , flushing face and so on, and then was cured slowly after stopping the treatment. Conclusion: Hydrochloric acid penehyclidine is characteristic of long-lasting time, simple operation and so on. It is of better clinical utility and safety, and can obviously speed up the level of consciousness, reduce treatment time and improve the treatment success rate for organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients.%目的:探讨盐酸戊乙奎醚治疗有机磷农药中毒病症的疗效及临床意义.方法:选取我院急诊科126例有机磷农药中毒患者,探讨盐酸戊乙奎醚治疗的综合方法,并结合实际分析其效果.结果:经盐酸戊乙奎醚综合治疗3-5d后,122例患者成功脱险,死亡4例.有15例出现口干、面红等不良反应,停药后自行缓解.结论:盐酸戊乙奎醚具有持续时间长、操作简便等特点,具有更好的临床实用性和安全性,对于有机磷农药中毒患者能明显加快清醒程度,缩短时间,提高救治成功率.

  15. 有机磷农药中毒的临床表现及急救治疗分析%Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning the clinical manifestation and the analysis of emergency treatment

    孔祥敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨有机磷农药中毒的临床表现及急救措施。方法:采取回顾性的方法对66例有机磷农药中毒患者急救治疗的临床资料进行分析,总结出患者的主要临床表现,并对抢救措施进行分析总结。结果:本组66例患者,经抢救有62例患者脱离危险,死亡6例,整体救治率为93.94%。结论:由于有机磷农药中毒患者的临床表现比较复杂,且患者病情变化较大,个体差异性较大,因此在抢救该类患者时务必要以患者的自身情况为依据制定最佳的抢救方案。%Objective:To study the clinical manifestation of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and first aid measures. Methods :Take a retrospective method to 66 cases of patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning the clinical data of emergency treatment were analyzed, and sums up the major clinical manifestations of patients, and analyze the rescue measures summed up. Results:Of 66 patients, 62 patients via rescue out of danger, 6 cases died, the overall cure rate was 93.94%. Conclusion:Due to the patients of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning is more complex, and patients condition change is bigger, the individual difference is bigger, so in rescuing the patients too based on patients' condition to develop the best rescue plan.

  16. Applied clinical pharmacology and public health in rural Asia – preventing deaths from organophosphorus pesticide and yellow oleander poisoning

    Eddleston, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Self-poisoning with pesticides or plants is a major clinical problem in rural Asia, killing several hundred thousand people every year. Over the last 17 years, our clinical toxicology and pharmacology group has carried out clinical studies in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka to improve treatment and reduce deaths. Studies have looked at the effectiveness of anti-digoxin Fab in cardiac glycoside plant poisoning, multiple dose activated charcoal in all poisoning, and pralidoxime in moder...

  17. [Acute toxicity of different type pesticide surfactants to Daphnia magna].

    Li, Xiu-huan; Li, Hua; Chen, Cheng-yu; Li, Jian-tao; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    By using the standard test methods in Experimental Guideline for Environmental Safety Evaluation of Chemical Pesticide to aquatic organisms, a comparative study was conducted on the acute toxicity of 39 nonionic, 6 anionic, and 3 cationic surfactants to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity of three cationic surfactants 1427, 1227 and C8-10 to D. magna belonged to virulent level, and the toxicity of 1427 was the highest, with the EC50 value being 0.97 x 10(-2) mg x L(-1). The acute toxicity of nonionic surfactants polyoxyethylene ether castor oil EL, Tween, and Span emulsifiers belonged to low level, but the toxicity of alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether surfactants was relatively high, of which, AEO-7 and AEO-5 displayed high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.82 and 0.97 mg x L(-1), respectively. In these surfactants, the more liposolubility, the higher the toxicity was. Most of the anionic surfactants were medium in toxicity, but the acute toxicity of NNO belonged to high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.17 mg x L(-1).

  18. Ascorbic acid surface modified TiO2-thin layers as a fully integrated analysis system for visual simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides

    Li, Shunxing; Liang, Wenjie; Zheng, Fengying; Lin, Xiaofeng; Cai, Jiabai

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO2@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO2@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated simultaneously by the mobile phase in 12.0 min with different Rf values. After surface modification, the UV-vis wavelength response range of AA-TiO2@PS was expanded to 650 nm. Under visible-light irradiation, all of the OPs could be photodegraded to PO43- in 25.0 min. Based on the chromogenic reaction between PO43- and chromogenic agents (ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid), OPs were quantified from color intensity images using a scanner in conjunction with image processing software. So, AA-TiO2@PS was respectively used as the stationary phase of TLC for efficient separation of OPs, as a photocatalyst for species transformation of phosphorus, and as a colorimetric probe for on-field simultaneous visual detection of OPs in natural water. Linear calibration curves for each OP ranged from 19.3 nmol P L-1 to 2.30 μmol P L-1. This integrated analysis system was simple, inexpensive, easy to operate, and sensitive.TiO2 photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO2@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO2@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated

  19. An absorbing microwave micro-solid-phase extraction device used in non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides

    Wang Ziming, E-mail: wangziming@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhao Xin; Xu Xu; Wu Lijie; Su Rui; Zhao Yajing; Jiang Chengfei; Zhang Hanqi [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Ma Qiang [Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100123 (China); Lu Chunmei [College of Technology Center, Jilin Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Changchun 130062 (China); Dong Deming [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-01-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device packed with activated carbon was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device was made and used to enrich the analytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device was made and used to heat samples directly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAE-{mu}-SPE was applied to the extraction of OPPs with non-polar solvent only. - Abstract: A single-step extraction-cleanup method, including microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and micro-solid-phase extraction ({mu}-SPE), was developed for the extraction of ten organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable and fruit samples. Without adding any polar solvent, only one kind of non-polar solvent (hexane) was used as extraction solvent in the whole extraction step. Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device, was prepared by packing activated carbon with microporous polypropylene membrane envelope, and used as not only the sorbent in {mu}-SPE, but also the microwave absorption medium. Some experimental parameters effecting on extraction efficiency was investigated and optimized. 1.0 g of sample, 8 mL of hexane and three absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE devices were added in the microwave extraction vessel, the extraction was carried out under 400 W irradiation power at 60 Degree-Sign C for 10 min. The extracts obtained by MAE-{mu}-SPE were directly analyzed by GC-MS without any clean-up process. The recoveries were in the range of 93.5-104.6%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 8.7%.

  20. Highly Sensitive and Selective Immuno-capture/Electrochemical Assay of Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Red Blood Cells: A Biomarker of Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides and Nerve Agents

    Chen, Aiqiong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-02-09

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity in red blood cells (RBCs) is a useful biomarker for biomonitoring of exposures to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and chemical nerve agents. In this paper, we reported a new method for AChE activity assay based on selective immuno-capture of AChE from biological samples followed by enzyme activity assay of captured AChE using a disposable electrochemical sensor. The electrochemical sensor is based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-gold nanocomposites (MWCNTs-Au) modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Upon the completion of immunoreaction, the target AChE (including active and inhibited) is captured onto the electrode surface and followed by an electrochemical detection of enzymatic activity in the presence of acetylthiocholine. A linear response is obtained over standard AChE concentration range from 0.1 to 10 nM. To demonstrate the capability of this new biomonitoring method, AChE solutions dosed with different concentration of paraoxon were used to validate the new AChE assay method. AChE inhibition in OP dosed solutions was proportional to its concentration from 0.2 to 50 nM. The new AChE activity assay method for biomonitoring of OP exposure was further validated with in-vitro paraoxon-dosed RBC samples. The established electrochemical sensing platform for AChE activity assay not only avoids the problem of overlapping substrate specificity with esterases by using selective antibody, but also eliminates potential interference from other electroactive species in biological samples. It offers a new approach for sensitive, selective, and rapid AChE activity assay for biomonitoring of exposures to OPs.

  1. Preparation, characterization of Fe3O4 at TiO2 magnetic nanoparticles and their application for immunoassay of biomarker of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides

    Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Hongbo; Yang, Chunming; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2013-03-15

    Novel Fe3O4 at TiO2 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and developed for a new nanoparticle-based immunosensor for electrochemical quantification of organophosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma, a specific biomarker of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) agents. The Fe3O4 at TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis of tetrabutyltitanate on the surface of Fe3O4 magnetic nanospheres, and characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectra, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The functional Fe3O4 at TiO2 nanoparticles were performed as capture antibody to selectively enrich phosphorylated moiety instead of phosphoserine antibody in the traditional sandwich immunoassays. The secondary recognition was served by quantum dots (QDs)-tagged anti-BChE antibody (QDs-anti-BChE). With the help of a magnet, the resulting sandwich-like complex, Fe3O4 at TiO2/OP-BChE/QDs-anti-BChE, was easily isolated from sample solutions and the released cadmium ions were detected on a disposable screen-printed electrode (SPE). The binding affinities were investigated by both surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). This method not only avoids the drawback of unavailability of commercial OP-specific antibody but also amplifies detection signal by QDs-tags together with easy separation of samples by magnetic forces. The proposed immunosensor yields a linear response over a broad OP-BChE concentrations range from 0.02 to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.01 nM. Moreover, the disposable nanoparticle-based immunosensor has been validated with human plasma samples. It offers a new method for rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive screening/evaluating exposure to OP pesticides.

  2. A simple solvothermal process for fabrication of a metal-organic framework with an iron oxide enclosure for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in biological samples.

    Zhang, Suling; Jiao, Zhe; Yao, Weixuan

    2014-12-05

    An active magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) hybrid material was prepared using a novel in situ solvothermal method in the presence of magnetite (Fe3O4) particles, that holds much promise for large-scale synthesis. MIL-101(Fe), an iron terephthalate with pore structure and high resistance to water and common solvents, was functionalized as a model with superparamagnetic qualities, using Fe3O4. The electrostatic interaction between Fe3O4 and metal ions was thereby used to chemically stabilize magnetic nanoparticles, and thus MOF crystals were uniformly enclosed by Fe3O4 to form a homogeneous magnetic product identified as a Fe3O4/MIL-101 composite. This hybrid material with magnetic susceptibility but with the lowest possible loading amount of Fe3O4 was examined, and its potential application for magnetic solid-phase extraction of six organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from human hair and urine samples, followed by gas chromatography analysis, was assessed. The main effect parameters including solution ionic strength, desorption solvent, extraction time and desorption time were investigated in sequence. Under optimized conditions, this method showed low detection limits (0.21-2.28 ng/mL), wide linearity, and good precision (1.8-8.7% for intra-day, 2.9-9.4% for inter-day). The matrix interference produced by hair or urine could be effectively eliminated using this method, and satisfactory recoveries of the spiked samples were 76.8-94.5% and 74.9-92.1%, respectively, indicating that the Fe3O4/MIL-101 sorbents are feasible for the analysis of trace analytes from biological samples.

  3. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of leading oxime therapies in guinea pigs exposed to organophosphorus chemical warfare agents or pesticides

    Wilhelm, Christina M., E-mail: wilhelmc@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Snider, Thomas H., E-mail: snidert@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Babin, Michael C., E-mail: babinm@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Jett, David A., E-mail: jettd@ninds.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Platoff, Gennady E., E-mail: platoffg@niaid.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, David T., E-mail: dy70v@nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The currently fielded pre-hospital therapeutic regimen for the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in the United States (U.S.) is the administration of atropine in combination with an oxime antidote (2-PAM Cl) to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Depending on clinical symptoms, an anticonvulsant, e.g., diazepam, may also be administered. Unfortunately, 2-PAM Cl does not offer sufficient protection across the range of OP threat agents, and there is some question as to whether it is the most effective oxime compound available. The objective of the present study is to identify an oxime antidote, under standardized and comparable conditions, that offers protection at the FDA approved human equivalent dose (HED) of 2-PAM Cl against tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), and VX, and the pesticides paraoxon, chlorpyrifos oxon, and phorate oxon. Male Hartley guinea pigs were subcutaneously challenged with a lethal level of OP and treated at approximately 1 min post challenge with atropine followed by equimolar oxime therapy (2-PAM Cl, HI-6 DMS, obidoxime Cl{sub 2}, TMB-4, MMB4-DMS, HLö-7 DMS, MINA, and RS194B) or therapeutic-index (TI) level therapy (HI-6 DMS, MMB4-DMS, MINA, and RS194B). Clinical signs of toxicity were observed for 24 h post challenge and blood cholinesterase [AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] activity was analyzed utilizing a modified Ellman's method. When the oxime is standardized against the HED of 2-PAM Cl for guinea pigs, the evidence from clinical observations, lethality, quality of life (QOL) scores, and cholinesterase reactivation rates across all OPs indicated that MMB4 DMS and HLö-7 DMS were the two most consistently efficacious oximes. - Highlights: • First comprehensive evaluation of leading AChE oxime reactivators • All oximes are compared against current U.S. therapy 2-PAM Cl. • Relative therapeutic oxime efficacies against OP CWNA and pesticides • Contribution to more effective

  4. Experience of Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients with Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning%有机磷中毒的诊治心得体会

    王文德

    2015-01-01

    目的对有机磷中毒的诊断和治疗进行讨论。方法将1例急性有机磷中毒临床资料进行回顾并将治疗结果进行分析。结果患者康复出院。结论对有机磷中毒患者进行准确快速的诊断后及时给与复能剂与解毒剂,防止阿托品中毒,在改善患者的治愈率及身心健康方面所起的作用是明显的。%Objective To discuss the diagnosis and treatment of organophosphate poisoning. Methods Review the case of acute organophosphate poisoning clinical information and treatment results were analyzed. Results Patients rehabilitation hospital discharge.Conclusion Accurate rapid diagnosis to patients with organophosphorus poisoning after timely give reply to agent and antidote, prevent atropine poisoning, in improving the patient's cure rate and the role of the physical and mental health is obvious.

  5. In vitro skin decontamination of the organophosphorus pesticide Paraoxon with nanometric cerium oxide CeO2.

    Salerno, Alicia; Devers, Thierry; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Pelletier, Jocelyne; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2017-04-01

    Organophosphorus compounds (OP), which mainly penetrate via the percutaneous pathway, represent a threat for both military and civilians. Body surface decontamination is vital to prevent victims poisoning. The development of a cost-effective formulation, which could be efficient and easy to handle in case of mass contamination, is therefore crucial. Metal oxides nanoparticles, due their large surface areas and the large amount of highly reactive sites, present high reactivity towards OP. First, this study aimed at evaluating the reaction of CeO2 nanoparticles, synthetized by microwave path and calcined at 500 or 600 °C, with Paraoxon (POX) in aqueous solution. Results showed that both nanoparticles degraded 60%-70% of POX. CeO2 calcined at 500 °C, owing to its larger specific area, was the most effective. Moreover, the degradation was significantly increased under Ultra-Violet irradiation (initial degradation rate doubled). Then, skin decontamination was studied in vitro using the Franz cell method with pig-ear skin samples. CeO2 powder and an aqueous suspension of CeO2 (CeO2-W) were applied 1 h after POX exposure. The efficiency of decontamination, including removal and/or degradation of POX, was compared to Fuller's earth (FE) and RSDL lotion which are, currently, the most efficient systems for skin decontamination. CeO2-W and RSDL were the most efficient to remove POX from the skin surface and decrease skin absorption by 6.4 compared to the control not decontaminated. FE reduced significantly (twice) the absorbed fraction of POX, contrarily to CeO2 powder. Considering only the degradation rate of POX, the products ranged in the order CeO2 > RSDL > CeO2-W > FE (no degradation). This study showed that CeO2 nanoparticles are a promising material for skin decontamination of OP if formulated as a dispersion able to remove POX like CeO2-W and to degrade it as CeO2 powder.

  6. Reconstructing Organophosphorus Pesticide Doses Using the Reversed Dosimetry Approach in a Simple Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model

    Chensheng Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We illustrated the development of a simple pharmacokinetic (SPK model aiming to estimate the absorbed chlorpyrifos doses using urinary biomarker data, 3,5,6-trichlorpyridinol as the model input. The effectiveness of the SPK model in the pesticide risk assessment was evaluated by comparing dose estimates using different urinary composite data. The dose estimates resulting from the first morning voids appeared to be lower than but not significantly different to those using before bedtime, lunch or dinner voids. We found similar trend for dose estimates using three different urinary composite data. However, the dose estimates using the SPK model for individual children were significantly higher than those from the conventional physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK modeling using aggregate environmental measurements of chlorpyrifos as the model inputs. The use of urinary data in the SPK model intuitively provided a plausible alternative to the conventional PBPK model in reconstructing the absorbed chlorpyrifos dose.

  7. Effects of a novel organophosphorus pesticide (RPR-V) on extra hepatic detoxifying enzymes after repeated oral doses in rats.

    Mahboob, Mohammed; Kaleem, Mohammed; Siddiqui, Javed

    2004-10-01

    The effects of a novel organophosphorous pesticide, 2-butenoic acid-3-(diethoxy phosphinothionyl) ethyl ester (RPR-V) on glutathione S-transferases (GST), UDP-glucuronyl transferases (UDPGT) and the level of glutathione (GSH) were evaluated in rats after repeated oral administration at 33 microg kg(-1)day(-1) (low), 66 microg kg(-1)day(-1) (mid) and 99 microg kg(-1)day(-1) (high) for 90 days and at 28 days (withdrawal) post-treatment. GSH level and GST in kidney; GSH level in brain decreased significantly at mid and high doses on 45th and 90th day (P RPR-V has the potential to modulate the extrahepatic detoxifying enzymes and thereby interact with other physiological processes in the exposed organisms.

  8. A Novel Acetylcholinesterase Biosensor: Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles Incorporating a Conjugated Polymer for the Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides.

    Dzudzevic Cancar, Hurija; Soylemez, Saniye; Akpinar, Yeliz; Kesik, Melis; Göker, Seza; Gunbas, Gorkem; Volkan, Murvet; Toppare, Levent

    2016-03-01

    To construct a sensing interface, in the present work, a conjugated polymer and core-shell magnetic nanoparticle containing biosensor was constructed for the pesticide analysis. The monomer 4,7-di(furan-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (FBThF) and core-shell magnetic nanoparticles were designed and synthesized for fabrication of the biosensing device. The magnetic nanoparticles were first treated with silica and then modified using carboxyl groups, which enabled binding of the biomolecules covalently. For the construction of the proposed sensor a two-step procedure was performed. First, the poly(FBThF) was electrochemically generated on the electrode surface. Then, carboxyl group modified magnetic nanoparticles (f-MNPs) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the model enzyme, were co-immobilized on the polymer-coated surface. Thereby, a robust and novel surface, conjugated polymer bearing magnetic nanoparticles with pendant carboxyl groups, was constructed, which was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, and contact angle measurements. This novel architecture was then applied as an immobilization platform to detect pesticides. To the best of our knowledge, a sensor design that combines both conjugated polymer and magnetic nanoparticles was attempted for the first time, and this approach resulted in improved biosensor characteristics. Hence, this approach opens a new perspective in the field of enzyme immobilization and sensing applications. Paraoxon and trichlorfon were selected as the model toxicants. To obtain best biosensor performance, optimization studies were performed. Under optimized conditions, the biosensor in concern revealed a rapid response (5 s), a low detection limit (6.66 × 10(-3) mM), and high sensitivity (45.01 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)). The KM(app) value of poly(FBThF)/f-MNPs/AChE were determined as 0.73 mM. Furthermore, there was no considerable activity loss for 10 d for poly

  9. Acute pesticide poisoning among female and male cotton growers in India

    Mancini, F.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; Ambatipudi, A.C.; Murphy, H.

    2005-01-01

    A season-long assessment of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers was conducted in three villages in India. Fifty female cotton growers reported the adverse effects experienced after exposures to pesticides by themselves and by their male relatives (n = 47). The study documented the serious conseq

  10. Guidance document for setting an Acute Reference Dose in Dutch national pesticide evaluations

    Raaij MTM van; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a proposal for the procedures for setting an Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) for pesticides evaluated in the Netherlands. This deals with both evaluations on the national level (on behalf of the Dutch Board for the Authorisation of Pesticides (CTB)) and evaluations at the European

  11. Analysis of eight organophosphorus pesticide residues in fresh vegetables retailed in agricultural product markets of Nanjing, China.

    Wang, Ligang; Liang, Yongchao; Jiang, Xin

    2008-10-01

    A method to effectively remove pigments in fresh vegetables using activated carbon followed cleanup through solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge to further reduce matrix interference and contamination, was established to determine eight organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) in this study, and it has been successfully applied for the determination of eight OPPs in various fresh vegetables with the recoveries ranging from 61.8% to 107%. To evaluate eight OPPs residue level, some fresh vegetables retailed at three agricultural product markets (APM) of Nanjing in China were detected, the results showed that phorate in Shanghai green (0.0257 microg g(-1)) and Chinese cabbage (0.0398 microg g(-1)), dimethoate in Shanghai green (0.0466-0.0810 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.077 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.118-0.124 microg g(-1)), methyl-parathion in Shanghai green (0.0903 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.157 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.0924 microg g(-1)), malathion in Shanghai green (0.0342-0.0526 microg g(-1)), chorpyrifos in spinach (0.106-0.204 microg g(-1)), and Chinese cabbage (0.149 microg g(-1)), chlorfenvinfos in carrot (0.094-0.131 microg g(-1)), were found. However, fonofos and fenthion were not detected in all the collected vegetable samples.

  12. GC -FPD 法分析检测人参中4种有机磷农药残留%Determination of Four Organophosphorus Pesticides Residue in Ginseng by GC -FPD

    罗婧; 王玉方; 金春爱; 王峰; 刘继永; 商云帅; 何艳丽

    2013-01-01

    An analytical method for determining four organophosphorus pesticides Monocrotophos ,Dimethoate ,Malathion and Parathion residues in ginseng by GC was described .The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate ,detected by GC with FPD detector .The results showed that the linear range of four organophosphorus pesticides were from 0.02 to 5mg/L ,the correlation coefficients were 0.999 6 to 0.999 9;the minimum detectable concentration of the 4 analytes in ginseng samples were all 0.01mg/kg;average recoveries were 80.9 to 98.9% ,and the coefficient of variation ranged from 2.53 to 6.78% .The proposed method was applied to the determination of four organophosphorus pesticide residue in dried raw ginseng from market .The results of test have met the requirement of pesticide residue analysis .%建立了同时测定人参中久效磷、乐果、马拉硫磷和对硫磷4种有机磷农药残留气相色谱分析方法。以乙酸乙酯进行超声及振荡提取,用气相色谱火焰光度检测器测定。结果表明,久效磷、乐果、马拉硫磷和对硫磷4种有机磷农药的线性范围为0.02~5mg/L ,相关系数 r为0.9996~0.9999。4种有机磷农药在人参中的最低检测浓度均为0.01mg/kg ,平均回收率为80.9%~98.9%,变异系数为2.53%~6.78%,并应用该方法测定了市场上5个生晒参样品中这4种有机磷农药的残留量,符合农药残留测定要求。

  13. Simultaneous quantification of the organophosphorus pesticides dimethoate and omethoate in porcine plasma and urine by LC-ESI-MS/MS and flow-injection-ESI-MS/MS.

    John, Harald; Eddleston, Michael; Clutton, R Eddie; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst

    2010-05-15

    Dimethoate is an organophosphorus toxicant used in agri- and horticulture as a systemic broad-spectrum insecticide. It also exhibits toxic activity towards mammalian organism provoked by catalytic desulfuration in the liver producing its oxon-derivative omethoate thus inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, initiating cholinergic crisis and ultimately leading to death by respiratory paralysis and cardiovascular collapse. Pharmaco- and toxicokinetic studies in animal models help to broaden basic understanding of medical intervention by antidotes and supportive care. Therefore, we developed and validated a LC-ESI-MS/MS method suitable for the simultaneous, selective, precise (RSD(intra-day) 1-8%; RSD(inter-day) 5-14%), accurate (intra-day: 95-107%; inter-day: 90-115%), and robust quantification of both pesticides from porcine urine and plasma after deproteinization by precipitation and extensive dilution (1:11,250 for plasma and 1:40,000 for urine). Accordingly, lower limits of quantification (0.24-0.49 microg/ml plasma and 0.78-1.56 microg/ml urine) and lower limits of detection (0.12-0.24 microg/ml plasma and 0.39-0.78 microg/ml urine) were equivalent to quite low absolute on-column amounts (1.1-2.1 pg for plasma and 2.0-3.9 pg for urine). The calibration range (0.24-250 microg/ml plasma and 0.78-200 microg/ml urine) was subdivided into two linear ranges (r(2)>or=0.998) each covering nearly two orders of magnitude. The lack of any interfering peak in 6 individual blank specimens from plasma and urine demonstrated the high selectivity of the method. Furthermore, extensive sample dilution causing lowest concentration of potentially interfering matrix ingredients prompted us to develop and validate an additional flow-injection method (FI-ESI-MS/MS). Validation characteristics were as good as for the chromatographic method but sample throughput was enhanced by a factor of 6. Effects on ionization provoked by plasma and urine matrix from 6 individuals as well as in the

  14. Magnetic Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Biomonitoring of Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides and Nerve Agents Based on Simultaneous Measurement of Total Enzyme Amount and Enzyme Activity

    Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Limin; Lu, Donglai; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-05-15

    We report a new approach for electrochemical quantification of enzymatic inhibition and phosphorylation for biomonitoring of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents based on a magnetic beads (MBs) immunosensing platform. The principle of this approach is based on the combination of MBs immuno-capture based enzyme activity assay and competitive immunoassay of total amount of enzyme for simultaneous detection of enzyme inhibition and phosphorylation in biological fluids. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was chosen as a model enzyme. In competitive immunoassay, the target total BChE in a sample (mixture of OP-inhibited BChE and active BChE) competes with the BChE modified on the MBs to bind to the limited anti-BChE antibody labeled with quantum dots (QDs-anti-BChE), and followed by electrochemical stripping analysis of the bound QDs conjugate on the MBs. This assay shows a linear response over the total BChE concentration range of 0.1~20 nM. Simultaneously, real time BChE activity was measured on an electrochemical carbon nanotube-based sensor coupled with microflow injection system after immuno-capture by MBs-anti-BChE conjugate. Therefore, the formed phosphorylated adduct (OP-BChE) can be estimated by the difference values of the total amount BChE (including active and OP-inhibited) and active BChE from established calibration curves. This approach not only eliminates the difficulty in screening of low-dose OP exposure (less than 20% inhibition of BChE) because of individual variation of BChE values, but also avoids the drawback of the scarce availability of OP-BChE antibody. It is sensitive enough to detect 0.5 nM OP-BChE, which is less than 2% BChE inhibition. This method offers a new method for rapid, accurate, selective and inexpensive quantification of phosphorylated adducts and enzyme inhibition for biomonitoring of OP and nerve agent exposures.

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of an organophosphorus pesticide from agricultural waste by immobilized TiO2 under solar radiation

    Marcia Regina Assalin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes solar heterogeneous photocatalysis using immobilized TiO2 applied in the treatment of agricultural waste resulting from the application of commercial formulations of methyl parathion. The disappearance of the insecticide, as well as the formation of its metabolite, was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, while mineralization efficiency was monitored by measurements of total organic carbon (TOC. Toxicity studies were performed using the microcrustacean Artemia salina. The TOC removal efficiency by photocatalytic process was 48.5%. After 45 minutes of treatment, the removal efficiency of methyl parathion was 90%, being completely mineralized at the end of treatment. The formation and removal of the metabolite methyl paraoxon was observed during the photocatalytic process. The photocatalytic treatment resulted in increased microcrustacean mobility, indicating a reduction of acute toxicity.

  16. Organophosphorus Insecticide Pharmacokinetics

    Timchalk, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This chapter highlights a number of current and future applications of pharmacokinetics to assess organophosphate (OP) insecticide dosimetry, biological response and risk in humans exposed to these agents. Organophosphates represent a large family of pesticides where insecticidal as well as toxicological mode of action is associated with their ability to target and inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Pharmacokinetics entails the quantitative integration of physiological and metabolic processes associated with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of drugs and xenobiotics. Pharmacokinetic studies provide important data on the amount of toxicant delivered to a target site as well as species-, age-, gender-specific and dose-dependent differences in biological response. These studies have been conducted with organophosphorus insecticides in multiple species, at various dose levels, and across different routes of exposure to understand their in vivo pharmacokinetics and how they contribute to the observed toxicological response. To access human exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, human pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted and used to develop biological monitoring strategies based on the quantitation of key metabolites in biological fluids. Pharmacokinetic studies with these insecticides are also useful to facilitate extrapolation of dosimetry and biological response from animals to humans and for the assessment of human health risk. In this regard, physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models are being utilized to assess risk and understand the toxicological implications of known or suspected exposures to various insecticides. In this chapter a number of examples are presented that illustrate the utility and limitation of pharmacokinetic studies to address human health concerns associated with organophosphorus insecticides.

  17. 邢台市蔬菜中有机磷农药污染残留状况调查%Investigation on organophosphorus pesticide residue in vegetables in Xingtai City

    齐志彩

    2013-01-01

    To understand the status of organophosphorus pesticide residue in vegetables in Xingtai City,provide the basis for protecting the health of residents.[Methods] During the years of 2010-2012,10 sampling points (4 from Qiaodong District and 6 from Qiaoxi District) were selected among the agricultural markets and supermarkets by the method of lattice,and random sampling was conducted.Gas chromatography was used to analyze 23 types of organophosphorus pesticide residue in 8 types of vegetables,including fresh kidney beans,rape,etc.[Results] During the years of 2010-2012,the annual detection rate was respectively 18.5%,18.5% and 22.0%,while the over standard rate was respectively 4.5%,4.0% and 4.0%.Among those sampling vegetables,the detection rates of pesticide residue in cabbage,chives,rape and fresh kidney beans were higher,while the over standard rates in cabbage,rape and chives were higher.Some illegal organophosphorus pesticides (acephatemet and parathion) have been found in vegetable samples.[Conclusion] Pollution in vegetables by organophosphorus pesticides is relatively serious.The related departments should strengthen the management.%目的 了解邢台市蔬菜中有机磷农药污染残留情况,为进一步保障居民健康提供依据.方法 2010-2012年,在邢台市农贸市场及超市销售点通过网格布点法选取10个采样点(桥东区4个,桥西区6个)进行随机采样,对包括豆角、油菜等8种蔬菜中的23种有机磷农药残留采用气相色谱法进行测定.结果 2010-2012年,蔬菜有机磷农药残留检出率分别为18.5%,18.5%,22.0%,超标率分别为4.5%,4.0%,4.0%,其中白菜、韭菜、油菜、豆角的农药残留检出率较高,白菜、油菜、韭菜的超标率较高.在蔬菜中仍可检测到国家禁用的有机磷农药(甲胺磷、对硫磷).结论 有机磷农药对蔬菜污染较严重,有关部门应加大综合治理力度.

  18. 解毒机对蔬菜中剧毒有机磷农药降解效果的评价%Evaluation on degradation effect for highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide in vegetable by a detoxification machine

    周金森; 刘赐敏; 龙军标; 刘钰钗

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the degradation effect of highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide in vegetable treated by a detoxification machine.[Methods] The vegetables,including lettuce,Brassicachinensis L,green bean and cucumber polluted by methamidophos,monocrotophos,dimethoate,parathion were treated by a detoxification machine,while the tap water soak was taken as comparison.In the end,their degradation effects were assessed by a capillary gas chromatography.[Results] The optimal detoxification time for machine was 20 min.The degradation rates of methamidophos in 4 kinds of vegetables were 72.13%-79.86%,monocrotophos were 74.58%-81.99%,dimethoate were 49.33%-55.08%,parathion were 57.34%-60.03%The optimal detoxification time for tap water was 30 min,the degradation rates of 4 kinds of organophosphorus pesticide in vegetables were 19.74%-35.91%.[Conclusion] The detoxification machine is quick to degrade highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide in vegetables with good effect.%目的 了解解毒机对蔬菜中多种剧毒有机磷农药降解情况.方法 将残留在生菜、上海青、四季豆、黄瓜上的甲胺磷、久效磷、乐果和对硫磷,用解毒机进行清洗,同时用自来水浸泡作对照,然后采用毛细管柱气相色谱法测定,计算降解率,评价其降解效果.结果 解毒机清洗蔬菜20 min达最佳,在4种蔬菜中甲胺磷的降解率为72.13% ~79.86%,久效磷为74.58%~ 81.99%,乐果为49.33% ~ 55.08%,对硫磷为57.34% ~60.03%.自来水浸泡蔬菜30 min达最佳,在4种蔬菜中4种农药的降解率在19.74% ~35.91%之间.结论 解毒机对蔬菜中剧毒有机磷农药降解速度快,效果好.

  19. Validation and use of a fast sample preparation method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in analysis of ultra-trace levels of 98 organophosphorus pesticide and carbamate residues in a total diet study involving diversified food types.

    Chung, Stephen W C; Chan, Benny T P

    2010-07-16

    This paper reports a comprehensive sensitive multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for detection, identification and quantitation of 73 pesticides and their related products, a total of 98 analytes, belonging to organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and carbamates, in foods. The proposed method makes use of a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rigged, and safe) procedure that combines isolation of the pesticides and sample clean-up in a single step. Analysis is performed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, acquiring two specific precursor-product ion transitions per target compound. Two main fragment ions for each pesticide were obtained to achieve the identification according to the SANCO guidelines 10684/2009. The method was validated with various food samples, including edible oil, meat, egg, cheese, chocolate, coffee, rice, tree nuts, citric fruits, vegetables, etc. No significant matrix effect was observed for tested pesticides, therefore, matrix-matched calibration was not necessary. Calibration curves were linear and covered from 1 to 20 microg L(-1) for all compounds studied. The average recoveries, measured at 10 microg kg(-1), were in the range 70-120% for all of the compounds tested with relative standard deviations below 20%, while a value of 10 microg kg(-1) has been established as the method limit of quantitation (MLOQ) for all target analytes. Similar trueness and precision results were also obtained for spiking at 200 microg kg(-1). Expanded uncertainty values were in the range 21-27% while the HorRat ratios were below 1. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 700 food samples in the course of a baseline monitoring study of OPPs and carbamates.

  20. 血液灌流救治有机磷农药中毒的护理与观察%Blood flow observation and nursing in the treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    高巍; 白凤兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:讨论和分析血液灌流救治有机磷农药中毒病人的效果。方法使用 Ha230型树脂灌流器。将同时进行常规治疗和血液灌流的38位有机磷农药中毒病人和仅采用常规治疗方式的21位有机磷农药中毒病人作比较。结果进行血液灌流的患者的昏迷时间和住院天数要比仅采用常规治疗方式的有机磷农药中毒病人短,治愈率高,死亡率降低。结论血液灌流与内科综合治疗相结合是抢救有机磷农药中毒成功的关键。%Objective To investigate the flow in the treatment of organophosphoruspesticide poisoning patients nursin g observation of blood. Methods using Ha230 type resin hemoperfusion apparatus. 38 cases of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients at the same time in the conventional treatment was performed in 21 patients with hemoperfusion and the simple application of the conventional treatment were compared. Results the hemoperfusion group coma time and length of hospital stay is shortened routine group, the cure rate is high, mortality.Conclusion hemoperfusion and department of internal medicine comprehensivetreatment combination is the key to the success of the rescue organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.

  1. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  2. Determination of selected pesticides in water samples adjacent to agricultural fields and removal of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos using soil bacterial isolates

    Hossain, M. S.; Chowdhury, M. Alamgir Zaman; Pramanik, Md. Kamruzzaman; Rahman, M. A.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Alam, M. Khorshed

    2015-06-01

    The use of pesticide for crops leads to serious environmental pollution, therefore, it is essential to monitor and develop approaches to remove pesticide from contaminated environment. In this study, water samples were collected to monitor pesticide residues, and degradation of chlorpyrifos was also performed using soil bacteria. Identification of pesticide residues and determination of their levels were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Among 12 samples, 10 samples were found contaminated with pesticides. Chlorpyrifos was detected in four tested samples and concentrations ranged from 3.27 to 9.31 μg/l whereas fenitrothion ranging from (Below Detection Limit, pesticide residues in water, to protect the aquatic environment. Chlorpyrifos degrading bacterial isolates can be used to clean up environmental samples contaminated with the organophosphate pesticides.

  3. Vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction using a low-toxicity solvent for the determination of five organophosphorus pesticides in water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Peng, Guilong; He, Qiang; Mmereki, Daniel; Zhou, Guangming; Pan, Weiliang; Gu, Li; Fan, Leilei; Tang, Xiaohui; Chen, Junhua; Mao, Yufeng

    2015-10-01

    Vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was applied to determine Isocarbophos, Parathion-methyl, Triazophos, Phoxim and Chlorpyrifos-methyl in water samples. 1-Bromobutane was used as the extraction solvent, which has a higher density than water and low toxicity. Centrifugation and disperser solvent were not required in this microextraction procedure. The optimum extraction conditions for 15 mL water sample were: pH of the sample solution, 5; volume of the extraction solvent, 80 μL; vortex time, 2 min; salt addition, 0.5 g. Under the optimum conditions, enrichment factors ranging from 196 to 237 and limits of detection below 0.38 μg/L were obtained for the determination of target pesticides in water. Good linearities (r > 0.9992) were obtained within the range of 1-500 μg/L for all the compounds. The relative standard deviations were in the range of 1.62-2.86% and the recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 89.80 to 104.20%. The whole proposed methodology is simple, rapid, sensitive and environmentally friendly for determining traces of organophosphorus pesticides in the water samples.

  4. 有机磷农药气敏传感阵列检测信号小波包降噪方法%Wavelet Packet Denoising Method of Gas Sensor Array Signals for Detecting organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetables

    殷勇; 周秋香; 于慧春; 肖涛

    2011-01-01

    For the white noise always embeds in signals of gas sensor array, there must be bad influence on the accuracy and reliability of test results while micro or trace organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables detection. To solve the problem, acephate and phoxim were selected as test object. A denoising method of gas sensor array signals based on wavelet packet decomposition and reconstruction was practiced. With the help of principal component analysis ( PCA) and Fisher discriminant analysis ( FDA) , the identification results of different concentrations corresponding to the two kinds of pesticide residues were explored and compared, respectively. The results showed that the different concentrations samples corresponding to acephate and phoxim were all well discriminated after the gas sensor array signals treated by the wavelet packet denoising. Therefore, the wavelet packet denoising method could improve identification effect of pesticide residues in vegetables using gas sensor array.%针对有机磷农药气敏传感阵列测试信号含有噪声,严重影响测试结果准确性与可靠性这一问题,选择辛硫磷和乙酰甲胺磷农药残留为研究对象,采用基于小波包分解与重构的气体传感阵列信号降噪方法,并借助主成分分析(PCA)和Fisher判别分析(FDA),分别研究了信号降噪前后两种农药不同质量比的鉴别情况.结果表明:传感阵列信号降噪后两种农药的不同残留样品均能被鉴别区分.小波包降噪可有效地提高气敏传感阵列对蔬菜农药残留的鉴别效果.

  5. 有机磷农药多残留检测化学发光标记物的合成及鉴定%Synthesis and identification of chemiluminescent markers used in the multi-residue determination of organophosphorus pesticides

    刘涛; 孟超; 姚鑫; 李景娜; 程燕; 刘晓宇

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chemiluminescent markers were synthesized using O,O-diethylthiophosphoryl chloride and luminol for the multi-residue determination of organophosphorus pesticides. Methods Luminol and O, O-diethyl phosphoryl chloride were added to dichloromethane under ice-cooling with triethylamine as acid binding agent. After 8 h, the organic layer was separated and purified by column chromatography. Results The product was the chemiluminescent markers after indentation using UV and IR. It had a strong luminescent ability on the BPCL, and the maximum luminous intensity reached 9000 mV. Conclusion The chemilumi-nescent markers synthesized by this method had a strong luminescence capability, and it could be used in the multi-residue determination of organophosphorus pesticides.%目的:以 O,O-二乙基硫代磷酰氯和鲁米诺为原料,合成一种新型的化学发光标记物,用于后续的二乙氧基类有机磷农药多残留化学发光免疫法检测。方法取鲁米诺和O,O-二乙基硫代磷酰氯溶于二氯甲烷中,以三乙胺作为缚酸剂,冰浴下反应8h后分出有机层,产物经柱层析纯化,即得到化学发光标记物。结果产物经紫外、红外鉴定,实验结果表明反应产物即为所需的化学发光标记物,产物在BPCL上进行发光特性测定,表现出较强的发光能力,最大发光强度达到9000 mV。结论本方法合成的化学发光标记物具有较强的发光能力,能用于后续的二乙氧基类有机磷农药多残留的化学发光免疫检测。

  6. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides residues in carrot juice by SBSE -LC -MS/MS%SBSE -LC -MS/MS 法检测胡萝卜汁中有机磷农药残留

    倪永付; 闫秋成; 王勇; 朱莉萍; 高洁

    2015-01-01

    建立了搅拌棒吸附萃取(SBSE)—液相色谱串联质谱法检测胡萝卜汁中有机磷农药残留。样品经搅拌棒萃取,解析液解析后,上机检测。采用 ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18色谱柱分离,在多反应监测模式下进行检测,用外标法定量。结果表明:3种有机磷药物在浓度0.5~50μg/L 范围内线性关系良好,相关系数 r =0.9953~0.9999,方法检测限为0.5μg/kg。在不同添加水平下,其平均回收率为86.8%~95%,变异系数为4.3%~12.8%。%The organophosphorus pesticides residues in carrot juice was determined by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)combining with liquid chromatography -tandem mass spectrometry.The sample was extracted by SBSE.After being desorbed,the sample was performed on ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 col-umn.The analysis was carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring mode and external standard method was used for quantification.The calibration curve of the three organophosphorus pesticides showed a good linear relationship as concentrations in the range of 0.5 ~50 μg/L with the correlation coefficient r =0.995 3~0.999 9,the detection limit of this method was 0.5 μg/kg.In different concentrations,the average recovery rate of this method was 86.8% ~95% and the coefficient of variation 4.3% ~12.8%.

