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Sample records for acute muscle damage

  1. Acute Kidney Injury Facilitates Hypocalcemia by Exacerbating the Hyperphosphatemic Effect of Muscle Damage in Rhabdomyolysis.

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    Higaki, Masato; Tanemoto, Masayuki; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Kei; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Uchida, Shunya

    2015-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is an important complication of rhabdomyolysis for which several pathogenic factors, including acute kidney injury (AKI), have been proposed. To gain insight regarding the hypocalcemic roles of AKI in rhabdomyolysis, we retrospectively examined patients with rhabdomyolysis. Of 28,387 patients admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine, 51 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. Serum calcium was analyzed based on laboratory data including indicators of AKI, serum creatine kinase (CK) and serum inorganic phosphate (iP). Twenty-two patients (43%) had hypocalcemia. Compared with patients without hypocalcemia, they had a higher prevalence of AKI (82 vs. 55%; p = 0.046), higher levels of peak CK (39,100 ± 50,600 vs. 9,800 ± 11,900 IU/l; p = 0.003) and higher levels of peak iP (1.77 ± 1.10 vs. 1.10 ± 0.35 mmol/l; p = 0.007). Indicators of AKI were correlated with peak CK and peak iP and were not significant variables in the regression analysis for hypocalcemia. Peak CK and peak iP were not correlated with each other. Impaired phosphate use by muscle contributed to the increased iP. These findings indicate that muscle damage is the primary hypocalcemic factor in rhabdomyolysis. AKI facilitated hypocalcemia by exacerbating the hyperphosphatemic effects of muscle damage. Aggressive hydration, which could increase oxygen supply and subsequently repair phosphate use in muscle, might reduce the incidence of hypocalcemia in rhabdomyolysis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Acute and timing effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB on indirect markers of skeletal muscle damage

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    Manninen Anssi H

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While chronic β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation (≥ 2 wk lowers exercise induced muscle damage, its acute or timing effects have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and timing effects of oral HMB supplementation on serum creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, muscle soreness, and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC. Methods Sixteen non-resistance trained men (22 ± 2 yrs were assigned to HMB-Pre or HMB-Post groups. In a crossover design, all subjects performed 55 maximal eccentric knee extension/flexion contractions on 2 occasions on either the right or left leg. HMB-Pre (N = 8 randomly received 3 grams of either a placebo or HMB before and a placebo after exercise. HMB-Post (N = 8 received a placebo before and either 3 grams of HMB or a placebo after exercise. Muscle damage tests were recorded before, at 8, 24, 48, and 72 hrs post exercise. Results There was a reduction in MVC and an increase in soreness in the quadriceps and hamstrings following exercise (p p = 0.07, there was no time × group effect. Serum indices of damage increased, peaking at 48 hrs for CK (773% (p p Conclusion Our findings suggest no clear acute or timing effects of HMB supplementation. However, consuming HMB before exercise appeared to prevent increases in LDH.

  3. The acute response of pericytes to muscle-damaging eccentric contraction and protein supplementation in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisio, Michael; Farup, Jean; Sukiennik, Richard A; Clevenger, Nicole; Nallabelli, Julian; Nelson, Brett; Ryan, Kelly; Rahbek, Stine K; de Paoli, Frank; Vissing, Kristian; Boppart, Marni D

    2015-10-15

    Skeletal muscle pericytes increase in quantity following eccentric exercise (ECC) and contribute to myofiber repair and adaptation in mice. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine pericyte quantity in response to muscle-damaging ECC and protein supplementation in human skeletal muscle. Male subjects were divided into protein supplement (WHY; n = 12) or isocaloric placebo (CHO; n = 12) groups and completed ECC using an isokinetic dynamometer. Supplements were consumed 3 times/day throughout the experimental time course. Biopsies were collected prior to (PRE) and 3, 24, 48, and 168 h following ECC. Reflective of the damaging protocol, integrin subunits, including α7, β1A, and β1D, increased (3.8-fold, 3.6-fold and 3.9-fold, respectively, P muscle-damaging ECC increases α7β1 integrin content in human muscle, yet pericyte quantity is largely unaltered. Future studies should focus on the capacity for ECC to influence pericyte function, specifically paracrine factor release as a mechanism toward pericyte contribution to repair and adaptation postexercise. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Acute and timing effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on indirect markers of skeletal muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jacob M; Kim, Jeong-Su; Lee, Sang-Rok; Rathmacher, John A; Dalmau, Brett; Kingsley, J Derek; Koch, Heather; Manninen, Anssi H; Saadat, Raz; Panton, Lynn B

    2009-02-04

    While chronic β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation (≥ 2 wk) lowers exercise induced muscle damage, its acute or timing effects have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and timing effects of oral HMB supplementation on serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), muscle soreness, and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Sixteen non-resistance trained men (22 ± 2 yrs) were assigned to HMB-Pre or HMB-Post groups. In a crossover design, all subjects performed 55 maximal eccentric knee extension/flexion contractions on 2 occasions on either the right or left leg. HMB-Pre (N = 8) randomly received 3 grams of either a placebo or HMB before and a placebo after exercise. HMB-Post (N = 8) received a placebo before and either 3 grams of HMB or a placebo after exercise. Muscle damage tests were recorded before, at 8, 24, 48, and 72 hrs post exercise. There was a reduction in MVC and an increase in soreness in the quadriceps and hamstrings following exercise (p HMB-Pre approached significance in attenuating soreness for the quadriceps (p = 0.07), there was no time x group effect. Serum indices of damage increased, peaking at 48 hrs for CK (773%) (p HMB on CK and LDH, post hoc analysis revealed that only HMB-Pre showed no significant increase in LDH levels following exercise. Our findings suggest no clear acute or timing effects of HMB supplementation. However, consuming HMB before exercise appeared to prevent increases in LDH.

  5. Acute Oxidative Effect and Muscle Damage after a Maximum 4 Min Test in High Performance Athletes.

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    Heros Ribeiro Ferreira

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine lipid peroxidation markers, physiological stress and muscle damage in elite kayakers in response to a maximum 4-min kayak ergometer test (KE test, and possible correlations with individual 1000m kayaking performances. The sample consisted of twenty-three adult male and nine adult female elite kayakers, with more than three years' experience in international events, who voluntarily took part in this study. The subjects performed a 10-min warm-up, followed by a 2-min passive interval, before starting the test itself, which consisted of a maximum 4-min work paddling on an ergometer; right after the end of the test, an 8 ml blood sample was collected for analysis. 72 hours after the test, all athletes took part in an official race, when then it was possible to check their performance in the on site K1 1000m test (P1000m. The results showed that all lipoproteins and hematological parameters tested presented a significant difference (p≤0.05 after exercise for both genders. In addition, parameters related to muscle damage such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine kinase (CK presented significant differences after stress. Uric acid presented an inverse correlation with the performance (r = -0.76, while CK presented a positive correlation (r = 0.46 with it. Based on these results, it was possible to verify muscle damage and the level of oxidative stress caused by indoor training with specific ergometers for speed kayaking, highlighting the importance of analyzing and getting to know the physiological responses to this type of training, in order to provide information to coaches and optimize athletic performance.

  6. Acute effects of Resistance exercise performed on ladder on energy metabolism, stress, and muscle damage in rats

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    João Guilherme Oliveira Silvestre

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS To evaluate the acute effects of a resistance exercise session performed on ladder on energy metabolism, stress, and muscle damage in rats. METHODS Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in Exercise (E (n=30 and Control (C (n = 20 groups. The E group performed a resistance exercise session on a vertical ladder with weights on their tails. Blood samples were collected at rest and after each climb to analyze lactate levels and ten minutes after the last climb to analyze lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, and corticosterone levels. RESULTS Blood lactate levels remained stable during exercise. Serum corticosterone, blood glucose, LDH and CK levels increased and glycogen content decreased in the E group, when compared to the C group. CONCLUSION These results suggest that resistance exercise performed on ladder is a model of high-intensity exercise. However, the stabilization of lactate during the session suggests that the aerobic metabolism is an important factor during the intervals between climbs.

  7. Preferential type II muscle fiber damage from plyometric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Filippo; Isaacs, Ashwin W; Myburgh, Kathryn H

    2012-01-01

    Plyometric training has been successfully used in different sporting contexts. Studies that investigated the effect of plyometric training on muscle morphology are limited, and results are controversial with regard to which muscle fiber type is mainly affected. To analyze the skeletal muscle structural and ultrastructural change induced by an acute bout of plyometric exercise to determine which type of muscle fibers is predominantly damaged. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Eight healthy, untrained individuals (age = 22 ± 1 years, height = 179.2 ± 6.4 cm, weight = 78.9 ± 5.9 kg). Participants completed an acute bout of plyometric exercise (10 sets of 10 squat-jumps with a 1-minute rest between sets). Blood samples were collected 9 days and immediately before and 6 hours and 1, 2, and 3 days after the acute intervention. Muscle samples were collected 9 days before and 3 days after the exercise intervention. Blood samples were analyzed for creatine kinase activity. Muscle biopsies were analyzed for damage using fluorescent and electron transmission microscopy. Creatine kinase activity peaked 1 day after the exercise bout (529.0 ± 317.8 U/L). Immunofluorescence revealed sarcolemmal damage in 155 of 1616 fibers analyzed. Mainly fast-twitch fibers were damaged. Within subgroups, 7.6% of type I fibers, 10.3% of type IIa fibers, and 14.3% of type IIx fibers were damaged as assessed by losses in dystrophin staining. Similar damage was prevalent in IIx and IIa fibers. Electron microscopy revealed clearly distinguishable moderate and severe sarcomere damage, with damage quantifiably predominant in type II muscle fibers of both the glycolytic and oxidative subtypes (86% and 84%, respectively, versus only 27% of slow-twitch fibers). We provide direct evidence that a single bout of plyometric exercise affected mainly type II muscle fibers.

  8. MUSCLE DAMAGE AFTER A TENNIS MATCH IN YOUNG PLAYERS

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    R.V. Gomes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated changes in indirect markers of muscle damage following a simulated tennis match play using nationally ranked young (17.6 ± 1.4 years male tennis players. Ten young athletes played a 3-hour simulated match play on outdoor red clay courts following the International Tennis Federation rules. Muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity (CK, serum myoglobin concentration (Mb, one repetition maximum (1RM squat strength, and squat jump (SJ and counter movement jump (CMJ heights were assessed before, immediately after, and 24 and 48 h after the simulated match play. All parameters were also evaluated in a non-exercised group (control group. A small increase in the indirect markers of muscle damage (muscle soreness, CK and Mb was detected at 24-48 hours post-match (p<0.05. A marked acute decrement in neuromuscular performance (1RM squat strength: -35.2 ± 10.4%, SJ: -7.0 ± 6.0%, CMJ: -10.0 ± 6.3% was observed immediately post-match (p<0.05. At 24 h post-match, the 1RM strength and jump heights were not significantly different from the baseline values. However, several players showed a decrease of these measures at 24 h after the match play. The simulated tennis match play induced mild muscle damage in young players. Coaches could monitor changes in the indirect markers of muscle damage to assess athletes’ recovery status during training and competition.

  9. Muscle Damage Indicators after Land and Aquatic Plyometric Training Programmes

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    Vlatka Wertheimer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training is an important part of athletic conditioning with many significant benefits, including improved motor abilities and performance, but it can also increase the serum indices of muscle damage, collagen breakdown, muscle swelling, and soreness. Due to the physical characteristics of water, plyometric training in water presents less eccentric contraction, facilitates faster transition from the eccentric to concentric phase of a jump and offers greater resistance during concentric contraction with acute lower indices of muscle damage. To advance our understanding of the long-term effects of an eight-week plyometric training programme on land and in water on muscle damage indicators (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and serum urea (SU, two experimental groups of physically active men (a group on land (EG1 and a group in water (EG2 were tested before and after the first and the last plyometric training to monitor muscle damage indicators and adaptations. The results showed changes in CK activity after both plyometric trainings for EG1 and only after the first training for EG2. Moreover, after the eight-week programme, significant difference was observed in CK activity in comparison with EG2. There were no observed changes in LDH activity while SU showed greater changes for the group on land. The plyometric training programme in water resulted in smaller levels of muscle damage indicators. Although both experimental groups conducted the same plyometric training with the same jump volume, the eccentric and concentric loads were not the same, so it can be concluded that adaptations in muscle damage processes are faster with smaller eccentric loads.

  10. Natural pomegranate juice reduces inflammation, muscle damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paired simple t-test showed a significant difference between PLA and POMj supplementation effects on systolic blood pressure (SAP), creatinine (CRE), hematological and muscle damage parameters and Creactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.01) with lower values using POMj. Similarly, a significant differences were shown for ...

  11. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.

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    Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-08-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Effects of protein supplements on muscle damage, soreness and recovery of muscle function and physical performance: a systematic review.

