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Sample records for acute nmda toxicity

  1. Humanin rescues cultured rat cortical neurons from NMDA-induced toxicity not by NMDA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ai-Ling; Li, Jian-Zhong; Feng, Zhi-Bo; Ma, Guo-Lin; Gong, Liang; Li, Chun-Ling; Zhang, Ce; Li, Kefeng

    2014-01-01

    Excitatory neurotoxicity has been implicated in many pathological situations and there is no effective treatment available. Humanin is a 24-aa peptide cloned from the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, excitatory toxicity was induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in primarily cultured rat cortical neurons. MTT assessment, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and calcein staining were employed to evaluate the protective activity of humanin on NMDA induced toxicity. The results suggested that NMDA (100 μmol/L, 2.5 hr) triggered neuronal morphological changes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release (166% of the control), reduction of cell viability (about 50% of the control), and the decrease of living cell density (about 50% of the control). When pretreated with humanin, the toxicity was suppressed. The living cells' density of humanin treated group was similar to that of control. The cell viability was attenuated dose-dependently (IC50 = 0.132 nmol/L). The LDH release was also neutralized in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the intracellular Ca(2+) overloading triggered by NMDA reverted quickly and humanin could not inhibit it. These findings indicate that humanin can rescue cortical neurons from NMDA-induced toxicity in rat but not through interfering with NMDA receptor directly.

  2. Humanin Rescues Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons from NMDA-Induced Toxicity Not by NMDA Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Ling Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitatory neurotoxicity has been implicated in many pathological situations and there is no effective treatment available. Humanin is a 24-aa peptide cloned from the brain of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In the present study, excitatory toxicity was induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA in primarily cultured rat cortical neurons. MTT assessment, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, and calcein staining were employed to evaluate the protective activity of humanin on NMDA induced toxicity. The results suggested that NMDA (100 μmol/L, 2.5 hr triggered neuronal morphological changes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release (166% of the control, reduction of cell viability (about 50% of the control, and the decrease of living cell density (about 50% of the control. When pretreated with humanin, the toxicity was suppressed. The living cells’ density of humanin treated group was similar to that of control. The cell viability was attenuated dose-dependently (IC50 = 0.132 nmol/L. The LDH release was also neutralized in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the intracellular Ca2+ overloading triggered by NMDA reverted quickly and humanin could not inhibit it. These findings indicate that humanin can rescue cortical neurons from NMDA-induced toxicity in rat but not through interfering with NMDA receptor directly.

  3. Acute 5-HT7 receptor activation increases NMDA-evoked currents and differentially alters NMDA receptor subunit phosphorylation and trafficking in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasefi, Maryam S; Yang, Kai; Li, Jerry; Kruk, Jeff S; Heikkila, John J; Jackson, Michael F; MacDonald, John F; Beazely, Michael A

    2013-05-14

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are regulated by several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as receptor tyrosine kinases. Serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptors are expressed throughout the brain including the thalamus and hippocampus. Long-term (2-24 h) activation of 5-HT7 receptors promotes the expression of neuroprotective growth factor receptors, including the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) β receptors which can protect neurons against NMDA-induced neurotoxicity. In contrast to long-term activation of 5-HT7 receptors, acute (5 min) treatment of isolated hippocampal neurons with the 5-HT7 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) enhances NMDA-evoked peak currents and this increase in peak currents is blocked by the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB 269970. In hippocampal slices, acute 5-HT7 receptor activation increases NR1 NMDA receptor subunit phosphorylation and differentially alters the phosphorylation state of the NR2B and NR2A subunits. NMDA receptor subunit cell surface expression is also differentially altered by 5-HT7 receptor agonists: NR2B cell surface expression is decreased whereas NR1 and NR2A surface expression are not significantly altered. In contrast to the negative regulatory effects of long-term activation of 5-HT7 receptors on NMDA receptor signaling, acute activation of 5-HT7 receptors promotes NMDA receptor activity. These findings highlight the potential for temporally differential regulation of NMDA receptors by the 5-HT7 receptor.

  4. BDNF Reduces Toxic Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptor Signaling via Synaptic NMDA Receptors and Nuclear-Calcium-Induced Transcription of inhba/Activin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The health of neurons is critically dependent on the relative signaling intensities of survival-promoting synaptic and death-inducing extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. Here, we show that BDNF is a regulator of this balance and promotes neuroprotection by reducing toxic NMDA receptor signaling. BDNF acts by initiating synaptic NMDA-receptor/nuclear-calcium-driven adaptogenomics, leading to increased expression of inhibin β-A (inhba. Inhibin β-A (its homodimer is known as activin A in turn reduces neurotoxic extrasynaptic NMDA-receptor-mediated calcium influx, thereby shielding neurons against mitochondrial dysfunction, a major cause of excitotoxicity. Thus, BDNF induces acquired neuroprotection by enhancing synaptic activity and lowering extrasynaptic NMDA receptor death signaling through a nuclear calcium-inhibin β-A pathway. This process, which confers protection against ischemic brain damage in a mouse stroke model, may be compromised in Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, or aging-related neurodegenerative conditions that are associated with reduced BDNF levels and/or enhanced extrasynaptic NMDA receptor signaling.

  5. Toxic acrolein production due to Ca(2+) influx by the NMDA receptor during stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mizuho; Uemura, Takeshi; Saiki, Ryotaro; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Park, Hyerim; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Terui, Yusuke; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2016-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have a high permeability to Ca(2+), contributing to neuronal cell death after stroke. We recently found that acrolein produced from polyamines is a major toxic compound during stroke. Thus, it was determined whether over-accumulation of Ca(2+) increases the production of acrolein from polyamines in a photochemically-induced thrombosis mouse model of stroke and in cell culture systems. A unilateral infarction was induced in mouse brain by photoinduction after injection of Rose Bengal. The volume of the infarction was analyzed using the public domain National Institutes of Health image program. Protein-conjugated acrolein levels at the locus of infarction and in cells were measured by Western blotting. Levels of polyamines were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. When the size of brain infarction was decreased by N(1), N(4), N(8)-tribenzylspermidine, a channel blocker of the NMDA receptors, levels of Ca(2+) and protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro) were reduced, while levels of polyamines were increased at the locus of infarction. When cell growth of mouse mammary carcinoma FM3A cells and neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells was inhibited by Ca(2+), the level of polyamines decreased, while that of PC-Acro increased. It was also shown that Ca(2+) toxicity was decreased in an acrolein toxicity decreasing FM3A mutant cells recently isolated. In addition, 20-40 μM Ca(2+) caused the release of polyamines from ribosomes. The results indicate that acrolein is produced from polyamines released from ribosomes through Ca(2+) increase. The results indicate that toxicity of Ca(2+) during brain infarction is correlated with the increase of acrolein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of copper sulphate and lead nitrate against Oreochromis niloticus. KA Bawa-Allah, F Osuala, J Effiong. Abstract. This study investigated the salinity-tolerance of Oreochromis niloticus and the influence of salinity changes on the acute toxicities of copper sulphate ...

  7. Humanin rescues cultured rat cortical neurons from NMDA-induced toxicity through the alleviation of mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Ying-Hua; Li, Jian-Zhong; Song, Tianbin; Liu, Xue-Min; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ce; Ma, Guo-Lin; Zhang, Hui; Li, Kefeng

    2017-01-01

    N -methyl-D-aspartate (NDMA) receptor-mediated excitotoxicity has been implicated in a variety of pathological situations such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease. However, no effective treatments for the same have been developed so far. Humanin (HN) is a 24-amino acid peptide originally cloned from the brain of patients with AD and it prevents stress-induced cell death in many cells/tissues. In our previous study, HN was found to effectively rescue rat cortical neurons. It is still not clear whether HN protects the neurons through the attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, excitatory toxicity was induced by NMDA, which binds the NMDA receptor in primarily cultured rat cortical neurons. We found that NMDA (100 μmol/L) dramatically induced the decrease of cell viability and caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Pretreatment of the neurons with HN (1 μmol/L) led to significant increases of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and membrane potential. In addition, HN pretreatment significantly reduced the excessive production of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Thus, HN could attenuate the excitotoxicity caused by the overactivation of the NMDA receptor through the alleviation of mitochondrial dysfunction.

  8. BDNF prevents NMDA-induced toxicity in models of Huntington's disease: the effects are genotype specific and adenosine A2A receptor is involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Alberto; Pepponi, Rita; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Ferrante, Antonella; Chiodi, Valentina; Popoli, Patrizia

    2013-04-01

    NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is also highly involved in HD and whose effects are modulated by adenosine A2 ARs, influences the activity and expression of striatal NMDA receptors. In electrophysiology experiments, we investigated the role of BDNF toward NMDA-induced effects in HD models, and the possible involvement of A2ARs. In corticostriatal slices from wild-type mice and age-matched symptomatic R6/2 mice (a model of HD), NMDA application (75 μM) induced a transient or a permanent (i.e., toxic) reduction of field potential amplitude, respectively. BDNF (10 ng/mL) potentiated NMDA effects in wild-type, while it protected from NMDA toxicity in R6/2 mice. Both effects of BDNF were prevented by A2 AR blockade. The protective effect of BDNF against NMDA-induced toxicity was reproduced in a cellular model of HD. These findings may have very important implications for the neuroprotective potential of BDNF and A2 AR ligands in HD. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening results indicate the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phytosterols and phenols. Acute toxicity study showed there was no mortality at 8000 mg/kg of the extract. The results indicate that the plant is rich in phytochemicals and is relatively safe. Key words: Phytochemicals, acute toxicity, proximate ...

  10. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Acute Oral Toxicity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Acute Oral Toxicity and Anticonvulsant Activity of the Berries of Solanum nigrum Linn. HL Son, PTH Yen. Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the preliminary phytochemical properties, acute oral toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of the berries of Solanum nigrum Linn (S. nigrum) Methods: ...

  11. Humanin rescues cultured rat cortical neurons from NMDA-induced toxicity through the alleviation of mitochondrial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ai-Ling Cui,1 Ying-Hua Zhang,2 Jian-Zhong Li,3 Tianbin Song,4 Xue-Min Liu,1 Hui Wang,2 Ce Zhang,5 Guo-Lin Ma,6 Hui Zhang,7 Kefeng Li8 1Anatomy Department, Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, 2Key Laboratory of Tissue Regeneration of Henan Province, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan, 3Clinical Laboratory of Heji Hospital Affiliated to Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 5Department of Physiology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, 6Department of Radiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, 7Department of Radiology, First Clinical Medical College, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, People’s Republic of China; 8School of Medicine, University of California – San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NDMA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity has been implicated in a variety of pathological situations such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease. However, no effective treatments for the same have been developed so far. Humanin (HN is a 24-amino acid peptide originally cloned from the brain of patients with AD and it prevents stress-induced cell death in many cells/tissues. In our previous study, HN was found to effectively rescue rat cortical neurons. It is still not clear whether HN protects the neurons through the attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, excitatory toxicity was induced by NMDA, which binds the NMDA receptor in primarily cultured rat cortical neurons. We found that NMDA (100 µmol/L dramatically induced the decrease of cell viability and caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Pretreatment of the neurons with HN (1 µmol/L led to significant increases of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH activity and membrane potential. In addition, HN pretreatment significantly reduced the excessive production of both reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric

  12. Glutamatergic dysfunction in catatonia? Successful treatment of three acute akinetic catatonic patients with the NMDA antagonist amantadine.

    OpenAIRE

    Northoff, G; Eckert, J; Fritze, J

    1997-01-01

    Therapeutic efficiacy of the NMDA antagonist amantadine is reported in three acute neuroleptic free akinetic catatonic patients. Intravenous infusion of amantadine led to the resolution of catatonic symptoms and considerable reductions of scores in various motor scales (Simpson Angus scale for extrapyramidal side effects (SEPS), the abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS), Rogers catatonia and schizophrenia scales). The therapeutic effect of amantadine showed a characteristic temporal patt...

  13. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS SEEDS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS. ... with the aim of investigating the toxicity of the ethanol seed extract of JC in rats, mice, and chicks; and also to use conventional antidotes to treat intoxication in rats due to ...

  14. Group B vitamins protect murine cerebellar granule cells from glutamate/NMDA toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanpeng; Desbois, Angele; Jiang, Susan; Hou, Sheng T

    2004-10-05

    The role of B group vitamins in preventing neuronal death against excitotoxicity was investigated. Neuronal death of cultured mouse cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) caused by glutamate (50 microM) or NMDA (200 microM) was delayed in CGNs that had been treated with riboflavin (B2), folic acid (B9) or cynocobalamin (B12) for 18 h. Such neuroprotection by B2, B9 and B12 was in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, application of thiamin (B1), nicotinamide (B3), d-pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6) or carnitine (BT) did not ameliorate glutamate or NMDA-mediated excitotoxicity to CGCs. These results are the first indication that certain B group vitamins are not only required for the normal brain function, but can also play a protective role against excitotoxicity to the brain.

  15. Anti-NMDA (a-NMDAR) receptor encephalitis related to acute consumption of metamphetamine: Relevance of differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriondo, O; Zaldibar-Gerrikagoitia, J; Rodríguez, T; García, J M; Aguilera, L

    2017-03-01

    A 19-year-old male came to the Emergency Room of our hospital due to an episode of dystonic movements and disorientation 4 days after consuming methamphetamine, which evolved to a catatonic frank syndrome and eventually to status epilepticus. Definitive diagnosis was anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, an acute inflammation of the limbic area of autoimmune origin in which early diagnosis and treatment are key elements for the final outcome. In this case, initial normal tests and previous methamphetamine poisoning delayed diagnosis, because inhaled-methamphetamine poisoning causes similar clinical symptoms to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Methamphetamine poisoning may have caused an immune response in the patient, bringing on the progress of the pathology. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice and subchronic toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parinari curatellifolia seeds are ethnobotanically used in the treatment of diabetes and other diseases. The seed drug preparations are administered over a long period of time in the treatment of certain disease conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of the seed extract through acute toxicity study.

  17. Blockade of NMDA receptors decreased spinal microglia activation in bee venom induced acute inflammatory pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wu, Yongfang; Bai, Zhifeng; Hu, Yuyan; Li, Wenbin

    2017-03-01

    Microglial cells in spinal dorsal horn can be activated by nociceptive stimuli and the activated microglial cells release various cytokines enhancing the nociceptive transmission. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of spinal microglia during nociceptive stimuli have not been well understood. In order to define the role of NMDA receptors in the activation of spinal microglia during nociceptive stimuli, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of blockade of NMDA receptors on the spinal microglial activation induced by acute peripheral inflammatory pain in rats. The acute inflammatory pain was induced by subcutaneous bee venom injection to the plantar surface of hind paw of rats. Spontaneous pain behavior, thermal withdrawal latency and mechanical withdrawal threshold were rated. The expression of specific microglia marker CD11b/c was assayed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. After bee venom treatment, it was found that rats produced a monophasic nociception characterized by constantly lifting and licking the injected hind paws, decreased thermal withdrawal latency and mechanical withdrawal threshold; immunohistochemistry displayed microglia with enlarged cell bodies, thickened, extended cellular processes with few ramifications, small spines, and intensive immunostaining; western blot showed upregulated expression level of CD11b/c within the period of hyperalgesia. Prior intrathecal injection of MK-801, a selective antagonist of NMDA receptors, attenuated the pain behaviors and suppressed up-regulation of CD11b/c induced by bee venom. It can be concluded that NMDA receptors take part in the mediation of spinal microglia activation in bee venom induced peripheral inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in rats.

  18. The delayed strengthening of synaptic connectivity in the amygdala depends on NMDA receptor activation during acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Farhana; Saxena, Kapil; McEwen, Bruce S; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2016-10-01

    There is growing evidence that stress leads to contrasting patterns of structural plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala, two brain areas implicated in the cognitive and affective symptoms of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Acute stress has been shown to trigger a delayed increase in the density of dendritic spines in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of rodents. However, the physiological correlates of this delayed spinogenesis in the BLA remain unexplored. Furthermore, NMDA receptors (NMDARs) have been known to underlie chronic stress-induced structural plasticity in the hippocampus, but nothing is known about the role of these receptors in the delayed spinogenesis, and its physiological consequences, in the BLA following acute stress. Here, using whole-cell recordings in rat brain slices, we find that a single exposure to 2-h immobilization stress enhances the frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) recorded from principal neurons in the BLA 10 days later. This was also accompanied by faster use-dependent block of NMDA receptor currents during repeated stimulation of thalamic inputs to the BLA, which is indicative of higher presynaptic release probability at these inputs 10 days later. Furthermore, targeted in vivo infusion of the NMDAR-antagonist APV into the BLA during the acute stress prevents the increase in mEPSC frequency and spine density 10 days later. Together, these results identify a role for NMDARs during acute stress in both the physiological and morphological strengthening of synaptic connectivity in the BLA in a delayed fashion. These findings also raise the possibility that activation of NMDA receptors during stress may serve as a common molecular mechanism despite the divergent patterns of plasticity that eventually emerge after stress in the amygdala and hippocampus. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological

  19. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Acute Oral Toxicity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Phytochemicals from the ethanol berry extract were screened by standard methods. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (OECD) 425 guidelines while anticonvulsant activity was evaluated against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- induced seizure in ...

  20. Evaluation Of Antmicrobial Properties, Acute Toxicity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr. Ihima

    Lorke, D. (1983). A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Archive of Toxicology. Vol.54: 275-287. 11. Chidume, F.C., Kwanashie, H.O.,. Adekeye, J.O., Wambebe,C., Odama,. L.E. and Gamanial, R.S. (2002). Evaluation of the methanolic extract of. Cassia tora leaves for immunodulatory and antimicrobial activities.

  1. Preliminary Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Acute Toxicity Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... Preliminary Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Acute. Toxicity Studies of the Stem, bark and the Leaves of a cultivated Syzygium cumini Linn. (Family: Myrtaceae) in. Nigeria. *Ugbabe, G.E1, *Ezeunala, M.N2, Edmond, I.N3, Apev, J1 and Salawu, O.A3. 1Medicinal Plant Research and Traditional Medicine ...

  2. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  3. Age dependence of the rapid antidepressant and synaptic effects of acute NMDA receptor blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eNosyreva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a NMDA receptor antagonist that produces rapid antidepressant responses in individuals with major depressive disorder. The antidepressant action of ketamine has been linked to blocking NMDA receptor activation at rest, which inhibits eukaryotic elongation factor2 kinase leading to desuppression of protein synthesis and synaptic potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Here, we investigated ketamine mediated antidepressant response and the resulting synaptic potentiation in juvenile animals. We found that ketamine did not produce an antidepressant response in juvenile animals in the novelty suppressed feeding or the forced swim test. In addition ketamine application failed to trigger synaptic potentiation in hippocampal slices obtained from juvenile animals, unlike its action in slices from older animals (6-9 weeks old. The inability of ketamine to trigger an antidepressant response or subsequent synaptic plasticity processes suggests a developmental component to ketamine mediated antidepressant efficacy. We also show that the NMDAR antagonist AP5 triggers synaptic potentiation in mature hippocampus similar to the action of ketamine, demonstrating that global competitive blockade of NMDA receptors is sufficient to trigger this effect. These findings suggest that global blockade of NMDA receptors in developmentally mature hippocampal synapses are required for the antidepressant efficacy of ketamine.

  4. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  5. Changes in Glutamate/NMDA Receptor Subunit 1 Expression in Rat Brain after Acute and Subacute Exposure to Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walailuk Kerdsan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a psychostimulant drug of abuse that produces long-term behavioral changes including behavioral sensitization, tolerance, and dependence. METH has been reported to induce neurotoxic effects in several areas of the brain via the dopaminergic system. Changes of dopamine function can induce malfunction of the glutamatergic system. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of METH administration on the expression of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NMDAR1 in frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampal formation after acute and subacute exposure to METH by western blotting. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 8 mg/kg METH, 4 mg/kg/day METH for 14 days and saline in acute, subacute, and control groups, respectively. A significant increase in NMDAR1 immunoreactive protein was found in frontal cortex in the subacute group (P=.036 but not in the acute group (P=.580. Moreover, a significant increase in NMDAR1 was also observed in striatum in both acute (P=.025 and subacute groups (P=.023. However, no significant differences in NMDAR1 in hippocampal formation were observed in either acute or subacute group. The results suggest that an upregulation of NMDA receptor expression may be a consequence of glutamatergic dysfunction induced by METH.

  6. A Challenging Case of Acute Mercury Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nayfeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mercury exists in multiple forms: elemental, organic, and inorganic. Its toxic manifestations depend on the type and magnitude of exposure. The role of colonoscopic decompression in acute mercury toxicity is still unclear. We present a case of acute elemental mercury toxicity secondary to mercury ingestion, which markedly improved with colonoscopic decompression. Clinical Case. A 54-year-old male presented to the ED five days after ingesting five ounces (148 cubic centimeters of elemental mercury. Examination was only significant for a distended abdomen. Labs showed elevated serum and urine mercury levels. An abdominal radiograph showed radiopaque material throughout the colon. Succimer and laxatives were initiated. The patient had recurrent bowel movements, and serial radiographs showed interval decrease of mercury in the descending colon with interval increase in the cecum and ascending colon. Colonoscopic decompression was done successfully. The colon was evacuated, and a repeat radiograph showed decreased hyperdense material in the colon. Three months later, a repeat radiograph showed no hyperdense material in the colon. Conclusion. Ingested elemental mercury can be retained in the colon. Although there are no established guidelines for colonoscopic decompression, our patient showed significant improvement. We believe further studies on this subject are needed to guide management practices.

  7. Acute Liver Failure Secondary to Niacin Toxicity

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    Marc A. Ellsworth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit for evaluation of acute liver failure. He was recently released from an alcohol treatment center with acute onset of chest pain. Cardiac workup was negative but he was found to have abnormal coagulation studies and elevated liver transaminases. Other evaluations included a normal toxicology screen and negative acetaminophen level. Autoimmune and infectious workups were normal providing no identifiable cause of his acute liver failure. He initially denied any ingestions or illicit drug use but on further query he admitted taking niacin in an attempt to obscure the results of an upcoming drug test. Niacin has been touted on the Internet as an aid to help pass urine drug tests though there is no evidence to support this practice. Niacin toxicity has been associated with serious multisystem organ failure and fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation. Pediatric providers should be aware of the risks associated with niacin toxicity and other experimental medical therapies that may be described on the Internet or other nonreputable sources.

  8. Glutamatergic dysfunction in catatonia? Successful treatment of three acute akinetic catatonic patients with the NMDA antagonist amantadine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, G; Eckert, J; Fritze, J

    1997-01-01

    Therapeutic efficiacy of the NMDA antagonist amantadine is reported in three acute neuroleptic free akinetic catatonic patients. Intravenous infusion of amantadine led to the resolution of catatonic symptoms and considerable reductions of scores in various motor scales (Simpson Angus scale for extrapyramidal side effects (SEPS), the abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS), Rogers catatonia and schizophrenia scales). The therapeutic effect of amantadine showed a characteristic temporal pattern with most pronounced effects four to six hours after administration and recurrence of catatonic symptoms by 24 hours later, at least partially. Such a temporal pattern of therapeutic efficacy and decreasing efficacy occurred in all three patients on all days. The results suggest the central importance of glutamatergic dysfunction in catatonic syndrome. PMID:9120462

  9. Acute toxic neuropathy mimicking guillain barre syndrome

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    Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Case: A 30 year old male presented with numbness of palms and soles followed by weakness of upper limbs and lower limbs of 5 days duration, which was ascending and progressive. Three months back he was treated for oral and genital ulcers with oral steroids. His ulcers improved and shifted to indigenous medication. His clinical examination showed polyneuropathy. CSF study did not show albuminocytological dissociation. Nerve conduction study showed demyelinating polyneuropathy. His blood samples and the ayurvedic drug samples were sent for toxicological analysis. Inference: Acute toxic neuropathy - Arsenic

  10. Chronic hypoxia and chronic hypercapnia differentially regulate an NMDA-sensitive component of the acute hypercapnic ventilatory response in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAneney, Jessica; Gheshmy, Afshan; Manga, Jasmin; Reid, Stephen G

    2011-08-01

    This study addressed the hypotheses that exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH) and chronic hypercapnia (CHC) would modify the acute hypercapnic ventilatory response in the cane toad (Rhinella marina; formerly Bufo marinus or Chaunus marinus) and its regulation by NMDA-mediated processes. Cane toads were exposed to 10 days of CH (10% O(2)) or CHC (3.5% CO(2)) followed by acute in vivo hypercapnic breathing trials, conducted before and after an injection of the NMDA-receptor channel blocker, MK801 into the dorsal lymph sac. CH, CHC and MK801 did not alter ventilation under acute normoxic normocapnic conditions. CH blunted the increase in breathing frequency during acute hypercapnia while CHC had no effect. The effect of CH on breathing frequency was mediated by a decrease in the number of breaths per breathing episode. Neither CH nor CHC altered breath area (volume). MK801 augmented breathing frequency (via an increase in breaths per episode) and total ventilation during acute hypercapnia in control toads and toads exposed to CH; there was no effect of MK801 on the increase in breathing frequency or total ventilation, during acute hypercapnia in toads exposed to CHC. The results indicate that CH and CHC differentially alter breathing pattern. Furthermore, they indicate an absence of NMDA-mediated glutamatergic tone during normoxic normocapnia but that NMDA-mediated processes attenuate the increase in breathing frequency during acute hypercapnia under control conditions and following CH but not following CHC. Given that MK801 was administered systemically, the effects could be acting anywhere in the reflex pathway from CO(2)-sensing to respiratory motor output.

  11. Tomotherapy for prostate adenocarcinoma: A report on acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiler, Louis; Dobbins, Donald; Kulasekere, Ravi; Einstein, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To analyze the impact of Tomotherapy (TOMO) intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity in prostate cancer. Materials and methods: The records of 55 consecutively treated TOMO patients were reviewed. Additionally a well-matched group of 43 patients treated with LINAC-based step and shoot IMRT (LINAC) was identified. Acute toxicity was scored according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity criterion. Results: The grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity rates for the TOMO vs. LINAC groups were 51% vs. 28% (p = 0.001). Acute grade 2 GI toxicity was 25% vs. 40% (p = 0.024), with no grade 3 GI toxicity in either group. In univariate analysis, androgen deprivation, prostate volume, pre-treatment urinary toxicity, and prostate dose homogeneity correlated with acute GI and GU toxicity. With multivariate analysis use of Tomotherapy, median bladder dose and bladder dose homogeneity remained significantly correlated with GU toxicity. Conclusions: Acute GI toxicity for prostate cancer is improved with Tomotherapy at a cost of increased acute GU toxicity possibly due to differences in bladder and prostate dose distribution

  12. [Acute onset pulmonary toxicity associated to amiodarone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro Gonçalo; Saraiva, Fátima; Carreira, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Amiodarone is a potent anti-arrhythmic drug with a well-known potential chronic pulmonary toxicity. We describe a case of acute pulmonary toxicity (APT) induced by amiodarone in a 57 year old patient submitted to a perfusion of 900 mg in just 6 hours, to control an auricular flutter with rapid ventricular response. During the administration, the patient developed hemodynamic instability and oxygen dessaturation that led to an electrical cardioversion with return of sinus rhythm. Still, the patient continued in progressive respiratory deterioration with acute bilateral infiltrates on chest x-ray and apparent normal cardiac filling pressures confirmed by echocardiography. Anon-cardiogenic pulmonar edema progressing to clinico-physiological ARDS criteria was diagnosed. Expeditive therapeutic measures were undertaken, namely by initiation of non-invasive positive airway pressure support, that attained a good result.Albeit rare, amiodarone-induced APT might have severe consequences, namely progression to ALI/ARDS with a high mortality index.As it is a frequently prescribed drug, there should be a high clinical suspicion towards this phenomenon, allowing precocious therapeutic measures to be taken in a timely fashion to prevent the associated unfavorable outcome.

  13. Acute Oral Toxicity Up-And-Down-Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Up-and-Down Procedure is an alternative acute toxicity test that provides a way to determine the toxicity of chemicals with fewer test animals by using sequential dosing steps. Find out about this test procedure.

  14. Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag R Salkade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX, as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS. Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced ′acute toxic leukoencephalopathy′ has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up

  15. Acute Toxic Myocarditis and Pulmonary Oedema Developing from Scorpion Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sahin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of scorpion stings are generally seen with a set of simple clinical findings, such as pain, oedema, numbness, and tenderness in the area of the sting. However, occasionally events, such as toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, acute pulmonary oedema, and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS, which occur in scorpion sting cases are a significant problem which determine mortality and morbidity. The case presented here was a 38-year-old man who developed acute toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, and acute pulmonary oedema following a scorpion sting on the 3rd finger of his right hand.

  16. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  17. Acute toxicity effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Anogeissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... A study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Ano- geissus leiocarpus using conventional methods. The result of the oral acute toxicity study revealed no death with doses up to 3200 mg/kg body weight. However, the rats showed signs of depression and.

  18. Acute Toxicity of Crude Euphorbia tirucalli Latex Extracts to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity of crude Euphorbia tirucalli latex extracts to Oreochromis niloticus juveniles was investigated in the College of Agriculture, Lafia. A four day static acute toxicity test was performed to determine the LC50 value of crude Euphorbia tirucalli latex extract for the fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Various ...

  19. Acute oral toxicity and cytotoxicological evaluation of the ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucas Nicolau

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... Acute oral toxicity and cytotoxicological evaluation of the ethanol extract of Samanea tubulosa pods in .... This procedure followed the Acute Oral Toxicity protocol recommended by OECD 425 (OECD, 2001). .... The biology, ecology and agroforestry potential of the raintree, Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.

  20. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and anaerobic toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The municipal solid waste (MSW of large cities, in particular in developing countries, is mainly disposed of in landfills (LFs, whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic digestion tests. The acute toxicity assays with Daphnia pulex presented a toxic unit (TU value of 49.5%, which indicates that these leachates should not be directly discharged into water sources or percolate into the soil because they would affect the ecosystems served by these waters. According to statistical analyses, the leachate toxicity is mainly associated with the inorganic fraction, with chlorides, calcium hardness and calcium having the greatest influence on the toxicity. The anaerobic toxicity assays showed that in the exposure stage, the methanogenic activity exceeded that of the control, which suggests that the anaerobic bacteria easily adapted to the leachate. Therefore, this treatment could be an alternative to mitigate the toxicity of the studied leachates. The inhibition presented in the recovery stage, represented by a reduction of the methanogenic activity, could arise because the amount of supplied substrate was not enough to fulfill the carbon and nutrient requirements of the bacterial population present.

  1. Acute toxicity of chemoradiation for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, C.; Fietkau, R.; Keilholz, L.; Grabenbauer, G.G.; Kessler, H.; Martus, P.; Sauer, R.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1995, 120 patients with rectal cancer (73 patients with primary tumor, 47 with recurrent disease) received chemoradiation for rectal cancer. Fifty-six patients received preoperative chemoradiation, 64 patients were treated postoperatively. Radiation was given by 4-field box technique with 6 to 10 MV-photons. Daily fraction size was 1.8 Gy, total dose 50.4 Gy (range: 41,4 to 56 Gy) ± 5.4 Gy (range: 3.6 to 19.8 Gy) local boost in selected cases, specified to the ICRU reference point. During the first and fifth week of radiation 5-FU at a dose of 1000 m 2 /d for 120 hours was administered by continuous infusion. Toxicity was recorded following (modified) WHO-criteria. Results: Acute grade 3 toxicity occurred mainly as diarrhea (33%), perineal skin reaction (37%), and leukopenia (10%). Extension of the treatment volume including paraaortic lymph nodes (L3) led to a significant increase of grade 3-diarrhea (68% vs. 25%, p = 0.0003) and grade 3-leukopenia (18% vs. 8%, p 0.03). After abdominoperineal resection less patients suffered from grade 3-diarrhea (8% vs. 47% after sphincter preserving procedures, p = 0.0006), whereas severe perineal erythema occurred more frequently (56% vs. 29%, p 0.02). Women had significantly more toxic side effects (grade 3-diarrhea: 39% vs. 16% in men, p = 0,04; grade 2 to 3-nausea/emesis: 21% vs 8% in men, p 0.018; grade 2 to 3-leukopenia 53% vs. 31% in men, p = 0.02). After preoperative chemoradiation a significant reduction of grade 3-diarrhea (11% vs 29%, p 0.03) and grade 3-erythema (16% vs. 41%, p = 0.04) was noted. (orig./AJ) [de

  2. Firing characteristics of deep dorsal horn neurons after acute spinal transection during administration of agonists for 5-HT1B/1D and NMDA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweerattanasinp, Theeradej; Heckman, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a loss of serotonin (5-HT) to the spinal cord and a loss of inhibition to deep dorsal horn (DDH) neurons, which produces an exaggerated excitatory drive to motoneurons. The mechanism of this excitatory drive could involve the DDH neurons triggering long excitatory postsynaptic potentials in motoneurons, which may ultimately drive muscle spasms. Modifying the activity of DDH neurons with drugs such as NMDA or the 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist zolmitriptan could have a large effect on motoneuron activity and, therefore, on muscle spasms. In this study, we characterize the firing properties of DDH neurons after acute spinal transection in adult mice during administration of zolmitriptan and NMDA, using the in vitro sacral cord preparation and extracellular electrophysiology. DDH neurons can be categorized into three major types with distinct evoked and spontaneous firing characteristics: burst (bursting), simple (single spiking), and tonic (spontaneously tonic firing) neurons. The burst neurons likely contribute to muscle spasm mechanisms because of their bursting behavior. Only the burst neurons show significant changes in their firing characteristics during zolmitriptan and NMDA administration. Zolmitriptan suppresses the burst neurons by reducing their evoked spikes, burst duration, and spontaneous firing rate. Conversely, NMDA facilitates them by enhancing their burst duration and spontaneous firing rate. These results suggest that zolmitriptan may exert its antispastic effect on the burst neurons via activation of 5-HT1B/1D receptors, whereas activation of NMDA receptors may facilitate the burst neurons in contributing to muscle spasm mechanisms following SCI. PMID:27486104

  3. Firing characteristics of deep dorsal horn neurons after acute spinal transection during administration of agonists for 5-HT1B/1D and NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweerattanasinp, Theeradej; Heckman, Charles J; Tysseling, Vicki M

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a loss of serotonin (5-HT) to the spinal cord and a loss of inhibition to deep dorsal horn (DDH) neurons, which produces an exaggerated excitatory drive to motoneurons. The mechanism of this excitatory drive could involve the DDH neurons triggering long excitatory postsynaptic potentials in motoneurons, which may ultimately drive muscle spasms. Modifying the activity of DDH neurons with drugs such as NMDA or the 5-HT 1B/1D receptor agonist zolmitriptan could have a large effect on motoneuron activity and, therefore, on muscle spasms. In this study, we characterize the firing properties of DDH neurons after acute spinal transection in adult mice during administration of zolmitriptan and NMDA, using the in vitro sacral cord preparation and extracellular electrophysiology. DDH neurons can be categorized into three major types with distinct evoked and spontaneous firing characteristics: burst (bursting), simple (single spiking), and tonic (spontaneously tonic firing) neurons. The burst neurons likely contribute to muscle spasm mechanisms because of their bursting behavior. Only the burst neurons show significant changes in their firing characteristics during zolmitriptan and NMDA administration. Zolmitriptan suppresses the burst neurons by reducing their evoked spikes, burst duration, and spontaneous firing rate. Conversely, NMDA facilitates them by enhancing their burst duration and spontaneous firing rate. These results suggest that zolmitriptan may exert its antispastic effect on the burst neurons via activation of 5-HT 1B/1D receptors, whereas activation of NMDA receptors may facilitate the burst neurons in contributing to muscle spasm mechanisms following SCI. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Klaus Gottlob; Mogensen, Signe Sloth

    2017-01-01

    During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both), bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis), thromboembolism, sinusoidal...... useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall...

  5. Acute toxicity of the herbicide bromoxynil to Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Schmulbach, James C.

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicities of technical-grade bromoxynil octanoate (BO) and two commercial formulations, Buctril® and Bronate®, to feeding, aging the herbicide, and exposure duration on BO toxicity to daphnids were investigated. Regardless of formulation, life stage, and water quality, BO was found to be extremely to highly toxic to daphnids in standard tests; 48-h EC50 values ranged from 41 to 161 m̈g/L. Bromoxynil octanoate was the most toxic to neonates in soft water and the least toxic in hard water. The acute toxicities of the three bromoxynil herbicides to a given age group of daphnids were similar within the same water type. Overall, neonates and 7-d-old adults were more sensitive than 14- or 15-d-old adults to each herbicide. Feeding daphnids during the toxicity test significantly decreased BO toxicity compared to not feeding them. Aging BO (as Buctril) in hard water decreased its toxicity, and the rate of deactivation was rapid, with an estimated half-life of biological activity of 13 h. Daphnids immobilized by exposures to toxic BO concentrations for ≤ 6 h recovered their mobility, whereas exposures of 18 and 24 h to BO produced toxic effects in daphnids similar to those exposed for 48 h. These results indicated that standard continuous exposure tests may not adequately predict the acute toxicity of BO to freshwater animals in the field.

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC...

  7. Acute toxicity of selected hydrazines to the common guppy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slonim, A.R.

    1977-01-01

    Hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), Aerozine-50 and monomethylhydrazine were evaluated, respectively, in three or four static bioassays each using hard and soft water. Hydrazine was the most toxic compound and UDMH the least toxic to common guppies. Hydrazine was significantly more toxic in soft water than hard water, whereas UDMH was the opposite. The results of bioassays in which survival times of fish pre-exposed to these compounds were compared to those previously unexposed, along with other observations, indicate that the toxic effects of the hydrazines are cumulative. The effects of chemical differences in these compounds, of water quality characteristics and of other factors on acute toxicity are discussed.

  8. Acute toxicity, lipid peroxidation and ameliorative properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lethal toxicity and lipid peroxidation studies of Alstonia boonei on alloxan induced diabetic rats were analysed. The effect of ethanol leaf extract of A. boonei on the kidney markers of diabetic rat was also determined. The acute toxicity of the ethanol extract of A. boonei was found to be more than 5000 mg/kg body weight ...

  9. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of refined petroleum products against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Static and static-renewal evaluation of the acute toxicity of three refined petroleum products — petrol, kerosene and diesel — against two freshwater animals, the mollusc Pila ovata and the fish Poecilia reticulata, was conducted in the laboratory. Petrol, kerosene and diesel were found to be moderately toxic to the test ...

  10. Acute Toxicity of a Recently Identified Phenol-based Synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on the acute toxicity of a new phenol based synthetic tsetse fly repellent recently identified at the International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (patent No. ... The repellent can be classified as being highly toxic with central nervous system (CNS) involvement and a mild skin and eye irritant.

  11. Acute toxicity of tobacco ( Nicotiana tobaccum ) leaf dust on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted using dry tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) leaves aqueous extract to determine the acute toxicity and sub lethal effects on some haematological indices of Oreochromis niloticus using static renewable bioassay method. The extract was found to be toxic with a 48-h LC50 value of 109.6 mg/l.

  12. Acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to fingerlings of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... striped bass juveniles is lower in waters of lower total alkalinity and total hardness. Marking and Bills (1975) also reported that the acute toxicity of KMnO4 to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and channel catfish L. punctatus was greatest in very hard waters, and at 96 h these toxicity differences were also ...

  13. Acute and subacute toxicities of defatted ethanolic extract of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera seeds are widely accepted as a nutritional supplement. The seeds are consumed and are sold on the shelf of nature, herbal shops, pharmacy and supermarkets. They are consumed as herbal remedy for various diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of defatted ...

  14. Logistic Analysis Of Acute Toxicity Of Hunteria Umbellata Extract In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we analyse the acute toxicity of Hunteria umbellata, a herbal medicinal plant, in mice in Nigeria using the logistic model. Hunteria umbellata is a plant with therapeutic potentials in the treatment of various diseases that include yaws, peptic ulcers, diabetes, piles, infertility and inflammation. Data on the acute ...

  15. Radiology of acute toxic megacolon | Werbeloff | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case is described in which the transition from acute idiopathic ulcerative colitis to acute toxic megacolon was followed radioJogically, and the features which indicate the development of this dangerous complication are identified. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 912 (1974) ...

  16. Acute and Subchronic Oral Toxicity Assessment of the Ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use in the treatment of diabetes, tumour, dysentery and bladder complaints [8]. As a part of safety evaluation, acute and sub acute oral dose toxicity studies were ..... oil from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Food Chem. Toxicol 2013; 53: 52–61. 20. Saravanan N, Nalini N. Hemidesmus indicus protects against ethanol-induced ...

  17. Anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity evaluation of aqueous infusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Marrubium deserti de Noé, which is locally known as “Merriouet saharaui”, is widely used in Algeria as a traditional treatment of many ailments. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity of the aqueous infusion extract from aerial parts of Marrubium deserti were investigated. Meanwhile, acute oral ...

  18. Effect of the selective NMDA NR2B antagonist, ifenprodil, on acute tolerance to ethanol-induced motor impairment in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ruby Liane; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2011-06-01

    Adolescent rats have been observed to be less sensitive than adults to a number of acute ethanol effects, including ethanol-induced motor impairment. These adolescent insensitivities may be related in part to the more rapid emergence of within session (acute) tolerance in adolescents than adults. Adolescent-related alterations in neural systems that serve as ethanol target sites, including changes in NMDA receptor subunit expression, may influence the responsiveness of adolescents to acute ethanol effects. This study explored the role of NMDA NR2B receptors in the development of acute tolerance to ethanol-induced motor impairment in male adolescent [postnatal day (P)28-30] and adult (P68-70) Sprague-Dawley rats. Motor-impairing effects of ethanol on the stationary inclined plane and blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) were examined following challenge at each age with a functionally equivalent ethanol dose (adolescents: 2.25 g/kg; adults: 1.5 g/kg). Data were collected at two postinjection intervals (10 or 60 minutes) to compare rate of recovery from ethanol intoxication with BEC declines using the Radlow approach (Radlow, 1994) and changes in motor impairment/BEC ratios over time for assessing acute tolerance. Both vehicle-treated adolescent and adult animals showed similar acute tolerance development to the motor-impairing effects of ethanol at these functionally equivalent doses on the stationary inclined plane, as indexed by an increasing time-dependent dissociation between BECs and ethanol-induced motor impairment, with motor impairment declining faster than BECs, as well as by significant declines in motor impairment/BEC ratios over time. Acute tolerance development was reliably blocked by administration of the NR2B antagonist, ifenprodil, (5.0 mg/kg), in adult rats, whereas adolescents were affected by a higher dose (10.0 mg/kg). These data support the suggestion that alterations in NMDA receptor systems occurring during adolescence may contribute to

  19. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    . Radiation Toxins (SRD-1)had been isolated from Central Lymph of irradiated animals (cows, sheep, pigs). Experiments to study toxicity of Radiation Neurotoxins had been performed. Intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration of RT SRD-1 to radiation naive animals had induced acute toxicity which referred to the harmful effects generated by high doses of radiation. In-jection of toxic doses of RT SRD-1 (Toxic doses: 0,1 mg/kg, 0,5mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 10mg/kg,30 mg/kg, 50mg/kg,70 mg/kg,100 mg/kg, 110mg/kg)were compared to the similar effects caused by high doses of radiation. Results: Injection of SRD-1 ( Neurotoxin Cv ARS)of all ten tested toxic doses had caused a death of radiation naive animals within the first hours after admin-istration of toxins. For all animals in all experiments, a short period of extreme agitation was replaced by deep coma, and suppression of blood circulation and breathing. The results of postmortem section had showed characteristics of intra-cortical hemorrhage. Conclusions: Acute radiation injury induces a disorder of blood supply of the Central Nervous System (CNS). However, administration of SRD-1 Radiation Toxins to radiation naive animals produces crit-ically important inflammatory reactions with hemorrhagic stroke development. Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity are two stages of the pathological processes resulted in damaging and killing nerve cells thorough apoptotic necrosis. Excitotoxicity is well known as a pathological process that occurs when important excitatory neurotransmitters (glutamate, serotonin) over-activate the receptors -NMDA, AMPA, 5HT1, 5HT2, 5H3. Radiation Neurotoxins possibly act on the same receptors and activate the cell death mechanisms through direct or indirect excessive activation of same receptors.

  20. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ion Salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia. III. Mathematical models for mixture toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset concerns the development of models for describing the acute toxicity of major ions to Ceriodaphnia dubia using data from single salt tests and binary...

  1. Acute and oral subchronic toxicity of D-003 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, R; Mas, R; Noa, M; Menéndez, R; Alemán, C; Acosta, P; García, H; Hernández, C; Amor, A; Pérez, J; Goicochea, E

    2000-12-20

    D-003 is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax (Saccharum officinarum) with cholesterol-lowering and antiplatelet effects experimentally proven. The present work reports the results of two studies investigating the acute and subchronic oral toxicity of D-003 in rats. Oral acute toxicity of D-003 (2000 mg/kg) was investigated according to the Acute Toxic Class (ATC) method (an alternative for the classical LD(50) test), which was performed in Wistar rats. The results obtained in this study defined D-003 oral acute toxicity as unclassified. In the subchronic study, rats of both sexes were orally treated with D-003 at 50, 200 and 1250 mg/kg for 90 days. At this time, animals were sacrificed. No evidence of treatment-related toxicity was detected during the study. Thus, data analysis of body weight gain, food consumption, clinical observations, blood biochemical, haematology, organ weight ratios and histopathological findings did not show significant differences between control and treated groups. It is concluded that D-003 orally administered to rats was safe and that no drug-related toxicity was detected even at the highest doses investigated in both acute (2000 mg/kg) and subchronic (1250 mg/kg) studies.

  2. Acute toxicity of Amanranthus viridus extract on guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsirapoj, S; Sudthonghong, C; Bullangpoti, V

    2010-01-01

    Many Thai plant species shows the responsible for controlling insects from the host plants. To avoid potential toxic pollutant contaminating aquatic ecosystems, this present study was investigated for acute toxicity from Amaranthus viridis to Guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were repeated 5 times and the 1-, 3- and 24-h LC50 was determined for the guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for Amaranthus viridis concentration extract which extracted by Soxhlet's extraction method with ethanol as solvent. Water temperature was regulated at 20 +/- 1 degrees C. Data obtained from the acute toxicity tests were evaluated using the Probit analysis statistical method. The 24-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as ca. 947 mg L(-1) (r2 = 0.95). However, in this concentration, no mortality was observed at higher concentration for 30 second.

  3. Role of NMDA Receptor-Mediated Glutamatergic Signaling in Chronic and Acute Neuropathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Carvajal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs have two opposing roles in the brain. On the one hand, NMDARs control critical events in the formation and development of synaptic organization and synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, the overactivation of NMDARs can promote neuronal death in neuropathological conditions. Ca2+ influx acts as a primary modulator after NMDAR channel activation. An imbalance in Ca2+ homeostasis is associated with several neurological diseases including schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These chronic conditions have a lengthy progression depending on internal and external factors. External factors such as acute episodes of brain damage are associated with an earlier onset of several of these chronic mental conditions. Here, we will review some of the current evidence of how traumatic brain injury can hasten the onset of several neurological conditions, focusing on the role of NMDAR distribution and the functional consequences in calcium homeostasis associated with synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death present in this group of chronic diseases.

  4. Acute and subacute toxicity of Schinus terebinthifolius bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L B; Vasconcelos, C F B; Maranhão, H M L; Leite, V R; Ferreira, P A; Andrade, B A; Araújo, E L; Xavier, H S; Lafayette, S S L; Wanderley, A G

    2009-12-10

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) has long been used in traditional Brazilian medicine, especially to treat inflammatory and haemostatic diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity (45 days) of Schinus terebinthifolius via the oral route in Wistar rats of both sexes. For the acute toxicity test, the dried extract of Schinus terebinthifolius bark was administered in doses from 0.625 to 5.0 g/kg (n=5/group/sex) and in the subacute toxicity test the following doses were used: 0.25, 0.625 and 1.5625 g/kg/day (n=13/group/sex), for 45 consecutive days. In the acute toxicity test, Schinus terebinthifolius did not produce any toxic signs or deaths. The subacute treatment with Schinus terebinthifolius did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. The hematological and biochemical analysis did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, except in two male groups, in which the treatment with Schinus terebinthifolius (0.25 and 0.625 g/kg) induced an increase of mean corpuscular volume values (2.9 and 2.6%, respectively). These variations are within the physiological limits described for the specie and does not have clinical relevance. The acute and subacute administration of the dried extract of Schinus terebinthifolius bark did not produced toxic effects in Wistar rats.

  5. Acute toxicity and associated mechanisms of four strobilurins in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Yu; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Junli; Wang, Chengju; Li, Xuefeng; Pang, Sen

    2018-04-03

    Strobilurins have been reported highly toxic to non-target aquatic organisms but few illustrated how they cause toxic effects on algae. This study investigated the acute toxicity of Kresoxim-methy (KRE), Pyraclostrobin (PYR), Trifloxystrobin (TRI) and Picoxystrobin (PIC) on two algae and their toxicity mechanisms. Four strobilurins showed lower toxic effects on Chlorella pyrenoidsa but higher on Chlorella vulgaris. bc1 complex activities in C. vulgaris were significantly inhibited by all strobilurins, suggesting bc 1 complex might be the target of strobilurin toxicity in algae. Moreover, SOD, CAT and POD activities were significantly up-regulated by all doses of KRE, PYR and PIC. In contrast, low concentrations of TRI stimulated SOD and POD activities but highest concentration significantly inhibited those activities. Comet assays showed damaged DNA in C. vulgaris by four strobulirins, suggesting their potential genotoxic threats to algae. The results illustrated acute toxicity by strobulirins on algae and their possible toxicity mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute and subacute toxicity of 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Danielle Maia

    2013-01-01

    Before starting clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests for assessing human risk. Radiopharmaceuticals like any new drug must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both parties, the unlabeled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. Regulatory agencies like the Food and Drug Administration - USA (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMEA), establish guidelines for the regulation of production and research of radiopharmaceuticals. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when were established by the National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA) resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of Radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of record radiopharmaceuticals. To obtain registration of radiopharmaceuticals are necessary to prove the quality, safety, efficacy and specificity of the drug . For the safety of radiopharmaceuticals must be presented studies of acute toxicity, subacute and chronic toxicity as well as reproductive, mutagenic and carcinogenic. Nowadays IPEN-CNEN/SP produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical of nuclear medicine, the 18 F-FDG, which is used in many clinical applications, particularly in the diagnosis and staging of tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the systemic toxicity (acute/ subacute) radiopharmaceutical 18 F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64, which will serve as a model for protocols toxicity of radiopharmaceuticals produced at IPEN. The following tests were performed: tests of acute and subacute toxicity, biodistribution studies of 18 F-FDG, comet assay and reproductive toxicity. In acute toxicity, healthy rats were injected . (author)

  7. Toxicity of Single and Mixed Contaminants in Seawater Measured with Acute Toxicity Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Fernandez-Alba

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of organic pollutants commonly detected in seawater have been evaluated by acute toxicity bioassays. Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and Selenastrum capricornotum were selected to test toxic effects of individual compounds and mixtures of these compounds, obtaining EC50 values in the range of 0.001 to 28.9 mg/l. In the case of mixtures, synergistic toxic responses were seen for a clear majority of the cases (>60%. Mixtures containing methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE exhibit accelerated processes that result in a change in concentration required to produce a toxic effect; for example, in the case of mixtures containing MTBE and Diuron and Dichlofluanid.