  7. Pesticides

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  8. Reducing the Incidence of Acute Pesticide Poisoning by Educating Farmers on Integrated Pest Management in South India

    Mancini, F.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; O'Malley, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-five farmers reported on pesticide use and the signs and symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning when using two different plant protection strategies: in 2003 using chemical controls and in 2004 using an approach to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) based on an ecological analysis of the field co

  9. Simultaneous determination of multiple organophosphorus pesticides residues in honey by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry%蜂蜜中多种有机磷农药残留的液相色谱-串联质谱检测

    王国民; 李应国; 戴华; 谢文; 张进忠; 周启明; 李正国

    2011-01-01

    针对敌百虫、敌敌畏和蝇毒磷为常用的防治蜜蜂天敌或虫害的有机磷农药杀虫剂,易在蜂蜜中产生残留,建立了蜂蜜中敌百虫、敌敌畏和蝇毒磷残留的液相色谱串联质谱(LC-MS/MS)同时测定方法。蜂蜜样品经乙酸乙酯提取、浓缩,用甲醇溶解残渣,液相色谱(LC)分离,电喷雾(ESI)-MS/MS多反应监测(MRM)模式检测,外标基体曲线定量。3种有机磷农药在20~500μg/L范围内线性响应良好,相关系数均大于0.994;获得的检出限均为0.1μg/kg,定量限均为4μg/kg。在加标浓度为10~40μg/kg范围内,平均回收率为78.5%~96.8%,相对标准偏差为9.1%~13.1%。%The trichlorfon,dichlorvos,and coumafos are commonly used as organophosphorus pesticides to control pests or natural enemies of bees,but they easily contaminate the honey.A simultaneous determination method for trichlorfon,dichlorvos and coumafos residues in honey is developed by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS/MS).Samples are extracted with ethyl acetate and concentrated extracts,and then the residue is dissolved by methanol,and separated by HPLC,detected by electrospray ionization(ESI)-MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring mode(MRM).It is found that the linear ranges of the three organophosphate pesticides are 20~500 μg/L with correlation coefficients over 0.994,the detection limits(LODs) are 0.1 μg/kg and the limits of quantification(LOQs) are 4 μg/kg for all of the three pesticides.The average recoveries of the three pesticides in spiked honeies at concentration levels of 10~40 μg/kg range from 78.5% to 96.8%,and the relative standard deviations are in the range of 9.1%~13.1%.

  10. Polyol-enhanced dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and nitrogen phosphorous detection for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides from aqueous samples, fruit juices, and vegetables.

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza; Alizadeh Nabil, Ali Akbar

    2015-12-01

    Polyol-enhanced dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been proposed for the extraction and preconcentration of some organophosphorus pesticides from different samples. In the present study, a high volume of an aqueous phase containing a polyol (sorbitol) is prepared and then a disperser solvent along with an extraction solvent is rapidly injected into it. Sorbitol showed the best results and it was more effective on the extraction recoveries of the analytes than inorganic salts such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium sulfate. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed low limits of detection and quantification within the ranges of 12-56 and 44-162 pg/mL, respectively. Enrichment factors and extraction recoveries were in the ranges of 2799-3033 and 84-92%, respectively. The method precision was evaluated at a concentration of 10 ng/mL of each analyte, and relative standard deviations were found to be less than 5.9% for intraday (n = 6) and less than 7.8% for interday (n = 4). Finally, some aqueous samples were successfully analyzed using the proposed method and four analytes (diazinon, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, and phosalone) were determined, some of them at ng/mL level.

  11. Effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of ;organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%两组用药清除有机磷农药中毒肠道毒物的临床观察

    裴艳丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨大黄、思密达与硫酸镁、漂白土在治疗急性有机磷农药中毒的疗效。方法将76例口服有机磷中毒的重度患者随机均分2组。两组均给予彻底洗胃、适量应用长托宁及阿托品解毒,氯磷定复能剂等综合常规治疗。A组(治疗组)应用大黄导泻、思密达吸附;B组(对照组)应用硫酸镁导泻、漂白土吸附。观察首次排便时间,胃肠功能不全发生率及严重程度评分;观察胃肠功能恢复时间、阿托品化时间、意识恢复时间、胆碱酯酶活力恢复50%以上时间、阿托品和长托宁用量、药物耐受、中毒反跳、中间综合征、迟发性神经病、住院时间和死亡情况。结果治疗组各指标均优于对照组,均差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论思密达、大黄是目前彻底清除AOPP患者胃肠道残留毒物较好的导泻、吸附联合用药,减少了药物用量和并发症、缩短了住院时间。%Objective investigate the effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of organopjophorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Seventy-six patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning underwent conventional treatment including thorough gastric lavage, muscular injection of penehyckiine hydrochloride, intravenous injection of atropine through micropumping, and intravenous drip of pyraloxime methylchloride. The patients were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: Group A underdoing catharsis with 200 ml of Chinese Rhubarb powder and then suspension of Smecta through gastric tube 2h later as a cycle per 4 hours for 48 hours, and Group B undergoing irrigation of magnesium sulphate solution and suspension of Fuller's earth per 4 hours as a cycle for 48 hours. The effects were observed. Results The first defecation yime, recovery time of gastrointestinal tract, time of atropinization time, consciousness recovery time, recovery time of cholinesterase activity, and length

  12. Comparison of two commonly practiced atropinization regimens in acute organophosphorus and carbamate poisoning, doubling doses vs. ad hoc: a prospective observational study.

    Perera, P M S; Shahmy, S; Gawarammana, I; Dawson, A H

    2008-06-01

    There is a wide variation and lack of evidence in current recommendations for atropine dosing schedules leading to subsequent variation in clinical practice. Therefore, we sought to examine the safety and effectiveness of a titrated vs. ad hoc atropine treatment regimen in a cohort of patients with acute cholinesterase inhibitor pesticide poisoning. A prospective cohort study was conducted in three district secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka using a structured data collection form that collected details of clinical symptoms and outcomes of cholinesterase inhibitor pesticide poisoning, atropine doses, and signs of atropinization. We compared two hospitals that used a titrated dosing protocol based on a structured monitoring sheet for atropine infusion with another hospital using an ad hoc regime. During the study, 272 symptomatic patients with anticholinesterase poisoning requiring atropine were admitted to the three hospitals. Outcomes of death and ventilation were analyzed for all patients, 226 patients were prospectively assessed for atropine toxicity. At baseline, patients in the titrated dose cohort had clinical signs consistent with greater toxicity. This in part may be due to ingestion of more toxic organophosphates. They received less pralidoxime and atropine, and were less likely to develop features of atropine toxicity, such as delirium (1% vs. 17%), hallucinations (1% vs. 35%), or either (1% vs. 35%) and need for patient restraint (3% vs. 48%) compared with the ad hoc dose regime. After adjusting for the pesticides ingested, there was no difference in mortality and ventilatory rates between protocols. Ad hoc high dose atropine regimens are associated with more frequent atropine toxicity without any obvious improvement in patient outcome compared with doses titrated to clinical effect. Atropine doses should be titrated against response and toxicity. Further education and the use of a structured monitoring sheet may assist in more appropriate

  13. Determination of Levels of Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, and Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues in Vegetables from Markets in Dar es Salaam by GC-MS

    John A. M. Mahugija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the levels of pesticides and metabolites in vegetables from major markets in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. Samples of fresh cabbage, spinach, and onions from the markets were analysed for pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by dichloromethane : cyclohexane mixture and the extracts were cleaned up using Florisil. The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Pesticides and metabolites were detected in 72.2% of the samples. The detected pesticide residues and their highest mean concentrations were p,p′-DDT 4.00 × 10−3 mg/kg, p,p′-DDD 6.40 × 10−1 mg/kg, o,p′-DDD 1.00 × 10−2 mg/kg, α-endosulfan 6.00 × 10−1 mg/kg, β-endosulfan 2.10 × 10−1 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos 3.00 mg/kg, and cypermethrin 4.00 × 10−2 mg/kg. The most frequently detected compounds were p,p′-DDD and chlorpyrifos. The order of contamination was spinach > cabbage > onions. Generally, there were no significant variations in concentrations of pesticide residues among samples and sampling sites, which indicated similarities in contamination patterns. The concentrations of contaminants were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs in 33.3–50% of the samples. The findings indicated risks and concerns for public health.

  14. 通用浓度加和模型预测有机磷与三嗪农药对绿藻的联合毒性%Predicting joint toxicity of organophosphorus and triazine pesticides on green algae using the generalized concentration addition model

    葛会林; 刘树深; 苏冰霞

    2014-01-01

    A microplate algae toxicity assay was performed to test the single and combined toxicities of five organophosphorus pesticides and four triazine herbicides. According to the median effect concentration (EC50), the toxicity effect on the 96h growth inhibition of Scenedesmus obliquus was in the following order:simetryn>atrazine>prometon > metamitron > glyphosate > dichlorvos > phosphamidon > acephate > methamidophos. This indicated that triazine herbicides inhibiting photosynthetic electron transport had greater toxicity than organophosphorus pesticides. The mixtures toxicities were evaluated by using generalized concentration addition (GCA) as the reference model. The mixtures of triazine herbicides in the ratios of EC50 and EC10 (10% effect concentration) presented additive toxicity on Scenedesmus obliquus. The mixtures of organophosphorus pesticides in the ratios of EC50 and EC10 presented additive toxicity in low concentration range and synergistic toxicity in high concentration range. The mixtures of organophosphorus and triazine pesticides in the ratios of EC50 and EC10 presented additive toxicity in low concentration range and synergistic toxicity in high concentration range.%基于微板藻毒性试验测定5个有机磷农药与4个三嗪类农药的单个及联合毒性。根据半数效应浓度(EC50),对斜生栅藻96h生长抑制的毒性大小顺序为:西草净>阿特拉津>扑灭通>苯嗪草酮>草甘膦>敌敌畏>磷胺>乙酰甲胺磷>甲胺磷。这表明直接干扰光合作用电子传输的三嗪除草剂的藻毒性明显大于有机磷农药。以通用浓度加和作为参考模型,三嗪类农药按 EC50和 EC10(10%效应浓度)浓度比的混合物对斜生栅藻呈现加和毒性。有机磷农药按 EC50和 EC10浓度比的混合物在低浓度呈现加和毒性,在高浓度呈现协同毒性。有机磷与三嗪类农药按EC50和EC10浓度比的混合物在低浓度为加和毒性,在高浓度为协同毒性。

  15. Acute oral and percutaneous toxicity of pesticides to mallards: Correlations with mammalian toxicity data

    Hudson, R.H.; Haegele, M.A.; Tucker, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Acute oral (po) and 24-hr percutaneous (perc) LD50 values for 21 common pesticides (19 anticholinesterases, of which 18 were organophosphates, and one was a carbamate; one was an organochlorine central nervous system stimulant; and one was an organonitrogen pneumotoxicant) were determined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Three of the pesticides tested were more toxic percutaneously than orally. An index to the percutaneous hazard of a pesticide, the dermal toxicity index (DTI = po LD50/perc LD50 ? 100), was also calculated for each pesticide. These toxicity values in mallards were compared with toxicity data for rats from the literature. Significant positive correlations were found between log po and log percutaneous LD50 values in mallards (r = 0.65, p 0.10). Variations in percutaneous methodologies are discussed with reference to interspecies variation in toxicity values. It is recommended that a mammalian DTI value approaching 30 be used as a guideline for the initiation of percutaneous toxicity studies in birds, when the po LD50 and/or projected percutaneous LD50 are less than expected field exposure levels.

  16. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    João Bosco de Salles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon.

  17. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    Bosco de Salles, João; Matos Lopes, Renato; de Salles, Cristiane M. C.; Cassano, Vicente P. F.; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Cunha Bastos, Vera L. F.; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  18. Three-dimensional graphene aerogel-supported iron oxide nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruit juices followed by gas chromatographic determination.

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan

    2016-04-22

    In this research, a magnetic three dimensional-graphene nanocomposite (3D-G-Fe3O4) was prepared, characterized and used as an effective nanoadsorbent in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from juice samples prior to gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection (GC-NPD). The properties and morphology of 3D-G-Fe3O4 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The main experimental parameters affecting extraction recoveries including extraction time, amount of adsorbent, pH of sample solution, salt concentration and desorption conditions were carefully studied and optimized. The results showed wide linear concentration ranges with determination coefficients between 0.9973 and 0.9999. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of the method and limits of quantification (S/N=10) were from 1.2 to 5.1 ng L(-1) and 3.4-17.0 ng L(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day RSDs were 2.6-5.1% and 3.5-6.9%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of OPPs in fruit juices (apple, orange, grape, sour-cherry and apricot) with recoveries in range of 86.6-107.5%. The GC-NPD results were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results demonstrated that with combination of highly interconnected 3D network structure and magnetism property of adsorbent, 3D-G-Fe3O4 aerogel exhibited exceptional extraction ability towards the OPPs.

  19. Development of a MAb-based immunoassay for the simultaneous determination of O,O-diethyl and O,O-dimethyl organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable and fruit samples pretreated with QuEChERS.

    Zhao, Fengchun; Hu, Chunyan; Wang, Huimin; Zhao, Longyu; Yang, Zhengyou

    2015-12-01

    To develop a broad-specificity immunoassay for organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), a broad-specificity monoclonal antibody (MAb) for OPs against a generic hapten, O,O-diethyl O-(3-carboxyphenyl) phosphorothioate with the carboxy group in the meta position of the benzene ring, was produced. Eight haptens were prepared and covalently attached to ovalbumin (OVA) for use as coating antigens, and the optimum coating antigen was selected. Then, a sensitive and broadly class selective competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) based on the MAb and the optimum coating antigen (hapten H-OVA, possessing an O,O-dimethyl generic structure and linked through a linear spacer arm) was developed and optimized. The MAb developed in this study showed quite different cross-reactivity and selectivity compared to previously produced anti-OPs broad-specificity MAbs. Specifically, the MAb showed high and uniform sensitivity to seven O,O-diethyl OPs and six O,O-dimethyl OPs. With the optimum ciELISA, the IC50 values of the 13 OPs were determined as 23.1∼151.2 ng mL(-1). The average IC50 and coefficient of variation (CV) for the IC50 values of the 13 OPs were 74.6 ng mL(-1) and 33.9%, respectively. For the recovery study, a QuEChERS approach based on dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) was implemented to decrease the matrix effects of vegetable and fruit samples. The recoveries of six representative OPs from the spiked samples ranged from 89.4 to 135.5%; the CV ranged from 3.5 to 15.7%. The ciELISA was also applied to real samples, followed by confirmation with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis. The results demonstrated that the ciELISA is suitable for monitoring OP contamination in vegetable and fruit samples.

  20. Sampling of organophosphorus pesticides at trace levels in the atmosphere using XAD-2 adsorbent and analysis by gas chromatography coupled with nitrogen-phosphorus and ion-trap mass spectrometry detectors.

    Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale; Cinelli, Giuseppe; Notardonato, Ivan

    2012-09-01

    This paper shows an analytical methodology based on solid-phase extraction by XAD-2 adsorbent and gas chromatography (GC) coupled with nitrogen-phosphorus (NPD) and ion-trap mass spectrometry detectors (ITMS) in negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode analyses for investigating organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) at trace levels (in nanograms per cubic meter) in the atmosphere: in particular, we set up a procedure for analyzing 38 OPs. For the analytical methodology linearity responses have been obtained in GC-NPD (r > 0.9982) and GC-NCI/ITMS (r > 0.9974) in a large linearity range (0.10-500 pg μL(-1) in both cases) whereas the limits of detection range between 0.01 and 0.03 pg μL(-1) in both the techniques with a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 9.0 in both cases. Particular attention has been devoted to investigate the effect of different solvents (n-hexane, benzene, chloroform, carbon disulfide, acetonitrile) on the OP recovery as well the breakthrough volumes have been evaluated (100% recovery up to 4,286 L g(-1)). The study has also investigated the OP recoveries at different sampling flow rates (1.5 and 2.0 L min(-1)) for determining the optimal conditions for sample collection. Finally, the whole approach has been successfully applied to real samples collected in four different areas in the Molise region (Central Italy) during different seasons: the results show that parathion-ethyl, dimethoate, omethoate, and malathion are present in all periods at low levels (ranging between 70 and 10 ng m(-3)): their levels in such periods can be correlated with spraying as well atmospheric conditions favoring the dispersion/accumulation of these pollutants.

  1. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management.

  2. 血清中16种有机磷农药GC/MS/MS检测方法的研究%Determination of 16 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides in serum by using GC/MS/MS

    周志荣; 付慧; 罗添; 林少彬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a method of determining the presence and concentration of 16 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides in serum by GC/MS/MS. Method The parent ions of each pesticide was detected by running GC/MS in a full scan mode, and the peak areas and the ratio of signal to noise of each product ion were compared by setting different CID voltages. The CID voltage for each parent ion was optimized and determined. Serum samples were solid-phase extracted by Oasis HLB and eluted with ethyl ether after being concentrated and made to constant volume with ethyl ether, and then were tested by GC/MS/MS. Results The correlation coefficient for each compound in the range of 0 - 1000ng/ml was greater than 0. 990. Recoveries of standard addition were 75% - 129% ,RSD < 10% . The intra-day and inter-day RSD was less than 15% (n =6). The limits of quantification were less than 2ng/ml except for dichlorovos (55ng/ml). Conclusion GC/MS/MS assay is sensitive and accurate for the determination of pesticides in serum.%目的 应用GC/MS/MS建立测定血清中敌敌畏、氧化乐果等16种有机磷农药的分析方法.方法 首先做GC/MS全扫描分析,确定16种化合物的母离子,然后比较不同碰撞诱导裂解(CID)电压时二级质谱中特征离子的峰面积大小以及信噪比,对CID电压进行优化,从而确定各化合物的色谱质谱条件.样品用Oasis HLB小柱进行固相萃取后,用乙酸乙酯洗脱,浓缩后再用乙酸乙酯定容后上机测定.结果 在0~1000ng/ml范围内,16种化合物的线性相关系数均大于0.995,加标回收率在75%~129%之间,RSD <10%;日内和日间相对标准偏差小于15%(n=6).除敌敌畏的检测限为55ng/ml外,其余待测物均检出限均小于2ng/ml.结论 该方法灵敏度高、准确性好,适合于血清中有机磷农药的分析测定.

  3. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    Kiljanek Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pesticides was reviewed. The poisoning symptoms, incident definitions, and monitoring systems, as well as the interpretation of the analytical results, were also reviewed. The range of pesticides, and the detected concentrations of pesticides in poisoned honeybee samples, were reviewed. And, for the first time, cases of poisoning related to neonicotinoids were reviewed. The latter especially is of practical importance and could be helpful to analysts and investigators of honeybee poisoning incidents. It is assumed that secondary poisoning induced by plant collected materials contaminated with systemic pesticides occurs. Food stored in a hive and contaminated with systemic pesticides consumed continuously by the same generation of winter bees, may result in sub-lethal intoxication. This leads to abnormal behaviour identified during acute intoxication. The final result is that the bees discontinue their social role in the honeybee colony super organism, and colony collapse disorder (CCD takes place. The process described above refers primarily to robust and strong colonies that were able to collect plenty of food due to effective plant protection.

  4. Solar photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} modified with WO{sub 3} on the degradation of an organophosphorus pesticide

    Ramos-Delgado, N.A. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Gracia-Pinilla, M.A. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Desarrollo de Ingeniería y Tecnología, PIIT Km 6, Carretera al Aeropuerto, Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Maya-Treviño, L.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Guzman-Mar, J.L. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Hernández-Ramírez, A., E-mail: aracely.hernandezrm@uanl.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} (2 and 5%) were tested in the photocatalytic malathion degradation. • The use of solar radiation in the photocatalytic degradation process was evaluated. • Modified catalyst showed greater photocatalytic activity than pure TiO{sub 2}. • The mineralization rate was improved when WO{sub 3} content on TiO{sub 2} was 2%. -- Abstract: In this study, the solar photocatalytic activity (SPA) of WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts synthesized by the sol–gel method with two different percentages of WO{sub 3} (2 and 5%wt) was evaluated using malathion as a model contaminant. For comparative purpose bare TiO{sub 2} was also prepared by sol–gel process. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy (DRUV–vis), specific surface area by the BET method (SSA{sub BET}), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high annular angle dark field detector (STEM-HAADF). The XRD, Raman, HRTEM and STEM-HAADF analyses indicated that WO{sub 3} was present as a monoclinic crystalline phase with nanometric cluster sizes (1.1 ± 0.1 nm for 2% WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} and 1.35 ± 0.3 nm for 5% WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}) and uniformly dispersed on the surface of TiO{sub 2}. The particle size of the materials was 19.4 ± 3.3 nm and 25.6 ± 3 nm for 2% and 5% WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}, respectively. The SPA was evaluated on the degradation of commercial malathion pesticide using natural solar light. The 2% WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst exhibited the best photocatalytic activity achieving 76% of total organic carbon (TOC) abatement after 300 min compared to the 5% WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} and bare TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts, which achieved 28 and 47% mineralization, respectively. Finally, experiments were performed to assess 2% WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst activity on

  5. Intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas Acute poisoning from pesticides

    Jaime Jesús Durán-Nah

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiología de la intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas (IAP en el Hospital General O'Horán de Mérida, Yucatán, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron los expedientes de 33 pacientes ³ 13 años, tratados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI, entre 1994 y 1998. Se recopilaron variables demográficas y clínicas relevantes, y se aplicó estadística descriptiva. RESULTADOS: En la población estudiada predominó el sexo masculino (82% del medio rural (70%, y la edad media fue de 34 ± 15.8 años. El intento de suicidio fue causa frecuente de IAP (79%, y en 33% de los casos la intoxicación se produjo por la utilización de organofosforados. La mortalidad fue de 12%. CONCLUSIONES: La IAP fue baja entre los sujetos del medio rural, por lo que los resultados de este estudio parecen no reflejar la realidad del problema. Es importante añadir que los plaguicidas son utilizados con relativa frecuencia para el intento de suicidio.OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiologic pattern of acute pesticide poisoning (APP in a general hospital in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1994 to 1998, 33 patients 13 years of age or older with diagnosis of APP were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze information. RESULTS: Males were frequently affected (82%, specially those coming from rural areas (60%. The mean age of the group was 34 ± 15.8 years. In 79% of the cases, pesticides were used to commit suicide and 33% of poisoning cases were due to organophospate pesticides. The mortality rate was 12%. CONCLUSIONS: In this small sample, acute poisoning from pesticides in the agricultural setting may be underestimated, since it was less frequent than in the general population. APP was more commonly used by indigent people to commit suicide.

  6. Acute toxicity test for terrestrial hazard assessment with exposure of Folsomia candida to pesticides in an aqueous medium

    Houx, N.W.H.; Dekker, A.; Kammen-Polman, van A.M.M.; Ronday, R.

    1996-01-01

    An acute-toxicty test is described in which the springtail Folsomia candida was exposed to pesticides in water for four days. The test method has been designed for the direct and economical chemical analyses of all the concentrations during the execution of the test. The 96-hour EC50 values determin

  7. 自制双层固相萃取柱在新会陈皮及其制品中11种有机磷农药测定中的应用%Application of homemade double solid phase extraction column for determination of 11 organophosphorus pesticides in Xinhui dried orange peel and its products

    彭晓俊; 秦汉; 温绮靖; 梁伟华; 梁优珍

    2016-01-01

    By packing N-propylethylenediamine ( PSA ) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) separately,a homemade double solid phase extraction purification column was made. A gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides,including dichlorovos,methamidophos,acephate,phor-ate,omethoate,dimethoate,chlorpyrifos,malathion,parathion-ethyl,quinalphos and ethion in Xinhui dried orange peel and its products. The samples were centrifuged after extracted by ethyl acetate,and then cleaned up with a homemade double PSA/MWNTs solid phase extrac-tion column. The separation of target compounds was performed on an Agilent RTS-1701 capil-lary column with temperature programmed within 25 min,then determined by a flame photo-metric detector and quantified by using external standard method. The factors affecting the determination,such as packing type,amount of packing,elution mode,extraction solution and ultrasonic time,were investigated. Under the optimized experimental conditions,the novel method showed a good linearity in the range of 0. 020-1. 0 mg/L with correlation coefficients of 0. 999 0-0. 999 8,the limits of detection were 3. 5-9. 6 μg/kg for the pesticides. The new method was successfully applied to the analyses of organophosphorus pesticides in Xinhui dried orange peel and its products. The recoveries spiked with organophosphorus pesticides standards at three concentration levels of 10,25 and 100 μg/kg in samples were 50. 8%-109% with relative standard deviations of 2. 7%-8. 5%. The established method is accurate,sensitive,simple and fast. The detection limits of the method meet the limited requirements of organophosphorus pesticide residues. The homemade column is cost saving and worthy of popularization and application. The study provides a useful method for the analysis of trace substance.%以自制改性多壁碳纳米管(MWNTs)和 N-丙基乙二胺(PSA)填料分层填装的双层固相萃取

  8. 水果和蔬菜中23种有机磷农药残留的SPE-GC/MS同时测定法%Simultaneous Determination of 23 Kinds of Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables by SPE-GC/MS

    郁倩

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立同时检测果蔬中23种有机磷类农药的快速灵敏的分析方法 .方法 采用气质联用的方法 ,同时对果蔬中的23种有机磷类农药进行定性及定量分析.结果 所有23种有机磷类农药均在30 min内流出,分离良好,标准曲线线性良好,相关系数r>0.996,有较好的准确度和精密度,回收率为73.7%~107.3%,相对标准偏差小于6%.结论 应用该方法 对35份果蔬中有机磷类农药进行测定,阳性率3.7%.实践证明该方法 选择性好,分辨率高、灵敏度高,符合分析要求,具有简单、快速的特点.%[ Objective] To establish a rapid and sensitive method for the determination of 23 Kinds of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. [ Methods] Gas chromatography mass spectrometry( GC-MS) was used to determine 23 Kinds of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruits and velgetables. [ Results ] Good separation was achieved in the 23 Kinds of organophosphorus pesticide in 30 minutes, the standard curve showed good linearity, r > 0.996. The precision and accuracy were satisfactory with recovery percentages ranging from73.7% to 107.3%, and the relative standard deviations was lower than 6%. [ Conclusion ]35 fruits and vegetables have been determined by the method and the positive rate was 3.7%. The method was proved to be satisfactory in selectivity, accuracy, sensitivity, with characteristics of simple and fast and meets the analysis requires.

  9. Acute toxicity of agricultural pesticides to embryo-larval and juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Agbohessi, P T; Imorou Toko, I; Houndji, A; Gillardin, V; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2013-05-01

    Acute toxicities of Tihan 175 O-TEQ, as well as its active ingredients flubendiamide and spirotetramat, and of Thionex 350 EC (active compound endosulfan) were measured for embryo-larval and juvenile stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus to assess risks of pesticide use in the cotton basin in Benin (West Africa). For embryo-larval stages, Tihan was more toxic (LC5048h 20 ppm) than Thionex (LC5048h 56 ppm), and flubendiamide was more toxic (LC5048h 2.0 ppm) than spirotetramat (LC5048h 8.44 ppm). All decreased hatching rates. Tihan and spirotetramat disturbed larval swimming coordination; flubendiamide induced tail cleavage. For juvenile fish, Thionex was more toxic (LC5096h 0.22 ppm) than Tihan (LC5096h 8.8 ppm), and flubendiamide (LC5096h 4.7 ppm) was more toxic than spirotetramat (LC5096h 6.0 ppm). Eggs were more resistant than juvenile fish to all tested pesticides except flubendiamide. Although Thionex was more toxic to juvenile fish, replacing Thionex with Tihan may be undesirable for survival of eggs and larvae.

  10. [Italian Program for Surveillance of Acute Pesticide-Related Illnesses: cases identified in 2005].

    Settimi, L; Davanzo, F; Travaglia, A; Locatelli, C; Cilento, I; Volpe, C; Russo, A; Miceli, G; Fracassi, A; Maiozzi, P; Marcello, I; Sesan, F; Urbani, E

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the Italian System for Surveillance of Acute Pesticide-Related Illnesses (SIAF) identified 625 cases, among which 520 unintentionally exposed. The majority of these subjects were men (75%) and aged 26-65 years (65%). About 63% of all exposures occurred at work. Severity for these illnesses was low for 94% and moderate for 5%. Four cases were classified as illnesses of high severity. Some 70% of all the reported exposures occurred between May and September. The active ingredients responsible for the largest number of cases were: glyphosate (n. 56), copper sulphate (n. 55), methomyl (n. = 52), metam-sodium (n. 24). Three episodes of collective environmental exposure to soil fumigants involving 23 subjects were also detected.

  11. Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013

    Nirmalla Barros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States. Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9. Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42% of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25% and inhalation (18% exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%. Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53% and insect repellants (31% were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%, while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied.

  12. [Today's threat of use of organophosphorus compounds].

    Sokołowski, Rafał; Płusa, Tadeusz

    2015-09-01

    Organophosphates are stable cholinesterases inhibitors (AChE). Inhibition of AChE activity leads to the accumulation of large amounts of acetylcholine and hyperactivity of the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine receptors - muscarinic and nicotinic. This group included tabun, sarin, soman and VX gases. Exposure to gaseous form causes symptoms within a few seconds of exposure. This depends on the gas concentration in the atmosphere. The most sensitive organ is the eyes and the respiratory system. Severe poisoning are characterized by the immediate loss of consciousness with convulsions. Therapeutic management of acute poisoning organophosphorus compounds boils down to treating symptomatic and supportive vital functions. Monitoring of cardiovascular, respiratory and renal failure in intensive care gives only guarantee the effective treatment of poisoning. Properties toxic organophosphorus compounds also are of interest to terrorist groups.

  13. Highly Strained Organophosphorus Compounds

    Slootweg, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    In our research on small, strained organophosphorus ring systems we became interested in the synthesis and applications of species that are even more strained than the parent phosphirane, by introducing an exocyclic double bond (methylenephosphirane), and by cyclopropyl spirofusion to the edge (e.g

  14. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  15. 气相色谱-串联质谱法测定水中痕量有机磷农药和甲萘威%Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides and Carbaryl in Environmental Water by Gas Chromatography with Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    施择; 黄云; 张榆霞; 赵安楠; 金玉; 铁程

    2014-01-01

    A method of gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was estab-lished for determining organophosphorus pesticides and carbaryl in water.The experimental results showed that all the target compounds had good linear relations in the range of 20.0 μg/L~1 000 μg/L.The method limits of detection were 0.004 μg/L~0.01 μg/L.The recoveries of the target compounds ranged from 71.8% to 94.5%and the RSDs were between 3.7% ~8.5% for three concentrations of 0.02 μg/L,0.05 μg/L and 0.1 μg/L. The method could meet the requirements for determination of trace organophosphorus pesticide and carbaryl in water samples.%采用二氯甲烷萃取水样,气相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定水中有机磷农药和甲萘威。试验表明:方法在20.0μg/L ~1000μg/L范围内,各目标化合物线性良好;方法检出限为0.004μg/L~0.01μg/L;对实际水样进行3个质量浓度水平的加标回收试验,回收率在71.8%~94.5%之间,RSD为3.7%~8.5%,满足水中痕量有机磷农药和甲萘威的测定要求。

  16. Management of Treatment and Prevention of Acute OP Pesticide Poisoning by Medical Informatics, Telemedicine and Nanomedicine

    Ganesh Chandra Sahoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphorous pesticide (OP poisoning kills a lot of people each year. Treatment of acute OP poisoning is of very difficult task and is a time taking event. Present day informatics methods (telemedicine, bioinformatics methods (data mining, molecular modeling, docking, cheminformatics, and nanotechnology (nanomedicine should be applied in combination or separately to combat the rise of death rate due to OP poisoning. Use of informatics method such as Java enabled camera mobiles will enable us early detection of insecticidal poisoning. Even the patients who are severely intoxicated (suicidal attempts can be diagnosed early. Telemedicine can take care for early diagnosis and early treatment. Simultaneously efforts must be taken with regard to nanotechnology to find lesser toxic compounds (use less dose of nanoparticle mediated compounds: nano-malathion as insecticides and find better efficacy of lesser dose of compounds for treatment (nano-atropine of OP poisoning. Nano-apitropine (atropine oxide may be a better choice for OP poisoning treatment as the anticholinergic agent; apitropine and hyoscyamine have exhibited higher binding affinity than atropine sulfate. Synthesis of insecticides (malathion with an antidote (atropine, apitropine in nanoscale range will prevent the lethal effect of insecticides.

  17. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  18. Composition and Distribution Characteristics of Organophosphorus Pesticides in the Sea Water of Sanggou Bay%桑沟湾水体中有机磷农药残留组成与分布

    白红妍; 韩彬; 郑立; 杨东方; 王小如; 孙丕喜

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) of composition and distribution characteristics in the sea waters of Sanggou Bay have been studied by Gas Chromatography-Mass Speetrometry (GC-MS). Eight OPPs in the seawaters of Sanggou Bay were determined by using GC-MS with the external standard quantitative method in the Spring and Autumn of 2009. The range of concentration of ∑OPPs in the bay was 0.001 -0.265 μg/L with an average of 0. 061 μg/L. Six different types of OPPs were detected with the main pollutants being malathion and parathion. The distribution of OPPs from the survey in Sanggou Bay are presented in this paper. The results show that the concentration of OPPs is higher in the centre, lower far from the shore and decreasing from the outside to the inside of the bay at the surface water body, with the highest concentration at the bottom water body near the mouth of the bay in Spring. The concentration of OPPs increases from northwest and northeast outside of the bay to inside at the surface water body and increases from inside to outside at the bottom water body in Autumn. The results provide some references for the distribution characteristics of OPPs in this region.%采用气相色谱-质谱法定量测定桑沟湾海域水体中有机磷农药残留,分析了其组成与分布特征.2009年4月(春季)和10月(秋季)桑沟湾海域水体中8种有机磷农药的含量测定结果表明:桑沟湾有机磷农药的总浓度水平是春季小于秋季,有机磷农药的总浓度范围为0.001~0.265μg/L,均值为0.061μg/L.该海域水体中共检出6种有机磷农药,马拉硫磷和对硫磷是桑沟湾水体中主要的有机磷农药污染物.有机磷农药分布特征大致呈现春季表层水体中近岸高,离岸低,由湾口向湾内递减,底层水体中在湾口处浓度最高;秋季表层水体中由西北岸、东北湾口向湾中央渐增,底层水体中呈现由湾内向湾口递增的趋势.本研究提供的数据可为了解该海域

  19. Effect of pesticide use in fruit production orchards on shallow ground water.

    Loewy, R M; Carvajal, L G; Novelli, M; de D'Angelo, A M Pechen

    2003-05-01

    As a part of landscape-scale study, ground water samples were collected from 30 wells located in fruit production farms belonging to the valley of Neuquen river during the period 1995-1998 and analyzed for organophosphate pesticides. As a consequence of the leaching process, ground water from the Valley of Neuquen River frequently contained concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides that exceeded acute toxicity risk ratios established to protect aquatic life. It was found that some pesticides, as azinphos methyl, had a high detection frequency, 66% of the samples, with concentrations varying from no detection to 48.9 ppb. Dimethoate, metidathion and phosmet were also detected with frequencies of 14.1, 13.6 and 10.8% and with concentration ranks from no detection to a maximum value of 10.9, 2.0 and 15.5 ppb, respectively. Seasonal variations and temporal trends were found for these compounds in ground water.

  20. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, domain of application and prediction.

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-02-13

    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and characterized by a good applicability domain. The best results were obtained with a 17/9/1 Artificial Neural Network model trained with the Quasi Newton back propagation (BFGS) algorithm. The prediction accuracy for the external validation set was estimated by the Q(2)ext and the root mean square error (RMS) which are equal to 0.948 and 0.201, respectively. 98.6% of external validation set is correctly predicted and the present model proved to be superior to models previously published. Accordingly, the model developed in this study provides excellent predictions and can be used to predict the acute oral toxicity of pesticides, particularly for those that have not been tested as well as new pesticides.

  1. 绍兴市2006至2011年急性农药中毒分析%The characteristics and trends of acute pesticide poisoning of Shaoxing in 2006 to 2011

    蒋国钦; 连灵君; 王春辉; 李明; 王纪刚; 潘南燕; 王莎莎

    2013-01-01

    cases were missed,accounting for 2.1% (44/2068) of all cases.Among the 2024 cases,119 (5.9%) died; the fatality rates of productive poisoning and unproductive poisoning were 1.0% (3/289) and 6.7% (116/1735),respectively.The reported cases included 1038 (51.3%) females and 986 (48.7%) males,and there were no significant differences in the ratio between male and female cases of acute pesticide poisoning from 2006 to 2011 (x2=9.16,P=0.10).The 2024 cases had a mean age of 47.0±18.7 years; the male cases had a significantly higher mean age than the female cases (50.7±19.0 vs 43.4±17.8 years,t=9.01,P<0.001).Among the 2024 cases,289 (14.3%) suffered productive poisoning,and 1735 (85.7%) suffered unproductive poisoning.In the 986 male cases,219 (22.2%) suffered productive poisoning; in the 1038 female cases,968 (93.3%) suffered unproductive poisoning.The pesticides that caused poisoning included insecticide (86.7%,1754/2024),herbicide (5.1%,104/2024),rodenticide (3.6%,72/2024),and bactericide,mixed preparation,biochemical pesticides,and other four categories of pesticides (4.6%,94/2024); of the 1754 cases caused by insecticide,1455 (83.0%) were attributed to organophosphorus insecticide.Conclusion The incidence of unproductive acute pesticide poisoning is high in Shaoxing,and it mainly affects females.Most cases of acute pesticide poisoning are aged 30~60 years.Insecticide is the main cause of poisoning.It is necessary to enhance health knowledge popularization and safety management of pesticides.

  2. Organophosphorus Compounds in Organic Electronics.

    Shameem, Muhammad Anwar; Orthaber, Andreas

    2016-07-25

    This Minireview describes recent advances of organophosphorus compounds as opto-electronic materials in the field of organic electronics. The progress of (hetero-) phospholes, unsaturated phosphanes, and trivalent and pentavalent phosphanes since 2010 is covered. The described applications of organophosphorus materials range from single molecule sensors, field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, to polymeric materials for organic photovoltaic applications.

  3. Acute toxicity of two pesticides Diazinon and Deltamethrin on Tench (Tinca tinca larvae and fingerling

    Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diazinon and deltamethrin are common useful agricultural pesticides in the world. The present research compared the acute toxicity of diazinon and deltamethrin to tench larvae and fingerling. LC50 of 24 h, 48-h, 72 h and 96 h were determined using a probit. Fish samples (21 fish in each test group were exposed to different concentrations of diazinon and deltamethrin (diazinon: for fingerling between1-20 ppm and larvae 0.25-2 ppm, deltamethrin: for fingerling between 0.01-0.2 ppm and larvae 0.0025-0.02 for 96 h and mortality were recorded. The LC50 96 h of diazinon for fingerlings and larvae were 6.77 and 0.63, respectively. The LC50 96 h of deltamethrin for fingerlings and larvae were 0.07 and 0.005 ppm, respectively. According to the results, larvae are more sensitive than fingerlings, LC50 values indicated that deltamethrin is more toxic than diazinon to Tinca tinca, so we suggest to use diazinon instead of deltamethrin in agriculture.

  4. Transient expression of organophosphorus hydrolase to enhance the degrading activity of tomato fruit on coumaphos

    Jie-hong ZHAO; De-gang ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    We constructed an expression cassette of the organophosphorus pesticide degrading (opd)gene under the control of the E8 promoter.Then opd was transformed into tomato fruit using an agroinfiltration transient expression system.β-Glueuronidase (GUS) staining,reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR),wavelength scanning,and fluorescent reaction were performed to examine the expression of the opd gene and the hydrolysis activity on eoumaphos of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) in tomato fruit.The results show that the agroinfiltrated tomato fruit-expressed OPH had the maximum hydrolysis activity of about 11.59 U/mg total soluble protein.These results will allow us to focus on breeding transgenie plants that could not only enhance the degrading capability of fruit and but also hold no negative effects on pest control when spraying organophosphorus pesticides onto the seedlings in fields.