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    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Lieberman, Harris R; McLellan, Tom M

    2014-05-01

    demonstrating ingestion of a protein supplement following a bout of exercise attenuates muscle soreness and/or lowers markers of muscle damage. However, beneficial effects such as reduced muscle soreness and markers of muscle damage become more evident when supplemental protein is consumed after daily training sessions. Furthermore, the data suggest potential ergogenic effects associated with protein supplementation are greatest if participants are in negative nitrogen and/or energy balance. Small sample numbers and lack of dietary control limited the effectiveness of several investigations. In addition, studies did not measure the effects of protein supplementation on direct indices of muscle damage such as myofibrillar disruption and various measures of protein signaling indicative of a change in rates of protein synthesis and degradation. As a result, the interpretation of the data was often limited. Overwhelmingly, studies have consistently demonstrated the acute benefits of protein supplementation on post-exercise muscle anabolism, which, in theory, may facilitate the recovery of muscle function and performance. However, to date, when protein supplements are provided, acute changes in post-exercise protein synthesis and anabolic intracellular signaling have not resulted in measureable reductions in muscle damage and enhanced recovery of muscle function. Limitations in study designs together with the large variability in surrogate markers of muscle damage reduced the strength of the evidence-base.

  13. Injury to skeletal muscle of mice following acute and sub-acute pregabalin exposure

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    Mohammad Moshiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pregabalin (PGB is a new antiepileptic drug that has received FDA approval for patient who suffers from central neuropathic pain, partial seizures, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and sleep disorders. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible adverse effects of PGB on the muscular system of mice. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of PGB on skeletal muscle, the animals were exposed to a single dose of 1, 2 or 5 g /kg or daily doses of 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg for 21 days, intraperitoneally (IP. Twaenty-four hr after the last drug administration, all animals were sacrificed. The level of fast-twitch skeletal muscle troponin I and CK-MM activity were evaluated in blood as an indicator of muscle injury. Skeletal muscle pathological findings were also reported as scores ranging from 1 to 3 based on the observed lesion. Results: In the acute and sub-acute toxicity assay IP injection of PGB significantly increased the activity and levels of CK-MM and fsTnI compared to the control group. Sub-acute exposure to PGB caused damages that include muscle atrophy, infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. Conclusion: PGB administration especially in long term care causes muscle atrophy with infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. The fsTnI and CK-MM are reliable markers in PGB-related muscle injury. The exact mechanisms behind the muscular damage are unclear and necessitate further investigations.

  14. Wnt and β-Catenin Signaling and Skeletal Muscle Myogenesis in Response to Muscle Damage and Resistance Exercise and Training

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    Dan Newmire

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The factors that regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy in human adults in response to resistance training (RT has largely focused on endogenous endocrine responses. However, the endocrine response to RT as having an obligatory role in muscle hypertrophy has come under scrutiny, as other mechanisms and pathways seem to also be involved in up-regulating muscle protein synthesis (MPS. Skeletal muscle myogenesis is a multifactorial process of tissue growth and repair in response to resistance training is regulated by many factors.  As a result, satellite cell-fused myogenesis is a possible factor in skeletal muscle regeneration and hypertrophy in response to RT.  The Wnt family ligands interact with various receptors and activate different downstream signaling pathways and have been classified as either canonical (β-catenin dependent or non-canonical (β-catenin independent.  Wnt is secreted from numerous tissues in a paracrine fashion. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a highly-regulated and intricate pathway that is essential to skeletal muscle myogenesis.  The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway may influence satellite cells to myogenic commitment, differentiation, and fusion into muscle fibers in response to injury or trauma, self-renewal, and normal basal turnover.  The current literature has shown that, in response mechanical overload from acute resistance exercise and chronic resistance training, that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is stimulated which may actuate the process of muscle repair and hypertrophy in response to exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this review is to elaborate on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling  pathway, the current literature investigating the relationship of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and its effects on myogenesis is response to muscle damage and resistance exercise and training.      Keywords: skeletal muscle, hypertrophy, myogenesis, cell signaling, protein synthesis, resistance

  15. Inner organ damages after acute radioactive poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnyuk, Valeriy

    2008-01-01

    Full text: There are some difficulties in making early diagnosis on acute radioactive poisoning. Clinical disorders from a poison in November 2006 in London has not given an opportunity to doctors to reveal radiation as the reason of the acute injury before the death. The report purpose is to give more diagnostic possibilities to reveal early signs of acute radioactive poisoning. It provides an evaluation of clinical observation data on a difference of clinical symptoms after internal or external exposure, activities of some radioactive isotopes that are able to cause ARS with bone marrow failure or damages to different organs and tissues. The report contains descriptions of some clinical cases of radioactive poisonings. Prodromal responses after acute internal expose are significant only in cases of the following early death but are not typical for the most clinical cases of internal exposure. Lethal gastrointestinal or cutaneous damages are not characteristic. Early radiation vasculitis (blood vessel endotheliitis) sings: bloody rash on the trunk, blood in the urine, hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes at blood platelet count in excess of 40 x 10 9 l -1 . Death from lung radiation injury could be expected in all individuals from as little as 7 MBq of inhaled alpha emitter with energy of about 5 MeV and an effective half-life greater than 100 days. Death from severe bone marrow syndrome for the first month or death from liver insufficiency for the following 6 months is typical after ingestion or injection of radioactive materials at lethal doses. Hemolytic sings after acute exposure should be confirmed by the following clinical investigations. It is known the erythrocyte hemolysis and the following hemoglobin decay is a significant source of the endogenous CO that release from the hem. So estimation of CO and methemoglobin in the blood is a way for revealing of the higher erythrocyte destroy. If hemolytic syndrome is characteristic for early acute

  16. Association between statin-associated myopathy and skeletal muscle damage.

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    Mohaupt, Markus G; Karas, Richard H; Babiychuk, Eduard B; Sanchez-Freire, Verónica; Monastyrskaya, Katia; Iyer, Lakshmanan; Hoppeler, Hans; Breil, Fabio; Draeger, Annette

    2009-07-07

    Many patients taking statins often complain of muscle pain and weakness. The extent to which muscle pain reflects muscle injury is unknown. We obtained biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis muscle of 83 patients. Of the 44 patients with clinically diagnosed statin-associated myopathy, 29 were currently taking a statin, and 15 had discontinued statin therapy before the biopsy (minimal duration of discontinuation 3 weeks). We also included 19 patients who were taking statins and had no myopathy, and 20 patients who had never taken statins and had no myopathy. We classified the muscles as injured if 2% or more of the muscle fibres in a biopsy sample showed damage. Using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, we evaluated the expression levels of candidate genes potentially related to myocyte injury. Muscle injury was observed in 25 (of 44) patients with myopathy and in 1 patient without myopathy. Only 1 patient with structural injury had a circulating level of creatine phosphokinase that was elevated more than 1950 U/L (10x the upper limit of normal). Expression of ryanodine receptor 3 was significantly upregulated in patients with biopsy evidence of structural damage (1.7, standard error of the mean 0.3). Persistent myopathy in patients taking statins reflects structural muscle damage. A lack of elevated levels of circulating creatine phosphokinase does not rule out structural muscle injury. Upregulation of the expression of ryanodine receptor 3 is suggestive of an intracellular calcium leak.

  17. Epigenetic Regulators Modulate Muscle Damage in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Model.

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    Bajanca, Fernanda; Vandel, Laurence

    2017-12-21

    Histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDAC) control transcription during myogenesis. HDACs promote chromatin condensation, inhibiting gene transcription in muscle progenitor cells until myoblast differentiation is triggered and HDACs are released. HATs, namely CBP/p300, activate myogenic regulatory and elongation factors promoting myogenesis. HDAC inhibitors are known to improve regeneration in dystrophic muscles through follistatin upregulation. However, the potential of directly modulating HATs remains unexplored. We tested this possibility in a well-known zebrafish model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Interestingly, CBP/p300 transcripts were found downregulated in the absence of Dystrophin. While investigating CBP rescuing potential we observed that dystrophin-null embryos overexpressing CBP actually never show significant muscle damage, even before a first regeneration cycle could occur. We found that the pan-HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) also prevents early muscle damage, however the single HAT CBP is as efficient even in low doses. The HAT domain of CBP is required for its full rescuing ability. Importantly, both CBP and TSA prevent early muscle damage without restoring endogenous CBP/p300 neither increasing follistatin transcripts. This suggests a new mechanism of action of epigenetic regulators protecting dystrophin-null muscle fibres from detaching, independent from the known improvement of regeneration upon damage of HDACs inhibitors. This study builds supporting evidence that epigenetic modulators may play a role in determining the severity of muscle dystrophy, controlling the ability to resist muscle damage. Determining the mode of action leading to muscle protection can potentially lead to new treatment options for muscular dystrophies in the future.

  18. Acute rhabdomyolysis of the soleus muscle induced by a lightning strike: magnetic resonance and scintigraphic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Naofumi; Inaoka, Tsutomu; Shuke, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Koji; Aburano, Tamio; Chisato, Naoyuki; Go, Kazutomo; Nochi, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Among natural disasters, a lightning strike is a rare but potentially life-threatening phenomenon. If victims survive a cardiac arrest due to instantaneous passage of an exceptionally high voltage electric charge through the whole body, they may be afflicted with various complications such as muscle necrosis resulting in acute renal failure. In this article, we report a case of a 54-year-old man with acute rhabdomyolysis of the left soleus muscle associated with a lightning strike. T2-weighted and short-tau inversion recovery MR images showed a high signal intensity in the left soleus muscle. A whole-body bone scintigram showed abnormal uptakes in the left soleus muscle and the dorsal aspect of the left foot. MR and scintigraphic evaluations were very useful in depicting the site and extent of muscle damage. Since the patient showed a surprisingly high level of serum creatine kinase, the added information was very valuable for determining the patient's management. (orig.)

  19. Gene expression profiling of porcine skeletal muscle in the early recovery phase following acute physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeanette; Conley, Lene; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Acute physical activity elicits changes in gene expression in skeletal muscles to promote metabolic changes and to repair exercise-induced muscle injuries. In the present time-course study, pigs were submitted to an acute bout of treadmill running until near exhaustion to determine the impact...... associated with proteolytic events, such as the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1, were significantly upregulated, suggesting that protein breakdown, prevention of protein aggregation and stabilization of unfolded proteins are important processes for restoration of cellular homeostasis. We also...... detected an upregulation of genes that are associated with muscle cell proliferation and differentiation, including MUSTN1, ASB5 and CSRP3, possibly reflecting activation, differentiation and fusion of satellite cells to facilitate repair of muscle damage. In addition, exercise increased expression...

  20. An association of cocoa consumption with improved physical fitness and decreased muscle damage and oxidative stress in athletes.

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    González-Garrido, José A; García-Sánchez, José R; Garrido-Llanos, Silvia; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne M

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the protective effects of cocoa consumption, due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Acute exercise induces oxidative stress and causes muscular damage during training. This study was designed to examine the effect of cocoa consumption on the markers of muscle damage, oxidative stress and physical fitness in professional soccer players. Fifteen players (15-18 years old) were included in the study. Biochemical parameters, markers of muscle damage and oxidative stress, and physical performance were evaluated before and after cocoa consumption. Biochemical parameters determined the healthy metabolic status of the study group; biomarkers of muscle and oxidative damage were measured in blood to establish muscle and redox status. However, high levels of biomarkers of muscle damage were detected. Interestingly, cocoa consumption decreased the muscle damage biomarkers of CK and LDH by 39.4% and 23.03%, respectively. The redox status was modified by a decrease in oxidative damage (carbonyl groups, 26.31%; thiol groups, 27.52%; MDA, 32.42%) and an increase in total antioxidant capacity (15.98%) and GSH-Px activity (26.37%). In addition, we observed an increase in physical performance by 4% in the Cooper Test. Our findings suggest that a short period of cocoa consumption could be useful in maintaining a good physical fitness, due to the favourable effects on muscle and redox status in athletes during exhaustive exercise.

  1. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Hypertrophy: A Closer Look Reveals the Jury is Still Out

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeld, Brad; Contreras, Bret

    2018-01-01

    This letter is a response to the paper by Damas et al (2017) titled, “The development of skeletal muscle hypertrophy through resistance training: the role of muscle damage and muscle protein synthesis,” which, in part, endeavored to review the role of exercise-induced muscle damage on muscle hypertrophy. We feel there are a number of issues in interpretation of research and extrapolation that preclude drawing the inference expressed in the paper that muscle damage neither explains nor potenti...

  2. CEREBRAL CORTEX DAMAGE INDUCED BY ACUTE ORAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... This study examines alcohol-induced cerebral cortex damage and the association with oxidative ... alcohol has profound effects on the function ... Chronic use of ..... Alcohol induced brain damage and liver damage in young.