  8. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Evaluation of the Methanolic Extract of Alstonia scholaris Stem Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Bello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alstonia scholaris has been used by traditional medicine practitioners since the medieval ages for the treatment of diseases. The aim of this research was to evaluate the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of its methanolic extract. The acute toxicity test was conducted using Sprague Dawley (SD rats. The methanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris stem bark (ASME was administrated in a single dose of 2000 mg/kg via oral gavage; and the animals were observed for any behavioral changes or mortality. In the sub-acute toxicity study, SD rats received three doses of ASME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for 28 days via oral gavage. During these 28 days of treatment, the rats were observed weekly for toxicity symptoms. Following the 28-day treatment, the rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology studies. In the acute toxicity study, Alstonia scholaris was found to be non-toxic at a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. In the sub-acute toxicity study, significant variations in body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters were observed in the experimental groups at the dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg with the death of two female rats being recorded at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg b.w.. Histopathological studies revealed slight degeneration (lesion and centrilobular necrosis in the liver, which was most expressed in the highest-dose group. These results demonstrate that, while a single dose and short term oral intake of Alstonia scholaris bark extract caused no toxicity up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w., toxic effects manifested in the long term treatment at the highest dose (500 and 1000 mg/kg. The long-term toxic effect was found to be associated with alterations in hematological compositions and end-organ damage to the liver. Thus, prolonged use of high doses of ASME orally should be discouraged and lower doses encouraged.

  9. Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Profile of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Acute toxicity study was performed by administering a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight of the extract to 5 rats ... use at the doses tested. Keywords: Nymphaea lotus, Toxicity, White blood count, Alkaline phosphatase, Histology ... They were housed in clean plastic cages under standard environmental.

  10. Acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root was studied on rats. The indices of the study were the liver enzymes (transaminases), cholesterol, creatinine and urea serum levels as well as the ionic analysis. Both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed a ...

  11. Acute toxicity studies of potassium permanganate in Swiss albino mice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity study of potassium permanganate was carried out in Swiss albino mice. Potassium permanganate was administered at dose rate of 0.0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000 and 3500mg/kg body weight to groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, ten per group for LD50 determination. The dead animals were posted for ...

  12. Acute oral toxicity and cytotoxicological evaluation of the ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute oral toxicity and cytotoxicological evaluation of the ethanol extract of Samanea tubulosa pods in Swiss mice. PAB Sales, LAD Nicolau, JMG de Oliveira, MRSC de Souza, MH Chaves, FA de Amorim Carvalho, EPC Jr. Costa Sobrinho, APR Costa ...

  13. Antifungal, Acute Toxicity and Mutagenicity Activity of Extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Baccharis glutinosa, Jacquinia macrocarpa, and Krameria erecta extracts was investigated on the growth and the spore germination of Fusarium verticillioides (ATCC 52539). Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was used to evaluate the potential acute toxicity of the fractions obtained from plant extracts. The butanol ...

  14. Oral acute toxicity study of selected botanical pesticide plants used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Key words: Oral acute toxicity, biopesticide, plant extracts, Lake Victoria Basin. INTRODUCTION. There is a very long history of use of botanical extracts for human and veterinary medicine, as well as for the protection of field and stored crops (Berger, 1994). In the recent decades, however, due to the introduction of.

  15. Acute toxicity and sleep-wake EEG analysis of Stachtarpheta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of systemic administration of TASC on sleep architecture in rats was also evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats that were chronically implanted with electrodes for electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) recording. The acute toxicity test revealed no lethal effect with doses of SCCR (up to 2000 ...

  16. 40 CFR 799.9130 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Conventional acute toxicity test—(1) Principle of the test method. Several groups of experimental animals are... the relationship, if any, between the animals' exposure to the test substance and the incidence and... cause death during exposure or within a fixed time after exposure in 50% of animals exposed for a...

  17. Acute toxicity of phasetreat 4633 (demulsifier) against the cichlid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity of phasetreat 4633 (Demulsifier) against the cichlid, Tilapia guineensis (fish) was determined using the Organisation of Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD) #203 protocol. Tilapia guineensis were exposed to concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/l for 96 h. The 96h LC50 (19.32 ...

  18. Antinociceptive Properties and Acute Toxicity of Ethanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antinociceptive activity and acute toxicity of the ethanol extract of Bromelia laciniosa leaf. Methods: A high performance liquid chromatography HPLC fingerprint of phenolic compounds was developed. The antinociceptive .... application of analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test.

  19. Evaluation of acute and subchronic toxicity of Stachytarpheta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous ethanol (80%) extract of the powdered dried plant was obtained by maceration. Evaluation of acute and subchronic toxicity and ... of plasma glucose level and the positive effects of the extract on the cardiovascular risk factors were an indicator that the extract could have some good antidiabetic activity.

  20. Preliminary Investigation Into The Acute Oral Toxicity Of Tephrosia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out on the acute toxicity of the crude methanolic leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f. (Fabaceae) in mice following oral administration of the extract at doses ranging from 10 to 10,000 mg per kg body weight. Propylene glycol was used as vehicle of administration. Clinical signs observed ...

  1. Acute toxicity of monocalm 400sl (monocrotophos) and profenalm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-03-06

    Mar 6, 2014 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: This study aimed at assessing acute toxicity of Monocalm 400SL (monocrotophos) and Profenalm. 720EC (profenofos), two organophosphorous pesticides widely used in the Far North region of Cameroon, to fight against insects and mites parasitizing cotton, rice, maize, sorghum, ...

  2. Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Ximenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in medicinal plants has increased scientific scrutiny of their therapeutic potentials and safety thereby providing physicians with data to help patients make wise decision on their usage. The stem bark of Ximenia americana was evaluated for its phytochemical constituents and acute toxicity effect on thirty Swiss albino mice.

  3. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicities of aqueous ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicities of aqueous ethanolic extract of leaves of Senna alata (L.) Roxb (Ceasalpiniaceae) ... Significant variation (P<0.05) of the body weight was observed after 26 days of treatment, in some biochemicals index of serum and 20% liver homogenates (glutathione , alkaline phosphatase ...

  4. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Annona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Annona vepretorum Mart (Annonaceae) leaf extracts. Mariana G e Silva, Ana P de Oliveira, Camila de S Araújo, Érica M de Lavor, Juliane C Silva, Rosemairy L Mendes, Cláudia do Ó Pessoa, Marcília P Costa, Jackson R G da S Almeida ...

  5. Phytochemical composition and acute toxicity evaluation of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical constituents and acute toxicity of the aqueous root bark extract of Securidaca longipedunculata Linn. The result of phytochemical screening revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites of pharmacological significance in the aqueous root bark extract ...

  6. Acute toxicity of the chloroacetanilide herbicide butachlor and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity of the chloroacetanilide herbicide butachlor and its effects on the behavior of the freshwater fish Tilapia zillii. ... Stress signs in form of hyperactivity, erratic swimming, skin discoloration, vigorous jerks of the body followed by exhaustion and death were observed. The 96 h LC50 of 1.25 mgl-1 obtained indicate ...

  7. Evaluation of acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was further fractionated in sequence to n-hexane (BSH), chloroform (BSC) and methanol (BSM) soluble fractions. Acute toxicity was evaluated by oral administration of plant and hind paw induced-edema method in rats was used for the anti-inflammatory evaluation. Results: The BSE was found safe up to the dose level of ...

  8. The study of acute toxicity of burdock root tincture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Оproshanska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Burdock root is used in scientific medicine as diuretic, choleretic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, desensitizing, immunostimulatory, antioxidant and metabolism improving remedy. To study acute toxicity of the Burdock root tincture (extractant is a 40% ethanol at the terms of single internally gastric injection at 5 ml/kg, 15 ml/кg and 20 ml/kg dose, 84 white rats and 84 mice of both sexes (14 groups which consist of 6 animals have been used. Methods and results. The determination of acute toxicity has been conducted using Kerber method. It has been set that the Burdock root tincture belongs to VІ class of toxicity (comparing to harmless substances in obedience to the generally accepted toxicological classification of substances. Conclusion. This shows that future research of Burdock root tincture is a perspective direction.

  9. Study on acute toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater to Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weifang; Shen, Hongyan

    2017-12-01

    The main research in this paper is to obtain the effect of pharmaceutical wastewater on the acute toxicity of Zebrafish. The experimental method of exposure is used in this research. Experiments were carried out with different groups of pharmaceutical wastewater. Zebrafish was cultivated in a five liter fish tank. In the experiment, according to mortality, initially a 96h preliminary test was carried out at exposure concentrations to determine if the amoxicillin wastewater was toxic and to define the concentration range (24h LC100, 96h LC0) to be employed in the definitive tests. Based on the half lethal concentration of Zebrafish, the acute toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater to Zebrafish was calculated and the toxicity grade of wastewater was determined. In the experiment, the Zebrafish was exposed with amoxicillin wastewater during 96h. The 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h LC50 of amoxicillin wastewater on the Zebrafish were 63.10%, 53.70%, 41.69% and 40.74%, respectively. At 96h, the test time is the longest, and the value of LC50 is the smallest. In the observation period of 96 hours, the LC50 of amoxicillin wastewater were in the range of 40% ~ 60% and the value of Tua is 1 ~ 2. It indicates amoxicillin wastewater is low toxic wastewater when the experimental time is shorter than 48h, amoxicillin wastewater is moderate toxicity wastewater when the experimental time is higher than 48h. According to the experimental data, with the exposure time and the volume percentage of amoxicillin wastewater increases, the mortality rate of Zebrafish is gradually increased and the toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater increases. It indicates that the toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater is the biggest and the effect of wastewater on Zebrafish is greatest. In some ways, the toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater can be affected by the test time.

  10. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of Brazilian red propolis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rafaela Oliveira; Andrade, Valléria Matos; Bullé Rêgo, Ester Seixas; Azevedo Dória, Grace Anne; Santos Lima, Bruno Dos; da Silva, Francilene Amaral; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; de Albuquerque Júnior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Cordeiro Cardoso, Juliana; Zanardo Gomes, Margarete

    2015-07-21

    Propolis is a bee product widely used in folk medicine due to its numerous pharmacological properties. However, samples from different regions can differ in chemical composition, effectiveness, and side effects. Despite the widespread use of Brazilian red propolis, which is an isoflavone-rich variety, its toxicity has not been carefully studied. To assess the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract of red propolis (HERP) administered orally to rats. HERP for the acute (300mg/kg) and sub-acute (10, 100 and 200mg/kg) toxicity studies was administered orally to rats according to OECD Guidelines 420 and 407, respectively. Clinical signs were identified, and hematological and biochemical analyses were performed. Water and food uptake as well as body and organ weights of animals were recorded. The acute study revealed no lethal effects at 300mg/kg of HERP, but toxic signs were observed, as HERP had an LD50 of more than 300mg/kg, indicating a warning. The most toxic signals in sub-acute studies were observed in males at a dose of 200mg/kg HERP. These results suggest estrogen-like activity, possibly from the isoflavones in HERP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of solcoseryl on antitumour action and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danysz, A; Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo effect of Solcoseryl on the antitumour activity and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs was examined. It was found that Solcoseryl does not inhibit the antineoplastic effectiveness of the drugs against transplantable P 388 leukaemia in mice. Studies of the effect of Solcoseryl on acute toxicity of selected antineoplastic drugs in mice revealed that the biostimulator could exert a modifying influence. The prior administration of Solcoseryl significantly decreases the acute toxicity of methotrexate but has no effect on acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, increases the acute toxicity of bleomycin and vinblastine and has no effect on acute toxicity of methotrexate and mitoxantron. On the other hand, Solcoseryl administered simultaneously with the antineoplastic drugs increases acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and mitoxantron. The protective effect of the biostimulator noted exclusively against acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil was also observed after multiple administration of this anticancer drug.

  12. Acute and subacute toxicity of 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Danielle M.; Silva, Natanael G. da; Manetta, Ana Paula; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2013-01-01

    Before initiating clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests, for evaluating the risk in humans. Radiopharmaceuticals must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both, the unlabelled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when ANVISA established the Resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of radiopharmaceuticals. Nowadays IPEN produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical for nuclear medicine, the 18 F-FDG, which is used in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to assess systemic toxicity (acute / subacute) of 18 F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64. In acute tests the administration occurred on the first day, healthy rats were observed for 14 days reporting their clinical signs and water consumption, and on the 15th day they were euthanized and necropsied. The assay of subacute toxicity observations were made over a period of 28 days and the first dose was administered at the beginning of the test and after a fortnight a second dose was administered. The parameters evaluated were the necropsy, histopathology of target organs, hematology studies and liver and kidney function. The results are being processed and evaluated. Initial observations did not show any acute toxicity in animals when compared to control animals. (author)

  13. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Luciano Rezende; Gomides, Lindisley Ferreira; David, Bruna Araújo; Antunes, Maísa Mota; Diniz, Ariane Barros; Moreira, Fabrício de Araújo; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg) abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg) reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen) increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:25999668

  14. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rezende Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD, protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  15. Antioxidant activity and acute toxicity of Neoglaziovia variegata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most significant total phenolic content was of 543.50 ± 9.38 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g for ethyl acetate extract (AcOEt), which presented the best antioxidant activity (IC50 5.08 ± 0.20 μg/ml) for DPPH scavenging. The acute toxicity of Nv-EtOH was performed 2.0 g/kg intraperitoneally and 5.0 g/kg orally in mice.

  16. Acute toxicity of ammonia to blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus (3.28 ± 0.36 g in body weight, 61.84 ± 2.08 mm in body length) exposed to environmental un-ionized ammonia at different salinities (1, 8, 12, 16 and 20 ppt) was assessed via a series of static exposure trials. Median lethal concentrations of 24 h of exposure were ...

  17. The acute toxicity of lead nitrate on Daphnia magna Straus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the acute toxicity of lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) to Daphnia magna Straus was investigated in a static bioassay. After 24 h the mobility of daphnids were examined and immobile ones were counted. The 24 h EC50 of lead nitrate to D. magna was found as 0.44 mg/L. According to Behrens-Karber method the 24 h ...

  18. Acute Liver Failure During Deferasirox Chelation: A Toxicity Worth Considering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaker, Nathan; Halligan, Katharine; Shur, Natasha; Paige, John; Hickling, Matthew; Nepo, Anne; Weintraub, Lauren

    2017-04-01

    This case report details a unique case of acute, reversible liver failure in a 12-year-old male with sickle cell anemia on chronic transfusion protocol and deferasirox chelation. There is substantial literature documenting deferasirox-induced renal injury, including Fanconi syndrome, but less documentation of hepatic toxicity and few reports of hepatic failure. The case highlights the importance of close monitoring of ferritin, bilirubin, and transaminases for patients on deferasirox.

  19. Acute toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg. Animal mortality, blood biochemistry, hematology, genotoxicity and histopathology were investigated 14 days after treatment. RESULTS: Death of mice in the highest dose (1387 mg/kg group was observed at day two after TiO₂ NPs injection. At day 7, acute toxicity symptoms, such as decreased physical activity and decreased intake of food and water, were observed in the highest dose group. Hematological analysis and the micronucleus test showed no significant acute hematological or genetic toxicity except an increase in the white blood cell (WBC count among mice 645 mg/kg dose group. However, the spleen of the mice showed significantly higher tissue weight/body weight (BW coefficients, and lower liver and kidney coefficients in the TiO₂ NPs treated mice compared to control. The biochemical parameters and histological tissue sections indicated that TiO₂ NPs treatment could induce different degrees of damage in the brain, lung, spleen, liver and kidneys. However, no pathological effects were observed in the heart in TiO₂ NPs treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of TiO₂ NPs at high doses in mice could cause acute toxicity effects in the brain, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney. No significant hematological or genetic toxicity was observed.

  20. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti

    OpenAIRE

    Haonan Zhou; Pengjie Zhang; Zhiguo Hou; Jiabin Xie; Yuming Wang; Bin Yang; Yanyan Xu; Yubo Li

    2016-01-01

    Radix Aconiti, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were availabl...

  1. Safety studies of homoeopathic drugs in acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homoeopathic drugs are frequently recommended in day to day life as therapeutic agents by homoeopathic practitioners. However, safety of homoeopathic drugs remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the acute, subacute, and chronic oral toxicity of different homoeopathic drugs (Ferrum phosphoricum 3X, Ferrum phosphoricum 6X, Calcarea phosphoricum 6X, and Magnesium phosphoricum 6X in experimental models. Materials and Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered orally at 2000mg/kg body weight, and animals were observed for toxic symptoms till 10 days as per the OECD guidelines. For subacute and chronic toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered for 28 and 180 days, respectively, as per the OECD guidelines. At the end of 28 and 180 days, the animals were sacrificed and toxicity parameters were assessed. Histopathological evaluation of different organs was also performed to assess any toxicity. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was found at a dose of 2000 mg/kg which indicates that oral LD50of homoeopathic drugs were more than 2000 mg/kg. The administration of drugs at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight for 28 and 180 days did not produce any significant change in haematological and biochemical parameters of male and female rats as compared to normal control group. No pathological changes were observed in histology of various organs of treated rats as compared to normal control animals. Conclusion: These homoeopathic drugs are safe & produce no toxicity when administered for longer duration.

  2. Large Dataset of Acute Oral Toxicity Data Created for Testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute toxicity data is a common requirement for substance registration in the US. Currently only data derived from animal tests are accepted by regulatory agencies, and the standard in vivo tests use lethality as the endpoint. Non-animal alternatives such as in silico models are being developed due to animal welfare and resource considerations. We compiled a large dataset of oral rat LD50 values to assess the predictive performance currently available in silico models. Our dataset combines LD50 values from five different sources: literature data provided by The Dow Chemical Company, REACH data from eChemportal, HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank), RTECS data from Leadscope, and the training set underpinning TEST (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool). Combined these data sources yield 33848 chemical-LD50 pairs (data points), with 23475 unique data points covering 16439 compounds. The entire dataset was loaded into a chemical properties database. All of the compounds were registered in DSSTox and 59.5% have publically available structures. Compounds without a structure in DSSTox are currently having their structures registered. The structural data will be used to evaluate the predictive performance and applicable chemical domains of three QSAR models (TIMES, PROTOX, and TEST). Future work will combine the dataset with information from ToxCast assays, and using random forest modeling, assess whether ToxCast assays are useful in predicting acute oral toxicity. Pre

  3. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuen Yew Teoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  4. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24 h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R?) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex? and Phos-Chek WD881?) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881? and Silv-Ex? were above the predetermined 2000 mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R? because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  5. Determination of acute oral toxicity of flumethrin in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Hranitz, J M; Sorucu, A; Duell, M; Cakmak, I; Aydin, L; Orman, A

    2012-12-01

    Flumethrin is one of many pesticides used for the control and treatment of varroatosis in honey bees and for the control of mosquitoes and ticks in the environment. For the control of varroatosis, flumethrin is applied to hives formulated as a plastic strip for several weeks. During this time, honey bees are treated topically with flumethrin, and hive products may accumulate the pesticide. Honey bees may indirectly ingest flumethrin through hygienic behaviors during the application period and receive low doses of flumethrin through comb wax remodeling after the application period. The goal of our study was to determine the acute oral toxicity of flumethrin and observe the acute effects on motor coordination in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca). Six doses (between 0.125 and 4.000 microg per bee) in a geometric series were studied. The acute oral LD50 of flumethrin was determined to be 0.527 and 0.178 microg per bee (n = 210, 95% CI) for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Orally administered flumethrin is highly toxic to honey bees. Oral flumethrin disrupted the motor coordination of honey bees. Honey bees that ingested flumethrin exhibited convulsions in the antennae, legs, and wings at low doses. At higher doses, partial and total paralysis in the antennae, legs, wings, proboscises, bodies, and twitches in the antennae and legs were observed.

  6. The acute toxicity of major ion salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia. III. Mathematical models for mixture toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Russell J; Mount, David R; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, J Russell; Hoff, Dale J; Jenson, Correne T; Norberg-King, Teresa J; Peterson, Kira N

    2018-01-01

    Based on previous research on the acute toxicity of major ions (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl - , SO 4 2- , and HCO 3 - /CO 3 2- ) to Ceriodaphnia dubia, a mathematical model was developed for predicting the median lethal concentration (LC50) for any ion mixture, excepting those dominated by K-specific toxicity. One component of the model describes a mechanism of general ion toxicity to which all ions contribute and predicts LC50s as a function of osmolarity and Ca activity. The other component describes Mg/Ca-specific toxicity to apply when such toxicity exceeds the general ion toxicity and predicts LC50s as a function of Mg and Ca activities. This model not only tracks well the observed LC50s from past research used for model development but also successfully predicts LC50s from new toxicity tests on synthetic mixtures of ions emulating chemistries of various ion-enriched effluents and receiving waters. It also performs better than a previously published model for major ion toxicity. Because of the complexities of estimating chemical activities and osmolarity, a simplified model based directly on ion concentrations was also developed and found to provide useful predictions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:247-259. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  7. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients. 2015 FRAME.

  8. The acute toxicity of the metaldehyde on the climbing perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahida Mohamad Ismail, Syamimi; Aini Dahalan, Farrah; Zakaria, Ammar; Mad Shakaff, Ali Yeon; Aqlima Ahmad, Siti; Shukor, Mohd Yunus Abd; Khalizan Sabullah, Mohd; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Jalil, Mohd Faizal Ab

    2018-03-01

    In Asia, Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) is commonly found in paddy fields and irrigation systems. Due to its habitat, Climbing perch is exposed to toxic pesticides used in paddy fields such as metaldehyde which is one of the most widely used molluscicide. This study aims to determine the acute toxicity Lethal Concentration50 (LC50) of metaldehyde and its effect on the behaviour and physical changes of the Climbing perch. The fish mortality responses to six different metaldehyde concentrations ranging from 180 to 330 mg/L were investigated. The 96-h LC50 values were determined and analysed using three different analysis methods which is arithmetic, logarithmic and probit graphic. The LC50 values obtained in this study were 239, 234 and 232 mg/L, respectively. After 96-h of exposure to metaldehyde, the fish showed a series of abnormal behavioural response in all cases: imbalance position, and restlessness of movement. The LC50 values show that metaldehyde is moderately toxic to the Climbing perch indicating that metaldehyde is not destructive to Climbing perch. However, long term exposure of aquatic organisms to the metaldehyde means a continuous health risk for the fish population as they are more vulnerable and it is on high risk for human to consume this toxicated fishes.

  9. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of Dracaena cinnabari resin methanol extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Afifi, Nashwan Abdullah; Alabsi, Aied Mohammed; Bakri, Marina Mohd; Ramanathan, Anand

    2018-02-05

    Dracaena cinnabari (DC) is a perennial tree that located on the Southern coast of Yemen native to the Socotra Island. This tree produces a deep red resin known as the Dragon's blood, the Twobrother's Blood or Damm Alakhwain. The current study performed to evaluate the safety of the DC resin methanol extract after a single or 28 consecutive daily oral administrations. In assessing the safety of DC resin methanol extract, acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests performed following OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with slight modifications. In acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to female Sprague Dawley rats by oral gavage at a single dose of 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Rats observed for toxic signs for 14 days. In sub-acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to the rats by oral gavage at 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg body weight daily up to 28 days to male and female Spradgue Dawley rats. The control and high dose in satellite groups were also maintained and handled as the previous groups to determine the late onset toxicity of DC resin methanol extract. At the end of each test, hematological and biochemical analysis of the collected blood were performed as well as gross and microscopic pathology. In acute oral toxicity, no treatment-related death or toxic signs were observed. It revealed that the DC resin methanol extract could be well tolerated up to the dose 2000 mg/kg body weight and could be classified as Category 5. The sub-acute test observations indicated that there are no treatment-related changes up to the high dose level compared to the control. Food consumption, body weight, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical parameters and histopathological examination (liver, kidney, heart, spleen and lung) revealed no abnormalities. Water intake was significantly higher in the DC resin methanol extract treated groups compared to the control. This study demonstrates tolerability of DC

  10. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.; Dranitsaris, P.; Baynes, C.J.

    1984-11-01

    A literature review was conducted of the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF) with emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF. The data and findings of the relevant references were summarized under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure and industrial exposure. These were critically reviewed and then lethal concentration-time relationships were developed for humans, corresponding to LCsub(LO), LCsub(10) and LCsub(50) levels. The effects of age, health and other physiological variables on the sensitivity to HF were discussed, as well as antagonistic and synergistic effects with other substances

  11. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bagri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  12. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ghadirkhomi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50 of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels.  There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (pConclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg.

  13. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David

    2013-08-01

    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Comparison of toxicity of acute overdoses with citalopram and escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Bryan D; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy; Clark, Richard F; Muller, Allison A; Miloradovich, Jane E

    2010-07-01

    Seizures and QTc prolongation are associated with citalopram poisoning; however, overdose experience with escitalopram is more limited. The goals of this study were to compare citalopram's vs. escitalopram's clinical effects in overdose, including the incidence of seizures. A retrospective review was conducted for single-substance acute overdoses with citalopram and escitalopram, managed in hospitals, that were reported to six U.S. poison centers from 2002-2005. There were 374 citalopram and 421 escitalopram overdose cases. Gender and ages were similar between the two, with 68-70% females and a median age of 20 years for citalopram and 18 years for escitalopram. Median dose by history was 310 mg for citalopram and 130 mg for escitalopram. More serious outcomes were associated with citalopram overdoses (p escitalopram were tachycardia, drowsiness, hypertension, and vomiting. Seizures (30 vs. 1, respectively, p escitalopram cases (p = 0.109). There was an association between increasing dose and severity of outcome for citalopram (p escitalopram (p = 0.011). In children escitalopram cases experienced toxicity, such as drowsiness, nausea/vomiting, and tachycardia. There were no seizures in this age group. Escitalopram seems to be less toxic than citalopram after an acute overdose; seizures and tremors were more common with citalopram. Initial management of overdoses should include seizure precautions for citalopram and cardiac monitoring for both drugs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute Toxicity from Topical Cocaine for Epistaxis: Treatment with Labetalol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Laurin, Erik G; Tabish, Nabil; Lange, Richard A

    2017-03-01

    Topical cocaine is sometimes used for the treatment of epistaxis, as it has both potent anesthetic and vasoconstrictive properties. Cocaine has unpredictable cardiovascular effects, such as sudden hypertension, tachycardia, coronary arterial vasoconstriction, and dysrhythmia. We report a case of acute iatrogenic cardiovascular toxicity from the use of topical cocaine in a 56-year-old man presenting to the Emergency Department with profound epistaxis. To prepare for cauterization and nasal packing, the patient received 4% topical cocaine-soaked nasal pledgets. He became hypertensive, tachypneic, tachycardic, and dysphoric immediately after administration. To directly counter these adverse hyperadrenergic effects, the patient was given 10 mg intravenous labetalol, a mixed β- and α-blocker. This instantly normalized his vital signs and adverse subjective effects. His epistaxis was successfully treated, and he was discharged 1 h later. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We believe that emergency physicians should be aware of the unpredictable acute cardiovascular toxicity of topical cocaine. Labetalol represents an effective first-line treatment, which, unlike benzodiazepines, directly counters the pharmacologic effects of cocaine and has no respiratory or sedative side effects. Labetalol, with its mixed β/α-blocking properties, also mitigates the potential for "unopposed α-stimulation." Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute toxicity of birch tar oil on aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HAGNER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch tar oil (BTO is a by-product of processing birch wood in a pyrolysis system. Accumulating evidence suggests the suitability of BTO as a biocide or repellent in terrestrial environments for the control of weeds, insects, molluscs and rodents. Once applied as biocide, BTO may end up, either through run-off or leaching, in aquatic systems and may have adverse effects on non-target organisms. As very little is known about the toxicity of BTO to aquatic organisms, the present study investigated acute toxicity (LC50/EC50 of BTO for eight aquatic organisms. Bioassays with the Asellus aquaticus (crustacean, Lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaeta worm, Daphnia magna (crustacean, Lymnea sp. (mollusc, Lemna minor (vascular plant, Danio rerio (fish, Scenedesmus gracilis (algae, and Vibrio fischeri (bacterium were performed according to ISO, OECD or USEPA-guidelines. The results indicated that BTO was practically nontoxic to most aquatic organisms as the median effective BTO concentrations against most organisms were >150 mg L-1. In conclusion, our toxicity tests showed that aquatic organisms are to some extent, invariably sensitive to birch tar oil, but suggest that BTO does not pose a severe hazard to aquatic biota. We deduce that, unless BTOs are not applied in the immediate vicinity of water bodies, no special precaution is required.;

  17. Acute toxicity assessment of camphor in biopesticides by using and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Chae Yim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives An ecofriendly alternative to chemical pesticides is bio-pesticides, which are derived from natural sources. The interest in bio-pesticides is based on the disadvantages associated with chemical pesticides. Methods We conducted acute toxicity assessments of camphor, a major component of bio-pesticides, by using Daphnia magna (D. magna as well as assessed the morphological abnormalities that occurred in Danio rerio (D. rerio embryos. Results The median effective concentration of camphor on D. magna after 48 hours was 395.0 μM, and the median lethal concentration on D. rerio embryos after 96 hours was 838.6 μM. The no observed effect concentration and predicted no effect concentration of camphor on D. magna, which was more sensitive than D. rerio, were calculated as 55.2 μM and 3.95 μM, respectively. Morphological abnormalities in D. rerio embryos exposed to camphor increased over time. Coagulation, delayed hatching, yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, and pigmentation of embryos mainly appeared between 24 and 48 hours. Further, symptoms of scoliosis and head edema occurred after 72 hours. In addition, bent tails, ocular defects and collapsed symptoms of fertilized embryonic tissue were observed after 96 hours. Conclusions The camphor toxicity results suggest that continuous observations on the ecosystem are necessary to monitor toxicity in areas where biological pesticides containing camphor are sprayed.

  18. Age-dependent neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells by tempol-C8 acyl ester in a rat NMDA toxicity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, Michal; Rejdak, Robert; Schuettauf, Frank; Wozniak, Michal; Grieb, Pawel; Thaler, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of tempol and its acyl derivative tempol-C8 as retinoprotective agents was compared in a rat model of NMDA-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) damage. Tempol or tempol-C8 in different doses was administered intraperitoneally to 6 weeks old (pre-adolescent) and 9-10 weeks old (young adult) rats before and after an intravitreous NMDA injection. Retinal ganglion cell were retrogradely labeled with the fluorescent tracer hydroxystilbamidine and RGC counting was performed on retinal flatmounts. Intravitreal NMDA reduced RGC counts by about 90%, independently of age tempol-C8, but not tempol unmodified, showed a significant, dose-dependent RGC rescue effect, with peak activity at 5.8 µmol/kg (p tempol or tempol-C8. In contrast to tempol itself, tempol-C8 acyl ester was neuroprotective in pre-adolescent rats in the NMDA- induced RGC damage model. Therefore, neuroprotection by tempol acyl esters seems to be superior to that of tempol under certain conditions.

  19. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeld Schmiegelow

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both, bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis, thromboembolism, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia, high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall survival rates above 90%, there is a need for strategies for assessing the burden of toxicities in the overall evaluation of anti-leukemic therapy programs.

  20. Acute toxicity and laxative activity of Aloe ferox resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R. L. Celestino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aloe ferox Mill., Xanthorrhoeaceae, resin is the solid residue obtained by evaporating the latex that drains from the leaves transversally cut. Aloe ferox has been used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antitumor, laxative and to heal wounds and burns. The effects of the oral administration of A. ferox resin (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were evaluated on intestinal transit in mice and its acute toxicity (5.0 g/kg in Wistar rats. The hydroxyanthracene derivatives present in the resin were expressed as aloin, identified by thin layer chromatography and quantified by spectrophotometry. The aloin (Rf 0.35 was identified and the percentage of hydroxyanthracene derivates expressed as aloin was 33.5%. A. ferox resin extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg increased the gastrointestinal motility at a 30 min interval at 93.5, 91.8 and 93.8%, respectively, when compared to control group (46.5%. A single oral dose of the A. ferox resin extract did not induce signs of toxicity or death. Thus, the results demonstrate that A. ferox has laxative activity and that it is nontoxic, since LD50 could not be estimated and it is possibly higher than 5.0 g/kg.

  1. Acute toxicity and laxative activity of Aloe ferox resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R. L. Celestino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aloe ferox Mill., Xanthorrhoeaceae, resin is the solid residue obtained by evaporating the latex that drains from the leaves transversally cut. Aloe ferox has been used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antitumor, laxative and to heal wounds and burns. The effects of the oral administration of A. ferox resin (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were evaluated on intestinal transit in mice and its acute toxicity (5.0 g/kg in Wistar rats. The hydroxyanthracene derivatives present in the resin were expressed as aloin, identified by thin layer chromatography and quantified by spectrophotometry. The aloin (Rf 0.35 was identified and the percentage of hydroxyanthracene derivates expressed as aloin was 33.5%. A. ferox resin extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg increased the gastrointestinal motility at a 30 min interval at 93.5, 91.8 and 93.8%, respectively, when compared to control group (46.5%. A single oral dose of the A. ferox resin extract did not induce signs of toxicity or death. Thus, the results demonstrate that A. ferox has laxative activity and that it is nontoxic, since LD50 could not be estimated and it is possibly higher than 5.0 g/kg.

  2. CT and MR manifestations of acute methyl alcohol toxic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xiaofen; Yang Bo; Ye Gengxin; Zhang Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the CT and MR manifestations of methyl alcohol toxic encephalopathy and to improve the diagnosing value of CT and MRI. Methods: 40 patients with methyl alcohol intoxication were collected in this study, in which CT scan was performed on 40 cases and MRI on 4 cases. All CT and MRI radiological data of brain were retrospectively studied. Results: 13 of 40 cases showed abnormal findings on brain CT and MRI. The most common manifestation (6/13, 46%)was hypodensity in frontal parietal white matter and external capsule-putamen on CT, which showed long or short T1 and long T2 on MR. Hemorrhage in right putamen was found only in 1 patient (1/13,7%). CT showed low density inbilateral external capsule in 4 cases (4/13,31%), in which MR showed long or short T1 and long T2. Low density lesions in subcortical white matter of bilateral frontal and parietal lobes, cingulate gyms and insular lobes were found in 2 patients (2/13,15%). The more severe clinic manifestation, the more obvious brain lesion CT and MRI showed. Conclusion: Brain CT and MR manifestations have great diagnostic value of acute methyl alcohol toxic encephalopathy. MRI was more sensitive and better than CT in finding early brain damage caused by methanol intoxication. (authors)

  3. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity : Moving from research to regulatory testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, B; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for

  4. Acute-lethal toxicity (LC 50 ) effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) Fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute-lethal toxicity is a tool used in piscicide bio-safety assessment in fish farming prior to its proper application in sustainable aquaculture. Piscicides of plant origin are usually considered for bio-safety assessment because of their effects on non-target aquatic species in fish pond. Acute-lethal toxicity is an indication of ...

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity studies of the water extract from dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from the dried fruits of Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. were assessed in both female and male rats. For the study of acute toxicity, a single oral administration of the water extract at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (10 female, 10 male) was performed and the results ...

  6. Isolation and characterization of acutely toxic fractions in oil sands wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, A. [Chemex Labs Alberta Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Mackay, W. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); MacKinnon, M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Extraction of oil from oil sand using the hot water flotation method results in the production of large volumes of wastewater that are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. At Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Oil Sands Group Inc., this wastewater is stored in large tailings ponds that must eventually be reclaimed. The acute toxicity of these wastewaters was assessed and the acutely toxic fractions were identified. Samples were collected from the surface and fine tails zones of the Syncrude and Suncor tailings ponds during the summers of 1991 and 1992. The Microtox bioassay was used to assess the acute toxicity before and after various treatments. Where significant reductions in acute toxicity were found, further acute toxicity tests were carried out using Daphnia magna and rainbow trout. The Microtox IC{sub 50} of all centrifuged tailings pond water samples varied between 26.5 and 46%. Daphnia LC{sub 50}s varied between 76 and 98% and a rainbow trout LC{sub 50} was 12.5 %. Organic compounds that have a non-polar component, as removed by solid phase extraction with C{sub 18} sorbent, accounted for all the acute toxicity (100%) of all samples. Organic ``acids``, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5, also accounted for all the acute toxicity (100%) of all samples except those from pond 1A of Suncor. In pond 1A, organic ``acids`` accounted for approximately 55--60% of the acute toxicity, nonpolar organic volatile compounds accounted for approximately 20--35% and the balance of the acute toxicity was due to non-polar organic compounds that were neither volatile nor organic ``acids``, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5.

  7. Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Algal Metabolites Using Bioluminescence Inhibition Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Hansa Jeswani

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are reported to degrade hazardous compounds. However, algae, especially cyanobacteria are known to produce secondary metabolites which may be toxic to flora, fauna and human beings. The aim of this study was selection of an appropriate algal culture for biological treatment of biomass gasification wastewater based on acute toxicity considerations. The three algae that were selected were Spirulina sp., Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium. Acute toxicity of the me...

  8. Prediction of acute inhalation toxicity using in vitro lung surfactant inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørli, Jorid Birkelund; Huang, Yishi; Da Silva, Emilie

    2018-01-01

    Private consumers and professionals may experience acute inhalation toxicity after inhaling aerosolized impregnation products. The distinction between toxic and non-toxic products is difficult to make for producers and product users alike, as there is no clearly described relationship between the...

  9. 20180311 - Variability of LD50 Values from Rat Oral Acute Toxicity Studies: Implications for Alternative Model Development (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative models developed for estimating acute systemic toxicity are generally evaluated using in vivo LD50 values. However, in vivo acute systemic toxicity studies can produce variable results, even when conducted according to accepted test guidelines. This variability can ma...

  10. Rosette nanotubes show low acute pulmonary toxicity in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Shane Journeay

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available W Shane Journeay1, Sarabjeet S Suri1, Jesus G Moralez2, Hicham Fenniri2, Baljit Singh11Immunology Research Group, Toxicology Graduate Program and Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada; 2National Institute of Nanotechnology, National Research Council (NINT-NRC and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2M9, CanadaAbstract: Nanotubes are being developed for a large variety of applications ranging from electronics to drug delivery. Common carbon nanotubes such as single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been studied in the greatest detail but require solubilization and removal of catalytic contaminants such as metals prior to being introduced to biological systems for medical application. The present in vivo study characterizes the degree and nature of inflammation caused by a novel class of self-assembling rosette nanotubes, which are biologically inspired, naturally water-soluble and free of metal content upon synthesis. Upon pulmonary administration of this material we examined responses at 24 h and 7d post-exposure. An acute inflammatory response is triggered at 50 and 25 μg doses by 24 h post-exposure but an inflammatory response is not triggered by a 5 μg dose. Lung inflammation observed at a 50 μg dose at 24 h was resolving by 7d. This work suggests that novel nanostructures with biological design may negate toxicity concerns for biomedical applications of nanotubes. This study also demonstrates that water-soluble rosette nanotube structures represent low pulmonary toxicity, likely due to their biologically inspired design, and their self-assembled architecture.Keywords: nanotoxicology, biocompatibility, nanomedicine, pulmonary drug delivery, lung inflammation

  11. In silico assessment of the acute toxicity of chemicals: recent advances and new model for multitasking prediction of toxic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of acute toxicity is one of the most important stages to ensure the safety of chemicals with potential applications in pharmaceutical sciences, biomedical research, or any other industrial branch. A huge and indiscriminate number of toxicity assays have been carried out on laboratory animals. In this sense, computational approaches involving models based on quantitative-structure activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) can help to rationalize time and financial costs. Here, we discuss the most significant advances in the last 6 years focused on the use of QSAR/QSTR models to predict acute toxicity of drugs/chemicals in laboratory animals, employing large and heterogeneous datasets. The advantages and drawbacks of the different QSAR/QSTR models are analyzed. As a contribution to the field, we introduce the first multitasking (mtk) QSTR model for simultaneous prediction of acute toxicity of compounds by considering different routes of administration, diverse breeds of laboratory animals, and the reliability of the experimental conditions. The mtk-QSTR model was based on artificial neural networks (ANN), allowing the classification of compounds as toxic or non-toxic. This model correctly classified more than 94% of the 1646 cases present in the whole dataset, and its applicability was demonstrated by performing predictions of different chemicals such as drugs, dietary supplements, and molecules which could serve as nanocarriers for drug delivery. The predictions given by the mtk-QSTR model are in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Acute toxicity and chemical evaluation of coking wastewater under biological and advanced physicochemical treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehua, Ma; Cong, Liu; Xiaobiao, Zhu; Rui, Liu; Lujun, Chen

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the changes of toxic compounds in coking wastewater with biological treatment (anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor and aerobic-membrane bioreactor, A1/A2/O-MBR) and advanced physicochemical treatment (Fenton oxidation and activated carbon adsorption) stages. As the biological treatment stages preceding, the inhibition effect of coking wastewater on the luminescence of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. Q67 decreased. Toxic units (TU) of coking wastewater were removed by A1/A2/O-MBR treatment process, however approximately 30 % TU remained in the biologically treated effluent. There is a tendency that fewer and fewer residual organic compounds could exert equal acute toxicity during the biological treatment stages. Activated carbon adsorption further removed toxic pollutants of biologically treated effluent but the Fenton effluent increased acute toxicity. The composition of coking wastewater during the treatment was evaluated using the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic compounds with high polarity were the main cause of acute toxicity in the coking wastewater. Aromatic protein-like matters in the coking wastewater with low biodegradability and high toxicity contributed mostly to the remaining acute toxicity of the biologically treated effluents. Chlorine generated from the oxidation process was responsible for the acute toxicity increase after Fenton oxidation. Therefore, the incorporation of appropriate advanced physicochemical treatment process, e.g., activated carbon adsorption, should be implemented following biological treatment processes to meet the stricter discharge standards and be safer to the environment.

  13. Medical image of the week: acute amiodarone pulmonary toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazursky K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 71 year old man with a medical history significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease with post-operative status coronary artery bypass grafting, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (25% and atrial fibrillation/flutter underwent an elective ablation of the tachyarrhythmia at another facility and was prescribed amiodarone post procedure. He started complaining of cough and dyspnea one day post procedure and was empirically treated with 2 weeks of broad spectrum antibiotics. He subsequently was transferred to our facility due to worsening symptoms. He also complained of nausea, anorexia with resultant weight loss since starting amiodarone, which was stopped 5 days prior to transfer. Infectious work up was negative. On arrival to our facility, he was diagnosed with small sub-segmental pulmonary emboli, pulmonary edema and possible acute amiodarone toxicity. His was profoundly hypoxic requiring high flow nasal cannula or 100% non-rebreather mask at all times. His symptoms persisted despite ...

  14. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Radix Aconiti, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were available to find the relationships between these endogenous biomarkers and exogenous toxic substances. Therefore, in this study, toxic substances of Radix Aconiti have been found using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Then, we used biochemical indicators as a bridge to find the relationships between biomarkers and toxic substances of Radix Aconiti through Pearson correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA. Finally, the CCA results showed that LysoPC(22:5 is related to 14-acetyl-talatisamine, mesaconitine, talatisamine and deoxyaconitine in varying degrees; l-acetylcarnitine is negatively correlated with deoxyaconitine and demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline; shikimic acid has a good correlation with karacoline, demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline and deoxyaconitine; and valine is correlated with talatisamine and deoxyaconitine. Research on these relationships provides an innovative way to interpret the toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine, and plays a positive role in the overall study of TCM toxicity.

  15. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haonan; Zhang, Pengjie; Hou, Zhiguo; Xie, Jiabin; Wang, Yuming; Yang, Bin; Xu, Yanyan; Li, Yubo

    2016-11-25

    Radix Aconiti , a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were available to find the relationships between these endogenous biomarkers and exogenous toxic substances. Therefore, in this study, toxic substances of Radix Aconiti have been found using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Then, we used biochemical indicators as a bridge to find the relationships between biomarkers and toxic substances of Radix Aconiti through Pearson correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Finally, the CCA results showed that LysoPC(22:5) is related to 14-acetyl-talatisamine, mesaconitine, talatisamine and deoxyaconitine in varying degrees; l-acetylcarnitine is negatively correlated with deoxyaconitine and demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline; shikimic acid has a good correlation with karacoline, demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline and deoxyaconitine; and valine is correlated with talatisamine and deoxyaconitine. Research on these relationships provides an innovative way to interpret the toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine, and plays a positive role in the overall study of TCM toxicity.

  16. Acute Toxicity of Thallium and Indium toward Brackish-Water and Marine Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Onikura, Norio; Nakamura, Akiko; Kishi, Katsuyuki; 鬼倉, 徳雄; 中村, 亜希子; 岸, 克行

    2008-01-01

    We examined the toxic effects of thallium and indium on brackish-water and marine species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted on Americamysis bahia, Brachionus plicatilis, Artemia salina, and Sillago japonica. The LC50 values of thallium ranged from 3.48 to 100 mg/L, and this metal exhibited the strongest toxic effects on A. bahia. With regard to indium toxicity, the LC50 values ranged from 24 to 51 mg/L, and the strongest toxic effects were noted in B. plicatilis. The toxicity of thallium i...

  17. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: Is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca; Wood, Chris M.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Zebrafish larvae were used to test the acute toxicity of contaminant mixtures. •Interactions were observed between metals, ammonia and pharmaceuticals. •Larval Na{sup +} loss was observed with exposure to all acutely toxic contaminants tested. •Water quality criteria should recognize the toxic interactions between contaminants. -- Abstract: The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4–8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC{sub 50}, one third of the LC{sub 01}) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC{sub 50} by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC{sub 50}, 13% of the LC{sub 01}) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC{sub 50} by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na{sup +} followed by K{sup +} (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24 h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na{sup +} and K{sup +}. Overall, whole body Na{sup +} loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a

  18. Acute Toxicity Tests Of Brewery Effluent on the Ostracoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortality also varied with the concentrations. The toxic effect of brewery effluent on ostracoda, which plays an important role in the aquatic food chain and the possibility that they may be accumulating some of these toxic components, is a matter for concern. Keywords: Toxicity, rewery effluent, Ostracoda, Strandesia, ...

  19. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbon on the metabolic index in Etroplus suratensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.

    Acute toxicity (LC sub(50)) and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbons (Toluene, Quinoline, Pyridine and Naphthalene) on the metabolic index (oxygen consumption rate) of an estuarine fish. Etroplus suratensis is reported. The LC sub(50) values were...

  20. Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

    1980-01-01

    General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

  1. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  2. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ions to Ceriodaphnia dubia. II. Empirical Relationships in Binary Salt Mixtures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides concentration-response data and associated general chemistry conditions for 29 experiments consisting of 209 tests regarding the acute toxicity...

  3. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of fermented traditional medicine oyaksungi-san

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwayong Park

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: As a whole, no acute toxicity or genotoxicity were observed in all the assays examined. Therefore, fermented OY is considered to be a safe material that can be used for development of complementary and alternative medicine using bioconversion.

  4. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ion Salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia: I. Influence of background water chemistry.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides concentration-response data and associated general chemistry conditions for 26 experiments consisting of 149 tests regarding the acute toxicity...

  5. Animal Testing for Acute Inhalation Toxicity: A Thing of the Past?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Silva, Emilie; Sørli, Jorid Birkelund

    2018-01-01

    According to REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), testing for acute inhalation toxicity is required for chemicals manufactured or imported at tonnages ≥ 10 tons per year. Three OECD test guidelines for acute inhalation toxicity in vivo are adopted (TG 403,......, TG 436, and TG 433). Since animal testing is ethically, scientifically and economically questionable, adoption of alternative methods by the European Union and the OECD is needed. An in vitro system based on the study of lung surfactant function is introduced.......According to REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), testing for acute inhalation toxicity is required for chemicals manufactured or imported at tonnages ≥ 10 tons per year. Three OECD test guidelines for acute inhalation toxicity in vivo are adopted (TG 403...

  6. Development of thresholds of excess toxicity for environmental species and their application to identification of modes of acute toxic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin J; Zhang, Xu J; Yang, Yi; Huang, Tao; Li, Chao; Su, Limin; Zhao, Yuan H; Cronin, Mark T D

    2018-03-01

    The acute toxicity of organic pollutants to fish, Daphnia magna, Tetrahymena pyriformis, and Vibrio fischeri was investigated. The results indicated that the Toxicity Ratio (TR) threshold of log TR =1, which has been based on the distribution of toxicity data to fish, can also be used to discriminate reactive or specifically acting compounds from baseline narcotics for Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A log TR=0.84 is proposed for Tetrahymena pyriformis following investigation of the relationships between the species sensitivity and the absolute averaged residuals (AAR) between the predicted baseline toxicity and the experimental toxicity. Less inert compounds exhibit relatively higher toxicity to the lower species (Tetrahymena pyriformis and Vibrio fischeri) than the higher species (fish and Daphnia magna). A greater number of less inert compounds with log TR greater than the thresholds was observed for Tetrahymena pyriformis and Vibrio fischeri. This may be attributed to the hydrophilic compounds which may pass more easily through cell membranes than the skin or exoskeleton of organisms and have higher bioconcentration factors in the lower species, leading to higher toxicity. Most of classes of chemical associated with excess toxicity to one species also exhibited excess toxicity to other species, however, a few classes with excess toxicity to one species exhibiting narcotic toxicity to other species and thus may have different MOAs between species. Some ionizable compounds have log TR much lower than one because of the over-estimated log K OW . The factors that influence the toxicity ratio calculated from baseline level are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute toxicity assessment of crude lead-extract from electronic waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead, with its toxic emission and pollution, is one of the hazardous chemical components of electronic wastes (e-wastes) rapidly generated in developing countries. This study assessed the environmental health effects of crude lead extracted from e-wastes materials, as determined by its acute toxicity (rat, oral). Diluted ...

  8. Acute toxicity of pesticides to the tropical freshwater shrimp Caridina laevis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sucahyo, D.; van Straalen, N.M.; Krave, A.S.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the potential risk of pesticides frequently used in Indonesia, a new toxicity test was developed using the indigenous freshwater shrimp Caridina laevis, which is representative of tropical ecosystems. The test species could easily be maintained in the laboratory. Acute toxicity tests

  9. Acute-lethal toxicity (LC50) effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) Fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    aquaculture. This study assessed the acute-lethal toxicity (LC50) effect of Moringa oleifera fresh root-bark extract on fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus juveniles for 96-h under renewal toxicity exposure. Median. Lethal Concentration (LC50) for O. niloticus juvenile was 97.61 mgl-1 and high mortality was obtained at 200.