  5. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases.

    Boon, Polly E; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz; van der Voet, Hilko; Petersen, Annette; Ruprich, Jiri; Debegnach, Francesca; de Boer, Waldo J; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Brera, Carlo; van Klaveren, Jacob D; Busk, Leif

    2009-12-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data either (1) to national pesticide concentration data or (2) to a pooled database containing all national pesticide concentration data. We show that with this tool national exposure assessments can be performed in a harmonised way and that pesticide concentrations of other countries can be linked to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach for dietary exposure modelling.

  6. Determination of organophosphorus acids by thermo-spray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Wils, E.R.J.; Hulst, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of thirteen organophosphorus acids, hydrolysis products of nerve agents and pesticides, by a combination of ion-pair liquid chromatography on a reversed-phase C18 column and thermospray mass spectrometry was investigated. Ammonium acetate and three tetraalkylammonium salts with dif

  7. The Study of Predictive Endotracheal Intubation on the Severe Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning and Respiratory Insufficiency%预见性气管插管抢救重度有机磷农药中毒合并呼吸不全研究

    曾文军

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the effect of predictive endotracheal intubation on the patients with severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and respiratory insufficiency. Method:From October 2011 to October 2013,70 patients with severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and respiratory insufficiency in our hospital were selected and divided into 2 groups by random number table method. There were 35 cases in each group. Patients in two groups were provided treatment on a regular method,and the blood perfusion were included in the control group(not endotracheal intubation group),imposed predictability in the control group rescue under the condition of tracheal intubation into the observation group,the clinical rescue situation of cases in the two groups was analyzed and evaluated. Result:After treatment,the success rate of rescue and the case fatality rate of the cases in the observation group were 94.29%and 5.71%respectively,compared with 74.29%and 25.71%in the control group,and there was significant difference(P0.05).Conclusion:The patients with severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and respiratory insufficiency treated by predictability endotracheal intubation has exact treatment effect,and is suitable for popularization in future clinical application.%目的:探讨在重度有机磷农药中毒合并呼吸不全患者中实施预见性气管插管的方法及效果。方法:对2011年10月-2013年10月本院抢救的70例重度有机磷农药中毒合并呼吸不全患者进行随机数字表法分组,每组35例,两组均给予常规基础治疗,在此基础上,对照组(非气管插管组)实施血液灌流,观察组实施血液灌流及预见性气管插管,分析并评估两组病例的临床抢救情况。结果:观察组抢救成功率与病死率分别为94.29%、5.71%,明显优于对照组的74.29%、25.71%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:在重度有机磷农药中毒合并呼吸不全患者中实

  8. Sampling strategies for estimating acute and chronic exposures of pesticides in streams

    Crawford, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires that human exposure to pesticides through drinking water be considered when establishing pesticide tolerances in food. Several systematic and seasonally weighted systematic sampling strategies for estimating pesticide concentrations in surface water were evaluated through Monte Carlo simulation, using intensive datasets from four sites in northwestern Ohio. The number of samples for the strategies ranged from 4 to 120 per year. Sampling strategies with a minimal sampling frequency outside the growing season can be used for estimating time weighted mean and percentile concentrations of pesticides with little loss of accuracy and precision, compared to strategies with the same sampling frequency year round. Less frequent sampling strategies can be used at large sites. A sampling frequency of 10 times monthly during the pesticide runoff period at a 90 km 2 basin and four times monthly at a 16,400 km2 basin provided estimates of the time weighted mean, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile concentrations that fell within 50 percent of the true value virtually all of the time. By taking into account basin size and the periodic nature of pesticide runoff, costs of obtaining estimates of time weighted mean and percentile pesticide concentrations can be minimized.

  9. Carbamate and Organophosphorus Nematicides: Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and Effects on Dispersal.

    Pree, D J; Townshend, J L; Archibald, D E

    1989-10-01

    The sensitivities of acetylcholinesterases (ACHE) from the fungus-feeder Aphelenchus avenae and the plant-parasitic species Helicotylenchus dihystera and Pratylenchus penetrans and the housefly, Musca domestica, were compared using a radiometric assay which utilized H(3) acetylcholine as a substrate. Nematode ACHE were generally less sensitive to inhibition by organophosphorns and carbamate pesticides than were ACHE from the housefly. ACHE from the plant-parasitic species and A. avenae were generally similar in sensitivity. In soil, carbamates were more toxic than the organophosphorus pesticides to A. avenae. All pesticides tested affected nematode movement, but fenamiphos was more inhibitory than others. The effects on dispersal of nematodes may be an important mechanism in control by some nematicides.

  10. 控制高毒农药在预防农村急性农药中毒中的意义%Effects of controlling specific dangerous pesticides on prevention of acute pesticide poisoning in rural area

    张平; 赵江霞; 常秀丽; 周志俊

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of controlling the specific dangerous pesticides on prevention of acute pesticide poisoning in rural area. Methods The data of reported cases of pesticide poisoning were analyzed to find out the specific dangerous pesticide in acute pesticide poisoning. Then the occurrence of occupational pesticide poisoning and fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning were estimated under the hypothesis of removing the specific dangerous pesticides. Results The data indicated that parathion (including methyl parathion) was the specific dangerous pesticide inducing occupational pesticide poisoning.After removing the use of parathion, the hazard of pesticides which caused occupational pesticide poisoning would be significantly decreased(P<0.01 ). Parathion was also the most dangerous pesticide which caused nonoccupational pesticide poisoning, with its fatality up to 15.8%. If parathion was well controlled, the fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning would be declined from 9.4% to 7.4%. The analyses of related literatures also revealed the similar results. Conclusion The occurrence of occupational pesticide poisoning and fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning may decrease if the most dangerous pesticides are well supervised.%目的 探讨控制危害最大的农药在预防农村急性农药中毒中所起的作用.方法 通过对某省某县医院既往中毒病例的分析,发现在农村中最易发生中毒的特危农药,假设在控制这些农药后,估测生产性农药中毒的发生和非生产性农药中毒病死率的变化趋势.结果 对硫磷(含甲基对硫磷)是某省某县引起生产性农药中毒危害最大的农药,在控制了对硫磷农药的使用之后,生产性农药中毒危害的大小[生产性农药中毒的例数(A)与非生产性农药中毒的例数(B)的比值]由控制前的0.63下降为0.32,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).对硫磷同样是引起非生产性农药中毒危害

  11. Organophosphorus pentavalent compounds: history, synthetic methods of preparation and application as insecticides and antitumor agents; Compostos organofosforados pentavalentes: historico, metodos sinteticos de preparacao e aplicacoes como inseticidas e agentes antitumorais

    Santos, Viviane Martins Rebello dos; Donnici, Claudio Luis [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; DaCosta, Joao Batista Neves; Caixeiro, Janaina Marques Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: dacosta@ufrrj.br

    2007-01-15

    This paper is a review of the history, synthesis and application of organophosphorus compounds, especially of those of pentavalent phosphorus, such as phosphoramidates, phosphorothioates, phosphonates and phosphonic acids with insecticide and anticancer activities. The organophosphorus compounds with agrochemical applications show great structural variety, They include not only insecticides, but also fungicides, herbicides, and others. The large variety of commercially available organophosphorus pesticides is remarkable. Even more interesting is the high efficiency of some organophosphorus compounds as anticancer agents such as cyclophosphamide and its derivatives. (author)

  12. Acute toxicity of the pesticide methomyl on the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva): mortality and effects on four biomarkers.

    Li, Huixian; Jiang, Hui; Gao, Xiwu; Wang, Xiaojun; Qu, Weigang; Lin, Ronghua; Chen, Jiao

    2008-09-01

    In this study, the acute toxicity of the pesticide methomyl on the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) was evaluated using mortality and the activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) as endpoints. LC50 values were 1.228, 0.782, 0.538, and 0.425 mg/l at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, respectively. Methomyl caused a sharp decrease in specific activity of brain AChE around 48% at concentrations between 0.043 and 0.213 mg/l. A reduction higher than 40% in liver GST activity at concentrations between 0.085 and 0.213 mg/l was found, whereas no significant effects were observed in intestinal GST. A significant concentration-dependent decrease of GOT activity was found after 24 h of exposure to the pesticide but not after 96 h. No significant effects on GPT activity were observed. These results indicate that at the concentrations tested, methomyl is acutely toxic to the species P. parva, causing mortality, neurotoxic effects, and changes in some hepatic enzymes.

  13. Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Soil Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography and Negative Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry%加速溶剂萃取-气相色谱-负化学离子化质谱法测定土壤中有机磷农药

    林长青; 张纯淳; 李钟瑜; 高鹏

    2014-01-01

    An effective method for trace analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in soil was developed using accelerated solvent extraction ( ASE) followed by gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry ( GC-EI-MS) and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization- mass spectrometry ( GC-NCI-MS ) . The results show that both GC-EI-MS and GC-NCI-MS are sufficient for the daily analysis. GC-EI-MS method has an extensive application scope and is easy to operate. Also the GC-NCI-MS method has advantages in selectivity and sensitivity.%用加速溶剂萃取法( ASE)萃取土壤中的有机磷农药,用气相色谱-负化学离子化质谱法( GC-NCI-MS)进行测定,并与气相色谱-电子轰击电离质谱法( GC-EI-MS)进行了对比。结果表明,EI法和NCI法均能满足目前的有机磷农药的分析需要。 GC-EI-MS的适用范围比较广,操作比较简单;GC-NCI-MS在选择性和灵敏度等方面均具有较强优势。

  14. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  15. IN VITRO STUDY ON CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF THE ORGANOPHO-SPHOROUS PESTICIDE PROFENOFOS ON THE GILL CELL LINE, FG-9307, OF THE FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS)

    2001-01-01

    The FG-9307 cell line derived from the gill of flounder Paralichthys olivaceus was used in the present study to determine the acute cytotoxic effects of the organophosphorous pesticide, profenofos. It was found that the cell growth rate was markedly reduced by profenofos at the concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L tested; and that the fine structures of the cells were also altered by profenofos, as evidenced by dilation of nuclear membranes and mitochondria cristae, and presence of enlarged lysosomes with engulfed organelles and numerous vacuoles in the cytoplasm. Probably, mitochondria, the cell energy-generating sites, are the most prominent sites of profenofos cytotoxity in the cells. This seems to be the first report of the use of marine fish cell line for evaluation of the acute in vitro cytotoxicity of organophosphorus pesticide.

  16. Mutagenesis of organophosphorus hydrolase to enhance hydrolysis of the nerve agent VX.

    Gopal, S; Rastogi, V; Ashman, W; Mulbry, W

    2000-12-20

    Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) is capable of hydrolyzing a wide variety of organophosphorus pesticides and chemical warfare agents. However, the hydrolytic activity of OPH against the warfare agent VX is less than 0.1% relative to its activity against parathion and paraoxon. Based on the crystal structure of OPH and the similarities it shares with acetylcholinesterase, eight OPH mutants were constructed with the goal of increasing OPH activity toward VX. The activities of crude extracts from these mutants were measured using VX, demeton-S methyl, diisopropylfluoro-phosphate, ethyl parathion, paraoxon, and EPN as substrates. One mutant (L136Y) displayed a 33% increase in the relative VX hydrolysis rate compared to wild type enzyme. The other seven mutations resulted in 55-76% decreases in the relative rates of VX hydrolysis. There was no apparent relationship between the hydrolysis rates of VX and the rates of the other organophosphorus compounds tested.

  17. Biosensor for Direct Determination of Fenitrothion and EPN Using Recombinant Pseudomonas putida JS444 with Surface Expressed Organophosphorus Hydrolase. 1. Modified Clark Oxygen Electrode

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a first microbial biosensor for rapid and cost-effective determination of organophosphorus pesticides fenitrothion and EPN. The biosensor consisted of recombinant PNP-degrading/oxidizing bacteria Pseudomonas putida JS444 anchoring and displaying organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) on its cell surface as biological sensing element and a dissolved oxygen electrode as the transducer. Surface-expressed OPH catalyzed the hydrolysis of fenitrothion and EPN to release 3-methyl-4-nitr...

  18. Reducing acute poisoning in developing countries--options for restricting the availability of pesticides

    Konradsen, Flemming; van der Hoek, Wim; Cole, Donald C

    2003-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of people are dying around the world each year from the effects of the use, or misuse, of pesticides. This paper reviews the different options to reduce availability of the most hazardous chemicals, focusing on issues in developing countries. Emphasis is placed on the fatal ......, alcohol or drug addiction, emotional distress, depression, physical illness, social isolation or financial hardship. These should be addressed through preventive health programmes and community development efforts.......Hundreds of thousands of people are dying around the world each year from the effects of the use, or misuse, of pesticides. This paper reviews the different options to reduce availability of the most hazardous chemicals, focusing on issues in developing countries. Emphasis is placed on the fatal...... with safe and cost-effective alternatives, possibly guided by the establishment of a Minimum Pesticide List, and the development of future agricultural practices where pesticide usage is reduced to an absolute minimum. Underlying factors that make individuals at risk for self-harm include domestic problems...

  19. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment?

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Ellekilde Bonde, Jens Peter;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophospha...

  20. Is hair analysis for dialkyl phosphate metabolites a suitable biomarker for assessing past acute exposure to organophosphate pesticides?

    Tsatsakis, A M; Tutudaki, M; Tzatzarakis, M N; Dawson, A; Mohamed, F; Christaki, M; Alegakis, A K

    2012-03-01

    In the present paper, the possibility to use dialkyl phosphate metabolites (DAPs) hair segmental analysis as a biomarker of past acute exposure to organophosphates is examined. Hair samples of four acute poisoning survivors were collected and segmental hair analysis was performed. The total hair samples were divided to 1 cm segments and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the presence of four DAP metabolites, dimethyl phosphate (DMP), diethyl phosphate (DEP), diethyl thiophosphate (DETP) and diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP). Results were examined under the light of pesticide type and time of hair sample collection. Although DAPs were detected all along the hair shaft, higher concentrations (peaks) were detected in the segments proximate to the suicide period. It was also observed that the elevated concentrations of the present metabolites corresponded to the ones produced by the ingested parent compound. Conclusively, measurements of DAPs in the appropriate hair segments of OP-poisoned patients can be used for assessing past acute exposure to organophosphates in certain cases.

  1. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    Boon, Polly E.; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised...... at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data...... to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach...

  2. The comparison of clinical manifestation of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (OPP) between oral exposure and occupational exposure in field work%田间作业致有机磷农药中毒与口服中毒的临床比较

    胡雪珍; 卢中秋; 孙来芳; 王征

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨田间作业中毒和口服有机磷农药中毒在临床表现及治疗上的差异.方法 回顾性分析我院2007年7月至2010年7月收治的85例中、重度急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床资料,按中毒途径分为口服组(51例)和非口服组(34例),比较不同途径中毒后的临床表现、治疗特点及预后.结果 口服组中度中毒患者的肌颤肌痉挛和共济失调的发生率(86.4%、90.9%)均明显高于非口服组(50.0%、55.0%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01);口服组重度中毒患者的肺水肿、肌颤肌痉挛及昏迷的发生率(100.0%、89.7%、93.1%)均明显高于非口服组(71.4%、64.3%、50.0%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05 ).非口服组解毒时间[中度:(35.0±6.2)h、重度:(45.0±11.1)h]较口服组[中度:(49.0±7.7)h、重度:(77.0±10.3)h]明显缩短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).治疗后24、48、72 h,中、重度非口服组胆碱酯酶活力明显高于口服组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);中、重度非口服组的氯磷定用量、阿托品化用量及阿托品总量明显低于口服组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 田间作业有机磷农药中毒在临床表现上与口服中毒不尽相同,且治疗的阿托品及氯磷定用量相对较少,胆碱酯酶活力恢复较快.%Objective To investigate the differences of clinical manifestation and therapy of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (OPP) between oral exposure and occupational exposure in field work. Methods From July 2007 to July 2010, 85 patients with acute severe OPP were treated in a hospital, which were divided into oral poisoning group (51 cases) and non-oral poisoning group (34 cases). The differences of clinical manifestations, curative effects and prognosis between two groups were compared. Results The rates of myoclonus and ataxia in cases with moderate poisoning of oral poisoning group were 86.4% and 90.9%, which were significantly higher than those (50

  3. Liquid chromatography of organophosphorus acids

    Verweij, A.; Kientz, C.E.; Berg, J. van den

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of different liquid chromatographic systems such as ion-exchange, ion-exclusion, reversed phase and ion-pair partition was studied for the analysis of a number of simple structurally related organophosphorus acids which lack a chromophoric group. Preliminary experiments based on th

  4. 应用APACHE Ⅱ评分对急性有机磷农药中毒患者氯解磷定总用量估模的临床研究%Reseach on Application of Estimation Model about Total Amount of Pralidoxime Chloride with APACHE Ⅱ on Treatment of Acute Organophosphorus Insecticide Poisoning Patients

    罗静; 辜小丹

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The patents of acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning were treated with the cure project of estimation value of the total dosage of pralidoxime chloride (PAM.Cl). Methods: 91 cases of patents of acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning were treated. When their sate of illness was the most serious, the scores (X) of the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ)were substituted in (Y) =-43.4+4.7X in the first 24 hours, the total dosage (Y) of PAM.Cl was calculated. The method of large quantity concentrated dose was used until clinical cure was achieved in order to prove the above formula. Results: The process of cure of the patents of acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning indicated that the actual total dosage of used pralidoxime chloride corresponded to the estimation value of the total dosage of used pralidoxime chloride. Conclusinon: The total dosage of pralidoxime chloride of highly toxic type organophosphorus insecticide poisoning patents that was initially estimated by the APACHE Ⅱ score was accurate. The formula Y=-43.4+4.7X is an effective method that directs the total dosage of pralidoxime chloride of highly toxic type organophosphorus insecticide poisoning, it is of benefit to direct dosage.%目的:对有机磷农药急性中毒患者应用氯解磷定总用量估模值的救治方案进行治疗,观察其疗效.方法:对91例重度急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)患者就行救治,取中毒后第一个24小时内,病情最严重时的急性生理学与慢性健康状况评分Ⅱ(APACHE Ⅱ)的分值(X),代入Y=-43.4+4.7X,计算出PAM.C1总用量(Y),并按大量突击疗法应用至临床治愈,验证上述公式.结果:急性有机磷农药中毒患者的救治过程表明,氯解磷定实际总用量与总用量估模值一致.结论:通过APACHE Ⅱ评分系统初步估模出急性有机磷农药中毒患者氯解磷定总用量的值,是准确的.公式Y=-43.4+4.7X是指导急性有机磷农药中毒

  5. 高压氧对动物有机磷中毒后神经损害恢复的实验研究%Effect of hyperbaric oxygen on nerve impairment recovery of animals after organophosphorus: an experimental study

    林忠豪; 张鸣春; 肖鹏

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of hyperbarci oxygen(HBO) on recovery of nerves injury in rats suffered from acute organophosphorus poisoning. Method We established organophosphorus poisoning models and observed effect of HBO on recovery of injure nerves. Results Compared with control group, cerebrospinal fluid induced peak potential and incubation period in HBO group were significantly recovered(P<0.05).HBO could accelerated repair of injured nerves. Conclusion HBO could relieve injury of nerves during treatment of organophosphorus poisoning. ``

  6. The exploration of mechanism of cactus rescue organophosphorus pesticides poisoning rabbits%仙人掌解救有机磷农药中毒家兔机制探究

    杨佳颜; 罗丽霞; 熊伟; 刘帆; 曹弟勇

    2012-01-01

      目的探讨仙人掌联合用药在有机磷中毒过程中对胆碱酯酶活性的影响。方法对家兔进行肝素化后,测其胆碱酯酶活性,进行有机磷农药灌胃,使胆碱酯酶活性为正常的50%以下,用仙人掌及其联合用药的方法解救,再测量胆碱酯酶活性。结果仙人掌单独使用可使有机磷农药中毒的家兔胆碱酯酶活性恢复,作用接近于解磷定,但恢复速度慢。%  objective to explore the Cactus combined with medicine in organic phosphorus poisonning effects on cholinesterase activity in the process. Methods: after heparin rabbit, measuring cholinesterase activity, intragastric infusion with organic phosphorus pesticide, when cholinesterase activity below normal 50%, Rescue with cactus and their combination , and then measuring cholinesterase activity.Results: Cactus is used alone can make the cholinesterase activity of rabbit with organic phosphorus pesticide poisoning's recovery, role closer to pralidoxime, but slowly.

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction and organophosphorus compounds

    Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Organophosphorous (OPs) pesticides are the most widely used pesticides in the agriculture and home. However, many acute or chronic poisoning reports about OPs have been published in the recent years. Mitochondria as a site of cellular oxygen consumption and energy production can be a target for OPs poisoning as a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity of OPs. In the present review, we have reviewed and criticized all the evidences about the mitochondrial dysfunctions as a mechanism of toxicity of OPs. For this purpose, all biochemical, molecular, and morphological data were retrieved from various studies. Some toxicities of OPs are arisen from dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through alteration of complexes I, II, III, IV and V activities and disruption of mitochondrial membrane. Reductions of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or induction of its hydrolysis can impair the cellular energy. The OPs disrupt cellular and mitochondrial antioxidant defense, reactive oxygen species generation, and calcium uptake and promote oxidative and genotoxic damage triggering cell death via cytochrome C released from mitochondria and consequent activation of caspases. The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by OPs can be restored by use of antioxidants such as vitamin E and C, alpha-tocopherol, electron donors, and through increasing the cytosolic ATP level. However, to elucidate many aspect of mitochondrial toxicity of Ops, further studies should be performed. - Highlights: • As a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity, mitochondria is a target for OPs. • OPs affect action of complexes I, II, III, IV and V in the mitochondria. • OPs reduce mitochondrial ATP. • OPs promote oxidative and genotoxic damage via release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. • OP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be restored by increasing the cytosolic ATP.

  8. Study of Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Management of Acute Organophosphorous Pesticide Poisoning

    Vijayakumar, H. N.; Kannan, Sudheesh; Tejasvi, C.; Duggappa, Devika Rani; Veeranna Gowda, K. M.; Nethra, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus compound poisoning (OPCP) is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. Atropine and oximes remain the main-stay of management. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has shown benefit in the management of OPCP. Aims: This study was designed to assess the effect of MgSO4 on outcome in OPCP patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Settings and Design: Double-blind prospective randomized clinical trial in an ICU of tertiary care institution. Methods: One hundred patients (50 in each group) of OPCP, confirmed by history and syndrome of OPCP with low plasma pseudocholinesterase, aged between 18 and 60 years were studied. Magnesium group (Group M) received 4 g of 20% MgSO4 infusion over 30 min at admission to ICU, control group (Group C) received normal saline placebo in the same manner. Patients were assessed for the need for intubation, requirement of atropine, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of ICU stay, and its effect on mortality. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test for categorical data, independent sample t-test, and paired t-test for nominal data. Results: Demographics and basal serum magnesium levels were comparable. Atropine requirement was higher in Group C (74.82 ± 22.39 mg) compared to Group M (53.11 ± 45.83 mg) (P < 0.001). A total of 33 patients in Group C and 23 patients in Group M required intubation, respectively (P = 0.043). The mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 4.51 ± 2 days in Group C compared to 4.13 ± 1.6 days in Group M (P = 0.45). ICU stay was 5.36 ± 2.018 days in Group C compared to 4.54 ± 1.581 days in Group M (P = 0.026). There was no significant difference in mortality between the groups. Conclusion: Four grams of MgSO4 given to OPCP patients within 24 h of admission to ICU, decreases atropine requirement, need for intubation, and ICU stay.

  9. Comparative study of penehyclidime hydrochloride and atropine in treatment of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning%盐酸戊乙奎醚与阿托品治疗急性有机磷农药中毒疗效比较研究

    朱艳霞; 杨贤义; 肖敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy of penehyclidime hydrochloride and atropine in treatment of a-cute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. Methods Totally 76 patients within six hours of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were randomly divided into penehyclidime hydrochloride group (re = 38) and atropine group ( n = 38 ),they were all combined with pralidoxime chloride,different doses of penehyclidime hydrochloride and atropine were given according to difference degrees of severity which was ranged in terms of cholinesterase value. The clinical efficacy of two groups was compared. Results The penehyclidime hydrochloride group,the poisoning symptoms time,cuative time and CHE recovery time were compared with that of the atropine group,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0. 01) ; The incidence rate of adverse reactions significantly less than that of the atropine group ( P < 0. 01). Conclusion Penehyclidime hydrochloride in treatment of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning is safer and more effective than atropine.%目的 比较盐酸戊乙奎醚与阿托品治疗急性有机磷农药中毒的临床疗效.方法 76例6h内有机磷农药中毒者随机分成盐酸戊乙奎醚组(38例)和阿托品组(38例),均配伍用氯解磷定,分别按照胆碱酯酶数值划分的轻中重度程度,给予不同剂量的盐酸戊乙奎醚及阿托品,比较两组患者的临床疗效.结果 盐酸戊乙奎醚组的中毒症状消失时间、治愈时间、CHE恢复时间与阿托品组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);并且不良反应的发生率明显比阿托品组低(P<0.01).结论 盐酸戊乙奎醚治疗急性有机磷农药中毒疗效确切,不良反应少,优于阿托品.

  10. Compostos organofosforados pentavalentes: histórico, métodos sintéticos de preparação e aplicações como inseticidas e agentes antitumorais Organophosphorus pentavalent compounds: history, synthetic methods of preparation and application as insecticides and antitumor agents

    Viviane Martins Rebello dos Santos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the history, synthesis and application of organophosphorus compounds, especially of those of pentavalent phosphorus, such as phosphoramidates, phosphorothioates, phosphonates and phosphonic acids with insecticide and anticancer activities. The organophosphorus compounds with agrochemical applications show great structural variety, They include not only insecticides, but also fungicides, herbicides, and others. The large variety of commercially available organophosphorus pesticides is remarkable. Even more interesting is the high efficiency of some organophosphorus compounds as anticancer agents such as cyclophosphamide and its derivatives.

  11. Determination of multiple organophosphorus pesticide residues simultaneously in fruit and vegetable by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry%气质联用法同时测定果蔬中多种有机磷农药残留

    王海凤; 王俊斌; 刘海学; 何新益; 胡毅

    2013-01-01

    Determination of organophosphorous pesticide residues in fruit and vegetable using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was studied. Full scan was used for qualitative analysis. The total ion current was identified by scan and spectrum library search. Selected ion monitoring (SIM) was used as a quantitative method. The results showed that the analysis was finished in 20 min. The linearity of method is good with concentration range 0. 05~1. 00 mg/L (r2≥ 99%). The recoveries are generally from 72. 6% to 94. 0% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.3% to 8. 8%. The method is suitable for determining multiple organophosphorous pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.%通过气相色谱—质谱联用(GC/MS)技术对果蔬中的有机磷农药残留进行检测,采用全扫描方式(scan)进行定性,选择离子监测方式(SIM)进行定量,结合总离子流色谱图和提取离子色谱图,优化色谱条件,使分析时间控制在20 min以内,分离效果良好,在0.05~1.00 mg/L范围内线性关系良好(r2≥99%),加标回收率为72.6%~94.0%,相对标准偏差为1.3%~8.8%,符合果蔬中多种有机磷农药残留检测要求.

  12. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  13. CLINICAL PATTERN AND OUTCOME OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUND POISONING

    Ranjith Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Organophosphate insecticides/pesticides are used widely throughout the world. The organophosphorus poisoning is a very serious condition that needs rapid treatment. Emergent and appropriate management is always desirable to prevent the serious complications and high mortality. In this study, we determine the clinical presentation and outcome of organophosphorus poisoning in our institute. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study carried out in Medicine Department, SIMS, Shimoga, from January 1st, 2016 to April 20th 2016. A total of 100 cases of OP poisoning were studied. We included all patients of organophosphate poisoning presented either with signs of muscarinic involvement or signs of nicotinic involvement. Outcome measured according to W.H.O. classification of severity. RESULT Out of a total 100 patients of organophosphate poisoning were admitted, among these 44% were males and 56% females. Average age was 28.9±8.8 years. Nausea and vomiting was the most common clinical feature found in 93% of the patients followed by salivation seen in 91% and Miosis in 87%. According to W.H.O. Classification for Severity of Organophosphate poisoning. Mild 46%, 37% cases were moderate and 17% were severe. Overall mortality rate was 19%. CONCLUSION Present study shows the importance of WHO staging of severity of organophosphorus compound poisoning as mortality increases with severity. Study also showed that delayed arrival, lack of ICU facility and lack of preliminary management at the early stage are the causes of increased mortality in OP compound poisoning. OP compound poisoning needs rapid diagnosis, early and effective treatment to decrease the severity and mortality. These finding shows need for improvement in primary health care facility to decrease morbidity and mortality

  14. STUDY OF BACTERIAL RESISTANCE TO ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDES IN IRAN

    A. Nazarian and M. Mousawi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The broadness application of organophosphorus compounds has abounded the number of its polluted areas. Bioremediation has widely focused on insitu bacterial degradation of organophosphorus residues in the world. Therefore, in this research six numbers of samples from two different sources, soil and water randomly were isolated using different organophosphorus pesticides containing mineral solution without supplementation. More than 100 isolated strains were selected according to their simultaneous optimal growth on mineral medium with organophosphorus and Mac Conkey,s agar. More than 50 percent of them were lost above resistance. The resistant strains were identified by two methods, the biochemical convention and API 20E procedure with positive agreement. The identified strains belonged to Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium species. The maximum tolerant concentrations of different organophosphorus pesticides by these resistant strains were 2.5, 4 and 8 g/L of guthion, methyl parathion and Dimethoate, respectively. The resistance to these pesticides due to organ phosphorous degrading plasmids had the ability to express hydrolytic enzymes. Resistant bacteria lost these plasmids by acridin orange and could translocate to sensitive strains. Thus, certain environmental bacteria could be used as protection tools against antinerve agents.

  15. Effect of acute pesticide exposure on bee spatial working memory using an analogue of the radial-arm maze

    Samuelson, Elizabeth E. W.; Chen-Wishart, Zachary P.; Gill, Richard J.; Leadbeater, Ellouise

    2016-12-01

    Pesticides, including neonicotinoids, typically target pest insects by being neurotoxic. Inadvertent exposure to foraging insect pollinators is usually sub-lethal, but may affect cognition. One cognitive trait, spatial working memory, may be important in avoiding previously-visited flowers and other spatial tasks such as navigation. To test this, we investigated the effect of acute thiamethoxam exposure on spatial working memory in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, using an adaptation of the radial-arm maze (RAM). We first demonstrated that bumblebees use spatial working memory to solve the RAM by showing that untreated bees performed significantly better than would be expected if choices were random or governed by stereotyped visitation rules. We then exposed bees to either a high sub-lethal positive control thiamethoxam dose (2.5 ng‑1 bee), or one of two low doses (0.377 or 0.091 ng‑1) based on estimated field-realistic exposure. The high dose caused bees to make more and earlier spatial memory errors and take longer to complete the task than unexposed bees. For the low doses, the negative effects were smaller but statistically significant, and dependent on bee size. The spatial working memory impairment shown here has the potential to harm bees exposed to thiamethoxam, through possible impacts on foraging efficiency or homing.

  16. Degradation of Organophosphorus Pesticide Omethoate by Zinc Doped TiO2%掺锌TiO2降解有机磷农药氧乐果

    赵秀琴; 向乾坤

    2012-01-01

    [Aims] The degradation rate of organicphosphorus pesticide with TiO2 was improved. [Methods] The zinc doped modified TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by the sol-gel method, and it's structure was characterized by XRD. The effect of the modified TiO2 on the photolysis degradation of omethoate was, evaluated. [Results] The degrading rate of omethoate was increased by zinc doped TiO2, The optimum condition of low concentration omethoate degradation was as follows: the doped zinc was 0,5%, the calcination temperature was 600 癈, and the input concentration was 3 g/L, [Conclusions] Zinc doped modification could increase the degradation rate of low concentration omethoate by TiO2.%[目的]提高TiO2对有机磷农药的降解率.[方法]用溶胶-凝胶法制备了锌掺杂改性TiO2光催化剂,用X射线衍射分析(XRD)对其进行结构表征,并以氧乐果为目标降解物,评价了改性后TiO2的光催化性能.[结果]锌掺杂提高了TiO2对氧乐果的降解率;掺杂锌0.5%、焙烧温度为600℃制得的TiO2样品,投入量为3g/L时对低质量浓度氧乐果的降解率最好.[结论]锌掺杂改性TiO2能提高TiO2对低质量浓度氧乐果的降解率.

  17. 农药暴露与儿童急性白血病关系的病例-对照研究%A case-control study on correlation of pesticide exposure with childhood acute leukemia

    张妍; 金萍; 田英; 朱莎; 高宇; 王筱金; 陈涛; 杨友; 汪国权; 胡国华; 施蓉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the correlation of pesticide exposure with childhood acute leukemia. Methods An exploratory case-control study was conducted among childhood acute leukemia patients under 15 years old in Shanghai, China. From January 1st,2006 to December 31st,2008, a total of 80 newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients were recruited from Shanghai Children's Medical Center for the case group. Another 96 age-matched patients who visited the hospital for health examination, pediatric treatment or osteological therapy excluding hematological system diseases and neoplastic disease, were recruited for the control group. A questionnaire survey was conducted in both groups; and a 30-40 ml random urine sample was collected from each participant. Five types of organophosphorus pesticide metabolites was then detected among the samples, using Gas Chromatography with Flame Spectrophotometry. Results According to result of the questionnaire survey, more participants (55.0% (44/80)) in case group than in the control group (33.3% (32/96)) reported using mosquitocide, which might increase the risk of childhood acute leukemia (OR = 2.444;95% CI:1. 326-4. 506). At the same time, the detection showed that the concentration (median) of organophosphate metabolites diethyl phosphrate,dimethyl phophrate,dimethyl thiophosphrate,diethyl thiophosphrate and diethyl dithiophosphrate in case group were 0. 0682,0. 0082,0. 0183,0. 0233,0. 4259 μg/g Cr, which were all significantly higher than in control group (0. 0865,0. 0025,0. 0112,0. 0123,0. 1207 μg/g Cr) except the concentration of diethyl phosphrate (Z =-1.081, P = 0. 279). The difference showed statistical significance (Z =-5. 752,-2. 800,-3.316,-8. 120, P < 0. 05). Conclusion Pesticide exposure may be one of the risk factors for childhood acute leukemia.%目的 探讨农药暴露与儿童急性白血病发病之间的关系.方法 选取2006年1月1日至2008年12月31日就诊于上海儿童医学中心,年龄小于15周岁的80

  18. Biosensor for Direct Determination of Fenitrothion and EPN Using Recombinant Pseudomonas putida JS444 with Surface Expressed Organophosphorus Hydrolase. 1. Modified Clark Oxygen Electrode

    Ashok Mulchandani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a first microbial biosensor for rapid and cost-effectivedetermination of organophosphorus pesticides fenitrothion and EPN. The biosensorconsisted of recombinant PNP-degrading/oxidizing bacteria Pseudomonas putida JS444anchoring and displaying organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH on its cell surface asbiological sensing element and a dissolved oxygen electrode as the transducer. Surface-expressed OPH catalyzed the hydrolysis of fenitrothion and EPN to release 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol, respectively, which were oxidized by the enzymaticmachinery of Pseudomonas putida JS444 to carbon dioxide while consuming oxygen,which was measured and correlated to the concentration of organophosphates. Under theoptimum operating conditions, the biosensor was able to measure as low as 277 ppb offenitrothion and 1.6 ppm of EPN without interference from phenolic compounds and othercommonly used pesticides such as carbamate pesticides, triazine herbicides andorganophosphate pesticides without nitrophenyl substituent. The applicability of thebiosensor to lake water was also demonstrated.

  19. Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning

    Cherian M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries, where organophosphates (OPs are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecticides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less toxic and are associated with less morbidity and mortality. Patients with poisoning present with a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. A strong clinical suspicion is necessary to make an early diagnosis and to start appropriate therapy. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes decontamination, anticholinergics, protection of the airway, and cardiac and respiratory support. The use of oximes has been controversial and may be associated with higher mortality owing to a higher incidence of type-II paralysis. They may have other toxic side effects. This paper reviews the literature on OP poisoning.

  20. 催化湿式过氧化氢氧化预处理有机磷农药废水的研究%Study on catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation for the pretreatment of organophosphorus pesticide wastewater

    陈春燕

    2015-01-01

    以自制Fe2O3-CeO2/γ-Al2O3为催化剂,采用催化湿式过氧化氢氧化法(CWPO)预处理有机磷农药废水,通过单因素和正交试验研究了过氧化氢投加量、起始pH、反应温度和反应时间对COD的去除效果及影响规律。结果表明,反应最优条件为H2O2投加量2 mL、起始pH=5、反应温度80℃、反应时间40 min,在此条件下COD的去除率可达85.8%,可生化性提高到B/C=0.43。运用一级动力学模型和Arrhenius经验公式,建立了催化湿式过氧化氢氧化降解COD的动力学方程。%With self-made Fe2O3-CeO2/γ-Al2O3 as catalyst,the phosphate pesticide wastewater has been pretreated by catalytic wet peroxide oxidation(CWPO) process. The removing effect and influencing rules of the factors including dosage of H2O2,initial pH value,reaction temperature,and reaction time on the removing rate of COD are investigated through single factor experiments and orthogonal tests. The results show that the optimal COD removing efficiency is more than 85.8% and biodegradability of wastewater can be up to B/C=0.43,under the following conditions:the dosage of H2O2 is 2 mL,pH value 5,reaction temperature 80℃and reaction time 40 min. The kinetics equation of catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of COD degradation has been established by using the first-order kinetics model and Arrhenius empirical formula.

  1. 镧掺杂TiO2降解有机磷农药乐果的研究%Study on Degradation of Organophosphorus Pesticide Dimethoate by La-doped TiO2

    向乾坤; 赵秀琴

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To discuss the degradation of organophosphorous pesticide dimethoate by modified TiO2. [ Method ] Dimethoate solution was photocatalytic degraded by La-doped TiO2, and the concentration of the solution was detected by ammonium molybdate spectrophotometry before and after degradation. [Result] Doping of La enhanced TiO2' s degradation of dimethoate; during the preparation of catalyst, the best doping amount of La was 0.15% ,and the optimal calcination temperature was 600 ℃; during the photocatalytic degradation of dimethoate solution,the catalyst amount was 2 g/L,initial concentration of dimethoate solution was low,the degradation efficiency was the best when illumination time was 4 h. [ Conclusion ] La-doped TiO2 could effectively degrade low concentration of dimethoate solution.%[目的]探讨改性后的TiO2对市售农药乐果的降解率.[方法]镧掺杂TiO2光催化降解乐果溶液,用钼酸铵分光光度法测定降解前后乐果溶液的浓度.[结果]镧掺杂显著提高了TiO2对乐果的降解率;当催化剂制备时,镧的最佳掺入量为0.15%,最佳煅烧温度为600℃;催化剂光催化降解乐果溶液时,在催化剂投入量为2 g/L、乐果溶液的起始浓度较低、光照时间为4h时,乐果溶液的降解效率最好.[结论]镧掺杂后的TiO2能有效降解低浓度乐果溶液.