  3. The Effects of Pre-Exercise Ginger Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Melissa D; Zavorsky, Gerald S; Smoliga, James M

    2015-06-01

    Ginger possesses analgesic and pharmacological properties mimicking non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We aimed to determine if ginger supplementation is efficacious for attenuating muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) following high-intensity resistance exercise. Following a 5-day supplementation period of placebo or 4 g ginger (randomized groups), 20 non-weight trained participants performed a high-intensity elbow flexor eccentric exercise protocol to induce muscle damage. Markers associated with muscle damage and DOMS were repeatedly measured before supplementation and for 4 days following the exercise protocol. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed one repetition maximum lift decreased significantly 24 h post-exercise in both groups (p ginger group (p = 0.002), and improved at 72 (p = 0.021) and 96 h (p = 0.044) only in the placebo group. Blood creatine kinase significantly increased for both groups (p = 0.015) but continued to increase only in the ginger group 72 (p = 0.006) and 96 h (p = 0.027) post-exercise. Visual analog scale of pain was significantly elevated following eccentric exercise (p ginger. In conclusion, 4 g of ginger supplementation may be used to accelerate recovery of muscle strength following intense exercise but does not influence indicators of muscle damage or DOMS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Elevated Plasma Cardiac Troponin T Levels Caused by Skeletal Muscle Damage in Pompe Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wens, Stephan C A; Schaaf, Gerben J; Michels, Michelle; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; van Gestel, Tom J M; In 't Groen, Stijn; Pijnenburg, Joon; Dekkers, Dick H W; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Verdijk, Lex B; Brusse, Esther; van Schaik, Ron H N; van der Ploeg, Ans T; van Doorn, Pieter A; Pijnappel, W W M Pim

    2016-02-01

    Elevated plasma cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels in patients with neuromuscular disorders may erroneously lead to the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or myocardial injury. In 122 patients with Pompe disease, the relationship between cTnT, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase (CK), CK-myocardial band levels, and skeletal muscle damage was assessed. ECG and echocardiography were used to evaluate possible cardiac disease. Patients were divided into classic infantile, childhood-onset, and adult-onset patients. cTnT levels were elevated in 82% of patients (median 27 ng/L, normal values normal in all patients, whereas CK-myocardial band levels were increased in 59% of patients. cTnT levels correlated with CK levels in all 3 subgroups (Pmass index measured with echocardiography was normal in all the 3 subgroups. cTnT mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not detectable in controls but was strongly induced in patients with Pompe disease. cTnT protein was identified by mass spectrometry in patient-derived skeletal muscle tissue. Elevated plasma cTnT levels in patients with Pompe disease are associated with skeletal muscle damage, rather than acute myocardial injury. Increased cTnT levels in Pompe disease and likely other neuromuscular disorders should be interpreted with caution to avoid unnecessary cardiac interventions. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. The effects of a repeated bout of eccentric exercise on indices of muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddon-Jones, D; Muthalib, M; Jenkins, D

    2000-03-01

    This study examined markers of muscle damage following a repeated bout of maximal isokinetic eccentric exercise performed prior to full recovery from a previous bout. Twenty non-resistance trained volunteers were randomly assigned to a control (CON, n=10) or experimental (EXP, n=10) group. Both groups performed 36 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors of the non-dominant arm (ECC1). The EXP group repeated the same eccentric exercise bout two days later (ECC2). Total work and peak eccentric torque were recorded during each set of ECC1 and ECC2. Isometric torque, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), flexed elbow angle and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured prior to and immediately following ECC1 and ECC2. at 24h intervals for 7 days following ECC1 and finally on day 11. In both groups, all dependent variables changed significantly during the 2 days following ECC1. A further acute post-exercise impairment in isometric torque (30 +/- 5%) and flexed elbow angle (20 +/- 4%) was observed following ECC2 (p0.05). These findings suggest that when maximal isokinetic eccentric exercise is repeated two days after experiencing of contraction-induced muscle damage, the recovery time course is not significantly altered.

  6. Protein hydrolysates and recovery of muscle damage following eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A whey protein hydrolysate (NatraBoost XR; WPHNB has been shown to speed repair muscle damage. We sought to determine whether this benefit is specific to this hydrolysate to evaluate a marker for quality control. Methods: Three hydrolysates of the same whey protein isolate (WPI were prepared (WPHNB, WPH1 and WPH2. Isometric knee extensor strength was measured in 39 sedentary male participants before and after 100 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Participants were then randomised to consume 250 ml of flavoured water (FW, n=9, or 250 ml of FW containing 25 g of either NatraBoost XR (n=3, WPH1 (n=9, WPH2 (n=9 or WPI (n=9. Strength was reassessed over the next seven days while the supplements were consumed daily. Fibroblasts were cultured for 48 hr in the presence of the different hydrolysates, WPI, saline or fetal bovine serum to ascertain effects on cell proliferation. Results: Strength was reduced in all treatment groups after eccentric exercise (P<0.001. Strength recovered steadily over 7 days in the FW, WPI, WPH1 and WPH2 treatment groups (P<0.001, with no difference between treatments (P=0.87. WPHNB promoted faster strength recovery compared with the other treatments (P<0.001. Fibroblast proliferation was greater with WPHNB compared with saline, WPI or the other hydrolysates (P<0.001. Conclusions: Promoting recovery from muscle damage seems unique to WPHNB. In vitro fibroblast proliferation may be a useful marker for quality control. It is not clear whether effects on fibroblast proliferation contribute to the in vivo effect of WPHNB on muscle damage.

  7. Effect of artemether on rat hepatocytes during acute damage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief OGBUZULU F

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... could have regenerative effect on acute liver damage. Oguntibeju et al. .... the synthesis of the alkaline phosphatase in the tissues ... This sug- gests that artemether may have a possible repair effect ... human biology. Talwar ...

  8. Effects of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers and perception of delayed onset muscle soreness after downhill running: A Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rossato

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Use of cryotherapy after exercise with eccentric contractions was effective to reestablish the level of biochemical markers of muscle damage and reduce muscle soreness and pain perception in subjects submitted to downhill running.

  9. Respiratory muscle strength and muscle endurance are not affected by acute metabolic acidemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nizet, T.A.C.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Bosch, F.H.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) contributes to respiratory failure with hypercapnia, and subsequent respiratory acidosis. Therapeutic induction of acute metabolic acidosis further increases the respiratory drive and, therefore, may diminish

  10. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in skeletal muscle of humans exposed to high-altitude hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundby, Carsten; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hall, Gerrit van; Sander, Mikael; Calbet, Jose; Loft, Steffen; Moeller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a model for prolonged oxidative stress in healthy humans. In this study, we investigated the consequences of prolonged high-altitude hypoxia on the basal level of oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in muscle cells, a major oxygen-consuming tissue. Muscle biopsies from seven healthy humans were obtained at sea level and after 2 and 8 weeks of hypoxia at 4100 m.a.s.l. We found increased levels of strand breaks and endonuclease III-sensitive sites after 2 weeks of hypoxia, whereas oxidative DNA damage detected by formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) protein was unaltered. The expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), determined by quantitative RT-PCR of mRNA levels did not significantly change during high-altitude hypoxia, although the data could not exclude a minor upregulation. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was unaltered by prolonged hypoxia, in accordance with the notion that HO-1 is an acute stress response protein. In conclusion, our data indicate high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a good model for oxidative stress and that antioxidant genes are not upregulated in muscle tissue by prolonged hypoxia despite increased generation of oxidative DNA damage

  11. Effects of light emitting diode (LED) therapy and cold water immersion therapy on exercise-induced muscle damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Mariana Zingari; Siqueira, Cláudia Patrícia Cardoso Martins; Preti, Maria Carla Perozim; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; de Lima, Franciele Mendes; Dias, Ivan Frederico Lupiano; Toginho Filho, Dari de Oliveira; Ramos, Solange de Paula

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effects of LED therapy at 940 nm or cold water immersion therapy (CWI) after an acute bout of exercise on markers of muscle damage and inflammation. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: animals kept at rest (control), exercised animals (E), exercised + CWI (CWI), and exercised + LED therapy (LED). The animals swam for 100 min, after which blood samples were collected for lactate analysis. Animals in the E group were returned to their cages without treatment, the CWI group was placed in cold water (10°C) for 10 min and the LED group received LED irradiation on both gastrocnemius muscles (4 J/cm(2) each). After 24 h, the animals were killed and the soleus muscles were submitted to histological analysis. Blood samples were used for hematological and CK analyses. The results demonstrated that the LED group presented fewer areas of muscle damage and inflammatory cell infiltration and lower levels of CK activity than the E group. Fewer areas of damaged muscle fiber were observed in the LED group than in CWI. CWI and LED did not reduce edema areas. Hematological analysis showed no significant effect of either treatment on leukocyte counts. The results suggest that LED therapy is more efficient than CWI in preventing muscle damage and local inflammation after exercise.

  12. Relationship between physical exercise, muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Foschini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical exercise involving muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS. A literature review of national and international periodicals was carried out. Muscle structures (membranes, Z-line, sarcomeres, T tubules and myofi brils can become damaged as a result of an imposed mechanical overload. Of greatest note are exercises requiring strength, particularly when muscular action is eccentric. Damage to skeletal musculature can be analyzed by direct methods (muscle biopsy or magnetic resonance or by indirect methods (maximum voluntary movement, subjective pain perception scales, analysis of enzyme and protein concentrations in blood. Creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, myosin heavy chain fragments, troponin-I and myoglobin can be used as indirect markers of muscle damage. Both DOMS and muscle damage can be infl uenced by the type of activity, with emphasis on eccentric muscle movements, type of exercise, velocity of the movement, interval period between series, the level of individual fi tness, this last primarily affecting beginners. When myotrauma occurs, muscle damage repair is initiated by leukocytes migrating to the injured area, although, the histamines, prostaglandins, kinins and K+ produced by neutrophils and macrophages stimulate free nerve endings in the muscle, causing the DOMS. Despite this apparent relationship between muscle damage and DOMS, it is not possible toestablish a linear relationship between these two variables, since published data are divergent. RESUMO O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar as relações do exercício físico com o dano muscular e dor muscular de início tardio (DMIT. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão de literatura de periódicos nacionais e internacionais. O dano muscular pode ocorrer em estruturas musculares (membranas, linha Z, sarcolema, túbulos T e miofi brilas em função da sobrecarga mec

  13. Overexpression of IGF-1 attenuates skeletal muscle damage and accelerates muscle regeneration and functional recovery after disuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; Mathur, Sunita; Liu, Min; Borst, Stephen E.; Walter, Glenn A.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Vandenborne, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly dynamic tissue that responds to endogenous and external stimuli, including alterations in mechanical loading and growth factors. In particular, the antigravity soleus muscle experiences significant muscle atrophy during disuse and extensive muscle damage upon reloading. Since insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been implicated as a central regulator of muscle repair and modulation of muscle size, we examined the effect of viral mediated overexpression of IGF-1 on the soleus muscle following hindlimb cast immobilization and upon reloading. Recombinant IGF-1 cDNA virus was injected into one of the posterior hindlimbs of the mice, while the contralateral limb was injected with saline (control). At 20 weeks of age, both hindlimbs were immobilized for two weeks to induce muscle atrophy in the soleus and ankle plantar flexor muscle group. Subsequently, the mice were allowed to reambulate and muscle damage and recovery was monitored over a period of 2 to 21 days. The primary finding of this study was that IGF-1 overexpression attenuated reloading-induced muscle damage in the soleus muscle, and accelerated muscle regeneration and force recovery. Muscle T2 assessed by MRI, a nonspecific marker of muscle damage, was significantly lower in IGF-1 injected, compared to contralateral soleus muscles at 2 and 5 days reambulation (P<0.05). The reduced prevalence of muscle damage in IGF-1 injected soleus muscles was confirmed on histology, with a lower fraction area of abnormal muscle tissue in IGF-I injected muscles at 2 days reambulation (33.2±3.3%vs 54.1±3.6%, P<0.05). Evidence of the effect of IGF-1 on muscle regeneration included timely increases in the number of central nuclei (21% at 5 days reambulation), paired-box transcription factor 7 (36% at 5 days), embryonic myosin (37% at 10 days), and elevated MyoD mRNA (7-fold at 2 days) in IGF-1 injected limbs (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate a potential role of IGF-1 in protecting unloaded

  14. [Benefits of Decumanum Phlebodium intake on the muscle damage in the response to intense physical exercise in sedentary subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Corzo, M C; Aguilar Cordero, M J; de Teresa Galván, C; Segura Millán, D; Miranda Leon, M T; Castillo Rueda, G; Guisado Barrilao, R