  10. Evaluation of acute toxicity and the effect of single injected doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... significant in therapeutic applications against diseases of diverse origins ... Thin layer chromatography was used to examine purification of ZER at ... Acute toxicity study. The toxicity study was carried out using forty (40) female Sprague-. Dawley rats weighing 150 - 200 g, procured from the Animal House.

  11. Acute and chronic toxicity of short chained perfluoroalkyl substances to Daphnia magna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barmentlo, S.H.; Stel, J.M.; van Doorn, M.; Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the aquatic toxicity of a C4-C6 chemistry based fluoroalkylated polymer and the perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, PFBA, PFHxA and PFOA to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity decreased with decreasing carbon chain length, but the polymer did not show a dose related

  12. Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, S A; Shanbag, P; Chavan, V; Shenoy, P

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 7-year-old boy with staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome who presented with acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale. We wish to highlight this unusual presentation as the diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome depends chiefly on a high degree of clinical suspicion. Early diagnosis and prompt institution of appropriate therapy will significantly reduce morbidity and mortality.

  13. Acute toxicity and bio-accumulation of mercury and copper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity of Mercury and Copper on C. africanus and T. fuscatus and the bio-accumulation potentials of the metals were investigated in laboratory experiments employing standard bio–assay techniques. On the basis of LC50 values, both metals had similar magnitudes of toxicity against C. africanus. However ...

  14. Acute toxicity evaluation of cutting fluids used in manufacturing processes to Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna

    OpenAIRE

    William Gerson Matias; Cátia Regina Silva de Carvalho-Pinto; Débora Monteiro Brentano; Alexandre Magno de Paula Dias

    2006-01-01

    Grinding operations are very significant among the manufacturing processes of the metal-mechanic industry. In conventional grinding, cutting fluids are of great concern for improving productivity, but also for being hazardous to the environment. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the actual toxic effects of these products in aquatic environments, the present work assesses the toxicity potential through acute toxicity tests of three different kinds of cutting fluids, with three differe...

  15. Acute toxicity of furazolidone on Artemia salina, Daphnia magna, and Culex pipiens molestus larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macri, A.; Stazi, A.V.; Dojmi di Delupis, G.

    1988-10-01

    As a result of evidence of the ecotoxicity of nitrofurans, the acute toxicity of furazolidone was tested in vivo on two aquatic organisms, Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, which are both crustaceans. Toxicity studies were also performed on larvae of Culex pipiens molestus. Results indicated a significant toxicity of the compound on Culex pipiens and Daphnia magna, while Artemia salina proved to be the least sensitive.

  16. Acute toxicity of copper, zinc and mercury on intertidal gastropods of Mumbai coast

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, B.G.; Thakur, M.K.; Jaiswar, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    The acute toxicity test conducted by static bioassay techniques have revealed that among selected heavy metals, copper is more toxic than zinc and mercury to Planaxis sulcatus and Trochus radiatus. The natural availability of heavy metals in the surrounding environment of these organisms is found to be deciding factor for their toxicity. Natural habitat of the animal also contributes to the sensitivity of a particular animal to the heavy metals tested. In addition the tendency of the animal t...

  17. Test for Acute Toxicity of Copper, Cadmium, and Mercury in Five Marine Species

    OpenAIRE

    PRATO, Ermelinda; BIANDOLINO, Francesca; SCARDICCHIO, Christian

    2006-01-01

    : The acute toxicity of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) to the marine invertebrates Gammarus aequicauda, Corophium insidiosum, Idotea baltica, Sphaeroma serratum, and Mytilus galloprovincialis were evaluated by static bioassays and calculation of the LC50 (lethality concentration for 50%). Hg was more toxic to Gammarus aequicauda, Corophium insidiosum, Idotea baltica, Sphaeroma serratum, and Mytilus galloprovincialis than Cu and Cd. Cu was the least toxic of the metals tested.

  18. Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Savoy, A C; Lupan, D M; Manalo, P B; Roberts, J S; Schlageter, A M; Weinhold, L C; Kozel, T R

    1997-01-01

    Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans alters the course of murine cryptococcosis. During studies of passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis, we noted the occurrence of an acute, lethal toxicity. Toxicity was characterized by scratching, lethargy, respiratory distress, collapse, and death within 20 to 60 min after injection of antibody. The toxic effect was observed only in mice with ...

  19. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani; Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini; Núbia Natália de Brito Pelegrini

    2007-01-01

    Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test or...

  20. Acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos to embryo and larvae of banded gourami Trichogaster fasciata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Saha, Sampa; Brink, van den Paul J.; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M.; Bosma, Roel H.; Rashid, Harunur

    2017-01-01

    This study elucidated the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stages of banded gourami (Trichogaster fasciata). To determine the acute effects of chlorpyrifos on their survival and development, we exposedthe embryos and two-day-old larvae to six concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10

  1. Prostate hypofractionated radiation therapy with injection of hyaluronic acid: acute toxicities in a phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  3. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity

  4. Development of an acute toxicity test with the tropical marine amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artal, Mariana Coletty; Dos Santos, Amanda; Henry, Theodore Burdick; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão

    2018-03-01

    There is a lack of suitable tropical marine species for ecotoxicity tests. An attractive model organism for ecotoxicology is the marine amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis, which is already a model for genetic and developmental studies. This species is widespread, can tolerate changes in salinity, is easy to handle and is representative of circumtropical regions. The aim of this work was to describe standardized procedures for laboratory husbandry, define conditions for acute toxicity tests, and to provide acute toxicity test results for some reference toxicants. Culturing conditions for the organism in the laboratory were established in reconstituted seawater (30 ± 2 salinity), 24 ± 2 °C, photoperiod 12/12 h light/dark. Acute toxicity test procedures were developed for 96 h-exposure time, and organisms at ages ecotoxicology investigations in understudied and vulnerable tropical marine ecosystems.

  5. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busquet, F.; Strecker, R.; Rawlings, J.M.; Belanger, S.E.; Braunbeck, T.; Carr, G.J.; Cenijn, P.H.; Fochtman, P.; Gourmelon, A.; Hübler, N.; Kleensang, A.; Knöbel, M.; Kussatz, C.; Legler, J.; Lillicrap, A.; Martínez-Jerónimo, F.; Polleichtner, C.; Rzodeczko, H.; Salinas, E.; Schneider, K.E.; Scholz, S.; van den Brandhof, E.J.; van der Ven, L.T.; Walter-Rohde, S.; Weigt, S.; Witters, H.; Halder, M.

    2014-01-01

    A The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were

  6. Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Algal Metabolites Using Bioluminescence Inhibition Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansa Jeswani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are reported to degrade hazardous compounds. However, algae, especially cyanobacteria are known to produce secondary metabolites which may be toxic to flora, fauna and human beings. The aim of this study was selection of an appropriate algal culture for biological treatment of biomass gasification wastewater based on acute toxicity considerations. The three algae that were selected were Spirulina sp., Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium. Acute toxicity of the metabolites produced by these algal cultures was tested at the end of log phase using the standard bioluminescence inhibition assay based on Vibrio fischeri NRRLB 11174. Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium dominated by cyanobacteria such as Phormidium, Chroococcus and Oscillatoria did not release much toxic metabolites at the end of log phase and caused only about 20% inhibition in bioluminescence. In comparison, Spirulina sp. released toxic metabolites and caused 50% bioluminescence inhibition at 3/5 times dilution of the culture supernatant (EC50.

  7. Protection Against the Acute and Delayed Toxicities of Sulfur Mustard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matijasevic, Zdenka

    2002-01-01

    Our investigations of the mechanisms of sulfur mustard (SM) toxicity and conditions that can improve cell survival after exposure have previously demonstrated that cells with compromised nucleotide excision repair (NER...

  8. Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity of Periodate in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Transient increases in gastrointestinal pH and degeneration of parietal cells, hemolytic effects including hemoglobinuria and hemosiderin deposits in...doses of iodate being reduced to the less toxic iodide when in contact with food in the gastrointestinal tract. The toxicity of periodate to the...prostration and dyspnea. Excitability, convulsions and paresis of the hind legs frequently preceded death. Transient increases in gastrointestinal pH

  9. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-06-01

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis and Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiuying

    2017-01-18

    Anti- N -methyl-d-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder. The cause of this disease is often unknown, and previous studies revealed that it might be caused by a virus, vaccine or tumor. It occurs more often in females than in males. Several cases were reported to be related to vaccination such as the H1N1 vaccine and tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines. In this study, we reported an anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis case that may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. To investigate the association between anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and vaccination, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of the microRNAs, which significantly regulate these vaccine viruses or bacteria, and the phylogenetic relationship of these viruses and bacteria. This reveals that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination, as well as H1N1 vaccination or tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccinations, from the phylogenetic viewpoint.

  11. A case of life-threatening acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy caused by Dioscorea quinqueloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Sik; Heo, Sang Taek

    2015-01-01

    Some herbal medications induce acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injuries caused by herbal medications are mild and commonly treated by palliative care. A 51-years-old man who drank the juice squeezed from the raw tubers of Dioscorea quinqueloba (D. quinqueloba) was admitted with nausea, vomiting and chilling. He developed a seizure with decreased level of consciousness. He was diagnosed with acute kidney injury, which was cured by continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration. Non-detoxified D. quinqueloba can cause severe acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy. It is critical to inform possible adverse effects of the medicinal herbs and to implement more strict regulation of these products.

  12. A combined evaluation of the characteristics and acute toxicity of antibiotic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Zuo, Jiane; Li, Ruixia; Gan, Lili; Li, Zaixing; Zhang, Fei

    2014-08-01

    The conventional parameters and acute toxicities of antibiotic wastewater collected from each treatment unit of an antibiotic wastewater treatment plant have been investigated. The investigation of the conventional parameters indicated that the antibiotic wastewater treatment plant performed well under the significant fluctuation in influent water quality. The results of acute toxicity indicated that the toxicity of antibiotic wastewater could be reduced by 94.3 percent on average after treatment. However, treated antibiotic effluents were still toxic to Vibrio fischeri. The toxicity of antibiotic production wastewater could be attributed to the joint effects of toxic compound mixtures in wastewater. Moreover, aerobic biological treatment processes, including sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and aerobic biofilm reactor, played the most important role in reducing toxicity by 92.4 percent. Pearson׳s correlation coefficients revealed that toxicity had a strong and positive linear correlation with organic substances, nitrogenous compounds, S(2-), volatile phenol, cyanide, As, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe. Ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)) was the greatest contributor to toxicity according to the stepwise regression method. The multiple regression model was a good fit for [TU50-15 min] as a function of [NH₄(+)] with the determination coefficient of 0.981. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of the cause of weak acute toxicity to rainbow trout at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.R.; Zaleski, R.T.; Biddinger, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The refinery in question performs flow through acute toxicity tests on its effluent four times per month using three fish species: fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus oculeatus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Several months of monitoring data indicated a transient low level acute toxicity to rainbow trout. In most cases, several days were required for mortality to occur in the flow through tests and numerous attempts to reproduce toxicity in static and static renewal tests were unsuccessful. A decision was made to manipulate the effluent in an attempt to enhance the toxic effect in the static mode so that conventional methods could be used to identify the cause. these tests indicated that toxicity was pH dependent. Additional testing, using EPA's Phase 1 Toxicity Identification Evaluation methods suggested that the cause of toxicity was probably an organic acid. Experiments were subsequently begun to identify the specific cause and source of toxicity. This paper reviews the problems confronted during the various phases of the study and the decisions that were made that eventually led to an understanding of the basis of toxicity

  14. PRN 2001-2: Acute Toxicity Data Requirements For Granular Pesticide Products, Including Those With Granular Fertilizers in the Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR Notice announces guidance intended to streamline the acute toxicity review and classification process for certain granular pesticide products, including those products that contain granular fertilizers.

  15. Cellular prion protein and NMDA receptor modulation: protecting against excitotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie A.G. Black

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is well established that misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrPC into the beta-sheet-rich, aggregated scrapie conformation (PrPSc causes a variety of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, the physiological roles of PrPC are still incompletely understood. There is accumulating evidence describing the roles of PrPC in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Recently, we identified a functional regulation of NMDA receptors by PrPC that involves formation of a physical protein complex between these proteins. Excessive NMDA receptor activity during conditions such as ischemia mediates enhanced Ca2+ entry into cells and contributes to excitotoxic neuronal death. In addition, NMDA receptors and/or PrPC play critical roles in neuroinflammation and glial cell toxicity. Inhibition of NMDA receptor activity protects against PrPSc-induced neuronal death. Moreover, in mice lacking PrPC, infarct size is increased after focal cerebral ischemia, and absence of PrPC increases susceptibility of neurons to NMDA receptor-dependent death. Recently, PrPC was found to be a receptor for oligomeric beta-amyloid (Abeta peptides, suggesting a role for PrPC in Alzheimer’s disease. Our recent findings suggest that Abeta peptides enhance NMDA receptor current by perturbing the normal copper- and PrPC-dependent regulation of these receptors. Here, we review evidence highlighting a role for PrPC in preventing NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity and inflammation. There is a need for more detailed molecular characterization of PrPC-mediated regulation of NMDA receptors, such as determining which NMDA receptor subunits mediate pathogenic effects upon loss of PrPC-mediated regulation and identifying PrPC binding site(s on the receptor. This knowledge will allow development of novel therapeutic interventions for not only TSEs, but also for Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders involving dysfunction of PrPC.

  16. NMDA antagonists exert distinct effects in experimental organophosphate or carbamate poisoning in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekundy, Andrzej; Kaminski, Rafal M.; Zielinska, Elzbieta; Turski, Waldemar A.

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors produce seizures and lethality in mammals. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists encourage the investigation of their effects in AChE inhibitor-induced poisonings. In the present study, the effects of dizocilpine (MK-801, 1 mg/kg) or 3-((RS)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, 10 mg/kg), alone or combined with muscarinic antagonist atropine (1.8 mg/kg), on convulsant and lethal properties of an OP pesticide dichlorvos or a carbamate drug physostigmine, were studied in mice. Both dichlorvos and physostigmine induced dose-dependent seizure activity and lethality. Atropine did not prevent the occurrence of convulsions but decreased the lethal effects of both dichlorvos and physostigmine. MK-801 or CPP blocked or attenuated, respectively, dichlorvos-induced convulsions. Contrariwise, NMDA antagonists had no effect in physostigmine-induced seizures or lethality produced by dichlorvos or physostigmine. Concurrent pretreatment with atropine and either MK-801 or CPP blocked or alleviated seizures produced by dichlorvos, but not by physostigmine. Both MK-801 and CPP co-administered with atropine enhanced its antilethal effects in both dichlorvos and physostigmine poisoning. In both saline- and AChE inhibitor-treated mice, no interaction of the investigated antidotes with brain cholinesterase was found. The data indicate that both muscarinic ACh and NMDA receptor-mediated mechanisms contribute to the acute toxicity of AChE inhibitors, and NMDA receptors seem critical to OP-induced seizures

  17. Acute toxicity of pesticides to the tropical freshwater shrimp Caridina laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucahyo, David; van Straalen, Nico M; Krave, Agna; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2008-03-01

    To determine the potential risk of pesticides frequently used in Indonesia, a new toxicity test was developed using the indigenous freshwater shrimp Caridina laevis, which is representative of tropical ecosystems. The test species could easily be maintained in the laboratory. Acute toxicity tests with different insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides assessing adult survival after 24 and 96 h of static exposure showed low control mortality (<10%) and good reproducibility for diazinon. Juvenile C. laevis appeared approximately two to three times more sensitive to diazinon than adult ones. Compared to other species of freshwater crustacean commonly used in standard aquatic toxicity tests, C. laevis showed similar sensitivity for diazinon and lambda cyhalothrin, much greater sensitivity for endosulfan and paraquat and much lower sensitivity for carbofuran. It may be concluded that the acute toxicity test using C. laevis may be a suitable alternative for determining the potential risk of chemicals under tropical conditions.

  18. Histopathological investigation of differences between female and male rats on radiation-induced acute lung toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal BU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced acute and chronic lung toxicity is one of the important adverse events that has a negative influence on quality of life. It is widely accepted today that there are important factors such as personal sensibility and genetic differences between patients which effect both treatment response and treatment toxicity. In this study, the influence of gender differences on acute lung toxicity due to radiotherapy is investigated. Accordingly, it is examined if there is a relation between gender and histopathologically proven vasculitis and pneumonia in the lung tissues of male and female rats that are sacrificed 6 weeks after radiotherapy. It is concluded that the gender differences in rats have no effect on lung toxicity.

  19. Acute Toxicity and Environmental Risks of Five Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Aquatic Macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Ehrlich, Bert; Höltge, Sibylla; Kreuzig, Robert; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high use of antibiotics and antiparasitics for the treatment of livestock, there is concern about the potential impacts of the release of these compounds into freshwater ecosystems. In this context, the present study quantified the acute toxicity of two antibiotics (sulfadiazine and sulfadimidine), and three antiparasitic agents (flubendazole, fenbendazole, ivermectin) for nine freshwater invertebrate species. These experiments revealed a low degree of toxicity for the sulfonamide antibiotics, with limited implications in the survival of all test species at the highest test concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L). In contrast, all three antiparasitic agents indicated on the basis of their acute toxicity risks for the aquatic environment. Moreover, chronic toxicity data from the literature for antiparasitics, including effects on reproduction in daphnids, support the concern about the integrity of aquatic ecosystems posed by releases of these compounds. Thus, these pharmaceuticals warrant further careful consideration by environmental risk managers.

  20. Metal uptake and acute toxicity in zebrafish: Common mechanisms across multiple metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    All metals tested reduced calcium uptake in zebrafish larvae. However, it was whole body sodium loss that was functionally related to toxicity. The zebrafish larvae acute toxicity assay save time, space and resources. - Abstract: Zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were used to examine the mechanisms of action and acute toxicities of metals. Larvae had similar physiological responses and sensitivities to waterborne metals as adults. While cadmium and zinc have previously been shown to reduce Ca{sup 2+} uptake, copper and nickel also decreased Ca{sup 2+} uptake, suggesting that the epithelial transport of all these metals is through Ca{sup 2+} pathways. However, exposure to cadmium, copper or nickel for up to 48 h had little or no effect on total whole body Ca{sup 2+} levels, indicating that the reduction of Ca{sup 2+} uptake is not the acute toxic mechanism of these metals. Instead, mortalities were effectively related to whole body Na{sup +}, which decreased up to 39% after 48 h exposures to different metals around their respective 96 h LC50s. Decreases in whole body K{sup +} were also observed, although they were not as pronounced or frequent as Na{sup +} losses. None of the metals tested inhibited Na{sup +} uptake in zebrafish (Na{sup +} uptake was in fact increased with exposure) and the observed losses of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} were proportional to the ionic gradients between the plasma and water, indicating diffusive ion loss with metal exposure. This study has shown that there is a common pathway for metal uptake and a common mechanism of acute toxicity across groups of metals in zebrafish. The disruption of ion uptake accompanying metal exposure does not appear to be responsible for the acute toxicity of metals, as has been previously suggested, but rather the toxicity is instead due to total ion loss (predominantly Na{sup +}).

  1. Towards Global QSAR Model Building for Acute Toxicity: Munro Database Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Chavan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity.

  2. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cultures contain ephippia; (2) if adults in the cultures do not produce young before day 12; (3) if more... culture do not produce an average of at least 3 young per adult per day over the 7-day period prior to the... environment. (b) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and part...

  3. Acute toxicity effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Anogeissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the intraperitoneal route, the rats showed dose-dependent signs of toxicity ranging from inappetence, depression, unsteady gait, tremors, and respiratory distress to death. The I/P LD50 was 1400 mg/kg body weight. No gross changes were observed in the organs of rats that died following extract administration.

  4. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the highest solvent concentration employed in the treatments. The solvent should not be toxic or have... collected from natural sources. If collected, they must be held in the laboratory for at least 14 days prior... stress and mortality. Dead and abnormal individuals shall be discarded. (iv) Feeding. The organisms shall...

  5. Acute and Subacute Toxic Study of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clinical signs of poisoning (motor difficulties, decreased respiratory rate, and tremor preceding death) were observed, suggesting overt toxicity throughout the neuromuscular system. However, histological examination of vital organs showed normal architecture suggesting no morphological abnormalities in the heart, ...

  6. Comparative acute toxicity and oxidative stress responses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LC50 = 2915 mg/L) while unused engine oil remained the least toxic (LC50= 7353 mg/L). Further, assessment of oxidative stress markers was conducted using sub lethal concentrations of the test compounds (1/100th 96 h LC50). There was ...

  7. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of ...

  8. Acute toxicity of selected heavy metals to Oreochromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copper was more toxic than lead and iron to both life stages. The species sensitivity distributions of O. mossambicus, as well as those of freshwater fish species from the ECOTOX database and literature, were closely predicted by the models for all three metals. The sensitivity of O. mossambicus to copper, iron and lead ...

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of pawpaw ( Carica papaya ) seed powder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment determined the toxicity of pawpaw seed powder to adult tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, the most cultivable fish species in Africa. The 96 h static bioassay experiment was conducted to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) for adult Nile tilapia, to pawpaw seed, Carica papaya. Two hundred live ...

  10. Acute toxicity, lipid peroxidation and ameliorative properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OKEY

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... Accepted 20 January, 2014. The lethal toxicity and lipid peroxidation studies of Alstonia boonei on alloxan induced diabetic rats were analysed. The effect of ethanol leaf ... concentration of the rats treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weights of the extract significantly decreased (p<0.05) when compared ...

  11. The patterns of toxicity and management of acute nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Laura J Hunter, David M Wood, Paul I DarganClinical Toxicology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UKAbstract: The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are widely used for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions. They are commonly taken in overdose in many areas of the world. The majority of patients with acute NSAID overdose will remain asymptomatic or develop minor self-limiting gastrointestinal symptoms. However, serious clinical sequelae have been reported in patients with acute NSAID overdose and these include convulsions, metabolic acidosis, coma and acute renal failure. There appear to be some differences between the NSAIDs in terms of the relative risk of these complications; in particular mefenamic acid is most commonly associated with convulsions. The management of these serious clinical features is largely supportive and there are no specific antidotes for acute NSAID toxicity.Keywords: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID, ibuprofen, toxicity, poisoning, overdose, management

  12. Cardiac arrest after esmolol administration: a review of acute beta-blocker toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, R S; Zerngast, B A

    1996-10-01

    An 11-year-old, 25-kg girl with congenital myelomeningocele was scheduled for posterior spinal fusion because of progressive scoliosis. After induction of general anesthesia and administration of a standard dose of intravenous esmolol hydrochloride, her cardiac rhythm progressed to asystole. Although given ephedrine, epinephrine, and atropine sulfate, the patient's normal heart rhythm could not be restored until calcium chloride was administered. A review of the medical literature indicates that the optimal treatment for acute beta-blocker toxicity is intravenous glucagon. Calcium administration should also be considered. Acute esmolol toxicity may be self-limiting because of its extremely short half-life.

  13. Acute Inhalation Toxicity Study of 1, 4-Dioxane in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) Guideline 870. 1300 Acute Inhalation Toxicity (1998) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development...follow-on 13-week subchronic drinking water study (640 to 25000 ppm) resulted in increased plasma levels of liver function markers in both rats and...exposure group rats developed nasal squamous cell carcinomas, hepatocellular adenomas and peritoneal mesotheliomas. Incidences of renal cell

  14. Novel psychoactive substances: how to understand the acute toxicity associated with the use of these substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

    2012-08-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been an increase in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (also known as "legal highs") across Europe. Currently, there is limited information available on the potential acute toxicity (harms) associated with the use of these novel psychoactive substances. There are a number of potential data sources that can provide information on the acute toxicity associated with their use: (1) user reports on Internet discussion fora; (2) subpopulation level surveys of self-reported harms/unwanted effects (3) regional or national poisons information service accesses for support on presentations to healthcare facilities relating to acute toxicity; (4) case reports/series based on self-reported use or analytically confirmed use; and (5) human volunteer studies assessing potential acute toxicological effects. Each of these data sources has its own limitations, particularly those that are based on self-reported use because there are a number of European studies that show that there is inconsistency in the substance(s) in the "drug" that an individual uses. However, by using a multilayered approach of combining different sources, it is possible to reduce the overall impact of the limitations of any one individual data source. In this review article, we will combine information from these different data sources to describe the pattern of acute toxicity associated with 4 novel psychoactive substances: 1-benzylpiperazine, mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone), synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists, and methoxetamine.

  15. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of Alstonia congensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract demonstrated good hypoglycaemic effects by lowering the plasma sugar level and also had some beneficial and reduction effects on cardiovascular risk factors. There was no evidence of drug-induced symptoms or death at all the doses of the extract administered in acute study but subacute results revealed a ...

  17. The Study on Acute Subacute Toxicity and Anti-cancer Effect of K-herbal-acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho, Kim

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate Acute· Subacute Toxicity and Anti-cancer Effect of K-Herbal-acupuncture in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with K- herbal-acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with K-herbal-acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. K-Herbal-acupuncture was injected on abdomen of mice with S-180 cancer cell line. Result : 1. LD50 of K-Herbal-acupuncture was limited 4×10-3ml/kg~2×10-3ml/kg by the test. 2. In acute toxicity test, all of mice were down to the moving reflex, but the weight of mice was increased in treatment group, compared with the normal group. (p<0.05 3. In acute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of mice, glucose was increased in treatment II group, total cholesterol was increased both treatments.(p<0.05 4. In subacute toxicity test, the clinical signs of toxication was down to the moving reflex, but it is not severe like acute toxicity test, and observed weight loss at the treatments. 5. In subacute toxicity test, liver weight was decreased compared with the normal group. (p<0.05 6. In subacute toxicity test of complete blood count test (CBC of rat, HCT was decreased in treatments, compared with the normal group.(p<0.05 7. In subacute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of rat, uric acid and triglyceride were decreased, and glucose was increased in treatment groups compared with the control group. (p<0.05 8. Median survival time was increased about 45% in treatment groups compared with the control group.(p<0.05 9. Natural killer cell activity was increased in B16F10 lung cancer model, but it was not in sarcoma-180 abdomen cancer. 10. In interleukin-2 productivity test, treatment groups didn't show significant change in lung cancer and abdomen cancer, compared with the normal group.(p<0.005 11. In making an examination of metastatic cancer with the naked eye, melanoma

  18. Correlations of acute toxicity of metal ions and the covalent/ionic character of their bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.E.; Williams, M.W.; Jacobson, K.B.; Hingerty, B.E.

    1984-01-01

    We have investigated correlations between physicochemical properties of 24 metal ions and their acute toxicity in mice and Drosophila. A high correlation for a softness parameter suggests that the relative covalent/ionic character of the bonds formed by the metal ions may be important in determining their toxicity. This hypothesis is reinforced by model calculations of metal binding to dinucleotides in water. Since the nature of bonds depends on ligand electronegativity, we searched for correlations involving this parameter. Although electronegativity is useful for interpreting some aspects of metal-ion behavior related to toxicity, it does not yield improved correlations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Acute Toxicity in Definitive Versus Postprostatectomy Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jonathan C.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Nguyen, Khanh H.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the incidence of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) injury and the dose-volume response in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with image-guided radiotherapy using helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between November 2004 and March 2007, 146 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with helical tomotherapy at the City of Hope Medical Center. Of the 146 patients, 70 had undergone prostatectomy. Acute GI and GU toxicities were evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Cancer of Medical scoring system. Events were scored for patients developing Grade 2 or greater morbidity within 90 days after the end of radiotherapy (RT). The dosimetric parameters included the minimal dose received by the highest 10%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 90% of the target volume, the mean rectal dose, minimal rectal dose, maximal rectal dose, and the volume receiving ≥45, ≥65, and ≥70 Gy. These variables, plus the status of radical prostatectomy, hormonal therapy, RT techniques, and medical conditions, were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A goodness-of-fit evaluation was done using the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. Results: A dose-response function for acute GI toxicity was elicited. The acute GI Grade 2 or greater toxicity was lower in the definitive RT group than in the postoperative RT group (25% vs. 41%, p <0.05). Acute GU Grade 2 or greater toxicity was comparable between the two groups. No grade 3 or greater complications were observed. No dosimetric variable was significant for GU toxicity. For acute GI toxicity, the significant dosimetric parameters were the minimal dose received by 10%, 20%, and 50% of the target volume and the mean rectal dose; the most predictive parameter was the minimal dose received by 10% of the target volume. The dose-modifying factor was 1.2 for radical prostatectomy. Conclusion: The results of our

  20. Acute Toxicity of Urea Fertilizer to Tilapia zilli Fingerlings | Ofojekwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fingerlings of Tilapia zilli (mean weight 7.95 ± 0.33g) were exposed in glass aquaria to acute concentration of urea fertilizer for a period of 96 hours. The 96hr LC50 of the exposed fish was determined to be 15.85 gl-1 with lower and upper confidence limits being 8.85 and 28.46 gl-1 respectively. During the exposure ...

  1. Acute Liver Toxicity due to Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmee Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fixed-dose combination of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir is a first-line agent for the treatment of HIV; however few cases have reported hepatotoxicity associated with the drug. We report a case of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir-associated hepatotoxicity presenting mainly with hepatocellular injury characterized by extremely elevated aminotransferase levels, which resolved without acute liver failure or need for liver transplant referral.

  2. [Evaluation of the acute toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater to luminescent bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li-Na; Yang, Fan; Mu, Yu-Feng; Yu, Ruo-Zhen; Zuo, Jian-E; Gao, Jun-Fa; Yu, Xin; Teng, Li-Jun; Tang, Xin-Yao

    2014-01-01

    Acute toxicity of wastewater from 5 nodes of technological process in the pharmaceutical factory sewage treatment station was studied by luminescent bacteria tests. The EC50, TUa and LID of the wastewater in underground regulating tanks was 3.44%, 29 and 625, respectively, indicating the water was extremely/highly toxic; for the wastewater in surface regulating tanks, the EC50, TUa and LID was 2.46%, 41 and 244, respectively, also extremely/highly toxic; for the wastewater in middle sediment tanks, the EC50 > 100% and LID was 10, which was moderately toxic; for the wastewater in secondary sediment tanks and the final effluents, the EC50 was above 100% and LID was 1, with no observed toxicity. The results indicated that the existing treatment process effectively reduced the acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical wastewater to luminescent bacteria, the effluents showed no observed toxicity to luminescent bacteria, which was lower than the relative effluent limits of pharmaceutical wastewater. The wastewater in lower concentration did not inhibit the luminosity, but enhanced the luminosity.

  3. Acute toxicity evaluation of cutting fluids used in manufacturing processes to Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gerson Matias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Grinding operations are very significant among the manufacturing processes of the metal-mechanic industry. In conventional grinding, cutting fluids are of great concern for improving productivity, but also for being hazardous to the environment. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the actual toxic effects of these products in aquatic environments, the present work assesses the toxicity potential through acute toxicity tests of three different kinds of cutting fluids, with three different usage times. The tests were carried out using the fish Poecilia reticulate and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna as test organisms. These tests made it possible to determine the Median Lethal Concentration (LC50 for the fish and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50 for the microcrustacean. The results indicate that, after storage, the toxicity potential of cutting fluids decreases. However, in the three situations investigated, the product presented a high toxicity potential, which reinforces the need of special care in its handling, usage and disposal.

  4. Physiology is pivotal for interactions between salinity and acute copper toxicity to fish and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosell, M; Blanchard, J; Brix, K V; Gerdes, R

    2007-08-30

    The present paper presents original data and a review of the copper (Cu) toxicity literature for estuarine and marine environments. For the first time, acute Cu toxicity across the full salinity range was determined. Killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, eggs were hatched in freshwater (FW), 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 22 and 35 ppt (seawater, SW) and juveniles were allowed to acclimate for 7 days prior to acute toxicity testing. Sensitivity was highest in FW (96 h LC50: 18 microg/l), followed by SW (96 h LC50: 294 microg/l) with fish at intermediate salinities being the most tolerant (96 h LC50 > 963 microg/l at 10 ppt). This approximately 50-fold, non-linear variation in sensitivity could not be accounted for by Cu speciation or competition among cations but can be explained by physiology. The relative Na(+) gradient from the blood plasma to the water is greatest in FW followed by SW and is smallest at 10 ppt. Regression of Cu toxicity versus the equilibrium potential for Na(+), which reflects the relative Na(+) gradient, revealed that 93% of the variation can be attributed to Na(+) gradients and thus osmoregulatory physiology. Examination of the existing literature on acute Cu toxicity in SW (defined as >25 ppt) confirmed that early life stages generally are most sensitive but this pattern may be attributable to size rather than developmental stage. Regardless of developmental stage and phylogeny, size clearly matters for Cu sensitivity. The existing literature on the influence of salinity on acute Cu toxicity as well as studies of mechanisms of Cu toxicity in fish and invertebrates are reviewed.

  5. Predictive factors for acute and late urinary toxicity after permanent interstitial brachytherapy in Japanese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Ryuta; Bekku, Kensuke; Katayama, Norihisa

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the frequency of and to determine predictive factors associated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group urinary toxicity in prostate brachytherapy patients. From January 2004 to April 2011, 466 consecutive Japanese patients underwent permanent iodine-125-seed brachytherapy (median follow up 48 months). International Prostate Symptom Score and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group toxicity data were prospectively collected. Prostate volume, International Prostate Symptom Score before and after brachytherapy, and postimplant analysis were examined for an association with urinary toxicity, defined as Radiation Therapy Oncology Group urinary toxicity of Grade 1 or higher. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with urinary toxicity. The rate of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group urinary toxicity grade 1 or higher at 1, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months was 67%, 40%, 21%, 31%, 27% and 28%, respectively. Grade 2 or higher urinary toxicity was less than 1% at each time-point. International Prostate Symptom Score was highest at 3 months and returned to normal 12 months after brachytherapy. On multivariate analysis, patients with a larger prostate size, greater baseline International Prostate Symptom Score, higher prostate V100, higher prostate V150, higher prostate D90 and a greater number of seeds had more acute urinary toxicities at 1 month and 12 months after brachytherapy. On multivariate analysis, significant predictors for urinary toxicity at 1 month and 12 months were a greater baseline International Prostate Symptom Score and prostate V100. Most urinary symptoms are tolerated and resolved within 12 months after prostate brachytherapy. Acute and late urinary toxicity after brachytherapy is strongly related to the baseline International Prostate Symptom Score and prostate V100. (author)

  6. Duration of Acute and Chronic Toxicity Testing in Animals (ICH S4A and S4B)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Van Cauteren, Herman

    2013-01-01

    To support approval of pharmaceuticals for long term use in humans it is required that product safety is supported by acute and chronic toxicity studies in rodents and non-rodents. The duration of acute toxicity studies (S4A) and chronic rodent studies (S4B) were harmonised between the three ICH ...

  7. Assessment of acute toxicity of water soluble fraction of diesel on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity of water soluble fraction (WSF) of diesel fuel was assessed by evaluating its effects on growth of two marine microalgae, Isochrysis and Chaetoceros. Pure cultures of each of the two microalgae were exposed to concentrations of 0% (controls), 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of diesel WSF (in triplicates) and allowed ...

  8. Evaluation the protective effect of diphenhydramine against acute toxicity induced by levamisole in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Matti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of different doses of diphenhydramine against acute toxicosis with Levamisole. The Mechanism of levamisole induced acute toxicity and that of protective effect of diphenhydramine against Levamisole toxicosis also examined on the level of cholinesterase (ChE activity. Subcutanous injection of 100mg/kg levamisole in male mice with induced cholinergic over stimulation and death in 100% of animals. The Toxicosis was not related to the significantly decreased in plasma, red blood cells and brain ChE activity. Injection low dose of diphenhydramin 2.5mg/kg S.C. 15 min before levamisole produced protective effect against acute toxicity with levamisole. Significantly decreased the severity of toxicosis and increased survival rates to 100%. Diphenhydramine at low dose alone or with acute dose of levamisole did not Produced Significantly inhibition in ChE activity.The data suggested that the toxic effect of Levamisole was not related to inhibition of ChE. The low dose of diphenhydramine protected mice from Levamisole toxicity. The antidoatal effect of diphenhydramine not at the level of protection from ChE inhibition. There was no adverse interaction between two drugs.

  9. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagarcia@usp.br, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  10. Acute esophagus toxicity in lung cancer patients after intensity modulated radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwint, Margriet; Uyterlinde, Wilma; Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; de Bois, Josien; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van den Heuvel, Michel; Knegjens, Joost; van Herk, Marcel; Belderbos, José

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One

  11. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I.

    2011-01-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L -1 , 2.34 mg.L -1 , 2.35 mg.L -1 and 1.80 mg.L -1 , respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  12. Large Dataset of Acute Oral Toxicity Data Created for Testing in Silico Models (ASCCT meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute toxicity data is a common requirement for substance registration in the US. Currently only data derived from animal tests are accepted by regulatory agencies, and the standard in vivo tests use lethality as the endpoint. Non-animal alternatives such as in silico models are ...

  13. Development of a standard acute dietary toxicity test for the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Valk, H.; Jiang, H.; Wang, X.; Yuan, S.; Zhang, Y.; Roessink, I.; Gao, X.

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mod L.) may be exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of their food plant, the mulberry tree (Morus spp.), which can lead to adverse effects on silk production. A new acute dietary toxicity test method was evaluated as the basis for pesticide risk assessment. A

  14. Acute Toxicity Effect of the Leaf Extract of Leptadenia Hastata (Pers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the LD50 of the aqueous extract of the Leptadenia hastata was calculated using arithmetic method. The acute toxicity signs observed were inappetence, weakness, unsteady gait, polypnoea and asthenia in all the groups; having unsteady gait and polypnoea being more prominent in 800 to 3200mg/Kg bwt treated groups.

  15. Sub-acute toxicity and biochemical effects of extracts of Anaphe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ataxia syndrome which is characterized by sudden onset of severe muscular tremor and gait ataxia has been shown to be associated with the consumption of the larvae of Anaphe venata in South Western part of Nigeria. In this report, the sub -acute toxicity and biochemical effects of polar and nonpolar extracts of Anaphe ...

  16. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity study of the extract and powder of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the experimental acute and sub-chronic toxicities of Operculina macrocarpa with plant extract and powder, respectively, in male and female mice. Phytochemical prospection was performed with extract and administration in single doses by intraperitoneal route to six groups and control ...

  17. WEB-BASED INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATION (WEB-ICE) FOR ACUTE TOXICITY: USER MANUAL V2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive toxicological models are integral to environmental risk Assessment where data for most species are limited. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) models are least square regressions that predict acute toxicity (LC50/LD50) of a chemical to a species, ...

  18. Acute toxicity study and effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Guiera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity study and effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Guiera senegalensis J. F. Gmel (combretaceae) on trypanosome Brucei brucei induced pathology in albino rats. ... were observed at histopathology in some extract treated groups compared to the infected untreated group, suggesting a dose dependent extract activity.

  19. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  20. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  1. The aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) protein is not acutely toxic in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papineni, Sabitha; Golden, Rachel M; Thomas, Johnson

    2017-12-01

    Typically, when a protein is orally toxic, it acts via acute mechanisms, especially at high doses. Therefore, an acute oral toxicity study is considered appropriate for evaluating the safety of transgenic proteins. Soybean plants (events DAS-68416-4 and DAS-444Ø6-6) have been genetically modified to express the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) protein. The AAD-12 protein provides tolerance to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). This paper summarizes the study designs of two acute oral toxicity studies evaluating the AAD-12 protein and reports the results of these studies. No mortalities or adverse effects were observed in mice when AAD-12 was tested up to a limit dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. Based on the results of these studies, it can be concluded that AAD-12 protein, as expressed in genetically modified DAS-68416-4 and DAS-444Ø6-6 soybeans, lacks acute toxicity via the oral route. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of ethanol extract of rheumatic tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-acute toxicity profile of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF), a polyherbal tea consisting of Salix alba, Eucalyptus globulus and Albizia chevalieri was investigated in wistar rats of both sexes. Wistar rats were orally administered three different doses of ethanol extract of RTF for 28 days after which the effect on body weight, ...

  3. Acute Toxic Effects of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Celtis durandii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Celtis durandii (Ulmaceae), one of the plants used in traditional medicine to cure migraine, epilepsy, and high blood pressure was submitted to an acute toxicity study in mice. Different doses of plant extract were administered at once orally to 8groups of 10 each. The mortality rate was evaluated after 48 hours.

  4. Role of heat shock protein hsp90 in formation of protective reactions in acute toxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkova, O V; Novoselova, T V; Khrenov, M O; Parfenyuk, S B; Lunin, S M; Fesenko, E E; Novoselova, E G

    2010-06-01

    The involvement of heat shock protein Hsp90 in pro-inflammatory response in male NMRI mice under conditions of acute toxic stress, caused by lipopolysaccharide from Gram negative bacteria, was studied using geldanamycin, a specific blocker of the activity of this protein. It is shown that the introduction of geldanamycin lowers total intoxication of the organism upon acute toxic stress caused by endotoxin. Thus, a decrease in cytokine TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-1, and IL-10 concentrations in blood serum of the geldanamycin-treated animals with acute toxic stress was found along with normalization of functional activity of nitric oxide producing peritoneal macrophages. Studying expression of receptor protein Tlr-4 as well of proteins of two signal cascades, NF-kappaB and SAPK/JNK, has shown that mechanisms of the geldanamycin protective effect are realized at the level of inhibition of Tlr-4 receptor expression, which provides for endotoxin-to-cell binding, and due to lowering the endotoxin-stimulated activation of signal cascades NF-kappaB and SAPK/JNK. The results suggest Hsp90 might be a therapeutic target in diseases accompanied by acute toxic stress.

  5. Acute Toxicity Of Npk (15:15:15) Fertilizer To Tilapia zilli Fingerlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... showed decrease in dissolved oxygen content and increase in both alkalinity and conductivity as the concentration of the fertilizer was increased. Consequences of strategic fertilizer applications are discussed. Keywords: ke NPK (15-15-15) fertilizer, Acute toxicity, Tilapia zilli fingerlings. Nigerian Journal of Fisheries Vol.

  6. Acute Toxicity of Castor Oil Bean Extract and Tolerance Level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out to determine the acute toxicity of raw castor oil bean (Ricinus communis) extract and the tolerance level of raw castor oil bean by broilers. The seeds were ground, defatted with petroleum ether and the residue was subjected to extraction with phosphate-buffered saline. The extract volume ...

  7. A re-evaluation of PETROTOX for predicting acute and chronic toxicity of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Leon Paumen, Miriam; Butler, Josh D; Letinski, Daniel J; den Haan, Klass

    2017-08-01

    The PETROTOX model was developed to perform aquatic hazard assessment of petroleum substances based on substance composition. The model relies on the hydrocarbon block method, which is widely used for conducting petroleum substance risk assessments providing further justification for evaluating model performance. Previous work described this model and provided a preliminary calibration and validation using acute toxicity data for limited petroleum substance. The objective of the present study was to re-evaluate PETROTOX using expanded data covering both acute and chronic toxicity endpoints on invertebrates, algae, and fish for a wider range of petroleum substances. The results indicated that recalibration of 2 model parameters was required, namely, the algal critical target lipid body burden and the log octanol-water partition coefficient (K OW ) limit, used to account for reduced bioavailability of hydrophobic constituents. Acute predictions from the updated model were compared with observed toxicity data and found to generally be within a factor of 3 for algae and invertebrates but overestimated fish toxicity. Chronic predictions were generally within a factor of 5 of empirical data. Furthermore, PETROTOX predicted acute and chronic hazard classifications that were consistent or conservative in 93 and 84% of comparisons, respectively. The PETROTOX model is considered suitable for the purpose of characterizing petroleum substance hazard in substance classification and risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2245-2252. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  8. Acute Toxicity Effect of the Leaf Extract of Leptadenia Hastata (Pers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outcome of this investigation suggested that though safe, but at a higher dosage Leptadenia hastata is poisonous or lethal to rats and could pose a serious public health problem to human and animal subjects on a prolonged and quantitative consumption. Keywords: Acute toxicity, Leaf extract, Leptadenia hasntata, ...

  9. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  10. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  11. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  12. Estimation of acute toxicity of bilge water to the African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) of bilge water for 96 hrs under laboratory conditions using a renewable static bioassay with continuous aeration to determine its acute toxicity. The LC50 of exposed juveniles was found to be 35.97 ml/L with lower and ...

  13. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) to freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Ilaria; de Wolf, Watze; Thompson, Roy S; Farrar, David G; Hoke, Robert A; L'Haridon, Jacques

    2008-11-01

    Recent concerns have been raised concerning the widespread distribution of perfluorinated compounds in environmental matrices and biota. The compounds of interest include ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO, the ammonium salt of perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). APFO is used primarily as a processing aid in the production of fluoropolymers and fluoroelastomers. The environmental presence of perfluorooctanoate (PFO(-), the anion of APFO) and its entry into the environment as APFO make quality aquatic toxicity data necessary to assess the aquatic hazard and risk of APFO. We conducted acute and chronic freshwater aquatic toxicity studies with algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the water flea, Daphnia magna, and embryo-larval rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, using OECD test guidelines and a single, well-characterized sample of APFO. Acute 48-96 h LC/EC(50) values were greater than 400mg/l APFO and the lowest chronic NOEC was 12.5mg/l for inhibition of the growth rate and biomass of the freshwater alga. Un-ionized ammonia was calculated to be a potential significant contributor to the observed toxicity of APFO. Based on environmental concentrations of PFO(-) from various aquatic ecosystems, the PNEC value from this study, and unionized ammonia contributions to observed toxicity, APFO demonstrates little or no risk for acute or chronic toxicity to freshwater and marine aquatic organisms at relevant environmental concentrations.

  14. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of the original drug FS-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem Kalykova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in iodine complexes has increased significantly in recent years because of their wide spectrum of biological activity. The FS-1 is an ion nanostructured complex formed by proteins and/or polypeptides, carbohydrates, salts of alkali and alkaline earth metals with intercalated iodine. Patented in 2014, it is intended for the treatment of infectious diseases of bacterial origin including nosocomial infections and multidrug resistant tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to determine its acute and subchronic toxicity. The study of acute and subchronic toxicity was performed on adult Wistar rats according to OECD guidelines. The data on acute toxicity showed LD50 > 2,000 mg/kg after a single intragastric administration. Twenty-eight days of FS-1 administration at a dose of 500 mg/kg resulted in toxic effects. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, the toxic effects were temporary and a return to normal followed after the recovery period. Doses of 100 mg/kg had no adverse effects on the rats.

  15. Toxicological assessment of combined lead and cadmium: acute and sub-chronic toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guiping; Dai, Shujun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Lu, Hongke; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Shu, Yang; Zhao, Xinghong

    2014-03-01

    The exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and receives concern for their introduction by inhalation and ingestion. However, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to understand the health effects of chemical mixtures compared with single chemicals. In this study, the acute and 90day sub-chronic toxicity tests of combined Pb and Cd were conducted. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 value of Pb(NO3)2 and CdCl2 mixture by the oral route was 2696.54mg/kg by Bliss method. The sub-chronic treatment revealed that the low-dose combination of Pb and Cd exposures can significantly change the physiological and biochemical parameters of the blood of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with dose-response relationship and causes microcytic hypochromic anemia and the damages of liver and kidney of the SD rats to various degrees. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of Pb and Cd were testicle, liver, and kidneys. These observations suggest that Pb and Cd are practically additive-toxic for the SD rats in oral acute toxicity studies. The lowest observed adverse-effect level in rats may be lower than a dose of 29.96mg/(kgbwday) when administered orally for 90 consecutive days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The acute toxicity of ethanol extract from irradiated Temulawak (curcuma xanthorrizha roxb.) which have anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin Katrin; Susanto; Hendig Winarno

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurization of herbs and herbal medicinal products have been carried out by several herbal industries, but information about the safety of irradiated herbal medicine is still a little, even the influence of gamma irradiation for pasteurization purpose on the toxicity of crude Temulawak has never been investigated. The ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha Roxb. has cytotoxic activity which potential as an anticancer. In this research, the acute toxicity tests were carried out to the ethanol extract from Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The acute toxicity tests of ethanol extract were conducted in mice by observing the effect of extracts on animal behavior (pharmacologic profile) after a single dose of test material, the development of animal body weight and death every day for 14 days and observed several organ weights on day 14. Acute toxicity test results after administration of extracts on male and female mice a dose up to 7500 mg/kg body weight (BW) showed that no deaths and no significant toxic effect, so that the ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy can be declared safe. Thus LD 50 from ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated (5 and 10 kGY) in mice was greater than 7500 mg/kg body weight. (author)

  17. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead in water and diet to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of waterborne and dietary lead (Pb) exposure on the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test solutions were generated by a modified diluter with an extended (24-h) equilibration period. Acute (96-h) toxicity of Pb varied with water hardness in the range of 71 to 275 mg/L as CaCO3, despite similar dissolved Pb concentrations. Acute toxicity was greatest in soft test water, with less than 50% survival at the lowest dissolved Pb concentration (151 ??g/L). Survival also was significantly reduced in medium-hardness water but not in hard test water. In chronic (42-d) studies, amphipods were exposed to waterborne Pb and fed either a control diet or a diet equilibrated with waterborne Pb levels. For animals fed the control diet, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Pb was 24 ??g/L (as dissolved Pb), and significant reductions in survival occurred at 16 ??g/L. Exposure to Pb-treated diets significantly increased toxicity across a wide range of dissolved Pb concentrations, with a LC50 of 16 ??g/L and significant reductions in growth and reproduction at 3.5 ??g/L. Significant effects on growth and reproduction occurred at dissolved Pb concentrations close to the current U.S. chronic water-quality criterion. Our results suggest that both aqueous- and dietary-exposure pathways contribute significantly to chronic Pb exposure and toxic effects in aquatic biota. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  18. Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. powder: acute toxicity, 90 days oral toxicity study and micronucleus assay in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Rodeiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sacha Inchi has been consumed for years by indigenous peoples. Meanwhile, its toxicological potential has not been sufficiently studied. Aims: To assess the acute, sub-chronic toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Sacha Inchi powder obtained from Plukenetia volubilis L. Methods: A dose of 2000 mg/kg was orally administered to rats and mice and toxicity symptoms for 14 days were observed. In repeated dose study, the product was orally administered to Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes. Animals received 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the product for 90 days. At the end, animals were sacrificed and samples were done for hematological and biochemical analysis, organ weighs and histopathological examination. Genotoxicity potential of Sacha Inchi powder was evaluated through micronucleus test in mice. Negative controls received the vehicle (carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.5% used. Results: No morbidity or mortality at 2000 mg/kg of the product were found. Sacha Inchi powder oral administration during 90 days to rats did not lead to death, body weight gain, food consumption, or adverse events. No significant changes on hematological or biochemical parameters, organ weights or histopathological findings were observed. Induction of micronucleus formation attributable to the product was not found in mice. Conclusions: No toxicity effects after oral acute exposure of Sacha Inchi power to rats and mice were observed. Neither toxicity attributable to oral doses of the product up to 500 mg/kg during 90 days to rats were found. Results suggested Sacha Inchi powder does not have genotoxicity potential under our experimental conditions.