  2. The Acute Oral Toxicity of 300 Formulated Pesticides to Apis mellifera%300个农药制剂对蜜蜂的急性经口毒性

    赵帅; 袁善奎; 才冰; 姜辉; 王晓军; 林荣华; 瞿唯钢; 张招荣

    2011-01-01

    [Aims] Honey bee is one of the most important insects for plant pollination, but the honey bees are underlying the phenomenon of colony collapse disorder (CCD), one of the factors causing this problem is the much use of pesticides in agricultural production. Totally 300 pesticides were tested for their acute omi toxicity to honey bee (Apis mellifera) by dietary method in the paper, the objective of this study is to understand the status of toxicity of common used pesticides.[Restults] The results indicated that the pesticides with very high toxicity, high toxicity, moderate toxicity and low toxicity pesticides accounted for 14.7, 35.6, 10.7, 39% respectively, the high toxic and very high toxic pesticide covered more than 50%, and these pesticides were mainly the insecticides, while the fungicides and herbicides with relative low toxicity.The toxicity of different pesticide formulations with the same active ingredients (AI) to zebra fish maybe varied for the difference in AI content, formulation type and processing technique. Regarding to the biological pesticides, some of them still have high toxicity to honeybee. [Conclusions] These results suggested that the pesticides with high toxicity to honey bee covered a large proportion of common used pesticides in China, therefore, some precautions should be involved as we used the pesticides, particularly for insecticides to reduce or avoid the side effects on honey bee.%[目的]蜜蜂是一种重要的传粉昆虫,近年来世界各地出现了严重的种群衰退现象,原因之一是农业生产过程中使用了大量农药.采用摄入法测定f300个农药制剂对蜜蜂的急性经口毒性,旨在了解我国常用农药对蜜蜂的毒风险情况.[结果]结果表明:对蜜蜂的急性经口毒性表现剧毒、高毒、中毒、低毒的农药制剂分别占14.7%、35.6%、10.7%、39%,高毒和剧毒农药产品达50%以上,但这些制剂主要为杀虫剂,占整个杀虫剂的74.1%,杀菌剂和除草剂

  3. Predictors of morbidity and mortality in organophosphorus poisoning: A case study in rural hospital in Karnataka, India

    Tanveer Hassan Banday

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus (OP pesticides poisoning can result from occupational, accidental or intentional exposure. Clinical manifestations include cholinergic syndromes, central nervous (CNS system and cardiovascular disorders. Death is usually due to cardiovascular and respiratory failure. Aim: To evaluate various parameters that can predict outcome of patients in OP poisoning. Materials and Methods: A prospective study conducted in Department of Medicine, Adichunchingiri Institute Of medical Sciences and Research Centre, Karnataka, over period of 1 year. Diagnosis of OP poisoning was based on clinical history of exposure to OP compound and low serum pseudocholinesterase levels. Results: In the present study 133 patients were enrolled, out of which 98.5% were suicidal cases and only 1.5% had accidental exposure. Majority of cases were young male, with F/M ratio 1:3.2. Mortality rates were higher in younger people and in patients who required prolonged ventilator support. The mortality rate was directly proportional to amount of poison consumed, lag time, organ failure (Acute Renal Failure and plasma pseudocholinesterase levels. Acute complications were frequently noted and were related to morbidity and mortality. No strict relationship was found between liver dysfunction, electrolyte disturbance and clinical outcome. Conclusion: This case study concluded that mortality is directly proportionate to the lag time, amount of OP substances consumed, clinical severity, pseudocholinesterase levels, Acute renal failure and duration of ventilatory support. This study highlights the importance of rapid diagnosis, and initiation of early and effective treatment, which may result in less number complications and also decreases the mortality rates.

  4. 化学农药对蜜蜂的急性毒性测定方法与危害评价%Hazard assessment and methods to measure the acute toxicity of chemical pesticides to bees

    罗术东; 安建东; 李继莲; 黄家兴; 彭文君; 吴杰

    2009-01-01

    Pollinators, such as honeybees and bumble bees, are crucial to the harvest. During their foraging behavior, bees are also exposed to the risk of poisoning due to chemical pesticide treatments. At the same time, they are also very sensitive to chemical pesticides for its morphological and ethological features, therefore, it is very important to assess the hazard of pesticides on bees systematic and measure the toxicity of pesticides to bees for bee protection and new pesticides exploitation. Many measuring methods were used to investigate the toxicity of pesticides to bees, among which acute toxicity bioassays were the main ones. All kinds of measuring methods are summed up from two aspects----the acute toxicity of pesticides to bees(acute oral toxicity and acute contact toxicity) and the hazard assessments of pesticides on bees and the hazard assessment was simply introduced.%蜜蜂独特的生物学特性决定了它对化学农药的危害十分敏感,因此,精确地测定化学农药对蜜蜂的毒性和评价化学农药对蜜蜂的危害,对保护蜜蜂等非靶标生物和新农药的开发与推广都具有重要作用.在众多测定化学农药对蜜蜂的毒性方法中,急性毒性的测定是最主要的手段,是评价化学农药对蜜蜂危害的基础.从急性经口毒性和急性触杀毒性两方面综述了化学农药对蜜蜂的急性毒性测定方法和危害评价体系.

  5. 化学发光生物传感器法测定食品中有机磷与氨基甲酸酯类农药残留%Determination of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticide residues in foods by chemiluminescence biosensor

    王晓朋; 曾梅; 万德慧; 唐晗; 赵彬媛; 周雅倩; 刘晓宇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To create a high-sensitivity biosensor for detecting organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides in foods and establish a new method to determine these two kinds of pesticides.Methods Immobilized acetylcholinesterase (AchE) was used as recognition element of the sensor, reacting specifically with the substrate of acetylthiocholine iodide(ATCI), the micro-fluidic chip with CL analyzer was used as detecting element, and luminol-potassium ferricyanide system was used in chemiluminescence system. ResultsWhen the concentration of proximal, dichlorvos, dimethoate ranging from 0.1~10, 0.08~10, and 0.8~15μg/mL, respectively, the correlation coefficients were 0.9923, 0.9903, and 0.9904, and the detection limits were 0.047, 0.054, and 0.388μg/mL, respectively. When the concentrations of carbofuran, carbonyl, and methomyl were ranging from 0.08~15, 0.1~10, and 0.1~10μg/mL, respectively, the correlation coefficients were 0.9926, 0.9972, and 0.9944, and the detection limits were 0.049, 0.051, and 0.080μg/mL, respectively. The evaluation of biosensor performance indicates good precision, when determining all 6 kinds of pesticides under optimal conditions, RSD was below 7%; when the substrate of ATCI was injected into chemiluminescence system 6 times discontinuously, RSD was below 8%, which indicated good stability; immobilized AChE was stored in phosphate buffer(pH=8.0), detecting activity every 10 d, lasting for two months, the relative enzymatic activity decreased only 23%, indicating a good storage stability; the biosensor was used to detect samples of cabbage and apple, fortified recoveries were between 90%~99%.Conclusion This biosensor has a good performance, therefore it can be used to determine pesticides in foods.%目的:构建一种用于检测食品中有机磷与氨基甲酸酯类农药残留的高灵敏度生物传感器,建立一种用于测定食品中两类农药残留的新方法。方法以固定化乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE

  6. New EPA Guidance for Testing Pesticides Will Reduce Animal Testing

    EPA is issuing guidance for requesting waivers of acute dermal toxicity testing requirements for pesticide formulations, which will lead to fewer animal tests for acute dermal toxicity for pesticides.

  7. Overexpression of Human Senescence Marker Protein 30 in Mice Fails to Offer Protection Against Challenge with Organophosphorus Compounds

    2011-09-01

    organophosphate poisoning . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104: 13603-13608. 8. Ashani Y, Pistinner S (2004) Estimation of the upper limit of human...life-threatening risk to both soldiers and civilians [1]. Current antidotal regimen for OP poisoning includes anticholinergic drugs to counteract the...Eyer P, Felgenhauer N, Zilker T, Worek F. (2007) Lessons to be learnt from organophosphorus pesticide poisoning for the treatment of nerve agent

  8. Microchip-Based Organophosphorus Detection Using Bienzyme Bioelectrocatalysis

    Han, Yong Duk; Jeong, Chi Yong; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Hyun C.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a microsystem for the detection of organophosphorus (OP) compounds using acetylcholine esterase (AchE) and choline oxidase (ChOx) bienzyme bioelectrocatalysis. Because AchE is irreversibly inhibited by OP pesticides, the change in AchE activity with OP treatment can be traced to determine OP concentration. Polymer-associated ChOx immobilization on the working electrode surface and magnetic microparticle (MP)-assisted AchE deposition methods were employed to create an AchE-ChOx bienzyme-modified biosensing system. ChOx was immobilized on the micropatterned electrodes using poly(L-lysine), glutaraldehyde, and amine-rich interfacial surface. AchE was immobilized on the MP surface via Schiff's base formation, and the enzyme-modified MPs were deposited on the working electrode using a magnet under the microfluidic channel. The bioelectrocatalytic reaction between AchE-ChOx bienzyme cascade and the ferrocenyl electron shuttle was successfully used to detect OP with the developed microchip. This provides a self-contained and relatively easy method for OP detection. It requires minimal time and a small sample size, and has potential analytic applications in pesticides and chemical warfare agents.

  9. Pesticides in the Ebro River basin: Occurrence and risk assessment.

    Ccanccapa, Alexander; Masiá, Ana; Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2016-04-01

    In this study, 50 pesticides were analyzed in the Ebro River basin in 2010 and 2011 to assess their impact in water, sediment and biota. A special emphasis was placed on the potential effects of both, individual pesticides and their mixtures, in three trophic levels (algae, daphnia and fish) using Risk Quotients (RQs) and Toxic Units (TUs) for water and sediments. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon and carbendazim were the most frequent in water (95, 95 and 70% of the samples, respectively). Imazalil (409.73 ng/L) and diuron (150 ng/L) were at the highest concentrations. Sediment and biota were less contaminated. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon and diclofenthion were the most frequent in sediments (82, 45 and 21% of the samples, respectively). The only pesticide detected in biota was chlorpyrifos (up to 840.2 ng g(-1)). Ecotoxicological risk assessment through RQs showed that organophosphorus and azol presented high risk for algae; organophosphorus, benzimidazoles, carbamates, juvenile hormone mimic and other pesticides for daphnia, and organophosphorus, azol and juvenile hormone mimics for fish. The sum TUsite for water and sediments showed values pesticide residues present.

  10. Sonochemical degradation of organophosphorus pesticide in dilute aqueous solutions

    Robina Farooq; FENG Kai-lin; S. F. Shaukat; HUANG Jian-jun

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasonic irradiation was found to accelerate the rate of hydrolysis of omethoate in aqueous solution over the pH range of 2-12. Process parameters studied include pH, steady-state temperature, concentration, and the type of gases. Greater than 96% hydrolysis was observed in 30 minutes through this process and the rate of destruction increased with the help of more soluble and low thermal inert gas. So with Krypton, omethoate was found to undergo rapid destruction as compared with Argon. In the presence of ultrasound, the observed first-order rate of hydrolysis of omethoate is found to be independent of pH. The formation of transient supercritical water(SCW) appears to be an important factor in the acceleration of chemical reactions in the presence of ultrasound. A detailed chemical reaction mechanism for omethoate destruction in water was formulated. Experimental results and theoretical kinetic mechanism demonstrated that the most of the omethoate undergo destruction inside the cavitating holes. A very less effect of temperature on the degradation of omethoate within a temperature range of 20-70℃ proves that a small quantity of omethoate undergoes secondary destruction in the bulk liquid.

  11. PRALIDOXIME IN ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE POISONING: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW%解磷定治疗急性中重度有机磷中毒的系统评价

    李志强; 张印刚; 程爱斌; 邱方

    2011-01-01

    [目的]评价解磷定对急性中重度有机磷中毒患者病死率、中问综合症发病率、需机械通气患者比例和机械通气时间的影响.[方法]计算机检索PubMed(1966~2009.10)、Cochrane Database(2009年第3期)、CBM(1978~2009.10)和CNKI(1979~2009),收集国内外关于解磷定对急性中重度有机磷中毒患者影响的随机对照试验,并进行系统评价.[结果]共6篇文献入选,1篇A级文猷,其余为B级文献.分析显示长期高剂量应用解磷定可以降低病死率、中间综合征发病率、需机械通气患者比例和缩短机械通气时问(P<0.05),而短期高剂量应用对患者有害.[结论]长期高剂量应用解磷定可能对急性中熏度有机磷患者有益.由于纳入文献的总体质量不高,尚需进行更多大样本、高质量随机对照试验来进一步证实解磷定的疗效.%[Objective] To compare the effects of pralidoxime therapy on mortality rate, incidence of intermediate syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation and the duration of mechanical ventilation. [Methods] Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from PubMed (1966-2009.10), Cochrane Database (Issue 3, 2009), CBM (1978-2009.10) and CNKI (1979-2009). All RCTs of pralidoxime in acute moderate and severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were included, and a systematic review was performed. [Results] Six literatures were enrolled in the systematic review. The clinical benefit, including mortality, the incidence of intermediate syndrome, ventilatory requirements and duration of ventilation could be produced in long-term and high-dose application of pralidoxime subgroup, meanwhile, a detrimental effect was observed in short-term and low-dose application subgroup. [Conclusion] Based on the current available data, long-term and high-dose application of pralidoxime may be benefit in human organophosphate poisoning. The lack of high quality literatures, it needs large sample and high quality randomized

  12. Urinary metabolite concentrations of organophosphorous pesticides, bisphenol A, and phthalates among pregnant women in Rotterdam, The Netherlands: The generation R study

    Pierik, F.H.; Ye, X.; Hauser, R.; Duty, S.; Angerer, J.; Park, M.M.; Burdorf, A.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Tiemeier, H.; Longnecker, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Concern about potential health impacts of low-level exposures to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates among the general population is increasing. We measured levels of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, a chlorpyrifos-specific metabolite (3,5,6-t

  13. 江苏南部农民急性生产性农药中毒现况调查%Work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in southern Jiangsu province: a cross-sectional study

    丁道正; 涂志斌; 钱娟; 张徐军; 王峻涛; 朱骏; 杨亚明

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解江苏南部农民急性生产性农药中毒情况和影响因素.方法 采用分层整群随机抽样方法,在江苏南部抽取3个村庄共1 380名农民进行现场问卷调查,采用SPSS 16.0软件进行多因素非条件logistic回归分析.结果 3个村庄农民的急性生产性农药中毒率为8.6%;性别、年龄、喷洒农药前不阅读标签、药械滴漏、用手擦汗、打药时身体受污染以及身体感到不适仍继续打药是急性生产性农药中毒的影响因素(P<0.05);使用农药中的危险行为得分与急性生产性农药中毒之间存在剂量-反应关系(R2=0.9840).结论 江苏南部农民急性生产性农药中毒发生率较高,使用农药中危险行为较多.%Objective To explore characteristics and the risk factors of work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in southern part of Jiangsu province.Methods Stratified cluster sampling was used to investigate 1 380 famers from three rural areas in southern Jiangsu province with a questionnaire survey.The database was set up with Epi Data,and SPSS 16.0 software was used for multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses.Results The rate of workrelated acute pesticide poisoning among the farmers was 8.6%.The factors of work-related acute pesticide poisoning included gender,age,without reading labels before pesticide use,using leaking knapsack during application,wiping the sweat by hand during application,body contact with the pesticide during application,and continuing pesticide application while in ill health stares (P < 0.05 for all).A dose-response relationship between the score of risk behaviors and workrelated acute pesticide poisoning was observed.Conclusion The rate of work-related acute pesticide poisoning is high and relates to risk behaviors among farmers in southern Jiangsu province.

  14. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, γ-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem.

  15. Pesticide use, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase level and self-reported acute intoxication symptoms among vegetable farmers in Nepal

    Neupane, Dinesh; Jors, E.; Brandt, L.

    2014-01-01

    intoxication and Erythrocyte Acetylcholinesterase(AChE) levels among vegetable farmers with a control group of blood donors in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 90 pesticide-exposed farmers and a control group of 90 blood donors. Participants were randomly selected and data were...... gathered through questionnaires, observation and blood test. Chi-square test, logistic regression and Student's t-test were used for data analysis to describe pesticide use and compare symptoms and AChE levels between the two groups. This study was approved by Nepal Health Research Council. Results......E level among farmers. Education and information of farmers should be undertaken to remediate these problems....

  16. Pesticide acute toxicity is a better correlate of U.S. grassland bird declines than agricultural intensification.

    Pierre Mineau

    Full Text Available Common agricultural birds are in decline, both in Europe and in North America. Evidence from Europe suggests that agricultural intensification and, for some species, the indirect effects of pesticides mediated through a loss of insect food resource is in part responsible. On a state-by-state basis for the conterminous Unites States (U.S., we looked at several agronomic variables to predict the number of grassland species increasing or declining according to breeding bird surveys conducted between 1980 and 2003. Best predictors of species declines were the lethal risk from insecticide use modeled from pesticide impact studies, followed by the loss of cropped pasture. Loss of permanent pasture or simple measures of agricultural intensification such as the proportion of land under crop or the proportion of farmland treated with herbicides did not explain bird declines as well. Because the proportion of farmland treated with insecticides, and more particularly the lethal risk to birds from the use of current insecticides feature so prominently in the best models, this suggests that, in the U.S. at least, pesticide toxicity to birds should be considered as an important factor in grassland bird declines.

  17. Environmental Fate of Organophosphorus Compounds Related to Chemical Weapons

    Davisson, M L; Love, A H; Vance, A; Reynolds, J G

    2005-02-08

    Man-made organophosphorus compounds have been widely distributed throughout our environment as pesticides since their development during and after WWII. Many important studies have documented their relative persistence and toxicity. Development and use of some organophosphorus compounds as nerve agents gave rise to a separate but parallel effort to understand environmental persistence. In this latter case, the experiments have focused mainly on evaporation rates and first-order reaction kinetics. However, because organophosphorus compounds are easily polarized, the ionic content of a surrounding media directly factors into these reaction rates, but limited work in this regard has been done under environmentally relevant conditions. Furthermore, limited experiments investigating persistence of these agents on soil has resulted in widely varying degradation rates. Not surprisingly, no studies have investigated affinities of organophosphorus nerve agents to mineral or organic matter typically found in soil. As a result, we initiated laboratory experiments on dilute concentrations of nerve agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (VX) to quantify persistence in simulated environmental aqueous conditions. A quantitative analytical method was developed for VX and its degradation products using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). VX hydrolysis rate is known to have a pH-dependency, however, the type of buffer and the relative proportion of different nucleophiles in solution significantly affect the overall rate and mechanism of degradation. For example, dissolved carbonate, a weak nucleophile dominating natural water, yielded pseudo-first order rate constants of {approx} 8 x 10{sup -3}/hr at pH 5 and 2 x 10{sup -2}/hr at pH 11. This small pH-dependent variation departs significantly from widely accepted rates at this pH range (4 x 10{sup -4}/hr to 8 x 10{sup -2}/hr) that were based on

  18. Arrhythmia induced by acute organophosphorous pesticide poisoning: a literature review%有机磷农药中毒心律失常国内文献回顾

    宣丹旦; 郑舒聪; 万伟国; 裘昊旻; 邹和建

    2011-01-01

    对1979至2010年国内学术期刊上发表的有机磷农药中毒心律失常文献进行统计和分析.共收集到有机磷农药中毒3468例,心电图异常率35.4%~68.4%,平均(53±15)%.最常见心电图表现为ST-T段改变(26.5%)和窦性心动过速(16.6%).有机磷农药中毒程度越重,心电图异常例次与患者人数的比值越高,且越容易发生严重心律失常(x2=33.253,P<0.01),最常见死亡原因是室性心动过速和心室颤动(26.2%).%Literatures on arrhythmia induced by acute organophosphorous pesticide poisoning published in domestic journals from 1979 to 2010 were searched. Total 3468 cases of acute organophosphorous poisoning were collected and analyzed. The average abnormal ECC rate was (53 ±15)%(35. 4% -68. 4% ) in acute organophosphorous poisoning, the most common ECG abnormalities were ST-T segment changes (26. 5% ) and sinus tachycardia (16. 6% ). The rate and severity of ECG abnormalities were increased with the severity of organophosphorous poisoning(x2 = 33. 253,P < 0. 01). The most common causes of death in acute organophosphorous poisoning were ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation (26.2%).

  19. Analogues with fluorescent leaving groups for screening and selection of enzymes that efficiently hydrolyze organophosphorus nerve agents.

    Briseño-Roa, Luis; Hill, Jim; Notman, Stuart; Sellers, David; Smith, Andy P; Timperley, Christopher M; Wetherell, Janet; Williams, Nichola H; Williams, Gareth R; Fersht, Alan R; Griffiths, Andrew D

    2006-01-12

    Enzymes that efficiently hydrolyze highly toxic organophosphorus nerve agents could potentially be used as medical countermeasures. As sufficiently active enzymes are currently unknown, we synthesized twelve fluorogenic analogues of organophosphorus nerve agents with the 3-chloro-7-oxy-4-methylcoumarin leaving group as probes for high-throughput enzyme screening. This set included analogues of the pesticides paraoxon, parathion, and dimefox, and the nerve agents DFP, tabun, sarin, cyclosarin, soman, VX, and Russian-VX. Data from inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, in vivo toxicity tests of a representative analogue (cyclosarin), and kinetic studies with phosphotriesterase (PTE) from Pseudomonas diminuta, and a mammalian serum paraoxonase (PON1), confirmed that the analogues mimic the parent nerve agents effectively. They are suitable tools for high-throughput screens for the directed evolution of efficient nerve agent organophosphatases.

  20. Benzyl Functionalized Ionic Liquid as New Extraction Solvent of Dispersive Liquid-liquid Microextraction for Enrichment of Organophosphorus Pesticides and Aromatic Compounds%苄基功能化离子液体对有机磷和苯环化合物的分散液-液微萃取性能研究

    王亚丽; 游利琴; 梅玉雯; 刘建平; 何丽君

    2016-01-01

    A benzyl functionalized ionic liquid, 1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium bis [( trifluoromethyl ) sulfonyl]imide ([BeMIM][Tf2 N]), was synthesized and characterized as an extraction solvent of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction ( DLLME) for enrichment and determination of 5 organophosphorus pesticides (phoxim, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos, phorate and parathion) and 2 aromatic compounds (chloronaphthalene and anthracene) from environmental water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC). [BeMIM] [ Tf2 N] had higher extraction efficiency than 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis [( trifluoromethyl) sulfonyl]imide and common organic solvents such as CCl4 and C2 Cl4 . The extraction was performed using 40 μL of [BeMIM][Tf2N] and 1 mL of methanol as extraction solvent and dispersive solvent respectively with centrifugal time of 5 min. Under the optimal conditions, the method proposed here provided a good linearity for all analytes with correlation coefficients between 0. 9994 and 0. 9998. The repeatability values, described as intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of five replicate experiments at three different concentrations of 10, 40 and 100 μg / L, were 1. 1% -4. 3% and 0. 8% -4. 8% , respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) were 0. 01 μg / L-1. 0 μg / L at a signal-to-noise ratio (S / N) of 3. This developed method was convenient and speedy, and could be employed to detect the analytes in three real environmental water samples with satisfactory relative recovery of 82. 7% -118. 3% and RSD of 0. 7% -5. 6% . Introduction of benzyl group into the imidazolium could obviously enhance the extraction efficiecny for analytes due to the π-πinteraction between [BeMIM] [ Tf2 N] and analytes. [ BeMIM] [ Tf2 N] was a satisfactory extraction solvent with a high enrichment factor of 339 and extraction efficiency of 81. 4% . Partition coefficients of all analytes in [BeMIM][Tf2 N]-DLLME system were determined and the extraction mechanism

  1. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    , no significant effect was found for organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroids, whereas the number of samples with residues of benzilates, phenylamids and triazoles was insufficient to demonstrate any significant effects. An intake calculation showed that the average intake from Italian grapes was 3.9 mu g day...

  2. [The effect of soil inoculation with microbial pesticide destructors on plant growth and development].

    Lisina, T O; Garan'kina, N G; Kruglov, Iu V

    2001-01-01

    Soil inoculation with liquid cultures of Bacillus megaterium 501 and Exophiala nigrum A-29 capable of degrading several organophosphorus pesticides accelerated growth and development of experimental plants, formation of their generative organs, and improved their productivity. This was particularly observed under stress plant growth conditions on phytotoxic peach substrates. The microorganisms inoculated can probably degrade phytotoxins present in soils, thereby favoring the plant development.

  3. Organophosphorus agent induced delayed neuropathy: a case report

    Harshit Acharya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year old male, was presented with complaint of difficulty in walking with inability to flex foot and toes in bilateral feet ( and ldquo;foot drop and rdquo;, which was acute at the onset and gradually progressive since the past 7 days. The patient's wife and their 2 children had similar complaint with the same period of onset. At home, his family used cottonseed oil as cooking oil with wheat grain mixed with castor oil. On neurological examination, he was found to have lower motor neuron weakness with spasticity. After ruling out other common causes of polyneuropathy and lower motor weakness; due to high suspicion of poisoning by food adulterant, RBC acetyl cholinesterase (AChE and plasma cholinesterase (BuChE were tested at National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH, which came low and confirmed diagnosis of Organophosphorus (OP poisoning. Nerve conduction study was done; which showed decreased amplitude of conduction in bilateral peroneal and right tibial nerve along with decreased mean nerve conduction velocity of bilateral median nerve. Thus patient was diagnosed with organophosphorus agent induced delayed axonal type of polyneuropathy and physiotherapy was started as treatment. OP compounds are a diverse group of chemicals which are principally used as insecticides in agriculture. Following organophosphate poisoning (OPP, 3 well-defined neurological syndromes are recognised: cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome and delayed polyneuropathy. Some organophosphates, particularly triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP and tricresyl phosphate (TCP, produce delayed neuropathy. On ingestion, they do not produce significant cholinergic crisis, but 7 to 20 days later it leads to a pure motor axonal neuropathy with wrist and foot drop. The mechanism may involve inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE, which is found in the brain, peripheral nerves, and lymphocytes. This form of toxicity has been seen occasionally in small epidemics in

  4. 四种镇静药物对急性有机磷中毒机械通气患者的疗效和安全性对比研究%The efficacy and safety of four kinds of sedative drugs in patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning undergoing mechanical ventilation

    于中锴; 孙宝泉; 姜学青; 赵波; 刘乃政; 杨静杰; 陈士超

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较常用四种镇静药物对急性有机磷中毒机械通气患者的疗效和安全性,为临床合理用药提供循证依据。方法选取急性有机磷中毒机械通气患者84例随机平均分成4组,分别按药品说明书和相关专业指南给予静脉泵入地西泮、咪达唑仑、丙泊酚、右美托咪定镇静。按Ramsay分级法评估镇静效果;密切监测生命体征及各项生化指标。结果镇静后4组患者的心率、呼吸频率及平均动脉压都出现降低的情况,且与镇静前相比有统计学差异(P<0.05),但无论是镇静前还是镇静后,4组患者各项指标的组间比较均无统计学差异(P>0.05);右美托咪定组患者的不良反应发生率最低(P<0.05)。结论四种药物均能有效达到急性有机磷中毒机械通气的镇静要求;右美托咪定的安全性明显优于其他药物,但各药发生的不同程度的不良反应,经停药并积极处理后均能很快恢复。%Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of four kinds of sedative drugs in patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning undergoing mechanical ventilation and provide evidence for the rational use of drugs.Method Selected patients (84 cases) were randomly divided into four groups and given intravenous infusion of diazepam, midazolam, propofol and dexmedetomidine. Sedative effect was evaluated according to Ramsay's classification evaluation and vital signs and biochemical indexes were monitored and recorded at the same time. Result Heart rate(HR), respiratory frequency(RR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) except for pulse oxygen saturation in four groups after treatment significantly decrease, compared with the data before treatment (P0.05, respectively). The incidence of the adverse effects of patients treated by dexmedetomidine was the lowest (P<0.05,respectively).Conclusion Four drugs are effective in maintaining sedation of patients with acute organophosphorus

  5. Adsorption of Organophosphate Pesticide Dimethoate on Gold Nanospheres and Nanorods

    Tatjana Momić; Tamara Lazarević Pašti; Una Bogdanović; Vesna Vodnik; Ana Mraković; Zlatko Rakočević; Pavlović, Vladimir B.; Vesna Vasić

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticide dimethoate was adsorbed onto gold nanospheres and nanorods in aqueous solution using batch technique. Adsorption of dimethoate onto gold nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, TEM, AFM, and FTIR analysis. The adsorption of nanospheres resulted in aggregation which was not the case with nanorods. Nanoparticles adsorption features were characterized using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found to have the ...

  6. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... of antimicrobial pesticides (Part 158W) Antimicrobials play an important role in public health and safety. While providing ...

  7. Analysis of 20 cases of the treatment effect of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%重度有机磷农药中毒20例综合救治效果分析

    王晓鸣; 杨帆

    2013-01-01

    Objective: analysis of 20 patients with severe organophosphate poisoning effect of comprehensive treatment. Methods: a retrospective analysis of 2010 May ~2012 year in May in our hospital, the clinical data of 20 cases of AOPP patients with comprehensive treatment. Results: The implementation of comprehensive treatment on AOPP poisoning patients, can effectively improve the success rate of product, save the lives of patients.%目的探究重度有机磷农药中毒20例综合救治效果分析。方法回顾性分析2010年5月~2012年5月期间我院收治的20例AOPP患者综合治疗的临床资料。结果治愈率90%,死亡率10%。结论对AOPP中毒患者实施综合救治措施,可有效积提高抢救成功率,挽救患者的生命。

  8. Evidence-Based Management for Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning in Emergency ICU%急诊急性有机磷农药中毒的循证治疗

    周荣乐; 吴红梅

    2006-01-01

    目的 应用循证医学的基本原理和方法为急性有机磷农药中毒患者制定合理的治疗方案.方法 针对急性有机磷农药中毒具体病例提出临床问题,以有机磷农药、中毒、胆碱酯酶复能剂肟类、中间综合征等MeSH主题词及自由词为关键词,电子检索ACP Journal Club(1991~2006.4)、Cochrane图书馆(2006年第1期)、MEDLINE(1966~2006.5)和中国生物医学文献数据库(1980~2006.5),查找与肟类复能剂治疗急性有机磷农药中毒有关的系统评价、临床随机对照试验等,并对所获证据进行质量评价.结果 检索到2005年的Cochrane系统评价和2006年Meta分析各1篇,其结果均提示,肟类复能剂对急性有机磷农药中毒的治疗效果不肯定.据此临床证据,结合医生经验及患者家属意见,对该患者未使用肟类复能剂,而是小剂量阿托品递减剂量及对症支持治疗.一周后,患者生命体征平稳,临床症状缓解出院.结论 采用循证医学的方法为急性有机磷中毒患者选择了合理的治疗方案.肟类复能剂对急性有机磷农药中毒的疗效不肯定,尚待大样本高质量的随机对照试验证实.

  9. 浅析急性有机磷中毒中阿托品的应用%The Simple Analisis About the Application of Atropine in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    马秀玲

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨急性有机磷中毒(AOPP)中阿托品的应用.方法:根据AOPP的诊断分级应用阿托品.结果:治愈21例;死亡2例,均死于呼吸衰竭.结论:在治疗AOPP时应密切注意阿托品的应用和可能出现的情况,增加治愈率.

  10. Pesticides residues in okra (non-target crop) grown close to a watermelon farm in Ghana.

    Essumang, D K; Asare, E A; Dodoo, D K

    2013-09-01

    The study looked at the levels of pesticides in okra grown close to a watermelon farm herein referred to as a non-target crop. The watermelon received some pesticide application in the course of its cultivation, and the okra which was not meant to be sprayed was also affected by the pesticide. About 500 okra samples were collected for a period of 6 weeks and pesticides extracted with 1:1 n-hexane and dichloromethane which was analysed with Agilent 2222 GC/MS coupled with 389 auto-sampler. The results confirmed accumulation of significant levels of pesticides in the non-target crop (okra grown close to watermelon farm). Levels of organochlorine pesticides ranged from 3.10 to 7.60 μg/kg whilst the organophosphorus pesticides had levels ranging from 2.80 to 2016.80 μg/kg. The synthetic pyrethroid pesticide mean levels also ranged from 0.10 to 4.10 μg/kg and were below World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization-recommended residue levels, and though not appearing to constitute a grave threat to life, their occurrence is a concern, and pre-emptive techniques must be developed to thwart the contaminations. Though the non- target crop was not treated directly with the pesticides, some level of contamination with organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted in the crops. It can be inferred that application of pesticides affected the adjoining crops, meaning that inter-cropping and mix-cropping might not be acceptable when one of the crops requires pesticide application. It is important for the farmers to be trained to ensure proper application of pesticide to minimise its impact on the health of consumers.

  11. Optical biosensor for simultaneous detection of captan and organophosphorus compounds.

    Choi, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Young-Kee; Oh, Byung-Keun; Song, Sun-Young; Lee, Won Hong

    2003-05-01

    The optical biosensor consisting of GST and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-immobilized gel film was developed to detect captan and organophosphorus compounds simultaneously in contaminated water. The sensing scheme was based on the measurement of decrease of products formation (s-(2,4-dinitrobenzene) glutathione and alpha-naphthol by GST and AChE, respectively) due to the inhibition by captan and organophosphorus compounds. The absorbance of s-(2,4-dinitrobenzene) glutathione and alpha-naphthol was detected at 400 and 500 nm, respectively, by a proposed optical biosensor system. It was observed that AChE was inhibited by both captan and organophosphorus compounds, and GST was inhibited only by captan. The simultaneous detection and quantification of captan and organophosphorus compounds could be successfully achieved by the proposed sensor system. The proposed biosensor could successfully detect the captan and organophosphorus compounds concentration from 0 to 2 ppm.

  12. Acute toxicity of resmethrin, malathion and methoprene to larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus amemcanus) and analysis of pesticide levels in surface waters after Scourge™, Anvil™ and Altsoid™ application

    Zulkosky, Ann M.; Ruggieri, Joseph P.; Terracciano, Stephen A.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    Acute toxicity and immune response, combined with temperature stress effects, were evaluated in larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) exposed to malathion, resmethrin and methoprene. These pesticides were used to control West Nile virus in New York in 1999, the same year the American lobster population collapsed in western Long Island Sound (LIS). Whereas the suite of pesticides used for mosquito control changed in subsequent years, a field study was also conducted to determine pesticide concentrations in surface waters on Long Island and in LIS after operational applications. The commercial formulations used in 2002 and 2003—Scourge, Anvil and Altosid—contain the active ingredients resmethrin, sumithrin and methoprene, respectively. Concentrations of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were also measured as a proxy for pesticide exposure. Acute mortality in Stage I-II larval lobsters demonstrated that they are extremely sensitive to continuous resmethrin exposure. Resmethrin LC50s for larval lobsters determined under flow-through conditions varied from 0.26–0.95 μg L−1 in 48- and 96-h experiments at 16°C, respectively. Increased temperature (24°C) did not significantly alter resmethrin toxicity. Malathion and methoprene were less toxic than resmethrin. The 48-h LC50 for malathion was 3.7 μg L−1 and methoprene showed no toxicity at the highest (10 μg L−1) concentration tested. Phenoloxidase activity was used as a measure of immune response for juvenile lobsters exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations. In continuous exposures to sublethal doses of resmethrin (0.03 μg L−1) or malathion (1 μg L−1) for 7 d at 16 or 22°C, temperature had a significant effect on phenoloxidase activity (P ≤ 0.006) whereas pesticide exposure did not (P = 0.880). The analytical methods developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LC-TOF-MS) provided high sensitivity with mass

  13. Utility of population models to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ecological risk assessments of pesticides: an example based on acute mortality data for daphnids.

    Hanson, Niklas; Stark, John D

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, ecological risk assessments (ERA) of pesticides have been based on risk ratios, where the predicted concentration of the chemical is compared to the concentration that causes biological effects. The concentration that causes biological effect is mostly determined from laboratory experiments using endpoints on the level of the individual (e.g., mortality and reproduction). However, the protection goals are mostly defined at the population level. To deal with the uncertainty in the necessary extrapolations, safety factors are used. Major disadvantages with this simplified approach is that it is difficult to relate a risk ratio to the environmental protection goals, and that the use of fixed safety factors can result in over- as well as underprotective assessments. To reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ERA, it has been argued that population models should be used more frequently. In the present study, we have used matrix population models for 3 daphnid species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and D. pulex) to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in the ERA of a pesticide (spinosad). The survival rates in the models were reduced in accordance with data from traditional acute mortality tests. As no data on reproductive effects were available, the conservative assumption that no reproduction occurred during the exposure period was made. The models were used to calculate the minimum population size and the time to recovery. These endpoints can be related to the European Union (EU) protection goals for aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of agricultural fields, which state that reversible population level effects are acceptable if there is recovery within an acceptable (undefined) time frame. The results of the population models were compared to the acceptable (according to EU documents) toxicity exposure ratio (TER) that was based on the same data. At the acceptable TER, which was based on the most sensitive species (C. dubia

  14. Conformational Variability of Organophosphorus Hydrolase upon Soman and Paraoxon Binding

    Gomes, Diego Eb; Lins, Roberto D.; Pascutti, Pedro G.; Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A.

    2011-12-31

    The bacterial enzyme organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) exhibits both catalytic and substrate promiscuity. It hydrolyzes bonds in a variety of phosphotriester (P-O), phosphonothioate (P-S), phosphofluoridate (P-F) and phosphonocyanate (F-CN) compounds. However, its catalytic efficiency varies markedly for different substrates, limiting the broad-range application of OPH as catalyst in the bioremediation of pesticides and chemical war agents. In the present study, pK{sub a} calculations and multiple explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to characterize and contrast the structural dynamics of OPH bound to two substrates hydrolyzed with very distinct catalytic efficiencies: the nerve agent soman (O-pinacolyl-methyl-phosphonofluoridate) and the pesticide paraoxon (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate). pK{sub a} calculations for the substrate-bound and unbound enzyme showed a significant pK{sub a} shift from standard values ({Delta}pK{sub a} = {+-} 3 units) for residues 254His and 275Arg. MD simulations of the doubly protonated 254His revealed a dynamic hydrogen bond network connecting the catalytic residue 301Asp via 254His to 232Asp, 233Asp, 275Arg and 235Asp, and is consistent with a previously postulated proton relay mechanism to ferry protons away from the active site with substrates that do not require activation of the leaving group. Hydrogen bonds between 301Asp and 254His were persistent in the OPH-paraoxon complex but not in the OPH-soman one, suggesting a potential role for such interaction in the more efficient hydrolysis of paraoxon over soman by OPH. These results are in line with previous mutational studies of residue 254His, which led to an increase of the catalytic efficiency of OPH over soman yet decreased its efficiency for paraoxon. In addition, comparative analysis of the molecular trajectories for OPH bound to soman and paraoxon suggests that binding of the latter facilitates the conformational transition of OPH from the

  15. Methomyl-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Possible Etiological Association

    Ioannides M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: N-methyl carbamate insecticides are widely used in homes, gardens and agriculture. They share the capacity to inhibit cholinesterase enzymes with organophosphates and therefore share similar symptomatology during acute and chronic exposures. One of the serious effects of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication is the development of acute pancreatitis and subsequent intrapancreatic fluid formation. CASE REPORT: An 18-year old Caucasian man was admitted to our Intensive Care Unit with cholinergic crisis symptomatology, after the ingestion of an unknown amount of a carbamate insecticide (methomyl. Pseudocholinesterase levels were 2 kU/L on the day of admission (reference range: 5.4-13.2 kU/L. Two days after admission, an abdominal CT scan revealed blurring of the peripancreatic fat planes, inflammation and swelling of the pancreas, and a substantial amount of ascitic fluid in the left anterior pararenal space and pelvis. Paracentesis and analysis of the ascitic fluid demonstrated findings diagnostic of pancreatic ascites. There had been no other evident predisposing factors for acute pancreatitis, other than methomyl intoxication. Eleven days after admission, pseudocholinesterase levels returned to normal, while a new abdominal CT scan revealed the formation of intrapancreatic fluid collection. The patient was discharged in good physical condition two weeks after admission. A follow up abdominal CT scan performed one month later showed a significant reduction in the size of the intrapancreatic fluid. DISCUSSION: Acute pancreatitis is not uncommon after organophosphate intoxication and carbamates share the same risk as organophosphorus pesticides. The development of acute pancreatitis and subsequent intrapancreatic fluid collection after methomyl intoxication has not previously been reported. This is the first case reported of acute pancreatitis and pancreatic ascite formation after anticholinesterase insecticide ingestion.

  16. Pesticides: Improvements Needed To Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Guerrero, Peter F.

    In response to a Congressional request, the General Accounting Office examined issues related to pesticide safety for children in agricultural settings. Pesticides can cause acute, chronic, or delayed-onset illnesses. Children may be exposed to pesticides through farm work; eating pesticide-treated foods; or contact with drift from pesticide…

  17. Age-dependent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response in preweanling rats following oral exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to CPF-oxon and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. The pharmacokinetics of CPF, TCP, and the extent of blood (plasma/RBC), and brain ChE inhibition in rats were determined on postnatal days (PND) -5, -12, and -17 following oral gavage administration of 1 and 10 mg CPF/kg of body weight. For all neonatal ages the blood TCP exceeded the CPF concentration, and within each age group there was no evidence of non-linear kinetics over the dose range evaluated. Younger animals demonstrated a greater sensitivity to ChE inhibition as evident by the dose- and age-dependent inhibition of plasma, RBC, and brain ChE. Of particular importance was the observation that even in rats as young as PND-5, the CYP450 metabolic capacity was adequate to metabolize CPF to both TCP and CPF-oxon based on the detection of TCP in blood and extensive ChE inhibition (biomarker of CPF-oxon) at all ages. In addition, the increase in the blood TCP concentration ({approx}3-fold) in PND-17 rats relative to the response in the younger animals, and the higher blood concentrations of CPF in neonatal rats (1.7 to 7.5-fold) relative to adults was consistent with an increase in CYP450 metabolic capacity with age. This is the first reported study that evaluated both the pharmacokinetics of the parent pesticide, the major metabolite and the extent of ChE inhibition dynamics in the same animals as a function of neonatal age. The results suggest that in the neonatal rat, CPF was rapidly absorbed and metabolized, and the extent of metabolism was age-dependent.