    2014-06-01

    Intense physical exercise provoke muscle damage, that in sedentary people can increase cardiovascular risk. Phlebodium decumanum (PD) has shown to have immunomodulator effects in models of moderate intense physical activities in well conditioned groups. To evaluate the PD effects during eccentric exercise, as a model of muscle inflammation protocol, on a sedentary population with cardiovascular risk. This is an experimental, double-blind, multigroup randomized study. Experimental Group 1 (n = 17)received PD, 9 doses of 400 mg (total amount 3.6 g) every 8 hours during 3 days, and Control Group 2 (n = 16)received a placebo. All the subjects performed two treadmill ergoespirometry tests: first, a modified Bruce protocol to discard ischemic responses during exercise and to evaluate VO2max before the experimental phase;and second, with an eccentric protocol (14% descending ramp test) during 10 minutes in stable state at 70-80%VO2max, as experimental inflammatory protocol.We compared intra and inter groups to evaluate differences in the pre and post-test differences results on blood muscle damage variables. The study shown statistically significant differences in all pre-post intra-groups results in muscle damage variables (CK, LDH and Myoglobin, but not in Cardiac Troponin), and in functional lower-limb test (SJand CMJ). The comparison of inter-group results shown less muscle damage and less functional lower-limb deterioration in Group 1 compared with Control group, with statistical significance in both cases. Differences in handgrip dynamometry were no statistically significant. The eccentric exercise protocol in that study has proven to be a good model to induce muscle and functional damage in sedentary people. Short PD treatment has shown to reduce muscle and functional acute damages compared with placebo control group in this specific population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Attenuation of muscle damage by preconditioning with muscle hyperthermia 1-day prior to eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosaka, K; Muthalib, M; Lavender, A; Laursen, P B

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that muscle damage would be attenuated in muscles subjected to passive hyperthermia 1 day prior to exercise. Fifteen male students performed 24 maximal eccentric actions of the elbow flexors with one arm; the opposite arm performed the same exercise 2-4 weeks later. The elbow flexors of one arm received a microwave diathermy treatment that increased muscle temperature to over 40 degrees C, 16-20 h prior to the exercise. The contralateral arm acted as an untreated control. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength (MVC), range of motion (ROM), upper arm circumference, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration were measured 1 day prior to exercise, immediately before and after exercise, and daily for 4 days following exercise. Changes in the criterion measures were compared between conditions (treatment vs. control) using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA with a significance level of P < 0.05. All measures changed significantly following exercise, but the treatment arm showed a significantly faster recovery of MVC, a smaller change in ROM, and less muscle soreness compared with the control arm. However, the protective effect conferred by the diathermy treatment was significantly less effective compared with that seen in the second bout performed 4-6 weeks after the initial bout by a subgroup of the subjects (n = 11) using the control arm. These results suggest that passive hyperthermia treatment 1 day prior to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage has a prophylactic effect, but the effect is not as strong as the repeated bout effect.

  16. Evaluation of Muscle Damage Marker after Mixed Martial Arts Matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Gerald Julius; Saygili, Erol; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Behringer, Michael

    2016-03-21

    The aim of this paper is to identify predictors of serum muscle damage marker (MDM) response following mixed martial arts (MMA) matches. Creatine kinase activity (CK) and myoglobin concentration (Mb) were measured in ten male elite MMA fighters (aged 28±5.7 years) prior to, 2 h, 24 h, and 96 h following 9 different MMA matches. The number of performed upright punches and kicks (UKF) that failed the opponent, the number of obtained hits to the upper and lower body (LBH), as well as the total fight duration (TFD) were evaluated as potential predictors from video recordings. CK peaked 24 h (829±753 U/L(-1)) and Mb peaked 2 h (210±122 µg/L(-1)) post matches. Almost 80% of the peak CK variance could be explained by LBH and UKF, whereas 87% of the Mb variation was explained by TFD and LBH. MMA result in a significant skeletal muscle damage, which largely depends on LBH. Furthermore, eccentric contractions to decelerate kicks that missed the opponent and the TFD seem to contribute to the MDM response.

  17. Electromyographic analysis of exercise resulting in symptoms of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, M P; Connolly, D A; Eston, R G; Gleim, G W

    2000-03-01

    Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from the hamstring muscles during six sets of submaximal isokinetic (2.6 rad x s(-1)) eccentric (11 men, 9 women) or concentric (6 men, 4 women) contractions. The EMG per unit torque increased during eccentric (P exercise. Similarly, the median frequency increased during eccentric (P exercise. The EMG per unit torque was lower for submaximal eccentric than maximum isometric contractions (P unit torque was lower for eccentric than concentric contractions (P exercise resulted in significant isometric strength loss (P exercise, while the most severe pain and muscle tenderness occurred 2 days after eccentric exercise. A lower EMG per unit torque is consistent with the selective recruitment of a small number of motor units during eccentric exercise. A higher median frequency during eccentric contractions may be explained by selective recruitment of fast-twitch motor units. The present results are consistent with the theory that muscle damage results from excessive stress on a small number of active fibres during eccentric contractions.

  18. Psoas muscle abscess simulating acute appendicits: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio L.C. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The psoas muscle abscess is uncommon and poorly characterized in its etiology, clinical associations, and its therapeutic approach. On the other hand, acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal emergency, with a 7% death rate, and surgery is its main treatment.

  19. Low markers of muscle damage and inflammation following a 3-day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    running on markers of muscle damage and inflammation have not yet been reported. ... in muscles of the lower limb, as they contract eccentrically during downhill ..... nutritional and fluid intake in future field work on multiday trail running.

  20. REDD1 induction regulates the skeletal muscle gene expression signature following acute aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Bradley S; Steiner, Jennifer L; Rossetti, Michael L; Qiao, Shuxi; Ellisen, Leif W; Govindarajan, Subramaniam S; Eroshkin, Alexey M; Williamson, David L; Coen, Paul M

    2017-12-01

    The metabolic stress placed on skeletal muscle by aerobic exercise promotes acute and long-term health benefits in part through changes in gene expression. However, the transducers that mediate altered gene expression signatures have not been completely elucidated. Regulated in development and DNA damage 1 (REDD1) is a stress-induced protein whose expression is transiently increased in skeletal muscle following acute aerobic exercise. However, the role of this induction remains unclear. Because REDD1 altered gene expression in other model systems, we sought to determine whether REDD1 induction following acute exercise altered the gene expression signature in muscle. To do this, wild-type and REDD1-null mice were randomized to remain sedentary or undergo a bout of acute treadmill exercise. Exercised mice recovered for 1, 3, or 6 h before euthanization. Acute exercise induced a transient increase in REDD1 protein expression within the plantaris only at 1 h postexercise, and the induction occurred in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. At this time point, global changes in gene expression were surveyed using microarray. REDD1 induction was required for the exercise-induced change in expression of 24 genes. Validation by RT-PCR confirmed that the exercise-mediated changes in genes related to exercise capacity, muscle protein metabolism, neuromuscular junction remodeling, and Metformin action were negated in REDD1-null mice. Finally, the exercise-mediated induction of REDD1 was partially dependent upon glucocorticoid receptor activation. In all, these data show that REDD1 induction regulates the exercise-mediated change in a distinct set of genes within skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Acute compartment syndrome after muscle rupture in a non-athlete.

    OpenAIRE

    Thennavan, A S; Funk, L; Volans, A P

    1999-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after muscle rupture, although rare, is a limb threatening condition, which warrants emergency treatment. The case of acute compartment syndrome secondary to a gastrocnemius muscle tear of the right lower leg, in a non-athlete is reported. To our knowledge, this is the only description of acute compartment syndrome due to muscle rupture in a non-athlete.

  2. [Causes and management of severe acute liver damage during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda-Martinez, Alvaro; Romero, Carlos; Juarez, Guido; Hasbun, Jorge; Parra-Cordero, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    Abnormalities in liver function tests appear in 3% of pregnancies. Severe acute liver damage can be an exclusive condition of pregnancy (dependent or independent of pre-eclampsia) or a concomitant disease. HELLP syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are the most severe liver diseases associated with pregnancy. Both appear during the third trimester and have a similar clinical presentation. Acute fatty liver may be associated with hypoglycemia and HELLP syndrome is closely linked with pre-eclampsia. Among concomitant conditions, fulminant acute hepatitis caused by medications or virus is the most severe disease. Its clinical presentation may be hyper-acute with neurological involvement and severe coagulation disorders. It has a high mortality and patients should be transplanted. Fulminant hepatic failure caused by acetaminophen overdose can be managed with n-acetyl cysteine. Because of the high fetal mortality rate, the gestational age at diagnosis is crucial.

  3. Acute rhabdomyolysis of the soleus muscle induced by a lightning strike: magnetic resonance and scintigraphic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Naofumi; Inaoka, Tsutomu; Shuke, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Koji; Aburano, Tamio [Asahikawa Medical College, Department of Radiology, Asahikawa (Japan); Chisato, Naoyuki; Go, Kazutomo [Asahikawa Medical College, Department of Emergency Medicine, Asahikawa (Japan); Nochi, Hitoshi [Asahikawa Medical College, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Asahikawa (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    Among natural disasters, a lightning strike is a rare but potentially life-threatening phenomenon. If victims survive a cardiac arrest due to instantaneous passage of an exceptionally high voltage electric charge through the whole body, they may be afflicted with various complications such as muscle necrosis resulting in acute renal failure. In this article, we report a case of a 54-year-old man with acute rhabdomyolysis of the left soleus muscle associated with a lightning strike. T2-weighted and short-tau inversion recovery MR images showed a high signal intensity in the left soleus muscle. A whole-body bone scintigram showed abnormal uptakes in the left soleus muscle and the dorsal aspect of the left foot. MR and scintigraphic evaluations were very useful in depicting the site and extent of muscle damage. Since the patient showed a surprisingly high level of serum creatine kinase, the added information was very valuable for determining the patient's management. (orig.)

  4. Absence of acute skeletal and cardiac muscle injuries in amateur triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos C. Jovita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Creatine kinase (CK and creatine kinase muscle-brain fraction (CK-MB might be associated with damage to muscle and cardiac tissue, respectively, as a consequence of intense prolonged exercise. The objective of the present study was to determine whether acute changes in CK and CK-MB reflect some risk of damage to skeletal and cardiac muscles in amateur athletes after Ironman 70.3. The sample consisted of 10 male athlete volunteers (age: 34.0 ± 9.2 years. A venous blood sample (2 mL was collected before and after the competition. The volunteers completed the race in 5h20min to 6 h. CK and CK-MB were analyzed by an enzymatic method using Wiener labreagent in an automatic spectrophotometer (Targa bt 3000. The nonparametric Wilcoxon test showed significant differences (p < .05 in the variables studied before and after the competition. Mean CK was 112.23 ± 34.9 and 458.0 ± 204.9 U/L (Δ% = 418.2, and mean CK-MB was 7.4 ± 2.6 and 10.8 ± 3.9 U/L (Δ% = 153.3 before and after the event, respectively. The relative variation in CK-MB compared to CK before (6.9% and after (2.5% the competition showed that the former is not a factor of concern during intense prolonged exercise such as Ironman 70.3. In conclusion, the acute increase in CK after the end of intense prolonged exercise indicates skeletal muscle damage which, however, is considered to be normal for athletes. With respect to CK-MB, cardiac muscle injury was inexistent.

  5. Protection from Muscle Damage in the Absence of Changes in Muscle Mechanical Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ben W; Cresswell, Andrew G; Carroll, Timothy J; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2016-08-01

    The repeated bout effect characterizes the protective adaptation after a single bout of unaccustomed eccentric exercise that induces muscle damage. Sarcomerogenesis and increased tendon compliance have been suggested as potential mechanisms for the repeated bout effect by preventing muscle fascicles from being stretched onto the descending limb of the length-tension curve (the region where sarcomere damage is thought to occur). In this study, evidence was sought for three possible mechanical changes that would support either the sarcomerogenesis or the increased tendon compliance hypotheses: a sustained rightward shift in the fascicle length-tension relationship, reduced fascicle strain amplitude, and reduced starting fascicle length. Subjects (n = 10) walked backward downhill (5 km·h, 20% incline) on a treadmill for 30 min on two occasions separated by 7 d. Kinematic data and medial gastrocnemius fascicle lengths (ultrasonography) were recorded at 10-min intervals to compare fascicle strains between bouts. Fascicle length-torque curves from supramaximal tibial nerve stimulation were constructed before, 2 h after, and 2 d after each exercise bout. Maximum torque decrement and elevated muscle soreness were present after the first, but not the second, backward downhill walking bout signifying a protective repeated bout effect. There was no sustained rightward shift in the length-torque relationship between exercise bouts, nor decreases in fascicle strain amplitude or shortening of the starting fascicle length. Protection from a repeated bout of eccentric exercise was conferred without changes in muscle fascicle strain behavior, indicating that sarcomerogenesis and increased tendon compliance were unlikely to be responsible. As fascicle strains are relatively small in humans, we suggest that changes to connective tissue structures, such as extracellular matrix remodeling, are better able to explain the repeated bout effect observed here.

  6. Raman spectroscopic study of acute oxidative stress induced changes in mice skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Alimova, Alexandra; Chakraverty, Rahul; Katz, A.; Gayen, S. K.; Larsson, L.; Savage, H. E.; Alfano, R. R.