  19. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  20. Dose-response of acute urinary toxicity of long-course preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L.; Bentzen, Søren M.; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-course preoperative chemoradiotherapy (chemo-RT) improves outcomes for rectal cancer patients, but acute side effects during treatment may cause considerable patient discomfort and may compromise treatment compliance. We developed a dose-response model for acute urinary toxicity...... based on a large, single-institution series. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total 345 patients were treated with (chemo-)RT for primary rectal cancer from January 2007 to May 2012. Urinary toxicity during RT was scored prospectively using the CTCAE v 3.0 cystitis score (grade 0-5). Clinical variables...... and radiation dose to the bladder were related to graded toxicity using multivariate ordinal logistic regression. Three models were optimized, each containing all available clinical variables and one of three dose metrics: Mean dose (Dmean), equivalent uniform dose (EUD), or relative volume given x Gy or above...

  1. The value of brain CT findings in acute methanol toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Morteza Sanei; Moghaddam, Hossein Hassanian; Moharamzad, Yashar; Dadgari, Shahrzad; Nahvi, Vahideh

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Due to depressant effects of methanol on the central nervous system, brain computed tomography (CT) scan has been introduced as a diagnostic device in methanol intoxication. The authors aimed to present brain CT findings in patients with acute methanol intoxication and to determine signs associated with death. Materials and methods: This cohort study involved 42 consecutive patients with acute methanol intoxication. Inclusion criteria were consisted of characteristic clinical presentation of methanol poisoning, and metabolic acidosis with increased anion and osmolar gaps. Brain CT scans without contrast medium were obtained. To determine the association between the CT findings and death, the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test, odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) had a total of 55 abnormal findings on brain CT, in which bilateral putaminal hypodense lesions was the most common manifestation (27 cases, 96.4%). Putaminal hemorrhage with varying degrees was observed in 7 patients (25%). Six patients (21.4%) had low attenuation lesions in the subcortical white matter of the insula. A significant association was observed between putaminal hemorrhage (OR = 8, 95% CI = 1.187-53.93, P = 0.018) and subcortical necrosis of the insula (OR = 11, 95% CI = 1.504-80.426, P = 0.007) with death. Conclusion: In addition to clinical and laboratory findings, presence of putaminal hemorrhage and insular subcortex white matter necrosis are associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with methanol poisoning.

  2. Experimental evaluation of acute toxicity heterometalic new compounds – tartratogermanat cooper and zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Paniotova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible ways of creating new drugs is aiming synthesis of compounds previously envisaged activity. Perspective in this area is to obtain complexes based on metal ions and ligands. Purpose: To establish toxikometric characteristics of new biologically active substances - tartratogermanat copper and zinc in the acute experiment. Materials and Methods: Studied acute toxicity in mice and rats under the conditions of oral (o, subcutaneous (s / c and intraperitoneal (i / p administration. The toxicity criterion of the test compounds was LD50, which was determined using the probit analysis method. In addition, a number of integrated toxicity indicators were calculated, in particular absolute toxicity, an acute toxic effect zone, a summary toxicity index and etc. The results: According to the results, the LD50 index of copper-tartratogermanate in mice was 36.88 mg / kg (i / p 63.78 mg / kg (s / c and 385.57 mg / kg (o; in rats - 78.16; 135.05 and794.26 m / kg, accordingly. The LD50 index of zinc-tartratogermanate in mice was 87.20 mg / kg (i / p 167.05 mg / kg (s / c and 1675.40 mg / kg (o; in rats - 141.57; 236.52 and 2792.45 μ / kg, accordingly. The new compound of zinc tartratogermanat belongs to low-toxic compounds (IV class of toxicity in conditions of intraperitoneal, subcutaneous and oral administration in two animal species, in the same time-tartratogermanat copper is moderately toxic (toxicity class III. Zinc-containing compounds showed lower toxicity than similar compounds with cuprum. According to the resalts, the variability of the lethal doses for various routes of administration of copper tartrate-hommanate was 1.32-1.60 (in mice and 1.66-1.92 (in rats zinc tartrate-germanate, 1.31-1.50 (in mice and 1.24-1.37 (in rats. Integral safety of the new BAС showes that compounds with zinc were more safety in oral take, while new compounds containing copper were the safest under conditions of injection. Conclusions: A small toxicity

  3. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  4. The acute toxicity of clove oil to fish Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Doleželová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clove oil (active substance eugenol is an anaesthetic used in aquaculture for stress prevention and prevention of mechanical damage during veterinary procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of clove oil in two aquarium fish species - zebrafish (Danio rerio and guppy (Poecilia reticulata, which are considered the most commonly used model organisms in toxicity testing. The semi-static method according to OECD no. 203 (Fish, Acute toxicity test was used for testing the toxicity of clove oil for juvenile fish. A series of 5 acute toxicity tests was performed, with 10 fish of both species used for each concentration and for the control. The results obtained (number of dead individuals at particular test concentrations were subjected to a probit analysis using the EKO-TOX 5.2 program in order to determine 96hLC50 clove oil values. The significance of the difference between 96hLC50 values in D. rerio and P. reticulata was tested using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. The 96hLC50 mean value for clove oil was 18.2 ± 5.52 mg·l–1 in juvenile D. rerio and 21.7 ± 0.8 mg·l–1 in P. reticulata. In spite of variability in clove oil composition, acute toxicity values of clove oil for juvenile stages of both fish species were comparable. The results did not show different sensitivities to clove oil in tested fish species. This is the first similar study in these fish species.

  5. Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, A C; Lupan, D M; Manalo, P B; Roberts, J S; Schlageter, A M; Weinhold, L C; Kozel, T R

    1997-05-01

    Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans alters the course of murine cryptococcosis. During studies of passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis, we noted the occurrence of an acute, lethal toxicity. Toxicity was characterized by scratching, lethargy, respiratory distress, collapse, and death within 20 to 60 min after injection of antibody. The toxic effect was observed only in mice with a cryptococcal infection and was reduced or absent in the early and late stages of disease. The clinical course and histopathology were consistent with those for shock. There was considerable variation between mouse strains in susceptibility to toxicity. Swiss Webster mice from the Charles River colony were most susceptible, followed by C3H/He, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. DBA/2 mice and Swiss Webster mice from the Simonsen colony were resistant. Acute toxicity was mimicked by injection of preformed complexes of MAb and purified polysaccharide. The toxic effect was also produced by injection of MAbs into mice that were preloaded with polysaccharide. The toxic effect was not blocked by treatment of mice with chloropheniramine or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies or by depletion of complement components via pretreatment with cobra venom factor. Toxicity was reduced by treatment of mice with high doses of epinephrine, dexamethasone, or chlorpromazine. Finally, the toxic effect was completely blocked by treatment of mice with the platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2170 BS or by pretreatment of mice with the liposome-encapsulated drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate, a procedure which depletes macrophages from the spleen and liver.

  6. Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, A C; Lupan, D M; Manalo, P B; Roberts, J S; Schlageter, A M; Weinhold, L C; Kozel, T R

    1997-01-01

    Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans alters the course of murine cryptococcosis. During studies of passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis, we noted the occurrence of an acute, lethal toxicity. Toxicity was characterized by scratching, lethargy, respiratory distress, collapse, and death within 20 to 60 min after injection of antibody. The toxic effect was observed only in mice with a cryptococcal infection and was reduced or absent in the early and late stages of disease. The clinical course and histopathology were consistent with those for shock. There was considerable variation between mouse strains in susceptibility to toxicity. Swiss Webster mice from the Charles River colony were most susceptible, followed by C3H/He, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. DBA/2 mice and Swiss Webster mice from the Simonsen colony were resistant. Acute toxicity was mimicked by injection of preformed complexes of MAb and purified polysaccharide. The toxic effect was also produced by injection of MAbs into mice that were preloaded with polysaccharide. The toxic effect was not blocked by treatment of mice with chloropheniramine or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies or by depletion of complement components via pretreatment with cobra venom factor. Toxicity was reduced by treatment of mice with high doses of epinephrine, dexamethasone, or chlorpromazine. Finally, the toxic effect was completely blocked by treatment of mice with the platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2170 BS or by pretreatment of mice with the liposome-encapsulated drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate, a procedure which depletes macrophages from the spleen and liver. PMID:9125564

  7. Acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Shao, Wei-Wei; Ding, Guo-Hua; Fan, Xiao-Li; Yu, Miao-Ling; Lin, Zhi-Hua

    2014-07-01

    We studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. Results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. For acute toxicity, the LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/L; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/L; 1.74, 1.45 and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The safety concentrations (SC) of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam to the tadpoles were 1.23, 0.30 and 0.003 mg/L, respectively. Based on these findings, chlorantraniliprole and penoxsulam were moderately toxic, while flubendiamide-abamectin was highly toxic. All pairwise joint toxicity tests showed moderate toxicity. The LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure were 7.08, 6.61 and 6.03 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+penoxsulam, with corresponding values of 2.455, 2.328 and 2.183 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+flubendiamide-abamectin, and 1.132, 1.084 and 1.050 mg/L for penoxsulam+flubendiamide-abamectin, with safe concentrations of 1.73, 0.63 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. For toxic evaluations of pairwise combinations of the three agrochemicals, only the joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide-abamectin after 24 h was found to be synergistic, whereas all other tests were antagonistic. Our findings provide valuable information on the toxic effects of agrochemicals on amphibians and how various types of agrochemicals can be reasonably used in agricultural areas.

  8. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of methanol extract of Polygonum minus leaves in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christapher, Parayil Varghese; Parasuraman, Subramani; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2017-06-01

    Medicinal plant preparations may contain high levels of toxic chemical constituents to potentially cause serious harm to animals and/or humans. Thus, toxicity studies are important to assess the toxic effects of plant derived products. Polygonum minus is used traditionally for different ailments in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to establish the acute and subchronic toxicity profile of the methanol extract of P. minus leaves. The acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract of P. minus is safe even at the highest dose tested of 2000 mg/kg in female Sprague Dawley rats. There were no behavioural or physiological changes and gross pathological abnormalities observed. The subchronic toxicity study of methanol extract of P. minus at 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg were conducted in both sexes of Sprague Dawley rats. There were no changes observed in the extract treated animal's body weight, food and water intake, motor coordination, behaviour and mental alertness. The values of haematological and biochemical parameters were not different between the treated and control animals. The relative organ weights of extract-treated animals did not differ with that of control animals. Based on the present findings, the methanol extract of P. minus leaves could be considered safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  10. Ecotoxicological effect of ketamine: Evidence of acute, chronic and photolysis toxicity to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shih-Wei; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen

    2017-09-01

    Ketamine has been increasingly used in medicine and has the potential for abuse or illicit use around the world. Ketamine cannot be removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants. Although ketamine and its metabolite norketamine have been detected to a significant degree in effluents and aquatic environments, their ecotoxicity effects in aquatic organisms remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of ketamine and its metabolite, along with the chronic reproductive toxicity of ketamine (5-100μg/L) to Daphnia magna. Multiple environmental scenarios were also evaluated, including drug mixtures and sunlight irradiation toxicity. Ketamine and norketamine caused acute toxicity to D. magna, with half lethal concentration (LC 50 ) values of 30.93 and 25.35mg/L, respectively, after 48h of exposure. Irradiated solutions of ketamine (20mg/L) significantly increased the mortality of D. magna; pre-irradiation durations up to 2h rapidly increased the death rate to 100%. A new photolysis byproduct (M.W. 241) of norketamine that accumulates during irradiation was identified for the first time. The relevant environmental concentration of ketamine produced significant reproductive toxicity effects in D. magna, as revealed by the reduction of the number of total live offspring by 33.6-49.8% (p < 0.05). The toxicity results indicate that the environmental hazardous risks of the relevant ketamine concentration cannot be ignored and warrant further examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesbah, Latifa; Marsiglia, Hugo; Matute, Raúl; Usychkin, Sergey; Marrone, Immacolata; Puebla, Fernando; Mínguez, Cristina; García, Rafael; García, Graciela; Beltrán, César

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT) provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%), abdomen (17%) and thorax (6%). The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients), neuroblastoma (9 patients) and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients). A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72%) were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy). In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6%) of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6%) had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases) were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more), whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of acute toxicity that we have seen in this highly

  13. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán César

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. Methods In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. Results The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%, abdomen (17% and thorax (6%. The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients, neuroblastoma (9 patients and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients. A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72% were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy. In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6% of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6% had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more, whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. Conclusion HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of

  14. Heavy metals toxicity after acute exposure of cultured renal cells. Intracellular accumulation and repartition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodja, Hicham; Carriere, Marie; Avoscan, Laure; Gouget, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and uranium (U) present no known biological function but are toxic in various concentration ranges. Pb and Cd lead generally to nephrotoxicity consisting in proximal renal tubular dysfunction and accumulation while U has been reported to induce chemical kidney toxicity, functional and histological damages being as well mainly observed in proximal tubule cells. This work address the question of Cd, Pb, and U cytotoxicity, intracellular accumulation and repartition after acute intoxication of renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. After cells exposure to different concentrations of metals for various times, morphological changes were observed and intracellular concentrations and distributions of toxic metals were specified by PIXE coupled to RBS. Cell viability, measured by biochemical tests, was used as toxicity indicator. A direct correlation between cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation in renal epithelial cells have been established. Finally, intracellular Pb and U localizations were detected while Cd was found to be uniformly distributed in renal cells. (author)

  15. Acute Toxicity Grade 3 and 4 After Irradiation in Children and Adolescents: Results From the IPPARCA Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pixberg, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Koch, Raphael [Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor, E-mail: Hans.Eich@ukmuenster.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Martinsson, Ulla [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Kristensen, Ingrid [Department of Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Matuschek, Christiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Pohl, Fabian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Elsayad, Khaled [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Willich, Normann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Lindh, Jack [Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Steinmann, Diana [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: In the context of oncologic therapy for children, radiation therapy is frequently indicated. This study identified the frequency of and reasons for the development of high-grade acute toxicity and possible sequelae. Materials and Methods: Irradiated children have been prospectively documented since 2001 in the Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiation in Childhood and Adolescence (RiSK) database in Germany and since 2008 in the registry for radiation therapy toxicity (RADTOX) in Sweden. Data were collected using standardized, published forms. Toxicity classification was based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: As of June 2013, 1500 children have been recruited into the RiSK database and 485 into the RADTOX registry leading to an analysis population of 1359 patients (age range 0-18). A total of 18.9% (n=257) of all investigated patients developed high-grade acute toxicity (grades 3/4). High-grade toxicity of the bone marrow was documented for 63.8% (n=201) of those patients, oral mucositis for 7.6% (n=24), and dermatitis for 7.6% (n=24). Patients with high-grade acute toxicity received concomitant chemotherapy more frequently (56%) than patients with no or lower acute toxicity (31.5%). In multivariate analyses, concomitant chemotherapy, diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma, and total radiation dose showed a statistically noticeable effect (P≤.05) on acute toxicity, whereas age, concomitant chemotherapy, Hodgkin lymphoma, Ewing sarcoma, total radiation dose, and acute toxicity influenced the time until maximal late toxicity. Conclusions: Generally, high-grade acute toxicity after irradiation in children and adolescence occurs in a moderate proportion of patients (18.9%). As anticipated, the probability of acute toxicity appeared to depend on the prescribed dose as well as concomitant chemotherapy. The occurrence of chronic toxicity correlates with the prior acute

  16. Biocompatible lutein-polymer-lipid nanocapsules: Acute and subacute toxicity and bioavailability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Hindupur, Ravi; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2016-12-01

    Lutein-poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-phospholipid (PL) nanocapsules were prepared (henceforth referred as lutein nanocapsules) and studied for acute, subacute oral toxicity and bioavailability of lutein in mice. Prior to examining the safety of lutein nanocapsules, particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology and interaction between lutein, PLGA and PL were studied. In acute study, mice were gavaged with a single dose of lutein nanocapsules at 0.1, 1, 10 and 100mg/kg body weight (BW) and examined for 2weeks, while in subacute study, daily mice were gavaged with a dose of 1 and 10mg/kg BW for 4weeks. Results revealed that mean size and zeta value of lutein nanocapsules were 140nm and -44mV, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity studies did not show any mortality or treatment related adverse effect in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body and organ weights. No toxicity related findings were observed in hematology, histopathology and other blood and tissue clinical chemistry parameters. In subacute study, no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of lutein nanocapsules was found to be at a dose of 10mg/kg BW. Feeding lutein nanocapsules resulted in a significant (plutein level in plasma and tissue compared to the control group. Lutein nanocapsules did not cause toxicity in mice. However, human trials are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Relative oral efficacy and acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.B.; Morgan, J.; Hoyes, K.P.; Burke, L.C.; Huehns, E.R.; Hider, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the oral efficacy and the acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators has been investigated to clarify structure-function relationships of these compounds in vivo and to identify compounds with the maximum therapeutic safety margin. By comparing 59Fe excretion following oral or intraperitoneal administration of increasing doses of each chelator to iron-overloaded mice, the most effective compounds have been identified. These have partition coefficients (Kpart) above 0.3 in the iron-free form with a trend of increasing oral efficacy with increasing Kpart values (r = .6). However, this is achieved at a cost of increasing acute toxicity, as shown by a linear correlation between 59Fe excretion increase per unit dose and 1/LD50 (r = .83). A sharp increase in the LD50 values is observed for compounds with Kpart values above 1.0, suggesting that such compounds are unlikely to possess a sufficient therapeutic safety margin. Below a Kpart of 1.0, acute toxicity is relatively independent of lipid solubility. All the compounds are less toxic by the oral route than by the intraperitoneal route, although iron excretion is not significantly different by these two routes. At least five compounds (CP51, CP94, CP93, CP96, and CP21) are more effective orally than the same dose of intraperitoneal desferrioxamine (DFO) (P less than or equal to .02) or orally administered L1(CP20) (P less than or equal to .02)

  18. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Acute and subacute toxicity of Cassia occidentalis L. stem and leaf in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mirtes G B; Aragão, Ticiana P; Vasconcelos, Carlos F B; Ferreira, Pablo A; Andrade, Bruno A; Costa, Igor M A; Costa-Silva, João H; Wanderley, Almir G; Lafayette, Simone S L

    2011-06-22

    Cassia occidentalis L. (syn. Senna occidentalis; Leguminosae) has been used as natural medicine in rainforests and tropical regions as laxative, analgesic, febrifuge, diuretic, hepatoprotective, vermifuge and colagogo. Herein, we performed a pre-clinical safety evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of Cassia occidentalis stem and leaf in male and female Wistar rats. In acute toxicity tests, four groups of rats (n=5/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg and general behavior, adverse effects and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity assays, animals received Cassia occidentalis by gavage at the doses of 0.10, 0.50 or 2.5 g/kg/day (n=10/group/sex) for 30 days and biochemical, hematological and morphological parameters were determined. Cassia occidentalis did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death in the acute toxicity test, showing a LD(50) higher than 5 g/kg. Subacute treatment with Cassia occidentalis failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no changes in macroscopical and microscopical aspect of organs were observed in the animals. Our results showed that acute or subacute administration of Cassia occidentalis is not toxic in male and female Wistar rats, suggesting a safety use by humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute toxicity of acetylsalicylic acid to juvenile and embryonic stages of Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praskova, Eva; Zivna, Dana; Stepanova, Stanislava; Sevcikova, Marie; Blahova, Jana; Marsalek, Petr; Siroka, Zuzana; Voslarova, Eva; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the acute toxicity of acetylsalicylic acid to embryonic and juvenile stages of aquarium fish - zebrafish (Danio rerio), oxidative stress parameters and detoxifying enzyme. Tests were performed according to OECD No. 203 (Fish, acute toxicity test) and OECD No. 212 (Fish, short-term toxicity test on embryo and sac-fry stages) methodology. The results showed the mean acetylsalicylic acid LC50 value to be 567.7 mg/L in juvenile zebrafish. The acute toxicity of acetylsalicylic acid for zebrafish embryos was 274.6 mg/L. Statistically significantly higher activity of GST was found in concentrations 340, 380 and 420 mg/L of acetylsalicylic acid. TBARS, GPx and GST didn't show statistically significant activity in tested concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid. The results revealed a statistically significantly higher degree of sensitivity in the embryonic stages of zebrafish compared to its juveniles. Acetylsalicylic acid did not cause statistically significantly higher antioxidative defence in zebrafish.

  1. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  2. In vivo dosimetry and acute toxicity in breast cancer patients undergoing intraoperative radiotherapy as boost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jason Joon Bock; Choi, Jin Hyun; Lee, Ik Jae; Park, Kwang Woo; Kim, Kang Pyo; Kim, Jun Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung Gwe; Jeong, Joon [Dept. of Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To report the results of a correlation analysis of skin dose assessed by in vivo dosimetry and the incidence of acute toxicity. This is a phase 2 trial evaluating the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as a boost for breast cancer patients. Eligible patients were treated with IORT of 20 Gy followed by whole breast irradiation (WBI) of 46 Gy. A total of 55 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 month after WBI were evaluated. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) detected radiation dose delivered to the skin during IORT. Acute toxicity was recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Clinical parameters were correlated with seroma formation and maximum skin dose. Median follow-up after IORT was 25.9 weeks (range, 12.7 to 50.3 weeks). Prior to WBI, only one patient developed acute toxicity. Following WBI, 30 patients experienced grade 1 skin toxicity and three patients had grade 2 skin toxicity. Skin dose during IORT exceeded 5 Gy in two patients: with grade 2 complications around the surgical scar in one patient who received 8.42 Gy. Breast volume on preoperative images (p = 0.001), ratio of applicator diameter and breast volume (p = 0.002), and distance between skin and tumor (p = 0.003) showed significant correlations with maximum skin dose. IORT as a boost was well-tolerated among Korean women without severe acute complication. In vivo dosimetry with OSLD can help ensure safe delivery of IORT as a boost.

  3. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Douglas K; Ivey, Christopher D; Kunz, James L; May, Thomas W; Dwyer, F James; Roberts, Andy D; Augspurger, Tom; Kane, Cynthia M; Neves, Richard J; Barnhart, M Chris

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 microg Cu/L (except 15 microg Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were acute values (FAVs) used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 acute water quality criterion (WQC) for copper and 1999 acute WQC for ammonia. However, the chlorine EC50s for mussels generally were >40 microg/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC.

  4. Metal uptake and acute toxicity in zebrafish: common mechanisms across multiple metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2011-10-01

    Zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were used to examine the mechanisms of action and acute toxicities of metals. Larvae had similar physiological responses and sensitivities to waterborne metals as adults. While cadmium and zinc have previously been shown to reduce Ca(2+) uptake, copper and nickel also decreased Ca(2+) uptake, suggesting that the epithelial transport of all these metals is through Ca(2+) pathways. However, exposure to cadmium, copper or nickel for up to 48 h had little or no effect on total whole body Ca(2+) levels, indicating that the reduction of Ca(2+) uptake is not the acute toxic mechanism of these metals. Instead, mortalities were effectively related to whole body Na(+), which decreased up to 39% after 48 h exposures to different metals around their respective 96 h LC50s. Decreases in whole body K(+) were also observed, although they were not as pronounced or frequent as Na(+) losses. None of the metals tested inhibited Na(+) uptake in zebrafish (Na(+) uptake was in fact increased with exposure) and the observed losses of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were proportional to the ionic gradients between the plasma and water, indicating diffusive ion loss with metal exposure. This study has shown that there is a common pathway for metal uptake and a common mechanism of acute toxicity across groups of metals in zebrafish. The disruption of ion uptake accompanying metal exposure does not appear to be responsible for the acute toxicity of metals, as has been previously suggested, but rather the toxicity is instead due to total ion loss (predominantly Na(+)). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yovino, Susannah; Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma; David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael; Pandya, Naimesh; Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader; Regine, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Species comparison of acute inhalation toxicity of ozone and phosgene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, G.E.; Slade, R.; Stead, A.G.; Graham, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of the concentration-response effects of inhaled ozone (O/sub 3/) and phosgene (COCl/sub 2/) in different species of laboratory animals was made in order to better understand the influence of the choice of species in inhalation toxicity studies. The effect of 4-h exposures to ozone at concentrations of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ppm, and to COCl/sub 2/ and 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm was determined in rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, hamsters, and mice. Lavage fluid protein (LFP) accumulation 18-20 h after exposure was used as the indicator of O3- and COCl/sub 2/-induced pulmonary edema. All species had similar basal levels of LFP (250-350 mg/ml) when a volume of saline that approximated the total lung capacity was used to lavage the collapsed lungs. Ozone effects were most marked in guinea pigs, which showed significant effects at 0.2 ppm and above. Mice, hamsters, and rats showed effects at 1.0 ppm O3 and above, while rabbits responded only at 2.0 ppm O3. Phosgene similarly affected mice, hamsters, and rats at 0.2 ppm and above, while guinea pigs and rabbits were affected at 0.5 ppm and above. Percent recovery of lavage fluid varied significantly between species, guinea pigs having lower recovery than other species with both gases. Lavage fluid recovery was lower following exposure to higher levels of O3 but not COCl/sub 2/. Results of this study indicate that significant species differences are seen in the response to low levels of O3 and COCl/sub 2/. These differences do not appear to be related in a simple manner to body weight.

  8. Effect of Acute Toxicity of Cadmium in Mice Kidney Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Masoomi Karimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals in our environment having a very strong ability to accumulate in body organs, especially in kidney. The present study was done to determine the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in kidneys of rats exposed to cadmium. Methods: Male rats (n=30, kept in standard conditions were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups (control and treatment. The treatment group was intraperitoneally injected with Cd (300µm/kg at hours 0, 6, 12, 24, 48. Twenty four hours after the last injection, the rats were sacrificed and their kidneys were obtained. Then oxidative stress markers, malondialdehide (MDA, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, were assayed in homogenized kidney for studying their cytotoxicity. For genotoxicity and DNA damage studies, Comet assay was run on isolated kidney cells. Data analysis was done by t-test and ANOVA using SPSS software version 15. Results: MDA and GSH concentrations in normal and Cd exposed kidney cells were 287.01±37.30nmol/g.pr and 15.61±3.89µmol/g.pr and 609.24±87.87nmol/g.pr and 28.52±5.22µmol/g.pr, respectively. In addition, SOD activity in normal and Cd exposed kidney cells were 77.75±4.12 and 218.91±5.40 U/mg.pr, respectively. Comet assay results (content comet length, tail length, and head diameter showed DNA breakage in the treatment group that was stimulated by Cd which was not seen in the control group. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the genotoxicity effect of Cd on kidney cells as well as the ability of Cd to producing cytotoxicity.

  9. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  10. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  11. Intensity modulated whole pelvic radiotherapy in patients with cervix cancer: analysis of acute toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Min; Lee, Hyung Sik; Hur, Won Joo; Cha, Moon Seok; Kim, Hyun Ho [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    To evaluate acute toxicities in cervix cancer patients receiving intensity modulated whole pelvic radiation therapy (IM-WPRT). Between August 2004 and April 2006, 17 patients who underwent IM-WPRT were analysed. An intravenous contrast agent was used for radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT). The central clinical target volume (CTV) included the primary tumor, uterus, vagina, and parametrium. The nodal CTV was defined as the lymph nodes larger than 1 cm seen on CT and the contrased-enhanced pelvic vessels. The planning target volume (PTV) was the 1-cm expanded volume around the central CTV, except for a 5-mm expansion from the posterior vagina, and the nodal PTV was defined as the nodal CTV plus a 1.5 cm margin. IM-WPRT was prescribed to deliver a dose of 50 Gy to more than 95% of the PTV. Acute toxicity was assessed with common toxicity criteria up to 60 days after radiotherapy. Grade 1 nausea developed in 10 (58.9%) patients, and grade 1 and 2 diarrhea developed in 11 (64.7%) and 1 (5.9%) patients, respectively. No grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity was seen. Leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 15 (88.2%). 7 (41.2%), and 2 (11.8%) patients, respectively, as hematologic toxicities. Grade 3 leukopenia developed in 2 patients who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. IM-WPRT can be a useful treatment for cervix cancer patients with decreased severe acute toxicities and a resultant improved compliance to whole pelvic irradiation.

  12. CXCR4 and NMDA Receptors Are Functionally Coupled in Rat Hippocampal Noradrenergic and Glutamatergic Nerve Endings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prisco, Silvia; Olivero, Guendalina; Merega, Elisa; Bonfiglio, Tommaso; Marchi, Mario; Pittaluga, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies had shown that the HIV-1 capsidic glycoprotein gp120 (strain IIIB) modulates presynaptic release-regulating NMDA receptors on noradrenergic and glutamatergic terminals. This study aims to assess whether the chemokine CXC4 receptors (CXCR4s) has a role in the gp120-mediated effects. The effect of CXCL12, the endogenous ligand at CXCR4, on the NMDA-mediated releasing activity was therefore investigated. Rat hippocampal synaptosomes were preloaded with [ 3 H]noradrenaline ([ 3 H]NA) or [ 3 H]D-aspartate ([ 3 H]D-Asp) and acutely exposed to CXCL12, to NMDA or to both agonists. CXCL12, inactive on its own, facilitated the NMDA-evoked tritium release. The NMDA antagonist MK-801 abolished the NMDA/CXCL12-evoked tritium release of both radiolabelled tracers, while the CXCR4 antagonist AMD 3100 halved it, suggesting that rat hippocampal nerve endings possess presynaptic release-regulating CXCR4 receptors colocalized with NMDA receptors. Accordingly, Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of CXCR4 proteins in synaptosomal plasmamembranes. In both synaptosomal preparations, CXCL12-induced facilitation of NMDA-mediated release was dependent upon PLC-mediated src-induced events leading to mobilization of Ca 2+ from intraterminal IP 3 -sensitive stores Finally, the gp120-induced facilitation of NMDA-mediated release of [ 3 H]NA and [ 3 H]D-Asp was prevented by AMD 3100. We propose that CXCR4s are functionally coupled to NMDA receptors in rat hippocampal noradrenergic and glutamatergic terminals and account for the gp120-induced modulation of the NMDA-mediated central effects. The NMDA/CXCR4 cross-talk could have a role in the neuropsychiatric symptoms often observed in HIV-1 positive patients.

  13. Small Microbial Three-Electrode Cell Based Biosensor for Online Detection of Acute Water Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Zhai, Junfeng; Liu, Changyu; Zhang, Xueping; Bai, Lu; Wang, Yizhe; Dong, Shaojun

    2017-11-22

    The monitoring of toxicity of water is very important to estimate the safety of drinking water and the level of water pollution. Herein, a small microbial three-electrode cell (M3C) biosensor filled with polystyrene particles was proposed for online monitoring of the acute water toxicity. The peak current of the biosensor related with the performance of the bioanode was regarded as the toxicity indicator, and thus the acute water toxicity could be determined in terms of inhibition ratio by comparing the peak current obtained with water sample to that obtained with nontoxic standard water. The incorporation of polystyrene particles in the electrochemical cell not only reduced the volume of the samples used, but also improved the sensitivity of the biosensor. Experimental conditions including washing time with PBS and the concentration of sodium acetate solution were optimized. The stability of the M3C biosensor under optimal conditions was also investigated. The M3C biosensor was further examined by formaldehyde at the concentration of 0.01%, 0.03%, and 0.05% (v/v), and the corresponding inhibition ratios were 14.6%, 21.6%, and 36.4%, respectively. This work provides a new insight into the development of an online toxicity detector based on M3C biosensor.

  14. Influence of water hardness on acute toxicity of copper and zinc on fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimpour, Mohammad; Alipour, Hosain; Rakhshah, Solaiman

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to utilize static test for examining the acute toxicity of two essential elements, Cu and Zn, to a native fish, Capoeta fusca, by static bioassay. The acute toxicity of two heavy metals to C. fusca was determined in the soft, hard and very hard water (40, 150 and 380 mg/L as CaCO(3)). Results showed that toxicity of Cu and Zn decreased with increasing water hardness, so that water hardness had a significant effect on Cu and Zn toxicity on fish. Copper and Zn were more toxic in the soft water than in the hard water. The 96-hour lethal concentration for 50% (LC(50)) values for C. fusca were lower in the soft water compared with the hard and very hard water. The 96-hour LC(50) for Cu at the soft, hard and very hard water was found to be 1.1, 5.4 and 7.5 mg/L, respectively, while the 96-hour LC(50) for Zn at the soft, hard and very hard water was found to be 13.7, 74.4 and 102.9 mg/L, respectively.

  15. Acute toxicity test of CuO nanoparticles using human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Luisa; Cao, Giacomo

    2014-10-01

    Despite the growing interest in nanoparticles (NPs), standardized procedures for the evaluation of their toxicity have not been defined. The risk of human exposure is rapidly increasing and reliable toxicity test systems are urgently needed. In vitro methods are ideal in toxicology research because they can rapidly provide reproducible results while preventing the use of animals. Recently, a new test for acute toxicity based on the use of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) has been developed and successfully tested in our laboratory following the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods guidelines. Along these lines, the aim of this study is to evaluate the acute cytotoxicity of copper oxide (CuO) NPs using the new toxicity test based on hBMMSCs. Our results show that CuO NPs are much more toxic compared to micrometer ones. Specifically, CuO NP exposure exhibits a significant cytotoxicity at all the concentrations used, with an IC50 value of 2.5 ± 0.53 µg/ml. On the other hand, CuO microsized particle exposure exhibits a very low cytotoxicity at the same concentrations, with an IC50 value of 72.13 ± 16.2 µg/ml.

  16. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Ozlem Perk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg−1 for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  17. Acute Toxicity of Imidazole Nitrate Ionic Liquids with Varying Chain Lengths to Earthworms (Eisenia foetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuting; Du, Zhongkun; Zhang, Cheng; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun

    2017-08-01

    When ionic liquids (ILs) first came into use, we thought that they were safe. However, upon further investigation, researchers found that ILs are not harmless. In this study, the model soil organism, earthworms (Eisenia foetida), were used to study the acute toxicity of imidazole nitrate ionic liquids with varying chain lengths from 2 to 12. The experiment used two different methods, a filter paper contact test (48 h) and an artificial soil test (14 days), to determine the toxicity. These results demonstrated that the toxicity increased with the length of carbon chains until C 8 and that the cut-off effect occurred at 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazole nitrates.Then, the toxicity began to increase again. At the same time, the concentrations of [C 10 mim]NO 3 and [C 12 mim]NO 3 were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and demonstrated that ILs were stable throughout the experiment. The present study revealed the acute toxicity of ILs with varying chain lengths.

  18. [Study on acute toxicity of outlet water of new technology from a sewage treatment plant in Zhengzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Li, Bo; Xu, Xueqin; Pei, Lanying; Sun, Chunyang; Van, Guoli

    2015-07-01

    To study the acute toxicity of outlet water of new technology from a sewage treatment plant in Zhengzhou City, and provide scientific basis for safety evaluation of municipal sewage reuse. Based on procedures and tests for toxicological evaluations of chemicals (GBZ/T 240-2011), the acute oral toxicity test, the acute dermal toxicity test, the acute eye irritation test, the skin irritation and sensitization tests were conducted on advanced treatment outlet water. The LD50 of outlet water of new technology in female mice and male mice were 6810 and 4220 mg/kg BW in the acute oral toxicity test respectively, and the former was actually no grade toxicity, the latter was low grade toxicity. The LD50 in female rats and male rats were 6810 and 5620 mg/kg BW in the acute dermal toxicity test respectively, and both were no grade toxicity. Advanced treatment outlet water could damage the rabbit cornea and conjunctiva differently, IAOI was 28, and MIOI was less than 20 after seven days, so advanced treatment outlet water had middle irritation for the rabbit cornea and conjunctiva. The mean value of skin irritation was 0, so it had no irritation for guinea pigs. The mean value of skin sensitization was 0, so it had no sensitization for guinea pigs. Outlet water of new technology is reused by reducing the chances of contracting it with the mouth and eyes, and has no skin irritation and skin sensitization.

  19. In vivo effects of antibodies from patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: further evidence of synaptic glutamatergic dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Manto, Mario; Dalmau, Josep; Didelot, Adrien; Rogemond, Véronique; Honnorat, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A severe encephalitis that associates with auto-antibodies to the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) was recently reported. Patients' antibodies cause a decrease of the density of NMDA-R and synaptic mediated currents, but the in vivo effects on the extracellular glutamate and glutamatergic transmission are unknown. Methods We investigated the acute metabolic effects of patients' CSF and purified IgG injected in vivo. Injections were performed in CA1 area of Ammon's...

  20. Cumulative toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures to Chironomus dilutus under acute exposure scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin M; Morrissey, Christy A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Liber, Karsten

    2017-11-01

    Extensive agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticide products has resulted in the presence of neonicotinoid mixtures in surface waters worldwide. Although many aquatic insect species are known to be sensitive to neonicotinoids, the impact of neonicotinoid mixtures is poorly understood. In the present study, the cumulative toxicities of binary and ternary mixtures of select neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) were characterized under acute (96-h) exposure scenarios using the larval midge Chironomus dilutus as a representative aquatic insect species. Using the MIXTOX approach, predictive parametric models were fitted and statistically compared with observed toxicity in subsequent mixture tests. Single-compound toxicity tests yielded median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 4.63, 5.93, and 55.34 μg/L for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, respectively. Because of the similar modes of action of neonicotinoids, concentration-additive cumulative mixture toxicity was the predicted model. However, we found that imidacloprid-clothianidin mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-level-dependent synergism, clothianidin-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated concentration-additive synergism, and imidacloprid-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-ratio-dependent synergism, with toxicity shifting from antagonism to synergism as the relative concentration of thiamethoxam increased. Imidacloprid-clothianidin-thiamethoxam ternary mixtures demonstrated response-additive synergism. These results indicate that, under acute exposure scenarios, the toxicity of neonicotinoid mixtures to C. dilutus cannot be predicted using the common assumption of additive joint activity. Indeed, the overarching trend of synergistic deviation emphasizes the need for further research into the ecotoxicological effects of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures in field settings, the development of better toxicity models for neonicotinoid mixture

  1. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicity of selected pesticides to freshwater shrimp, Paratya australiensis (Decapoda: Atyidae): use of time series acute toxicity data to predict chronic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Correll, R; Grocke, S; Bajet, C

    2010-03-01

    Toxicity of six pesticides (carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, dimethoate, diuron and fenarimol) to the freshwater shrimp, Paratya australiensis was assessed after 96 h exposures. Of the six pesticides tested, alpha cypermethrin was the most toxic to the shrimp followed by chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, dimethoate, fenarimol and diuron. Regression methods for predicting chronic toxicity (lethality) from acute lethality data with shrimp were developed and compared, and it was found that the log-log model gives the most reliable predictions of the probability of death as a function of extended exposure times. Based on this model, chronic toxicity (21 days) to P. australiensis was estimated as 0.0058 microg/L for alpha cypermethrin, 4.9 microg/L for carbaryl, 0.004 microg/L for chlorpyrifos, 89 microg/L for dimethoate, 240 microg/L for diuron and 1500 microg/L for fenarimol. Acute LC(10) values were also useful predictors of the chronic lethality. The log-log model was used to derive extrapolated chronic values that were compared to measured experimental chronic values for two fish species. The predictions of chronic toxicity based on acute toxicity data were found to give credible results for both fish species. These predictions of chronic toxicity can therefore be used in ecological risk assessments to fill in gaps with reasonable confidence where no measured estimates of chronic toxicity are available. (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vincristine toxicity with co-administration of fluconazole during induction therapy for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, Andrew B; Faircloth, Cassidy B; Deal, Allison; Troy, Michael; Gold, Stuart H

    2017-10-01

    Antifungal prophylaxis is recommended for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during high-risk periods such as induction; however, increased vincristine toxicities have been reported with the co-administration of triazole antifungals. We sought to determine whether vincristine-associated toxicities are higher among children with ALL concurrently given fluconazole prophylaxis compared to no prophylaxis. Using a retrospective cohort design, we reviewed records of pediatric patients treated for newly diagnosed ALL from 2003 to 2013. Patients were classified by fluconazole exposure during induction. The development of vincristine-associated toxicity and vincristine dose adjustment were the primary outcomes evaluated. The adjusted risk difference (RD) for vincristine-related toxicity associated with triazole exposure was determined. We identified 197 patients meeting inclusion criteria for evaluation, 160 (81%) of whom received fluconazole prophylaxis. Among patients receiving fluconazole, 36/160 (22%) developed vincristine toxicity compared to 7/37 (19%) among those not receiving prophylaxis (RD: 3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -11 to 18%). Adjusting for patient age and race, no statistically significant increased risk for vincristine-associated toxicity with fluconazole exposure was observed (RD 5%, 95% CI -8 to 17%). An increased risk for vincristine-associated toxicity was independently associated with age 10 years or older (RD 19%, 95% CI 4-34%). Co-administration of fluconazole during induction therapy for pediatric ALL does not significantly increase the risk for vincristine-associated toxicities; however, patients 10 years or older are at an increased risk for toxicity independent of fluconazole exposure. Prophylaxis with fluconazole during induction therapy for pediatric ALL, if warranted, appears to be a safe clinical practice. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchini, A.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Gregory, S.

    2002-01-01

    -specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from...... hypothesis. Therefore, sensitivity to AgNO3, in terms of either total measured silver or free Ag+, was reliably predicted from the whole body Na+ uptake rate in animals with body mass ranging over 6 orders of magnitude (from micrograms to grams). A positive log-log correlation between acute AgNO3 toxicity...... and body mass of the same species was also observed. Furthermore, the whole body Na+ uptake rate was inversely related to body mass in unexposed animals. The combination of these last two results explains why the small animals in this study were more sensitive to Ag+ than the larger ones. Taken together...

  5. Acute and subacute toxicity study of 1,8-cineole in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Hu, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Chuan; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Wei, Qin; Zhou, Li-Jun; Li, Li; Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Li, Mei; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Liang, Xiao-Xia; He, Chang-Liang; Yin, Li-Zi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of acute and subacute toxicity of 1,8-cineole in Kunming mice were studied. After acute oral administration, the LD50 value (95% CL) was 3849 mg/kg (3488.8~4247.1 mg/kg). In the subacute toxicity study, there were no significant differences in body weight and relative organ weight between the control group and 1,8-cineole treatment groups. The histopathological examinations showed that granular degeneration and vacuolar degeneration appeared in liver and kidney tissue after administration of high dose of 1,8-cineole. Under electron microscopy, a series of ultrastructural changes were observed: The electron microscopy assays indicated that the influence of 1,8-cineole on the target organ at the subcellular level were mainly on the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and other membrane type structure of liver and kidney. PMID:24817945

  6. Acute Toxicity Study of “Gadagi” Tea on Rats | Gadanya | Bayero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity study was carried out on three most common types of “Gadagi” tea preparations, “sak'',”sada” and “magani”.. LD50 values of each type of the tea were determined. Results of phase I and phase II of the study showed no mortality was recorded in any of the experimental groups of rats in 24hours and up to four ...

  7. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    OpenAIRE

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Doukkali, Zouhra; Bouidida, El Houcine; Touati, Driss; Nejjari, Rachid; El Guessabi, Lahcen; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO) from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant ca...

  8. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Sinnige, T.L.; Holsteijn, I. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6,-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide® 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methyl-cyclopenta[γ]-2- benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two

  9. Acute Toxicity of Delsate® Herbicide (Glyphosate) On Albumin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some biochemical metabolism [albumin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)] were monitored in the serum of fresh water adult African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus exposed to acute concentrations of Delsate herbicide for 96 hours. The concentrations of the toxicant tested were 0.5 mgL-1, 1.0 mgL-1, 1.5 mgL-1, 2.0 mgL-1 and 2.5 ...

  10. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Anders, Nico [RWTH Aachen University, Aachener Verfahrenstechnik — Enzyme Process Technology, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Klankermayer, Jürgen [RWTH Aachen University, Institut für Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Schaeffer, Andreas [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Chongqing University, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing 400715 (China); Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hollert, Henner, E-mail: Henner.Hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Chongqing University, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing 400715 (China); Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tongji University, College of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC{sub 50}: 83 mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC{sub 50}: 2980 mg/L), 2-MF (LC{sub 50}: 405 mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC{sub 50}: 244 mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels. - Highlights: • The demand for biofuels increases but their (eco)toxicological effects are unknown. • Acute fish embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of potential biofuels were evaluated. • Ethyl levulinate induced a higher acute toxicity compared to WAFs of gasoline. • Ethyl levulinate caused

  11. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol Extract in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Yuet Ping

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P>0.05 in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity.

  12. A Microfluidic Device for Continuous Sensing of Systemic Acute Toxicants in Drinking Water

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    Xinyan Zhao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A bioluminescent-cell-based microfluidic device for sensing toxicants in drinking water was designed and fabricated. The system employed Vibrio fischeri cells as broad-spectrum sensors to monitor potential systemic cell toxicants in water, such as heavy metal ions and phenol. Specifically, the chip was designed for continuous detection. The chip design included two counter-flow micromixers, a T-junction droplet generator and six spiral microchannels. The cell suspension and water sample were introduced into the micromixers and dispersed into droplets in the air flow. This guaranteed sufficient oxygen supply for the cell sensors. Copper (Cu2+, zinc (Zn2+, potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol were selected as typical toxicants to validate the sensing system. Preliminary tests verified that the system was an effective screening tool for acute toxicants although it could not recognize or quantify specific toxicants. A distinct non-linear relationship was observed between the zinc ion concentration and the Relative Luminescence Units (RLU obtained during testing. Thus, the concentration of simple toxic chemicals in water can be roughly estimated by this system. The proposed device shows great promise for an early warning system for water safety.

  13. Acute toxicity of agricultural pesticides to embryo-larval and juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbohessi, P T; Imorou Toko, I; Houndji, A; Gillardin, V; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2013-05-01

    Acute toxicities of Tihan 175 O-TEQ, as well as its active ingredients flubendiamide and spirotetramat, and of Thionex 350 EC (active compound endosulfan) were measured for embryo-larval and juvenile stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus to assess risks of pesticide use in the cotton basin in Benin (West Africa). For embryo-larval stages, Tihan was more toxic (LC5048h 20 ppm) than Thionex (LC5048h 56 ppm), and flubendiamide was more toxic (LC5048h 2.0 ppm) than spirotetramat (LC5048h 8.44 ppm). All decreased hatching rates. Tihan and spirotetramat disturbed larval swimming coordination; flubendiamide induced tail cleavage. For juvenile fish, Thionex was more toxic (LC5096h 0.22 ppm) than Tihan (LC5096h 8.8 ppm), and flubendiamide (LC5096h 4.7 ppm) was more toxic than spirotetramat (LC5096h 6.0 ppm). Eggs were more resistant than juvenile fish to all tested pesticides except flubendiamide. Although Thionex was more toxic to juvenile fish, replacing Thionex with Tihan may be undesirable for survival of eggs and larvae.

  14. Safety Evaluation of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Rhizome Extract: Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Poachanukoon, Orapan; Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Dechatiwongse Na Ayudhya, Thaweephol; Khonsung, Parirat; Jaijoy, Kanjana; Soawakontha, Ruedee; Chanchai, Monraudee

    2014-01-01

    Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. has been used for traditional medicine, but few studies have described its potential toxicity. In this study, the acute and chronic oral toxicity of Z. cassumunar extract granules were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. However, a decrease in body weights was observed in treated males (P < 0.05). The weights of lung and kidney of treated females were increased (P < 0.05). Treated males were increased in spleen and epididymis weights (P < 0.05). In repeated dose 270-day oral toxicity study, the administration of the extracts at concentrations of 0.3, 3, 30, 11.25, 112.5, and 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day revealed no-treatment toxicity. Although certain endpoints among those monitored (i.e., organ weight, hematological parameters, and clinical chemistry) exhibited statistically significant effects, none was adverse. Gross and histological observations revealed no toxicity. Our findings suggest that the Z. cassumunar extract granules are well tolerated for both single and chronic administration. The oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the extract was 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day for males and females. PMID:27379341

  15. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of Euphorbia hirta L. methanol extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Sreeramanan, Subramaniam; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5,000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1,000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity.