  18. Isolatable organophosphorus(III)-tellurium heterocycles.

    Nordheider, Andreas; Chivers, Tristram; Schön, Oliver; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Athukorala Arachchige, Kasun S; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Woollins, J Derek

    2014-01-13

    A new structural arrangement Te3 (RP(III) )3 and the first crystal structures of organophosphorus(III)-tellurium heterocycles are presented. The heterocycles can be stabilized and structurally characterized by the appropriate choice of substituents in Tem (P(III) R)n (m=1: n=2, R=OMes* (Mes*=supermesityl or 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl); n=3, R=adamantyl (Ad); n=4, R=ferrocene (Fc); m=n=3: R=trityl (Trt), Mesor by the installation of a P(V) 2 N2 anchor in RP(III) [TeP(V) (tBuN)(μ-NtBu)]2 (R=Ad, tBu).

  19. National Pesticide Information Center

    ... any pest." Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides Repellents Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Local Contacts Find local pesticide & pest control information Pesticide Information and Resources: Frequently Asked Questions: ...

  20. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  1. 21例急性有机磷农药中毒患者皮肤灼伤处理%21 cases of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning patients with skin burns

    丁娴; 张文军; 周彬

    2011-01-01

    目的探讨急性有机磷农药中毒患者皮肤灼伤处理.方法回顾性分析我院的21例急性有机磷农药中毒患者皮肤灼伤的临床资料.结果创面浅Ⅱ度6-10天治愈,创面深Ⅱ度10-18天治愈.讨论反复进行灼伤创面清洗以及保持灼伤创面的干燥及涂抹典类制剂是灼伤创面扩大和后期感粢的重要措施.%objective to explore the acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning patients with skin burns. Methods retrospective analysis of 21 cases of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning were burned skin clinical data. Results the wound H degrees 6-shallow 10 days. II deep wounds heal degrees 10-18 days cured. Discuss the repeated bum wounds and keep the wound clean burns dry and daub Canon agents is wound infection and later expanded burns the important measures.

  2. Toxicology of organophosphorus compounds in view of an increasing terrorist threat.

    Worek, Franz; Wille, Timo; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-09-01

    The implementation of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC), prohibiting the development, production, storage and use of chemical weapons by 192 nations and the ban of highly toxic OP pesticides, especially class I pesticides according to the WHO classification, by many countries constitutes a great success of the international community. However, the increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents new challenges to our societies. Almost seven decades of research on organophosphorus compound (OP) toxicology was mainly focused on a small number of OP nerve agents despite the fact that a huge number of OP analogues, many of these agents having comparable toxicity to classical nerve agents, were synthesized and published. Only limited physicochemical, toxicological and medical information on nerve agent analogues is available in the open literature. This implies potential gaps of our capabilities to detect, to decontaminate and to treat patients if nerve agent analogues are disseminated and may result in inadequate effectiveness of newly developed countermeasures. In summary, our societies may face new, up to now disregarded, threats by toxic OP which calls for increased awareness and appropriate preparedness of military and civilian CBRN defense, a broader approach for new physical and medical countermeasures and an integrated system of effective detection, decontamination, physical protection and treatment.

  3. Portable Bioactive Paper-Based Sensor for Quantification of Pesticides

    Murat Kavruk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A paper-based biosensor was developed for the detection of the degradation products of organophosphorus pesticides. The biosensor quantifies acetylcholine esterase inhibitors in a fast, disposable, cheap, and accurate format. We specifically focused on the use of sugar or protein stabilizer to achieve a biosensor with long shelf-life. The new biosensor detected malathion with a detection limit of 2.5 ppm in 5 min incubation time. The operational stability was confirmed by testing 60 days storage at 4°C when glucose was used as stabilizer.

  4. Obsolete pesticides

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  5. Analysis of 8000 hospital admissions for acute poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    of the 1990s. The decline in mortality was attributed to regulatory controls for the group of highly hazardous organophosphorus compounds implemented in 1995 and for the organochlorine endosulfan in 1998. CONCLUSIONS: Regulatory control of highly toxic pesticides provides important health benefits, especially...

  6. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment? A randomized crossover study among farmers in Chitwan, Nepal

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2016-01-01

    Background: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. Objective: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophospha...

  7. Identification and quantification of pesticide residues in water samples of Dhamrai Upazila, Bangladesh

    Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahman, M. A.; Salam, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    Being agricultural country, different types of pesticides are widely used in Bangladesh to prevent the crop losses due to pest attack which are ultimately drain to the water bodies. The present study was conducted to identify and quantify the organochlorine (DDT, DDE and DDD), organophosphorus (malathion, diazinon and chloropyrifos) and carbamate (carbaryl) residues in water samples of different sources from Dhamrai upazila of Bangladesh using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with ultra violate (UV) detector. Thirty water samples from fish pond, cultivated land and tube-well were collected in winter season to analyze the pesticide residues. Among the organophosphorus pesticides, malathion was present in seven water samples ranging from 42.58 to 922.8 μg/L, whereas diazinon was detected in water sample-8 (WS-8) and the concentration was 31.5 μg/L. None of the tested water samples was found to be contaminated with chlorpyrifos, carbaryl or DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD). Except for a tube-well water sample, concentrations of the detected residues are above the acceptable limit for human body as assigned by different organizations. To avoid the possible health hazards, the indiscriminate application of pesticides should be restricted and various substitute products like bio-pesticide should be introduced in a broad scale as soon as possible.

  8. Negative Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis with Different Reaction Gases for Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides%以分析有机磷农药为例研究多反应气-负化学电离源质谱的行为

    桂建业; 张莉; 张永涛; 左海英; 李晓亚; 田来生; 赵国兴; 邢晨曦

    2012-01-01

    Negative Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry ( NCI-MS) is amenable to organic compounds with high electronegativity. However, nothing has previously been reported about the comparative study of a different reaction gas. In this paper, the methane, isobutane, ammonia, ammonia in methane, ammonia in isobutane as reaction gases for NCI are introduced. The effect factors of reaction gas pressure, source temperature, filament emission current and electron energy are evaluated for each high electronegativity pesticide considered in this study. Finally, the pure ammonia led to a remarkable reduction in background noise with a significant improvement for overall sensitivity of the method. Combining with ASE extraction, the limit of detection (LOD) for residue pesticides in soil is between 0.01 -0.32 (jug/kg, the recovery is 73.3% -108. 1% and the RSD is between 2.5% -8.8%.%在气相色谱-质谱分析中,负化学电离源质谱特别适合于高电负性目标物的分析,但不同反应气的对比研究工作至今未见报道.本研究采用甲烷、异丁烷、氨气、甲烷+氨气混合气、异丁烷+氨气混合气作为反应气,在负化学离子源内对电负性较高的有机磷农药进行电离实验,对反应气压力、离子源温度、灯丝发射电流等多项参数进行了考察.结果表明:采用纯氨气作为反应气,检测背景低,质谱真空负荷小,并可在负化学源质谱上获得最高的灵敏度.配合加速溶剂萃取方法,对土壤中的有机磷农药残留进行分析,方法全流程回收率为73.3% ~ 108.1%,精密度为2.5% ~8.8%,检出限为0.01 ~0.32 μg/kg,各项指标均可满足实际样品测试需求.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of selected s-triazine herbicides and organophosphorus insecticides over aqueous TiO2 suspensions.

    Konstantinou, I K; Sakellarides, T M; Sakkas, V A; Albanis, T A

    2001-01-15

    The photocatalytic degradation of selected s-triazine herbicides and organophosphorus insecticides was carried out in aqueous TiO2 suspensions under simulated solar light. The tested herbicides from the s-triazines group were atrazine, propazine, cyanazine, prometryne, and irgarol. The tested insecticides from the organophosphorus group were ethyl parathion, methyl parathion, ethyl bromophos, methyl bromophos, and diclofenthion. Degradation kinetics followed first-order reaction and has been monitored through gas chromatography. The degradation was fast with half-lives varying from 10.2 to 38.3 min depending on the nature and the structure of compounds. The generated transformation products (TPs) were formed via oxidation, dealkylation, and dechlorination for s-triazines and via oxidation and photohydrolysis for organophosphates. The TPs of irgarol, bromophos, and dichlofenthion were identified using solid-phase extraction (SDB-disks) and GC-MS techniques, and possible degradation routes were proposed showing similar degradation pathways as for other triazines and organophosporus pesticides. This work points out to the necessity of extended knowledge of the successive steps in a solar-assisted detoxification process.

  10. [Survey of pesticide residues in imported spices and herbs (1997.4-2011.3)].

    Kobayashi, Maki; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kinoshita, Teruaki; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    A survey of pesticide residues in 313 samples of imported spices and herbs on the Tokyo market from April 1997 to March 2011 was carried out. Thirty-seven kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid, carbamate and others, were detected between levels of trace (below 0.01 ppm) and 3.3 ppm from 64 samples. The rate of detection was highest in peel (100%) followed by stem (66.7%), fruit (34.5%), bark (33.3%), flower (31.3%) and leaf (14.7%). No residues were detected in root, seed or whole grass. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all plant parts. The insecticides were detected in products from all production areas, suggesting that their use is common. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as less than 1% of their ADI values, based on the daily intake of spices and herbs. Therefore, these spices and herbs should be safe when consumed in customary amounts.

  11. Critical evaluation of some equilibrium constants involving organophosphorus extractants

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Critical Evaluation of Some Equilibrium Constants Involving Organophosphorus Extractants is a supplementary text to the compilation ""Equilibrium Constants of Liquid-Liquid Distribution Reactions (Introduction, and Part I: Organophosphorus Extractants).The book contains a number of well documented chemical reactions that are critically evaluated. The reactions evaluated comprise those from List 1 for which data are available. There are, however, a great variety of reactions that cannot be critically evaluated due to lack of experimental data and unverifiable results.Chemists will find this com

  12. Animal models that best reproduce the clinical manifestations of human intoxication with organophosphorus compounds.

    Pereira, Edna F R; Aracava, Yasco; DeTolla, Louis J; Beecham, E Jeffrey; Basinger, G William; Wakayama, Edgar J; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2014-08-01

    The translational capacity of data generated in preclinical toxicological studies is contingent upon several factors, including the appropriateness of the animal model. The primary objectives of this article are: 1) to analyze the natural history of acute and delayed signs and symptoms that develop following an acute exposure of humans to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, with an emphasis on nerve agents; 2) to identify animal models of the clinical manifestations of human exposure to OPs; and 3) to review the mechanisms that contribute to the immediate and delayed OP neurotoxicity. As discussed in this study, clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP compounds can be faithfully reproduced in rodents and nonhuman primates. These manifestations include an acute cholinergic crisis in addition to signs of neurotoxicity that develop long after the OP exposure, particularly chronic neurologic deficits consisting of anxiety-related behavior and cognitive deficits, structural brain damage, and increased slow electroencephalographic frequencies. Because guinea pigs and nonhuman primates, like humans, have low levels of circulating carboxylesterases-the enzymes that metabolize and inactivate OP compounds-they stand out as appropriate animal models for studies of OP intoxication. These are critical points for the development of safe and effective therapeutic interventions against OP poisoning because approval of such therapies by the Food and Drug Administration is likely to rely on the Animal Efficacy Rule, which allows exclusive use of animal data as evidence of the effectiveness of a drug against pathologic conditions that cannot be ethically or feasibly tested in humans.

  13. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber as a biomarker of organophosphorus compounds in food.

    Stanek, Katja; Gabrijelcic, Elizabeta; Drobne, Damjana; Trebse, Polonca

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide diazinon in juvenile and adult terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). The woodlice were exposed to different concentrations of diazinon added to food (5, 10, 50, and 100 or 150 micrograms/g dry food). Weight change and food assimilation efficiency were determined two and four weeks after the exposure. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in surviving animals was measured at the end of the experiment. The results show that woodlice exposed to diazinon do not significantly differ from controls in growth and feeding rate. The reduction of AChE activity was observed at the lowest diazinon exposure (5 and 10 micrograms/g dry food). These results suggest that AChE activity might prove a useful biomarker, indicating low levels of organophosphates in food.

  14. Measurement of pyrethroid, organophosphorus, and carbamate insecticides in human plasma using isotope dilution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Pérez, José J; Williams, Megan K; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Smith, Kimberly; Whyatt, Robin M; Needham, Larry L; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2010-10-01

    We have developed a gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method for measuring pyrethroid, organophosphorus, carbamate and fipronil pesticides and the synergist piperonyl butoxide in human plasma. Plasma samples were extracted using solid phase extraction and were then concentrated for injection and analysis using isotope dilution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The limits of detection ranged from 10 to 158 pg/mL with relative recoveries at concentrations near the LODs (e.g., 25 or 250 pg/mL) ranging from 87% to 156% (9 of the 16 compounds were within ±15% of 100%). The extraction recoveries ranged from 20% to 98% and the overall method relative standard deviations were typically less than 20% with some exceptions. Analytical characteristics were determined at 25, 250, and 1000 pg/mL.

  15. Efficient Surface Display of Diisopropylfluorophosphatase (DFPase) in E. coli for Biodegradation of Toxic Organophosphorus Compounds (DFP and Cp).

    Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Karami, Ali; Khodi, Samaneh

    2015-10-01

    Compounds including organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and chemical nerve agents are toxic compounds synthesized recently which disrupt the mechanisms of neural transmission. Therefore, a critical requirement is the development of a bio-refining technology to facilitate the biodegradation of organophosphorus pollutants. The diisopropylfluorophosphatase (DFPase, EC 3.1.8.2) from the ganglion and brain of Loligo vulgaris acts on P-F bonds present in some OPs. Intracellular production of OPs-degrading enzymes or the use of native bacteria and fungi leads to a low degradation rate of OPs due to a mass transfer issue which reduces the overall catalytic efficiency. To overcome this challenge, we expressed DFPase on the surface of E. coli for the first time by employing the N-terminal domain of the ice nucleation protein (InaV-N) as an anchoring motif. Tracking the recombinant protein confirmed that DFPase is successfully located on the outer membrane. Further studies on its activity to degrade diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) showed its significant ability for the biodegradation of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) with a specific activity of 500 U/mg of wet cell weight. Recombinant cells could also degrade chlorpyrifos (Cp) with an activity equivalent to a maximum value of 381.44 U/ml with a specific activity of 476.75 U/mg of cell, analyzed using HPLC technique. The optimum activity of purified DFPase was found at 30 °C. A more increased activity was also obtained in the presence of glucose-mineral-salt (GMS) supplemented with tryptone and 100 mg/L Co(2+) ion. These results highlight the high potential of the InaV-N anchoring domain to produce an engineered bacterium that can be used in the bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated environments.

  16. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area.

  17. Synergy between glyphosate- and cypermethrin-based pesticides during acute exposures in tadpoles of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum.

    Brodeur, Julie Céline; Poliserpi, María Belén; D'Andrea, María Florencia; Sánchez, Marisol

    2014-10-01

    The herbicide glyphosate and the insecticide cypermethrin are key pesticides of modern management in soy and corn cultures. Although these pesticides are likely to co-occur in ephemeral ponds or aquatic systems supporting amphibian wildlife, the toxicological interactions prevailing in mixtures of these two pesticides have been little studied. The current study evaluated the toxicity of equitoxic and non-equitoxic binary mixtures of glyphosate- and cypermethrin-based pesticides to tadpoles of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum. Two different combinations of commercial products were tested: glyphosate Glifosato Atanor®+cypermethrin Xiper® and glyphosate Glifoglex®+cypermethrin Glextrin®. When tested individually, the formulations presented the following 96 h-LC50s: Glifosato Atanor® 19.4 mg ae L(-1) and Glifoglex 72.8 mg ae L(-1), Xiper® 6.8 mg L(-1) and Glextrin® 30.2 mg L(-1). Equitoxic and non-equitoxic mixtures were significantly synergic in both combinations of commercial products tested. The magnitude of the synergy (factor by which toxicity differed from concentration addition) was constant at around twofold for all tested proportions of the glyphosate Glifoglex®+cypermethrin Glextrin® mixture; whereas the magnitude of the synergy varied between 4 and 9 times in the glyphosate Glifosato Atanor®+cypermethrin Xiper® mixture. These results call for more research to be promptly undertaken in order to understand the mechanisms behind the synergy observed and to identify and quantify the extent of its environmental impacts.

  18. Environmental impact of pesticides after sewage treatment plants removal in four Spanish Mediterranean rivers

    Campo, Julian; Masiá, Ana; Blasco, Cristina; Picó, Yolanda; Andreu, Vicente

    2013-04-01

    The re-use of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents is currently one of the most employed strategies in several countries to deal with the water shortage problem. Some pesticides are bio-accumulative and due to their toxicity they can affect non-target organisms, especially in the aquatic ecosystems, threating their ecological status. Despite these facts, and to our knowledge, there are few peer-reviewed articles that report concentrations of pesticides in Spanish STPs. This work presents the results of an extensive survey that was carried out in October of 2010 in 15 of the STPs of Ebro, Guadalquivir, Jucar and Llobregat rivers in Spain. Forty-three currently used pesticides, belonging to anilide, neonicotinoid, thiocarbamate, acaricide, juvenile hormone mimic, insect growth regulator, urea, azole, carbamate, chloroacetanilide, triazine and organophosphorus, have been monitored. Integrated samples of influent and effluent, and dehydrated, lyophilized sludge from 15 STPs located along the rivers were analyzed for pesticide residues. With these data, removal efficiencies are also calculated. Extraction of water samples was performed through Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) and sludge samples were extracted using the QuEchERS method. Pesticide determination was carried out using Liquid Chromatograph - tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Recoveries ranged from 48% to 70%, in water samples, and from 40 to 105 %, in sludge samples. The limits of quantification were 0.01-5 ng L-1 for the former, and 0.1-5.0 ng g-1 for the latter. In terms of frequency of detection, 31 analytes were detected in influent, 29 in effluent and 11 in sludge samples. Organophosphorus pesticides were the most frequently detected in all wastewater samples, but azole, urea, triazine, neonicotinoid and the insect growth regulator were also commonly found. Imazalil revealed the maximum concentration in wastewater samples from all rivers except the Guadalquivir, in which diuron presented the maximum

  19. Toxicity Studies on "840 Biologic Pesticide"

    2002-01-01

    [Objective] "840 Biologic Pesticide" is a very effective biologic pesticide. It consists of Abamectin and celastrus angulatus. Toxicity study was aimed to provide scientific toxicological basis. [Methods] The acute toxicity test,Ames test,micronucleus test and testicle chromosome aberration test were done. [Results] The acute toxicity of single dose of "840 Biologic Pesticide" showed that acute oral LD50 for female and male rats are 4 300 and 4 280 mg/kg,and for female and male mice are 2 330 and 5 110 mg/kg,respectively. The dermal LD50 was >2 000 mg/kg for female and male rats. The mutagenesis studies indicated that Ames test,micronucleus test and testicle chromosome aberration test were negative. [Conclusion] Tested pesticidc belongs to low toticity grade.

  20. Synthesis of novel organo-phosphorus C60 dimers

    2006-01-01

    Carbon bridged organophosphorus C60 dimers were obtained by the reaction of aminome- thylenebisphosphonate anion with C60 and fully characterized by 1HNMR, 31PNMR, 13CNMR, FT- MALDI-MS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, DEPT and HMBC, and the dimeric compounds undergo hydrolysis by using TMSI.

  1. Relieving Mipafox Inhibition in Organophosphorus Acid Anhydrolase by Rational Design

    2013-03-01

    variant proteins. For each, an Escherichia coli DH5 culture containing one of the plasmids was grown at 37C in 1L of Luria -Bertani (LB) broth...inhibition constant LB Luria -Bertani (broth) OPPA organophosphorus acid anhydrolase SDS-PAGE sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

  2. Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K;

    1998-01-01

    pesticides is the most important reason for this high number of poisoning cases. The frequent application of highly hazardous pesticides in high concentrations was often irrational and posed serious health and financial risks to the farmers. Sales promotion activities and credit facilities promoted...... in an immediate health benefit. Improved agricultural extension services to promote alternative non-chemical methods of pest control is the most important strategy, in the long term, to prevent acute pesticide poisoning....

  3. Multiresidue Analysis of 86 Pesticides Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry: II-Nonleafy Vegetables

    M. H. EL-Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1057 samples of fresh vegetables from import and domestic production were analyzed (cold pepper, egg plant, carrot, cucumber, potato, hot pepper, cultivation tomato, squash, beans, okra, onions, cauliflower, and green house tomato. The aim of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in market foods in Riyadh, which have been collected from Riyadh Development Company (Al-Tamer Vegetables Market. Pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GC-MSD. A multiresidue method was developed and described for simultaneous determination of 86 pesticides commonly used in crop protection. This method used to determine 86 pesticide residues with a broad range of physicochemical properties in fresh vegetables related to organophosphorus (OPP, organochlorines (OCP, pyrethroids, and carbamates mainly used in agriculture. Sample extract was cleaned up by using AOAC method. Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL were detected in 15.89% of the total samples (168 from 1057 samples, but 83.90% of the total samples (887 from 1057 samples has no residues or contained pesticide residues at or below MRL. The detected and most frequently found pesticide residues were permethrin (45 times and endosulfan (34 times followed by deltamethrin (27 times. The findings of this study pointed to the following recommendations: the need for a monitoring program for pesticide residues in imported food crops.

  4. Simulated solar light phototransformation of organophosphorus azinphos methyl at the surface of clays and goethite.

    Menager, Matthieu; Sarakha, Mohamed

    2013-01-15

    The photochemical behavior of the pesticide azinphos methyl at the surface of clays (kaolinite, bentonite) and goethite was studied using Suntest setup (λ > 300 nm). The quantum yield on the clays was found to be roughly three times lower than that in aqueous solution. However, the photochemical efficiency was much higher at the surface of goethite owing to its photocatalytic activity through the hydroxyl radical production. The added humic substances on kaolonite show an inhibition of azinphos methyl degradation while the incorporation of iron(III) aquacomplexes leads to an important increase of the disappearance together with the formation of iron(II). Hydroxyl radical species were found to be formed either by excitation of goethite or clays. The goethite support acts as a more efficient catalyst for the formation of these reactive oxygen species. The photodecomposition reactions observed were (i) hydrolysis process leading to the formation of benzotriazone and the oxidation of the P = S bond giving rise to the formation of the oxon derivative, and (ii) homolytic cleavage of the N-C and C-S bonds of the organophosphorus bridge leading to the formation of dimers that appear to be specific to the irradiation at the surface of solid supports since they were not observed when the irradiation was performed in aqueous media: a statement that is related to the presence of aggregates at the surface of solid supports.

  5. Pesticide content of infant formulae and weaning foods available in New Zealand.

    Cressey, P J; Vannoort, R W

    2003-01-01

    A survey of the pesticide content of 25 commercially available infant formulae and 30 weaning foods available in New Zealand was undertaken in 1996. It included a representative mixture of imported and New Zealand manufactured infant foods. Three different pesticide screening techniques were used: a high-sensitivity organochlorine screen was carried out on all infant formulae, while a multiresidue screen (organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides, synthetic pyrethroids, carbamate pesticides, fungicides and herbicides), and a specific screen for dithiocarbamate fungicides were both carried out on all weaning foods and on soy-based infant formulae. All results are expressed on a ready-to-feed basis. Extremely low levels of residues of three organochlorine compounds (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and dieldrin) were detected in infant formulae samples. Residues of p,p'-DDE were found in seven of 20 milk-based infant formulae at concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 0.5 microgram kg(-1). Residues of p,p'-DDT were found in one imported milk-based infant formula at 0.7 microgram kg(-1), and dieldrin residues were detected in four of five soy-based infant formulae at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.08 microgram kg(-1). The multiresidue pesticide screen detected low levels of residues of two organophosphorus pesticides; azinphos-methyl in one soy-based infant formula at a level of 22 microgram kg(-1) and pirimiphos-methyl in two cereal-based weaning foods at concentrations of 5 and 14 microgram kg(-1). None of the other approximately 140 pesticides (including fungicides and herbicides) included in the multiresidue screen were detected in any weaning foods or soy-based infant formulae, at a detection limit of 10 microgram kg(-1). No residues of dithiocarbamate fungicides were detected in any product analysed, at a detection limit of 100 microgram kg(-1).

  6. Risk assessment and ranking of pesticide residues in Chinese pears

    LI Zhi-xia; LIU Chuan-de; ZHAO Xu-bo; GUO Yong-ze; NIE Ji-yun; YAN Zhen; XU Guo-feng; LI Hai-fei; KUANG Li-xue; PAN Li-gang; XIE Han-zhong; WANG Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in pears is a serious health concern. This study presents the results from a 2-year investigation (2013–2014) that used gas chromatography, GS/MS and UPLC/MS-MS to measure the levels of 104 pesti-cides in 310 pear samples. In 93.2% of the samples, 43 pesticides were detected, of which the maximum residue levels (MRLs) were exceeded in 2.6% of the samples. Multiple residues (two to eight compounds) were present in 69.7% of the samples; one sample contained nine pesticides and one sample contained 10. Only 6.8% of the samples did not contain residues. To assess the health risks, the pesticide residue data have been combined with daily pear consumption data for children and adult populations. A deterministic model was used to assess the chronic and acute exposures based on the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) method. A potential acute risk was demonstrated for children in the case of bifenthrin, which was found to be present at 105.36% of the acute reference dose (ARfD) value. The long-term exposure of the Chinese consumer to pesticide residues through the consumption of raw pears was far below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) criterion. Additionally, the matrix ranking scheme was used to classify risk subgroups of pesticides and pear samples. In general, 95.5% of samples were deemed to be safe and nine pesticides were classiifed as being of a relatively high risk. The ifndings indicated that the occurrence of pesticide residues in pears should not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, a more detailed study is required for vulnerable consumer groups, especially children. Continuous monitoring of pesticides in pears and tighter regulation of pesticide residue standards are recommended.

  7. Detection of pesticides residues in water samples from organic and conventional paddy fields of Ledang, Johor, Malaysia

    Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali; Ishak, Anizan; Nabhan, Khitam Jaber

    2016-11-01

    Pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Malaysia during the last few decades. Sixteen water samples, collected from paddy fields both organic and conventional, from Ledang, Johor, were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine (OCPs) and organophosphorus (OPPs) pesticide residues. GC-ECD instrument was used to identify and determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Pesticide residues were detected in conventional fields in the range about 0.036-0.508 µg/L higher than detected in organic fields about 0.015-0.428 µg/L. However the level of concentration of pesticide residues in water sample from both paddy fields are in the exceed limit for human consumption, according to European Economic Commission (EEC) (Directive 98/83/EC) at 0.1 µg/L for any pesticide or 0.5 µg/L for total pesticides. The results that the organic plot is still contaminated with pesticides although pesticides were not use at all in plot possibly from historical used as well as from airborne contamination.

  8. Organophosphorus and carbamates residues in milk and feedstuff supplied to dairy cattle

    Rafael Fagnani; Vanerli Beloti; Ana Paula P. Battaglini; Dunga,Karen da S.; Ronaldo Tamanini

    2011-01-01

    Considering acute and chronic toxicity effects on human and animal health caused by pesticide residues in food, this study aimed to analyze organophosphorate (OP) and carbamate (CB) in feedstuff and water destined for dairy cattle, as well as in the milk produced by these animals, through gas chromatography (GC). In the Agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil, 30 raw milk samples and all components of the animals' diet were collected from several farms. Out of the 30 milk of milk analyzed, six (...

  9. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    ... pesticides are and commonly used ones around the house. Pesticides (Tox Town - National Library of Medicine) - Introduction to the health effects associated with exposure to pesticides and where ...

  10. Occupational exposure to pesticides and consequences on male semen and fertility: a review.

    Mehrpour, Omid; Karrari, Parissa; Zamani, Nasim; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-10-15

    Exposure to pesticides affects many body organs including reproductive system. Disorder of the reproductive system leads to infertility and therefore has been in the center of attention within the recent decades. Pesticides are one of the compounds that might reduce the semen quality in the exposed workers according to current knowledge. Although many underlying mechanisms have been proposed, the mechanisms of action are not clarified yet. The object of the present review was to criticize all the results of studies which evaluated the pesticide effects on male reproductive system. Results indicate that semen changes are multifactorial in the workers exposed to pesticides as there are numerous factors affecting sperm quality in occupational exposures. Majority of pesticides including organophosphoruses affect the male reproductive system by mechanisms such as reduction of sperm density and motility, inhibition of spermatogenesis, reduction of testis weights, reduction of sperm counts, motility, viability and density, and inducing sperm DNA damage, and increasing abnormal sperm morphology. Reduced weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and ventral prostate, seminiferous tubule degeneration, change in plasma levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH), decreased level and activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes, and inhibited testicular steroidogenesis are other possible mechanisms. Moreover, DDT and its metabolites have estrogenic effects on males. Although effect of pesticides on sperm quality is undeniable, well-designed long-term studies are needed to elucidate all the possible affecting variables such as socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, occupational, physical, and clinical characteristics alongside pesticides.

  11. A study on oxidative stress and antioxidant status of agricultural workers exposed to organophosphorus insecticides during spraying

    Rastogi S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress status and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity were studied in blood samples obtained from 61 agricultural workers engaged in spraying organophosphorus (OP insecticides in the mango plantation, with a minimum work history of one year, in the age range of 12-55 years. Controls were age-matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to OP pesticides. They were evaluated for oxidative stress markers MDA (end product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH, and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE levels in blood. The results showed a marked inhibition of the AChE and BChE activities in the sprayers as compared to the controls. The malondialdehyde(MDA, the last product of lipid peroxidation was found to be increased significantly in sprayers(p< 0.05, while depletion in the concentration of antioxidant glutathione(GSH was also observed in the sprayers but the difference was statistically not significant. It was concluded on the basis of biochemical analysis that pesticides sprayers are exposed to more oxidative stress as evidenced by the changes in antioxidant status. The measurement of the AChE and BChE activities in agricultural workers who spray OPs could be a good biomonitoring factor and is recommended to be performed on a regular basis.

  12. Kinetics of pesticide degradation by human fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in vitro.

    von der Wellen, Jens; Bierwisch, Anne; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2016-02-26

    There is an ongoing debate about the benefit of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) infusion in organophosphorus (OP) pesticide-poisoned patients. This prompted us to investigate the kinetics of OP pesticide degradation by FFP with an enzymatic assay in vitro. Degradation was rapid with shortest half-lives of 19.5s for chlorpyrifos-oxon, 6.3min for paraoxon-ethyl and 17.9min for dichlorvos. Heptenophos (78.0min), mevinphos (101.8min), profenofos (162.3min) and malaoxon (179.7min) showed half-lives of up to 3h. Substantial longer degradation half-lives of 69.7-80.8h were determined with chlorfenvinphos and bromfenvinphos. Methamidophos and omethoate showed no degradation by FFP indicated by half-lives similar to spontaneous hydrolysis. In conclusion, degradation by FFP depends on the particular OP pesticide and the used FFP batch.

  13. Large Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearities of New Organophosphorus Fullerene Derivative

    刘智波; 田建国; 臧维平; 周文远; 张春平; 郑建禺; 周迎春; 徐华

    2003-01-01

    Optical nonlinearities of new organophosphorus fullerene derivative were determined by the Z-scan method with a pulsed Q-switch Nd:YAG laser at 532nm. The experimental results demonstrated that the derivative has much larger excited-states nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction than C60. A five-level model was utilized to fit the experimental data, and a good agreement is reached. Some parameters such as excited-state absorption cross and refraction cross were obtained. To our knowledge, the excited-state cross section of new organophosphorus fullerene derivative and its effective ratio to the ground-state cross section are the largest values among the fullerene derivatives reported to date.

  14. The application of green chemistry methods in organophosphorus synthesis

    Odinets, Irina L.; Matveeva, E. V.

    2012-03-01

    Data concerning the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds in ionic liquids, in water and under solvent-free conditions are considered and summarized. It is shown that this strategy, which complies with the definition of green chemistry, has advantages in terms of the rate of the process and the yields of target products as compared with syntheses in common organic solvents. The Wittig, Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons, Kabachnik-Fields, Arbuzov and Michaelis reactions are considered as examples. The bibliography includes 178 references.

  15. Biochemical Markers for Exposure to Low Doses of Organophosphorus Insecticides

    2005-08-01

    Schopfer Environ Toxicol Pharmacol (2005) 19: 463-469 Abstract The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) knockout mouse is a new tool for identifying physiologically ...Abiteboul M, Siest G and Netter P (1995) Stereoselective esterase activity of human serum albumin toward ketoprofen glucuronide. Mol Pharmacol 47:647-653...identifying physiologically relevant targets of organophosphorus toxicants (OP). If AChE were the only important target for OP toxicity, then mice

  16. 77 FR 73951 - Pyriproxyfen; Pesticide Tolerances

    2012-12-12

    ... exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other... in guinea pigs. Based on repeated dose studies in mice, rats, and dogs the liver and kidney are the... effects safety factors risk assessment Acute dietary (Females 13-50 An appropriate endpoint...

  17. 77 FR 73940 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    2012-12-12

    ... to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other... sensitizer under the conditions of the guinea pig maximization test. In the mammalian toxicology database..., PAD, LOC for Study and toxicological effects safety factors risk assessment Acute Dietary (Females,...

  18. 77 FR 12727 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    2012-03-02

    ...'s tolerance regulations at 40 CFR part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site at... POD to calculate a safe exposure level--generally referred to as a population-adjusted dose (PAD) or a... pesticide exposures are safe by comparing aggregate exposure estimates to the acute PAD (aPAD) and...

  19. Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Algeria.

    Mebdoua, Samira; Lazali, Mohamed; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed; Tellah, Sihem; Nabi, Fahima; Ounane, Ghania

    2017-01-17

    A total of 160 samples of 13 types of fresh fruits and vegetables from domestic production and import were analysed to detect the presence of pesticide residues. Analysis was performed by multi-residual extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 42.5% of the tested samples, no residues were found and 12.5% of samples contained pesticide residues above maximum residue limits. Risk assessment for long-term exposure was done for all pesticides detected in this study. Except chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, exposure to pesticides from vegetables and fruits was below 1% of the acceptable daily intake. Short-term exposure assessment revealed that in seven pesticide/commodity combinations, including three pesticides (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin), the acute reference dose had been exceeded.

  20. Agricultural pesticide usage and prioritization in South Korea.

    Cha, Eun Shil; Jeong, Mihye; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to review agricultural pesticide usage and trends and to identify hazardous pesticides for regulation, in terms of public health, in South Korea. The authors collected data on usage and trends of agricultural pesticides through agriculture-related databases. Criteria from the US Environmental Protection Agency classification for carcinogenicity, World Health Organization classification for acute toxicity, and European Union prioritization list for endocrine-disrupting chemicals were used for the hazard categorization of identified individual active ingredients. Pesticides to be prioritized among all pesticides used in South Korea between 2007 and 2011 were selected by taking into account the volume of usage, toxicity, and epidemiological evidence. Annual agricultural use of pesticides has increased rapidly from the 1970s to 1990s in South Korea, but has declined since 2001. The quantity of pesticides used in 2011 was reported as 19,131 tons, and was comprised of 34.7% insecticides, 28.0% fungicides, and 27.1% herbicides. The 50 pesticides with the greatest volume of usage accounted for 82.6% of the total volume of pesticides used between 2007 and 2011, with the most-used active ingredient being machine oil, followed by mancozeb and then paraquat. Organophosphates were the most used among the top 50 pesticides. A total of 24 pesticides were selected for recommendation of intensive regulation in South Korea. In conclusion, the authors described the usage and trends of overall agricultural pesticides, which would serve as a fundamental step forward in managing pesticide in terms of public health. Intensive efforts are required for the prevention of potential health effects from the 24 identified pesticides.

  1. Fluorescent cadmium sulfide nanoparticles for selective and sensitive detection of toxic pesticides in aqueous medium

    Walia, Shanka; Acharya, Amitabha, E-mail: amitabhachem@gmail.com [CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Biotechnology Division (India)

    2014-12-15

    The detection of pesticide residues in ground water, food, or soil samples is extremely important. The currently available laboratory techniques have several drawbacks and needs to be replaced. Fluorescent chemosensors for pesticide detection were reported in the literature, with few reports published on quantum dot-based pesticide sensors, but none of these were focused toward differentiating organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides specifically. In this respect, glutathione-coated CdS nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. The TEM studies of the nanoparticles suggested mostly monodispersed spherical particles, with size in the range of 11.5±1 nm. The prepared fluorescent nanoparticles were found to selectively recognize organochlorine pesticide dicofol among all the other pesticides studied, by increasing the fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles ∼ 2.5 times. Similar studies carried out with organophosphorous pesticide dimethoate did not result any change in the fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles. Further studies carried out with commercially available pesticide solutions, also confirmed similar results. The TEM, SEM, and DLS studies suggested aggregation of the nanoparticles in the presence of dicofol. Control experiments suggested possible role of both amine and carboxylic acid functional groups of glutathione in the recognition of dicofol. The limit of detection of dicofol was found to be ∼ 55±11 ppb.Graphical AbstractGlutathione-coated CdS nanoparticles selectively recognize organochlorine pesticide dicofol among all the other pesticides studied, by increasing the fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles. The TEM, SEM, and DLS studies suggested aggregation of the nanoparticles in the presence of dicofol.

  2. Comparison of Current-Use Pesticide and Other Toxicant Urinary Metabolite Levels among Pregnant Women in the CHAMACOS Cohort and NHANES

    2010-01-01

    Background We measured 34 metabolites of current-use pesticides and other precursor compounds in urine samples collected twice during pregnancy from 538 women living in the Salinas Valley of California, a highly agricultural area (1999–2001). Precursors of these metabolites included fungicides, carbamate, organochlorine, organophosphorus (OP), and pyrethroid insecticides, and triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides. We also measured ethylenethiourea, a metabolite of the ethylene-bisdithioca...

  3. Organophosphorus and carbamates residues in milk and feedstuff supplied to dairy cattle

    Rafael Fagnani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering acute and chronic toxicity effects on human and animal health caused by pesticide residues in food, this study aimed to analyze organophosphorate (OP and carbamate (CB in feedstuff and water destined for dairy cattle, as well as in the milk produced by these animals, through gas chromatography (GC. In the Agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil, 30 raw milk samples and all components of the animals' diet were collected from several farms. Out of the 30 milk of milk analyzed, six (20% were contaminated with OP, five (16.7% with CB, and one sample with both pesticides. From 48 analyzed feed samples, 15 (31.25% were contaminated with residues of OP, six (12.50% with CB, and one sample was contaminated with both pesticides. Out of 16 water samples analyzed, six (37.50% were contaminated with OP residues, but non with CB. In four dairy farms the pesticides detected in milk were compatible with the active principles found in water and/or foodstuff, suggesting them to be the source of contamination.

  4. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    ... Glossary Contact Us More Resources Browse Pesticides Category Pesticides activator algaecide ants ants & roaches ants, roaches aphids ... snakes sow bugs spiders termites termites, carpenter ants/bees ticks tomatoes total vegetation control tree trees trees, ...

  5. Pesticide Product Label System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  6. [Induce of laccase from Trametes gallica and its degradation on neutral dyes and organophosphorus pesticides].

    Jing, De-Jun; Huang, Jian-Bo; Yang, Zhou-Ping; Hu, Rong; Cheng, Zi-Zhang; Huang, Qian-Ming

    2011-12-01

    The characteristics of the induction of laccase in Trametes gallica under different initial cultural pH, incubation time by different inducers were discussed, as well as the effects of temperature, pH and time on laccase degradation of six dyes and four organophosphors. The results showed that RB-bright blue, ABTS and o-toluidine affected the production of laccase at different levels, and ABTS was the best inductive agent in our test conditions, whose optimal initial pH and incubation time were 4.0 and 13 days, respectively. The appropriate reaction temperature of the laccase produced was 38 degrees C, and it got a good stability, for it could retain 78.6% of the enzyme activity after 20 min holding at 40 degrees C. Mediated by ABTS, the optimal temperature for laccase to degrade the six types of neutral dyes could be divided into two cases, that was 30 degrees C (neutral black, neutral bordeaux, neutral pink, methyl orange) and 60 degrees C (neutral dark yellow, cresol red), the optimal pH were 6.0 (neutral black), 2.0 (neutral bordeaux, neutral pink) and 4.0 (methyl orange, neutral dark yellow, cresol red), respectively, while the optimal times separately were 6 h (methyl orange, neutral dark yellow, cresol red), 12 h (neutral pink) and 24 h (neutral bordeaux). And using the same inductive agent, the best temperature for laccase to degrade dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, trichlorfon and parathion-pyridazine was 25 degrees C, the suitable time was 9 h, and the optimal pH was 10.0 for dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and parathion-pyridazine, and 8.0 for trichlorfon.