    2008-02-01

    The oxidative stress due to free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in diseases such as muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer dementia, diabetes mellitus, and mitochrondrial myopathies. In this study, the acute oxidative stress induced changes in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in mouse skeletal muscles are studied in vitro using Raman spectroscopy. Mammalian skeletal muscles are rich in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in both reduced (NADH) and oxidized (NAD) states, as they are sites of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The relative levels of NAD and NADH are altered in certain physiological and pathological conditions of skeletal muscles. In this study, near infrared Raman spectroscopy is used to identify the molecular fingerprints of NAD and NADH in five-week-old mice biceps femoris muscles. A Raman vibrational mode of NADH is identified in fresh skeletal muscle samples suspended in buffered normal saline. In the same samples, when treated with 1% H IIO II for 5 minutes and 15 minutes, the Raman spectrum shows molecular fingerprints specific to NAD and the disappearance of NADH vibrational bands. The NAD bands after 15 minutes were more intense than after 5 minutes. Since NADH fluoresces and NAD does not, fluorescence spectroscopy is used to confirm the results of the Raman measurements. Fluorescence spectra exhibit an emission peak at 460 nm, corresponding to NADH emission wavelength in fresh muscle samples; while the H IIO II treated muscle samples do not exhibit NADH fluorescence. Raman spectroscopy may be used to develop a minimally invasive, in vivo optical biopsy method to measure the relative NAD and NADH levels in muscle tissues. This may help to detect diseases of muscle, including mitochondrial myopathies and muscular dystrophies.

  7. Evaluation of the hamstring muscle complex following acute injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulouris, George; Connell, David

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings following acute hamstring injury. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of hamstring muscle complex (HMC) strain in 170 patients referred to our institution over a 3-year period. A total of 179 injuries to the HMC were demonstrated in 170 patients (154 male, 16 female, mean age 28.2 years). The mean duration of symptoms was 4.7 days (range 1-10 days). MR imaging was performed in 97 cases and sonography in 102 cases (both modalities were performed in 20 examinations). Attention was directed to the frequency of muscle involvement, the location of the injury within the muscle-tendon unit, the extent of the injury and discriminating avulsion from muscle injury. Twenty-one patients had proximal tendon injury, with sixteen avulsions and five partial tears. Sixteen of these patients had surgical confirmation of hamstring avulsion from the ischial tuberosity (14 conjoint, 2 biceps femoris alone) and all were reliably diagnosed with MR imaging (16/16), but less so with sonography (7/12). Four distal tendon avulsions were also observed (three semitendinosus, one biceps femoris). With respect to muscle injury, the biceps femoris was most commonly injured (124/154). Semimembranosus was an uncommon muscle injury (21/154) and semitendinosus rare (9/154). Imaging can discriminate a hamstring tendon avulsion from musculotendinous strain and helps identify which patients necessitate surgical management as opposed to conservative treatment. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of the hamstring muscle complex following acute injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulouris, George; Connell, David [Department of Radiology, St Francis X Cabrini, Wattletree Rd, 3144, Malvern, Victoria (Australia)

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings following acute hamstring injury. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of hamstring muscle complex (HMC) strain in 170 patients referred to our institution over a 3-year period. A total of 179 injuries to the HMC were demonstrated in 170 patients (154 male, 16 female, mean age 28.2 years). The mean duration of symptoms was 4.7 days (range 1-10 days). MR imaging was performed in 97 cases and sonography in 102 cases (both modalities were performed in 20 examinations). Attention was directed to the frequency of muscle involvement, the location of the injury within the muscle-tendon unit, the extent of the injury and discriminating avulsion from muscle injury. Twenty-one patients had proximal tendon injury, with sixteen avulsions and five partial tears. Sixteen of these patients had surgical confirmation of hamstring avulsion from the ischial tuberosity (14 conjoint, 2 biceps femoris alone) and all were reliably diagnosed with MR imaging (16/16), but less so with sonography (7/12). Four distal tendon avulsions were also observed (three semitendinosus, one biceps femoris). With respect to muscle injury, the biceps femoris was most commonly injured (124/154). Semimembranosus was an uncommon muscle injury (21/154) and semitendinosus rare (9/154). Imaging can discriminate a hamstring tendon avulsion from musculotendinous strain and helps identify which patients necessitate surgical management as opposed to conservative treatment. (orig.)

  9. Acute effect of different stretching methods on isometric muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF on the static muscle strength (SMS. Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a hand grip without stretching; b hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexors muscles; c hand grip preceded by PNF stretching of wrist flexors muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test verified the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, evaluated the differences between the groups. The significance was set at p 0.05. In conclusion, both stretching methods had caused negative effects on isometric strength, reducing its levels.

  10. Evaluation of DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in gill and muscle tissues of Cyprinus carpio and their relative sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M K, Praveen Kumar; Shyama, Soorambail K; D'Costa, Avelyno; Kadam, Samit B; Sonaye, Bhagatsingh Harisingh; Chaubey, Ramesh Chandra

    2017-10-01

    The effect of radiation on the aquatic environment is of major concern in recent years. Limited data is available on the genotoxicity of gamma radiation on different tissues of aquatic organisms. Hence, the present investigation was carried out to study the DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in the gill and muscle tissues and their relative sensitivity using the comet assay in the freshwater teleost fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The comet assay was optimized and validated in common carp using cyclophosphamide (CP), a reference genotoxic agent. The fish were exposed (acute) to various doses of gamma radiation (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10Gy) and samplings (gill and muscle tissue) were done at regular intervals (24, 48 and 72h) to assess the DNA damage. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed as indicated by an increase in % tail DNA for all doses of gamma radiation in both tissues. We also observed a dose-related increase and a time-dependent decrease of DNA damage. In comparison, DNA damage showed different sensitivity among the tissues at different doses. This shows that a particular dose may have different effects on different tissues which could be due to physiological factors of the particular tissue. Our study also suggests that the gills and muscle of fish are sensitive and reliable tissues for evaluating the genotoxic effects of reference and environmental agents, using the comet assay. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Muscle damage and repeated bout effect induced by enhanced eccentric squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Chemello, Alessandro; Schena, Federico

    2016-12-01

    Muscle damage and repeated bout effect have been studied after pure eccentric-only exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle damage and repeated bout effect induced by enhanced eccentric squat exercise using flywheel device. Thirteen healthy males volunteered for this study. Creatine kinase blood activity (CK), quadriceps isometric peak torque and muscle soreness were used as markers of muscle damage. The dependent parameters were measured at baseline, immediately after and each day up to 96 hours after the exercise session. The intervention consisted of 100 repetitions of enhanced eccentric squat exercise using flywheel device. The same protocol was repeated after 4 weeks. After the first bout, CK and muscle soreness were significantly greater (P0.05), while isometric peak torque and muscle soreness returned to values similar to baseline after respectively 48 and 72 hours. All muscle damage markers were significantly lower after second compared to first bout. The enhanced eccentric exercise induced symptoms of muscle damage up to 96 hours. However, it provided muscle protection after the second bout, performed four weeks later. Although it was not eccentric-only exercise, the enhancement of eccentric phase provided muscle protection.

  12. Dynamic Contractility and Efficiency Impairments in Stretch-Shortening Cycle Are Stretch-Load-Dependent After Training-Induced Muscle Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaczi, Mark; Racz, Levente; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, Jozsef

    Vaczi, M, Racz, L, Hortobagyi, T, and Tihanyi, J. Dynamic contractility and efficiency impairments in stretch-shortening cycle are stretch-load-dependent after training-induced muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 27(8): 2171-2179, 2013To determine the acute task and stretch-load dependency of

  13. Effect of elastic-band exercise on muscle damage and inflammatory responses in Taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Gadruni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Elastic bands offer variable elastic resistance (ER throughout a range of motion and their incorporation with exercise movements has been used for variable strength training and rehabilitation purposes. Objective: Investigate the effect of acute bout of progressive elastic-band exercise on muscle damage and inflammatory response in Taekwondo athletes (TKD compared with untrained ones.METHODS: Fourteen (TKD, n = 7 and untrained, n = 7 men performed 3 sets of progressive resistance elastic exercise. Blood samples were taken pre-exercise and also immediately and 24h post exercise. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity, total leukocyte counts, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were analyzed.RESULTS: Only DOMS increased in untrained group, but elevation of DOMS was observed in both groups (TKD and untrained at 24h after exercise (p<0.05. CK and LDH activity increased in both groups significantly. Also TKD group only showed CK increasing 24h post exercise (p<0.05. Total circulating leukocyte counts increased immediately in post exercise experiments and decreased in 24h ones in both groups (p<0.05. Serum IL-6 immediately increased in both groups and 24h post exercises but there was no significant difference between immediate and 24h post exercise experiments in TKD group. Furthermore, CRP just increased 24h after exercise in both groups (p<0.05.CONCLUSION: Progressive resistance elastic exercise induced muscle damage and inflammation in TKD athletes, but also had smaller changes in comparison with untrained group and other forms of exercise.

  14. Effect of aqueous extract of saffron (crocus sativus L.) against gamma radiation-induced skeletal muscles damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tahawy, N.A; Said, U.Z

    2010-01-01

    Muscular strength is important in sport as well as in daily activities. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage are the most important factors in radiation-induced acute damage to muscle tissue. Saffron, obtained from dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae), is a highly valued spice, commonly used in flavouring and food colouring in different parts of the world and is known to possess the richest source of carotenoids. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of an aqueous extract of saffron to protect against radiation-induced oxidative damage in rat's skeletal muscle. Saffron was supplemented orally, via gavages to rats at a dose of 80 mg/ kg body wt/ day for 2 week pre- and 1 week post-exposure to 5 Gy (one shot dose) of whole body gamma-irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 1, 2 and 3 weeks post radiation exposure. The results revealed that whole body gamma-irradiation of rats induce oxidative stress in skeletal muscles obvious by significant elevation in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances associated with significant decreases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Also, radiation-induces skeletal muscles damage evidenced by significant decreases in the level of pyruvic acid, creatine phosphokinase, glutamate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities as well as significant increases in lactic acid, total iron, and copper and calcium levels. Saffron treated-irradiated rats showed significantly less severe damage and remarkable improvement in all the measured parameters, compared to irradiated rats. It could be concluded that saffron by attenuating radiation-induced oxidative stress might play a role in maintaining skeletal muscle integrity.

  15. Mitochondrial Alterations and Oxidative Stress in an Acute Transient Mouse Model of Muscle Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadasan-Nair, Renjini; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Mishra, Sudha; Sunitha, Balaraju; Mythri, Rajeswara Babu; Nalini, Atchayaram; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Harsha, Hindalahalli Chandregowda; Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) and inflammatory myopathies (IMs) are debilitating skeletal muscle disorders characterized by common pathological events including myodegeneration and inflammation. However, an experimental model representing both muscle pathologies and displaying most of the distinctive markers has not been characterized. We investigated the cardiotoxin (CTX)-mediated transient acute mouse model of muscle degeneration and compared the cardinal features with human MDs and IMs. The CTX model displayed degeneration, apoptosis, inflammation, loss of sarcolemmal complexes, sarcolemmal disruption, and ultrastructural changes characteristic of human MDs and IMs. Cell death caused by CTX involved calcium influx and mitochondrial damage both in murine C2C12 muscle cells and in mice. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis at the initial phase of degeneration in the model detected lowered expression of 80 mitochondrial proteins including subunits of respiratory complexes, ATP machinery, fatty acid metabolism, and Krebs cycle, which further decreased in expression during the peak degenerative phase. The mass spectrometry (MS) data were supported by enzyme assays, Western blot, and histochemistry. The CTX model also displayed markers of oxidative stress and a lowered glutathione reduced/oxidized ratio (GSH/GSSG) similar to MDs, human myopathies, and neurogenic atrophies. MS analysis identified 6 unique oxidized proteins from Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples (n = 6) (versus controls; n = 6), including two mitochondrial proteins. Interestingly, these mitochondrial proteins were down-regulated in the CTX model thereby linking oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that mitochondrial alterations and oxidative damage significantly contribute to CTX-mediated muscle pathology with implications for human muscle diseases. PMID:24220031

  16. Association between statin-associated myopathy and skeletal muscle damage.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaupt Markus G; Karas Richard H; Babiychuk Eduard B; Sanchez-Freire Verónica; Monastyrskaya Katia; Iyer Lakshmanan; Hoppeler Hans; Breil Fabio; Draeger Annette

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many patients taking statins often complain of muscle pain and weakness. The extent to which muscle pain reflects muscle injury is unknown. METHODS We obtained biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis muscle of 83 patients. Of the 44 patients with clinically diagnosed statin associated myopathy 29 were currently taking a statin and 15 had discontinued statin therapy before the biopsy (minimal duration of discontinuation 3 weeks). We also included 19 patients who were taking stat...