  16. Safety Assessment of Ocimum Basilicum Hydroalcoholic Extract in Wistar Rats: Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Mehri, Soghra; Kamli-Nejad, Mohammad; Aslani, Majid; Tanbakoosazan, Farahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Ocimum basilicum L. is widely used in folk medicine of many countries including . Both O. basilicum and its oil extract have received considerable attention for their potential medicinal properties, but there are a few reports about possible toxicity of this plant. Therefore, in the present study, acute and subchronic toxicity of O. basilicum hydroalcohlic extract have been evaluated in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods For the acute toxicity assessment, five groups of 10 animals (5 male, 5 female) received four different single dose of extract orally, the animals were, then, kept under observation for 14 days. For subchronic toxicity, the animals were divided into four groups (5 male, 5 female) and were gavaged daily by 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg of extract. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical parameters were monitored during the study period. On the 45th day, animals were sacrificed and gross findings, weight of liver and left kidney and liver histological markers were assessed. Results The results of acute study indicated that LD50 of O. basilicum is higher than 5 mg/kg. In subchronic study, no adverse effects were observed on serum parameters in male and female rats. The hematological results showed a reduction in the hematocrit, platelets and RBC in both sexes. No abnormalities were observed in other parameters. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, present data suggest that hematologic system could serve as a target organ in oral toxicity of this plant. PMID:23493182

  17. Acute and subacute oral toxicity evaluation of Tephrosia purpurea extract in rodents

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    Talib Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of 50% ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea in rodents. Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extract of T. purpurea was administrated in single doses of 50, 300 and 2000 mg/ kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In subacute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administered two doses of T. purpurea i.e., 200 and 400 mg/kg (One-tenth and one-fifth of the maximum tolerated dose, p.o. for 4 weeks. During 28 days of treatment, rats were observed weekly for any change in their body weight, food and water intake. At the end of 28 days, rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology study. Results: In the acute toxicity study, T. purpurea was found to be well tolerated upto 2 000 mg/kg, produced neither mortality nor changes in behavior in mice. In subacute toxicity study, T. purpurea at dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg did not produce any significant difference in their body weight, food and water intake when compared to vehicle treated rats. It also showed no significant alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters in experimental groups of rats apart from a decrease in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate content at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Histopathological study revealed normal architecture of kidney and liver of T. purpurea treated rats. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of T. purpurea and further corroborated the traditional use of this extract as an anti hepatocarcinogenic agent

  18. Modifiable risk factors for acute skin toxicity in adjuvant breast radiotherapy: Dosimetric analysis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Lorna G; Lavan, Naomi; Dunne, Mary; McArdle, Orla

    2018-03-23

    Acute skin toxicity in adjuvant breast radiation can be reduced with modern radiotherapy (RT) techniques. However, having reviewed the literature, we found no dosimetric constraint for acute skin toxicity that would be applicable to modern RT planning. This study aimed to identify dosimetric factors that are associated with higher rates of acute skin toxicity. A retrospective review was carried out including women who received adjuvant forward-planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) after breast-conserving surgery. Acute skin toxicity grade was prospectively recorded. A total of 131 patients were analyzed. On multivariate analysis, the V105% > 30 cc (p = 0.013) and the use of conventional fractionation (CF) (p = 0.001) were statistically significant for acute skin toxicity. On literature review, current quantitative dosimetric parameters that have shown statistical significance include a V107% > 3 cc in hypofractionation (HF), V107% > 9 cc in CF, treated volume 110% > 5.13%, and V107% > 28.6%. There is little evidence on the predictive value of clinically applicable dosimetric factors in acute skin toxicity. Given the recent improvements in RT planning, we would consider a V107% or a V110% too high a dosimetric value to be useful for the majority of patients. We have shown that a V105% of greater than 30 cc is significantly associated with acute skin toxicity, controlling for other variables. We suggest that this is currently the most useful modifiable parameter available to reduce skin toxicity and is applicable to modern RT planning. We also suggest that consideration be given to hypofractionated schedules to further reduce acute skin toxicity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Acute toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with and without image-guided radiotherapy

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    Williams Scott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT increases the accuracy of treatment delivery through daily target localisation. We report on toxicity symptoms experienced during radiotherapy treatment, with and without IGRT in prostate cancer patients treated radically. Methods Between 2006 and 2009, acute toxicity data for ten symptoms were collected prospectively onto standardized assessment forms. Toxicity was scored during radiotherapy, according to the Common Terminology Criteria Adverse Events V3.0, for 275 prostate cancer patients before and after the implementation of a fiducial marker IGRT program and dose escalation from 74Gy in 37 fractions, to 78Gy in 39 fractions. Margins and planning constraints were maintained the same during the study period. The symptoms scored were urinary frequency, cystitis, bladder spasm, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, proctitis, anal skin discomfort and fatigue. Analysis was conducted for the maximum grade of toxicity and the median number of days from the onset of that toxicity to the end of treatment. Results In the IGRT group, 14228 toxicity scores were analysed from 249 patients. In the non-IGRT group, 1893 toxicity scores were analysed from 26 patients. Urinary frequency ≥G3 affected 23% and 7% in the non-IGRT and IGRT group respectively (p = 0.0188. Diarrhoea ≥G2 affected 15% and 3% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0174. Fatigue ≥G2 affected 23% and 8% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0271. The median number of days with a toxicity was higher for ≥G2 (p = 0.0179 and ≥G3 frequency (p = 0.0027, ≥G2 diarrhoea (p = 0.0033 and ≥G2 fatigue (p = 0.0088 in the non-IGRT group compared to the IGRT group. Other toxicities were not of significant statistical difference. Conclusions In this study, prostate cancer patients treated radically with IGRT had less severe urinary frequency, diarrhoea and fatigue during treatment

  20. Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

    2013-11-01

    Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute

  1. Paclitaxel nanosuspensions coated with P-gp inhibitory surfactants: I. Acute toxicity and pharmacokinetics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Liu, Guiyang; Kang, Jiarui; Niu, Meng; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Hongwei; Ma, Jianli; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity and pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel nanosuspensions stabilized with TPGS in mice. The paclitaxel nanosuspensions were prepared by evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS) method, and freeze-dried powders of the nanosuspensions were obtained through lyophilization process. The morphology and particle size of nanosuspensions were determined by transmission electron microscope and Zetasizer, respectively. The acute toxicity and pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel nanosuspensions after intravenous administration to Kunming mice were studied. A marketed paclitaxel injectable solution was studied parallelly. The paclitaxel nanoparticles were in rod shape under transmission electron microscope, and their mean particle size was 135.4 ± 5.7 nm. Results of acute toxicity showed the LD50 of paclitaxel nanosuspensions was 98.63 mg/kg, twice more than that of the marketed injection (41.46 mg/kg). After intravenous injection paclitaxel nanosuspensions displayed different pharmacokinetic properties in comparison with the marketed injectable solution, including a decreased initial drug concentration, increased plasma half-life, AUC and MRT. The paclitaxel nanosuspensions prepared in this study could markedly enhance the tolerance dosage in mice, and manifest different pharmacokinetic properties compared with the solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enantioselective acute toxicity effects and bioaccumulation of furalaxyl in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fang; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Xu, Peng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2014-06-01

    The enantioselectivities of individual enantiomers of furalaxyl in acute toxicity and bioaccumulation in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were studied. The acute toxicity was tested by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values of the R-form, rac-form, and S-form were 2.27, 2.08, and 1.22 µg cm(-2), respectively. After 72 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values were 1.90, 1.54, and 1.00 µg cm(-2), respectively. Therefore, the acute toxicity of furalaxyl enantiomers was enantioselective. During the bioaccumulation experiment, the enantiomer fraction of furalaxyl in earthworm tissue was observed to deviate from 0.50 and maintained a range of 0.55-0.60; in other words, the bioaccumulation of furalaxyl was enantioselective in earthworm tissue with a preferential accumulation of S-furalaxyl. The uptake kinetic of furalaxyl enantiomers fitted the first-order kinetics well and the calculated kinetic parameters were consistent with the low accumulation efficiency. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 against Acute Cadmium Toxicity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qixiao; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610, a selected probiotic with good cadmium binding capacity, against acute cadmium toxicity in mice. Ninety mice were divided into prevention and therapy groups. In the prevention groups, CCFM8610 was administered at 109 CFU once daily for 7 days, followed by a single oral dose of cadmium chloride at 1.8 mg cadmium for each mouse. In the therapy groups, the same dose of CCFM8610 was administered for 2 days after an identical single dose of cadmium exposure. Mice that received neither cadmium nor culture or that received cadmium alone served as negative and positive controls, respectively. The effects of both living and dead CCFM8610 on cadmium ion concentrations in feces, liver, and kidney were determined. Moreover, the alterations in reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and histopathology in the liver and kidney were investigated. The results showed that compared to the mice that received cadmium only, CCFM8610 treatment can effectively decrease intestinal cadmium absorption, reduce tissue cadmium accumulation, alleviate renal and hepatic oxidative stress, and ameliorate hepatic histopathological changes. Living CCFM8610 administered after cadmium exposure offered the most significant protection. Our results suggested that CCFM8610 is more effective against acute cadmium toxicity than a simple antioxidant treatment due to its special physiological functions and that it can be considered a new dietary therapeutic strategy against acute cadmium toxicity. PMID:23263961

  4. The Acute Inhalation Toxicity in Rats from the Pyrolysis Products of Four Fluoropolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, V. L., Jr.; Bafus, D. A.; Warrington, H. P.; Harris, E. S.

    1974-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats (225?250 g) were exposed to the thermal degradation products from four fluoropolymers. The three polymers containing vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene (VF2/HFP) were pyrolyzed at 550? and 800?C, whereas polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was pyrolyzed at 625 and 800?C. At the lower temperatures, the pyrolysate from the copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene (VF2/HFP) was less toxic than the pyrolysates from either the terpolymer of vinyidene fluoride, hexafluoropropene, and tetrafluoroethylene (VF2/HFP/TFE) or the copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene with ?additives? (VF2/HFP-A). However, the pyrolysates from the VF2/HFP-containing materials produced less toxic products than the pyrolysate from PTFE at 625?C. When the pyrolysis temperature was increased to 800?C, very little difference was noted between the pyrolysis toxicity for any of the VF2/HFP-containing polymers with the most toxic pyrolysate again produced by PTFE. Carbon monoxide levels were all sublethal. No correlation could be established between hydrolyzable fluoride levels and the lethality of the pyrolysates. Death following exposure occurred within 48 hr due to acute pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Survival of this acute phase was followed by alveolar lymphocytic infiltration and peribronchial tissue proliferation.

  5. Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, S.; Ishii, N.; Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ichimasa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kawabata, Z.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the effect levels of various toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation for the experimental model ecosystem, i.e., microcosm mimicking aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors used the microcosm consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Escherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of aluminum and copper on the microcosm were investigated in this study, while effects of γ-rays, ultraviolet radiation, acidification, manganese, nickel and gadolinium were reported in previous studies. The microcosm could detect not only the direct effects of these agents but also the community-level effects due to the interspecies interactions or the interactions between organisms and toxic agents. The authors evaluated doses or concentrations of each toxic agent which had the following effects on the microcosm: (1) no effects; (2) recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; (3) severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and (4) destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. The resulting effects data will contribute to an ecological risk assessment of the toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation

  6. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LC LO , LC 10 and LC 50 levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic toxicity from repeated airborne exposure. These publications offer important insights into the nature of HF toxicity. Several avenues of investigative research are suggested. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Acute Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Chloroform to Four Species of Freshwater Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1980-08-01

    Acute toxicity of chloroform to four species of freshwater fish was studied in flow-through 96-hr toxicity tests. Chloroform is toxic to fish in the tens of parts per million, a concentration well above that which would be expected to be produced under normal power plant chlorination conditions. Investigations of acute toxicity of chloroform and the bioaccumulation of chlorinated compounds in tissues of fish revealed differences in tolerance levels and tissue accumulations. Mean 96-hr LC{sub 50}s for chloroform were 18 ppm for rainbow trout and bluegill, 51 ppm for largemouth bass and 75 ppm for channel catfish. Mortalities of bluegill and largemouth bass occurred during the first 4 hr of exposure while rainbow trout and channel catfish showed initial tolerance and mortalities occurred during the latter half of the 96-hr exposure. Rainbow trout had the highest level of chloroform tissue accumulation, 7 {micro}g/g tissue, catfish the second highest, 4 {micro}g/g tissue, followed by bluegill and largemouth bass which each accumulated about 3 {micro}g/g tissue. Accumulation of chloroform was less than one order of magnitude above water concentrations for all species.

  8. Acute and chronic toxicity and antimicrobial activity of the extract of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity and acute or chronic toxicity of the extract of Stryphnodendron adstringens. The stem bark dry extract was obtained by static maceration with ethanol. Quantification of tannins was performed by the Folin-Denis method, which indicated a total tannin content of 32.7%. The antimicrobial activity of the dry extract of S. adstringens was evaluated by agar-based disk diffusion assay with Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 in the concentration of 200, 400 and 600μL/mL. The results indicated that 600μL/mL inhibited microbial growth, i.e. had antimicrobial activity against these species. Acute and chronic toxic effects of S. adstringens was evaluated in Wistar rats treated with 200, 400, 600 and 800mg/kg of extract, administrated by gavage. Liver degeneration was observed in the group of rats receiving 800mg/kg in chronic exposure, what may indicate some degree of toxicity at this concentration. However, no systemic toxicity was observed at lower doses. Considering the broad use of S. adstringens as a phytotherapeutic agent for various human and animal diseases and the livertoxicity observed at high concentrations, attention should be paid to the possible adverse effect of using the extract from this plant at high concentration.

  9. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxicity of Carbendazim, Main Impurities and Metabolite to Earthworms (Eisenia foetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Zhibo; Luo, Jinhui; Xu, Zhi; Xie, Defang

    2016-01-01

    The acute toxicity and genotoxicity of carbendazim, two impurities (3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine and 2,3-diaminophenazine) and one metabolite (2-aminobenzimidazole) to Eisenia foetida were assessed using artificial soil test and comet assay respectively. Acute toxicity results showed carbendazim was moderately toxic to the earthworms with 14 day-LC50 of 8.6 mg/kg dry soil while 3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine, 2,3-diaminophenazine, and 2-aminobenzimidazole were of low toxicity with 14 day-LC50 values of 19.0, 14.9, and 27.7 mg/kg dry soil respectively (nominal concentration). The olive tail moment and percentage of DNA in the tail were used as genotoxicity indices, and carbendazim could significantly induce DNA damage to the earthworm coelomocytes with obviously positive dose- and duration-response relationships while the other three substances showed similar (p = 0.05) genotoxicity results to the negative controls in all of the tests.

  10. Acute toxicity assessment of Osthol content in bio-pesticides using two aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Chae Yim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study focused on the assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol, a major component of environment-friendly biological pesticides, by using two aquatic organisms. Methods The assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol was conducted in Daphnia magna and by examining the morphological abnormalities in Danio rerio embryos. Results The median effective concentration value of Osthol in D. magna 48 hours after inoculation was 19.3 μM. The median lethal concentration of D. rerio embryo at 96 hours was 30.6 μM. No observed effect concentration and predicted no effect concentration values of Osthol in D. magna and D. rerio were calculated as 5.4 and 0.19 μM, respectively. There was an increase in the morphological abnormalities in D. rerio embryo due to Osthol over time. Coagulation, delayed hatching, yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, and pigmentation were observed in embryos at 24–48 hours. Symptoms of scoliosis and head edema occurred after 72 hours. In addition, bent tails, ocular defects, and symptoms of collapse were observed in fertilized embryo tissue within 96 hours. Ocular defects and pigmentation were the additional symptoms observed in this study. Conclusions Because Osthol showed considerable toxicity levels continuous toxicity evaluation in agro-ecosystems is necessary when bio-pesticides containing Osthol are used.

  11. Comparison of acute toxicities of two chemotherapy schedules for head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemo-radiotherapy has become the standard of care for loco-regionally advanced head and neck cancers. Platinum based regimens are the most effective. Although benefits are proven with chemo-radiation, acute toxicities are markedly increased. The dose and delivery schedules of Cisplatin have ranged from intermittent higher dose [100 mg/m2] every 3 weeks to low dose [6 mg/m2] daily administration. At present there is no data indicating which regimen is superior. Purpose: To compare acute toxicities of two chemotherapy schedules for head and neck cancers. Materials and Methods: A total of 83 head and neck cancer patients treated with two schedules of concurrent chemo RT were analyzed, retrospectively, for treatment toxicity. In group A [51 patients], chemotherapy [CT] was administered on week 1, 4 and 7 [cisplatin 100 mg/m2] over a period of 2-3 days. In group B [32 patients], CT was delivered weekly [cisplatin 40 mg/m2]. Radiotherapy dose was 7000 cGy in 35 fractions for definitive concurrent chemo-radiation and 6600 cGy in 33 fractions for adjuvant treatment. Results: Group B patients had increased grade III skin and hematological toxicity, where as patients in group A had more pharyngeal toxicity. Treatment interruptions and percentage of weight loss were higher in group B. Weekly CT schedule had higher rate of severe mucositis, which was statistically significant on both univariate [ P =0.005] and multivariate [ P =0.007] analysis. Conclusions: Three weekly CT is less toxic than weekly. Weekly CT can be made more acceptable by reducing the dose and using feeding tubes for nutrition.

  12. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  13. Acute Toxicity Comparison of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Freshwater Organisms

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    Eun Kyung Sohn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris, a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna, and a fish (Oryzias latipes based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203. According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50 of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing “acute category 3” in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish.

  14. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna(Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum(Printz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1996-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposingDaphnia magnaStraus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), andSelenastrum capricornutumPrintz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC507 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC5010 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC5079 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50or IC50value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function.

  15. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture

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    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute LD50 toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

  16. Involvement of spinal NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in rats

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    Yano Takahisa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug characterized by the development of acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies. The chronic neuropathy is a dose-limiting toxicity. We previously reported that repeated administration of oxaliplatin induced cold hyperalgesia in the early phase and mechanical allodynia in the late phase in rats. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in rats. Results Repeated administration of oxaliplatin (4 mg/kg, i.p., twice a week caused mechanical allodynia in the fourth week, which was reversed by intrathecal injection of MK-801 (10 nmol and memantine (1 μmol, NMDA receptor antagonists. Similarly, selective NR2B antagonists Ro25-6981 (300 nmol, i.t. and ifenprodil (50 mg/kg, p.o. significantly attenuated the oxaliplatin-induced pain behavior. In addition, the expression of NR2B protein and mRNA in the rat spinal cord was increased by oxaliplatin on Day 25 (late phase but not on Day 5 (early phase. Moreover, we examined the involvement of nitric oxide synthase (NOS as a downstream target of NMDA receptor. L-NAME, a non-selective NOS inhibitor, and 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal NOS (nNOS inhibitor, significantly suppressed the oxaliplatin-induced pain behavior. The intensity of NADPH diaphorase staining, a histochemical marker for NOS, in the superficial layer of spinal dorsal horn was obviously increased by oxaliplatin, and this increased intensity was reversed by intrathecal injection of Ro25-6981. Conclusion These results indicated that spinal NR2B-containing NMDA receptors are involved in the oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia.

  17. NMDA receptor signaling: death or survival?

    OpenAIRE

    LUO, Tong; WU, Wei-Hua; CHEN, Bo-Shiun

    2011-01-01

    Glutamate-induced neuronal damage is mainly caused by overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Conversely, normal physiological brain function and neuronal survival require adequate activation of NMDA receptors. Studies have revealed that NMDA receptor-induced neuronal death or survival is mediated through distinct subset of NMDA receptors triggering different intracellular signaling pathways. Here we discuss recent advances in the characterization of NMDA receptors in neurona...

  18. Regulation of NMDA Receptors by Phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bo-Shiun; Roche, Katherine W.

    2007-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are critical for neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synaptic localization and functional regulation of NMDA receptors have been the subject of extensive studies. In particular, phosphorylation has emerged as a fundamental mechanism that regulates NMDA receptor trafficking and can alter the channel properties of NMDA receptors. Here we summarize recent advances in the characterization of NMDA receptor phos...

  19. Irradiation in the setting of collagen vascular disease: acute and late toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Monica; Powell, Simon

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Based upon reports of greater toxicity from radiation therapy, collagen vascular diseases have been considered a contraindication to irradiation. We assessed the acute and late complication rate of radiation therapy in patients with collagen vascular disease. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was undertaken to analyze acute and late toxicity in the 96 patients with documented collagen vascular disease (CVD) who were irradiated between 1960 and 1995. The majority had rheumatoid arthritis (55); 14 had systemic lupus erythematosus; 7 polymyositis or dermatomyositis; 7 ankylosing spondylitis; 4 scleroderma; 2 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; and the remainder various mixed connective tissue disorders. Mean follow up of survivors was 6.3 years from time of irradiation. Treatment was megavoltage in all but 8 cases. Doses ranged from 6 to 70Gy, with an average of 41.7Gy. Treatment of 32 sites was combined with chemotherapy, 15 concurrent with irradiation. Surgery was involved in the treatment of 46 sites. Toxicity was scored using the RTOG acute and the RTOG/EORTC Late Effects on Normal Tissues radiation morbidity scoring scales. Results: Overall, 127 sites were evaluable in 96 patients. Significant (grade 3 or higher) acute complications were seen in 15 of 127 (11.8%) of irradiated sites. The actuarial incidence of significant late complications at 5 and 10 years was 16% and 24%, respectively. There was a single in-field sarcoma. 2 patients had treatment-related deaths, one from leukencephalopathy and the other from postoperative wound infection. Univariate analysis revealed late effects to be more severe in those receiving combined modality treatment (p=.03), and in those with significant acute reactions (p=.0001). Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had less severe late effects than those with other collagen vascular diseases (6% vs 37% at 5 years, p=.0001). We did not demonstrate a difference in late effects according to radiation dose, timing

  20. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women

  1. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, Paige L.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a “field-in-field” technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m 2 . Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume 25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women with a PTV volume >2,500 mL.

  2. Acute toxicity study of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Fenghua; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Luyan; Dong, Zhao; Wang, Xiaofang; Li, Xihe; Zhou, Wenzhong

    2011-11-20

    Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN) are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/kg.bw) with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD(50)) was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day. The single high dose (5 g/kg.bw) was the practical upper limit in an acute toxicity study and was administered subcutaneously on the first day. Blank HCO-SLN, native tilmicosin, and saline solution were included as controls. After medication, animals were monitored over 14 days, and then necropsied. Signs of toxicity were evaluated via mortality, symptoms of treatment effect, gross and microscopic pathology, and hematologic and biochemical parameters. After administration of native tilmicosin, all mice died within 2 h in the high dose group, in the low dose group 3 died after the first and 2 died after the second injections. The surviving mice in the tilmicosin low dose group showed hypoactivity, accelerated breath, gloomy spirit and lethargy. In contrast, all mice in Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN groups survived at both low and high doses. The high nanoparticle dose induced transient clinical symptoms of treatment effect such as transient reversible action retardation, anorexy and gloomy spirit, increased spleen and liver coefficients and decreased heart coefficients, microscopic pathological changes of liver, spleen and heart, and minor changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters, but no adverse effects were observed in the nanoparticle low dose group. The results revealed that the LD50 of Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN exceeded 5 g/kg.bw and thus the nanoparticles are considered low toxic according to the toxicity

  3. Acute toxicity study of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Shuyu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. Methods Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/kg.bw with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD50 was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day. The single high dose (5 g/kg.bw was the practical upper limit in an acute toxicity study and was administered subcutaneously on the first day. Blank HCO-SLN, native tilmicosin, and saline solution were included as controls. After medication, animals were monitored over 14 days, and then necropsied. Signs of toxicity were evaluated via mortality, symptoms of treatment effect, gross and microscopic pathology, and hematologic and biochemical parameters. Results After administration of native tilmicosin, all mice died within 2 h in the high dose group, in the low dose group 3 died after the first and 2 died after the second injections. The surviving mice in the tilmicosin low dose group showed hypoactivity, accelerated breath, gloomy spirit and lethargy. In contrast, all mice in Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN groups survived at both low and high doses. The high nanoparticle dose induced transient clinical symptoms of treatment effect such as transient reversible action retardation, anorexy and gloomy spirit, increased spleen and liver coefficients and decreased heart coefficients, microscopic pathological changes of liver, spleen and heart, and minor changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters, but no adverse effects were observed in the nanoparticle low dose group. Conclusions The results revealed that the LD50 of Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN exceeded 5 g/kg.bw and thus the

  4. Disinfection in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Evaluation of Effectiveness and Acute Toxicity Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Collivignarelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, urban wastewater disinfection is regulated in the third part of Legislative Decree n. 152/2006, which states that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs must include a disinfection unit, with a capacity exceeding 2000 Population Equivalent (PE. This treatment shall ensure microbial quality and health security. The legislation provides the following limits for wastewater: Escherichia coli (E. coli concentration below 5000 CFU 100 mL−1 (recommended value, active chlorine concentration below 0.2 mg L−1 and lack of acute toxicity. The compliance with these conditions is shown by means of the study of correct disinfectant dosage, which also depends on wastewater characteristics. An investigation at the regional level (from 2013 to 2016 shows a correlation between acute toxicity discharge and disinfection treatment through chemical reagents (mainly with the use of chlorine compounds and peracetic acid. The experimental work concerns two active sludge WWTPs in northern Italy with small capacity (10,000–12,000 PE. The activities provide the assessment of microbiological quality and toxicity of WWTPs effluents in relation to the dosage of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid, by means of the use of batch tests. The results show that with similar disinfectant dosage and comparable initial E. coli concentration, peracetic acid exhibits the best performance in terms of microbial removal (with removal yields up to 99.99%. Moreover, the acute toxicity was evident at higher doses and therefore with higher residuals of peracetic acid (2.68 mg L−1 compared to the free residual chlorine (0.17 mg L−1.

  5. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  6. Intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.; Bidwell, Joseph R.; Cope, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Geis, S.; Greer, I.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kane, C.M.; May, T.W.; Neves, R.J.; Newton, T.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Whites, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the performance and variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and newly transformed juvenile mussels using the standard methods outlined in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Multiple 48-h toxicity tests with glochidia and 96-h tests with juvenile mussels were conducted within a single laboratory and among five laboratories. All tests met the test acceptability requirements (e.g., ???90% control survival). Intralaboratory tests were conducted over two consecutive mussel-spawning seasons with mucket (Actinonaias ligamentina) or fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. For the glochidia of both species, the variability of intralaboratory median effective concentrations (EC50s) for the three toxicants, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), ranged from 14 to 27% in 24-h exposures and from 13 to 36% in 48-h exposures. The intralaboratory CV of copper EC50s for juvenile fatmucket was 24% in 48-h exposures and 13% in 96-h exposures. Interlaboratory tests were conducted with fatmucket glochidia and juveniles by five laboratories using copper as a toxicant. The interlaboratory CV of copper EC50s for glochidia was 13% in 24-h exposures and 24% in 48-h exposures, and the interlaboratory CV for juveniles was 22% in 48-h exposures and 42% in 96-h exposures. The high completion success and the overall low variability in test results indicate that the test methods have acceptable precision and can be performed routinely. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  7. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 ??g Cu/L (except 15 ??g Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were 40 ??g/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  8. Acute toxicity and aqueous solubility of some condensed thiophenes and their microbial metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, D.T.; Hrudey, S.E.; Fedorak, P.M. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Verbeek, A.G. [Chemex Labs Alberta Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1997-04-01

    Petroleum or creosote contamination of surface waters, soils, or groundwaters introduces countless aromatic compounds to these environments. Among these are condensed thiophenes that were shown to be oxidized to sulfoxides, sulfones, and 2,3-diones by microbial cultures. In this study, the acute toxicities of 12 compounds (benzothiophene, benzothiophene sulfone, benzothiophene-2,3-diones, dibenzothiophene, dibenzothiophene sulfoxide, and dibenzothiophene sulfone) were determined by the Microtox{reg_sign} and Daphnia magna bioassays. To aid in determining the toxicities, the solubilities of many of these compounds were determined, which showed that the oxidized compounds were much more water soluble than the parent thiophenes. In nearly every case, the oxidized compounds were less toxic than their parent thiophenes. The Microtox method was more sensitive than the D. magna bioassay, but in general, there was a good correlation between toxicities measured by the two tests. Samples were removed from batch cultures of a Pseudomonas strain capable of oxidizing the thiophenes, and these samples were subjected to Microtox bioassays. These experiments showed that the toxicities of the culture supernatants decreased with incubation time.

  9. Combined anaerobic–ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: Removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzi, Marisa, E-mail: marisa.punzi@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Filip [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Anbalagan, Anbarasan [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, Britt-Marie [School of Education and Environment, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad (Sweden); Jönsson, Karin [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • COD and UV absorbance were effectively reduced. • The treated effluents were non-toxic to Artemia salina and Vibrio fischeri. • The real textile wastewater was mutagenic. • Mutagenicity persisted after bio treatment and even more after a short ozonation. • Higher ozone doses completely remove mutagenicity. - Abstract: A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  10. Acute mixture toxicity of halogenated chemicals and their next generation counterparts on zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Amy; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2017-08-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals and flame retardants are halogenated compounds commonly used in food packaging and in clothing and electronics, respectively. Due to the hazardous effects of many of these chemicals, manufacturers are developing next generation potential less toxic alternatives. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of potentially "safer" alternatives, singly and in mixtures, in relation to their first generation counterparts. We used zebrafish embryos as our model organism due to its high structural and functional homology to other vertebrates and its suitability for early developmental studies. We tested three well studied halogens, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and tetrabromobisphenal A (TBBPA), and two less-studied next generation chemicals, 9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene 10-oxide (DOPO) and perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA). First, we identified their lethal concentration (LC 50 ) under 96 h exposures using zebrafish embryos; chemical LC50 values ranged from 1.3 to 13,795 ppm. Next, we tested the toxicity of tertiary mixtures containing the estimated LC 50 values for each chemical which ranged from 126 to 5,094 ppm. We found that chemicals within these mixtures displayed concentration addition suggesting a similar mode of toxic action. Importantly, next generation chemicals were less acutely toxic singly and in mixtures than their first generation counterpart. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, Richard B.; Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 ± 3mm (mean ± SD) and 10 ± 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 ± 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 ± 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  12. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) for Acute Toxicity: User Manual Version 3.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the acute toxicity to multiple species is needed for the assessment of the risks to, and the protection of, individuals, populations, and ecological communities. However, toxicity data are limited for the majority of species, while standard test species are general...

  13. BQ-869, a novel NMDA receptor antagonist, protects against excitotoxicity and attenuates cerebral ischemic injury in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo; Wu, Fei; Wang, Er-Song

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is one of the three diseases that cause human death in current world, and it is the common, frequently occurring disease in the middle-old ages. NMDA receptors mediate glutamate-induced cell death when intensely or chronically activated, which is an important cause of neuronal cell death after acute injuries. Here, we demonstrated that BQ-869, a potent NMDA receptor antagonist, blocked NMDA receptor in concentration-dependent and dose-dependent manner, attenuated NMDA-induced Ca(2+) influx, inhabited NMDAR-mEPSC in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, improved athletic ability of rats with MACO, decreased infarction size in focal cerebral ischemia rats and reduced stroke mortality. Taken together, our data demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of BQ-869 might be through inhibiting NMDA-mediated excitotoxicity. These findings indicate that BQ-869 is the most potent antagonist of NMDA receptors, and provide new insights with potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of stroke.

  14. Studies of the ionizing radiation effects on the effluents acute toxicity due to anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Maria Cristina Franco de

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown the negative effects of surfactants, as detergents active substance, when discharged on biological sewage wastewater treatment plants. High toxicity may represent a lower efficiency for biological treatment. When surfactants are in aquatic environment they may induce a loss of grease revetment on birds (feather). Depending on the surfactant concentration, several damages to all biotic systems can happen. Looking for an alternative technology for wastewater treatment, efficient for surfactant removal, the present work applied ionizing radiation as an advanced oxidation process for affluents and effluents from Suzano Treatment Station. Such wastewater samples were submitted to radiation using an electron beam from a Dynamic Electron Beam Accelerator from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. In order to assess this proposed treatment efficacy, it was performed acute toxicity evaluation with two test-organisms, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The studied effluents were: one from a chemical industry (IND), three from sewage plant (affluents - GG, GM and Guaio) and the last biologically treated secondary effluent (EfF), discharged at Tiete river. The applied radiation doses varied from 3 kGy to 50 kGy, being 50 kGy enough for surfactant degradation contained at industrial effluent. For GG, GM and Guaio samples, doses of 6 kGy and 10 kGy were efficient for surfactant and toxicity reduction, representing an average removal that varied from 71.80% to 82.76% and toxicity from 30% to 91% for most the effluents. The final effluent was less toxic than the others and the radiation induced an average 11% removal for anionic surfactant. The industrial effluents were also submitted to an aeration process in order to quantify the contribution of surfactant to the whole sample toxicity, once it was partially removed as foam and several fractions were evaluated for toxicity. (author)

  15. Acute toxicity of definitive chemoradiation in patients with inoperable or irresectable esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haj Mohammad, Nadia; Hulshof, Maarten CCM; Bergman, Jacques JGHM; Geijsen, Debby; Wilmink, Johanna W; Berge Henegouwen, Mark I van; Laarhoven, Hanneke WM van

    2014-01-01

    Definitive chemoradiation (dCRT) is considered curative intent treatment for patients with inoperable or irresectable esophageal cancer. Acute toxicity data focussing on dCRT are lacking. A retrospective analysis of patients treated with dCRT consisting of 6 cycles of paclitaxel 50 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC2 concomitant with radiotherapy (50.4 Gy/1.8Gy) from 2006 through 2011 at a single tertiary center was performed. Toxicity, hospital admissions and survival were analysed. 127 patients were treated with definitive chemoradiation. 33 patients were medically inoperable, 94 patients were irresectable, Despite of a significantly smaller tumor length in inoperable patients grade ≥3 toxicity was significantly recorded more often in the inoperable patients (44%) than in irresectable patients (20%) (p < 0.05) Hospital admission occurred more often in the inoperable patients (39%) than in the irresectable patients (22%) (p < 0.05) Median number of cycles of chemotherapy was five for inoperable patients (p = 0.01), while six cycles could be administered to patients with irresectable disease. Recurrence and survival were not significantly different. The odds ratio for developing toxicity ≥ grade 3 was 2.6 (95% CI 1.0-6.4 p < 0.05) for being an inoperable patient and 1.2 (95% CI 1.0-1.4 p = 0.02) per 10 extra micromol/l creatinine. Our data show that acute toxicity of definitive chemoradiation is worse in patients with medically inoperable esophageal carcinoma compared to patients with irresectable esophageal cancer and mainly occurs in the 5th cycle of treatment. Improvement of supportive care should be undertaken in this more fragile group

  16. Acute dysprosium toxicity to Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and development of the biotic ligand approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukov, Oliver, E-mail: vuko3930@mylaurier.ca [Biology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Smith, D. Scott [Chemistry Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); McGeer, James C. [Biology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    The toxicological understanding of rare earth elements (REEs) in the aquatic environment is very limited but of increasing concern. The objective of this research is to compare the toxicological effect of the REE dysprosium to the freshwater invertebrates Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and in the more sensitive organism, understand the toxicity modifying influence of Ca, Na, Mg, pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Standard methods (Environment Canada) were followed for testing and culture in media of intermediate hardness (60 mg CaCO{sub 3} mg/L) at pH 7.8 with Ca at 0.5, Na 0.5, Mg 0.125 (mM) and 23 °C. Acute toxicity tests were done with <24 h old neonates for 48 h in the case of D. pulex and with 2–9 days old offspring for 96 h tests with Hyalella. The potential protective effect of cationic competition was tested with Ca (0.5–2.0 mM), Na (0.5–2.0 mM) and Mg (0.125–0.5 mM). The effect of pH (6.5–8.0) and Suwannee River DOM complexation (at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 9 and 13 mg C/L) were evaluated. Dissolved Dy concentrations were lower than total (unfiltered) indicating precipitation, particularly at higher concentrations. Acute toxicity of Dy to H. azteca and D. pulex revealed Hyalella to be 1.4 times more sensitive than Daphnia. Additions of Ca and Na but not Mg provided significant protection against Dy toxicity to Hyalella. Similarly, low pH was associated with reduction in toxicity. Exposures which were pH buffered with and without MOPS were significantly different and indicated that MOPS enhanced Dy toxicity. DOM also mitigated Dy toxicity. Biotic ligand based parameters (Log K values) were calculated based on free ion relationships as determined by geochemical equilibrium modeling software (WHAM ver. 7.02). The log K value for Dy{sup 3+} toxicity to Hyalella was 7.75 while the protective influence of Ca and Na were 3.95 and 4.10, respectively. This study contributes data towards the development of site specific

  17. Acute toxicity after a diverting stoma and spacer prior to chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voort van Zyp, Jochem R.N. van der; Ceha, Heleen M.; Niehe, Valerie; Marinelli, Andreas W.K.S.; Putter, Hein; Marijnen, Corrie A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery is the standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). For grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea there is a relationship between dose and irradiated small bowel volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether combined placement of a diverting stoma and sigmoid spacer (DSSS) led to reduced irradiated small bowel volume and less grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea in the treatment of LARC. Materials/methods: Between 2003 and 2010, 54 of 189 LARC patients treated with CRT in two institutions had a DSSS prior to CRT. Data on patient and treatment characteristics and outcomes were collected retrospectively. Delineation of small bowel was performed with planning CT-scans. CTCAE version 4.0 was used for acute toxicity. Results: Patients with a DSSS had significantly less small bowel volume irradiated up to doses of 20 Gy. This difference was not observed for the higher dose levels. CRT induced grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea was not different between the two groups (8.3% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.41). Conclusion: DSSS is not clearly beneficial to reduce grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea, and it must be considered whether placement of a DSSS is justified for this purpose

  18. Conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer - Longer duration of acute genitourinary toxicity in patients with prior history of invasive urological procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odrazka, Karel; Vanasek, Jaroslav; Vaculikova, Miloslava; Petera, Jiri; Zouhar, Milan; Zoul, Zdenk; Stejskal, Jan; Skrabkova, Zuzana; Kadeka, David [Charles Univ. Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology

    2001-11-01

    The incidence and predictors of acute toxicity were evaluated in patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for localized prostate cancer. Between December 1997 and November 1999, 116 patients with T1-T3 prostatic carcinoma were enrolled in the study. Ninety patients were treated with 70 Gy and 26 patients with T3 tumors received 74 Gy. Of the 116 patients 42 (36.2%) had a prior history of invasive urological procedure (IUP) (transurethral resection of the prostate or transvesical prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia). Acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) symptoms were graded according to the EORTC/RTOG scoring system. Toxicity duration after the completion of 3D-CRT was recorded. The majority of patients experienced only mild or no (Grade 1) acute toxicities. Medications for GI and GU symptoms (Grade 2) were required by 28.4% and 12.9% of patients, respectively. Only one case of Grade 3 GI toxicity (0.9%) was observed. Seven patients (6.1%) experienced severe GU toxicity (Grade 3 or 4). No correlation was found between acute toxicity and age, stage, dose (70 Gy vs. 74 Gy), IUP and pelvic lymphadenectomy. A significant relationship was observed between the duration of acute GU toxicity and prior IUP. Symptoms persisted for more than 4 weeks in 51.9% and 26.0% of patients with and without a prior history of IUP, respectively (p = 0.02). The incidence of acute complications, associated with 3D-CRT for prostate cancer, was acceptable in our cohort of patients. A prior history of IUP resulted in a significantly longer duration of acute GU toxicity.

  19. Acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy for patients with discoid lupus erythematosus: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Ajaykumar B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy for patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE. Methods A retrospective review was performed of patients with DLE who received radiotherapy at our institution between 1980 and 2005. Patients with other connective tissue disorders were excluded. Control patients were matched 2:1 with the DLE treatment courses based on age, cancer diagnosis, year of treatment, radiotherapy dose, and sex. Acute (within 30 days from the completion of radiotherapy and late toxicities were evaluated for each treatment course using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0. Results Twelve patients with DLE received a total of 15 radiotherapy courses. The median follow-up time was 2.6 years (range, 0.0-15.2 years. Acute toxicity of any organ was observed in 10 (67% treatment courses, of which 2 (13% were Grade 3 or higher. Acute Grade 1 or 2 dermatologic toxicity was observed in 8 courses (53%. Late toxicity of any organ was observed in 7 of 12 (58% evaluable treatment courses, of which 3 (23% were grade 3 or higher. Late grade 1 or 2 dermatologic toxicity was observed in 5 (42% courses. No patient experienced acute or late Grade 3 or higher dermatologic toxicity. The rates of any organ or dermatologic acute and late toxicity were not significantly different between DLE and control treatment courses. Conclusions Our findings do not suggest an increased risk of toxicity to the skin or other organs in patients with DLE receiving radiotherapy.

  20. Acute toxicity of experimental fertilizers made of blood meal, spent coffee ground and biomass ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciesielczuk Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of research on the acute toxicity of a fertilizer formulas made of spent coffee ground (SCG with addition of ash from low-temperature combustion of biomass or ash with an admixture of magnesium sulphate and blood meal. The experimental fertilizer formulas included also rape oil used as a plasticizer for controlling the nutrients release from the fertiliser. Mustard (Sinapis alba L., oats (Avena sativa sp. L., cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. and cress (Lepidium sativum L. were used as test plants species in the experiment. The toxicity tests were performed using a standard procedure of 72 h with the use of Phytotoxkit microbiotest and fertilizer application of 2.5; 5 and 10% (v/v. The obtained results indicated an increase of acute toxicity for all tested plant species, proportionally to the applied doses of the fertilizer. During the 72 h period, the strongest inhibition of seedling growth was recorded in samples consisting of 10% of the tested fertilizers, particularly when they showed considerable level of salinity or low pH values. From the tested plant species, cress (Lepidium sativum L. turned out to be the most sensitive to the applied fertilizers, the least was cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. for which only a small inhibition of root system growth was observed. The inhibited growth of roots could be attributed to a reduced oxygen access and excessive salinity of the substratum caused by the applied additives.

  1. Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment model of Ferula assa-foetida gum in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Goudah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was performed to investigate acute and subchronic oral toxicity of Ferula assa-foetida gum (28 days in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral administration of F. assa-foetida was done as a single bolus dose up to 5 g/kg in mice and subchronic toxicity study for 28 days was done by oral administration at doses of 0 (control and 250 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. Results: The obtained data revealed that oral administration of F. assa-foetida extract in rats for 28 successive days had no significant changes on body weight, body weight gain, the hematological parameters in rats all over the period of the experiment, and there are no significant increases in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. Liver of treated rats showed mild changes as thrombosis and sinusoidal leukocytosis. It also showed portal infiltration with inflammatory cells, while kidney of treated rat showed an atrophy of glomerular tuft, thickening of parietal layer of Bowman capsule, and focal tubular necrosis. It also showed dilatation and congestion of renal blood vessels. Conclusion: We concluded that F. assa-foetida gum had broad safety and little toxicity for short term use in dose of 250 mg/kg.

  2. Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment model of Ferula assa-foetida gum in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudah, Ayman; Abdo-El-Sooud, Khaled; Yousef, Manal A

    2015-05-01

    The present study was performed to investigate acute and subchronic oral toxicity of Ferula assa-foetida gum (28 days) in Sprague Dawley rats. Acute oral administration of F. assa-foetida was done as a single bolus dose up to 5 g/kg in mice and subchronic toxicity study for 28 days was done by oral administration at doses of 0 (control) and 250 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. The obtained data revealed that oral administration of F. assa-foetida extract in rats for 28 successive days had no significant changes on body weight, body weight gain, the hematological parameters in rats all over the period of the experiment, and there are no significant increases in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. Liver of treated rats showed mild changes as thrombosis and sinusoidal leukocytosis. It also showed portal infiltration with inflammatory cells, while kidney of treated rat showed an atrophy of glomerular tuft, thickening of parietal layer of Bowman capsule, and focal tubular necrosis. It also showed dilatation and congestion of renal blood vessels. We concluded that F. assa-foetida gum had broad safety and little toxicity for short term use in dose of 250 mg/kg.

  3. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats of a hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, A G; Merkel, D J; Glaza, S M; Sorenson, S R

    2007-02-01

    Two acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted in rats to evaluate safety of a patented preparation of hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage (BioCell Collagen II) containing collagen type II, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. In the acute oral toxicity study, five males and five females of Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single dose of 5000 mg of the test product per kg body weight and observed for 14 days. All animals survived and exhibited normal body weight gain throughout the study. Macroscopic necropsy examination conducted on day 15 revealed no gross pathological lesions in any of the animals. In the subchronic study, Sprague-Dawley rats (40 males, 40 females) were divided into four same-sex groups (10 animals/group). Animals in each group were administered daily either 0, 30, 300 or 1000 mg of the test product per kg of body weight for over 90 days. All animals survived and showed no significant changes in their body weights and histopathology. Although some differences were observed between the treated and control animals in several parameters, they were generally not dose-related or considered to be of toxicological significance. In conclusion, the results from the two oral toxicity studies with male and female young adult rats indicated that the test preparation from hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage collagen (BioCell Collagen II) was well tolerated at all four doses tested.

  4. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelian, Jason M.; Callister, Matthew D.; Ashman, Jonathan B.; Young-Fadok, Tonia M.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Gunderson, Leonard L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced ≥Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, ≥Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  5. Reduced acute bowel toxicity in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelian, Jason M; Callister, Matthew D; Ashman, Jonathan B; Young-Fadok, Tonia M; Borad, Mitesh J; Gunderson, Leonard L

    2012-04-01

    We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced ≥Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, ≥Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a clinically significant reduction in lower GI toxicity

  6. Acute toxicity test of ethanol extract of djenkols (Archidendron pauciflorum fruit peel against female Wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADIHAH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Madihah, Ratningsih N, Malini DM, Faiza AH, Iskandar J. 2017. Acute toxicity test of ethanol extract of djenkols (Archidendron pauciflorum fruit peel against female Wistar rat. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 33-38. Ethanol extract of djenkol (Archidendron pauciflorum (Benth. I. C. Nielsen fruit peel at a dose 150 mg/kg BW has been shown to decrease blood glucose level in hyperglycemic rats. The next preclinical step in the development of djenkol as antidiabetic herbal medicine is acute toxicity test. The purposes of this study were to obtain the lethal dose 50 (LD50 of ethanol extract djenkol fruit peel and to observe the histopathology of rat liver as the result of the toxicity. Acute toxicity test method was adapted from OECD 423:2001 guideline and the limit dose was 5000 mg/kg bb. The animals (female Wistar, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769 were orally administered a single dose of the extract at 5500, 6900, 8200, 9100, 12900, and 17500 mg/kg BW. Symptoms of toxicity, weight change, and mortality were noted for 14 days, whereas liver histopathology was observing at the end of test periods. The result showed that ethanol extract of djengkol fruit peel treatment up to dose 9100 mg/kg BW did not cause symptoms of toxicity and weight loss. Probit analysis of the mortality estimated that the LD50 was 15.382,412 mg/kg BW, thus categorized as a practically nontoxic substance. Lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL was detected at dose 5.500 mg/kg BW, which caused mild damage to liver tissue, in the form of necrosis of hepatocytes and widening of central vein diameter, but the arrangement of hepatocytes and sinusoids were normal. Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of ethanol extract of djenkol fruit peel under dose 5500 mg/kg BW was safe to be used, so it can be developed as standardized herbal medicine for anti-diabetes.

  7. Acute and late radiotherapy toxicity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Danny Y.; Lawrie, W. Thomas; Abrams, Ross A.; Kafonek, David R.; Bayless, Theodore M.; Welsh, James S.; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving radiotherapy (RT) and to identify possibly avoidable factors associated with these complications. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients were identified and their records reviewed; all had a history of IBD before receiving RT to fields encompassing some portion of the gastrointestinal tract (Crohn's disease) or to the abdomen or pelvis (ulcerative colitis or IBD not otherwise specified). Results: Five of 24 patients (21%) experienced Grade ≥3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity; all 5 received concurrent chemotherapy. Two of 24 patients (8%) experienced Grade ≥3 late gastrointestinal toxicity. There were no significant correlations between complications and IBD type, prior IBD-related surgery, use of medications for IBD, or status of IBD. Conclusion: Patients with IBD may have an increased risk for severe acute RT-related gastrointestinal complications that is more modest than generally perceived, because all patients who had Grade ≥3 acute complications in this study had received concurrent chemotherapy (p=0.04). Further study is needed to assess this risk, as well as the impact of RT on these patients' future gastrointestinal morbidity

  8. Acute toxic hepatitis caused by an aloe vera preparation in a young patient: a case report with a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonghun; Lee, Mi Sun; Nam, Kwan Woo

    2014-07-01

    Aloe is one of the leading products used in phytomedicine. Several cases of aloe-induced toxic hepatitis have been reported in recent years. However, its toxicology has not yet been systematically described in the literature. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with acute hepatitis after taking an aloe vera preparation for four weeks. Her history, clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and histological findings all led to the diagnosis of aloe vera-induced toxic hepatitis. We report herein on a case of acute toxic hepatitis induced by aloe vera.

  9. Accumulation dynamics and acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus: implications for metal modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R; Paul, Kai B; Dybowska, Agnieszka D; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Lead, Jamie R; Stone, Vicki; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2015-04-07

    Frameworks commonly used in trace metal ecotoxicology (e.g., biotic ligand model (BLM) and tissue residue approach (TRA)) are based on the established link between uptake, accumulation and toxicity, but similar relationships remain unverified for metal-containing nanoparticles (NPs). The present study aimed to (i) characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of PVP-, PEG-, and citrate-AgNPs, in comparison to dissolved Ag, in Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus; and (ii) investigate whether parameters of bioavailability and accumulation predict acute toxicity. In both species, uptake rate constants for AgNPs were ∼ 2-10 times less than for dissolved Ag and showed significant rank order concordance with acute toxicity. Ag elimination by L. variegatus fitted a 1-compartment loss model, whereas elimination in D. magna was biphasic. The latter showed consistency with studies that reported daphnids ingesting NPs, whereas L. variegatus biodynamic parameters indicated that uptake and efflux were primarily determined by the bioavailability of dissolved Ag released by the AgNPs. Thus, principles of BLM and TRA frameworks are confounded by the feeding behavior of D. magna where the ingestion of AgNPs perturbs the relationship between tissue concentrations and acute toxicity, but such approaches are applicable when accumulation and acute toxicity are linked to dissolved concentrations. The uptake rate constant, as a parameter of bioavailability inclusive of all available pathways, could be a successful predictor of acute toxicity.

  10. Acute NMDA Receptor Hypofunction induced by MK801 Evokes Sex-Specific Changes in Behaviors Observed in Open Field Testing in Adult Male and Proestrus Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Igor; Kritzer, Mary F.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex constellation of positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Acute administration of the non-competitive antagonist of the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dizocilpine (MK801) in rats is one of few preclinical animal models of this disorder that has both face and/or construct validity for these multiple at-risk behavioral domains and predictive power for the efficacy of therapeutic drugs in treating them. This study asked whether and to what extent the rat NMDAR hypofunction model also embodies the sex differences that distinguish the symptoms of schizophrenia and their treatment. Thus, we compared the effects of acute MK801, with and without pretreatment with haloperidol or clozapine, on seven discrete spontaneous open field activities in adult male and female rats. These analyses revealed that MK801 was more effective in stimulating ataxia and locomotion and inhibiting stationary behavior in females while more potently stimulating stereotypy and thigmotaxis and inhibiting rearing and grooming in males. Haloperidol and clozapine pretreatments had markedly different efficacies in terms of behaviors but strong similarities in their effectiveness in male and female subjects. These results bear intriguing relationships with the complex male/female differences that characterize the symptoms of schizophrenia and suggest possible applications for acute NMDAR hypofunction as a preclinical model for investigating the neurobiology that underlies them. PMID:23085219

  11. Acute toxicities of pharmaceuticals toward green algae. mode of action, biopharmaceutical drug disposition classification system and quantile regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Jonathan; Minguez, Laetitia; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Durrieu, Gilles; Bureau, Ronan

    2016-02-01

    The acute toxicities of 36 pharmaceuticals towards green algae were estimated from a set of quantile regression models representing the first global quantitative structure-activity relationships. The selection of these pharmaceuticals was based on their predicted environmental concentrations. An agreement between the estimated values and the observed acute toxicity values was found for several families of pharmaceuticals, in particular, for antidepressants. A recent classification (BDDCS) of drugs based on ADME properties (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) was clearly correlated with the acute ecotoxicities towards algae. Over-estimation of toxicity from our QSAR models was observed for classes 2, 3 and 4 whereas our model results were in agreement for the class 1 pharmaceuticals. Clarithromycin, a class 3 antibiotic characterized by weak metabolism and high solubility, was the most toxic to algae (molecular stability and presence in surface water). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of arsenic in freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Jau, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Lin, Chieh-Ming; Jou, Li-John; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chang, Fi-John

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic is a potent human carcinogen of skin, lung, and urinary bladder. Freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea is a commercially important native species in Taiwan. C. fluminea is also a suitable biomonitoring test organism. Little is known, however, about the actual effects of arsenic on C. fluminea. The objectives of this study were to provide information on the acute toxicity and bioaccumulation kinetics of arsenic in C. fluminea. We carried out a 14-day exposure experiment to obtain bioaccumulation parameters. Uptake was very rapid when C. fluminea was first exposed and then slightly decayed during the uptake phase of the experiment and an uptake rate constant of 1.718 +/- 6.70 (mean +/- SE) mL g(-1) d(-1) was estimated. The elimination of arsenic from C. fluminea obeyed first-order depuration kinetics (r(2) = 0.85, p fluminea. This had important implications for dietary exposure of arsenic to humans who eat contaminated clams, because the soft tissue usually constitutes the majority of tissue consumed. The 96-h LC50 value was estimated to be 20.74 (95% CI: 11.74-30.79) mg L(-1) obtained from a 7-day acute toxicity bioassay. We also kinetically linked an acute toxicity model and a Hill sigmoid model to reconstruct an internal effect concentration based dose-response profile to assess the effect of soft tissue arsenic burden on the C. fluminea mortality. This result could be used to support the establishment of an ecological risk assessment to prevent possible ecosystem and human health consequences. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Acute, subacute toxicity and genotoxic effect of a hydroethanolic extract of the cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, Nzi André; Bacchi, Elfriede Marianne; Lincopan, Nilton; Varela, Soraya Duarte; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida

    2007-03-01

    Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as cajueiro is a native plant to Brazil, and largely used in popular medicine to treat ulcers, hypertension and diarrhea. In the present study, acute, 30-day subacute toxicity and genotoxicity assays were carried out. The crude extract did not produce toxic symptoms in rats in doses up to 2000 mg/kg. Based on biochemical analyses of renal and hepato-biliary functions, such as the level of urea, creatinine, transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, we determined that the extract is generally tolerated by rats. This was also confirmed by hematological and histopathological exams. Genotoxicity was accessed by the Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 and by the bone marrow micronucleus test in mice. The extract was shown to induce frameshift, base pair substitution and damage to the chromosomes. However, this effect was less deleterious than the clastogenic effect of ciclophosphamide.