  7. Neurocognitive, mental health, and glucose disorders in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides.

    Malekirad, Ali Akbar; Faghih, Mahya; Mirabdollahi, Mansuoreh; Kiani, Mahdi; Fathi, Arezoo; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    About 25 million agricultural workers in the developing world suffer from at least one episode of poisoning each year, mainly by anticholinesterase-like organophosphates (OPs). The objective of this cross-sectional study was to establish the OP toxicity in 187 occupationally exposed farmers in terms of neurocognitive impairment, mental health status, clinical symptoms, diabetes, and haematological factors. The exposed group was compared to 187 healthy age-, sex-, and education-matching controls. Neurocognitive impairment was measured using the Subjective Neurocognition Inventory (SNI) and mental health status using the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). The subjects were also tested for fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cholesterol (CL), triglycerides (TG), creatinine, oral glucose tolerance test (GTT), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The exposed farmers showed higher FBG (pinsomnia and severe depression were also significantly higher in the farmers than in controls (p=0.015 and p<0.001, respectively). Meanwhile, the rate of social dysfunction was significantly lower than in controls (p<0.001). Disorders affecting psychomotor speed, selective attention, divided attention, verbal memory, nonverbal memory, prospective memory, spatial functioning, and initiative/energy were all lower in the farmers (p<0.001). Farmers showed clinical symptoms eczema, saliva secretion, fatigue, headache, sweating, abdominal pain, nausea, superior distal muscle weakness, inferior distal muscle weakness, inferior proximal muscle weakness, breath muscle weakness, hand tingling, foot tingling, epiphoria, polyuria, miosis, dyspnoea, bradycardia, and rhinorrhoea, which all significantly correlated with the number of working years. These findings indicate that farmers who work with OPs are prone to neuropsychological disorders and diabetes.

  8. Toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis

    Shahjahan, Md.; Kabir, Md. Farajul; Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Bhowmik, Lipi Rani; Rashid, Harunur

    2017-01-01

    Sumithion is widely used to control brittle in paddy fields and tiger bug in fish larval rearing ponds. The objective of this study was to elucidate the toxic effects of sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Larvae were exposed to two concentrations (150 and 250 μg/L) of sumithion with one control in three replicates of each. Larvae samples were collected at 20- and 24-h intervals followed by observation under a digital microscope. Exposures of stinging catfish larvae to sumithion produced deformities including irregular head shape, lordosis, yolk sac edema, body arcuation, tissue ulceration, etc. The mortality rates of larvae were significantly increased in response to increase in sumithion concentrations. Furthermore, around 30% of the total adult stinging catfish reared in sumithiontreated aquaculture ponds were found to be deformed permanently. These findings highlight that exposure of stinging catfish to sumithion at the critical and sensitive stages in their life cycle may significantly reduce the number of returning adults. Therefore, the use of sumithion for crop protection needs to be considered carefully and alternatives to sumithion should to be developed for controlling aquatic insects in aqua-ponds during larval rearing.

  9. Distinct Patterns of Gene and Protein Expression Elicited by Organophosphorus Pesticides in Caenorhabditis elegans

    2009-01-01

    triglyceride transfer protein, large subunit -1.7 1 3 -1.3 -2.4 -2.0 pmt-1 NP_494990.2 NP_494991.1 NP_871997.1 phosphoethanolamine N...www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/10/202 Page 15 of 21 (page number not for citation purposes) hydrolysis of the phosphate [73]. However, as many car...particular interest because this enzyme is a known tar- get for OP inhibition. The NTE protein affects lipid metab- olism, and its inhibition causes

  10. Toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis

    Shahjahan, Md.; Kabir, Md. Farajul; Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Bhowmik, Lipi Rani; Rashid, Harunur

    2016-04-01

    Sumithion is widely used to control brittle in paddy fields and tiger bug in fish larval rearing ponds. The objective of this study was to elucidate the toxic effects of sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Larvae were exposed to two concentrations (150 and 250 μg/L) of sumithion with one control in three replicates of each. Larvae samples were collected at 20- and 24-h intervals followed by observation under a digital microscope. Exposures of stinging catfish larvae to sumithion produced deformities including irregular head shape, lordosis, yolk sac edema, body arcuation, tissue ulceration, etc. The mortality rates of larvae were significantly increased in response to increase in sumithion concentrations. Furthermore, around 30% of the total adult stinging catfish reared in sumithiontreated aquaculture ponds were found to be deformed permanently. These findings highlight that exposure of stinging catfish to sumithion at the critical and sensitive stages in their life cycle may significantly reduce the number of returning adults. Therefore, the use of sumithion for crop protection needs to be considered carefully and alternatives to sumithion should to be developed for controlling aquatic insects in aqua-ponds during larval rearing.

  11. Pesticides and honey bees

    Amaro, Pedro; Godinho, Joana

    2012-01-01

    After the analysis of the criterion of toxicological classification (TC) of pesticides to honeybees and of the evolution of TC and of legislation related to the theme, in Portugal, it is demonstrated how the absence of rigor of the Portuguese Pesticide Regulation Authority (AFN) and of the pesticides suppliers contribute to the very high probability of mortality of honeybees by pesticides and finally are presented proposals for the optimization of perspectives to...

  12. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  13. Urinary pesticide metabolites in school students from northern Thailand.

    Panuwet, Parinya; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Chantara, Somporn; Barr, Dana B

    2009-05-01

    We evaluated exposure to pesticides among secondary school students aged 12-13 years old in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Pesticide-specific urinary metabolites were used as biomarkers of exposure for a variety of pesticides, including organophosphorus insecticides, synthetic pyrethroid insecticides and selected herbicides. We employed a simple solid-phase extraction with analysis using isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). A total of 207 urine samples from Thai students were analyzed for 18 specific pesticide metabolites. We found 14 metabolites in the urine samples tested; seven of them were detected with a frequency > or=17%. The most frequently detected metabolites were 2-[(dimethoxyphosphorothioyl) sulfanyl] succinic acid (malathion dicarboxylic acid), para-nitrophenol (PNP), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TPCY; metabolite of chlorpyrifos), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (c-DCCA and t-DCCA; metabolite of permethrin) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA; metabolite of pyrethroids). The students were classified into 4 groups according to their parental occupations: farmers (N=60), merchants and traders (N=39), government and company employees (N=52), and laborers (N=56). Children of farmers had significantly higher urinary concentrations of pyrethroid insecticide metabolites than did other children (p<0.05). Similarly, children of agricultural families had significantly higher pyrethroid metabolite concentrations. Males had significantly higher values of PNP (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.009); however, no other sex-related differences were observed. Because parental occupation and agricultural activities seemed to have little influence on pesticide levels, dietary sources were the likely contributors to the metabolite levels observed.

  14. Adsorption of Organophosphate Pesticide Dimethoate on Gold Nanospheres and Nanorods

    Tatjana Momić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus pesticide dimethoate was adsorbed onto gold nanospheres and nanorods in aqueous solution using batch technique. Adsorption of dimethoate onto gold nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, TEM, AFM, and FTIR analysis. The adsorption of nanospheres resulted in aggregation which was not the case with nanorods. Nanoparticles adsorption features were characterized using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found to have the best fit to the experimental data for both types of nanoparticles. Adsorption capacity detected for nanospheres is 456 mg/g and for nanorods is 57.1 mg/g. Also, nanoparticles were successfully used for dimethoate removal from spiked drinking water while nanospheres were shown to be more efficient than nanorods.

  15. Distribution of pesticides in n-hexane/water and n-hexane/acetonitrile systems and estimation of possibilities of their extraction isolation and preconcentration from various matrices.

    Zayats, M F; Leschev, S M; Petrashkevich, N V; Zayats, M A; Kadenczki, L; Szitás, R; Szemán Dobrik, H; Keresztény, N

    2013-04-24

    Distribution of 150 most widely used pesticides of different chemical classes (amides, anilinopirimidines, aromatics, benzenesulfonates, carbamates, dicarboximides, organophosphorus compounds, phenyl esters, phenylureas, pyrazoles, pyrethroids, pyrimidines, strobilurins, sulfamides, triazines, triazoles, etc.) in n-hexane/water and n-hexane/acetonitrile systems was investigated at 25°C. Distribution constants of pesticides (P) have been calculated as ratio of pesticide concentration in n-hexane to its concentration in water or acetonitrile phase. HPLC and GC methods were used for pesticides determination in phases. It was found that the overwhelming majority of pesticides are hydrophobic, i.e. in n-hexane/water system LgP≫0, and the difference in LgP values can reach 9.1 units. Replacement of water for acetonitrile leads to dramatic fall of LgP values reaching 9.5 units. The majority of LgP values in this case are negative and their differences is strongly leveled in comparison with a hexane/water system. Thus, maximal difference in pesticides LgP values for n-hexane/acetonitrile system is 3.2 units. It is shown that n-hexane can be used for selective and efficient extraction and preconcentration of pesticides from water matrices. On the other hand, acetonitrile is effective for the isolation and preconcentration of pesticides from hydrocarbon and vegetable oil matrices. The distribution constants described in the paper may be effectively used for the estimation of possibilities of extraction isolation, preconcentration and separation of pesticides.

  16. Acute toxicity test of agricultural pesticides on silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen fingerlings Teste de toxicidade aguda de pesticidas agrícolas em alevinos de jundiás (Rhamdia quelen

    Luiz Carlos Kreutz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity risks of agricultural pesticides to fishes are pivotal. Currently, many questions remain unsolved regarding to the toxicity of commonly used pesticides to silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen, a South American catfish. The present studies have been designed to investigate the acute toxicity and the lethal concentration (LC50 of four herbicides, two fungicides and two insecticides to silver catfish fingerlings. All experiments were carried out in triplicates, in a static bioassay system, using commercially available pesticides. The data was analyzed through the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method available from the Environmental Protection Agency. The 96hLC50 and 95% lower and upper confidence limits, respectively, for the following pesticides were determined: glyphosate (7.3mg L-1; 6.5-8.3, atrazine (10.2mg L-1; 9.1-11.5, atrazine+simazine (10.5mg L-1; 8.9-12.4, mesotrione (532.0mg L-1; 476.5-594, tebuconazole (5.3mg L-1; 4.9-5.7, methylparathion (4.8mg L-1; 4.3-5.3, strobulurin and triazol (9.9mg L-1; 8.7-11.2. Diflubenzuron was also tested and caused no fish mortality up to 1g L-1. The toxic concentration of these pesticides to silver catfish fingerlings fell above the concentration used for application in the field and, except following accidental application or misplacing of empty recipients, it should not cause fish mortality. Nonetheless, the data obtained will be useful to study the long-term effect of these products on the hematological, biochemical, hormonal and immunological parameters of silver catfish and related fish species in South Brazil.A toxicidade dos defensivos agrícolas para peixes é um importante fator de risco a ser avaliado. Até o presente, muitos aspectos da toxicidade dos principais defensivos agrícolas para jundiá (Rhamdia quelen ainda não foram investigados. No presente estudo, a toxicidade aguda e a concentração letal (CL50 de quatro herbicidas, dois fungicidas e dois inseticidas foram determinadas para

  17. 长托宁对急性有机磷农药中毒患者的疗效分析%Clinical analysis of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride treatment for acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning

    罗来发

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect on acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning treated by Penehyclidine Hydrochloride. Methods 76 cases with acucte organophosphate peticide poisoning were randomly divided into Penehyclidine Hydrochloride group and Atropine group, with 38 cases in each group. The two groups were given Penehyclidine Hydrochloride and Atropine at the base of conventional treatment, the efficacy was compared. Results The total effective rate of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride group was 97.4%, significantly higher than 78.9% of Atropine group (P < 0.05). The disappear time of poisoning symptoms and cholinesterase energy recovery in Penehyclidine Hydrochloride group was shorter than the Atropine group (P < 0.05). The drug dose and the average number of drugs were significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.05). The incidence rate of adverse reaction of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride group was 7.9%, significantly lower than Atropine group (26.3%) (P < 0.05). Conclusion The clinical effect on acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning treated by Penehyclidine Hydrochloride is satisfactory, recovery faster and less adverse reactions, which is worthy of clinical application.%目的 观察长托宁治疗急性有机磷农药中毒的临床疗效.方法 将76例急性有机磷中毒患者随机分为长托宁组和阿托品组,各38例,两组在常规治疗的基础上分别给予长托宁和阿托品肌注联合氯解磷定治疗,比较两组的临床疗效.结果 长托宁组和阿托品组的有效率分别为97.4%和78.9%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05);长托宁组的中毒症状消失时间和胆碱酯酶活力恢复时间均明显短于阿托品组,住院时间也明显缩短(P < 0.05).长托宁组的用量和给药次数均明显少于阿托品组(P < 0.05).治疗过程中长托宁组的不良反应发生率为7.9%,显著低于阿托品组的26.3%(P < 0.05).结论 长托宁用于急性有机磷中毒的抢救疗效显

  18. Analysis of risk factors with 48 patients of intermediate syndrome after acute organophosphorous pesticides poisoning%48例急性有机磷中毒合并中间综合征危险因素的探讨

    孔宙

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨和研究影响急性有机磷中毒(Acute organophosphorous pesticides poisoning,AOPP)合并中间综合征(Intermediate syndrome,IMS)患者的预后危险因素.方法:回顾48例AOPP合并IMS患者的抢救前基本资料(年龄,性别,基础疾病,中毒后就诊时间,中毒药物种类)和抢救后临床资料(心率,机械通气,洗胃时间,救治环境和IMS发生时间及临床检验指标),根据生存情况分为生存组31例,死亡组17例.结果:两组的年龄、性别、中毒药物种类、心率、白细胞和血小板计数、胆碱酯酶活力差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).生存组中毒后就诊时间、pH2、洗胃时间、机械通气时间、救治环境、IMS发生时间与死亡组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:中毒后就诊时间、洗胃时间、机械通气时间、救治环境、IMS发生时间是AOPP合并IMS预后的危险因素.

  19. Evaluation of potency of known oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6, methoxime, obidoxime) to in vitro reactivate acetylcholinesterase inhibited by pesticides (chlorpyrifos and methylchlorpyrifos) and nerve agent (Russian VX).

    Musílek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jun, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Nerve agents and pesticides belong to the group of organophosphates. They are able to inhibit irreversibly the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Acetylcholinesterase reactivators were designed for the treatment of nerve agent intoxications. Their potency to reactivate pesticide-inhibited AChE was many times evaluated. In this study, five commonly used AChE reactivators (pralidoxime, methoxime, HI-6, obidoxime, trimedoxime) for the reactivation of AChE inhibited by two pesticides (chlorpyrifos and methylchlorpyrifos) were used. Russian VX (nerve agent) as a member of nerve agents' family was taken for comparison. Obtained results show that oximes developed against nerve agent intoxication are less effective for intoxication with organophosphorus pesticides. Especially, methylchlorpyrifos-inhibited AChE was found to be poorly reactivated by the compounds used.

  20. Toxicological Properties of the Organophosphorus Insecticide Dimethoate

    Sanderson, D. M.; Edson, E. F.

    1964-01-01

    The results are presented of extensive toxicological studies on the systemic organophosphate insecticide dimethoate, and compared with published results from other laboratories. It behaves as a typical indirect anticholinesterase, by conversion in the liver to at least four short-lived active metabolites, whose hydrolysis products are rapidly excreted, mainly in the urine. The acute oral toxicity of dimethoate is low in mammals but higher in avians. Dermal absorption is notably slow and dermal toxicity correspondingly low. Cumulative dosing of rats and guinea-pigs gave no cholinesterase inhibition at 0·7 and 4 mg./kg./day respectively. Dietary feeding to growing rats caused no cholinesterase inhibition at 0·5 mg./kg./day and no other effect at 10 times this dose. The main plant metabolite is identical with one formed in the liver, and comparative feeding tests with normal dimethoate and that partly metabolized in vegetation showed that residue analysis determined total hazard. Tests on humans, some with 32P-labelled material, confirmed that metabolism and urinary excretion are very rapid, that skin absorption is very slow, and that at least 2·5 mg., and probably up to 18 mg., could be ingested daily for at least three weeks without cholinesterase inhibition or other effects. Vapour hazards proved negligible. Oral toxicity was not potentiated by any of 17 other insecticides. The earliest detectable effect of dimethoate poisoning was always erythrocyte cholinesterase inhibition. Symptoms of poisoning could be effectively treated by atropine but not by oxime therapy. No known cases of occupational poisoning have occurred during five years' commercial usage of dimethoate. PMID:14106136

  1. The role of plant metabolism in the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of four organophosphorus insecticides in Salmonella typhimurium and in human cell lines.

    Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco; Flores-Maya, Saúl; Díaz-Hernández, Martha E; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael

    2013-08-01

    This study used a cell/microbe co-incubation assay to evaluate the effect of four organophosphorus insecticides (parathion-methyl, azinphos-methyl, omethoate, and methamidophos) metabolized by coriander (Coriandrum sativum). The reverse mutation of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 was used as an indicator of genetic damage. Treatments with these insecticides inhibited peroxidase activity in plant cells by between 17% (omethoate) and 98% (azinphos-methyl) and decreased plant protein content by between 36% (omethoate) and 99.6% (azinphos-methyl). Azinphos-methyl was the most toxic when applied directly. In the Ames test, treatments applied directly to strain TA100 killed the bacteria; however, the presence of plant metabolism detoxified the system and permitted the growth of bacteria. In strain TA98, plant metabolites of insecticides were mutagenic. This result suggests that the tested pesticides produce mutations through frameshifting. The same pesticides were applied to human skin (HaCaT) and lung (NL-20) cell lines to evaluate their effects on cell viability. Pesticides applied directly were more cytotoxic than the combination of pesticide plus coriander metabolic fraction. Omethoate and methamidophos did not affect the viability of HaCaT cells, but azinphos-methyl and parathion-methyl at 100 and 1000μgmL(-1) significantly decreased viability (pinsecticides. All of the treatment conditions caused decreases in NL-20 cell viability (e.g., viability decreased to 12.0% after parathion-methyl treatment, to 14.7% after azinphos-methyl treatment, and to 6.9% after omethoate treatment). Similar to the Ames test, all of the insecticides showed decreased toxicity in human cells when they were cultured in the presence of plant metabolism. In conclusion, when the studied organophosphorus insecticides were plant-metabolized, they induced mutations in the bacterial strain TA98. In human cell lines, plant metabolism reduced the cytotoxic properties of the

  2. Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

    Scott Burton L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD, but few family-based studies have examined these relationships. Methods Using 319 cases and 296 relative and other controls, associations of direct pesticide application, well-water consumption, and farming residences/occupations with PD were examined using generalized estimating equations while controlling for age-at-examination, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption. Results Overall, individuals with PD were significantly more likely to report direct pesticide application than their unaffected relatives (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.29. Frequency, duration, and cumulative exposure were also significantly associated with PD in a dose-response pattern (p ≤ 0.013. Associations of direct pesticide application did not vary by sex but were modified by family history of PD, as significant associations were restricted to individuals with no family history. When classifying pesticides by functional type, both insecticides and herbicides were found to significantly increase risk of PD. Two specific insecticide classes, organochlorines and organophosphorus compounds, were significantly associated with PD. Consuming well-water and living/working on a farm were not associated with PD. Conclusion These data corroborate positive associations of broadly defined pesticide exposure with PD in families, particularly for sporadic PD. These data also implicate a few specific classes of pesticides in PD and thus emphasize the need to consider a more narrow definition of pesticides in future studies.

  3. Chronic dietary risk for pesticide residues in food in Brazil: an update.

    Caldas, E D; Souza, L C K R

    2004-11-01

    The objective was to conduct a dietary risk assessment of pesticides registered in Brazil up to 14 January 2004. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) was calculated for 275 compounds using the Brazilian maximum residue limits (MRL) and food consumption. The chronic dietary risk assessment was conducted by comparing the TMDI with the Brazilian acceptable daily intake (ADI) or, when not available, with the ADI from other sources. The TMDI was higher than the ADI (%ADI>100) in at least one Brazilian region for eight pesticides, including five organophosphorus insecticides. For these compounds, the higher TMDI (expressed as %ADI) ranged from 140 (metam sodium) to 14,000 (methyl bromide). Rice, beans, citrus and tomato were the commodities that contributed most to ingestion. Change in pesticide use patterns and the establishment of ADIs by the Brazilian government have reduced the number of compounds for which the TMDI exceeded the ADI in the last 4 years. Risk assessment methodology based on TMDI calculation, however, is conservative as it assumes that the food supply is always treated with all the registered pesticides for that crop and that one always consumes food containing residues at the tolerance level. Furthermore, for six compounds with TMDI exceeding the ADI, a more realistic estimation of the pesticide daily intake was conducted using monitoring residue data from the Brazilian National Pesticide Residue Program. For these compounds, the higher refined intakes ranged from 2% (dimethoate) to 180% (fenitrothion) of the ADIs. The implementation of a national pesticide residue monitoring programme by the government was important to allow the refinement of the risk assessment. However, adequate daily food consumption data are still needed to assess better the public health risk to Brazilian consumers from food produced from crops treated with pesticides.

  4. Comparative toxicity of the pesticides carbofuran and malathion to the freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis.

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2011-08-01

    Pesticides are toxic chemicals used for agricultural as well as non-agricultural purposes. The toxicity of pesticides does not remain limited to the site of application but they also cause toxicity to non-target organisms in terrestrial as well as in aquatic environments. This study discusses the comparative toxicity of a carbamate (carbofuran) and an organophosphorus (malathion) pesticide to the freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis during short- and long-term exposures. To evaluate the toxicity of the pesticides, different parameters of the flagellate, like cell density, motility, swimming velocity, cell shape, gravitactic orientation, photosynthetic efficiency, and concentration of light harvesting pigments, were used as end points. Carbofuran was found to be more toxic to E. gracilis than malathion and adversely affected almost all the tested parameters in short- and long-term experiments. The only significant adverse effect by malathion could be demonstrated on the swimming velocity of cells in short-term experiments. The adverse effects of the pesticides were more pronounced during short-term than during long-term exposure.

  5. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations.

  6. Biosensor technology for pesticides--a review.

    Verma, Neelam; Bhardwaj, Atul

    2015-03-01

    Pesticides, due to their lucrative outcomes, are majorly implicated in agricultural fields for crop production enhancement. Due to their pest removal properties, pesticides of various classes have been designed to persist in the environment over a longer duration after their application to achieve maximum effectiveness. Apart from their recalcitrant structure and agricultural benefits, pesticides also impose acute toxicological effects onto the other various life forms. Their accumulation in the living system may prove to be detrimental if established in higher concentrations. Thus, their prompt and accurate analysis is a crucial matter of concern. Conventional techniques like chromatographic techniques (HPLC, GC, etc.) used for pesticides detection are associated with various limitations like stumpy sensitivity and efficiency, time consumption, laboriousity, requirement of expensive equipments and highly trained technicians, and many more. So there is a need to recruit the methods which can detect these neurotoxic compounds sensitively, selectively, rapidly, and easily in the field. Present work is a brief review of the pesticide effects, their current usage scenario, permissible limits in various food stuffs and 21st century advancements of biosensor technology for pesticide detection. Due to their exceptional performance capabilities, easiness in operation and on-site working, numerous biosensors have been developed for bio-monitoring of various environmental samples for pesticide evaluation immensely throughout the globe. Till date, based on sensing element (enzyme based, antibody based, etc.) and type of detection method used (Electrochemical, optical, and piezoelectric, etc.), a number of biosensors have been developed for pesticide detection. In present communication, authors have summarized 21st century's approaches of biosensor technology for pesticide detection such as enzyme-based biosensors, immunosensors, aptamers, molecularly imprinted polymers, and

  7. Organophosphorus Compound DEPBT as a Coupling Reagent for Oligopeptides and Peptoids Synthesis: Studies on Its Mechanism

    2002-01-01

    Some oligopeptidcs and peptoids were synthesized by applying the organophosphorus compound DEPBT as a coupling rcagent. D-Biotin-OOBt was obtained unexpcctcdly. A proposed reaction mechanism for DEPBT-mediated coupling was proved.

  8. Integrated Lateral Flow Test Strip with Electrochemical Sensor for Quantification of Phosphorylated Cholinesterase: Biomarker of Exposure to Organophosphorus Agents

    Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Limin; Lu, Donglai; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-02-08

    An integrated lateral flow test strip with electrochemical sensor (LFTSES) device with rapid, selective and sensitive response for quantification of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents has been developed. The principle of this approach is based on parallel measurements of post-exposure and baseline acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity, where reactivation of the phosphorylated AChE is exploited to enable measurement of total amount of AChE (including inhibited and active) which is used as a baseline for calculation of AChE inhibition. Quantitative measurement of phosphorylated adduct (OP-AChE) was realized by subtracting the active AChE from the total amount of AChE. The proposed LFTSES device integrates immunochromatographic test strip technology with electrochemical measurement using a disposable screen printed electrode which is located under the test zone. It shows linear response between AChE enzyme activity and enzyme concentration from 0.05 to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.02 nM. Based on this reactivation approach, the LFTSES device has been successfully applied for in vitro red blood cells inhibition studies using chlorpyrifos oxon as a model OP agent. This approach not only eliminates the difficulty in screening of low-dose OP exposure because of individual variation of normal AChE values, but also avoids the problem in overlapping substrate specificity with cholinesterases and avoids potential interference from other electroactive species in biological samples. It is baseline free and thus provides a rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive tool for in-field and point-of-care assessment of exposures to OP pesticides and nerve agents.

  9. Expression and post-translational processing of a broad-spectrum organophosphorus-neurotoxin-degrading enzyme in insect tissue culture

    Dave, K.I.; Phillips, L.; Luckow, V.A.; Wild, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    A recombinant baculovirus, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV), has been utilized to express the opd (organophosphate-degrading) gene from Pseudomonas diminuta in insect tissue-culture cells (Sf9) of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). The broad-spectrum organophosphate hydrolase (EC 3.1.8.1) encoded by this gene is a member of a general class of enzymes (organophosphate (OP) anhyorolases) that include parathion hydrolases, di-isopropyl-fluorophosphatases (DFpases), somanases, and OP phosphotrlesterases. This particular enzyme possesses the ability to hydrolyse paraoxon (P-O bond), DFP, sarin (P-F bond), VX (P-S bond) and tabun (P-CN bond), as well as a number of other extensively used organophosphorus pesticides. The enzyme produced in infected Sf9 cells is post-translationally processed and resembles the mature form of the enzyme expressed in various bacterial cells as identified by immunoprecipitation on Western blots. N-terminal sequence analysis of enzyme expressed in insect cells revealed Gly-29 as the terminal residue, whereas expression in Escherichia coli removes this residue, exposing Ser-30 at the N-terminus. Conditions for optimal expression of the enzyme in this system are described. Furthermore, hydrolytic efficiency of some OPs with purified enzyme from this system is discussed in relation to the in situ activity of Pseudomonas diminuta MG cells.

  10. Control of Pesticides 2000

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2000 analytical chemical authority control: 1) herbicides containing aclonifen, clopyralid, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, ioxynil, simazine, and terbuthylazine. 2) Fungicides containing fenpropidin......, fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin...

  11. 20种农药对烟蚜茧蜂的急性毒性及初级风险评估%Acute Toxicity Test and Risk Evaluation of 20 Pesticides on Natural Enemies of Parasitic Wasp Aphidius gifuensis

    于彩虹; 高然; 朱先志; 任广伟; 王振波; 瞿唯钢; 姜辉; 曲甍甍; 任晓东

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究20种农药对烟蚜茧蜂(Aphidius gifuensis)成蜂的毒性效应,初步评估农药对该种寄生性天敌在推荐剂量暴露下的环境风险.[方法]采用药膜法测定9种杀虫剂、8种除草剂及3种杀菌剂对烟蚜茧蜂成蜂的急性毒性,并根据田间推荐剂量计算暴露量,采用风险商值HQ对杀虫剂进行风险评估.[结果]杀虫剂对烟蚜茧蜂成蜂的急性毒性较高.其中,噻虫嗪和呋虫胺有明显的触杀毒性,半数致死浓度LC50分别为1.45、1.37 mg/L,而吡蚜酮LC5o达到了518.45 mg/L.呋虫胺、噻虫嗪、丁硫克百威、丙溴磷对烟蚜茧蜂HQ值大于5.除草剂和杀菌剂在10倍田间推荐用量下,致烟蚜茧蜂的死亡率仍不到50%.[结论]呋虫胺、噻虫嗪、丁硫克百威、丙溴磷对烟蚜茧蜂存在风险,有必要继续开展高级阶段风险评估;除草剂和杀菌剂风险可接受.%[Aims] The aims were to evaluate the safety of 20 pesticides to A.gifuemis,when the acute toxicities were tested.[Methods] The acute toxicities of 9 insecticides,8 herbicides and 3 fungicides on adult parasitoids of A.gifuensis were tested under laboratory condition by the method of contacted film in glass tube.Insecticides risk was assessed with Hazard Quotient,while the recommended dose was used to calculate the exposure value.[Results] The results showed that the acute toxicities of insecticides to A.gifuensis were significantly higher than fuguicides and herbicides.Among the 9 insecticides,dinotefuran and thiamethoxam had obvious contact toxicities with median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1.45 and 1.37 mg/L,respectively,while the LC50 value ofpymetrozine was 518.45 mg/L.HQ values of dinotefuran,thiamethoxam,carbosulfan and profenofos were larger than 5.When the A.gifuensis were treated with 10 times of the field recommended dosages of herbicides and fungicides,the mortality did not reach to 50%.[Conclusions] The risks of dinotefuran,thiamethoxam,carbosulfan and

  12. Characterisation of esterases as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure in the lugworm Arenicola marina (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Hannam, Marie L. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: marie.hannam@plymouth.ac.uk; Hagger, Josephine A.; Jones, Malcolm B.; Galloway, Tamara S. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Here, we identify and characterise cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities in the body tissues of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina. Exposure to the organophosphorus pesticide azamethiphos yielded an in vitro IC{sub 50} of 5 {mu}g l{sup -1} for propionylcholinesterase (PChE). PChE was significantly inhibited in vivo after a 10 day exposure to 100 {mu}g l{sup -1} azamethiphos, equivalent to the recommended aquatic application rate (ANOVA; F = 2.75, P = 0.033). To determine sensitivity to environmental conditions, A. marina were exposed for 10 days to field collected sediments. PChE activity was significantly lower in worms exposed to sediments from an estuary classified to be at high risk from point source pollution by the UK Environment Agency (ANOVA; F = 15.33, P < 0.001). Whilst causality cannot be directly attributed from these latter exposures, they provide an important illustration of the potential utility of esterase activity as a biomarker of environmental quality in this ecologically relevant sentinel species. - This paper provides a preliminary characterisation of esterase enzyme activities in the tissues and body fluids of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina and explores their potential use as biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in the marine environment.

  13. Exposure to Pesticides in Residents or the Banks of the Río Bogotá (Suesca and the Capitan Fish

    Rodríguez-Forero Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Considering the high use of pesticides in Colombia and the harmful effects resulting fromexposure to these substances on human health and the environment, a study for the determinationof biomarkers of exposure and effect of pesticides in population of the banks of the Río Bogotáin Suesca, the levels of pesticides in river water samples taken in the same city and in samples offish, “Capitán de la Sabana” (Eremophylus mutisii caught in this area. Materials and methods:We measured for organophosphates, carbamates, dithiocarbamates and organochlorines. We alsoexplored through a survey of occupational exposure to pesticides in the population and knowledgeand use of personal protective measures in their work. Additionally, we explored the habit offishing for captain and consumption in the diet of the inhabitants of the riverbank. Results: Theresults show the presence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in the river and infish tissue and organochlorine and ethylene thiourea in human biological samples. Participated inthe study workers directly exposed to pesticides, highly toxic handlers, most know and use personalprotective measures and industrial hygiene. Conclusions: Pollution such as pesticides in the upperbasin of Bogotá that affects wildlife and coastal populations. Best action is necessary to promoteenvironmental care, protection and self-care of persons using pesticides in the area.

  14. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  15. 江苏省农村居民急性生产性农药中毒调查及危险因素%Investigation of work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in Jiangsu Province and the risk factors

    崔梦晶; 涂志斌; 顾月; 张徐军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in Jiangsu Province and to identify the risk factors.Methods Multi-stage stratified sampling and cluster sampling methods were used to randomly select 1490 farmers from the south (Z village),centre (Y village) and north (X village) of Jiangsu Province.The database was established by EpiData 3.1.SPSS 17.0 and SAS 9.13 were used to do chi-square test,trend chi-square test,single factor and multi-factor logistic regression analysis.Results Among 1490 farmers,121 people had work-related acute pesticide poisoning in the past year.The incidence rate in Jiangsu Province was 8.1%.118 farmers (97.5%) were mild pesticide poisoning.3 farmers (2.5%) were moderate pesticide poisoning.The incidence rate of Work-related acute pesticide poisoning in X village of North Jiangsu Province (13.5%,68/505) is obviously higher than that in Y village of Central Jiangsu Province(4.8%,19/399) and Z village of South Jiangsu Province(5.8%,34/586),and the difference is statistically significant (x2=29.60,P<0.01).The incidence rate of Work-related acute pesticide poisoning in female (10.4%,58/557) is obviously higher than that in male (6.8%,63/933),and the difference is statistically significant (x2 =6.26,P<0.05).There are lack of safety guidance,unsafety application methods (without alternate row spraying,without backward application,without down-wind application) and risk behaviors in the spraying (without read labels,preparing pesticides without gloves,wiping sweat with hand (s),equipment leakage,body pollution by pesticide,working when feeling sick,without bath after work).If farmers have risk behaviors above,the incidence rate of Work-related acute pesticide poisoning will be obviously higher than farmers who receive safety guidance and have no such dangerous behaviors,and all the differences are statistically significant (P<0.05).The group of 24~34 years old has the highest

  16. Comparative effect of pesticides on brain acetylcholinesterase in tropical fish.

    Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Linhares, Amanda Guedes; Oliveira, Vagne Melo; França, Renata Cristina Penha; Carvalho, Elba Veronica Matoso Maciel; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza; de Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra

    2012-12-15

    Monitoring of pesticides based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) inhibition in vitro avoids interference of detoxification defenses and bioactivation of some of those compounds in non-target tissues. Moreover, environmental temperature, age and stress are able to affect specific enzyme activities when performing in vivo studies. Few comparative studies have investigated the inter-specific differences in AChE activity in fish. Screening studies allow choosing the suitable species as source of AChE to detect pesticides in a given situation. Brain AChE from the tropical fish: pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), cobia (Rachycentron canadum) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were characterized and their activities were assayed in the presence of pesticides (the organophosphates: dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, temephos, tetraethyl pyrophosphate- TEPP and the carbamates: carbaryl and carbofuran). Inhibition parameters (IC₅₀ and Ki) for each species were found and compared with commercial AChE from electric eel (Electrophorus electricus). Optimal pH and temperature were found to be 8.0 and 35-45 °C, respectively. A. gigas AChE retained 81% of the activity after incubation at 50 °C for 30 min. The electric eel enzyme was more sensitive to the compounds (mainly carbofuran, IC₅₀ of 5 nM), excepting the one from A. gigas (IC₅₀ of 9 nM) under TEPP inhibition. These results show comparable sensitivity between purified and non-purified enzymes suggesting them as biomarkers for organophosphorus and carbamate detection in routine environmental and food monitoring programs for pesticides.

  17. Nanostructured carbon materials decorated with organophosphorus moieties: synthesis and application

    Biagiotti, Giacomo; Langè, Vittoria; Ligi, Cristina; Caporali, Stefano; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Flis, Anna; Pietrusiewicz, K Michał; Ghini, Giacomo; Brandi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    A new synthetic approach for the production of carbon nanomaterials (CNM) decorated with organophosphorus moieties is presented. Three different triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) derivatives were used to decorate oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ox-MWCNTs) and graphene platelets (GPs). The TPPOs chosen bear functional groups able to react with the CNMs by Tour reaction (an amino group), nitrene cycloaddition (an azido group) or CuAAC reaction (one terminal C–C triple bond). All the adducts were characterized by FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, XPS, elemental analysis and ICP-AES. The cycloaddition of nitrene provided the higher loading on ox-MWCNTs and GPs as well, while the Tour approach gave best results with nanotubes (CNTs). Finally, we investigated the possibility to reduce the TPPO functionalized CNMs to the corresponding phosphine derivatives and applied one of the materials produced as heterogeneous organocatalyst in a Staudinger ligation reaction.

  18. Development of the Artificial Antigens for the Organophosphorus Insecticide chlorpyrifos

    ZHU Guo-nian; WU Gang; WU Hui-ming

    2004-01-01

    This study reported that the hapten of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos,O,Odiethyl-O-[3,5-dichloro-6-(2-carboxyethyl)thio-2-pyridyl]phosphorothioate(named AR) was synthesized by using technical grade chlorpyrifos reacted with 3-marcapropanoic acid in hot alkaline solution.The hapten was conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the modified active ester method to form artificial immune antigen.The ratio of AR:BSA was 39:1.The artificial coating antigen for chlorpyrifos was synthesized by conjugating AR to ovalbumin (OVA) with the mixed-anhydride method,and the ratio was 13:1.The anti-chlorpyrifos polyclonal antibodies were obtained by using the artificial immune antigen (AR-BSA) to immune in the rabbits.

  19. B-type esterases in the snail Xeropicta derbentina: An enzymological analysis to evaluate their use as biomarkers of pesticide exposure

    Laguerre, Christel [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Koehler, Heinz R. [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Triebskorn, Rita [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Steinbeis-Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology, Blumenstrasse 13, D-72108 Rottenburg (Germany); Capowiez, Yvan [INRA, Unite PSH, F- 84914 Avignon (France); Rault, Magali [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); Mazzia, Christophe [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France)], E-mail: mazzia@avignon.inra.fr

    2009-01-15

    The study was prompted to characterize the B-type esterase activities in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina and to evaluate its sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Specific cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities were mainly obtained with acetylthiocholine (K{sub m} = 77.2 mM; V{sub max} = 38.2 mU/mg protein) and 1-naphthyl acetate (K{sub m} = 222 mM, V{sub max} = 1095 mU/mg protein) substrates, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase activity was concentration-dependently inhibited by chlorpyrifos-oxon, dichlorvos, carbaryl and carbofuran (IC50 = 1.35 x 10{sup -5}-3.80 x 10{sup -8} M). The organophosphate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity was reactivated in the presence of pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride. Carboxylesterase activity was inhibited by organophosphorus insecticides (IC50 = 1.20 x 10{sup -5}-2.98 x 10{sup -8} M) but not by carbamates. B-esterase-specific differences in the inhibition by organophosphates and carbamates are discussed with respect to the buffering capacity of the carboxylesterase to reduce pesticide toxicity. These results suggest that B-type esterases in X. derbentina are suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure and that this snail could be used as sentinel species in field monitoring of Mediterranean climate regions. - Characterization of the B-type esterases in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina in order to evaluate pesticide exposure.

  20. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  1. [Analysis of pesticide multiresidues in rice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase extraction].

    Liu, Pengyan; Liu, Qingxue; Ma, Yusong; Liu, Jinwei; Jia, Xuan

    2006-05-01

    A new analytical method was developed to simultaneously determine multiple pesticide residues in rice including organophosphorus, organochlorine, carbamate and pyrethroid. First, the solvents for pesticide extraction were selected for optimization. Eight solvents were screened to find that the extraction efficiency with dichloromethane was the best. Second, clean-up was performed by solid phase extraction using a Florisil cartridge. Various mixtures of hexane and acetone were tested to show that the mixture of hexane-acetone (4:1, v/v) had the best performance. The clean-up helped the sample purification significantly. The prepared sample was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The pesticides were identified with retention time and selected ions and their relative abundances, and they were quantified based on extract of spiking standards in a blank sample. The limits of detection (LODs) were evaluated on the values of the lower concentration fortified sample under the signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. The recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were checked by adding pesticide standard solution at two levels to untreated samples, and the triplicate analysis of the samples were carried out for each spiked level. The LODs were at microg/kg level. The average recoveries of most pesticides were from 75% to 120 %. The RSDs were less than 10.4% (n = 3). These results indicated that this method is simple, rapid, sensitive for the simultaneous determination requirements of multiple pesticide residues in rice.

  2. Pesticide Sector Performed Well

    Wang Lvxian

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Further output growth in the first half of 2007 According to data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the output of pesticides (usually refering to pure pesticide technical) in China was 856 thousand tons in the first half of 2007, an increase of 25.6% over the same period of 2006.

  3. Food and Pesticides

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  4. Pesticides in Ground Water

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  5. Control of Pesticides 2001

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products...... comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1....... Satisfactory results were found among herbicides containing pendimethalin and methabenzthiazuron, among fungicides containing azaconazole, tolylfluanid, propamocarb and cyprodinil, and among insecticides containing amitraz, phosalone and diflubenzuron. Thus, the twelve analysed samples of these pesticides...

  6. [Rapid Detection of Trace Dimethoate Pesticide Residues Based on Colorimetric Spectroscopy].