  17. Mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress in an acute transient mouse model of muscle degeneration: implications for muscular dystrophy and related muscle pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadasan-Nair, Renjini; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Mishra, Sudha; Sunitha, Balaraju; Mythri, Rajeswara Babu; Nalini, Atchayaram; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Harsha, Hindalahalli Chandregowda; Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2014-01-03

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) and inflammatory myopathies (IMs) are debilitating skeletal muscle disorders characterized by common pathological events including myodegeneration and inflammation. However, an experimental model representing both muscle pathologies and displaying most of the distinctive markers has not been characterized. We investigated the cardiotoxin (CTX)-mediated transient acute mouse model of muscle degeneration and compared the cardinal features with human MDs and IMs. The CTX model displayed degeneration, apoptosis, inflammation, loss of sarcolemmal complexes, sarcolemmal disruption, and ultrastructural changes characteristic of human MDs and IMs. Cell death caused by CTX involved calcium influx and mitochondrial damage both in murine C2C12 muscle cells and in mice. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis at the initial phase of degeneration in the model detected lowered expression of 80 mitochondrial proteins including subunits of respiratory complexes, ATP machinery, fatty acid metabolism, and Krebs cycle, which further decreased in expression during the peak degenerative phase. The mass spectrometry (MS) data were supported by enzyme assays, Western blot, and histochemistry. The CTX model also displayed markers of oxidative stress and a lowered glutathione reduced/oxidized ratio (GSH/GSSG) similar to MDs, human myopathies, and neurogenic atrophies. MS analysis identified 6 unique oxidized proteins from Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples (n = 6) (versus controls; n = 6), including two mitochondrial proteins. Interestingly, these mitochondrial proteins were down-regulated in the CTX model thereby linking oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that mitochondrial alterations and oxidative damage significantly contribute to CTX-mediated muscle pathology with implications for human muscle diseases.

  18. Full Range of Motion Induces Greater Muscle Damage Than Partial Range of Motion in Elbow Flexion Exercise With Free Weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Bruno M; Pompermayer, Marcelo G; Cini, Anelize; Peruzzolo, Amanda S; Radaelli, Régis; Brusco, Clarissa M; Pinto, Ronei S

    2017-08-01

    Baroni, BM, Pompermayer, MG, Cini, A, Peruzzolo, AS, Radaelli, R, Brusco, CM, and Pinto, RS. Full range of motion induces greater muscle damage than partial range of motion in elbow flexion exercise with free weights. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2223-2230, 2017-Load and range of motion (ROM) applied in resistance training (RT) affect the muscle damage magnitude and the recovery time-course. Because exercises performed with partial ROM allow a higher load compared with those with full ROM, this study investigated the acute effect of a traditional RT exercise using full ROM or partial ROM on muscle damage markers. Fourteen healthy men performed 4 sets of 10 concentric-eccentric repetitions of unilateral elbow flexion on the Scott bench. Arms were randomly assigned to partial-ROM (50-100°) and full-ROM (0-130°) conditions, and load was determined as 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the full- and partial-ROM tests. Muscle damage markers were assessed preexercise, immediately, and 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. Primary outcomes were peak torque, muscle soreness during palpation and elbow extension, arm circumference, and joint ROM. The load lifted in the partial-ROM condition (1RM = 19.1 ± 3.0 kg) was 40 ± 18% higher compared with the full-ROM condition (1RM = 13.7 ± 2.2 kg). Seventy-two hours after exercise, the full-ROM condition led to significant higher soreness sensation during elbow extension (1.3-4.1 cm vs. 1.0-1.9 cm) and smaller ROM values (97.5-106.1° vs. 103.6-115.7°). Peak torque, soreness from palpation, and arm circumference were statistically similar between conditions, although mean values in all time points of these outcomes have suggested more expressive muscle damage for the full-ROM condition. In conclusion, elbow flexion exercise with full ROM seems to induce greater muscle damage than partial-ROM exercises, even though higher absolute load was achieved with partial ROM.

  19. Eccentric muscle damage has variable effects on motor unit recruitment thresholds and discharge patterns in elbow flexor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnall, Tamara J; Rogasch, Nigel C; Nordstrom, Michael A; Semmler, John G

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eccentric muscle damage on recruitment threshold force and repetitive discharge properties of low-threshold motor units. Ten subjects performed four tasks involving isometric contraction of elbow flexors while electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded from human biceps brachii and brachialis muscles. Tasks were 1) maximum voluntary contraction (MVC); 2) constant-force contraction at various submaximal targets; 3) motor unit recruitment threshold task; and 4) minimum motor unit discharge rate task. These tasks were performed on three separate days before, immediately after, and 24 h after eccentric exercise of elbow flexor muscles. MVC force declined (42%) immediately after exercise and remained depressed (29%) 24 h later, indicative of muscle damage. Mean motor unit recruitment threshold for biceps brachii was 8.4+/-4.2% MVC, (n=34) before eccentric exercise, and was reduced by 41% (5.0+/-3.0% MVC, n=34) immediately after and by 39% (5.2+/-2.5% MVC, n=34) 24 h after exercise. No significant changes in motor unit recruitment threshold were observed in the brachialis muscle. However, for the minimum tonic discharge rate task, motor units in both muscles discharged 11% faster (10.8+/-2.0 vs. 9.7+/-1.7 Hz) immediately after (n=29) exercise compared with that before (n=32). The minimum discharge rate variability was greater in brachialis muscle immediately after exercise (13.8+/-3.1%) compared with that before (11.9+/-3.1%) and 24 h after exercise (11.7+/-2.4%). No significant changes in minimum discharge rate variability were observed in the biceps brachii motor units after exercise. These results indicate that muscle damage from eccentric exercise alters motor unit recruitment thresholds for >or=24 h, but the effect is not the same in the different elbow flexor muscles.

  20. Effect of altering starting length and activation timing of muscle on fiber strain and muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Timothy A; Herzog, Walter

    2006-05-01

    Muscle strain injuries are some of the most frequent injuries in sports and command a great deal of attention in an effort to understand their etiology. These injuries may be the culmination of a series of subcellular events accumulated through repetitive lengthening (eccentric) contractions during exercise, and they may be influenced by a variety of variables including fiber strain magnitude, peak joint torque, and starting muscle length. To assess the influence of these variables on muscle injury magnitude in vivo, we measured fiber dynamics and joint torque production during repeated stretch-shortening cycles in the rabbit tibialis anterior muscle, at short and long muscle lengths, while varying the timing of activation before muscle stretch. We found that a muscle subjected to repeated stretch-shortening cycles of constant muscle-tendon unit excursion exhibits significantly different joint torque and fiber strains when the timing of activation or starting muscle length is changed. In particular, measures of fiber strain and muscle injury were significantly increased by altering activation timing and increasing the starting length of the muscle. However, we observed differential effects on peak joint torque during the cyclic stretch-shortening exercise, as increasing the starting length of the muscle did not increase torque production. We conclude that altering activation timing and muscle length before stretch may influence muscle injury by significantly increasing fiber strain magnitude and that fiber dynamics is a more important variable than muscle-tendon unit dynamics and torque production in influencing the magnitude of muscle injury.

  1. Reduced inflammatory and muscle damage biomarkers following oral supplementation with bioavailable curcumin

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlin, Brian K.; Venable, Adam S.; Henning, Andrea L.; Sampson, Jill N. Best; Pennel, Kathryn; Vingren, Jakob L.; Hill, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage (EIMD) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) impact subsequent training sessions and activities of daily living (ADL) even in active individuals. In sedentary or diseased individuals, EIMD and DOMS may be even more pronounced and present even in the absence of structured exercise. Methods The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of oral curcumin supplementation (Longvida? 400?mg/days) on muscle & ADL soreness, creatine kinase (CK), an...

  2. Scintigraphic evaluation of muscle damage following extreme exercise: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matin, P.; Lang, G.; Carretta, R.; Simon, G.

    1983-01-01

    Total body Tc-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy was performed on 11 ''ultramarathon'' runners to assess the ability of nuclear medicine techniques to evaluate skeletal-muscle injury due to exercise. We found increased muscle radionuclide concentration in 90% of the runners. The pattern of muscle uptake correlated with the regions of maximum pain. The detection of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis appeared to be best when scintigraphy was performed within 48 hr after the race, and to be almost undetectable after about a week. It was possible to differentiate muscle injury from joint and osseous abnormalities such as bone infarct or stress fracture. Although 77% of the runners had elevated serum creatine kinase MB activity, cardiac scintigraphy showed no evidence of myocardial injury

  3. [Definition and biomarkers of acute renal damage: new perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijas, M; Baccino, C; Nin, N; Lorente, J A

    2014-01-01

    The RIFLE and AKIN criteria have definitely help out to draw attention to the relationship between a deterioration of renal function that produces a small increase in serum creatinine and a worse outcome. However, the specific clinical utility of using these criteria remains to be well-defined. It is believed that the main use of these criteria is for the design of epidemiological studies and clinical trials to define inclusion criteria and objectives of an intervention. AKI adopting term, re-summoning former ARF terminology, it is appropriate to describe the clinical condition characterized by damage to kidney, in the same way as the term is used to describe acute lung damage where the lung injury situation still has not increased to a situation of organ failure (dysfunction). The serum and urine biomarkers (creatinine, urea, and diuresis) currently in use are not sensitive or specific for detecting kidney damage, limiting treatment options and potentially compromising the outcome. New biomarkers are being studied in order to diagnose an earlier and more specific AKI, with the potential to change the definition criteria of AKI with different stages, currently based in diuresis and serum creatinine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantification of birefringence readily measures the level of muscle damage in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joachim, E-mail: Joachim.Berger@Monash.edu [Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, EMBL Australia, Monash University, Clayton (Australia); Sztal, Tamar; Currie, Peter D. [Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, EMBL Australia, Monash University, Clayton (Australia)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Report of an unbiased quantification of the birefringence of muscle of fish larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantification method readily identifies level of overall muscle damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compare zebrafish muscle mutants for level of phenotype severity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed tool to survey treatments that aim to ameliorate muscular dystrophy. -- Abstract: Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that progressively weaken and degenerate muscle. Many zebrafish models for human muscular dystrophies have been generated and analysed, including dystrophin-deficient zebrafish mutants dmd that model Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Under polarised light the zebrafish muscle can be detected as a bright area in an otherwise dark background. This light effect, called birefringence, results from the diffraction of polarised light through the pseudo-crystalline array of the muscle sarcomeres. Muscle damage, as seen in zebrafish models for muscular dystrophies, can readily be detected by a reduction in the birefringence. Therefore, birefringence is a very sensitive indicator of overall muscle integrity within larval zebrafish. Unbiased documentation of the birefringence followed by densitometric measurement enables the quantification of the birefringence of zebrafish larvae. Thereby, the overall level of muscle integrity can be detected, allowing the identification and categorisation of zebrafish muscle mutants. In addition, we propose that the establish protocol can be used to analyse treatments aimed at ameliorating dystrophic zebrafish models.

  5. Quantification of birefringence readily measures the level of muscle damage in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Joachim; Sztal, Tamar; Currie, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Report of an unbiased quantification of the birefringence of muscle of fish larvae. ► Quantification method readily identifies level of overall muscle damage. ► Compare zebrafish muscle mutants for level of phenotype severity. ► Proposed tool to survey treatments that aim to ameliorate muscular dystrophy. -- Abstract: Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that progressively weaken and degenerate muscle. Many zebrafish models for human muscular dystrophies have been generated and analysed, including dystrophin-deficient zebrafish mutants dmd that model Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Under polarised light the zebrafish muscle can be detected as a bright area in an otherwise dark background. This light effect, called birefringence, results from the diffraction of polarised light through the pseudo-crystalline array of the muscle sarcomeres. Muscle damage, as seen in zebrafish models for muscular dystrophies, can readily be detected by a reduction in the birefringence. Therefore, birefringence is a very sensitive indicator of overall muscle integrity within larval zebrafish. Unbiased documentation of the birefringence followed by densitometric measurement enables the quantification of the birefringence of zebrafish larvae. Thereby, the overall level of muscle integrity can be detected, allowing the identification and categorisation of zebrafish muscle mutants. In addition, we propose that the establish protocol can be used to analyse treatments aimed at ameliorating dystrophic zebrafish models.

  6. The effects of deformation, ischemia, and reperfusion on the development of muscle damage during prolonged loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerakker, S.; Manders, E.; Strijkers, G.J.; Nicolay, K.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Bader, D.L.; Oomens, C.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe form of pressure ulcer where tissue damage starts in deep tissues underneath intact skin. In the present study, the contributions of deformation, ischemia, and reperfusion to skeletal muscle damage development were examined in a rat model during a 6-h period.

  7. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Motor unit activity after eccentric exercise and muscle damage in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, J G

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle damage and soreness, which can produce long-lasting effects on muscle function. How this muscle damage influences muscle activation is poorly understood. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight the effect of eccentric exercise on the activation of muscle by the nervous system, by examining the change in motor unit activity obtained from surface electromyography (EMG) and intramuscular recordings. Previous research shows that eccentric exercise produces unusual changes in the EMG–force relation that influences motor performance during isometric, shortening and lengthening muscle contractions and during fatiguing tasks. When examining the effect of eccentric exercise at the single motor unit level, there are substantial changes in recruitment thresholds, discharge rates, motor unit conduction velocities and synchronization, which can last for up to 1 week after eccentric exercise. Examining the time course of these changes suggests that the increased submaximal EMG after eccentric exercise most likely occurs through a decrease in motor unit conduction velocity and an increase in motor unit activity related to antagonist muscle coactivation and low-frequency fatigue. Furthermore, there is a commonly held view that eccentric exercise produces preferential damage to high-threshold motor units, but the evidence for this in humans is limited. Further research is needed to establish whether there is preferential damage to high-threshold motor units after eccentric exercise in humans, preferably by linking changes in motor unit activity with estimates of motor unit size using selective intramuscular recording techniques.