  14. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit

    2016-01-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi......, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome......, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14...

  15. Acute and chronic toxicity of copper on aquatic insect Chironomus ramosus from Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, T N; Gupta, A

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity of copper (Cu) on Chironomus ramosus was determined by exposing third-instar larvae to graded concentrations of copper sulphate (CuSO4 x 5H2O). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of Cu as CuSO4 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr were determined as 3280, 1073.33,780 and 183 microg l(-1), respectively. For determining the effects of chronic toxicity, small first-instar larvae were individually exposed to sublethal concentrations of copper sulphate (1.0-18.0 microg l(-1)) for a period of 21 days. Discoloration and thinning of body were detected at 1 microg l(-1) and ventilation movements, pupation and adult emergence were significantly affected at 1.8 microg l(-1). At 10 microg l(-1) CuSO4 concentration, growth and tube-building activities of the larva were significantly different from the control.

  16. Renal blood flow after transplantation: Effects of acute tubular necrosis, rejection, and cyclosporine toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, J.L.; Raff, U.; Jain, R.; Horgan, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors incorporated their recently developed radionuclide first pass-technique for the quantitative measurement of renal transplant perfusion into routine DTPA imaging. Using this technique they investigated the effects of acute tubular necrosis (ATN), rejection, and cyclosporing toxicity on renal blood flow in a series of 80 studies in 35 patients, with independent evaluation of renal function. Transplant flow values were as follows: normal functioning, 439 mL/min +-83; ATN 248 mL/min +-63; rejection, 128 mL/min +-58; cyclosporing toxicity, 284 mL/min +-97; (normal flow in nontransplanted kidneys, approximately 550 mL/min). Differences between normal functioning, ATN, and rejection were significant (P < .05). Interestingly, immediate postsurgical hyperemia frequently occurred, with flow values sometimes exceeding 700 mL/min

  17. Nanosilica and Polyacrylate/Nanosilica: A Comparative Study of Acute Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Mei Niu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the acute toxicity of nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica instillation in Wistar rats (n=60. Exposure to nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica showed a 30% mortality rate. When compared with saline-treated rats, animals in both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of PO2 (P<0.05 at both 24 and 72 hr. after exposure. Both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of neutrophils in arterial blood compared to saline controls (P<0.05 24 hr. after exposure. The levels of blood ALT and LDH in exposed groups were found to be significantly increased (P<0.05 24 hr. following exposure. The exposed groups exhibited various degrees of pleural effusion and pericardial effusion. Our findings indicated respiratory exposure to polyacrylate/nanosilica and nanosilica is likely to cause multiple organ toxicity.

  18. Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Venturella, John J; Shaddrick, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 microg/L (95% CI 0.56-1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 microg/L (95% CI 1.09-2.47) and the grass shrimp embryo LC50 was 45.85 microg/L (95% CI 23.72-88.61 microg/L). This was compared to the previously published grass shrimp 96-h LC50s for endosulfan. The toxicity of the two compounds was similar for the grass shrimp life stages with adults more sensitive than larvae and embryos. The presence of sediment in 24h endosulfan sulfate-exposures raised LC50s for both adult and larval grass shrimp but not significantly. The USEPA expected environmental concentrations (EEC) for total endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate and the calculations of risk quotients (RQ) based on the more sensitive adult grass shrimp 96-h LC50 clearly show that environmental concentrations equal to acute EECs would prove detrimental to grass shrimp or other similarly sensitive aquatic organisms. These results indicate that given the persistence and toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, future risk assessments should consider the toxicity potential of the parent compound as well as this degradation product.

  19. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf Methanol Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeng Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively, confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  20. Test of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine fish and invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reference method describes the measurement of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine animals (fish and invertebrates) by a static (non-continuous flow) method. Procedures are given for the determination of the toxicity curve (survival time-concentration relationship) and for the estimation of median lethal concentrations (LC50). The method is suitable for use with fish and macro-invertebrate species. It is not suitable for planktonic organisms nor for determining the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants or other petroleum products. Those methods are described in Reference Methods Nos. 44 and 45, respectively. The test animals are exposed, in groups of approximately ten, to each of several concentrations of the pollutant. The animals are observed, at intervals, for several days, the test solutions being renewed regularly. A record is maintained of the survival times of individual animals exposed to each concentration of pollutant. The medial survival time of each group of animals is determined from a graphical plot of the raw data after a log-probability transformation. Median survival times and their confidence limits are plotted against concentrations of test substance to give a toxicity curve. Additionally, the same experimental data can be used to estimate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the test substance to the animals after different periods of exposure. 3 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Acute Contact Toxicity of Six Pesticides in Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuli Farhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollination has an important role in both agricultural production and wild plant reproduction. For the pollination of crops, agriculture relies largely on managed colonies of the honeybee Apis mellifera. Worker bees are primarily affected by pesticides. The symptoms of poisoning vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee and kind of chemical employed. The acute contact toxicity of insecticides (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides and bactericides (copper oxychloride and bordeaux mixture was assessed in Iran through laboratory experiments. The median lethal concentrations (LC50-24h, LC50-48h and LC50-72h were evaluated for the purposes of this research. Results showed that fenpropathrin had high toxicity; LC50-24h, LC50-48h and LC50-72h were 5.7, 3.2 and 2.9 ppm respectively. Additionally, the bordeaux mixture had the minimum contact toxicity on honeybees with LC50-24h, LC50-48h and LC50-72h being 79,926; 69,552 and 69,045 ppm respectively and was safe and non-toxic in honeybees.

  2. Environmental properties of long chain alcohols. Part 1: Physicochemical, environmental fate and acute aquatic toxicity properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisk, Peter; Sanderson, Hans; Wildey, Ross

    2009-01-01

    )SARs). This allows predictions of data relating to human and environmental safety profiles and patterns. These alcohols have been shown to be rapidly degradable under standard conditions up to C18. Furthermore, evidence suggests that longer chain lengths are also rapidly biodegradable. While log Kow values suggest......This paper summarises the physicochemical, biodegradation and acute aquatic ecotoxicity properties of long chain aliphatic alcohols. Properties of pure compounds are shown to follow somewhat predictable trends, which are amenable to estimation by quantitative structure-activity relationships ((Q...... possible bioaccumulation potential, available data suggest that these substances are not as bioaccumulative as estimations would predict. For acute aquatic toxicity, solubility limits the possibility of effects being appropriately observed and become increasingly challenging above C12. Further, a model has...

  3. Clinico-biochemical studies on acute toxic nephropathy in goats due to uranyl nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, P.K.; Joshi, H.C.

    1989-02-01

    Acute toxic nephropathy was produced in 6 healthy goats by injecting intravenously 1% uranyl nitrate (UN) (15 mg/kg body weight). The early painful clinical signs simulating shock progressed with subnormal temperature, slow-shallow respiration and arrhythmic pulse followed by death due to respiratory failure within 96 to 120 hr. All the affected goats had normocytic normochromic anemia, leucocytosis, neutrophilia with left shift eosinopenia, decreased monocytes and presence of 1-2% reticulocytes in the peripheral blood smears. On blood chemical analysis, a uniform and continuous rise was seen in serum creatinine with a concomitant daily increase of serum urea and uric acid. Simultaneous analysis of urine indicated polyuria leading to oliguria, acidic pH, albuminuria, glycosuria with presence of neutrophils, RBC's, epithelial and fatty casts, increase of triple phosphate, and cystine crystals reflecting acute damage of kidneys in the affected goats.

  4. Acute toxicity of Roundup and carbosulfan to the Thai fairy shrimp, Branchinella thailandensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsoong, B; Bullangpoti, V

    2012-01-01

    The potential risk of herbicides and insecticides sprayed near pools to non-target fairy shrimp has not been assessed in Thailand. The acute toxicity of Roundup (isopropylamine salt 48% w/v) herbicide and carbosulfan (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl (dibutylaminothio) methylcabamate 20% w/v) insecticide were evaluated in 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours static bioassay using nauplii fairy shrimp, Branchinella thailandensis. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated after probit transformation of resulting data. Median 24 hours lethal concentrations were 0.319 and 0.702 ppm for Roundup and carbosulfan, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of the anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activity and in vivo acute toxicity of Annona sylvatic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Rafaele C P; Neves, Francisco A R; Formagio, Anelise S N; Kassuya, Candida A L; Stefanello, Maria E A; Souza, Vanessa V; Pavan, Fernando R; Croda, Julio

    2014-06-28

    The recent emergence of extensively multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has further complicated the control of tuberculosis. There is an urgent need for the development of new molecular candidates antitubercular drugs. Medicinal plants have been an excellent source of leads for the development of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of 28 alcoholic extracts and essential oils of native and exotic Brazilian plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to further study these extracts through chemical fractionation, the isolation of their constituents, and an evaluation of the in vivo acute toxicity of the active extracts. To the best of our knowledge this is the first chemical characterization, antituberculosis activity and acute toxicity evaluation of Annona sylvatica. The anti-mycobacterial activity of these extracts and their constituent compounds was evaluated using the resazurin reduction microtiter assay (REMA). To investigate the acute toxicity of these extracts in vivo, female Swiss mice were treated with the extracts at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg · kg(-1) of body weight. The extracts were characterized by LC-MS, and the constituents were isolated and identified by chromatographic analysis of spectroscopic data. Of the 28 extracts, the methanol extract obtained from the leaves of Annona sylvatica showed anti-mycobacterial activity with an minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 184.33 μg/mL, and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) resulting from liquid-liquid partitioning of the A. sylvatica extract showed an MIC of 115.2 μg/mL. The characterization of this extract by LC-MS identified flavonoids and acetogenins as its main constituents. The phytochemical study of the A. sylvatica EAF resulted in the isolation of quercetin, luteolin, and almunequin. Among the compounds isolated from the EAF, luteolin and almunequin were the most promising, with MICs of 236.8 μg/mL (827.28 μM) and 209.9 μg/mL (328

  6. Acute Toxicity Test of Soursop Leaves (Annona muricata) on Liver and Kidney of Switzerland Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Astika Widy Utomo; Neni Susilaningsih; Desy Armalina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The soursoup leaves extract (Annona muricata) has widely been used as traditional medicine for cancer. No studies have been conduct to investigate the safety of the extract. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the acute oral toxicity test of soursoup leaves extract (Annona muricata) on Swiss mice’s liver and kidney. Methods: Twenty four mice were divided into 4 groups. Group I was control group, while group II-IV was given soursoup leaves extract as ...

  7. Evaluation of acute toxicity of copper cyanide to freshwater fish, Catla catla (Hamilton)

    OpenAIRE

    BASALING, Hosetti; PRAVEEN, Dube

    2011-01-01

    The acute toxicity of copper cyanide to the juveniles of Indian major carp Catla catla (2±0.5 cm) was evaluated under static renewal conditions. The concentrations of copper cyanide that killed 50% of the carp fingerlings within 96-h (96-h LC50) was found to be 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/L. Fishes exhibited abnormal swimming activity, followed by frequent gill flapping, loss of equilibrium, gulping of air, hyperactivity, convolutions. The respiratory rate of the fish got severely affected ...

  8. Evaluation of acute toxicity of copper cyanide to freshwater fish, Catla catla (Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosetti BASALING

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of copper cyanide to the juveniles of Indian major carp Catla catla (2±0.5 cm was evaluated under static renewal conditions. The concentrations of copper cyanide that killed 50% of the carp fingerlings within 96-h (96-h LC50 was found to be 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/L. Fishes exhibited abnormal swimming activity, followed by frequent gill flapping, loss of equilibrium, gulping of air, hyperactivity, convolutions. The respiratory rate of the fish got severely affected (-63.41%± 0.002 when exposed to copper cyanide.

  9. Psychosis associated with acute recreational drug toxicity: a European case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Dines, Alison M; Wood, David M; Yates, Christopher; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut Erik; Giraudon, Isabelle; Dargan, Paul I

    2016-08-18

    Psychosis can be associated with acute recreational drug and novel psychoactive substance (NPS) toxicity. However, there is limited data available on how common this is and which drugs are most frequently implicated. We describe a European case series of psychosis associated with acute recreational drug toxicity, and estimate the frequency of psychosis for different recreational drugs. The European Drug Emergencies Network (Euro-DEN) collects data on presentations to Emergency Departments (EDs) with acute recreational drug and NPS toxicity at 16 centres in ten countries. Euro-DEN data from October 2013 through September 2014 was retrospectively searched, and cases with psychosis were included. The proportion of cases with psychosis per drug was calculated in the searched Euro-DEN dataset. Psychosis was present in 348 (6.3 %) of 5529 cases. The median (interquartile range) age was 29 (24-38) years, 276 (79.3 %) were male and 114 (32.8 %) were admitted to psychiatric ward. The drugs most commonly reported were cannabis in 90 (25.9 %) cases, amphetamine in 87 (25.0 %) and cocaine in 56 (16.1 %). More than one drug was taken in 189 (54.3 %) cases. Psychosis was frequent in those ED presentations involving tryptamines (4/7; 57.1 %), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) (6/22; 27.3 %), methylphenidate (6/26; 23.1 %), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (18/86; 20.9 %), psilocybe mushrooms (3/16; 18.8 %), synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (4/26; 15.4 %) and amphetamine (87/593; 14.7 %), but less common in those involving mephedrone (14/245; 5.7 %), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (20/461; 4.3 %) and methedrone (3/92; 3.3 %). Amphetamine was the most frequent drug associated with psychosis when only one agent was reported, with psychosis occurring in 32.4 % of these presentations. The frequency of psychosis in acute recreational drug toxicity varies considerably between drugs, but is a major problem in amphetamine poisoning. In rapidly changing drug markets and

  10. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Stinckens, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    High throughput testing according to the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test (OECD Testing Guideline 236) is usually conducted in well plates. In the case of hydrophobic test substances, sorptive and evaporative losses often result in declining and poorly controlled exposure conditions. Therefore......, our objective was to improve exposure conditions in FET tests by evaluating a passive dosing format using silicone O-rings in standard 24-well polystyrene plates. We exposed zebrafish embryos to a series of phenanthrene concentrations until 120 h post fertilization (hpf), and obtained a linear...

  11. Acute toxicity and radioprotective efficiency of gammaphos injected intramuscularly to mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuna, P.

    1985-01-01

    In experiments on mice it was shown that acute toxicity of gammaphos (WR-2721) was 790 mg/kg and 862 mg-kg after intraperitoneal and intramuscular administration, resperctively. Gammaphos in the dose of 100 mg/kg, injected intramuscularly, increased the radioresistance of mice in nearly the same way as cystamine, in the dose of 150 mg/kg, did. The increase in the dose of gammaphos up to 200 or 300 mg/kg, injected intramuscularly, enhanced the radioprotective effect. No change was observed in the radioprotective efficiency of gammaphos after intramuscular injection as compared to intraperitoneal administration of the protective agent in the same dose

  12. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of Cajanus cajan leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rong; Tian, Ru-Hua; Cai, Jia-Zhong; Wu, Jun-Hui; Shen, Xiao-Ling; Hu, Ying-Jie

    2017-12-01

    The leaves of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. (Fabaceae) have diverse bioactivities, but little safety data are reported. This study examines the toxicological profiles of C. cajan leaf extracts. The leaves were extracted by water or 90% ethanol to obtain water or ethanol extract (WEC or EEC). EEC was suspended in water and successively fractionated into dichloroform and n-butanol extracts (DEC and BEC). Marker compounds of the extracts were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Kunming mice were administered with a single maximum acceptable oral dose (15.0 g/kg for WEC, EEC and BEC and 11.3 g/kg for DEC) to determine death rate or maximal tolerated doses (MTDs). In sub-chronic toxicity investigation, Sprague-Dawley rats were orally given WEC or EEC at 1.5, 3.0 or 6.0 g/kg doses for four weeks and observed for two weeks after dosing to determine toxicological symptoms, histopathology, biochemistry and haematology. Flavonoids and stilbenes in the extracts were assayed. In acute toxicity test, no mortality and noted alterations in weight and behavioural abnormality were observed, and the maximum oral doses were estimated as MTDs. In sub-chronic toxicity study, no mortality and significant variances in haematological and biochemical parameters or organ histopathology were observed, but increased kidney weight in 3.0 g/kg WEC- or 3.0 and 6.0 g/kg EEC-treated female rats, and reduced testes and epididymis weight in EEC-treated male rats were recorded. These changes returned to the level of control after recovery period. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of Cajanus cajan leaf extracts was not observed.

  13. Comparison of the therapeutic effect between sodium bicarbonate and insulin on acute propafenone toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hwa Yeon; Lee, Jang Young; Lee, Won Suk; Sung, Won Young; Seo, Sang Won

    2014-10-01

    Unlike other sodium-channel-blocking antiarrhythmic agents, propafenone has β-blocking effects and calcium-channel-blocking effects. Yi et al recently studied insulin's treatment effect on acute propafenone toxicity in rats. However, because the degree of effectiveness of insulin compared to the previously known antidote sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) was not studied, the 2 treatment methods were compared for propafenone intoxication in rats. Rats received intravenous propafenone (36 mg/[kg h]) for 12 minutes. After the induction of toxicity, rats (n = 10 per group) received normal saline solution (NSS), NaHCO3, or insulin with glucose as treatment. Animals in the NSS, NaHCO3, and Insulin groups received an intravenous infusion of 36 mg/(kg h) propafenone until death occurred. For each animal, the mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration, total hemoglobin, sodium, potassium, potential of hydrogen, bicarbonate, glucose, lactate, and central venous oxygen saturation (Scvo2) were measured and compared among the groups. Survival of the Insulin group was greater than that of the NSS group by log-rank test (P = .021). Sodium bicarbonate prevented the decline of MAP for 55 minutes. In comparison, insulin prevented the decline of MAP and heart rate, and the elongation of the PR interval and QRS duration for 55 minutes (P < .05). Propafenone toxicity led to decreased Ca(2+), potential of hydrogen, and Scvo2 and increased lactate levels. Insulin prevented the decrease of Ca(2+) and Scvo2, whereas NaHCO3 prevented the increase in lactate. Insulin treatment was more effective than NaHCO3 on acute propafenone toxicity in rat. Therefore, when propafenone-induced cardiotoxicity occurs, which is unresponsive to current treatment methods, glucose-insulin infusion may be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute and chronic toxicity of effluent water from an abandoned uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, S C; Pereira, R; Gonçalves, F

    2007-08-01

    Inactive or abandoned mines represent a significant source of environmental, chemical, physical, and aesthetic impact. Among concerning situations, the occurrence of abandoned or semi-abandoned mine-associated ponds (for sedimentation of solids, for effluent neutralization, or for washing the ore) is a common feature in this type of system. These ponds are a source of contamination for the groundwater resources and adjacent soils, because they lack appropriate impermeabilization. The use of this water for agriculture may also pose chronic risks to humans. In Portugal, these problems have been diagnosed and some remediation projects have been developed. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of water samples collected from the aquatic system surrounding an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa, Mangualde, Central Portugal). The present study focuses on the water compartment, whose toxicity was evaluated by means of standard toxicity assays using two Daphnia species (D. longispina and D. magna). Three different ponds were used in the characterization of the aquatic system from Cunha Baixa mine: a reference pond (Ref), a mine effluent treatment pond (T), and a mine pit pond (M). Metal analyses performed in the water samples from these ponds showed values that, in some cases, were much higher than maximum recommendable values established (especially Al, Mn) by Portuguese legislation for waters for crop irrigation. Acute toxicity was only observed in the mine pit pond, with EC(50) values of 28.4% and 50.4% for D. longispina and D. magna, respectively. The significant impairment of chronic endpoints, translated in reductions in the population growth rate for both species, gives rise to concerns regarding the potential risks for aquatic zooplanktonic communities, from local receiving waters, potentially exposed to point source discharges of the treated and nontreated effluent from Cunha Baixa uranium mine.

  15. Comprehensive mollusk acute toxicity database improves the use of Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) models to predict toxicity of untested freshwater and endangered mussel species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models extrapolate acute toxicity data from surrogate test species to untested taxa. A suite of ICE models developed from a comprehensive database is available on the US Environmental Protection Agency’s web-based application, Web-I...

  16. The Acute Toxicity and Hematological Characterization of the Effects of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50 of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO2, HCO3−, HCO3std, TCO2, BEecf and BE (B, decreased significantly. PO2 showed a slight increase, while SO2c (% had no change at any time. Na+ and Ca2+ decreased, but K+ increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity.

  17. The acute toxicity and hematological characterization of the effects of tentacle-only extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Liu, Sihua; He, Qian; Wang, Qianqian; Ye, Xuting; Liu, Guoyan; Nie, Fei; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Liming

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO(2), HCO(3) (-), HCO(3)std, TCO(2), BEecf and BE (B), decreased significantly. PO(2) showed a slight increase, while SO(2)c (%) had no change at any time. Na(+) and Ca(2+) decreased, but K(+) increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity.

  18. Dual effect of 17β-estradiol on NMDA-induced neuronal death: involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Simona Federica; Merlo, Sara; Molinaro, Gemma; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bruno, Valeria; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Sortino, Maria Angela

    2012-12-01

    Pretreatment with 10 nm 17β-estradiol (17βE2) or 100 μm of the metabotropic glutamate 1 receptor (mGlu1R) agonist, dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), protected neurons against N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) toxicity. This effect was sensitive to blockade of both estrogen receptors and mGlu1R by their respective antagonists. In contrast, 17βE2 and/or DHPG, added after a low-concentration NMDA pulse (45 μm), produced an opposite effect, i.e. an exacerbation of NMDA toxicity. Again this effect was prevented by both receptor antagonists. In support of an interaction of estrogen receptors and mGlu1R in mediating a neurotoxic response, exacerbation of NMDA toxicity by 17βE2 disappeared when cultures were treated with DHPG prior to NMDA challenge, and conversely, potentiation of NMDA-induced cell death by DHPG was prevented by pretreatment with 17βE2. Addition of calpain III inhibitor (10 μm), 2 h before NMDA, prevented the increased damage induced by the two agonists, an affect that can be secondary to cleavage of mGlu1R by calpain. Accordingly, NMDA stimulation reduced expression of the full-length (140 kDa) mGluR1, an effect partially reversed by calpain inhibitor. Finally, in the presence of NMDA, the ability of 17βE2 to stimulate phosphorylation of AKT and ERK was impaired. Pretreatment with calpain inhibitor prevented the reduction of phosphorylated ERK but had no significant effect on phosphorylated AKT. Accordingly, the inhibition of ERK signaling by U0126 (1 μm) counteracted the effect of calpain inhibition on 17βE2-induced exacerbation of NMDA toxicity. The present data confirm the dual role of estrogens in neurotoxicity/neuroprotection and highlight the role of the timing of exposure to estrogens.

  19. Increased RO concentrate toxicity following application of antiscalants - acute toxicity tests with the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Mona; Beggel, Sebastian; Jaeger, Nadine; Geist, Juergen

    2015-02-01

    In reverse osmosis, a frequently used technology in water desalination processes, wastewater (RO concentrate) is generated containing the retained solutes as well as so-called antiscalants (AS), i.e. chemical substances that are commonly applied to prevent membrane-blocking. In this study, a risk assessment of a possible discharge of concentrate into a small stream was conducted. The acute toxicity of two concentrates containing two different ASs and of concentrate without AS to the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli was studied. Mortality of gammarids exposed to the concentrate without AS was not different to the control, whereas concentrates including ASs caused mortality rates up to 100% at the highest test concentrations after 168 h. Resulting EC50-values were 36.2-39.4% (v/v) after 96 h and 26.6-58.0% (v/v) after 168 h. These results suggest that the ecotoxicological relevance of antiscalants is greater than currently assumed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the toxic effect of endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA) in the acute and chronic toxicity tests with Pomacea lineata gastropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, André Lucas Correa; Soares, Priscila Rafaela Leão; da Silva, Stephannie Caroline Barros Lucas; da Silva, Marília Cordeiro Galvão; Santos, Thamiris Pinheiro; Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro Sales; Soares, Pierre Castro; Cadena, Pabyton Gonçalves

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plasticizer and a risk when it interacts with organisms, and can cause changes in the development and reproduction of them. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of BPA, by acute and chronic toxicity tests with neonates and adults of Pomacea lineata. Adults and neonates were divided into groups exposed to BPA (1-20mg/L), or 17β-estradiol (1mg/L) and control in the acute and chronic toxicity tests. Behavior, heart rate, reproduction and hemolymph biochemical analysis were measured. In the acute toxicity test, the 96-h LC 50 with adults was 11.09 and with neonates was 3.14mg/L. In this test, it was observed lethargic behavior and an increase of 77.6% of aspartate aminotransferase in the adults' hemolymph (ptest, it was observed behaviors associated with reproduction, as Copulate, in the groups exposed to BPA. The results that were found in this study proved that BPA is a potentially toxic agent to Pomacea lineata according to biological parameters evaluated. These data contribute to the understanding of BPA toxic effects' in the aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  2. Acute marine sediment toxicity: a potential new test with the amphipod Gammarus locusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F O; Correia, A D; Costa, M H

    1998-01-01

    Although amphipod toxicity tests have been successfully used in the United States to assess coastal sediment toxicity, few tests have been developed with European species. The authors have been working with the amphipod Gammarus locusta, a widely spread species along European coastal areas that is particularly abundant in the Portuguese Sado estuary. This amphipod fulfills the most important requirements of a test species. It can be easily reproduced in laboratory and it is tolerant to a broad range of sediment types. A series of tests demonstrated its sensitivity to copper and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) in the sediment (LC50 = 6.8 mg Cu/dry kg, 0.9% total volatile solids; LC50 = 60.5 micrograms HCH/dry kg, 2% total volatile solids) and to some heavily contaminated field sediments. After assessment of the species sensitivity to several noncontaminant variables, an experimental protocol was designed to conduct acute sediment toxicity tests that are briefly described. Proposed is a 10-day static toxicity test at 15 degrees C and 33-34/1000 salinity, with laboratory-produced juveniles and mortality as the endpoint. General assay performance is identical to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard for sediment toxicity tests with marine and estuarine amphipods. The results previously obtained revealed a strong potential for this amphipod to be used in toxicological testing. Considering the wide geographic distribution of this species and its amenability for culturing, it may be an alternative or complementary test for ecotoxicological studies in other European coastal systems where the existing tests cannot be applied or do not offer a definitive solution.

  3. UV-B-Induced acute toxicity of pyrene to the waterflea Daphnia magna in natural freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkilä, A; Penttinen, S; Kukkonen, J V

    1999-11-01

    The effects of various water characteristics in natural freshwaters on the acute toxicity of one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), pyrene, to a pelagic invertebrate Daphnia magna was studied under ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation and in the dark. Pyrene was photoactivated and was more toxic to D. magna in the presence of UV-B radiation. Dissolved organic material (DOM), measured as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), significantly reduced the photoenhanced toxicity of pyrene. Under UV-B radiation the EC(50) values were lower and in relation to the amount of DOM, ranging from 3.0 to 30.0 microg/L pyrene, whereas in the dark they were between 29.2 and 54.8 microg/L and not related to the amount of DOM in the waters. Although the condition and mortality of the daphnids in the control groups were not affected by UV-B irradiation, the increased toxicity was considered to be either an additive or a synergistic effect of both the photomodified pyrene and the stressing light conditions of UV-B. The measured binding of pyrene to DOM was low, although it was related to the amount of DOC. Despite the relatively high intensity of UV-B used, humic substances in the waters remained undegraded. It was thus concluded that with their brownish-yellowish color, waters rich in humic substances decreased the photomodification of the freely dissolved parent compound simply by diminishing the light penetration in these waters and, by implication, contact with the intact compound. These results suggest that DOM in surface waters plays an important role in protecting against the photoinduced toxicity of PAHs. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Estimation of acute oral toxicity using the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) from the 28 day repeated dose toxicity studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgheroni, Anna; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Prieto, Pilar

    2009-02-01

    Acute systemic toxicity is one of the areas of particular concern due to the 2009 deadline set by the 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive (76/768/EEC), which introduces a testing and marketing ban of cosmetic products with ingredients tested on animals. The scientific community is putting considerable effort into developing and validating non-animal alternatives in this area. However, it is unlikely that validated and regulatory accepted alternative methods and/or strategies will be available in March 2009. Following the initiatives undertaken in the pharmaceutical industry to waive the acute oral toxicity testing before going to clinical studies by using information from other in vivo studies, we proposed an approach to identify non-toxic compounds (LD50>2000mg/kg) using information from 28 days repeated dose toxicity studies. Taking into account the high prevalence of non-toxic substances (87%) in the New Chemicals Database, it was possible to set a NOAEL threshold of 200mg/kg that allowed the correct identification of 63% of non-toxic compounds, while testing of cosmetic ingredients.

  5. Effect of salinity on acute copper and zinc toxicity to Tigriopus japonicus: the difference between metal ions and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junbeom; Kim, Soyoun; Yoo, Jisu; Lee, Jae-Seong; Park, June-Woo; Jung, Jinho

    2014-08-30

    We investigated the effects of salinity (5‰, 15‰, 25‰ and 35‰) on metal ion (Cu and Zn) and nanoparticle (NP) CuO and ZnO toxicity to Tigriopus japonicus. Increasing the test media volume without renewal increased the 96-h LC50 for Cu (32.75 mg L(-1)) compared to the reported value (3.9 mg L(-1)). There was no significant difference in acute toxicity at different salinities between acclimated and unacclimated T. japonicus (p>0.05). Increasing salinity decreased the dissolved concentrations of Cu and Zn ions due to the precipitation of the metal ions, consequently reducing the acute toxicity to T. japonicus. The effect of salinity on acute CuO and ZnO NP toxicity was similar to that on metal ion toxicity. Since the aggregation of NPs generally enhanced at higher salinities, both the dissolution and aggregation of CuO and ZnO NPs may control the effect of salinity on acute toxicity to T. japonicus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. Evaluating Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Acute Ocular Exposure to Irritant Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Sebastian Cherian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute systemic toxicity via ocular exposure route is not a well understood aspect. Any material/drug/chemical that comes in contact with the eye can evade the first pass metabolism and enter the systemic circulation through the conjunctival blood vessels or via the nasolacrimal route. In this study, the effect of ocular irritant chemicals on the systemic toxicity was assessed in rabbit. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to known ocular irritant (cetyl pyridinium chloride, sodium salicylate, imidazole, acetaminophen, and nicotinamide for 24 h and scored. After a period of 72 h, blood was collected from the animals for examining the hematological and biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and the eyes were collected for histopathology and cytokine analysis by ELISA. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by tritiated thymidine incorporation assay. The liver and brain of the treated animals were retrieved for evaluating oxidative damage. The chemicals showed moderate to severe eye irritation. Inflammation was not evident in the histopathology but proinflammatory markers were significantly high. The splenocyte proliferation capacity was undeterred. And there was minimal oxidative stress in the brain and liver. In conclusion, acute exposure of ocular irritants was incapable of producing a prominent systemic side effect in the current scenario.

  8. Acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of pesticide Diazinon in red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Mossambicus albina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Jaime A; Henao, Beatriz; Vélez, Jorge H; González, Jairo; Parra, Carlos M

    2002-01-01

    Young red tilapias were exposed for 96 h to each one of 6 concentrations of the pesticide Diazinon in order to determine the pesticide's acute toxicity level. After the ascertaining the lethal concentration (LC50) at 96 h, a level 10 times lower was selected for the bioaccumulation study of the pesticide in male and female specimens exposed for 9 days. The elimination process was carried out for 10 days beginning right after the conclusion of the accumulation process. Analytical procedures were developed and used for the studies of acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of Diazinon in red tilapia. A lethal concentration [LC50 (96 h)] of 3.85 mg/L was found, and steady-state accumulation, at a concentration of 28.45 mg/kg, was reached at 7.72 days. In the elimination process a concentration of 0.29 mg/kg was found in tilapia tissue by the sixth day after the fish were moved to clean water, and it continued to decrease quickly toward nondetectable levels. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Application of Biotic Ligand Model in Predicting Copper Acute Toxicity to Carp (Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanbin; Liang, Qibin; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Three representative species of Cyprinidae fishes (Aristichthys nobilis, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, and Cyprinus carpio), which are abundant in Chinese surface waters, were studied to determine their sensitivity to copper (Cu) in acute exposures. We first performed acute toxicity tests to determine the Cu LC 50 value for each species in water with varying characteristics. The biotic ligand model (BLM) was then calibrated using the toxicity data for these species together with binding properties specific to Cu. The BLM calibration involved the calculation of the level of Cu accumulation in the gills that resulted in 50% lethality (i.e., LA 50 ). The LA 50 values for A. nobilis, C. idellus and C. carpio were 5.16, 11.60 and 9.00 nmol g -1 . The model calibrated to these data was improved by adjusting the Cu-proton exchange constant (pK CuHA-A ) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to values of 1.84 and 4.67E-3 mol g -1 , respectively. The calibrated Cu-BLM was validated for these three common fish species by comparing predicted and observed LC 50 values, which were in agreement to within a factor of 2. The results of this study provide an important contribution to ecological risk assessment and establishment of water quality criteria for Cu in China.

  10. Safety evaluation of turmeric polysaccharide extract: assessment of mutagenicity and acute oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusami, Chandrasekaran Chinampudur; Boddapati, Srinivasa Rao; Hongasandra Srinivasa, Srikanth; Richard, Edwin Jothie; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Balasubramanian, Murali; Agarwal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02) using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin). The results showed no mutagenic effect with NR-INF-02 up to a dose of 5000 µg/mL in BRMT. The results on CA and MN tests revealed the non clastogenic activity of NR-INF-02 in a dose range of 250.36 to 2500 µg/mL with and without metabolic activation (S9). In acute oral toxicity study, NR-INF-02 was found to be safe up to 5 g/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Overall, results indicated that polysaccharide extract of C. longa was found to be genotoxically safe and also exhibited maximum tolerable dose of more than 5 g/kg rat body weight.

  11. Safety Evaluation of Turmeric Polysaccharide Extract: Assessment of Mutagenicity and Acute Oral Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02 using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT, chromosome aberration (CA, and micronucleus (MN tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin. The results showed no mutagenic effect with NR-INF-02 up to a dose of 5000 µg/mL in BRMT. The results on CA and MN tests revealed the non clastogenic activity of NR-INF-02 in a dose range of 250.36 to 2500 µg/mL with and without metabolic activation (S9. In acute oral toxicity study, NR-INF-02 was found to be safe up to 5 g/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Overall, results indicated that polysaccharide extract of C. longa was found to be genotoxically safe and also exhibited maximum tolerable dose of more than 5 g/kg rat body weight.

  12. Safety Evaluation of Turmeric Polysaccharide Extract: Assessment of Mutagenicity and Acute Oral Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusami, Chandrasekaran Chinampudur; Boddapati, Srinivasa Rao; Hongasandra Srinivasa, Srikanth; Richard, Edwin Jothie; Balasubramanian, Murali

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02) using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin). The results showed no mutagenic effect with NR-INF-02 up to a dose of 5000 µg/mL in BRMT. The results on CA and MN tests revealed the non clastogenic activity of NR-INF-02 in a dose range of 250.36 to 2500 µg/mL with and without metabolic activation (S9). In acute oral toxicity study, NR-INF-02 was found to be safe up to 5 g/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Overall, results indicated that polysaccharide extract of C. longa was found to be genotoxically safe and also exhibited maximum tolerable dose of more than 5 g/kg rat body weight. PMID:24455673

  13. Synthesis, acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory effect of bornyl salicylate, a salicylic acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Renata Marcia Costa; Leite, Fagner Carvalho; Leite, Jacqueline Alves; Rodrigues Mascarenhas, Sandra; Rodrigues, Luis Cezar; Piuvezam, Marcia Regina

    2012-12-01

    Bornyl salicylate (BS) is a salicylic derivative, obtained by sterification of salicylic acid and monoterpene (-)-borneol, and its topical use in inflammatory diseases was described in the early 20th century. It is also known that borneol presents neuroprotective, genoprotective and analgesic properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate BS in experimental models of acute inflammation. The toxicity of BS was analyzed by measuring water and food intake, weight, mortality and weight of main organs. To assess its anti-inflammatory effect, BS-treated mice were challenged with carrageenan, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), bradikynin (BK) or histamine (HIS)-induced paw edema, zymosan-induced peritonitis and vascular permeability induced by acetic acid. Nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed in peritoneal macrophage cultures. There was no sign of acute toxicity of BS in male and female mice. Furthermore, treatment with BS was significantly (p acetic acid were also reduced in BS-treated animals. In vitro, BS (10 µg/mL) reduced NO production in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These data suggest that BS has an anti-inflammatory effect, which is related, at least in part, with decrease of mediators as PGE2, NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, further studies should be done to explore its potential as an anti-inflammatory drug.

  14. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of erythritol in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Alex K; de Cock, Peter; Crincoli, Christine M; Means, Charlotte; Wismer, Tina; Pappas, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Polyols, also known as sugar alcohols, are widely used in the formulation of tooth-friendly and reduced-calorie foods. Considering the significant health benefits of polyols in products formulated for human use, there is increased interest in evaluating potential uses in companion animal applications. Erythritol and xylitol are two polyols which are currently widely used in products ranging from reduced-sugar foods to personal care and cosmetics. Published studies have shown that both of these compounds are well-tolerated in rodents. Their toxicity profiles differ when comparing canine safety data. Doses of xylitol as low as 0.15 g/kg-BW in dogs can result in life-threatening hypoglycemia and acute liver failure, whereas erythritol is well-tolerated in dogs with reported No Adverse Effect Levels upwards of 5 g/kg-BW/day in repeat-dose studies. While pivotal studies substantiating the safe use of erythritol in humans have been published, there are limited published studies to support the safe use of erythritol in dogs. Here we present the results of an acute oral and a sub-chronic oral toxicity study in Beagle dogs. Given the potential health benefits of oral products formulated with erythritol and the data presented herein substantiating the safe use in dogs, erythritol can be safely used in products for canines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute and subacute (28-day) toxicity studies of ionic liquid, didecyldimethyl ammonium acesulfamate, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Nowicki, Michał; Adamska, Teresa; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Kujawska, Małgorzata; Petzke, Ewelina; Konwerska, Aneta; Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Pernak, Juliusz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate acute and subacute oral toxicity of an ionic liquid, didecyldimethylammonium acesulfamate [DDA][Ace], in rats. The compound tested was classified to the fourth toxicity class with a fixed LD(50) cut-off value of 500 mg/kg. Organ pathology induced by [DDA][Ace] in acute experiments included exfoliation of the surface layer of the digestive tract and alveolar septa in lung parenchyma. In a subacute experiment, rats were administered 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day [DDA][Ace] for 28 days. Reduced body weight gain and reduced food consumption was observed in mid- and high-dose rats. Statistically significant hematology changes were found mostly in high-dose groups of both sexes: increases in hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean platelet volume. Statistically significant changes in clinical chemistry parameters included increases in the GGT, SDH, and LDH activity and bilirubin concentration, and decreases in triglycerides, glucose, and inorganic phosphorus concentration. No treatment-related microscopic changes were observed. Under the conditions of this study, the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of [DDA][Ace] was considered to be 10 mg/kg/day.

  16. Cytotoxicity, acute and subchronic toxicity of ionic liquid, didecyldimethylammonium saccharinate, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Nowicki, Michal; Murias, Marek; Adamska, Teresa; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Kujawska, Małgorzata; Piotrowska, Hanna; Konwerska, Aneta; Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Pernak, Juliusz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cytotoxicity, acute and subchronic oral toxicity of an ionic liquid didecyldimethylammonium saccharinate [DDA][Sac] in rat. IC(50) values tested on six human cell lines varied from 1.44 microM to 5.47 microM. The compound tested was classified to the 4th toxicity class with a fixed LD(50) cut-off value 500 mg/kg. Organ pathology induced by [DDA][Sac] in an acute experiment included exfoliation of the surface layer of the colon and alveolar septa in lung parenchyma. In a subchronic experiment rats were administered 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg/day [DDA][Sac] for 28 days. Reduced body weight gain and slightly reduced food consumption was observed particularly in high-dose rats. Slight hematology changes were found only in mid-dose females. Statistically significant changes in clinical chemistry parameters included: increases in the ALT, SDH, ALP and GGT activities, and in glucose, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations. However, these changes did not occur in both sexes and were not dose-related with the exception of ALP in females. No treatment-related microscopic changes were observed in a subchronic experiment. Under the condition of this study the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of [DDA][Sac] was considered to be 10 mg/kg/day. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute Toxicity of Aluminium to the Fish (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamda Azmat*, Muhammad Javed and Ghazala Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity tests (96-hr LC50 and lethal concentration of aluminium (Al were conducted with three fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala of 60, 120 and 240 days age groups at constant water temperature (30oC, pH (7.50 and total hardness (300 mg.L-1 in the wet laboratory. At termination of each trial, the fish were dissected and their organs viz. bones, gills, gut, intestine, kidney, liver, scales, skin, muscles and fats isolated for the determination of Al concentrations. At 60 days, all the three fish species showed significantly (P<0.05 higher sensitivity to Al while 240 days fish were significantly least sensitive. Among the three fish species, Catla catla were significantly (P<0.05 more sensitivity to Al with the mean 96-hr LC50 and lethal concentration of 81.68±28.54 and 129.81±30.95 mg.L-1, respectively. Fish organs showed significantly variable ability to concentrate metal during acute exposure of Al. However, liver and kidneys exhibited significantly higher potentials for metals accumulation. From the study it was concluded that all the three fish species responded differently towards Al toxicity.

  18. The acute toxic effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ionic liquids on Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Tongtong

    2017-10-01

    Given their increasingly widespread application, the toxic effects of ionic liquids (ILs) have become the subject of significant attention in recent years. Therefore, the present study assessed the acute toxic effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([C n mim]NO 3 (n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12)) on Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. The sensitivity of the tested organism Daphnia magna and the investigated IL concentrations in water using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were also evaluated to demonstrate the reliability of the present study. The results illustrated that Daphnia magna is indeed sensitive to the reference toxicant and the investigated ILs were stable in the aquatic environment. The 50% effect concentration (EC 50 ) was used to represent the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. With the increasing alkyl-chain lengths, the toxicity of the investigated ILs increased in both the test organisms. Accordingly, the alkyl-chain lengths can cause significantly toxic effects on aquatic organisms, and Daphnia magna are much more sensitive than Chlorella vulgaris to the imidazolium-based ILs used in the present study. Furthermore, the present study provides more information on the acute toxic effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute toxicity of functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes: A biochemical, histopathologic and proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Homa; Ramezani, Mohammad; Yazdian-Robati, Rezvan; Behnam, Behzad; Razavi Azarkhiavi, Kamal; Hashem Nia, Azadeh; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Matbou Riahi, Maryam; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil

    2017-09-25

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) showed promising potentials in different biomedical applications but their safe use in humans and probable toxicities are still challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this project, PEGylated and Tween functionalized SWCNTs were prepared. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into nine groups, including PEGylated SWCNTs (75,150μg/mouse) and PEG, Tween80 suspended SWCNTs, Tween 80 and a control group (intact mice). One or 7 days after intravenous injection, the mice were killed and serum and livers were collected. The oxidative stress markers, biochemical and histopathological changes were studied. Subsequently, proteomics approach was used to investigate the alterations of protein expression profiles in the liver. Results showed that there were not any significant differences in malondealdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels and biochemical enzymes (ALT and AST) between groups, while the histopathological observations of livers showed some injuries. The results of proteomics analysis revealed indolethylamine N-Methyltransferase (INMT), glycine N-Methyltransferase (GNMT), selenium binding protein (Selenbp), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), TNF receptor associated protein 1(Trap1), peroxiredoxin-6 (Prdx6), electron transport flavoprotein (Etf-α), regucalcin (Rgn) and ATP5b proteins were differentially expressed in functionalized SWCNTs groups. Western blot analyses confirmed that the changes in Prdx6 were consistent with 2-DE gel analysis. In summary, acute toxicological study on two functionalized SWCNTs did not show any significant toxicity at selected doses. Proteomics analysis also showed that following exposure to functionalized SWCNTs, the expression of some proteins with antioxidant activity and detoxifying properties were increased in liver tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of Crassocephalum rubens leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Olusola B; Onasanya, Amos; Anadozie, Scholastica O; Abu, Miriam F; Akintan, Idowu A; Ogbole, Catherine J; Olayide, Israel I; Afolabi, Olakunle B; Jaiyesimi, Kikelomo F; Ajiboye, Bashir O; Fadaka, Adewale O

    2016-07-21

    Crassocephalum rubens is found throughout tropical Africa including the Indian Ocean islands. The leaves are commonly eaten in form of soups and sauces in South-Western Nigeria, also in other humid zones of Africa. Traditionally, it is used as an antidote against any form of poisoning; used to treat stomach and liver complaints; and externally to treat burns, sore eyes, earache, leprosy and breast cancer. In this study, acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves was evaluated in rats in order to assess its safety profile. In acute toxicity study, rats were given a single oral administration of aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves at graded doses (250-5000mg/kg). The animals were monitored for behavioural changes and possible mortality over a period of 24h and thereafter, for 14 days. In the subacute toxicity study, rats of both sexes were administered C. rubens orally at doses of 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg, 750mg/kg and 1000mg/kg body weight daily, for 28 days. Rats were observed weekly for any changes in general behaviour and body weights. In addition, other relevant parameters were assayed at the end of the main and reversibility study periods. There was no observed adverse effect; including mortality in the animals. The extract caused no significant difference in the body weights as well as organs weights of treated groups when compared with the control groups. Haematological and biochemical parameters also revealed no toxic effects of the extract on rats. Histological assessments were normal in liver and kidney. It can therefore be suggested based on the results from this study that aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves, at dosage levels up to 1000mg/kg, is non-toxic and could also offer protection on some body tissues. Aqueous extract of C. rubens could therefore, be considered safe. This study supports the application of Crassocephalum rubens in traditional medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction of pesticide acute toxicity using two-dimensional chemical descriptors and target species classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T M; Lilavois, C R; Barron, M G

    2017-06-01

    Previous modelling of the median lethal dose (oral rat LD 50 ) has indicated that local class-based models yield better correlations than global models. We evaluated the hypothesis that dividing the dataset by pesticidal mechanisms would improve prediction accuracy. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based-approach was utilized to assign indicators such as the pesticide target species, mode of action, or target species - mode of action combination. LDA models were able to predict these indicators with about 87% accuracy. Toxicity is predicted utilizing the QSAR model fit to chemicals with that indicator. Toxicity was also predicted using a global hierarchical clustering (HC) approach which divides data set into clusters based on molecular similarity. At a comparable prediction coverage (~94%), the global HC method yielded slightly higher prediction accuracy (r 2 = 0.50) than the LDA method (r 2 ~ 0.47). A single model fit to the entire training set yielded the poorest results (r 2 = 0.38), indicating that there is an advantage to clustering the dataset to predict acute toxicity. Finally, this study shows that whilst dividing the training set into subsets (i.e. clusters) improves prediction accuracy, it may not matter which method (expert based or purely machine learning) is used to divide the dataset into subsets.

  2. Acute and subchronic toxicity of Anacardium occidentale Linn (Anacardiaceae) leaves hexane extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tédong, Léonard; Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Dimo, Théophile; Asongalem, Emmanuel Acha; Sokeng, Selestin Ndogmo; Flejou, Jean-François; Callard, Patrice; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2006-11-13

    These studies focus on the toxicity leaf hexane extract of A. occidentale L (Anacardiaceae) used in Cameroon traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. Previous findings on antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory have given support to the ethnopharmacological applications of the plant. After acute oral administration, it was found that doses of the extract less than 6 g/kg are not toxic. Signs of toxicity at high doses were asthenia, anorexia, diarrhoea, and syncope. The LD(50) of the extract, determined in mice of both sexes after oral administration was 16 g/kg. In the subchronic study, mice received A. occidentale at doses of 6, 10 and 14 g/kg (by oral route) for 56 days. At doses of 2, 6 and 10 g/kg of extract, repeated oral administration to mice produced a reduction in food intake, weight gain, and behavioural effects. Liver or the kidney function tests were assessed by determining serum parameters like, creatinine, transaminases, and urea. All these parameters were significantly (poccidentale L hexane leaf extract occurred at higher doses than those used in Cameroon folk medicine.

  3. Investigation of Acute Toxicity Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticide due to the huge demand for agricultural purposes is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These pesticides could finally accumulate in aquatic ecosystems and have been proved to have toxic effects on aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and Pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of Diazinon (60% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm, Deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 ppm, butachlor (60% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm for 96 h within the 100 L glass aquaria and cumulative mortality of Zebra Cichlid fish was calculated in 24-h interval. Results: The very low LC50 obtained for diazinon (5.06±0.37 ppm, deltamethrin (0.15±0.39 ppm, butachlor (8.93±0.26 ppm and pretilachlor (20.72±0.58 ppm indicated that these are highly toxic chemicals. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that deltamethrin and pretilachlor had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the Zebra Cichlid respectively.

  4. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities and acute toxicity of Bumelia sartorum Mart., Sapotaceae, a Brazilian medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliny S. Ruela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to validate the Bumelia sartorum Mart., Sapotaceae, traditional use for infection diseases, this study evaluates the antibacterial activity of the stem bark fractions against methicillin-sensitive (MSSA and methicillin-resistant (MRSA Staphylococcus aureus strains by using the agar dilution method and reported as MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration. In addition, the DPPH scavenging activity of these fractions was measured and the chemical composition and acute toxicity of the active fraction were also determined. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract was chemically analyzed by LC/MS, direct ionization APCI/MS, ¹H NMR and 13C-NMR. All fractions, except butanol extract, presented high antioxidant activity, especially the methanol and the EtOAc extracts, which showed EC50 values (5.67 and 5.30 µg/mL, respectively considerably lower than the Gingko-standard EGb 761® (38.58 µg/mL. The antibacterial activity against S. aureus strains was observed in EtOAc (MIC 256-512 µg/mL, which showed a very low toxicity. The chemical study of this fraction revealed the abundant presence of polyphenolic compounds. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities reported in this paper for EtOAc extract from B. sartorum and the low toxicity of this fraction opens the possibility that it could be helpful for the developing of new antibacterial agents for treating S. aureus infections.