    Li, Wen; Sun, Ming; Li, Min-zan; Sun, Hong

    2015-07-01

    In order to detect dimethoate pesticide residues rapidly and safely, a feasible method based on colorimetric spectroscopy was developed. Because dimethoate is one of organophosphorus pesticides containing sulfur, its sulfenyl can react with Pd2+ to produce a yellow complex named palladium sulfide. PdCl2 was used as the color agent, which was dissolved in acetic acid instead of the common concentrated hydrochloric acid. The dimethoate solution was prepared by dissolving the commercial pesticides into distilled water at different concentrations. The pesticide samples were reacted with the same amount of PdC2 solution respectively. The absorbance spectra of the samples after coloring reaction were measured in the region of 300-900 nm by a spectrophotometer. The result showed that the effect of using acetic acid instead of concentrated hydrochloric acid was not only safe but also preferable, and 0.5 mg x kg(-1) was the minimum concentration of the pesticide that could be distinguished in the spectra. The result met the pesticide residue detecting requirements of part fruits and vegetables in the national standard GB2763-2012 regulations. Further studies on random 40 dimethoate samples from 0.5 to 88 mg x kg(-1) were carried out. Thirty samples were randomly selected to establish the training model and remaining 10 samples were used to test the model. The preprocessing methods were carried on the spectrum data such as normalization and smoothing to get a better effect through comparison their prediction results with the correlation coefficient (r) and the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEP). The principal component analysis (PCA) method and partial least squares (PLS) method were used to establish prediction models respectively in the different wave ranges. By calculating the correlation coefficient of dimethoate samples in 350-900 nm the maximum of 0.9572 was obtained at wavelength 458 nm, so 453-463 and 400-600 nm were selected as feather regions

  7. Thin-layer chromatography/direct analysis in real time time-of-flight mass spectrometry and isotope dilution to analyze organophosphorus insecticides in fatty foods.

    Kiguchi, Osamu; Oka, Kazuko; Tamada, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Onodera, Jun

    2014-11-28

    To assess food safety emergencies caused by highly hazardous chemical-tainted foods, simultaneous analysis of organophosphorus insecticides in fatty foods such as precooked foods was conducted using thin-layer chromatography/direct analysis in real time time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TLC/DART-TOFMS) and isotope dilution technique. Polar (methamidophos and acephate) and nonpolar organophosphorus insecticides (fenitrothion, diazinon, and EPN) were studied. Experiments to ascertain chromatographic patterns using TLC/DART-TOFMS reveal that it was more useful than GC/MS or GC/MS/MS for the simultaneous analyses of polar and nonpolar pesticides, while obviating the addition of a protective agent for tailing effects of polar pesticides. Lower helium gas temperature (260°C) for DART-TOFMS was suitable for the simultaneous analysis of target pesticides. Linearities were achieved respectively at a lower standard concentration range (0.05-5 μg) for diazinon and EPN and at a higher standard concentration range (2.5-25 μg) for methamidophos, acephate, and fenitrothion. Their respective coefficients of determination were ≥ 0.9989 and ≥ 0.9959. A few higher repeatabilities (RSDs) for diazinon and EPN were found (>20%), although isotope dilution technique was used. Application to the HPTLC plate without an automatic TLC sampler might be inferred as a cause of their higher RSDs. Detection limits were estimated in the higher picogram range for diazinon and EPN, and in the lower nanogram range for methamidophos, acephate, and fenitrothion. Aside from methamidophos, recovery results (n=3) obtained using a highly insecticide-tainted fatty food (dumpling) and raw food (grapefruit) samples (10mg/kg) using TLC/DART-TOFMS with both complex and simpler cleanups were not as susceptible to matrix effects (95-121%; RSD, 1.3-14%) as those using GC/MS/MS (102-117%; RSD, 0.4-8.5%), although dumpling samples using GC/MS were remarkably susceptible to matrix effects. The coupled method of

  8. Comparison of neurological health outcomes between two adolescent cohorts exposed to pesticides in Egypt.

    Ismail, Ahmed A; Bonner, Matthew R; Hendy, Olfat; Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar; Wang, Kai; Olson, James R; Rohlman, Diane S

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide-exposed adolescents may have a higher risk of neurotoxic effects because of their developing brains and bodies. However, only a limited number of studies have addressed this risk among adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare neurological outcomes from two cohorts of Egyptian adolescents working as pesticide applicators. In 2005 and 2009, two cohorts of male adolescents working as pesticide applicators for the cotton crop were recruited from Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. The same application schedule and pesticides were used at both times, including both organophosphorus, and pyrethroid compounds. Participants in both cohorts completed three neurobehavioral tests, health and exposure questionnaires, and medical and neurological screening examinations. In addition, blood samples were collected to measure butyryl cholinesterase (BChE) activity. Pesticide applicators in both cohorts reported more neurological symptoms and signs than non-applicators, particularly among participants in the 2005 cohort (OR ranged from 1.18 to 15.3). Except for one test (Trail Making B), there were no significant differences between either applicators or non-applicators of both cohorts on the neurobehavioral outcome measures (p > 0.05). The 2005 cohort showed greater inhibition of serum BChE activity than the 2009 cohort (p < 0.05). In addition, participants with depressed BChE activity showed more symptoms and signs than others without BChE depression (p < 0.05). Our study is the first to examine the consistency of health outcomes associated with pesticide exposure across two cohorts tested at different times from the same geographical region in rural Egypt. This similar pattern of findings across the two cohorts provides strong evidence of the health impact of exposure of adolescents to pesticides.

  9. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Usage in Menia El-Kamh Province of Sharkia Governorate in Egypt

    Jean-Claude Assad

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Menia El-Kamh province of the Sharkia Governorate constitutes one of the largest agricultural areas in Egypt. About 88% of the nearly 472,000 people living in this province rely on agricultural activities for subsistence. Several pesticides including organochloride, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are commonly used in citrus, vegetable and other crop-growing areas to increase agricultural productivity. However, their use has also been associated with several cases of pesticide poisoning. In this research, we conducted a field survey to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the farmer’s community regarding the safe use of pesticides. We also evaluated the residual concentrations of selected pesticides in water, soil, milk, fish, and orange samples, and estimated the potential health risks associated with the exposure to these pesticides. Data obtained from the field survey indicate that more than 95% of farm workers do not practice safety precautions during pesticide formulation and application; leading to a considerable prevalence of pesticide-related illnesses in this agricultural community. Pesticide residues in various environmental samples varied greatly; from below detection levels (3-5 ng to as high as 325 ppb depending on the matrix of interest, and the specific pesticide of concern. The analysis of health risk estimates indicated that chlorpyrifos, DDT, dimethoate, methomyl, and larvin did not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in water, milk, orange, and/or fish. However, aldicarb, and carbosulfan levels exceeded the reference doses, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. The upper-bound values of cancer risk from DDT exposure were estimated to be about 8 (adults, and 55 (children excess cancers in a population of one million.

  10. Molecular and immunological responses of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to the organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon.

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Rahmawaty, Atiek; Chang, Zhong-Wen

    2013-04-15

    Trichlorfon is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide that is used as an agriculture pesticide to destroy insects, a human medicine to combat internal parasites, and an ectoparasiticide in the livestock and aquaculture industries, but which has caused aquatic toxicity in the prawn industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trichlorfon on molecular and enzymatic processes of the immunological response of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) with 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24h of exposure. The total hemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined to evaluate immunological responses and oxidative stress. Results showed that THCs of the prawn exposed to trichlorfon at both concentrations (0.2 and 0.4mgL(-1)) had increased after 12 and 24h; SOD and PO activities had significantly increased at 3h, whereas production of RBs had dramatically increased as oxidative stress at each sampling time after exposure to trichlorfon compared to the control. A potential biomarker of OPs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) revealed a significant decrease after exposure for 6h, and showed a time-dependent tendency. Immune gene expressions, including prophenoloxidase (proPO), the lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), α2-macroglubulin (α2M), transglutaminase (TG), and copper, zinc (Cu,Zn)-SOD, of prawns exposed to trichlorfon at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) for 0, 6, and 24h were further evaluated. Expressions of all of the immune genes significantly decreased when prawns were exposed to 0.4mgL(-1) trichlorfon for 24h, and among them, an increase in SOD expression was seen after exposure to 0.4mgL(-1) for 6h. Prawns exposed to trichlorfon within 24h exhibited the decrease of circulating hemocytes, and also the induction of oxidative stress, which caused subsequent damage to DNA formation of immune genes. From these

  11. BiPAP machine on the patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticides poisoning during sequential invasive mechanical ventilation therapy%双水平正压机在急性重度有机磷农药中毒有创通气后脱机过渡中的应用价值

    李东

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨双水平正压(BiPAP)机在急性重度有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)有创通气后脱机过渡中的应用价值.方法 急性重度有机磷农药中毒致呼吸衰竭患者100例,均行有创机械通气,随机分常规组(40例)和序贯组(60例).检测两组患者心肌酶学变化,上BiPAP呼吸机前、后动脉血气,监测心率、血压、脉搏氧饱和度,并监测心率、血压、脉搏氧饱和度计算重新气管插管率.结果 两组治疗后心肌酶(CK、CK-MB、AST、LDH)较治疗前均明显下降,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);撤机后序贯治疗组在有创通气时间、总机械通气时间、入住ICU/EICU时间明显缩短(P when two hours after oxygen mechanical ventilation, and the reintubation rate was calculat-ed. The traditional group was treated with conventinal therapy alone. Results After therapy CK,CK -MB,AST and LDH were decreased markedly in the two groups, and there was significant difference (P 0.05). Compared with the traditional group, the time of invasive mechanical ventilation, the total time of ventilator assosance and the hospitalized time in ICU/ EICU were decreased markedly (P < 0. 05), but the incidence of ventilator associated,pneumonia (VAP) was similar in two groups. Reintubation rate was higher in the traditional group than the BiPAP group (P <0. 05). Conclusions The toleration of patients for BiPAP machine is better. The BiPAP can improve the ventilation function of IMS caused by ASOPP, make the conventional mechanical ventila-tion off- line successfully and decrease the reintubation rate.

  12. 血清对氧磷酯酶1联合氧化指标检测在急性有机磷中毒的临床意义%Clinical Significance of Measurement of Serum Paraoxonase 1 and Antioxidative Enzymes Levels in Patients with Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    张娟文; 吕国才; 徐根云; 金玉琴

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨抗氧化酶及氧化应激压力在急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)中的意义.方法 检测28例AOPP患者血清对氧磷酯酶1(PONI)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和丙二醛(MDA)的水平并与36例健康对照组比较.结果 28例AOPP患者PON1(58.9±6.4 U/ml)和SOD(82.34±9.2 U/ml)明显低于对照组PONl(140.1±8.9 U/ml)和SOD(125.5±10.9 U/ml)(P<0.01).MDA的水平(6.65 ±1.13.nmol/ml)明显高于健康对照组(2.31±0.56.nmol/ml)(P<0.01).中毒组PONI和MDA相关性分析后发现,PONI活性与MDA含量存在明显的负相关(r=-0.821,P<0.01).结论 PONI等抗氧化酶活性下降,脂质发生过氧化反应,引发的氧化应激损伤在急性有机磷农药中毒病理生理机制中发挥重要作用.

  13. 连续性静脉-静脉血液滤过联合血液灌流治疗急性有机磷农药中毒合并呼吸功能衰竭效果分析%Efficacy of Continuous Venous Venous Blood Filtration Combined with Hemoperfusion in the Treatment of Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning Combined with Respiratory Failure

    刘怡

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价连续性静脉-静脉血液滤过(CVVH)联合血液灌流(HP)用于急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)合并呼吸功能衰竭的治疗效果。方法:选取2013年6月-2015年6月本院急诊抢救的AOPP合并呼吸功能衰竭患者34例,随机分为对照组(17例)和观察组(17例),两组均给予常规治疗及机械通气,在此基础上对照组采用HP治疗,观察组采用HP+CVVH治疗。比较两组的治疗效果。结果:观察组阿托品用量、机械通气时间、昏迷至清醒时间、ChE活性恢复时间以及ICU停留时间均显著优于对照组(P0.05);观察组并发症发生率为20.59%,显著低于对照组的17.65%(P0.05).The incidence rate of complication in observation group was 20.59%,which was significantly lower than 17.65% of control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:CVVH combined with HP treatment,which can effectively improve the clinical symptoms of AOPP patients with respiratory failure,improve the success rate, shorten the treatment time,reduce complications,is a safe and effective treatment,worthy of recommendation.

  14. Study on the expression of SOCS-1 SOCS-3 in liver and spleen of mice induced by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning( AOPP)%SOCS-1 SOCS-3在有机磷中毒鼠肝脾中表达的研究

    欧阳艳红; 李松玲; 宋维; 赵宁; 马中富

    2009-01-01

    S-3水平均升高, 与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).统计分析显示, 肝脏中SOCS-1和SOCS-3 mRNA明显正相关(r=0.922,P<0.01) ,脾脏中SOCS-1和SOCS-3 mRNA明显正相关(r=0.957,P<0.01).结论 AOPP可诱导SOCS-1、SOCS-3在肝脾中表达,不同时间点AOPP中毒小鼠肝脏、脾脏中SOCS-1、SOCS-3 mRNA表达升高趋势一致.

  15. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highes...... individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design.......This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  16. Assessing Pesticide Contamination to Fresh Water in Some Agricultural Sites, Close to Oaxaca City, Mexico

    Tomas, G.

    2002-12-01

    This study presents the results of a survey on pesticides in fresh water in shallow aquifers, rivers and dams in Zaachila, Tlacolula and Etla and agricultural valleys close to Oaxaca City, SW of Mexico. In the study zones, there are generalized uses of pesticides and the impact on the water resources by inadequate use of agricultural activities. Water is used for irrigation and drinking. Surveying criteria was to sample the aquifer (production wells), its water table (dig wells) and a regional water collector (Plan Benito Juarez Yuayapan dam). A total of 14 samples were analyzed for the identification and quantification of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides. Method was 508-EPA. Gas chromatographer was a 5890 series II Hewlett Packard, calibrated with several patterns. Results: 10 samples are contaminated with some pesticide of the used patterns; Dieldrin, Chlordano, Malathion, Mirex were not found; Traces of organophosphorus compounds were found in 8 samples, mainly Merphos, Parathion Ethylic and Disulfoton ; There was detected traces of world-forbidden insecticides as Metoxychlor, Parathion Ethylic and Disulfoton; and In one sample (Cuilapam well #1) DDT exceeds, the Mexican maximum limit for potable water (1 mg/l),

  17. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  18. Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 4. Molar Refraction of Cyclic Organophosphorus Compounds

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The molecular descriptors family on structure activity relationships methodology was applied on ten cyclic organophosphorus compounds in order to predict theirs molar refraction. A number of 107692 significantly different MDF members enter into a multiple linear regression analysis. A pair of descriptors (lGDmSMt, lAmrfEt, which have the best performing ability in prediction of molar refraction of cyclic organophosphorus compounds, was found and a bi-varied MDF SAR model was built. After performing leave-one-out cross-validation, satisfactory result was obtained with cross-validation r2cv and r2 values of 0.9999 and 0.9999. The external validation of the bi-varied MDF SAR model and its ability in prediction of molar refraction of cyclic organophosphorus compounds is demonstrated by the results obtained in training vs. test experiment. The correlated correlation results proved us that the ability in prediction of molar refraction of cyclic organophosphorus compounds with bi-varied MDF SAR model is significantly better compared with the previous reported SAR (see pZ = 0.0 % from Steiger’s Z test. The results showed clearly that the molar refraction of cyclic organophosphorus compounds is almost of topological nature (99.99%, and is strongly dependent on atomic relative mass and atomic electronegativity.

  19. Correlation between Cholinesterase and Paraoxonase 1 Activities: Case Series of Pesticide Poisoning Subjects

    S Austin Richard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute exposure to pesticide due to suicidal poisoning is the most extensive cause of pesticide exposure, compared with all other causes including agricultural or industrial exposure. Organophosphate (OP and carbamate group of pesticides can inhibit acetylcholinesterase; on the other hand, paraoxonase1 can detoxify organophosphate poisoning by hydrolyzing organophosphate metabolites. Methods: We have compared the serum paraoxonase1 status and cholinesterase activity of subjects who attempted to commit suicide by consuming OP pesticide. Cholinesterase and paraoxonase1 activity were measured spectrophotometrically using butyrylthiocholine and phenyl acetate as substrates, respectively. Results: A positive correlation was found between serum paraoxonase1 activity and cholinesterase activity among pesticide consumed subjects. Conclusion: Our results suggest that subjects with higher paraoxonase1 activity may have a better chance of detoxifying the lethal effect of acute organophosphate poisoning.

  20. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  1. Control of Pesticides 2006

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the pro......The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients...... analytical chemical authority control: Herbicides containing metamitron, propaquizafop and haloxyfop-ethoxyethyl. Fungicides containing azoxystrobin, propiconazole, cyprodinil, picoxystrobin and fenpropidin. Insecticides containing pirimicarb. Plant growth regulators containing chlormequat chloride, mepiquat...

  2. Control of Pesticides 2004

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides...

  3. Pesticide Registration Information System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and...

  4. Respiratory Protection against Pesticides

    Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Although the respiratory (breathing) system tolerates exposure to a limited degree, some chemicals can impair or destroy portions of it. For many pesticides, the respiratory system is the quickest and most direct route into the circulatory system, allowing rapid transport throughout the body. Thus, it is important to follow the pesticide label and follow directions for control of exposure, especially when respiratory protection is specified. A respirator is a safety device covering at least t...

  5. Organophosphorus reagents in actinide separations: Unique tools for production, cleanup and disposal

    Nash, K. L.

    2000-01-12

    Interactions of actinide ions with phosphate and organophosphorus reagents have figured prominently in nuclear science and technology, particularly in the hydrometallurgical processing of irradiated nuclear fuel. Actinide interactions with phosphorus-containing species impact all aspects from the stability of naturally occurring actinides in phosphate mineral phases through the application of the bismuth phosphate and PUREX processes for large-scale production of transuranic elements to the development of analytical separation and environment restoration processes based on new organophosphorus reagents. In this report, an overview of the unique role of organophosphorus compounds in actinide production, disposal, and environment restoration is presented. The broad utility of these reagents and their unique chemical properties is emphasized.

  6. Subchronic organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity in mallards

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Murray, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    Eighteen-week-old mallard hens received 0, 10, 30, 90, or 270 ppm technical grade EPN (phenylphosphonothioic acid O-ethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl ester) in the diet for 90 days. Ataxia was first observed in the 270-ppm group after 16 days, in the 90-ppm group after 20 days, in the 30-ppm group after 38 days; 10 ppm failed to produce ataxia. By the end of 90 days all 6 birds in the 270-ppm group exhibited ataxia or paralysis whereas 5 of 6 birds in the 90-ppm group and 2 of 6 birds in the 30-ppm group were visibly affected. Treatment with 30 ppm or more resulted in a significant reduction in body weight. Brain neurotoxic esterase activity was inhibited by averages of 16, 69, 73, and 74% in the 10-, 30-, 90-, and 270-ppm groups, respectively. Brain acetylcholinesterase, plasma cholinesterase, and plasma alkaline phosphatase were significantly inhibited as well. Distinct histopathological effects were seen in the 30-, 90-, and 270-ppm groups which included demyelination and degeneration of axons of the spinal cord. Additional ducks were exposed in a similar manner to 60-, 270-, or 540-ppm leptophos (phosphonothioic acid O-4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenyl-O-methylphenyl ester) which resulted in similar behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological alterations. These findings indicate that adult mallards are probably somewhat less sensitive than chickens to subchronic dietary exposure to organophosphorus insecticides that induce delayed neurotoxicity.

  7. Photocolorimetric Biosensor for Detection of Cholinergic Organophosphorus Compounds

    Kamila Vymazalová

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To detect nerve agents in practice, the analytical methods such as gas, liquid and thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry or capillary electrophoresis are usually used. Apart from these analytical methods, we developed an analytical device (tape photocolorimetric biosensor based on the modified Ellman's cholinesterase biochemical reaction for multidetection of cholinergic organophosphorus compounds. Enzyme butyrylcholinesterase was used as a biorecognizing component and its activity was evaluated by red, blue, green (RGB sensor. This method eliminates errors in the evaluation and provides automatic data collection with their subsequent evaluation. The unique method of dosing allows appropriate dispensing of reagents in microlitres volumes and the whole system is simple to operate. Suitability of the constructed biosensors was evaluated using the six organophosphates (Tabun, sarin, Soman, cyclosin, VX and R33 compound. Biosensor showed the ability to measure substances at concentrations ranging between ~ 1×10-8 mg/l - 1×10-6 mg/l in the air, according to their inhibition effect.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(6, pp.399-403, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.2589

  8. Clinico-epidemiological characteristics of patients presenting with organophosphorus poisoning

    Indranil Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus (OP poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries. Aim: The present study aims to explore the clinical and epidemiological features found in patients presenting with OP poisoning. Materials and Methods: A 1-year cross-sectional study was conducted on patients presenting with clinical features of OP poisoning in a tertiary care medical college. Results: A total of 968 patients presented during the study period. Poisoning with suicidal intent (82.02% was more common than the accidental one (17.98%. Majority of the patients were housewives (42% followed by farmers, shopkeepers, laborers, students. Methyl parathion was the most common poison consumed by the patients (35.74% followed by diazinon, chlorpyriphos, dimicron. Nausea and vomiting (85.02% was the most common symptom while miosis was the most common sign observed in 91.94% patients. A total of 56 patients of OP poisoning died (5.78% with respiratory failure being the primary cause of death followed by CNS depression, cardiac arrest, and septicaemia. Conclusion: The present study showed that majority of the patients were of young age with females outnumbering males. Poisoning with suicidal intent was more common than accidental. Nausea and vomiting was the most common symptom reported by the patients while miosis was the most common sign observed by the treating physicians of the research team.

  9. Effect of organophosphorus insecticides on phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Shuyin Li; Liming Zou; Carry Pope

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus insecticides may promote the accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses and the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity to cause disturbance of neural signal conduction and induce a toxic reaction. Organophosphorus insecticides may act on M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, whose combination with G proteins is regulated by phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of organophosphorus insecticides on the phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2-mediated M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and to reveal other possible actions of organophosphorus insecticides.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An observational study, which was performed in the Central Laboratory of Shenyang Medical College, and Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University from June 2002 to December 2004.METHODS: The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor was extracted and purified from pig brain using affinity chromatography. Subsequently, the purified M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, and [OP32] ATP were incubated with different concentrations of paraoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon together. The mixture then underwent polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the gel film was dried and radioactively autographed to detect phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Finally, the radio-labeled phosphorylated M2 receptor protein band was excised for counting with an isotope liquid scintillation counter.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effects of chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon, chlorpyrifos, and parathion in different concentrations on the phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor; effects of chlorpyrifos oxon on the phosphorylation of the adrenergic receptor.CONCLUSION: Different kinds of organophosphorus insecticides have different effects on the phosphorylation of the G protein

  10. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  11. An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto iron oxide nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for measurement of organophosphorus insecticides

    Chauhan, Nidhi [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Pundir, Chandra Shekhar, E-mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India)

    2011-09-02

    Graphical abstract: The stepwise amperometric biosensor fabrication process and immobilized acetylcholinesterase inhibition in pesticide solution. Highlights: {center_dot} Constructed a novel composite material using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT at Au electrode for electrocatalysis. {center_dot} The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by SEM, FTIR, CVs and EIS. {center_dot} The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA {mu}M{sup -1}) {center_dot} The half life of electrode was 2 months. {center_dot} The sensor was suitable for trace detection of OP pesticide residues in milk and water. - Abstract: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from maize seedlings was immobilized covalently onto iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP) and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) modified Au electrode. An organophosphorus (OP) biosensor was fabricated using this AChE/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/c-MWCNT/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The synergistic action of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT showed excellent electrocatalytic activity at low potential (+0.4 V). The optimum working conditions for the sensor were pH 7.5, 35 deg. C, 600 {mu}M substrate concentration and 10 min for inhibition by pesticide. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of OP pesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1-40 nM, 0.1-50 nM, 1-50 nM and 10-100 nM for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan respectively. The detection limits were 0.1 nM for malathion and chlorpyrifos, 1 nM for monocrotophos and 10 nM for endosulfan. The

  12. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  13. 急性有机磷农药中毒"中间期肌无力综合征"的研究进展%The recent advances in research of "intermediate myasthenia syndrome"in acute organophosphates poisoning

    肖诚; 何凤生

    2001-01-01

    @@ 有机磷农药(organophosphorus pesticides,OPs)中毒是我国农村重要的公共卫生问题[1].OPs中毒除可产生急性胆碱能危象(acute cholinergic crisis,ACC)和迟发性多发性神经病(organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy,OPIDP)外,还可使某些患者于急性OPs中毒后第1~4天发生颅神经支配的肌肉、屈颈肌、四肢近端肌肉和呼吸肌无力等表现,临床上称为中间期肌无力综合征(intermediate myasthenia syndrome,IMS)[2,3].徐海滨[4]、黄金祥等[5]曾综述既往对IMS的研究结果.近年来因IMS引起的呼吸肌麻痹为急性OPs中毒常见的死因,其早期诊断、治疗与发病机制皆受到研究者的关注,有关进展现综述如下.

  14. Evaluation of the Rapid Method for Testing of Organophosphorus Pestic ides Residue in Vegetables%蔬菜有机磷农药残留快速检测方法的评价

    纪淑娟; 赵丽丽; 冯辉

    2001-01-01

    A rapid Testing method of organophosphorus pesticides residue in vegetables was introduced in this paper. The experimental evaluation was done by means of degree of accuracy,precision and sensitivity,and by compa ring with gas chromato-graphy method which is standard method of our countr y.The results showed that the rate of recovery for this method was over 70% ,the comparatively standard variance was less than 4%,and the lowest d etection limit was 0.02~0.5mg*kg-1. All of these show that this kind of rapid testing method can satisfy the need of user for rough detection of organophosphorus pesticides residue in vegetables.%介绍了一种快速检测蔬菜有机磷农药残留的方法。以黄瓜为试材,通过准确度、精密度和灵敏度的分析,以及与国家标准方法--气相色谱法的比较,对该方法进行了实验学评价。结果表明,该方法对敌敌畏、甲基对硫磷、辛硫磷、氧化乐果和甲胺磷的回收率分别为98.75%、83.00%、 91.00%、70.50%和86.00%;最低检测限量分别为0.05、0.02、0.3、0.5、0.5mg *kg-1。多次平行测定变异系数小于4%,可以满足半定量分析的要求。

  15. Agricultural pesticide use and food safety:California’s model

    Minghua Zhang; Michael R Zeiss; Shu Geng

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been an essential part of agriculture to protect crops and livestock from pest infestations and yield reduc-tion for many decades. Despite their usefulness, pesticides could pose potential risks to food safety and the environment as wel as human health. This paper reviews the positive beneifts of agricultural pesticide use as wel as some potential negative impacts on the environment and food safety. In addition, using the case of California, we discuss the need for both residue monitoring and effective pest management to promote food safety. Twenty years’ pesticide residue data from California’s pesticide residue monitoring program were analyzed. Results showed that more than 95% of food samples were in compliance with US pesticide residue standards (tolerances). However, certain commodities from certain sources had high percentages of residues above tolerance levels. Even when residues above tolerance levels were detected, most were at levels wel below 1 mg kg–1, and most posed negligible acute health risk. However, a few detected residues had the potential to cause health effects. Therefore, establishing an effective food residue monitoring program is important to ensure food quality throughout the marketplace.

  16. 蜜源植物常用农药对蜜蜂急性毒性及风险评价%The acute toxicity and risk assessment of 25 pesticides used in nectar plant to Apis mellifera L.

    苍涛; 王彦华; 俞瑞鲜; 吴长兴; 陈丽萍; 吴声敢; 赵学平

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-five pesticides, which were commonly used in the period of flowering of 4 main nectar plants in Zhejiang province, were chosen to determine the acute toxicity to bees (Apis mellifera L. ) combining with the field maximum dose. The results showed that; the 48 h LC50 values of 1. 8% EC abamectin to Apis mellifera L. was 0. 0528 (0. 0462 -0. 0603) mg·L-1 , belongs to very high toxic grade; the 48 h LC50 values range of 1% EC em-amectin benzoate, 40% EC methidathion, 10% AS nitenpyram, 40% EC phoxim, 2.5% EC lambda-cyhalothrin, 4. 5% EC beta-cypermethrin, 480 g·L-1 EC chlorpyrifos, 45% EC malathion, 10% WP imidacloprid and 90% TC trichlorfon to Apis mellifera L. were 1. 02 (0. 869 - 1. 14) mg·L-1 to 13. 9 (12. 4 - 15. 5) mg·L-1, belongs to high toxic grade; the 48 h LC50 values range of 15% EC pyridaben, 20% SP acetamiprid and 15% WP ethylicin to Apis mellifera L. were 43. 3(37. 5 -50. 0) mg·L-1 to 163( 127 -210) mg-L ' , belongs to moderate toxic grade; the LC50 values of 5% SC fenpyroximate, 250 g·L-1 EC prochloraz, 25% WP diflubenzuron, 40% EC propargite, 50% WP cyromazine, 50% WG dimethomorph, 75% WG carbendazim, 25% WP buprofezin, 35% SC procymidone, 50% WP iprodione and 75% WP chlorothalonil to Apis mellifera L. were higher than 200 mg·L-1 , belongs to low toxic grade. The results showed that 1.8% EC abamectin, 1% EC emamectin benzoate, 40% EC methidathion, 10% AS nitenpyram, 40% EC phoxim, 2. 5% EC lambda-cyhalothrin, 4. 5% EC beta-cypermethrin, 480 g-L"1 EC chlorpyrifos, 45% EC malathion and 90% TC trichlorfon had very high risk to Apis mellifera L. 10% WP imidaclo-prid, 15% EC pyridaben and 5% SC fenpyroximate had high risk to Apis mellifera L. 20% SP acetamiprid, 15% WP ethylicin, 250 g·L-1 EC prochloraz, 40% EC propargite, 50% WP cyromazine and 50% WG dimethomorph were moderately risk to Apis mellifera L. , while other pesticides were low-risk to Apis mellifera L.%选择浙江省种植面积较大的4种蜜源植

  17. Evaluating the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for pesticide hazard screening.

    Glaberman, Scott; Padilla, Stephanie; Barron, Mace G

    2016-10-04

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more resource-intensive, juvenile fish acute toxicity tests. However, there is also evidence that fish embryos are less sensitive than juvenile fish for certain types of chemicals, including neurotoxicants. The utility of fish embryos for pesticide hazard assessment was investigated by comparing published zebrafish embryo toxicity data from pesticides with median lethal concentration 50% (LC50) data for juveniles of 3 commonly tested fish species: rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish, and sheepshead minnow. A poor, albeit significant, relationship (r(2 ) = 0.28; p zebrafish embryo and juvenile fish toxicity when pesticides were considered as a single group, but a much better relationship (r(2)  = 0.64; p pesticide mode of action was factored into an analysis of covariance. This discrepancy is partly explained by the large number of neurotoxic pesticides in the dataset, supporting previous findings that commonly used fish embryo toxicity test endpoints are particularly insensitive to neurotoxicants. These results indicate that it is still premature to replace juvenile fish toxicity tests with embryo-based tests such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test for routine pesticide hazard assessment, although embryo testing could be used with other screening tools for testing prioritization. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-6. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Pesticide food safety standards as companions to tolerances and maximum residue limits

    Carl K Winter; Elizabeth A Jara

    2015-01-01

    Alowable levels for pesticide residues in foods, known as tolerances in the US and as maximum residue limits (MRLs) in much of the world, are widely yet inappropriately perceived as levels of safety concern. A novel approach to develop scientiifcaly defensible levels of safety concern is presented and an example to determine acute and chronic pesticide food safety standard (PFSS) levels for the fungicide captan on strawberries is provided. Using this approach, the chronic PFSS level for captan on strawberries was determined to be 2000 mg kg–1 and the acute PFSS level was determined to be 250 mg kg–1. Both levels are far above the existing tolerance and MRLs that commonly range from 3 to 20 mg kg–1, and provide evidence that captan residues detected at levels greater than the tolerance or MRLs are not of acute or chronic health concern even though they represent violative residues. The beneifts of developing the PFSS approach to serve as a companion to existing tolerances/MRLs include a greater understanding concerning the health signiifcance, if any, from exposure to violative pesticide residues. In addition, the PFSS approach can be universaly applied to al potential pesticide residues on al food commodities, can be modiifed by speciifc jurisdictions to take into account differences in food consumption practices, and can help prioritize food residue monitoring by identifying the pesticide/commodity combinations of the greatest potential food safety concern and guiding development of ifeld level analytical methods to detect pesticide residues on prioritized pesticide/commodity combinations.

  19. Organophosphorus flame retardants – Toxicity and influence on human health

    Elżbieta Bruchajzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus flame retardants (flame retardants, FRs have been used for several decades in many industries, including the production of dyes, varnishes, adhesives, synthetic resins, polyvinyl chloride, hydraulic fluids, plastics and textiles. Their importance in recent times has increased due to i.a., significantly reduced use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs – persistent organic pollutants, dangerous for the environment. The aim of this study was to review the available literature data concerning phosphorous FRs primarily for neurotoxic, fertility, reproductive and carcinogenic effects. The analysis concerned the following most commonly used substances: tris(2-ethylhexylphosphate (TEHP, tris(2-butoxyethylphosphate (TBEP, triphenyl phosphate (TPP, tris(2-chloroethylphosphate (TCEP, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl-phosphonium chloride (THPC, tributyl phosphate (TBP, tricresyl phosphate (TCP, tris(2-chloroisopropylphosphate (TCPP, tris(1,3-dichloroisopropylphosphate (TDCP and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulphate (THPS. In animal studies neurotoxic effects were found after exposure to TBEP, THPC, TBP and TCP, while in humans they were observed only after exposure to TCP. TCEP, THPS, TBP, TCP and TDCP caused disorders in fertility and/or fetal development of animals. Adverse effects on reproduction in humans may be caused by TPP, TCP, and TDCP. In laboratory animals the development of tumors was observed after high doses of TEHP, TCEP, TBP and TDCP. None of these compounds is classified as a human carcinogen. The environmental toxicity of phosphate FRs is low (except for TPP, TCEP and TBEP. They are not stable compounds, in living organisms they are metabolised and quickly excreted. Therefore, they can be used as an alternative to PBDEs. Med. Pr. 2015;66(2:235–264

  20. [ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS - TOXICITY AND INFLUENCE ON HUMAN HEALTH].

    Bruchajzer, Elżbieta; Frydrych, Barbara; Szymańska, Jadwiga Anna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphorus flame retardants (flame retardants, FRs) have been used for several decades in many industries, including the production of dyes, varnishes, adhesives, synthetic resins, polyvinyl chloride, hydraulic fluids, plastics and textiles. Their importance in recent times has increased due to i.a., significantly reduced use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) - persistent organic pollutants, dangerous for the environment. The aim of this study was to review the available literature data concerning phosphorous FRs primarily for neurotoxic, fertility, reproductive and carcinogenic effects. The analysis concerned the following most commonly used substances: tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-phosphonium chloride (THPC), tributyl phosphate (TBP), tricresyl phosphate (TCP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCP) and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulphate (THPS). In animal studies neurotoxic effects were found after exposure to TBEP, THPC, TBP and TCP, while in humans they were observed only after exposure to TCP. TCEP, THPS, TBP, TCP and TDCP caused disorders in fertility and/or fetal development of animals. Adverse effects on reproduction in humans may be caused by TPP, TCP, and TDCP. In laboratory animals the development of tumors was observed after high doses of TEHP, TCEP, TBP and TDCP. None of these compounds is classified as a human carcinogen. The environmental toxicity of phosphate FRs is low (except for TPP, TCEP and TBEP). They are not stable compounds, in living organisms they are metabolised and quickly excreted. Therefore, they can be used as an alternative to PBDEs.

  1. Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI), established in 1963, is the first professional pesticide institute in China. After being approved by the Science & Technology Committee of PRC, it became the base for Shanghai Branch of National Pesticide R&D South center.

  2. Assessing biomarkers and neuropsychological outcomes in rural populations exposed to organophosphate pesticides in Chile - study design and protocol

    Ramirez-Santana, M.; Zuniga, L.; Corral, S.; Sandoval, R.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Velden, K. van der; Roeleveld, N.; Pancetti, F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health effects of pesticides are easily diagnosed when acute poisonings occurs, nevertheless, consequences from chronic exposure can only be observed when neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative or oncologic pathologies appear. Therefore, early monitoring of this type of exposure is especial

  3. Statistical Analysis of Regularity of Pesticide Residues in Vegetables Produced in Inner Mongoli

    Fujin ZHANG; Dekun HOU; Jiang HE; Tianyun GAO; Hong LUO; Songyan LANG; Xinxin ZHANG; Yiping YAO

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to study regularity of pesticide residues in veg-etables produced in Inner Mongolia. [Method] Mathematical statistic analysis was carried out on 6 800 samples of veggies, fruits, leguminous vegetables, nuts and seeds produced in Inner Mongolia. [Result] The dominated vegetables in Inner Mon-golia were green leafy vegetables, solanaceous vegetables and melon vegetables, and their yields accounted for 70% of the total vegetables production. Since 2003, with the rapid increase of detected vegetable numbers, the status of vegetable qual-ity safety had entered into a new stage of sustainable steady after a rapid decline or periodic fluctuation, and the differences in safety levels were obvious, of which the range of exceeding standard rate of pesticide residues in solanaceous vegeta-bles, melon vegetables and leguminous vegetables (about 55% of the total vegeta-bles) was under 2%, with average values of 1.1%, 1.6% and 3.1%, respectively. They belonged to stable type. The exceeding standard rate of pesticide residues in green leafy vegetables and Chinese cabbage group (about 30% of total vegetables) presented a decreasing trend year by year, wondering in the range of 7%-10%. They belonged to main risk type. The time period of exceeding standard of pesticide residues in root vegetables and cole vegetables was under predictable, and its ex-ceeding standard rate in some years was over 5% (amplitude variation is over 15 percentage points). They belonged to random risk type. The kinds of pesticides, which exceeding standard rate in vegetables were relatively intensive, presented vari-ance in different vegetable species. 70% of the pesticides belonged to intermittent over-limits and the probability was below 5%. About 20% tradition pesticides often exceeded standard and their probabilities were over 30%. The exceeding standard of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides in vegetables presented a decreasing tend, while the risk of some new pesticides

  4. The 2011 European Union Report on Pesticide Residues in Food

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the results of the control activities related to pesticide residues in food carried out in 2011 in 29 European countries (27 Member States and 2 EFTA countries. The report also presents a dietary risk assessment. On the basis of the detailed analysis of the results, EFSA derived some recommendations aimed at improving the enforcement of the European pesticide residue legislation. In 2011, more than 79,000 samples of more than 600 food products were tested for pesticide residues throughout Europe. Nearly 900 pesticides were sought and less than 400 were detected in measurable amounts. In the framework of the EU-coordinated monitoring programme which covered more than 12,000 samples 98.1 % of the tested food samples analysed complied with the legal limits and that 53.4 % of samples contained no measurable residues at all. The dietary risk assessment that was performed to estimate the long-term exposure of consumers confirmed that there was no long-term risk to consumer health through their diets from 99 % of the 171 pesticides assessed. For two pesticides (dieldrin and heptachlor the estimated worst-case exposure exceeded the toxicological reference value, indicating there may be a potential for an impact on consumer health. Neither compound is authorised for use as a pesticide, but due to historical use and the high persistence of the molecules and their capacity to bioaccumulate, they are still present in the food chain. The risk assessment that focussed on the short-term exposure revealed that potential consumer health concerns could not be excluded in 253 instances should the products that contained residues in high concentrations be consumed in high amounts. Finally, an acute risk assessment was carried out for pears that contained multiple residues of pesticides that share the same toxicological effects. Two samples of pears exceeded the toxicological threshold for cumulative effects.

  5. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    This PhD project was carried out as part of the Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) project, funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research (grant number 2104-08-0012). The environment is contaminated with various xenobiotic compounds e.g. pesticides......D student, to construct fungal-bacterial consortia in order to potentially stimulate pesticide degradation thereby increasing the chance of successful bioaugmentation. The results of the project are reported in three article manuscripts, included in this thesis. In manuscript I, the mineralization of 2...

  6. Control of pesticides 2003

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2003 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing clodinafop- propargyl, clomazone, fluroxypyr and glyphosate. 2) Fungicides containing bitertanol, fuberidazole, fenhexamid and pencycuron...... containing methoprene complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the 44 examined samples contained OPEO, but 5 of the samples contained NPEO. Three of these five samples were produced before...