  9. Markers of muscle damage and performance recovery following exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Girard, Olivier; Mohr, Magni

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether competitive intermittent exercise in the heat affects recovery, aggravates markers of muscle fiber damage, and delay the recovery of performance and muscle glycogen stores. METHODS: Plasma creatine kinase, serum myoglobin, muscle glycogen and performance parameters...... (sprint, endurance and neuromuscular testing) were evaluated in 17 semiprofessional soccer players before, immediately after and during 48 h of recovery from a match played in 43°C (HOT) and compared to a control match (21°C with similar turf and set-up). RESULTS: Muscle temperature was ~ 1°C higher (P...

  10. Acute hypoxia limits endurance but does not affect muscle contractile properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Sanchez Horneros, J.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute hypoxia causes skeletal muscle dysfunction in vitro, but little is known about its effect on muscle function in vivo. In 10 healthy male subjects, isometric contractile properties and fatigue resistance of the quadriceps muscle were determined during normoxia and hypoxia using electrically

  11. Markers of muscle damage and performance recovery after exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybo, Lars; Girard, Olivier; Mohr, Magni; Knez, Wade; Voss, Sven; Racinais, Sebastien

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to determine whether competitive intermittent exercise in the heat affects recovery, aggravates markers of muscle fiber damage, and delays the recovery of performance and muscle glycogen stores. Plasma creatine kinase, serum myoglobin, muscle glycogen, and performance parameters (sprint, endurance, and neuromuscular testing) were evaluated in 17 semiprofessional soccer players before, immediately after, and during 48 h of recovery from a match played in 43°C (HOT) and compared with a control match (21°C with similar turf and setup). Muscle temperature was ∼1°C higher (P recovery. Creatine kinase was significantly elevated both immediately and 24 h after the matches, but the response after HOT was reduced compared with control. Muscle glycogen responses were similar across trials and remained depressed for more than 48 h after both matches. Sprint performance and voluntary muscle activation were impaired to a similar extent after the matches (sprint by ∼2% and voluntary activation by ∼1.5%; P heat stress does not aggravate the recovery response from competitive intermittent exercise associated with elevated muscle temperatures and markers of muscle damage, delayed resynthesis of muscle glycogen, and impaired postmatch performance.

  12. INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF STATIN-ASSOCIATED MUSCLE DAMAGE PREDICTORS IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Petrov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the risk factors of statin-associated muscle damage in patient with ischemic heart disease.Material and methods. 258 patients with ischemic heart disease treated with statin were included into the study. Total plasma creatine kinase levels were measured and SLCO1B1*5 genotyping was performed. Relationship between statin therapy and adverse events was evaluated by Naranjo algorithm.Results. Patients with muscle symptoms received statins significantly longer (48.8 vs 11.9 months, р<0.0001 and in higher doses, than patients without muscle pain/weakness. There were not significant differences in creatine kinase levels between patients with and without muscle symptoms. Patients with SLCO1B1*5 genotype were revealed in both groups, but more often (58% among patients with muscle symptoms. Patients with abnormal C allele having muscle symptoms received statins significantly longer, than these without muscle signs (54.7 vs 13.9 months, р=0.0028.Conclusion. Association between occurrence of muscle symptoms and SLCO1B1*5 allele carriership, statin dose and therapy duration was revealed. Creatine kinase examination was not valuable for finding of statin-induced muscle damage.

  13. INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF STATIN-ASSOCIATED MUSCLE DAMAGE PREDICTORS IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Petrov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the risk factors of statin-associated muscle damage in patient with ischemic heart disease.Material and methods. 258 patients with ischemic heart disease treated with statin were included into the study. Total plasma creatine kinase levels were measured and SLCO1B1*5 genotyping was performed. Relationship between statin therapy and adverse events was evaluated by Naranjo algorithm.Results. Patients with muscle symptoms received statins significantly longer (48.8 vs 11.9 months, р<0.0001 and in higher doses, than patients without muscle pain/weakness. There were not significant differences in creatine kinase levels between patients with and without muscle symptoms. Patients with SLCO1B1*5 genotype were revealed in both groups, but more often (58% among patients with muscle symptoms. Patients with abnormal C allele having muscle symptoms received statins significantly longer, than these without muscle signs (54.7 vs 13.9 months, р=0.0028.Conclusion. Association between occurrence of muscle symptoms and SLCO1B1*5 allele carriership, statin dose and therapy duration was revealed. Creatine kinase examination was not valuable for finding of statin-induced muscle damage.

  14. Radiation diagnosis of pelvic ring damages in acute injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dytalov, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Data on 58 victims with multifocal damages to the pelvic ring were used to examine the diagnostic potentialities of different radiation diagnostic techniques and to compare their resolving power. The later was 65.1, 83.3 and 94.7% in plain and multidimensional X-ray studies, and computed tomography, respectively. Complex of signs is described closed sacral fractures on the plain and oblique pelvic inlet (caudal) radiograms proposed, which could improve the diagnosis of fractures by 8.8 times, and an original orthopedic gauze-plate for the detection and estimation of invisible pelvic bone displacement, and an original procedure for pelvic X-ray study with target load in acute injury. This all can improve the quality of examination of casualties substantially and define indications for different treatments more precise [ru

  15. Minimal changes in indirect markers of muscle damage after an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creatine kinase (CK) activity, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) muscle pain ratings, hip, knee and ankle joint range of motion and maximal quadriceps and hamstring isometric strength were measured 24 hours before, one hour and 24 hours after bowling and analysed using a one way ANOVA. Significance was set at p≤0.05.

  16. [Organ damage and cardiorenal syndrome in acute heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado Cerrada, Jesús; Pérez Calvo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-03-01

    Heart failure is a complex syndrome that affects almost all organs and systems of the body. Signs and symptoms of organ dysfunction, in particular kidney dysfunction, may be accentuated or become evident for the first time during acute decompensation of heart failure. Cardiorenal syndrome has been defined as the simultaneous dysfunction of both the heart and the kidney, regardless of which of the two organs may have suffered the initial damage and regardless also of their previous functional status. Research into the mechanisms regulating the complex relationship between the two organs is prompting the search for new biomarkers to help physicians detect renal damage in subclinical stages. Hence, a preventive approach to renal dysfunction may be adopted in the clinical setting in the near future. This article provides a general overview of cardiorenal syndrome and an update of the physiopathological mechanisms involved. Special emphasis is placed on the role of visceral congestion as an emergent mechanism in this syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Eicosahexanoic Acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic Acid (DHA in Muscle Damage and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Ochi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplementation not only helps in improving and maintaining performance in sports and exercise, but also contributes in reducing exercise fatigue and in recovery from exhaustion. Fish oil contains large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3. It is widely known that omega-3 fatty acids are effective for improving cardiac function, depression, cognitive function, and blood as well as lowering blood pressure. In the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and exercise performance, previous studies have been predicted improved endurance performance, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses, and effectivity against delayed-onset muscle soreness. However, the optimal dose, duration, and timing remain unclear. This review focuses on the effects of omega-3 fatty acid on muscle damage and function as evaluated by human and animal studies and summarizes its effects on muscle and nerve damage, and muscle mass and strength.

  18. Supplementation Strategies to Reduce Muscle Damage and Improve Recovery Following Exercise in Females: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Köhne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD caused by unaccustomed or strenuous exercise can result in reduced muscle force, increased muscle soreness, increased intramuscular proteins in the blood, and reduced performance. Pre- and post-exercise optimal nutritional intake is important to assist with muscle-damage repair and reconditioning to allow for an accelerated recovery. The increased demand for training and competing on consecutive days has led to a variety of intervention strategies being used to reduce the negative effects of EIMD. Nutritional intervention strategies are largely tested on male participants, and few report on sex-related differences relating to the effects of the interventions employed. This review focuses on nutritional intervention strategies employed to negate the effects of EIMD, focussing solely on females.

  19. INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF STATIN-ASSOCIATED MUSCLE DAMAGE PREDICTORS IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Petrov; O. N. Smuseva; Yu. V. Solovkina

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To assess the risk factors of statin-associated muscle damage in patient with ischemic heart disease.Material and methods. 258 patients with ischemic heart disease treated with statin were included into the study. Total plasma creatine kinase levels were measured and SLCO1B1*5 genotyping was performed. Relationship between statin therapy and adverse events was evaluated by Naranjo algorithm.Results. Patients with muscle symptoms received statins significantly longer (48.8 vs 11.9 months,...

  20. Comparison in muscle damage between maximal voluntary and electrically evoked isometric contractions of the elbow flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubeau, Marc; Muthalib, Makii; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2012-02-01

    This study compared between maximal voluntary (VOL) and electrically stimulated (ES) isometric contractions of the elbow flexors for changes in indirect markers of muscle damage to investigate whether ES would induce greater muscle damage than VOL. Twelve non-resistance-trained men (23-39 years) performed VOL with one arm and ES with the contralateral arm separated by 2 weeks in a randomised, counterbalanced order. Both VOL and ES (frequency 75 Hz, pulse duration 250 μs, maximally tolerated intensity) exercises consisted of 50 maximal isometric contractions (4-s on, 15-s off) of the elbow flexors at a long muscle length (160°). Changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (MVC), range of motion, muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before, immediately after and 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following exercise. The average peak torque over the 50 isometric contractions was greater (P < 0.05) for VOL (32.9 ± 9.8 N m) than ES (16.9 ± 6.3 N m). MVC decreased greater and recovered slower (P < 0.05) after ES (15% lower than baseline at 96 h) than VOL (full recovery). Serum CK activity increased (P < 0.05) only after ES, and the muscles became more sore and tender after ES than VOL (P < 0.05). These results showed that ES induced greater muscle damage than VOL despite the lower torque output during ES. It seems likely that higher mechanical stress imposed on the activated muscle fibres, due to the specificity of motor unit recruitment in ES, resulted in greater muscle damage.

  1. STAT3 Activation in Skeletal Muscle Links Muscle Wasting and the Acute Phase Response in Cancer Cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzevitzky, Noelia; Guttridge, Denis C.; Khuri, Sawsan; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cachexia, or weight loss despite adequate nutrition, significantly impairs quality of life and response to therapy in cancer patients. In cancer patients, skeletal muscle wasting, weight loss and mortality are all positively associated with increased serum cytokines, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the presence of the acute phase response. Acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (SAA) are synthesized by hepatocytes in response to IL-6 as part of the innate immune response. To gain insight into the relationships among these observations, we studied mice with moderate and severe Colon-26 (C26)-carcinoma cachexia. Methodology/Principal Findings Moderate and severe C26 cachexia was associated with high serum IL-6 and IL-6 family cytokines and highly similar patterns of skeletal muscle gene expression. The top canonical pathways up-regulated in both were the complement/coagulation cascade, proteasome, MAPK signaling, and the IL-6 and STAT3 pathways. Cachexia was associated with increased muscle pY705-STAT3 and increased STAT3 localization in myonuclei. STAT3 target genes, including SOCS3 mRNA and acute phase response proteins, were highly induced in cachectic muscle. IL-6 treatment and STAT3 activation both also induced fibrinogen in cultured C2C12 myotubes. Quantitation of muscle versus liver fibrinogen and SAA protein levels indicates that muscle contributes a large fraction of serum acute phase proteins in cancer. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that the STAT3 transcriptome is a major mechanism for wasting in cancer. Through IL-6/STAT3 activation, skeletal muscle is induced to synthesize acute phase proteins, thus establishing a molecular link between the observations of high IL-6, increased acute phase response proteins and muscle wasting in cancer. These results suggest a mechanism by which STAT3 might causally influence muscle wasting by altering the profile of genes expressed and translated in muscle such

  2. Muscle Damage and Metabolic Responses to Repeated-Sprint Running With and Without Deceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minahan, Clare L; Poke, Daniel P; Morrison, Jaime; Bellinger, Phillip M

    2018-04-04

    Minahan, CL, Poke, DP, Morrison, J, and Bellinger, PM. Muscle damage and metabolic responses to repeated-sprint running with and without deceleration. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-This study aimed to determine whether repeated-sprint running with deceleration aggravates markers of muscle damage or delays the recovery of performance compared with repeated-sprint running without deceleration. Fourteen male team-sport athletes performed 2 randomly ordered testing sessions on a nonmotorized treadmill with one session requiring participants to decelerate (TMd) within 4 seconds before stopping or immediately step to the side of the treadmill belt at the completion of each sprint (TMa). Peak and mean velocities, speed decrement, blood lactate concentrations, and oxygen uptake were monitored during the repeated-sprint running protocols. Countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) performance, perceived muscle soreness, sit-and-reach flexibility, plasma creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and myoglobin (Mb) concentrations were quantified immediately before and after and 45 minutes, 24 and 48 hours after repeated-sprint running protocols. Although muscle damage was indicated by increases in CK, LDH, and Mb (p ≤ 0.05) in both groups, there was no significant effect of condition (TMa vs. TMd) on any of the measured performance or physiological variables (p > 0.05). The present study indicated that the removal of deceleration from repeated-sprint running on a nonmotorized treadmill has no effect on metabolism or performance during or after repeated-sprint running or markers of muscle damage.