  5. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Java Tea Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Pariyani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term Java tea refers to the decoction of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS Benth (Lamiaceae leaves, which are widely consumed by the people in Europe and South East Asian countries. The OS leaves are known for their use in traditional medicinal systems as a prophylactic and curative agent for urinary stone, diabetes, and hypertension and also as a diuretic agent. The present study was aimed at evaluating its possible toxicity. Herein, the major phytochemical constituents of microwave dried OS leaf, which is the common drying process for tea sachets in the market, were also identified. The acute oral toxicity test of aqueous, 50% aqueous ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts of OS was performed at a dose of 5000 mg/Kg body weight of Sprague-Dawley rats. During the 14-day study, the animals were observed for any mortality, behavioral, motor-neuronal abnormalities, body weight, and feed-water consumption pattern. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters to assess the kidney and liver functions were carried out, along with the histological analysis of these organs. It was found that all microwave dried OS leaf extracts did not cause any toxic effects or mortality at the administered dose. No abnormality was noticed in all selected parameters in rats of both sexes as compared with their respective control groups. Thus, the possible oral lethal dose for microwave dried Java tea leaves is more than 5000 mg/Kg body weight.

  6. Acute toxicity of five pesticides to Apis mellifera larvae reared in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Pingli; Jack, Cameron J; Mortensen, Ashley N; Ellis, James D

    2017-11-01

    The reported high loss rates of managed honey bee colonies have been attributed to diverse stressors including pesticides. Honey bee larvae can be exposed to pesticides in contaminated nectar, pollen and wax. Due to the difficulties of rearing larvae in vitro, research focusing on adult bee exposure to pesticides is more common than that on larva exposure to pesticides. Herein, we aimed to assess the acute toxicity of five insecticides to honey bee larvae using an improved in vitro rearing method. LC 50 and LD 50 were calculated for larvae at 72 h following a single diet exposure administered when the larvae were 84 ± 12 h old. Solvent control larval mortalities were less than 15% at 72 h. The LC 50 values (mg L -1 ) for each tested pesticide were as follows: amitraz, 494.27; chlorpyrifos, 15.39; coumaphos, 90.01; fluvalinate, 27.69; and imidacloprid, 138.84. The LD 50 values in µg per larva were 14.83 (amitraz), 0.46 (chlorpyrifos), 2.70 (coumaphos), 0.83 (fluvalinate) and 4.17 (imidacloprid). The toxicity of the test pesticides to honey bee larvae from most to least toxic was chlorpyrifos > fluvalinate > coumaphos = imidacloprid > amitraz. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Acute toxicity and inactivation tests of CO2 on invertebrates in drinking water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Jin-Song; Liu, Li-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Shu; Li, Tuo

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the esthetic problem caused by invertebrates, researchers are recently starting to be more aware of their potential importance in terms of public health. However, the inactivation methods of invertebrates which could proliferate in drinking water treatment systems are not well developed. The objective of this study is to assess the acute toxicity and inactivation effects of CO2 on familiar invertebrates in water treatment processes. The results of this study revealed that CO2 has a definite toxicity to familiar invertebrates. The values of 24-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) were calculated for each test with six groups of invertebrates. The toxicity of CO2 was higher with increasing concentrations in solution but was lower with the increase in size of the invertebrates. Above the concentration of 1,000 mg/L for the CO2 solution, the 100% inactivation time of all the invertebrates was less than 5 s, and in 15 min, the inactivation ratio showed a gradient descent with a decline in concentration. As seen for Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, by dosing with a sodium bicarbonate solution first and adding a dilute hydrochloric acid solution 5 min later, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory inactivation effect in the GAC (granular activated carbon) filters.

  8. Acute toxicity, histopathology, and coagulopathy in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following administration of the rodenticie diphacinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Day, Daniel D.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Voler, Steven F.; Eisemann, John D.; Johnston, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be over 20 times greater in American kestrels (Falco sparverius; median lethal dose 96.8 mg/kg body weight) compared with Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Modest evidence of internal bleeding was observed at necropsy, although histological examination of heart, liver, kidney, lung, intestine, and skeletal muscle revealed hemorrhage over a wide range of doses (35.1-675 mg/kg). Residue analysis suggests that the half-life of diphacinone in the liver of kestrels that survived was relatively short, with the majority of the dose cleared within 7 d of exposure. Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell's viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in this species, and oral administration of diphacinone at 50 mg/kg increased prothrombin time and Russell?s viper venom time at 48 and 96 h postdose compared with controls. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and generally corresponded with the onset of overt signs of toxicity and lethality. In view of the toxicity and risk evaluation data derived from American kestrels, the involvement of diphacinone in some raptor mortality events, and the paucity of threshold effects data following short-term dietary exposure for birds of prey, additional feeding trials with captive raptors are warranted to characterize more fully the risk of secondary poisoning.

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of copper to the euryhaline rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis ("L" strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W R; Diamond, R L; Smith, D S

    2011-02-01

    This article presents data from original research, intended for the use in the development of copper (Cu) criteria for the protection of estuarine and marine organisms and their uses in the United States. Two 48-h static-acute toxicity tests-one with and one without added food-and a 96-h static multigeneration life-cycle test (P1-F2 generations) were performed concurrently using the euryhaline rotifer Brachionus plicatilis ("L" strain) to develop a Cu acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) for this species. Tests were performed at 15 g/L salinity, at 25°C, and the exposure concentrations of dissolved Cu were verified. Supplemental chemical analyses were performed and reported for the development of a Cu-saltwater biotic ligand model (BLM). Supplemental analyses included alkalinity, calcium, chloride, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), hardness, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and temperature. The acute toxicity test measurement end points were the dissolved Cu median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values based on rotifer survival. The chronic measurement end points were the dissolved Cu no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC), lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC), EC₂₅, EC₂₀, and EC₁₀ based on the intrinsic rate of rotifer population increase (r). The 48-h LC₅₀(Fed), 48-h LC₅₀(Unfed), 96-h NOEC, 96-h LOEC, EC₂₅, EC₂₀, and EC₁₀ were 20.8, 13.4, 6.1, 10.3, 11.7, 10.9, and 8.8 μg Cu/L, respectively. The ACRs were calculated as ratios of each 48-h LC₅₀ value [fed and unfed) and each of the 96-h chronic values (ChV; geometric mean of NOEC and LOEC)], EC₁₀, EC₂₀, and EC₂₅. The ACRs ranged from 1.15 to 2.63.

  10. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  11. Safty and acute toxicities of intraoperative electron radiotherapy for patients with abdominal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Yirui; Feng Qinfu; Li Minghui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the safety and acute toxicities of intraoperative electron radiotherapy for patients with abdominal tumors. Methods: From May 2008 to August 2009, 52 patients with abdominal tumors were treated with intraoperative electron radiotherapy, including 14 patients with breast cancer,19 with pancreatic cancer, 3 with cervical cancer, 4 with ovarian cancer, 6 with sarcoma, and 6 with other tumors. Fifteen patients were with recurrent tumors. The intraoperative radiotherapy was performed using Mobetron mobile electron accelerator, with total dose of 9 - 18 Gy. In all, 29, 4 and 19 patients received complete resection, palliative resection and surgical exploration, respectively. The complications during the operations and within 6 months after operations were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 (CTC 3.0). Results: The median duration of surgery was 190 minutes. Intraoperative complications were observed in 5 patients, including 3 with hemorrhage, 1 with hypotension,and 1 with hypoxaemia, all of which were treated conservatively. The median hospitalization time and time to take out stitches was 12 and 13 days, respectively. And the in-hospital mortality was 4% (2/52). Twenty-four patients suffered post-operative adverse events, including 3 postoperative infections. With a median follow-up time of 183 days, 20% of patients suffered from grade 3 to 5 adverse events, with hematological toxicities being the most common complication, followed by bellyache. Grade 1 and 2 toxicities which were definitely associated with intraoperative radiotherapy was 28% and 4%, respectively. None of grade 3 to 5 complications were proved to be caused by intraoperative radiotherapy. Conclusions: Intraoperative electron radiotherapy is well tolerable and could be widely used for patients with abdominal tumors, with a little longer time to take out stitches but without more morbidities and toxicities compared surgery alone. (authors)

  12. Polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene and effect on outcome and toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers, J; Gréen, H; Christensen, I J

    2015-01-01

    The membrane transporter P-glycoprotein, encoded by the ABCB1 gene, influences the pharmacokinetics of anti-cancer drugs. We hypothesized that variants of ABCB1 affect outcome and toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We studied 522 Danish children with ALL, 93% of all those...... between ABCB1 polymorphisms, efficacy and toxicity in the treatment of ALL, and ABCB1 1199G>A may be a new possible predictive marker for outcome in childhood ALL....

  13. Impact of Bone Marrow Radiation Dose on Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Cervical Cancer: Principal Component Analysis on High Dimensional Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Liang; Messer, Karen; Rose, Brent S.; Lewis, John H.; Jiang, Steve B.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mell, Loren K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of increasing pelvic bone marrow (BM) radiation dose on acute hematologic toxicity in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy, using a novel modeling approach to preserve the local spatial dose information. Methods and Materials: The study included 37 cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent weekly cisplatin and pelvic radiation therapy. The white blood cell count nadir during treatment was used as the indicator for acute hematologic toxicity. Pelvic BM radiation dose distributions were standardized across patients by registering the pelvic BM volumes to a common template, followed by dose remapping using deformable image registration, resulting in a dose array. Principal component (PC) analysis was applied to the dose array, and the significant eigenvectors were identified by linear regression on the PCs. The coefficients for PC regression and significant eigenvectors were represented in three dimensions to identify critical BM subregions where dose accumulation is associated with hematologic toxicity. Results: We identified five PCs associated with acute hematologic toxicity. PC analysis regression modeling explained a high proportion of the variation in acute hematologicity (adjusted R 2 , 0.49). Three-dimensional rendering of a linear combination of the significant eigenvectors revealed patterns consistent with anatomical distributions of hematopoietically active BM. Conclusions: We have developed a novel approach that preserves spatial dose information to model effects of radiation dose on toxicity, which may be useful in optimizing radiation techniques to avoid critical subregions of normal tissues. Further validation of this approach in a large cohort is ongoing.

  14. Acute, subacute toxicity and mutagenic effects of anacardic acids from cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Laura Nicoletti; Annoni, Raquel; Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Mauad, Thais

    2011-06-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. (cashew) is a Brazilian plant that is usually consumed in natura and is used in folk medicine. Anacardic acids (AAs) in the cashew nut shell liquid are biologically active as gastroprotectors, inhibitors of the activity of various deleterious enzymes, antitumor agents and antioxidants. Yet, there are no reports of toxicity testing to guarantee their use in vivo models. We evaluated AAs biosafety by measuring the acute, subacute and mutagenic effects of AAs administration in BALB/c mice. In acute tests, BALB/c mice received a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg, whereas animals in subacute tests received 300, 600 and 1000 mg/kg for 30 days. Hematological, biochemical and histological analyses were performed in all animals. Mutagenicity was measured with the acute micronucleus test 24h after oral administration of 250 mg/kg AAs. Our results showed that the AAs acute minimum lethal dose in BALB/c mice is higher than 2000 mg/kg since this concentration did not produce any symptoms. In subacute tests, females which received the highest doses (600 or 1000 mg/kg) were more susceptible, which was seen by slightly decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin levels coupled with a moderate increase in urea. Anacardic acids did not produce any mutagenic effects. The data indicate that doses less than 300 mg/kg did not produce biochemical and hematological alterations in BALB/c mice. Additional studies must be conducted to investigate the pharmacological potential of this natural substance in order to ensure their safe use in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute and chronic toxicities of zinc pyrithione alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Vivien W W; Lui, Gilbert C S; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-12-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is a widely used booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints as a substitute for tributyltin. The co-occurrence of ZnPT and Cu in coastal marine environments is therefore very common, and may pose a higher risk to marine organisms if they can result in synergistic toxicity. This study comprehensively investigated the combined toxicity of ZnPT and Cu, on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus, for the first time, based on both 96-h acute toxicity tests using adult copepods and chronic full-life cycle tests (21 d) using nauplii copper pyrithione (CuPT) in the presence of Cu, the acute toxicities of CuPT alone and in combination with Cu on adult copepods were also assessed. Our results showed that ZnPT and Cu exhibited a strong synergistic toxic effect on the copepod in both acute and chronic tests. During the acute test, the mortalities of adult copepods increased dramatically even with an addition of Cu at concentrations as low as 1-2 μg/L compared with those exposed to ZnPT alone. Severe chronic toxicities were further observed in the copepods exposed to ZnPT-Cu mixtures, including a significant increase of naupliar mortality, postponing of development from naupliar to copepodid and from copepodid to adult stage, and a significant decrease of intrinsic population growth when compared with those of copepods exposed to ZnPT or Cu alone. Such synergistic effects might be partly attributable to the formation of CuPT by the trans-chelation of ZnPT and Cu, because CuPT was found to be more toxic than ZnPT based on the acute toxicity results. Mixtures of CuPT and Cu also led to synergistic toxic effects to the copepod, in particular at high Cu concentrations. A novel non-parametric response surface model was applied and it proved to be a powerful method for analysing and predicting the acute binary mixture toxicities of the booster biocides (i.e., ZnPT and CuPT) and Cu on the copepod. To better protect precious marine

  16. Safety evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract on irradiated tea parasite: Acute toxicity study on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendig Winarno

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of the pharmacological efficacy of tea parasite and the use of ionizing radiation for decontamination of microbes and extending shelf life have been reported, but there is no information on its safety, such as the acute toxicity. In this study, the acute toxicity of two ethyl acetate extracts from unirradiated and irradiated (irradiation dose of 10 kGy) tea parasites Scurrula atropurpurea on Swiss Webster mice have been examined. The observation was done after the treatment of a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract in various dose groups, i.e.: control (0 g/kg of mice body weight), D1 (0.625 g/kg), D2 (1.25 g/kg), D3 (2.5 g/kg) D4 (5 g/kg), D5 (10 g/kg) by observing the effect on behavioral response (pharmacological profile), the body weight gains and mortality until the day 14 th . At the last day, the observation of vital organs has also been done. The result showed that no acute toxicity was found in mice treated with a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated tea parasite and irradiated tea parasite at the dose of 10 kGy. At the dose up to 10 g/kg (equivalent to 77.6 g of extract which administered to human), the normal body weight gains were observed in mice of all dose groups, no mice deaths in any of the dose groups, and no significant change (p > 0.05) in organ weights relative to the body weight i.e.: liver, spleen, kidneys, lung, heart, testes and seminal vesicle (for male), and ovaries and uterus (for female). The approximate lethal doses for male and female mice were determined to be higher than 10 g/kg of mice body weight. It is suggested that the treatment of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated and irradiated tea parasites until dose up to 10 g/kg of mice body weight was still safe. (author)

  17. Acute and 28-day subchronic toxicity studies of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalena Prado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pharmacological properties of mangiferin have been reported, but few studies have investigated mangiferin toxicity. Aims: To study the acute and 28-day toxicity effects of mangiferin in rodents. Methods: Single doses of mangiferin were administered by oral or i.p. route or were applied dermally to Sprague-Dawley rats and Balb/C mice. Clinical symptoms of animals were observed during 14 days after treatment. Animals also received single oral doses daily for 28 consecutive days. Blood biochemistry, hematology and pathology findings were reported. Results: In the acute study, no toxic effects were observed after dermal exposure to mangiferin 2000 mg/kg but transient dyspnea, flank position and piloerection were observed after oral administration to this xanthone. I.p. administration induced similar toxicity signs, but at the highest dose (2000 mg/kg all mice, one female rat and one male rat died. Rats orally treated with mangiferin (250-1000 mg/kg for 28 days did not show any abnormal clinical signs or hematology alterations, when compared to control group animals. Histopathological alterations like vacuolar degeneration, necrosis and increment of apoptosis of the acinar cells were observed in the exocrine pancreas of rats at 1000 mg/kg. This suggesting that exocrine pancreas was the target organ for mangiferin’s toxicity. Conclusions: These studies indicated that acute and subchronic toxicities of mangiferin for oral exposure are low.

  18. Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.; Specht, W.L.; Keyes, J.L.

    1993-03-31

    A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ``Guideline`` for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on acute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of red ginger (zingiber officinale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin Katrin; Winarti Andayani; Susanto; Hendig Winarno

    2014-01-01

    Red ginger is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of diseases. Evaluation of the toxic properties of red ginger is very important to know the negative harmful impact to human health. Therefore, before it is consumed by humans, it is needed to conduct acute oral toxicity of red ginger extract in mice. Thin rhizome of red ginger in poly ethylene plastic packaging was irradiated by gamma rays at a dose of 10 kGy with a dose rate of 10 kGy/h. The ethanol extract of unirradiated as well as irradiated red ginger was then tested for the acute oral toxicity using OECD Guideline test method. The results showed that throughout the 14 days of treatment there was a change in behavior pattern, clinical symptoms and body weight of control mice and treatment groups. Histopathological examination of kidneys, heart, liver, lungs and spleen of the dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weight showed normal condition and no significant side effects observation. While central venous damage and a reduced number of hepatocyte cells in male mice occurred in the test dose higher than 2000 mg/kg body weight, whereas in female mice it occurred in the test group dose higher than 1250 mg/kg bw. Based on renal histology of male and female mice at doses higher than 1250 mg/kg body weight, there were damage to Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, proximal vessel and distal vessels. LD50 of unirradiated and irradiated with 10 kGy of ethanol extract of red ginger were 1887 mg/kg body weight and 2639 mg/kg body weight, respectively, and it can be categorized as moderately toxic. Oral administration of ethanol extract of red ginger with dose of 1250 mg/kg body weight gave an effect in mice organs. From these results it can be concluded that oral administration of both unirradiated and irradiated with a dose 10 kGy of ethanol extract consider safe at a dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weigh. (author)

  20. Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; Specht, W.L.; Keyes, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ''Guideline'' for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application

  1. Acute and subchronic toxicity analysis of surface modified paclitaxel attached hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbu, Gopinath Devanand; Ramasamy, S; Gaddam, Pramod Reddy; Kumar, J

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are widely used for targeted drug delivery applications. Surface modification with appropriate polymer and ligands is carried out to target the drug to the affected area. Toxicity analysis is carried out to evaluate the safety of the surface modified nanoparticles. In this study, paclitaxel attached, folic acid functionalized, polyethylene glycol modified hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were used for targeted drug delivery system. The toxicological behavior of the system was studied in vivo in rats and mice. Acute and subchronic studies were carried out. Biochemical, hematological, and histopathological analysis was also done. There were no significant alterations in the biochemical parameters at a low dosage. There was a small change in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level at a high dosage. The results indicate a safe toxicological profile.

  2. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 227-232

  3. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 227-232

  4. Acute and subchronic toxicity analysis of surface modified paclitaxel attached hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbu, Gopinath Devanand; Ramasamy, S; Gaddam, Pramod Reddy; Kumar, J

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are widely used for targeted drug delivery applications. Surface modification with appropriate polymer and ligands is carried out to target the drug to the affected area. Toxicity analysis is carried out to evaluate the safety of the surface modified nanoparticles. In this study, paclitaxel attached, folic acid functionalized, polyethylene glycol modified hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were used for targeted drug delivery system. The toxicological behavior of the system was studied in vivo in rats and mice. Acute and subchronic studies were carried out. Biochemical, hematological, and histopathological analysis was also done. There were no significant alterations in the biochemical parameters at a low dosage. There was a small change in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level at a high dosage. The results indicate a safe toxicological profile. PMID:26491315

  5. Acute toxicity and radioprotective efficiency of Gammaphos (WR-2721) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuna, P.; Krajcovic, C.

    1981-01-01

    The acute toxicity was investigated of radioprotective compound WR-2721. In rats, after intramuscular administration the LD 50 value was found to be 441 (390-498) mg.kg -1 , after intraperitoneal administration - 463 (402-503) mg.kg -1 . In doses of 150, 2a0 and 250 mg.kg -1 , WR-2721 significantly protected the rats against radiation death after whole body gamma irradiation (0.386-0.381 Gy.min -1 ). WR-2721 was i.m. administered 15 minutes before administration. Evaluation of the radioprotective effect was based on 30 days' survival and on a comparison of lethal radiation doses in the control and in protected rats

  6. Intensity modulated radiotherapy of upper abdominal malignancies: dosimetric comparison with 3D conformal radiotherapy and acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour, Alaa Ahmad; Alaradi, Aziz; Mohamed, Adel; Altuwaijri, Saleh; Rudat, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess a possible dosimetric advantage of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of upper abdominal malignancies compared to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), and to assess the impact of IMRT on acute toxicity. Thirty-one unselected consecutive patients with upper abdominal malignancies were treated with definitive (n =16) or postoperative (n =15) IMRT. Twenty-one patients (67.7%) received concomitant chemotherapy. 3DCRT plans were generated for comparison, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measurements was used to test for significant difference of dosimetric parameters. Acute toxicity was assessed weekly using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grading scale. IMRT plans showed a small but statistically significant improvement of the conformity index compared to 3DCRT plans (difference (95% confidence interval), -0.06 (−0.109 to-0.005); p = 0.03). The homogeneity index was not significantly improved (p = 0.10). A significantly reduced high dose volume on cost of a significantly increased low dose volume was observed for the kidneys. The acute toxicity appeared to be less than commonly reported for corresponding patients treated with 3DCRT. No patient developed grade 3 or 4 non-hematological acute toxicity, and the most common grade 2 toxicity was vomiting (9.7%). IMRT offers the potential of a clinically relevant dosimetric advantage compared to 3DCRT in terms of a reduced acute toxicity. Further optimization of the radiotherapy technique and more clinical trials are required before IMRT is routinely used for upper abdominal malignancies

  7. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem El Jemli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP. The major identified compounds in GC/MS analysis were bornyl acetate (26.81%, camphor (22.40% and α-pinene (7.16%, with 25 other minor constituents. No mortalities in acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD50 of T. articulata essential oil is highest than 5 g/kg. In the anti-inflammatory test based on chemical and mechanical induced trauma, the EO demonstrated an effective reduce swelling by 64.71 ± 9.38% and 69.09 ± 6.02% respectively obtained 6 h after administration at the dose of 200 mg/kg when compared to the control groups. Moreover in the antioxidant testing battery, T. articulata essential oil showed a promising scavenging effect measured by DPPH, TEAC and ferric-reducing power assays with IC50 values of 12.05 ± 0.24 mg/mL, 8.90 ± 0.17 mg/mL and 0.15 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively. These results suggest that, the EO from the leaves of T. articulata constitutes a valuable source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant metabolites. These findings argue for the possible integration of this oil in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  8. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Doukkali, Zouhra; Bouidida, El Houcine; Touati, Driss; Nejjari, Rachid; El Guessabi, Lahcen; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2017-07-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO) from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The major identified compounds in GC/MS analysis were bornyl acetate (26.81%), camphor (22.40%) and α-pinene (7.16%), with 25 other minor constituents. No mortalities in acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD 50 of T. articulata essential oil is highest than 5 g/kg. In the anti-inflammatory test based on chemical and mechanical induced trauma, the EO demonstrated an effective reduce swelling by 64.71 ± 9.38% and 69.09 ± 6.02% respectively obtained 6 h after administration at the dose of 200 mg/kg when compared to the control groups. Moreover in the antioxidant testing battery, T. articulata essential oil showed a promising scavenging effect measured by DPPH, TEAC and ferric-reducing power assays with IC 50 values of 12.05 ± 0.24 mg/mL, 8.90 ± 0.17 mg/mL and 0.15 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively. These results suggest that, the EO from the leaves of T. articulata constitutes a valuable source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant metabolites. These findings argue for the possible integration of this oil in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  9. Proton Beam Craniospinal Irradiation Reduces Acute Toxicity for Adults With Medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Aaron P.; Barney, Christian L.; Grosshans, David R.; McAleer, Mary Frances; Groot, John F. de; Puduvalli, Vinay K.; Tucker, Susan L.; Crawford, Cody N.; Khan, Meena; Khatua, Soumen; Gilbert, Mark R.; Brown, Paul D.; Mahajan, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Efficacy and acute toxicity of proton craniospinal irradiation (p-CSI) were compared with conventional photon CSI (x-CSI) for adults with medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Forty adult medulloblastoma patients treated with x-CSI (n=21) or p-CSI (n=19) at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 2003 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Median CSI and total doses were 30.6 and 54 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up was 57 months (range 4-103) for x-CSI patients and 26 months (range 11-63) for p-CSI. Results: p-CSI patients lost less weight than x-CSI patients (1.2% vs 5.8%; P=.004), and less p-CSI patients had >5% weight loss compared with x-CSI (16% vs 64%; P=.004). p-CSI patients experienced less grade 2 nausea and vomiting compared with x-CSI (26% vs 71%; P=.004). Patients treated with x-CSI were more likely to have medical management of esophagitis than p-CSI patients (57% vs 5%, P<.001). p-CSI patients had a smaller reduction in peripheral white blood cells, hemoglobin, and platelets compared with x-CSI (white blood cells 46% vs 55%, P=.04; hemoglobin 88% vs 97%, P=.009; platelets 48% vs 65%, P=.05). Mean vertebral doses were significantly associated with reductions in blood counts. Conclusions: This report is the first analysis of clinical outcomes for adult medulloblastoma patients treated with p-CSI. Patients treated with p-CSI experienced less treatment-related morbidity including fewer acute gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicities

  10. Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous lymphoma : Minimal risk of acute toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kai; Elsayad, Khaled; Moustakis, Christos; Haverkamp, Uwe; Eich, Hans Theodor

    2017-12-01

    Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is attracting increased interest for the effective palliative treatment of primary cutaneous T‑cell lymphoma (pCTCL). In this study, we compared toxicity profiles following various radiation doses. We reviewed the records of 60 patients who underwent TSEBT for pCTCL between 2000 and 2016 at the University Hospital of Munster. The treatment characteristics of the radiotherapy (RT) regimens and adverse events (AEs) were then analyzed and compared. In total, 67 courses of TSEBT were administered to 60 patients. Of these patients, 34 (51%) received a standard dose with a median surface dose of 30 Gy and 33 patients (49%) received a low dose with the median surface dose of 12 Gy (7 salvage low-dose TSEBT courses were administered to 5 patients). After a median follow-up of 15 months, the overall AE rate was 100%, including 38 patients (57%) with grade 2 and 7 (10%) with grade 3 AEs. Patients treated with low-dose TSEBT had significantly fewer grade 2 AEs than those with conventional dose regimens (33 vs. 79%, P dose regimen compared to those with the conventional dose regimens (6 vs. 15%, P = 0.78). Multiple/salvage low-dose TSEBT courses were not associated with an increased risk of acute AEs. Low-dose TSEBT regimens are associated with significantly fewer grade 2 acute toxicities compared with conventional doses of TSEBT. Repeated/Salvage low-dose TSEBT, however, appears to be tolerable and can even be applied safely in patients with cutaneous relapses.

  11. Ionoregulatory disruption as the acute toxic mechanism for lead in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.; Richards, J.G.; Wood, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism for acute toxicity of lead (Pb) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated at Pb concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 of 1.0 mg dissolved Pb l -1 (0.8-1.4, 95% C.I.) determined in dechlorinated Hamilton city tap water (from Lake Ontario, hardness=140 mg l -1 CaCO 3 ). Tissue Pb accumulation associated with death was highest in the gill, followed by kidney and liver. Significant ionoregulatory impacts were observed in adult rainbow trout (200-300 g) fitted with indwelling dorsal aortic catheters and exposed to 1.1±0.04 mg dissolved Pb l -1 . Decreased plasma [Ca 2+ ], [Na + ] and [Cl - ] occurred after 48 h of exposure through to 120 h, with increases in plasma [Mg 2+ ], ammonia, and cortisol. No marked changes in PaO 2 , PaCO 2 , pH, glucose, or hematological parameters were evident. Branchial Na + /K + ATPase activity in juvenile trout exposed to concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 was inhibited by approximately 40% after 48 h of Pb exposure. Calcium ion flux measurements using 45 Ca as a radiotracer showed 65% inhibition of Ca 2+ influx after 0, 12, 24 or 48 h exposure to the 96 h LC50 concentration of Pb. There was also significant inhibition (40-50%) of both Na + and Cl - uptake, measured with 22 Na and 36 Cl simultaneously. We conclude that the mechanism of acute toxicity for Pb in rainbow trout occurs by ionoregulatory disruption rather than respiratory or acid/base distress at Pb concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 in moderately hard water

  12. Comparison of conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy techniques for treatment of pelvic tumors. Analysis of acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrigno, Robson; Santos, Adriana; Martins, Lidiane C; Weltman, Eduardo; Chen, Michael J; Sakuraba, Roberto; Lopes, Cleverson P; Cruz, José C

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective analysis reports on the comparative outcome of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities between conformal radiation therapy (CRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques in the treatment of patients with pelvic tumors. From January 2002 to December 2008, 69 patients with pelvic tumors underwent whole pelvic CRT and 65 underwent whole pelvic IMRT to treat pelvic lymph nodes and primary tumor regions. Total dose to the whole pelvis ranged from 50 to 50.4 Gy in 25 to 28 daily fractions. Chemotherapy (CT) regimen, when employed, was based upon primary tumor. Acute GI and GU toxicities were graded by RTOG/EORTC acute radiation morbidity criteria. Absence of GI symptoms during radiotherapy (grade 0) was more frequently observed in the IMRT group (43.1% versus 8.7; p < 0.001) and medication for diarrhea (Grade 2) was more frequently used in the CRT group (65.2% versus 38.5%; p = 0.002). Acute GI grade 1 and 3 side effects incidence was similar in both groups (18.5% versus 18.8%; p = 0.95 and 0% versus 7.2%; p = 0.058, respectively). Incidence of GU toxicity was similar in both groups (grade 0: 61.5% versus 66.6%, p = 0.54; grade 1: 20% versus 8.7%, p = 0.06; grade 2: 18.5% versus 23.5%, p = 0.50 and grade 3: 0% versus 1.5%, p > 0.99). This comparative case series shows less grade 2 acute GI toxicity in patients treated with whole pelvic IMRT in comparison with those treated with CRT. Incidence of acute GU toxicity was similar in both groups

  13. NMDA receptor adjusted co-administration of ecstasy and cannabinoid receptor-1 agonist in the amygdala via stimulation of BDNF/Trk-B/CREB pathway in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashabi, Ghorbangol; Sadat-Shirazi, Mitra-Sadat; Khalifeh, Solmaz; Elhampour, Laleh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-04-01

    Consumption of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB-1) agonist such as cannabis is widely taken in 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy users; it has been hypothesized that co-consumption of CB-1 agonist might protect neurons against MDMA toxicity. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors regulate neuronal plasticity and firing rate in the brain through Tyrosine-kinase B (Trk-B) activation. The molecular and electrophysiological association among NMDA and MDMA/Arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA, a selective CB-1 receptor agonist) co-consumption was not well-known. Here, neuronal spontaneous activity, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Trk-B and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation levels were recognized in ACPA and MDMA co-injected rats. Besides, we proved the role of NMDA receptor on MDMA and ACPA combination on neuronal spontaneous activity and Trk-B/BDNF pathway in the central amygdala (CeA). Male rats were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injections of urethane; MDMA, D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (D-AP5, NMDA receptor antagonist) were injected into CeA. ACPA was administrated by intra-cerebroventricular injection. Thirty minutes following injections, neuronal firing rate was recorded from CeA. Two hours after drug injection, amygdala was collected from brain for molecular evaluations. Single administration of MDMA and/or ACPA reduced firing rates compared with sham group in the CeA dose-dependently. Injection of D-AP5, ACPA and MDMA reduced firing rate compared with sham group (Pamygdala (P<0.01). Probably, NMDA receptors are involved in the protective role of acute MDMA+ACPA co-injection via BDNF/Trk-B/CREB pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation between acute toxicity for Daphnia magna, Aliivibrio fischeri and physicochemical variables of the leachate produced in landfill simulator reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Restrepo, José J; Flohr, Letícia; Melegari, Silvia P; da Costa, Cristina H; Fuzinatto, Cristiane F; de Castilhos, Armando B; Matias, William G

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversified nature of municipal solid waste and the different stages of its decomposition, the formed leachates result in a complex chemical mixture with toxic potential. These chemicals can cause environmental problems, such as the contamination of surface or groundwater, thus affecting the balance of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of our study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of leachates in Daphnia magna and Aliivibrio fischeri and to identify the main physicochemical variables that influence the toxicity of the landfill leachates produced in reactors within pilot simulations. Acute toxicity tests carried out on D. magna and A. fischeri showed that the leachates produced inside the reactors are highly toxic, presenting EC50 48h  magna and EC50 15min  < 12% for A. fischeri. This result indicates that microcrustaceans are more sensitive to leachates, making them more suitable to our study. Pb showed the highest correlation with EC50 48h , suggesting that Pb is the main chemical variable indicative of toxicity for the conditions of the experiment. In smaller scale, phosphate (PO 4 3- ) and nitrate (NO 3- ) were the macronutrients that most influenced the toxicity. Clearly, this correlation should be viewed with caution because the synergistic effects of this complex mixture are difficult to observe.

  15. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam D.; Collier, Catherine J.; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-11-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ovalis over 24 and/or 48 h. Individual herbicides exhibited a broad range of toxicities with inhibition of photosynthetic activity (∆F/Fm‧) by 50% at concentrations ranging from 3.5 μg l-1 (ametryn) to 132 μg l-1 (fluometuron). We assessed potential additivity using the Concentration Addition model of joint action for binary mixtures of diuron and atrazine as well as complex mixtures of all 10 herbicides. The effects of both mixture types were largely additive, validating the application of additive effects models for calculating the risk posed by multiple PSII herbicides to seagrasses. This study extends seagrass ecotoxicological data to ametryn, metribuzin, bromacil, prometryn and fluometuron and demonstrates that low concentrations of PSII herbicide mixtures have the potential to impact ecologically relevant endpoints in seagrass, including ∆F/Fm‧.

  16. Study of acute biochemical effects of thallium toxicity in mouse urine by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ritu; Rana, Poonam; Khan, Ahmad Raza; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Devi, M Memita; Chaturvedi, Shubhra; Tripathi, Rajendra P; Khushu, Subash

    2011-10-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a toxic heavy metal and its exposure to the human body causes physiological and biochemical changes due to its interference with potassium-dependent biological reactions. A high-resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy based metabonomic approach has been applied for investigating acute biochemical effects caused by thallium sulfate (Tl(2)SO(4)). Male strain A mice were divided in three groups and received three doses of Tl(2)SO(4) (5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) b.w., i.p.). Urine samples collected at 3, 24, 72 and 96 h post-dose time points were analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. NMR spectral data were processed and analyzed using principal components analysis to represent biochemical variations induced by Tl(2)SO(4). Results showed Tl-exposed mice urine to have distinct metabonomic phenotypes and revealed dose- and time-dependent clustering of treated groups. The metabolic signature of urine analysis from Tl(2)SO(4)-treated animals exhibited an increase in the levels of creatinine, taurine, hippurate and β-hydroxybutyrate along with a decrease in energy metabolites trimethylamine and choline. These findings revealed Tl-induced disturbed gut flora, membrane metabolite, energy and protein metabolism, representing physiological dysfunction of vital organs. The present study indicates the great potential of NMR-based metabonomics in mapping metabolic response for toxicology, which could ultimately lead to identification of potential markers for Tl toxicity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Acute toxicity of two pesticides Diazinon and Deltamethrin on Tench (Tinca tinca larvae and fingerling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diazinon and deltamethrin are common useful agricultural pesticides in the world. The present research compared the acute toxicity of diazinon and deltamethrin to tench larvae and fingerling. LC50 of 24 h, 48-h, 72 h and 96 h were determined using a probit. Fish samples (21 fish in each test group were exposed to different concentrations of diazinon and deltamethrin (diazinon: for fingerling between1-20 ppm and larvae 0.25-2 ppm, deltamethrin: for fingerling between 0.01-0.2 ppm and larvae 0.0025-0.02 for 96 h and mortality were recorded. The LC50 96 h of diazinon for fingerlings and larvae were 6.77 and 0.63, respectively. The LC50 96 h of deltamethrin for fingerlings and larvae were 0.07 and 0.005 ppm, respectively. According to the results, larvae are more sensitive than fingerlings, LC50 values indicated that deltamethrin is more toxic than diazinon to Tinca tinca, so we suggest to use diazinon instead of deltamethrin in agriculture.

  18. Acute inhalation toxicity of 3-methylfuran in the mouse: pathology, cell kinetics, and respiratory rate effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschek, W.M.; Boyd, M.R.; Hakkinen, P.J.; Owenby, C.S.; Witschi, H.

    1984-01-01

    The acute inhalation toxicity of 3-methylfuran (3MF) was investigated in male BALB/c mice by morphologic examination of animals killed at varying timepoints following a 1-hr exposure to an initial chamber concentration of 14 to 37 mumol/liter (343 to 906 ppm). In addition, respiratory rate measurements and cell kinetics were used to assess quantitatively pulmonary damage and repair. Necrosis of nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells was seen 1 day following exposure and was followed by regeneration, which was virtually complete, within 21 days. Cell kinetic studies showed peak bronchiolar cell proliferation at 3 days with a labeling index (LI) of 5.0% compared to 0.4% in controls. An increase in parenchymal cell proliferation was also noted coincident with a mild interstitial pneumonitis. This parenchymal proliferation, peaking at 10 days with an LI of 1.4% compared to 0.2% in controls, consisted primarily of type II epithelial and endothelial cell proliferation indicating possible delayed damage and repair of type I epithelial and endothelial cells. The respiratory rate showed an initial transient increase followed by a more prolonged decrease with eventual return to control levels. 3MF toxicity was also evidenced by a necrotizing suppurative rhinitis, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, lymphocyte necrosis in the thymus and spleen, sialoadenitis, and otitis media.

  19. Assessment of Grape, Plum and Orange Synthetic Food Flavourings Using in vivo Acute Toxicity Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Monize Sousa Sales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the acute toxicity of synthetic grape, plum and orange flavourings in root meristem cells of Allium cepa at the doses of 3.5, 7.0 and 14.0 mL/kg and exposure times of 24 and 48 h, and in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice treated orally for seven days with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring. The results of the plant test showed that grape, plum and orange flavourings, at both exposure times, inhibited cell division and promoted the formation of a significant number of micronuclei and mitotic spindle changes. These alterations were observed in at least one exposure time analysed, demonstrating a significant cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic activity. In mouse bioassay, animals treated with 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring died before the seventh day of treatment. The amounts of 0.5 and 1.0 mL/kg of the three additives were cytotoxic to erythrocytes, and treatment with the grape flavouring significantly induced the formation of micronucleated cells in the bone marrow of animals. Therefore, under the study conditions, the grape, plum and orange flavouring additives promoted significant toxicity to cells of the test systems used.

  20. Acute toxicity of 8 antidepressants: what are their modes of action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Laetitia; Farcy, Emilie; Ballandonne, Céline; Lepailleur, Alban; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Bureau, Ronan; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Currently, the hazard posed by pharmaceutical residues is a major concern of ecotoxicology. Most of the antidepressants belong to a family named the Cationic Amphipathic Drugs known to have specific interactions with cell membranes. The present study assessed the impact of eight antidepressants belonging to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors by the combination of multi-approaches (in vivo, in vitro, in silico) and gives some insights on the mode of action for these molecules. Antidepressants were from the most to the least toxic compound for Daphnia magna: Sertraline (EC50=1.15 mg L(-1))>Clomipramine (2.74 mg L(-1))>Amitriptyline (4.82 mg L(-1))>Fluoxetine (5.91 mg L(-1))>Paroxetine (6.24 mg L(-1))>Mianserine (7.81 mg L(-1))>Citalopram (30.14 mg L(-1)) and Venlafaxine (141.28 mg L(-1)). These acute toxicities were found correlated to Log Kow coefficients (R=0.93, pantidepressants and phosphatidylcholine, a major component of cell membranes, leading to a more specific mode of action corresponding to a potential acidic hydrolysis of ester functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute Toxicity Study of Zerumbone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier on BALB/c Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshu Sulaiman Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zerumbone- (ZER- loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC (ZER-NLC prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50 of ZER-NLC is higher than 200 mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration.

  2. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  3. Acute toxicity of Psilocybe cubensis (Ear. Sing., Strophariaceae, aqueous extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Berti Kirsten

    Full Text Available Psilocybe cubensis (Ear. Sing., Strophariaceae, is a hallucinogen mushroom that has been used since the old times by humans, causing several psychotic effects. P. cubensis contains two tryptamine derivates: psilocybin and psilocin, agonists of the 5-HT2 receptor (serotonin. The main objective of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity effects of P. cubensis aqueous extract (PCAE administration in mice. Male and female adult Swiss mice received PCAE 0.1 mL/10 g i.p., and were observed individually, directly in a glass box and in an open-field. In relation to the data of the control group, PCAE-treated animals presented: an increased gnawing, appearance of wet-dog shakes and a decreased locomotion and rearing frequencies after 29-38 min. Also a clear gender difference was detected, being female mice more sensible to the PCAE than males. It was suggested that PCAE administration produced specific effects on mice behaviors, characteristic of drugs which interfere on central serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Finally, the observational methods here employed were efficient to evaluate the toxic effects of the extract.

  4. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam D; Collier, Catherine J; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2015-11-30

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ovalis over 24 and/or 48 h. Individual herbicides exhibited a broad range of toxicities with inhibition of photosynthetic activity (∆F/F(m)') by 50% at concentrations ranging from 3.5 μg l(-1) (ametryn) to 132 μg l(-1) (fluometuron). We assessed potential additivity using the Concentration Addition model of joint action for binary mixtures of diuron and atrazine as well as complex mixtures of all 10 herbicides. The effects of both mixture types were largely additive, validating the application of additive effects models for calculating the risk posed by multiple PSII herbicides to seagrasses. This study extends seagrass ecotoxicological data to ametryn, metribuzin, bromacil, prometryn and fluometuron and demonstrates that low concentrations of PSII herbicide mixtures have the potential to impact ecologically relevant endpoints in seagrass, including ∆F/F(m)'.

  5. Processed fruit juice ready to drink: screening acute toxicity at the cellular level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Leal da Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the acute toxicity at the cellular level of processed juice ready for consumption Orange and Grape flavors, produced by five companies with significant influence on the food market of South American countries, especially in Brazil. This evaluation was performed in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours, directly with marketed liquid preparations. Based on the results, it was found that fruit juices, of all companies considered, promoted significant antiproliferative effect to root meristems at the exposure time of 24 hours and resulted in at both exposure times, statistically significant number of mitotic spindle changes and chromosomal breaks. Therefore, under the study conditions, all juice samples analyzed were cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic to root meristem cells. These results indicate that such beverages have relevant potential to cause cellular disorders and, thus, need to be evaluated more fully in more complex test systems, as those in rodents, and then establish specific toxicity at the cellular level of these juices and ensure the well-being of those who consume them.

  6. Acute Toxicity of the Antifouling Compound Butenolide in Non-Target Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi-Fan

    2011-08-29

    Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] is a recently discovered and very promising anti-marine-fouling compound. In this study, the acute toxicity of butenolide was assessed in several non-target organisms, including micro algae, crustaceans, and fish. Results were compared with previously reported results on the effective concentrations used on fouling (target) organisms. According to OECD\\'s guideline, the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) was 0.168 µg l^(−1), which was among one of the highest in representative new biocides. Mechanistically, the phenotype of butenolide-treated Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos was similar to the phenotype of the pro-caspase-3 over-expression mutant with pericardial edema, small eyes, small brains, and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the bodies of zebrafish embryos. Butenolide also induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, with the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), Bcl-2 family proteins, and caspases and proteasomes/lysosomes involved in this process. This is the first detailed toxicity and toxicology study on this antifouling compound.

  7. Acute toxicity bioassay of the mercury chloride and copper Sulphate in Rutilus caspicus and Rutilus kutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pourkhabbaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity (LC50 of HgCl2 and CuSO4 in Caspian roach (Rutilus caspicus and CuSO4 in Caspian kutum (Rutilus kutum. The Caspian roach LC50 values for HgCl2 at 24, 48, 72, and 96-hrs of exposure, were 0.64, 0.61, 0.42, and 0.28 mg L-1, respectively, and for CuSO4 were 11.55, 5.08, 2.49, and 1.47 mg L-1, respectively. The Caspian roach LC50 values for CuSO4 at 24, 48, 72, and 96-hrs of exposure, were 5.31, 4.17, 3.20, and 2.25 mg L-1, respectively. The results of this study showed that the toxicity of HgCl2 is higher than that of CuSO4 for the studied species. The mortality decreased with time, and most of the deaths were occurred during the first 24 hrs.

  8. The acute toxicity of iron and copper: biomolecule oxidation and oxidative damage in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boveris, Alberto; Musacco-Sebio, Rosario; Ferrarotti, Nidia; Saporito-Magriñá, Christian; Torti, Horacio; Massot, Francisco; Repetto, Marisa G

    2012-11-01

    The transition metals iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are needed at low levels for normal health and at higher levels they become toxic for humans and animals. The acute liver toxicity of Fe and Cu was studied in Sprague Dawley male rats (200 g) that received ip 0-60 mg/kg FeCl(2) or 0-30 mg/kg CuSO(4). Dose and time-responses were determined for spontaneous in situ liver chemiluminescence, phospholipid lipoperoxidation, protein oxidation and lipid soluble antioxidants. The doses linearly defined the tissue content of both metals. Liver chemiluminescence increased 4 times and 2 times after Fe and Cu overloads, with half maximal responses at contents (C(50%)) of 110 μgFe/g and 42 μgCu/g liver, and with half maximal time responses (t(1/2)) of 4h for both metals. Phospholipid peroxidation increased 4 and 1.8 times with C(50%) of 118 μg Fe/g and 45 μg Cu/g and with t(1/2) of 7h and 8h. Protein oxidation increased 1.6 times for Fe with C(50%) at 113 μg Fe/g and 1.2 times for Cu with 50 μg Cu/g and t(1/2) of 4h and 5h respectively. The accumulation of Fe and Cu in liver enhanced the rate of free radical reactions and produced oxidative damage. A similar free radical-mediated process, through the formation HO(•) and RO(•) by a Fenton-like homolytic scission of H(2)O(2) and ROOH, seems to operate as the chemical mechanism for the liver toxicity of both metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of light in acute toxicity bioassays of imidacloprid and zinc pyrithione to zooplankton crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Kouichi

    2006-06-30

    The acute toxicity of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, and zinc pyrithione (Zpt), a biocide used in anti-dandruff shampoos and protective antifouling paints, to three species of ostracods and two waterfleas, including Daphnia magna, was determined and compared under light and dark conditions. Under normal laboratory conditions, UV light had no significant influence on the outcome of toxicity bioassays, although in the case of imidacloprid both EC(50) and LC(50) calculated values were twice as high under the light as in the dark. No influence of UV light was observed on bioassays conducted with Zpt, in spite of the fast aqueous photolysis exhibited by this compound. Imidacloprid 48-h LC(50) for cladocerans (65-133mg/L) were two orders of magnitude higher than for ostracods (301-715microg/L); values of EC(50) for cladocerans and ostracods were 2-6mg/L and 3-16microg/L, respectively. Toxicity of Zpt to both ostracod and cladoceran species appears to be similar, with 48-h LC(50) in the range 137-524 and 75-197microg/L for ostracods and cladocerans, respectively, and similar values for EC(50)s. The mortality endpoint (LC(50)), however, is not a reliable predictor of the effects of imidacloprid under field situations (e.g. rice paddies), because the paralysis effect induced by this insecticide takes place at much lower concentrations than those required to cause the death of the animals: regardless of the taxa, differences as large as 100- or 600-fold were observed between the EC(50) and LC(50) for the same exposures. As a consequence, immobilization tests and EC(50) values are recommended for this class of compounds, while caution should be exercised in environmental risk assessments of this and possibly other related neonicotinoid insecticides with similar activity.

  10. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50's in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests

  11. Acute toxicity bioassays using Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Daphniidae maintained in a modified culture medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Núñez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia magna is a test organism used in ecotoxicological assays of freshwater; however, traditional culture systems for this organism could result expensive, for that the aim of this research was to developed a new economic culture medium. With this purpose, 10 strains of D. magna were isolated, their population development was evaluated by total count of organisms and pregnant females using 3 different culture media: (A alfalfa juice, (B solved yeast and (C a mixture of alfalfa juice plus solved yeast. Successful development of 4 strains was observed in the A medium, but the same strains failed to survive in the B and the C media. The 24h and 48h EC50 average values in acute ecotoxicological assays with potassium dicromate were 0,4045 mg/L ± 0,0389 and 0,1857 mg/L ± 0,0072 respectively. Also, acute ecotoxicological assays with these 4 strains were performed using potassium cyanide, which is a toxic reactive frequently used in mining operations. In this case 24h EC50 value was 1,5388 mg/L ± 0,1146 and 48h EC50 values were 0,6359 mg/L ± 0,0516. 48h EC50 values were lower than the cyanide permissible effluent values established by the Energy and Mining Authority.

  12. Acute Radiation Disease : Cutaneous Syndrome and Toxic properties of Radiomimetics -Radiation Neurotoxins and Hematotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Cutaneous injury is an important complication of a general or local acute irradiation. A type of a skin and tissues lesions depends on a type, intensity, and period of irradiation. Also, the clinical picture, signs, and manifestations of the cutaneous syndrome depend on a type of the radiation toxins circulated in lymph and blood of irradiated mammals. Radiation Toxins were isolated from lymph of the mammals that were irradiated and developed different forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) -Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, and Hematopoietic. Radiation Toxins can be divided into the two important types of toxins (Neu-rotoxins and Hematotoxins) or four groups. The effects of Radiation Neurotoxins include severe damages and cell death of brain, heart, gastrointestinal tissues and endothelial cells of blood and lymphatic vessels. The hematotoxicity of Hematotoxic Radiation Toxins includes lym-phopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia in the blood circulation and transitory lymphocytosis and leukocytosis in the Central Lymphatic System. In all cases, administration of the Radiomimetics (Radiation Toxins) intramuscularly or intravenously to healthy, radiation naive mammals had induced and developed the typical clinical manifestations of the ARS. In all cases, administration of Radiomimetics by subtoxic doses had demonstrated development of typical clinical signs of the cutaneous syndrome such as hair loss, erythema, swelling, desqua-mation, blistering and skin necrosis. In animal-toxic models, we have activated development of the local skin and tissue injury after injection of Radiation Toxins with cytoxic properties.