  7. 肿瘤坏死因子α-238 G/A 基因多态性与有机磷中毒中间综合征的关系%Relationship between tumor necrosis factor α-238G/A gene polymorphism and the intermediate syndrome of organophosphorus poisoning

    陆启峰; 梁烨; 李天资; 李近都; 黄元东

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨肿瘤坏死因子α( TNFα)基因-238位点基因单核苷酸多态性( SNP)与有机磷中毒中间综合征的关联性。方法对36例有机磷中毒中间综合征(实验组)患者运用多聚酶链反应技术检测TNFα基因-238位点的SNP。并与67例急性重度有机磷中毒(对照组)比较。结果实验组TNFα-238G/G、G/A、A/A表型频率分别为0.778、0.104、0.028;对照组分别为0.940、0.060、0.000。实验组TNFα-238G、TNFα-238A基因频率分别为0.875、0.125;对照组分别为0.970、0.030。 TNFα-238G/A各种基因型频率在实验组与对照组之间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 TNFα-238G/A基因多态性与有机磷中毒中间综合征有关联性。%Objective To investigate the tumor necrosis factor α( TNFα) gene -238 loci gene single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs ) and the relevance to intermediate syndrome of organophosphorus poisoning . Methods Thirty -six patients with intermediate syndrome of organophosphorus poisoning were detected the TNFαgene -238 SNPs by polymerase chain reaction technology .The data of TNFαSNPs were analyzed between intermediate syndrome of organophosphorus poisoning and acute severe organophosphorus poisoning ( control ) .Results Intermediate syndrome of organophosphorus poisoning group of TNFα-238G/G, G/A and A/A phenotypic frequency were 0.778, 0.104 and 0.028, respectively;the acute severe organophosphate poisoning were 0.940, 0.060 and 0.000 , respectively .Intermediate syndrome of organophosphorus poisoning group of TNFα-238 G, TNFα-238A gene frequency were 0.875, 0.125; the acute severe organophosphate poisoning were 0.970 and 0.030.TNFαgene-238G/A variety of genotype frequencies between intermediate syndrome of organophosphorus poisoning group and acute severe organophosphate poisoning the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion TNFαgene-238G/A polymorphism has correlation

  8. Mineralisation and primary biodegradation of aromatic organophosphorus flame retardants in activated sludge

    Jurgens, S.S.; Helmus, R.; Waaijers, S.L.; Uittenbogaard, D.; Dunnebier, D; Vleugel, M; Kraak, M.H.S.; de Voogt, P.; Parsons, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs), such as the aromatic organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), resorcinol bis(diphenylphosphate) (PBDPP) and bisphenol A bis(diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been proposed as potential replacements for brominated flame retardants i

  9. 40 CFR 798.6560 - Subchronic delayed neuro-toxicity of organophosphorus substances.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Subchronic delayed neuro-toxicity of organophosphorus substances. 798.6560 Section 798.6560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... gelatine capsules. (7) Study conduct—(i) General. Healthy young adult hens free from interfering...

  10. To identify morbidity and mortality predictors in acute organophosphate poisoning

    Arti Muley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus poisoning remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, but no definite parameters have been identified as predictors of outcome. Prediction of morbidity at presentation might help in decision making in places of limited resources like rural settings in developing countries. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 cases were included in this retrospective cohort study. Logged relative risk of requirement of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay >7 days was measured in patients with serum acetylcholinesterase (s. acetylcholinesterase 1000, presenting in 12 and in patients with SpO 2 7 days. Conclusion: S. acetylcholinesterase, SpO 2 at room air, GCS, and duration of exposure at presentation can be used to identify the requirement of special care in acute organophosphorus poisoning. This can aid in decision making regarding admission to intensive care unit and referral in the places with limited resources.

  11. Value of β2-MG in the Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Acute Organophosphate Pesticide Poisoning%β2-MG诊断急性有机磷农药中毒急性肾损伤的价值

    刘春晓; 唐开奖; 黄向阳

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解血清β2-微球蛋白(β2-MG)诊断急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)急性肾损伤(AKI)的价值.方法 81例AOPP患者根据其乙酰胆碱酯酶水平分为轻度组(31例)、中度组(29例)、重度组(21例).同期门诊体检健康者30例为对照组.分别检测各组血清肌酐(Scr)、β2-MG含量;分析β2-MG诊断AKI的特异度、灵敏度.结果 AOPP时AKI的总发生率为76.5%(62/81),轻、中、重度组AKI发生率分别为45.2%(14/31)、93.1%(27/29)、100.0%(21/21).β2-MG诊断AOPP致AKI的总体灵敏度、特异度分别为46.8%(29/62)、100.0%.各中毒组的β2-MG阳性率依次为0%(0/31)、34.5%(10/29)、90.5%(19/21),重度组>中度组>轻度组(P<0.01).β2-MG含量及阳性率与中毒程度均呈负相关关系(P<0.05).结论 β2-MG诊断AOPP致AKI的灵敏度、阳性率低,不是早期诊断AKI的敏感指标.%Objective To explore the value of β2-microglobulin( β2-MG ) in the diagnodid of acute kidney injury( AKI ) induced by acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning( AOPP ). Methods Eighty one patients with AOPP were divided into three groups( mild poisoning group, moderate poisoning group and severe poisoning group ) according to acetylcholinesterase( AchE ) level. Thirty healthy controls in out-patient clinic were also recruited. Creatinine ( Scr),β2-MG were detected in each group,and β2-MG was analyzed to diagnose the specificity and sensitivity of AKI. Results The total incidence of AKI induced by AOPP was 76. 5%( 62/81 ),the incidences of mild poisoning group, moderate poisoning group and severe poisoning group were 45. 2%( 14/31 ),93. 1%( 27/29 ) and 100. 0%( 21/21 ), respectively. The total specificity and sensitivity of β2-MG in the diagnosis of AKI induced by AOPP were 46.8%( 29/62 ), 100.0% respectively. The positive rates of β2-MG in each poisoning group were 0%( 0/31 ),34. 5%( 10/29 ) and 90.5%( 19/21 ),which was the highest in the severe poisoning group but the lowest in the mild poisoning

  12. Organophosphate pesticides exposure among farmworkers: pathways and risk of adverse health effects.

    Suratman, Suratman; Edwards, John William; Babina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used pesticides with more than 100 OP compounds in use around the world. The high-intensity use of OP pesticides contributes to morbidity and mortality in farmworkers and their families through acute or chronic pesticides-related illnesses. Many factors contributing to adverse health effects have been investigated by researchers to determine pathways of OP-pesticide exposure among farmers in developed and developing countries. Factors like wind/agricultural pesticide drift, mixing and spraying pesticides, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), knowledge, perceptions, washing hands, taking a shower, wearing contaminated clothes, eating, drinking, smoking, and hot weather are common in both groups of countries. Factors including low socioeconomic status areas, workplace conditions, duration of exposure, pesticide safety training, frequency of applying pesticides, spraying against the wind, and reuse of pesticide containers for storage are specific contributors in developing countries, whereas housing conditions, social contextual factors, and mechanical equipment were specific pathways in developed countries. This paper compares existing research in environmental and behavioural exposure modifying factors and biological monitoring between developing and developed countries. The main objective of this review is to explore the current depth of understanding of exposure pathways and factors increasing the risk of exposure potentially leading to adverse health effects specific to each group of countries.

  13. Pesticides in rain in four agricultural watersheds in the United States

    Vogel, J.R.; Majewski, M.S.; Capel, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Rainfall samples were collected during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons at four agricultural locales across the USA in Maryland, Indiana, Nebraska, and California. The samples were analyzed for 21 insecticides, 18 herbicides, three fungicides, and 40 pesticide degradates. Data from all sites combined show that 7 of the 10 most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides, with atrazine (70%) and metolachlor (83%) detected at every site. Dacthal, acetochlor, simazine, alachlor, and pendimethalin were detected in more than 50% of the samples. Chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and diazinon were the only insecticides among the 10 most frequently detected compounds. Of the remaining pesticide parent compounds, 18 were detected in fewer than 30% of the samples, and 13 were not detected. The most frequently detected degradates were deethylatrazine; the oxygen analogs (OAs) of the organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion; and 1-napthol (degradate of carbaryl). Deethylatrazine was detected in nearly 70% of the samples collected in Maryland, Indiana, and Nebraska but was detected only once in California. The OAs of chlorpyrifos and diazinon were detected primarily in California. Degradates of the acetanilide herbicides were rarely detected in rain, indicating that they are not formed in the atmosphere or readily volatilized from soils. Herbicides accounted for 91 to 98% of the total pesticide mass deposited by rain except in California, where insecticides accounted for 61% in 2004. The mass of pesticides deposited by rainfall was estimated to be less than 2% of the total applied in these agricultural areas. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of functional effects of a mixture of five pesticides using a ray design.

    Gennings, Chris; Carter, W Hans; Casey, Michelle; Moser, Virginia; Carchman, Richard; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2004-11-01

    The protection of human health from the adverse effects of cumulative environmental exposure to chemical mixtures is an important issue. Of particular interest is the detection and characterization of interaction among chemicals in complex mixtures. Response surface methodology, often supported by factorial designs, is the classical statistical experimental approach. Fixed-ratio ray designs, which may include the use of single chemical data in addition to data along mixture ray(s), have been proposed as an alternative approach. Such designs permit a reduction in the amount of experimental effort when the region of interest can be restricted to exposure-relevant mixing ratios. A 'single chemicals required' (SCR) approach and a 'single chemicals not required' (SCNR) approach are both described. The methods are illustrated with a five-chemical mixture of organophosphorus pesticides-acephate (ACE), diazinon (DIA), chlorpyrifos (CPF), malathion (MAL) and dimethoate (DIM). Their relative proportions in the mixture were based on the relative dietary human exposure estimates of each chemical as projected by the U.S. EPA Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model (DEEM). Use of the SCR and SCNR methods for binary endpoints are demonstrated using a dichotomized gait score as an indication of toxicity. For both methods, the overall hypothesis of additivity was rejected, indicating significant departure from additivity when the five pesticides were combined at the specified mixing ratio. By comparison of the predicted response under additivity to the modeled response of the experimental mixture data this departure from additivity was characterized as synergy (greater than additive toxicity). To examine the influence of malathion in the mixture, it was removed from the five-pesticide mixture (full ray) and the remaining four chemicals (reduced ray) were combined at the same relative proportions used in the full fixed-ratio ray There was not a significant departure from additivity along

  15. ASSESSMENT OF SEVERITY, TREATMENT AND OUTCOME OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Chandra Indira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Organophophorous poisoning constitutes one of the most frequent poisoning in clinical practice all over the country and especially in this area where agriculture is the chief economic occupation. Acute organophophorous poisoning ranks foremost in the list of agents which causes acute pesticide poisoning in the developing countries. Acute poisoning, accidental or due to deliberate ingestion or inhalation of these organophosphate chemicals is an important and one of the most common medical emergencies. Hence the present stud y is undertaken to assess severity of poisoning, management and outcome of organophosphorous poisoning cases admitted in Government General Hospital, Kakinada, A. P. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: 1. Assessment of severity of Organophosphorous poisoning according to Dri esbach’s criteria 2. To study the morbidity and mortality in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: In this descriptive study fifty patients with organophosphorous insecticide poisoning were evaluated by clinical examination. They were investigated, treate d and their treatment outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: 1. Chlorpyriphos and monocrotophos(together 66% were the most commonly used pesticides. 2. 82% cases reached the hospital within 6 hours for commencement of treatment and were mostly of moderate to se vere degree of OP poisoning while mild cases of accidental poisoning reached after 12 hours. Hence the mortality is high in the former group only. 3. When the severity of poisoning was graded by applying Dreisbach's criteria at the time of admission 34% ha d severe degree of poisoning, 26% had moderate poisoning while 40% of cases presented with mild degree of poisoning. (Most of the cases were accidental inhalation and skin contact exposure. 4. Among the patients belonging to moderate to severe degree of p oisoning 30% of patients were put on assisted mechanical ventilation, indications being uncontrolled pulmonary secretions, continuing hypoxia, not

  16. Pesticide and plasticizer residues in bergamot essential oils from Calabria (Italy).

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Saitta, Marcello; La Pera, Lara; Alfa, Maria; Dugo, Giacomo

    2004-08-01

    Organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides, phosphorated plasticizers, chloroparaffins and phthalate esters contamination in bergamot essential oils produced in Calabria in the crop years 1999-2000 was studied by HRGC in connection with detectors FPD, ECD, MS. Residues of dicofol and tetradifon were found in oils from both crop years. The mean dicofol concentration was 0.26 mg/l in samples from 1999 and 0.20 mg/l in those from 2000; the mean tetradifon content was 0.06 mg/l for both the crop years. Among plasticizers, residues of diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were found in samples from crop years 1999 and 2000, the mean content were 1.22 and 1.23 mg/l, 1.51 and 1.65 mg/l, 1.38 and 1.42 mg/l respectively.

  17. Development of a versatile organophosphorous-hydrolase-based assay for organophosphate pesticides

    Rogers, Kim R.; Wang, Yi; Mulchandani, Ashok; Mulchandani, P.; Chen, Wilfred

    1999-02-01

    We report a rapid and versatile organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH)-based method for measurement of organophosphate pesticides. This assay is based on a substrate-dependant change in pH near the active site of the enzyme. The pH change is monitored using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) which is covalently immobilized to the enzyme. This method employs FITC-labeled enzyme adsorbed to polymethylmethacrylate beads. Analytes were measured using a microbead fluorescence analyzer. The dynamic concentration range for the assay extends from 25 (mu) M to 400 (mu) M for paraoxon with a detection limit of 8 (mu) M. This assay compared favorably to an HPLC method for monitoring the concentration of coumaphos in bioremediation filtrate samples.

  18. Using the Chiral Organophosphorus Derivatizing Agents for Determination of the Enantiomeric Composition of Chiral Carboxylic Acids by 31PNMR Spectroscopy

    Chao CHE; Zhong Ning ZHANG; Gui Lan HUANG; Xin Xing WANG; Zhao Hai QIN

    2004-01-01

    The use of chiral organophosphorus derivatizing agents prepared in situ from chiral tartrate or chiral diamine for the 31PNMR determination of the enantiomeric composition of chiral carboxylic acids is described. The method is accurate, reliable and convenient.

  19. Organophosphorus Compound DEPBT as a Coupling Reagent for Oligopeptides and Peptoids Synthesis:Studies on Its Mechanism

    HuiLIU; YunHuaYE; 等

    2002-01-01

    Some oligopeptides and peptoids were synthesized by applying the organophosphorus compound DEPBT as a coupling reagent. D-Biotin-OOBt was obtained unexpectedly. A proposed reaction mechanism for DEPBT-mediated coupling was proved.

  20. Monocrotophos pesticide modulates the expression of sexual differentiation genes and causes phenotypic feminization in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Zhang, Xiaona; Gao, Lei; Yang, Kunfeng; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2013-01-01

    Monocrotophos (MCP) is an organophosphorus pesticide moderately toxic to fish, and it has significant estrogenic properties in vivo. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0.001, 0.010, and 0.100 mg/L 40% MCP pesticide in a semi-static manner from fertilization to 40 days post-hatching. Histological analyses were performed to determine whether sex differentiation in zebrafish was affected by MCP, and the mRNA expression levels of genes involved in sexual differentiation were quantified by real-time PCR to clarify the possible mechanism(s) of action. The results revealed a prominent increase in the proportion of females (71%) in the 0.100 mg/L MCP pesticide treatment as well as the presence of one intersex individual in each of the groups exposed to 0.001 and 0.100 mg/L MCP. MCP exposure stimulated forkhead transcription factor gene L2 (foxl2) expression and suppressed doublesex/mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (dmrt1) expression, indirectly leading to elevated gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a) gene expression, which should promote phenotypic feminization. In addition, MCP treatment increased the transcription of brain aromatase (cyp19a1b), resulting in an indirect impact on sexual differentiation. The results from this investigation can be used for risk and hazard assessment of MCP pesticide.

  1. Pesticide Vendors in the Informal Sector: Trading Health for Income.

    Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2016-08-01

    South African low-income communities face many challenges (e.g., insufficient housing, poor service delivery, and abject poverty); additionally, a silent challenge of pest infestation plagues these areas resulting in disease risks, nuisances, and stigma. Consequently, an enterprising urban informal sector business has emerged providing residents with highly toxic, effective, cheap, and illegal "street pesticides." These pesticides pose acute and chronic health risks for vendors and residents. The economic opportunity provided by the high demand for effective and cheap pest control results in the high risk of health effects being traded for income. Current measures to control and "regulate" the massive street pesticide sales result in toxic stockpiles and government's "turning a blind eye." Solutions will only be achieved through open dialog identifying and developing non-toxic pest control strategies while ensuring vendors' income; and relevant stakeholder recognition that pest infestation is a social and environmental health determinant needing acknowledgement in different government policies.

  2. Covalent binding of the organophosphorus agent FP-biotin to tyrosine in eight proteins that have no active site serine

    Grigoryan, Hasmik; Li, Bin; Anderson, Erica K.; Xue, Weihua; Nachon, Florian; Lockridge, Oksana; Schopfer, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus esters (OP) are known to bind covalently to the active site serine of enzymes in the serine hydrolase family. It was a surprise to find that proteins with no active site serine are also covalently modified by OP. The binding site in albumin, transferrin, and tubulin was identified as tyrosine. The goal of the present work was to determine whether binding to tyrosine is a general phenomenon. Fourteen proteins were treated with a biotin-tagged organophosphorus agent called FP-b...

  3. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  4. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Thomsen, Jane F; Sekimpi, Deogratias K

    2014-01-01

    countries, small-scale farmers in Uganda do not use the most hazardous pesticides (WHO class 1a and 1b). However use of WHO class II pesticides and those of lower toxicity is seen in combination with inadequate knowledge and practice among the farmers. This poses a danger of acute intoxications, chronic......BACKGROUND: Over the past years there has been an increase in the use of pesticides in developing countries. This study describes pesticide use among small-scale farmers in Uganda and analyses predictors of pesticide poisoning (intoxication) symptoms. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted...... using a standardized questionnaire. Some 317 small-scale farmers in two districts in Uganda were interviewed about pesticide use, knowledge and attitude, symptoms of intoxication, personal protective equipment (PPE) and hygiene. The risk of reporting symptoms was analysed using logistic regression...

  5. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides and their major degradation product residues in food samples by HPLC-UV.

    Peng, Guilong; He, Qiang; Lu, Ying; Mmereki, Daniel; Zhong, Zhihui

    2016-10-01

    A simple method based on dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFO) was developed for the extraction of chlorpyrifos (CP), chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM), and their main degradation product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in tomato and cucumber samples. The determination was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). In the DSPE-DLLME-SFO, the analytes were first extracted with acetone. The clean-up of the extract by DSPE was carried out by directly adding activated carbon sorbent into the extract solution, followed by shaking and filtration. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method was sensitive and showed a good linearity within a range of 2-500 ng/g, with the correlation coefficients (r) varying from 0.9991 to 0.9996. The enrichment factors ranged from 127 to 138. The limit of detections (LODs) were in the range of 0.12-0.68 ng/g, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 50 ng/g of each analytes in tomato samples were in the range of 3.25-6.26 % (n = 5). The proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the mentioned analytes residues in tomato and cucumber samples, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  6. Evaluation of wet air oxidation variables for removal of organophosphorus pesticide malathion using Box-Behnken design.

    Isgoren, Melike; Gengec, Erhan; Veli, Sevil

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with finding optimum reaction conditions for wet air oxidation (WAO) of malathion aqueous solution, by Response Surface Methodology. Reaction conditions, which affect the removal efficiencies most during the non-catalytic WAO system, are: temperature (60-120 °C), applied pressure (20-40 bar), the pH value (3-7), and reaction time (0-120 min). Those were chosen as independent parameters of the model. The interactions between parameters were evaluated by Box-Behnken and the quadratic model fitted very well with the experimental data (29 runs). A higher value of R(2) and adjusted R(2) (>0.91) demonstrated that the model could explain the results successfully. As a result, optimum removal efficiency (97.8%) was obtained at pH 5, 20 bars of pressure, 116 °C, and 96 min. These results showed that Box-Behnken is a suitable design to optimize operating conditions and removal efficiency for non-catalytic WAO process. The EC20 value of raw wastewater was measured as 35.40% for malathion (20 mg/L). After the treatment, no toxicity was observed at the optimum reaction conditions. The results show that the WAO is an efficient treatment system for malathion degradation and has the ability of converting malathion to the non-toxic forms.

  7. Research progress of organophosphorus pesticide biodegradation%有机磷农药生物降解研究进展

    王晓辉; 杜利平; 赵丽霞

    2008-01-01

    综述了有机磷农药的种类和毒性、有机磷农药生物降解技术、有机磷农药降解菌的种类、降解菌的获得、降解机理以及有机磷降解酶的应用6个方面的研究进展,并对有机磷农药生物降解存在的问题和研究方向提出了建议.

  8. Molecularly Imprinted Nanomicrospheres as Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersant Combined with Gas Chromatography for Determination of Four Phosphorothioate Pesticides in Carrot and Yacon

    Mengchun Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, rapid, and selective method for sample pretreatment, namely, molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MI-MSPD coupled with gas chromatography (GC, was developed for the rapid isolation of four phosphorothioate organophosphorus pesticides (tolclofos-methyl, phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and parathion-methyl from carrot and yacon samples. New molecularly imprinted polymer nanomicrospheres were synthesized by using typical structural analogue tolclofos-methyl as a dummy template via surface grafting polymerization on nanosilica. Then, these four pesticides in carrot and yacon were extracted and adsorbed using the imprinted nanomicrospheres and further determined by gas chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity of four pesticides was obtained in a range of 0.05–17.0 ng·g−1 with R varying from 0.9971 to 0.9996, and the detection limit of the method was 0.012~0.026 ng·g−1 in carrot and yacon samples. The recovery rates at two spiked levels were in the range of 85.4–105.6% with RSD ≤9.6%. The presented MI-MSPD method combined the advantages of MSPD for allowing the extraction, dispersion, and homogenization in two steps and the advantages of MIPs for high affinity and selectivity towards four phosphorothioate pesticides, which could be applied to the determination of pesticide residues in complicated vegetal samples.

  9. [Rapid determination of pesticide multiresidues in porphyra by dispersive solid-phase extraction coupled with online gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Sun, Xiaojie; Guo, Mengmeng; Wang, Suyue; Tan, Zhijun; Li, Zhaoxin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2014-10-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of pesticide multiresidues in porphyra was developed using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GPC-GC/MS). Nineteen pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphoruses, triazines and pyrethroids) were selected as the target analytes. The pretreatment method was applied consisting of organic solvent extraction followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction with graphitized carbon black (GCB) and primary secondary amine (PSA) adsorbents. GPC was also employed online to remove the large molecules such as pigments and lipids. The quantitative analysis was carried out by external standard method using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Moreover, a large volume of sample was allowed to be injected using the program of GPC programmed-temperature vaporizer of gas chromatography to improve the sensitivity of measurements. The results showed that the calibration curves were linear (r > 0.995) in the range of 10-1,000 μg/L for all the pesticides. The limits of detection (LODs) for the pesticides in porphyra were from 0.005 to 0.03 mg/kg, and the average recoveries were between 70% and 120%. The advantages of the method are simple, sensitive and shorter operation time for analysis of pesticide residues in porphyra samples.

  10. Spatial distribution of organic pollutants in industrial construction and demolition waste and their mutual interaction on an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant.

    Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Yanqiu; Ma, Jianli; Gao, Xiaofeng; Xie, Tian; Xu, Dongsheng; Yu, Yi; Zhao, Youcai

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive field investigation of organic pollutants was examined in industrial construction and demolition waste (ICDW) inside an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant. Concentrations of eight types of pesticides, a metabolite and two intermediates were studied. The ICDW was under severe and long-term contamination by organophosphorus, intermediates and pyrethroid pesticide with mean concentrations of 23,429, 3538 and 179.4 mg kg(-1), respectively. FT-IR analysis suggested that physical absorption and chemical bonding were their mutual interaction forms. Patterns of total pesticide spatial distribution showed good correlations with manufacturing processes spreading all over the plant both in enclosed workshops and in residues randomly dumped outside, while bricks and coatings were the most vulnerable to pollutants. Ultimately the fate of the OPPs was diversified as the immersion of ICDW in water largely transferred the pollutants into aquatic systems while exposure outside did not largely lead to pesticide degradation. The adoption of centralized collections for the disposal of wastes could only eliminate part of the contaminated ICDW, probably due to lack of knowledge and criteria. Correlation matrix and cluster analysis indicated that regulated disposal and management of polluted ICDW was effective, thus presenting the requirement for its appropriate disposal.

  11. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long-term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β-estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine-disrupting action.

  12. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  13. Monitoring and exposure assessment of pesticide residues in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) from five provinces of southern China.

    Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Luo, Jinhui; Xie, Defang

    2016-11-01

    Residues of 14 pesticides were determined in 150 cowpea samples collected in five southern Chinese provinces in 2013 and 2014.70% samples were detected one or more residues. 61.3% samples were illegal mainly because of detection of unauthorized pesticides. 14.0% samples contained more than three pesticides. Deterministic and probabilistic methods were used to assess the chronic and acute risk of pesticides in cowpea to eight subgroups of people. Deterministic assessment showed that the estimated short-term intakes (ESTIs) of carbofuran were 1199.4%-2621.9% of the acute reference doses (ARfD) while the rates were 985.9%-4114.7% using probabilistic assessment. Probabilistic assessment showed 4.2%-7.8% subjects may suffer from unacceptable acute risk from carbofuran contaminated cowpeas from the five provinces (especially children). But undue concern is not necessary, because all the estimations are based on conservative assumption.

  14. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES...

  15. Modelling pesticides residues

    2004-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of a specific method to assess the presence of residues in agricultural commodities. The following objectives are formulated: to identify and describe main processes in environment — plant exchanges, to build of a model to assess the residue concentration at harvest in agricultural commodities, to understand the functioning of the modelled system, to characterise pesticides used in field crops and identify optimisation potentials in phytosanitary...

  16. Bioeconomic Analysis of Pesticide Demand

    Moffitt, L. Joe; Farnsworth, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insects to develop resistance to specific pesticides affects pesticide demand. However, the affect of resistance on demand cannot be observed or measured. This analysis substitutes an expression for the unobserved resistance variable in a pesticide demand model and then illustrates the model's potential by estimating demand for DDT. To arrive at the expression characterizing the unobserved resistance variable a biological resistance model is constructed then incorporated into t...

  17. Development and computational modeling of novel bifunctional organophosphorus extractants for lanthanoid separation

    Goto, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Uezu, Kazuya; Nakashio, Fumiyuki [Kyushu Univ., Hakozaki, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Technology; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu; Inoue, Katsutoshi [Saga Univ., Honjyo, Saga (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-08-01

    Novel organophosphorus extractants, which have two functional groups in the molecular structure, have been developed for the separation of lanthanoids using the liquid-liquid extraction technique. The separation efficiency and extractability of the novel extractants were investigated for nine lanthanoids. These bifunctional extractants have an extremely high extractability to all the lanthanoids compared to those of commercially available organophosphorus extractants. Two isomers having an identical chemical formulation show significantly different behaviors in lanthanoid extraction. This means that the extraction and separation abilities are quite sensitive to the structure of the spacer connecting the two functional groups. The authors also discuss the experimental results with a computational modeling by means of molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital methods. The novel molecular mechanics (MM) calculation program MOMEC enables them to analyze the stable conformation of a series of lanthanoid complexes. The calculation suggests that the structural effect of the spacer is one of the decisive factors for enhancing selectivity and extractability in lanthanoid extraction.

  18. PATTERN AND SEVERITY OF DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUND POISONING PATIENTS IN RELATION TO PLASMA CHOLINESTERASE (PC h E LEVEL IN RURAL POPULATION IN SOUTH INDIA

    Prashant S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Organophosphorus (OP poisoning is a major public health problem in developing world. OP pesticides inhibit carboxylic esterase enzymes including plasma cholinesterase (PChE. Clinical manifestations following OP poisoning can be associated with the extent of decrease of PChE. This study was designed to investigate the relevance of diastolic function of the heart, severity of diastolic dysfunction and the reversibility of dysfunction in organophosphoru s compound poisoning patients in relation to plasma cholinesterase (PChE levels with the treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS : 76 patients admitted with organophosphorus compound poisoning were evaluated for diastolic dysfunction by echocardiography. Clinical features and the nature of compound involved were recorded. Severity of diastolic dysfunction was assessed. Cholinesterase levels were assessed. Initially there was worsening of diastolic function. As the treatment progressed, there was improvement in the pattern of diastolic dysfunction with the corresponding improvement in cholinesterase level and clinical improvement. This was a cross - sectional study which was conducted from 1st January 2014 to February 2015. RESULTS : In total, mean age of patients were 31.2 (range : 19 - 46 years. Majority of patients were females (68.4%, and agricultural workers (75%. Main clinical findings at the time of admission were congested conjunctiva (83%, pin point pupil (89%, lacrimation (78%, vomiting (69%, non - reactive pupil (85%, respiratory distress (65% and abdominal pain (45%. Mean (SD PChE at 6 hours post - exposure was 3242.6 IU/L. At presentation, cyanosis, muscle weakness, convulsion, respiratory distress and fasciculation were related to cases with >75%reducti on of PChE, while, constricted and nonreactive pupil, lacrimation and congested conjunctivae were related to cases with 50 - 75% reduction and abdominal pain, dryness of conjunctiva, vomiting and diarrhea were related to <50

  19. Organophosphorus insecticides: Toxic effects and bioanalytical tests for evaluating toxicity during degradation processes

    Čolović Mirjana B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus insecticides have been the most applied group of insecticides for the last two decades. Their main toxic effects are related to irreversible inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Actually, they covalently bind to serine OH group in the enzyme active site forming phosphorylated enzyme that cannot hydrolyze acetylcholine. Organophosphorus insecticides in the environment undergo the natural degradation pathway including mainly homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis (especially at high pH generating non-inhibiting products. Additionally, thio organophosphates are easily oxidized by naturally present oxidants and UV light, forming more toxic and stable oxons. Thus, oxidative degradation procedures, generally referred as advanced oxidation processes (AOP, have been applied for their efficient removal from contaminated waters. The most applied bioassays to monitor the organophosphate toxicity i.e. the detoxification degree during AOP are Vibrio fischeri and AChE bioassays. Vibrio fischeri toxicity test exploits bioluminescence as the measure of luciferase activity of this marine bacterium, whereas AChE bioassay is based on AChE activity inhibition. Both bioanalytical techniques are rapid (several minutes, simple, sensitive and reproducible. Vibrio fischeri test seems to be a versatile indicator of toxic compounds generated in AOP for organophosphorus insecticides degradation. However, detection of neurotoxic AChE inhibitors, which can be formed in AOP of some organophosphates, requires AChE bioassays. Therefore, AChE toxicity test is more appropriate for monitoring the degradation processes of thio organophosphates, because more toxic oxo organophosphates might be formed and overlooked by Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition. In addition, during organophosphates removal by AOP, compounds with strong genotoxic potential may be formed, which cannot be detected by standard toxicity tests. For this reason, determination of

  20. An efficient method for synthesis of organophosphorus compounds in aqueous media

    Reza Heydari; Malek Taher Maghsoodlou; Razieh Nejat Yami

    2009-01-01

    A convenient and facile one-pot synthesis of stable phosphorus ylides and 1,4-diionic organophosphorus compounds is reported by the reaction of triphenyiphosphine, dialkylacetylenedicarboxylates and N-H, C-H or S-H acids in the presence of poly-ethyleneglycol (PEG), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), glycerine (Gly) or ethyleneglycol (EG) in water. This methodology is of interest due to the use of water as a solvent, thus minimizing the cost operational hazards, and environmental pollution.

  1. Human Paraoxonase Double Mutants Hydrolyze V and G Class Organophosphorus Nerve Agents

    2013-01-01

    induced by seizures. Traditional pharmacological approaches to alleviate the effects of OP poisoning have reached a point where only modest incremental...using Prism 4.0 (GraphPad, La Jolla, CA). 3. Results and discussion Organophosphate insecticides like paraoxon are helpful in quickly determining OP...therapy of organophosphorus poisoning , Toxicology 233 (2007) 47–49. [5] M. Harel, A. Aharoni, L. Gaidukov, B. Brumshtein, O. Khersonsky, R. Meged, H. Dvir

  2. The quantum-chemical determination of group contributions to the thermodynamic properties of organophosphorus compounds

    Dorofeeva, O. V.; Ryzhova, O. N.; Moiseeva, N. F.

    2008-06-01

    The enthalpies of formation, entropies, and heat capacities of 95 organophosphorus derivatives calculated by nonempirical quantum-chemical methods were used to develop the additive method for estimating the thermodynamic properties of these compounds. 86 group contribution values were obtained for estimating the thermodynamic properties of diverse organic derivatives of phosphorus in the oxidation states 3 and 5 (three-and four-coordinate phosphorus atoms).

  3. Endocrine actions of pesticides measured in the Flemish environment and health studies (FLEHS I and II).

    Croes, K; Den Hond, E; Bruckers, L; Govarts, E; Schoeters, G; Covaci, A; Loots, I; Morrens, B; Nelen, V; Sioen, I; Van Larebeke, N; Baeyens, W

    2015-10-01

    Within the Flemish Environment and Health studies (FLEHS I, 2002-2006, and FLEHS II, 2007-2012), pesticide exposure, hormone levels and degree of sexual maturation were measured in 14-15-year-old adolescents residing in Flanders (Belgium). In FLEHS II, geometric mean concentrations (with 95 % confidence interval (CI)) of 307 (277-341) and 36.5 ng L(-1) (34.0-39.2) were found for p,p'-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). These values were respectively 26 and 60 % lower than levels in FLEHS I, 5 years earlier. Metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and of para-dichlorobenzene were measured for the first time in FLEHS II, yielding concentrations of 11.4, 3.27 and 1.57 μg L(-1) for the sum of dimethyl- and diethyl phosphate metabolites and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), respectively. Data on internal exposure of HCB showed a positive correlation with sexual maturation, testosterone and the aromatase index for boys and with free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (both boys and girls). For both p,p'-DDE and HCB, a negative association with sexual development in girls was found. The OPP metabolites were negatively associated with sex hormone levels in the blood of boys and with sexual maturation (both boys and girls). The pesticide metabolite 2,5-DCP was negatively correlated with free T4, while a positive association with TSH was reported (boys and girls). These results show that even exposure to relatively low concentrations of pesticides can have significant influences on hormone levels and the degree of sexual maturation in 14-15-year-old adolescents.

  4. Long Alkyl Chain Organophosphorus Coupling Agents for in Situ Surface Functionalization by Reactive Milling

    Annika Betke

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovative synthetic approaches should be simple and environmentally friendly. Here, we present the surface modification of inorganic submicrometer particles with long alkyl chain organophosphorus coupling agents without the need of a solvent, which makes the technique environmentally friendly. In addition, it is of great benefit to realize two goals in one step: size reduction and, simultaneously, surface functionalization. A top-down approach for the synthesis of metal oxide particles with in situ surface functionalization is used to modify titania with long alkyl chain organophosphorus coupling agents. A high energy planetary ball mill was used to perform reactive milling using titania as inorganic pigment and long alkyl chain organophosphorus coupling agents like dodecyl and octadecyl phosphonic acid. The final products were characterized by IR, NMR and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal and elemental analysis as well as by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The process entailed a tribochemical phase transformation from the starting material anatase to a high-pressure modification of titania and the thermodynamically more stable rutile depending on the process parameters. Furthermore, the particles show sizes between 100 nm and 300 nm and a degree of surface coverage up to 0.8 mmol phosphonate per gram.

  5. An Age-Dependent Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model for the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in the Preweanling Rat

    Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Poet, Torka S.

    2007-08-01

    Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon) and trichloropyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. In the current study, a modified physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model incorporating age-dependent changes in CYP450, PON-1, and tissue ChE levels for rats was developed. In this model, age was used as a dependent function to estimate body weight which was then used to allometrically scale both metabolism and tissue ChE levels. Model simulations suggest that preweanling rats are particularly sensitive to CPF toxicity, with levels of CPF-oxon in blood and brain disproportionately increasing, relative to the response in adult rats. This age-dependent non-linear increase in CPF-oxon concentration may potentially result from the depletion of non-target B-esterases, and a lower PON-1 metabolic capacity in younger animals. These results indicate that the PBPK/PD model behaves consistently with the general understanding of CPF toxicity, pharmacokinetics and tissue ChE inhibition in neonatal and adult rats. Hence, this model represents an important starting point for developing a computational model to assess the neurotoxic potential of environmentally relevant organophosphate exposures in infants and children.

  6. Third International Meeting on Esterases Reacting with Organophosphorus Compounds

    1998-01-01

    in normal, habituated and transformed tissue lines of sugar beet {Beta vulgais L.). As the results of isoelectric focussing showed, tumour tissue...observed over 2- fold higher AChE levels in cortex for over 80 hours following acute stress. Therefore, these mice resemble transgenic mice...overexpressing brain AChE. However, AChE transgeneic mice suffer delayed cognitive and neuromotor pathologies. Our findings therefore imply a common mechanism

  7. Multiresidue analysis of 36 pesticides in soil using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method by liquid chromatography with tandem quadruple linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Feng, Xue; He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-09-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of 36 pesticides, including 15 organophosphorus, six carbamate, and some other pesticides in soil was developed by liquid chromatography with tandem quadruple linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The extraction and clean-up steps were optimized based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method. The data were acquired in multiple reaction monitoring mode combined with enhanced product ion to increase confidence of the analytical results. Validation experiments were performed in soil samples. The average recoveries of pesticides at four spiking levels (1, 5, 50, and 100 μg/kg) ranged from 63 to 126% with relative standard deviation below 20%. The limits of detection of pesticides were 0.04-0.8 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.1-2.6 μg/kg. The correlation coefficients (r(2) ) were higher than 0.990 in the linearity range of 0.5-200 μg/L for most of the pesticides. The method allowed for the analysis of the target pesticides in the lower μg/kg concentration range. The optimized method was then applied to the test of real soil samples obtained from several areas in China, confirming the feasibility of the method.

  8. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia.

    Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia.

  9. Pesticide concentrations in wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation, South and North Dakota, July 2015

    Carter, Janet M.; Thompson, Ryan F.

    2016-05-04

    . Atrazine and CIAT were the most commonly detected pesticides in both sampling years; however, atrazine and CIAT were detected in fewer wetlands in 2015 (14 and 13 wetlands, respectively) than in 2006 (17 wetlands for both pesticides). The pesticides 2,4–D and prometon also were detected in fewer wetlands in 2015 than 2006, and simazine was only detected in 2006. In contrast, acetochlor, glyphosate, and metolachlor were detected in samples from more wetlands in 2015 than in 2006. In samples from individual wetlands, the number of pesticides detected was similar between 2006 and 2015. At least one pesticide was detected in all wetlands in 2015, and all but one wetland had pesticide detections in 2006.Concentrations of pesticides detected in samples from wetlands were compared to selected water-quality (human-health and aquatic-life) benchmarks. None of the concentrations in either 2006 or 2015 were greater than water-quality benchmarks, with the exception of atrazine. All detections of atrazine in the 2006 and 2015 samples were greater than the acute benchmark of 0.001 microgram per liter (μg/L) for vascular plants. In addition, some concentrations of 2,4–D and atrazine were within an order of magnitude of a water-quality benchmark. The 2,4–D concentrations in the 2015 samples from three wetlands were within an order of magnitude of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Maximum Contaminant Level of 70 μg/L (that is, sample concentrations were greater than 7.0 μg/L). The maximum dissolved atrazine concentration of 0.185 μg/L in the 2015 samples along with the concentrations in 2006 samples from two wetlands were within an order of magnitude of the acute benchmark of less than 1 μg/L for nonvascular plants (that is, concentrations were greater than 0.1 μg/L).

  10. Utilizing a novel sorbent in the solid phase extraction for simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in green tea by GC/MS.

    Huo, Feifei; Tang, Hua; Wu, Xue; Chen, Dazhou; Zhao, Tan; Liu, Pei; Li, Lei

    2016-06-15

    Pesticide residues exceeding standard in green tea is a widespread problem of the world's attention, containing organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), and pyrethroids. In this research, three dimensionally honeycomb Mg-Al layered double oxide (TDH-Mg-Al-LDO) combined with graphitized carbon black (GCB), packed as a column, was used as a novel solid phase extraction sorbent, applying in simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in green tea coupled with GC-MS. Compared with different type of SPE column, it showed that TDH-Mg-Al-LDO exhibited great advantages in the extraction of 15 pesticide residues from green tea, which was seldom reported before. Different experiment conditions, such as combination order of Mg-Al-LDO and GCB, dosage of sorbents, type and volume of eluting solvent were thoroughly studied and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) of 15 pesticides ranged from 0.9 to 24.2ng/g and the limits of quantifications (LOQs) were ranging from 3.0 to 80.0ng/g. The recoveries using this method at three spiked concentration levels (10, 100 and 500ng/g for Fenthion, P,P'-DDE, O,P'-DDT, P,P'-DDD and Bifenthrin, 100, 500 and 2000ng/g for the others) range from 71.1 to 119.0%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was from 0.1 to 7.6% in all case. The result indicated that the proposed analytical method had been successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in commercial green tea.

  11. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws--2002 Update: A Review…

  12. Prevention of