  13. Acute copper toxicity in juvenile fat snook Centropomus parallelus (Teleostei: Centropomidae in sea water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Three experiments were designed to assess the accumulation and acute toxicity of copper (Cu in juvenile fat snook Centropomusparallelus. The first experiment was performed to determine the 96-h lethal concentration (LC50 of Cu. The second experiment was designed to assess the effects of sublethal concentrations of Cu (0.47 and 0.94 mg/L, while the third one allowed us to test the recovery capacity of fish exposed to the sublethal concentrations Cu and kept in sea water without Cu addition. The LC50value for Cu was found to be 1.88 mg/L Cu. Fish exposed to the sublethal concentrations of Cu showed a significant accumulation of Cu in gills at 96 h respect to the control ones (0.43 µg/g Cu. No significant difference was observed in the accumulation of Cu in gills between fish exposed to 0.47 mg/L (1.09 µg/g Cu and 0.94 mg/L (1.26 µg/g Cu. Exposure (24 and 96 h to the sublethal concentrations of Cu tested induced DNA damage in the erythrocytes. The results show that acute exposure to sublethal concentrations induces Cu accumulation and DNA damage in fish, these effects being recovered after 240 h in sea water without Cu addition.

  14. Comparing the potency of chemicals with multiple modes of action in aquatic toxicology: Acute toxicity due to narcosis versus reactive toxicity of acrylic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freidig, A.P.; Verhaar, H.J.M.; Hermens, J.L.M. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology

    1999-09-01

    A series of acrylates and methacrylates was used to illustrate a strategy to compare the importance of two modes of action (MOA) and thereby identify the predominant cause of acute fish toxicity. Acrylic compounds are known to be Michael acceptors and may therefore react with glutathione (GSH), causing GSH-depletion in vivo (reactive mechanism). On the other hand, acrylates may also act by a nonspecific mechanism (narcosis). The following two, physiologically meaningful parameters were calculated in order to estimate the contribution of these two mechanisms to the overall acute toxicity: (i) a lipid normalized body burden for narcosis and (ii) the potential degree of GSH depletion by chemical reactivity. The degree of GSH depletion was found to be related to the product of the reactivity toward GSH and the exposure concentration. This model was validated with four model compounds and an in vivo study. For both MOA, toxic ratios were calculated and compared for all chemicals in the series. The approach enables the comparison of the contribution to toxicity of chemicals with more than on MOA.

  15. Evaluation of acute and chronic toxicity of DSS and LAS surfactants undergoing the irradiation with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, Maria Fernanda

    2004-01-01

    Surfactants are synthetic organic compounds widely used in cosmetic, food, textile, dyers and paper production industries and in particular detergents and others cleaning products industries. The world consumption is nearly 8 million tons per year. One of the main environmental issues coming from the use of these compounds is their toxicity that compromises the biological treatment of effluents and the quality of receiving waters. The objective of this work was the application of ionizing radiation by electron beam in the degradation and reduction of acute and chronic toxicities of surfactants sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate acid (LAS) and sodium dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate (LAS). This treatment technology has been studied as a pre-treatment for effluents containing toxic and non-biodegradable compounds, before the biological treatment. Two acute toxicity assays were employed, one with the micro-crustacean Daphnia similis and the other with the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri along with a chronic toxicity assay with the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (just for SDS and acid LAS) for the non-irradiated and irradiated samples and radiation doses 3.0 kGy, 6.0 kGy, 9.0 kGy and 12.0 kGy. Physical-chemical parameters were evaluated for the following up the degradation of the surfactant molecules. The reductions of acute toxicity varied between 72.49% and 90.98% for SDS, 18.22% and 78.98% for acid LAS and 82.66% and 94.26% for sodium LAS. For the chronic toxicity, the reduction percentages varied between 64.03% and 83.01% for SDS and 47.48% and 64.91% for acid LAS. When one considers the application of the electron beam as a pre-treatment of effluents containing high concentrations of surfactants, the toxicity is an essential parameter allowing the further biological treatment of these effluents. (author)

  16. Acute and long-term toxicity following radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, JH; Pras, E; Willemse, PHB; de Vries, EGE

    2003-01-01

    Randomised studies in locally advanced cervical cancer patients showed that cisplatin should be given concurrently with radiotherapy, because of a better long-term survival compared to radiotherapy alone. This increases the relevance of treatment related toxicity. This review summarises the acute

  17. The analgesics morphine and tramadol do not alter the acute toxicity induced by Bothrops asper snake venom in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, José María; Herrera Arias, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Analgesics tramadol and morphine were used in mice injected with Bothrops asper venom. Analgesics did not alter the acute toxicity of B. asper venom in mice. Precautionary (prophylactic) analgesia should be introduced routinely in Toxinology. UCR::Investigación::Unidades de Investigación::Ciencias de la Salud::Instituto Clodomiro Picado (ICP)

  18. Standardizing acute toxicity data for use in ecotoxicology models: influence of test type, life stage, and concentration reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Sandy; Vivian, Deborah N; Barron, Mace G

    2009-10-01

    Ecotoxicological models generally have large data requirements and are frequently based on existing information from diverse sources. Standardizing data for toxicological models may be necessary to reduce extraneous variation and to ensure models reflect intrinsic relationships. However, the extent to which data standardization is necessary remains unclear, particularly when data transformations are used in model development. An extensive acute toxicity database was compiled for aquatic species to comprehensively assess the variation associated with acute toxicity test type (e.g., flow-through, static), reporting concentrations as nominal or measured, and organism life stage. Three approaches were used to assess the influence of these factors on log-transformed acute toxicity: toxicity ratios, log-linear models of factor groups, and comparison of interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models developed using either standardized test types or reported concentration type. In general, median ratios were generally less than 2.0, the slopes of log-linear models were approximately one for well-represented comparisons, and ICE models developed using data from standardized test types or reported concentrations did not differ substantially. These results indicate that standardizing test data by acute test type, reported concentration type, or life stage may not be critical for developing ecotoxicological models using large datasets of log-transformed values.

  19. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  20. 77 FR 43089 - Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Testing: Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... revised UDP for acute oral systemic toxicity as a replacement for the conventional test. The revised oral...) Test Guideline 425 in 2001 (OECD, 2001). The oral UDP reduces animal use by up to 70% compared to the... by multiple agencies, can involve large numbers of animals, and can result in significant pain and...

  1. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) for Acute Toxicity: User Manual Version 3.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive toxicological models are integral to ecological risk assessment because data for most species are limited. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) models are least square regressions that predict acute toxicity (LC50/LD50) of a chemical to a species, ge...

  2. Acute toxicity of curative radiotherapy for intermediate- and high-risk localised prostate cancer in the EORTC trial 22991

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzinger, O.; Duclos, F.; van den Bergh, A.; Carrie, C.; Villa, S.; Kitsios, P.; Poortmans, P.; Sundar, S.; van der Steen-Banasik, E. M.; Gulyban, A.; Collette, L.; Bolla, M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This trial randomly assessed short-term adjuvant hormonal therapy added to radiotherapy (RT) for intermediate- and high-risk (UICC 1997 cT2a or cT1b-c with high PSA or Gleason score) localised prostate cancer. We report acute toxicity (CTCAE v2) assessed weekly during RT in relation to

  3. Efficacy and Toxicity of Intrathecal Liposomal Cytarabine in First-line Therapy of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Mette; Harila-Saari, Arja; Grell, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated efficacy and toxicity of replacing conventional triple (cytarabine, methotrexate, and hydrocortisone) intrathecal therapy (TIT) with liposomal cytarabine during maintenance therapy among 40 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Twenty-eight of 29 patients in the TIT arm received ...... as first-line prevention of relapse....

  4. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehinto, Alvine C., E-mail: alvinam@sccwrp.org [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prucha, Melinda S. [Department of Human Genetics, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vulpe, Christopher D. [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  5. Subchronic and acute preclinical toxicity and some pharmacological effects of the water extract from leaves of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gonzalez, Mildred; Coto Morales, Teresita; Ocampo, Rafael; Pazos, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Petiveria alliacea, leaves were tested on acute and sub-chronic toxicity, hematocrit and blood glucose level and intestinal motility of male albino NGP mice, of 20 to 25 g mean weight. Treatments were in all cases doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg animal weight and a control treatment with 0.5 ml distilled water, using 10 animals per treatment and administered orally every day (5 days per week). Experimental periods were 18 and 70 days for acute and sub chronic toxicity, respectively. No mortality nor any toxicity signs could be observed in both tests. A slight but significant increase in the glucose levels during the first three weeks was observed with the 1000 mg/kg dose but not for the higher 2000 mg/kg doses. After administering the dose once after a starving period of six hours, no significant differences in intestinal motility could be found. (author) [es

  6. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats with nanoscale and pigment grade titanium dioxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, D B; Brown, S C; Donner, E M

    2015-10-01

    Data generated using standardized testing protocols for toxicity studies generally provide reproducible and reliable results for establishing safe levels and formulating risk assessments. The findings of three OECD guideline-type oral toxicity studies of different duration in rats are summarized in this publication; each study evaluated different titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of varying sizes and surface coatings. Moreover, each study finding demonstrated an absence of any TiO2 -related hazards. To briefly summarize the findings: 1) In a subchronic 90-day study (OECD TG 408), groups of young adult male and female rats were dosed with rutile-type, surface-coated pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 145 nm - 21% nanoparticles by particle number criteria) by oral gavage for 90 days. The no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both male and female rats in this study was 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. The NOAEL was determined based on a lack of TiO2 particle-related adverse effects on any in-life, clinical pathology, or anatomic/microscopic pathology parameters; 2) In a 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study (OECD TG 407), groups of young adult male rats were administered daily doses of two rutile-type, uncoated, pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 173 nm by number) by daily oral gavage at a dose of 24,000 mg/kg bw/day. There were no adverse effects measured during or following the end of the exposure period; and the NOAEL was determined to be 24,000 mg/kg bw/day; 3) In an acute oral toxicity study (OECD TG 425), female rats were administered a single oral exposure of surface-treated rutile/anatase nanoscale TiO2 particles (d50 = 73 nm by number) with doses up to 5000 mg/kg and evaluated over a 14-day post-exposure period. Under the conditions of this study, the oral LD50 for the test substance was >5000 mg/kg bw. In summary, the results from these three toxicity studies - each with different TiO2 particulate-types, demonstrated an absence of

  7. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates.The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies.Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a).The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity data

  8. The mysid Siriella armata as a model organism in marine ecotoxicology: comparative acute toxicity sensitivity with Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sara; Beiras, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Siriella armata (Crustacea, Mysidacea) is a component of the coastal zooplankton that lives in swarms in the shallow waters of the European neritic zone, from the North Sea to the Mediterranean. Juveniles of this species were examined as standard test organisms for use in marine acute toxicity tests. The effects of reference toxicants, three trace metals (Copper, Cadmium and Zinc), and one surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied on S. armata neonates (\\24 h) reared in the laboratory. Acute toxicity tests were carried out with filtered sea water on individual chambers (microplate wells for metals or glass vials for SDS) incubated in an isothermal room at 20 degrees C, with 16 h light: 8 h dark photoperiod for 96 h. Each neonate was fed daily with 10-15 nauplii of Artemia salina. Acute (96 h) LC50 values, in increasing order, were 46.9 lg/L for Cu, 99.3 lg/L for Cd, 466.7 lg/L for Zn and 8.5 mg/L for SDS. The LC(10), NOEC and LOEC values were also calculated. Results were compared with Daphnia magna, a freshwater cladoceran widely used as a standard ecotoxicological test organism. Acute (48 h) LC(50) values were 56.2 lg/L for Cu, 571.5 lg/L for Cd, 1.3 mg/L for Zn and 27.3 mg/L for SDS. For all the reference toxicants studied, the marine mysid Siriella armata showed higher sensitivity than the freshwater model organism Daphnia magna, validating the use of Siriella mysids as model organisms in marine acute toxicity tests.

  9. Beta-amyloid-induced cholinergic denervation correlates with enhanced nitric oxide synthase activity in rat cerebral cortex: Reversal by NMDA receptor blockade : Reversal by NMDA receptor blockade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O’Mahony, S.; Harkany, T.; Ábrahám, I.; Jong, G.I. de; Varga, J.L.; Zarándi, M.; Penke, B.; Nyakas, C.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Leonard, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Ample experimental evidence indicates that acute beta-amyloid infusion into the nucleus basalis of rats elicits abrupt degeneration of the magnocellular cholinergic neurons projecting to the cerebral cortex, In fact, involvement of a permanent Ca2+ overload, partially via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)

  10. Acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to nymphs of a mayfly species and some notes on seasonal differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brink, Paul J; Van Smeden, Jasper M; Bekele, Robel S; Dierick, Wiebe; De Gelder, Daphne M; Noteboom, Maarten; Roessink, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Mayfly nymphs are among the most sensitive taxa to neonicotinoids. The present study presents the acute and chronic toxicity of 3 neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to a mayfly species (Cloeon dipterum) and some notes on the seasonality of the toxicity of imidacloprid to C. dipterum and 5 other invertebrate species. Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam showed equal acute and chronic toxicity to a winter generation of C. dipterum, whereas thiacloprid was approximately twice as toxic. The acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid was much higher for the C. dipterum summer generation than for the winter one. The acute toxicity differs by a factor of 20 for the 96-h 50% effective concentration (EC50) and by a factor of 5.4 for the chronic 28-d EC50. Temperature had only a slight effect on the sensitivity of C. dipterum to imidacloprid because we only found a factor of 1.7 difference in the 96-h EC50 between tests performed at 10 °C and 18 °C. The difference in sensitivity between summer and overwintering generations was also found for 3 other insect species. The results indicate that if the use and environmental fate of the 3 neonicotinoids are comparable, replacing imidacloprid by another neonicotinoid might not reduce the environmental impact on the mayfly nymph C. dipterum. The results also show the importance of reporting which generation is tested because sensitivity values of insects in the summer might be underestimated by the experiments performed with neonicotinoids and an overwintering population. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Acute and chronic copper toxicity to a saltwater cladoceran Moina monogolica Daday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaosheng; Kong, Hainan; Wu, Deyi

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of a saltwater cladoceran Moina monogolica Daday to copper toxicity. Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guidelines. The 24- and 48-h LC(50)s and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated as 154.21 (135.50-182.05) microg Cu/L and 106.07 (99.77- 112.36) microg Cu/L , respectively, based on measured copper concentrations. When compared with different phyla or classes of estuarine organisms, M. monogolica had moderate sensitivity and was suitable to be used as an indicator organism in the Changjiang estuary. Eight end points of longevity, number of broods, brood size, total reproduction, time to first brood, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)), net reproductive rate (R(0)), and mean generation time (T) used to evaluate chronic effects were affected at chronic copper concentrations. Comparisons of chronic effects showed that toxicity mechanisms of dissolved copper are different from those of dietary exposure. The EC(20)s, EC(50)s, and their 95% CIs of end points were calculated using linear regression equations. The geometric mean generated the maximum-acceptable-toxicant concentration of 6.74 microg Cu/L between the no-observed-effect concentration of 5.06 and the lowest-observed-effect concentration of 8.99 microg Cu/L for brood size, total reproduction, r(m), and R(0), and 12.1 microg Cu/L between 8.99 and 16.29 microg Cu/L for longevity and number of broods as the end points, respectively. The EC(20) of R(0) appeared to be the most sensitive at 3.82 microg Cu/L among the end points. Results showed that aquatic organisms were possibly negatively affected at sites of higher copper concentrations in the Changjiang estuary. Further research is needed to evaluate the direct or indirect effects of copper more comprehensively to protect aquatic organisms and their habitats in the Changjiang estuary.

  12. Acute toxicity, bioconcentration, elimination and antioxidant effects of fluralaner in zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhong-Qiang; Liu, Di; Sheng, Cheng-Wang; Casida, John E; Wang, Chen; Song, Ping-Ping; Chen, Yu-Ming; Han, Zhao-Jun; Zhao, Chun-Qing

    2018-01-01

    Fluralaner is a novel isoxazoline insecticide which shows high insecticidal activity against parasitic, sanitary and agricultural pests, but there is little information about the effect of fluralaner on non-target organisms. This study reports the acute toxicity, bioconcentration, elimination and antioxidant response of fluralaner in zebrafish. All LC 50 values of fluralaner to zebrafish were higher than 10 mg L -1 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. To study the bioconcentration and elimination, the zebrafish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of fluralaner (2.00 and 0.20 mg L -1 ) for 15 d and then held 6 d in clean water. The results showed medium BCF of fluralaner with values of 12.06 (48 h) and 21.34 (144 h) after exposure to 2.00 and 0.20 mg L -1 fluralaner, respectively. In the elimination process, a concentration of only 0.113 mg kg -1 was found in zebrafish on the 6th day after removal to clean water. After exposure in 2.00 mg L -1 fluralaner, the enzyme activities of SOD, CAT, and GST, GSH-PX, CarE and content of MDA were measured. Only CAT and CarE activities were significantly regulated and the others stayed at a stable level compared to the control group. Meanwhile, transcriptional expression of CYP1C2, CYP1D1, CYP11A were significantly down-regulated at 12 h exposed to 2.00 mg L -1 of fluralaner. Except CYP1D1, others CYPs were up-regulated at different time during exposure periods. Fluralaner and its formulated product (BRAVECTO ® ) are of low toxicity to zebrafish and are rapidly concentrated in zebrafish and eliminated after exposure in clean water. Antioxidant defense and metabolic systems were involved in the fluralaner-induced toxicity. Among them, the activities of CAT and CarE, and most mRNA expression level of CYPs showed fast response to the sub-lethal concentration of fluralaner, which could be used as a biomarker relevant to the toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased seizure susceptibility and other toxicity symptoms following acute sulforaphane treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Kowalczuk-Vasilev, Edyta; Wyska, Elżbieta; Wlaź, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    Activation of Nrf2 with sulforaphane has recently gained attention as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of many diseases, including epilepsy. As a plant-derived compound, sulforaphane is considered to be safe and well-tolerated. It is widely consumed, also by patients suffering from seizure and taking antiepileptic drugs, but no toxicity profile of sulforaphane exists. Since many natural remedies and dietary supplements may increase seizure risk and potentially interact with antiepileptic drugs, the aim of our study was to investigate the acute effects of sulforaphane on seizure thresholds and activity of some first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in mice. In addition, some preliminary toxicity profile of sulforaphane in mice after intraperitoneal injection was evaluated. The LD 50 value of sulforaphane in mice was estimated at 212.67mg/kg, while the TD 50 value - at 191.58mg/kg. In seizure tests, sulforaphane at the highest dose tested (200mg/kg) significantly decreased the thresholds for the onset of the first myoclonic twitch and generalized clonic seizure in the iv PTZ test as well as the threshold for the 6Hz-induced psychomotor seizure. At doses of 10-200mg/kg, sulforaphane did not affect the threshold for the iv PTZ-induced forelimb tonus or the threshold for maximal electroshock-induced hindlimb tonus. Interestingly, sulforaphane (at 100mg/kg) potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of carbamazepine in the maximal electroshock seizure test. This interaction could have been pharmacokinetic in nature, as sulforaphane increased concentrations of carbamazepine in both serum and brain tissue. The toxicity study showed that high doses of sulforaphane produced marked sedation (at 150-300mg/kg), hypothermia (at 150-300mg/kg), impairment of motor coordination (at 200-300mg/kg), decrease in skeletal muscle strength (at 250-300mg/kg), and deaths (at 200-300mg/kg). Moreover, blood analysis showed leucopenia in mice injected with sulforaphane at 200

  14. Comparative analysis of pharmaceuticals versus industrial chemicals acute aquatic toxicity classification according to the United Nations classification system for chemicals. Assessment of the (Q)SAR predictability of pharmaceuticals acute aquatic toxicity and their predominant acute toxic mode-of-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    data. Pharmaceuticals were found to be more frequent than industrial chemicals in GHS category III. Acute toxicity was predictable (>92%) using a generic (Q)SAR ((Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship) suggesting a narcotic MOA. Analysis of model prediction error suggests that 68...

  15. Predicting acute contact toxicity of pesticides in honeybees (Apis mellifera) through a k-nearest neighbor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Como, F; Carnesecchi, E; Volani, S; Dorne, J L; Richardson, J; Bassan, A; Pavan, M; Benfenati, E

    2017-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs) requires an understanding of both the toxicity and the extent of exposure to assess risks for a range of taxa of ecological importance including target and non-target species. Non-target species such as honey bees (Apis mellifera), solitary bees and bumble bees are of utmost importance because of their vital ecological services as pollinators of wild plants and crops. To improve risk assessment of PPPs in bee species, computational models predicting the acute and chronic toxicity of a range of PPPs and contaminants can play a major role in providing structural and physico-chemical properties for the prioritisation of compounds of concern and future risk assessments. Over the last three decades, scientific advisory bodies and the research community have developed toxicological databases and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models that are proving invaluable to predict toxicity using historical data and reduce animal testing. This paper describes the development and validation of a k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) model using in-house software for the prediction of acute contact toxicity of pesticides on honey bees. Acute contact toxicity data were collected from different sources for 256 pesticides, which were divided into training and test sets. The k-NN models were validated with good prediction, with an accuracy of 70% for all compounds and of 65% for highly toxic compounds, suggesting that they might reliably predict the toxicity of structurally diverse pesticides and could be used to screen and prioritise new pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Can dosimetric parameters predict acute hematologic toxicity in rectal cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Juefeng; Liu, Kaitai; Li, Kaixuan; Li, Guichao; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    To identify dosimetric parameters associated with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in rectal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy. Ninety-three rectal cancer patients receiving concurrent capecitabine and pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were analyzed. Pelvic bone marrow (PBM) was contoured for each patient and divided into three subsites: lumbosacral spine (LSS), ilium, and lower pelvis (LP). The volume of each site receiving 5–40 Gy (V 5, V10, V15, V20, V30, and V40, respectively) as well as patient baseline clinical characteristics was calculated. The endpoint for hematologic toxicity was grade ≥ 2 (HT2+) leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia or thrombocytopenia. Logistic regression was used to analyze correlation between dosimetric parameters and grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity. Twenty-four in ninety-three patients experienced grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity. Only the dosimetric parameter V40 of lumbosacral spine was correlated with grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity. Increased pelvic lumbosacral spine V40 (LSS-V40) was associated with an increased grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity (p = 0.041). Patients with LSS-V40 ≥ 60 % had higher rates of grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity than did patients with lumbosacral spine V40 < 60 % (38.3 %, 18/47 vs.13 %, 6/46, p =0.005). On univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, lumbosacral spine V40 and gender was also the variable associated with grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity. Female patients were observed more likely to have grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity than male ones (46.9 %, 15/32 vs 14.8 %, 9/61, p =0.001). Lumbosacral spine -V40 was associated with clinically significant grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity. Keeping the lumbosacral spine -V40 < 60 % was associated with a 13 % risk of grade ≥ 2 hematologic toxicity in rectal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy

  17. Impact of bioavailability on the correlation between in vitro cytotoxic and in vivo acute fish toxic concentrations of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelden, Michael; Seibert, Hasso

    2005-01-01

    The lower sensitivity of in vitro cytotoxicity assays currently restricts their use as alternative to the fish acute toxicity assays for hazard assessment of chemicals in the aquatic environment. In vitro cytotoxic potencies mostly refer to nominal concentrations. The main objective of the present study was to investigate, whether a reduced availability of chemicals in vitro can account for the lower sensitivity of in vitro toxicity test systems. For this purpose, the bioavailable free fractions of the nominal cytotoxic concentrations (EC 50 ) of chemicals determined with a cytotoxicity test system using Balb/c 3T3 cells and the corresponding free cytotoxic concentrations (ECu 50 ) were calculated. The algorithm applied is based on a previously developed simple equilibrium distribution model for chemicals in cell cultures with serum-supplemented culture media. This model considers the distribution of chemicals between water, lipids and serum albumin. The algorithm requires the relative lipid volume of the test system, the octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow ) and the in vitro albumin-bound fraction of the chemicals. The latter was determined from EC 50 -measurements in the presence of different albumin concentrations with the Balb/c 3T3 test system. Organic chemicals covering a wide range of cytotoxic potency (EC 50 : 0.16-527000 μM) and lipophilicity (log K ow : -5.0-6.96) were selected, for which fish acute toxicity data (LC 50 -values) from at least one of the three fish species, medaka, rainbow trout and fathead minnow, respectively, were available. The availability of several chemicals was shown to be extensively reduced either by partitioning into lipids or by serum albumin binding, or due to both mechanisms. Reduction of bioavailability became more important with increasing cytotoxic potency. The sensitivity of the Balb/c 3T3 cytotoxicity assay and the correspondence between in vivo and in vitro toxic potencies were increased when the free cytotoxic

  18. Unexpected gender difference in sensitivity to the acute toxicity of dioxin in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Miettinen, Hanna; Sankari, Satu; Hegde, Nagabhooshan; Lindén, Jere

    2012-01-01

    The acute toxicity of the ubiquitous environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) varies widely among species and strains. Previous studies in rats have established that females are approximately 2-fold more sensitive to TCDD lethality than males. However, there is a surprising gap in the literature regarding possible gender-related sensitivity differences in mice. In the present study, by using three substrains of TCDD-sensitive C57BL/6 mice and transgenic mice on this background, we demonstrated that: 1) in contrast to the situation in rats, female mice are the more resistant gender; 2) the magnitude of the divergence between male and female mice depends on the substrain, but can amount to over 10-fold; 3) AH receptor protein expression levels or mutations in the primary structure of this receptor are not involved in the resistance of female mice of a C57BL/6 substrain, despite their acute LD 50 for TCDD being over 5000 μg/kg; 4) transgenic mice that globally express the rat wildtype AH receptor follow the mouse type of gender difference; 5) in gonadectomized mice, ovarian estrogens appear to enhance TCDD resistance, whereas testicular androgens seem to augment TCDD susceptibility; and 6) the gender difference correlates best with the severity of liver damage, which is also reflected in hepatic histopathology and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6. Hence, the two closely related rodent species most often employed in toxicological risk characterization studies, rat and mouse, represent opposite examples of the influence of gender on dioxin sensitivity, further complicating the risk assessment of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. -- Highlights: ► In contrast to rats, male mice are more sensitive to TCDD toxicity than female mice. ► The resistance of female C57BL/6Kuo mice matches or exceeds that of male DBA/2 mice. ► The resistance of female C57BL/6Kuo mice is not based on AHR structure or abundance.

  19. [Acute toxicity of breast cancer irradiation with modulated intensity by tomotherapy®].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoulad, N; Massabeau, C; de Lafontan, B; Vieillevigne, L; Hangard, G; Ciprian, C; Chaltiel, L; Moyal, É; Izar, F

    2017-05-01

    Helical radiation intensity modulated by tomotherapy improves dose distribution to complex and large volumes. The aim of the study was to assess acute toxicity of this technique during breast cancer irradiation after conserving surgery or mastectomy. Cutaneous toxicities, lung and oesophageal side effects, and breast lymphedema were retrospectively collected according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0 (CTCAE v4.0) in 292 patients treated for a breast cancer by tomotherapy between May 2010 and December 2014. After conservative surgery, the dose administered to breast volume and the tumour bed was respectively 52.2Gy and 63.8Gy in 29 fractions. After mastectomy, the dose was 50Gy in 25 fractions. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to highlight risk factors for dermatitis and breast oedema. The rate of dermatitis grade 2 and 3 were 22.9% and 1.7% respectively. In univariate analysis, factors associated with acute radiation dermatitis were breast volume (P=0.002), body mass index (BMI) (Pacute radiation dermatitis (mastectomy: OR 0.64, 95% CI [0.04-0.43]; mastectomy with immediate reconstruction with prosthesis: OR 0.13 95% CI [0.10-0.38] P=0.0003). The incidence of breast oedema grade 2 or above was 19.5%, in univariate analysis, there was a correlation with BMI (P=0.003) and smoking (P=0.009). In multivariate analysis, smoking and BMI greater than 25kg/m 2  increased the risk of breast oedema (OR 2.47, respectively [95% CI 1.22-5.01] P=0.012 and OR 2.37 [95% CI 1.22-4.59] P=0.01). The rate of radiation pneumonitis of grade 2 or above was 1.4%. Among the patients, 19.9% had esophagitis grade 1 or 2. The helical irradiation intensity modulation tomotherapy is a well-tolerated treatment for breast cancer that reduces the high radiation doses to organs at risk. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Unexpected gender difference in sensitivity to the acute toxicity of dioxin in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjanvirta, Raimo, E-mail: raimo.pohjanvirta@helsinki.fi [Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Miettinen, Hanna, E-mail: hanna.miettinen@crl.com [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Sankari, Satu, E-mail: satu.sankari@helsinki.fi [Central Laboratory of the Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Hegde, Nagabhooshan [Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lindén, Jere, E-mail: jere.linden@helsinki.fi [Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    The acute toxicity of the ubiquitous environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) varies widely among species and strains. Previous studies in rats have established that females are approximately 2-fold more sensitive to TCDD lethality than males. However, there is a surprising gap in the literature regarding possible gender-related sensitivity differences in mice. In the present study, by using three substrains of TCDD-sensitive C57BL/6 mice and transgenic mice on this background, we demonstrated that: 1) in contrast to the situation in rats, female mice are the more resistant gender; 2) the magnitude of the divergence between male and female mice depends on the substrain, but can amount to over 10-fold; 3) AH receptor protein expression levels or mutations in the primary structure of this receptor are not involved in the resistance of female mice of a C57BL/6 substrain, despite their acute LD{sub 50} for TCDD being over 5000 μg/kg; 4) transgenic mice that globally express the rat wildtype AH receptor follow the mouse type of gender difference; 5) in gonadectomized mice, ovarian estrogens appear to enhance TCDD resistance, whereas testicular androgens seem to augment TCDD susceptibility; and 6) the gender difference correlates best with the severity of liver damage, which is also reflected in hepatic histopathology and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6. Hence, the two closely related rodent species most often employed in toxicological risk characterization studies, rat and mouse, represent opposite examples of the influence of gender on dioxin sensitivity, further complicating the risk assessment of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. -- Highlights: ► In contrast to rats, male mice are more sensitive to TCDD toxicity than female mice. ► The resistance of female C57BL/6Kuo mice matches or exceeds that of male DBA/2 mice. ► The resistance of female C57BL/6Kuo mice is not based on AHR structure or abundance.

  1. Cellular localization of uranium in the renal proximal tubules during acute renal uranium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma-Takeda, Shino; Kitahara, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kyoko; Blyth, Benjamin J; Suya, Noriyoshi; Konishi, Teruaki; Terada, Yasuko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2015-12-01

    Renal toxicity is a hallmark of uranium exposure, with uranium accumulating specifically in the S3 segment of the proximal tubules causing tubular damage. As the distribution, concentration and dynamics of accumulated uranium at the cellular level is not well understood, here, we report on high-resolution quantitative in situ measurements by high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis in renal sections from a rat model of uranium-induced acute renal toxicity. One day after subcutaneous administration of uranium acetate to male Wistar rats at a dose of 0.5 mg uranium kg(-1) body weight, uranium concentration in the S3 segment of the proximal tubules was 64.9 ± 18.2 µg g(-1) , sevenfold higher than the mean renal uranium concentration (9.7 ± 2.4 µg g(-1) ). Uranium distributed into the epithelium of the S3 segment of the proximal tubules and highly concentrated uranium (50-fold above mean renal concentration) in micro-regions was found near the nuclei. These uranium levels were maintained up to 8 days post-administration, despite more rapid reductions in mean renal concentration. Two weeks after uranium administration, damaged areas were filled with regenerating tubules and morphological signs of tissue recovery, but areas of high uranium concentration (100-fold above mean renal concentration) were still found in the epithelium of regenerating tubules. These data indicate that site-specific accumulation of uranium in micro-regions of the S3 segment of the proximal tubules and retention of uranium in concentrated areas during recovery are characteristics of uranium behavior in the kidney. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The acute toxicity of thallium to freshwater organisms: Implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsi, Kristi; Turner, Andrew; Handy, Richard D; Shaw, Benjamin J

    2015-12-01

    The acute toxicity of Tl(I) to the microalga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the planktonic crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex, and early-life stage of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, has been studied according to OECD protocols. Toxicological end-point concentrations for the microalga ranged from 17 μg l(-1) for a 72 h EyC25 (yield inhibition) to 80 μg l(-1) for a 72 h ErC50 (growth inhibition). Daphnia were less sensitive to Tl, with 48 h EC50s of about 1000 μg l(-1) and 1200 μg l(-1) for D. magna and D. pulex, respectively; however, end-point concentrations were reduced considerably (to about 510 μg l(-1) and 730 μg l(-1), respectively) when experiments were repeated in dechlorinated Plymouth tap water (rather than OECD medium). The 96 h LC50 for D. rerio was 870 μg l(-1) but a variety of sub-lethal effects, including enlargement of yolk sac and reduction in heart beat rate, were observed when larvae were exposed to lower concentrations. Based on these results, a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for Tl in freshwaters of 0.087 μg l(-1) is proposed. The PNEC is an order of magnitude lower than the only (Canadian) water quality guideline for Tl that appears to exist, and is lower than Tl concentrations reported in freshwaters impacted by historical or contemporary metal mining. Our results are also consistent with previous studies that employ different organisms and end-points in that Tl toxicity is dependent on the concentration of K+, the biogeochemical analogue of Tl+. Accordingly, regulation of Tl in the freshwater environment should factor in the relative abundance of K. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute respiratory toxicity following inhalation exposure to soman in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Michael W.; Pierre, Zdenka; Rezk, Peter; Sabnekar, Praveena; Kabra, Kareem; Chanda, Soma; Oguntayo, Samuel; Sciuto, Alfred M.; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory toxicity and lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent soman was examined in guinea pigs without therapeutics to improve survival. A microinstillation inhalation exposure technique that aerosolizes the agent in the trachea was used to administer soman to anesthetized age and weight matched male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 280, 561, 841, and 1121 mg/m 3 concentrations of soman for 4 min. Survival data showed that all saline controls and animals exposed to 280 and 561 mg/m 3 soman survived, while animals exposed to 841, and 1121 mg/m 3 resulted in 38% and 13% survival, respectively. The microinstillation inhalation exposure LCt 50 for soman determined by probit analysis was 827.2 mg/m 3 . A majority of the animals that died at 1121 mg/m 3 developed seizures and died within 15-30 min post-exposure. There was a dose-dependent decrease in pulse rate and blood oxygen saturation of animals exposed to soman at 5-6.5 min post-exposure. Body weight loss increased with the dose of soman exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and blood acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity was inhibited dose-dependently in soman treated groups at 24 h. BAL cells showed a dose-dependent increase in cell death and total cell counts following soman exposure. Edema by wet/dry weight ratio of the accessory lung lobe and trachea was increased slightly in soman exposed animals. An increase in total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein was observed in soman exposed animals at all doses. Differential cell counts of BAL and blood showed an increase in total lymphocyte counts and percentage of neutrophils. These results indicate that microinstillation inhalation exposure to soman causes respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury in guinea pigs.

  4. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Dillon, Frank S.; Hennessy, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329μg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin << other taxa; with Pb, EC50s ranged from 47 to 3,323μg/L, with westslope cutthroat trout < rainbow trout < other taxa; and with Zn, EC50s ranged from 21 to 3,704μg/L, with rainbow trout < westslope cutthroat trout ≈ sculpin << other taxa. With swim-up trout fry, a pattern of decreasing resistance with increasing fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis.

  5. Acute toxicity of polyacrylamide flocculants to early life stages of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Sean B.; Cope, W. Gregory; McLaughlin, Richard A.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Polyacrylamide has become an effective tool for reducing construction-related suspended sediment and turbidity, which are considered to have significant adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems and are a leading cause of the degradation of North American streams and rivers. However, little is known about the effects of polyacrylamide on many freshwater organisms, and prior to the present study, no information existed on the toxicity of polyacrylamide compounds to native freshwater mussels (family Unionidae), one of the most imperiled faunal groups globally. Following standard test guidelines, we exposed juvenile mussels (test duration 96 h) and glochidia larvae (test duration 24 h) to 5 different anionic polyacrylamide compounds and 1 non-ionic compound. Species tested included the yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa), an Atlantic Slope species that is listed as endangered in North Carolina; the Appalachian elktoe (Alasmidonta raveneliana), a federally endangered Interior Basin species; and the washboard (Megalonaias nervosa), a common Interior Basin species. We found that median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of polyacrylamide ranged from 411.7 to >1000 mg/L for glochidia and from 126.8 to >1000 mg/L for juveniles. All LC50s were orders of magnitude greater (2–3) than concentrations typically recommended for turbidity control (1–5 mg/L), regardless of their molecular weight or charge density. The results demonstrate that the polyacrylamide compounds tested were not acutely toxic to the mussel species and life stages tested, indicating minimal risk of short-term exposure from polyacrylamide applications in the environment. However, other potential uses of polyacrylamide in the environment (e.g., wastewater treatment, paper processing, mining, algae removal) and their chronic or sublethal effects remain uncertain and warrant additional investigation.

  6. Acute Toxicity and Accumulation of Iron, Manganese and, Aluminum in Caspian Kutum Fish (Rutilus kutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Zahedi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron, manganese, and aluminum are three abundant metals on earth and their concentrations have increased in aquatic environments as a result of natural and industrial activities. This study was undertaken to report the median acute toxicity (LC50 and accumulation of the sub-lethal concentration (10% 96-h LC50 of iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and aluminum (Al in kutum (Rutilus kutum fingerlings. Methods: For the 96-h LC50, the fish were exposed to concentrations of 105, 111, 117, 123, 129 and 135 mg/l of Fe and 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, and 65 mg/l of Mn and 18, 22, 26, 30, 34 and 38 mg/l of aluminum for 4 days. For sublethal exposure, they were exposed to mediums with concentrations of 12.3, 5.4 and 2.9 for Fe, Mn, and aluminum, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the gill tissues. Results: Probit analysis showed the 96-h LC50 values of 122.98, 54.39, and 28.89 mg/l for Fe, Mn, and aluminum, respectively. Sub-lethal tests were conducted with nominal concentrations of 12.3, 5.4, and 2.9 mg/l of Fe, Mn, and aluminum for four days, respectively. Significant accumulations were observed in gills for all tested metals as compared to the control groups in short-term exposure (P<0.05. Conclusion: Obtained results clearly show that aluminum is the most toxic metal among tested ones for kutum fingerlings and it has the highest branchial AF value during sub-lethal exposure.

  7. Acute and subchronic toxicity of the antitumor agent rhodium (II citrate in Balb/c mice after intraperitoneal administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella L.B. Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate potential acute and subchronic toxicity of rhodium (II citrate in female Balb/c mice after intraperitoneal injections. In the acute test, independent groups received five doses; the highest dose (107.5 mg/kg was equivalent to 33 times that used in our previous reports. The other doses were chosen as proportions of the highest, being 80.7 (75%, 53.8 (50%, 26.9 (25% or 13.8 mg/kg (12.5%. Animals were monitored over 38 days and no severe signs of toxicity were observed, according to mortality, monitoring of adverse symptoms, hematological, biochemical and genotoxic parameters. We conclude that the median lethal dose (LD50 could be greater than 107.5 mg/kg. In the subchronic test, five doses of Rh2Cit (80, 60, 40, 20 or 10 mg/kg were evaluated and injections were conducted on alternate days, totaling five applications per animal. Paclitaxel (57.5 mg/kg and saline solution were controls. Clinical observations, histopathology of liver, lung and kidneys and effects on hematological, biochemistry and genotoxic records indicated that Rh2Cit induced no severe toxic effects, even at an accumulated dose up to 400 mg/kg.We suggest Rh2Cit has great potential as an antitumor drug without presenting acute and subchronic toxicity.

  8. Exposure Medium: Key in Identifying Free Ag+ as the Exclusive Species of Silver Nanoparticles with Acute Toxicity to Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mo-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Ya; Chao, Jing-Bo; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-04-01

    It is still not very clear what roles the various Ag species play in the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, we found that traditional exposure media result in uncontrollable but consistent physicochemical transformation of AgNPs, causing artifacts in determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) and hindering the identification of Ag species responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to Daphnia magna. This obstacle was overcome by using 8 h exposure in 0.1 mmol L-1 NaNO3 medium, in which we measured the 8-h LC50 of seven AgNPs with different sizes and coatings, and determined the concentrations of various Ag species. The LC50 as free Ag+ of the seven AgNPs (0.37-0.44 μg L-1) agreed very well with that of AgNO3 (0.40 μg L-1), and showed the lowest value compared to that as total Ag, total Ag+, and dissolved Ag, demonstrating free Ag+ is exclusively responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to D. magna, while other Ag species in AgNPs have no contribution to the acute toxicity. Our results demonstrated the great importance of developing appropriate exposure media for evaluating risk of nanomaterials.

  9. Investigation of acute toxicity of Jatropha gossypifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Cleome viscosa L. (Capparidacae) extract on guppies, Poecilia reticulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriarcharungroj, Sudatip; Chuaysuwan, Varithorn; Sudthonghong, Chaiwud; Bullangpoti, Vasakorn

    2008-01-01

    Jotropha gossypifolio L. (Etphorbiaceae) and Cleome viscosa, L. (Capparidacae), Thai-plant species, have phytocidal chemical components and responsible for controlling and repelling insects from the host plants. To avoid potential toxic pollutant contaminating aquatic ecosystems, this present study was investigated for acute toxicity. Guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were repeated 5 times and the 24-h LC50 was determined for the guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for each Jatropha gossypifolia L. and Cleome viscosa, L. concentration extract which extracted by Soxhlet extraction method with ethanol as solvent. Water temperature was regulated at 20 +/- 1 degrees C. Data obtained from the acute toxicity tests were evaluated using the probit analysis statistical method. The 24-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as ca. 3100 ppm (r2=0.95) and 5300 ppm ((r2=0.96) for Jatropha gossypifolia L. and Cleome viscosa, L. extract, respectively. However, in this concentration, no mortality was observed at higher concentration for 30 second.

  10. Habitat availability is a more plausible explanation than insecticide acute toxicity for U.S. grassland bird species declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason M.; Egan, J. Franklin; Stauffer, Glenn E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.

    2014-01-01

    Grassland bird species have experienced substantial declines in North America. These declines have been largely attributed to habitat loss and degradation, especially from agricultural practices and intensification (the habitat-availability hypothesis). A recent analysis of North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) “grassland breeding” bird trends reported the surprising conclusion that insecticide acute toxicity was a better correlate of grassland bird declines in North America from 1980–2003 (the insecticide-acute-toxicity hypothesis) than was habitat loss through agricultural intensification. In this paper we reached the opposite conclusion. We used an alternative statistical approach with additional habitat covariates to analyze the same grassland bird trends over the same time frame. Grassland bird trends were positively associated with increases in area of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands and cropland used as pasture, whereas the effect of insecticide acute toxicity on bird trends was uncertain. Our models suggested that acute insecticide risk potentially has a detrimental effect on grassland bird trends, but models representing the habitat-availability hypothesis were 1.3–21.0 times better supported than models representing the insecticide-acute-toxicity hypothesis. Based on point estimates of effect sizes, CRP area and agricultural intensification had approximately 3.6 and 1.6 times more effect on grassland bird trends than lethal insecticide risk, respectively. Our findings suggest that preserving remaining grasslands is crucial to conserving grassland bird populations. The amount of grassland that has been lost in North America since 1980 is well documented, continuing, and staggering whereas insecticide use greatly declined prior to the 1990s. Grassland birds will likely benefit from the de-intensification of agricultural practices and the interspersion of pastures, Conservation Reserve Program lands, rangelands and other grassland

  11. Acute and subacute toxicity profiles of thymoquinone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong YS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yong Sze Ong,1 Latifah Saiful Yazan,1,2 Wei Keat Ng,1 Mustapha M Noordin,3 Sarah Sapuan,1 Jhi Biau Foo,1 Yin Sim Tor1 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 3Department of Pathology and Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Thymoquinone (TQ, the predominant active lipophilic component in Nigella sativa seed oil, has a variety of pharmacological properties such as anticancer activities. However, translation of TQ to clinical phase is still not possible due to its hydrophobic properties. This problem can be solved by encapsulating it in nanoformulations to enhance its pharmacological properties. In our previous study, TQ has been successfully encapsulated in a nanostructured lipid carrier (hereinafter referred to as TQNLC with excellent physiochemical properties such as high encapsulation efficiency, high drug-loading capacity, particle diameter less than 100 nm, and stability up to 2 years. In vitro studies also proved that TQNLC exhibited antiproliferative activity toward breast and cervical cancer cell lines. However, no toxicity profile related to this formulation has been reported. In this study, we determine and compare the in vivo toxicity of both TQNLC and TQ. Materials and methods: The in vivo toxicity (acute and subacute toxicity study was carried out by oral administration of TQNLC and TQ to BALB/c mice. Animal survival, body weight, organ weight-to-body weight ratio, hematological profile, biochemistry profile, and histopathological changes were analyzed. Results: In acute toxicity, TQ that is loaded in nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC was found to be less toxic than pure TQ. It can be concluded that encapsulation of TQ in lipid carrier minimizes the toxicity of the compound. In the subacute toxicity study, oral administration of 100 mg/kg of TQNLC and TQ

  12. Acute and sublethal toxicity of copper in Siam-catfish juvenile Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dody Sihono

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was aimed to determine the level of acute toxicity (LC50 and to analyze the effect of Cu on the survival, growth, haematological, and bioaccumulation of Cu in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus juvenile at sublethal conditions. The experiment trial used completely randomized design with five concentration treatments and two replications to determine LC50. The Cu concentration used were 0, 0.2, 0.7, 1.2, and 1.7 ppm. Sublethal treatment used four Cu concentrations with three replicates. The concentrations were 0, 0.167, 0.334 and 0.667 ppm. Experimental fish used had an average total length 11.0±1.7 cm and weight 13.00±1.72 g. Results showed that Cu was highly toxic to P. hypophthalmus with a LC50-96 hours value of 0.667 ppm (0.539–0.805 ppm. At sublethal concentrations, Cu significantly decreased survival and growth, and increased Cu accumulation started from concentration of 0.167 ppm. Bioaccumulation of Cu started from the highest were in liver, gills, skin and flesh, respectively. Decreased of erythrocytes, haemoglobin and hematocrit indicated anemia, while increased of leukocytes indicated infection and physical stress on the body tissues. Keywords: copper toxicity, haematological, bioaccumulation, Siam-catfish juvenile  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan tingkat toksisitas akut (LC50 dan menganalisis pengaruh Cu terhadap sintasan, pertumbuhan, kondisi hematologi, dan akumulasi Cu pada juvenil ikan patin siam (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus pada kondisi subletal. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah lima perlakuan konsentrasi dengan dua ulangan untuk menentukan LC50. Konsentrasi Cu yang digunakan adalah 0; 0,2; 0,7; 1,2; dan 1,7 ppm. Pemeliharaan subletal menggunakan empat variasi konsentrasi dengan tiga ulangan. Konsentrasi Cu yang digunakan adalah 0; 0,167; 0,334; dan 0,667 ppm. Ikan uji yang digunakan memiliki panjang total rata-rata 11,0±1,7 cm dan berat 13,00±1,72 g. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa Cu

  13. Adjuvant Proton Beam Therapy in the Management of Thymoma: A Dosimetric Comparison and Acute Toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Rahul R; Rhome, Ryan; Hug, Eugen; Tsai, Henry; Cahlon, Oren; Chon, Brian; Goenka, Anuj

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the dosimetric differences between proton beam therapy (PBT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for resected thymoma. We simultaneously report our early clinical experience with PBT in this cohort. We identified 4 patients with thymoma or thymic carcinoma treated at our center from 2012 to 2014 who completed adjuvant PBT to a median dose of 57.0 cobalt Gy equivalents (CGE; range, 50.4-66.6 CGE) after definitive resection. Adjuvant radiation was indicated for positive (n = 3) or close margin (n = 1). Median age was 45 (range, 32-70) years. Stages included II (n = 2), III (n = 1), and IVA (n = 1). Analogous IMRT plans were generated for each patient for comparison, and preset dosimetric endpoints were evaluated. Early toxicities were assessed according to retrospective chart review. Compared with IMRT, PBT was associated with lower mean doses to the lung (4.6 vs. 8.1 Gy; P = .02), esophagus (5.4 vs. 20.6 Gy; P = .003), and heart (6.0 vs. 10.4 Gy; P = .007). Percentages of lung, esophagus, and heart receiving radiation were consistently lower in the PBT plans over a wide range of radiation doses. There was no difference in mean breast dose (2.68 vs. 3.01 Gy; P = .37). Of the 4 patients treated with PBT, 3 patients experienced Grade 1 radiation dermatitis, and 1 patient experienced Grade 2 dermatitis, which resolved after treatment. With a median follow-up of 5.5 months, there were no additional Grade ≥ 2 acute or subacute toxicities, including radiation pneumonitis. PBT is clinically well tolerated after surgical resection of thymoma, and is associated with a significant reduction in dose to critical structures without compromising coverage of the target volume. Prospective evaluation and longer follow-up is needed to assess clinical outcomes and late toxicities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of natural dissolved organic carbon on the acute toxicity of copper to larval freshwater mussels (glochidia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Patricia L; McGeer, James C; Mackie, Gerald L; Wilkie, Michael P; Ackerman, Josef D

    2010-11-01

    The present study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), both added and inherent, on Cu toxicity in glochidia, the larvae of freshwater mussels. Using incremental additions of natural DOC concentrate and reconstituted water, a series of acute copper toxicity tests were conducted. An increase in DOC from 0.7 to 4.4 mg  C/L resulted in a fourfold increase (36-150 µg Cu/L) in the 24-h median effective concentration (EC50) and a significant linear relationship (r² = 0.98, p = 0.0008) between the DOC concentration and the Cu EC50 of Lampsilis siliquoidea glochidia. The ameliorating effect of added DOC on Cu toxicity was confirmed using a second mussel species, the endangered (in Canada) Lampsilis fasciola. The effect of inherent (i.e., not added) DOC on Cu toxicity was also assessed in eight natural waters (DOC 5-15 mg C/L). These experiments revealed a significant relationship between the EC50 and the concentration of inherent DOC (r² = 0.79, p = 0.0031) with EC50s ranging from 27 to 111 µg Cu/L. These laboratory tests have demonstrated that DOC provides glochidia with significant protection from acute Cu toxicity. The potential risk that Cu poses to mussel populations was assessed by comparing Cu and DOC concentrations from significant mussel habitats in Ontario to the EC50s. Although overall mean Cu concentration in the mussel's habitat was well below the acutely toxic level given the concentration of DOC, episodic Cu releases in low DOC waters may be a concern for the recovery of endangered freshwater mussels. The results are examined in the context of current Cu water quality regulations including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) biotic ligand model. © 2010 SETAC.

  15. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a Potential Bio-Indicator for Assessing Acute Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity in Fresh Water Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Humayun, Ahmed; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation beh