  3. Detection of titin fragments in urine in response to exercise-induced muscle damage.

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    Kazue Kanda

    Full Text Available Many studies have attempted to determine the associations between blood biomarkers and exercise-induced muscle damage. However, poor correlations between the changes in biomarker levels and the magnitude of muscle symptoms have been reported. Recent advances in proteomic tools offer a strategy for the comprehensive analysis of protein expression, which can be used to identify biomarkers. Here, we used a proteomic analysis to identify urinary proteins that appear in response to a calf-raise exercise, including repetitive eccentric muscle contractions, and found that a titin (also known as connectin N-terminal fragment molecule appears in the urine after eccentric exercise. We measured the titin fragment in urine samples from nine individuals before and after eccentric exercise using a newly-established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and found that the titin fragment excretion rate increased 96 h after the exercise (5.1 to 77.6 pg/min, p <0.01. The changes in the titin fragment excretion rate were correlated strongly with blood markers of muscle damage and with muscle symptoms. These findings suggest that the urinary titin fragment is potentially a noninvasive biomarker of muscle damage.

  4. Muscle damage induced by stretch-shortening cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyröläinen, H; Takala, T E; Komi, P V

    1998-03-01

    Strenuous stretch-shortening cycle exercise was used as a model to study the leakage of proteins from skeletal muscle. The analysis included serum levels of creatine kinase (S-CK), myoglobin (S-Mb), and carbonic anhydrase (S-CA III). Blood samples from power- (N=11) and endurance-trained (N=10) athletes were collected before, 0, and 2 h after the exercise, which consisted of a total of 400 jumps. The levels of all determined myocellular proteins increased immediately after the exercise (P exercise, and the ratio of S-CA III and S-Mb decreased (P recruitment order of motor units, and/or differences in training background.

  5. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Jäger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29 recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01, with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08. The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03, whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%. Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage

  6. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A.; Lowery, Ryan P.; De Souza, Eduardo O.; Partl, Jeremy M.; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  7. The time course of short-term hypertrophy in the absence of eccentric muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Mota, Jacob A; DeFranco, Ryan N; Grue, Katherine A; Jacobo, A Unique; Chung, Eunhee; Moon, Jordan R; DeFreitas, Jason M; Beck, Travis W

    2017-05-01

    It has been proposed that the increase in skeletal muscle mass observed during the initial weeks of initiating a resistance training program is concomitant with eccentric muscle damage and edema. We examined the time course of muscle hypertrophy during 4 weeks of concentric-only resistance training. Thirteen untrained men performed unilateral concentric-only dumbbell curls and shoulder presses twice per week for 4 weeks. Sets of 8-12 repetitions were performed to failure, and training loads were increased during each session. Subjects consumed 500 ml of whole milk during training. Assessments of soreness, lean mass, echo intensity, muscle thickness, relaxed and flexed arm circumference, and isokinetic strength were performed every 72 or 96 h. Soreness, echo intensity, relaxed circumference, and peak torque data did not significantly change. Significant increases in lean mass, muscle thickness, and flexed circumference were observed within seven training sessions. Lean mass was elevated at tests #7 (+109.3 g, p = .002) and #8 (+116.1 g, p = .035), with eight different subjects showing changes above the minimal difference of 139.1 g. Muscle thickness was elevated at tests #6 (+0.23 cm, p = .004), #7 (+0.31 cm, p hypertrophy may occur in the absence of eccentric muscle damage within seven training sessions.

  8. One session of partial-body cryotherapy (-110 °C) improves muscle damage recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Junior, J B; Bottaro, M; Vieira, A; Siqueira, A F; Vieira, C A; Durigan, J L Q; Cadore, E L; Coelho, L G M; Simões, H G; Bemben, M G

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of a single session of partial-body cryotherapy (PBC) on muscle recovery, 26 young men performed a muscle-damaging protocol that consisted of five sets of 20 drop jumps with 2-min rest intervals between sets. After the exercise, the PBC group (n = 13) was exposed to 3 min of PBC at -110 °C, and the control group (n = 13) was exposed to 3 min at 21 °C. Anterior thigh muscle thickness, isometric peak torque, and muscle soreness of knee extensors were measured pre, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h following exercise. Peak torque did not return to baseline in control group (P  0.05). Peak torque was also higher after PBC at 72 and 96 h compared with control group (P < 0.05). Muscle thickness increased after 24 h in the control group (P < 0.05) and was significantly higher compared with the PBC group at 24 and 96 h (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness returned to baseline for the PBC group at 72 h compared with 96 h for controls. These results indicate that PBC after strenuous exercise may enhance recovery from muscle damage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of taurine on markers of muscle damage, inflammatory response and physical performance in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Galan, Bryan S; Giolo de Carvalho, Flavia; Carvalho Santos, Priscila; Bucken Gobbi, Ronaldo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos; Papoti, Marcelo; Sanchez Silva, Adelino; Freitas, Ellen C

    2017-07-25

    The practice of prolonged exercise with high intensity, as seen in triathlon training, can cause physiological imbalances that might result in muscle fatigue, muscle damage and changes in systemic inflammatory response, thus reduce the athletes physical performance, therefore, both adequate total caloric and macronutrient intake also the use of a specific ergogenic aid, as taurine supplementation would be an alternative to prevent inflammation and muscle damage. In order to verify the effects of 8 weeks of taurine and chocolate milk supplementation, markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and aerobic capacity were quantified in triathletes. A double-blind, crossover, randomized study was conducted with 9 male long distance triathletes, aged 25-35 years. Supplementation of 3 g of taurine (TAU) or placebo (PLA) associated with 400 ml low fat chocolate milk was performed during an 8-week period. In order to verify the effects of the supplementation protocol markers of muscle damage as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK), and inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were quantified, also triathletes performance was evaluated by exhaust test on a treadmill. It was observed a significant increase in taurine and CK plasma levels after TAU supplementation (p=0.02 and p=0.01, respectively). However, LDH concentrations did not differ significantly after the supplementations performed, and there were no changes in physical performance parameters; anaerobic threshold, perceived exertion, heart rate, and the concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α. Taurine supplementation did not provide benefits on performance and muscle damage in triathletes.

  10. The Effect of Taurine on the Recovery from Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanita McLeay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is known to bring about microstructural damage to muscle, initiating an inflammatory cascade involving various reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, can significantly impair physical performance over subsequent days. Taurine, a powerful endogenous antioxidant, has previously been shown to have a beneficial effect on muscle damage markers and recovery when taken for a few days to several weeks prior to eccentric exercise. However, to date no studies have looked at the effects of supplementing over the days following eccentric exercise on performance recovery. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether supplementing with taurine over three days following eccentric exercise attenuated the rise in serum creatine kinase and improved performance recovery in males. In a blinded, randomized, crossover design, ten recreationally-fit male participants completed 60 eccentric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle at maximal effort. Following this, participants were supplemented with 0.1 g∙kg−1 body weight∙day−1 of either taurine or rice flour in capsules. Over the next three mornings participants underwent blood tests for the analysis of the muscle damage marker creatine kinase and carried out performance measures on the isokinetic dynamometer. They also continued to consume the capsules in the morning and evening. The entire protocol was repeated two weeks later on the alternate arm and supplement. Significant decreases were seen in all performance measures from pre- to 24-h post-eccentric exercise (p < 0.001 for both taurine and placebo, indicating the attainment of muscle damage. Significant treatment effects were observed only for peak eccentric torque (p < 0.05. No significant time × treatment effects were observed (all p > 0.05. Serum creatine kinase levels did not significantly differ over time for either treatments, nor between treatments (p > 0.05. These findings suggest that taurine supplementation taken twice

  11. Vitamin D2 Supplementation Amplifies Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in NASCAR Pit Crew Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Nieman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD, and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n = 13 and placebo (n = 15, and ingested supplements (double-blind for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test. Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OHD2 456% and decreased 25(OHD3 21% versus placebo (p < 0.001, p = 0.036, respectively, with no influence on muscle function test scores. The post-study eccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p = 0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p < 0.001, with no differences for DOMS. In summary, 6-weeks vitD2 (3800 IU/day significantly increased 25(OHD2 and decreased 25(OHD3, had no effect on muscle function tests, and amplified muscle damage markers in NASCAR pit crew athletes following eccentric exercise.

  12. Reconstruction of radical prostatectomy-induced urethral damage using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Akio; Tamaki, Tetsuro; Tono, Kayoko; Okada, Yoshinori; Akatsuka, Akira; Usui, Yukio; Terachi, Toshiro

    2008-06-15

    Postoperative damage of the urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) and neurovascular bundle (NVB) is a major operative complication of radical prostatectomy. It is generally recognized to be caused by unavoidable surgical damage to the muscle-nerve-blood vessel units around the urethra. We attempted to treat this damage using skeletal muscle-derived stem cells, which are able to reconstitute muscle-nerve-blood vessel units. Cells were enzymatically extracted and sorted by flow cytometry as CD34/45 (Sk-34) and CD34/45 (Sk-DN) cells from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice and rats. URS-NVB damage was induced by manually removing one-third of the total URS and unilateral invasion of NVB in wild-type Sprague-Dawley and node rats. Freshly isolated Sk-34, Sk-34+Sk-DN cells, and cultured Sk-DN cells were directly transplanted into the damaged portion. At 4 and 12 weeks after transplantation, urethral pressure profile by electrical stimulation through the sacral surface (L6-S1) was evaluated as functional recovery. The recovery ratio in the control and transplanted groups was 37.6% and 72.9%, at 4 weeks, and 41.6% and 78.4% at 12 weeks, respectively (Pcells differentiated into numerous skeletal muscle fibers having neuromuscular junctions (innervation) and nerve bundle-related Schwann cells and perineurium, and blood vessel-related endothelial cells and pericyte around the urethra. Thus, we conclude that transplantation of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent Sk-34 and Sk-DN cells is potentially useful for the reconstitution of postoperative damage of URS and NVB after radical prostatectomy.

  13. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoire, Milène; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark V; Hangelbroek, Roland; Müller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max). Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  14. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milène Catoire

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max. Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  15. Electro-membrane microcurrent therapy reduces signs and symptoms of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Michael I; Marcus, Paul; Burgess, Theresa; Noakes, Timothy D

    2002-04-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occurs after unaccustomed physical activity or competitive sport, resulting in stiff, painful muscles with impaired function. Acustat electro-membrane microcurrent therapy has been used to treat postoperative pain and soft tissue injury; however, its efficacy in reducing symptoms of muscle damage is not known. Thirty healthy men were recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The muscles of their nondominant arms were damaged using an eccentric-exercise protocol. Subjects were then randomly assigned to treatment with either Acustat or a matching placebo membrane for 96 h and monitored for a total of 168 h. Subjects in both groups experienced severe pain and swelling of the elbow flexors after the eccentric exercise. After 24 h, the elbow joint angle of the placebo group had increased significantly more than those in the Acustat group (13.7 +/- 8.9 degrees vs 7.5 +/- 5.5 degrees; placebo vs Acustat, P microcurrent therapy reduces the severity of the symptoms. The mechanisms of action are unknown but are likely related to maintenance of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis after muscle damaging exercise.

  16. Muscle damage produced during a simulated badminton match in competitive male players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abián, Pablo; Del Coso, Juan; Salinero, Juan José; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Lara, Beatriz; Soriano, Lidón; Muñoz, Victor; Lorenzo-Capella, Irma; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the occurrence of muscle damage after a simulated badminton match and its influence on physical and haematological parameters. Sixteen competitive male badminton players participated in the study. Before and just after a 45-min simulated badminton match, maximal isometric force and badminton-specific running/movement velocity were measured to assess muscle fatigue. Blood samples were also obtained before and after the match. The badminton match did not affect maximal isometric force or badminton-specific velocity. Blood volume and plasma volume were significantly reduced during the match and consequently haematite, leucocyte, and platelet counts significantly increased. Blood myoglobin and creatine kinase concentrations increased from 26.5 ± 11.6 to 197.3 ± 70.2 µg·L(-1) and from 258.6 ± 192.2 to 466.0 ± 296.5 U·L(-1), respectively. In conclusion, a simulated badminton match modified haematological parameters of whole blood and serum blood that indicate the occurrence of muscle fibre damage. However, the level of muscle damage did not produce decreased muscle performance.

  17. Acute compartment syndrome after rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G V; Pearsall, A W; Caylor, M T; Nimityongskul, P

    2000-02-01

    Rupture of the gastrocnemius muscle is an uncommon injury, with most cases occurring in athletically active individuals. The presentation of a gastrocnemius rupture is the acute onset of calf pain and subsequent ecchymosis. Most of these injuries can be treated symptomatically with good results. We present an unusual case of gastrocnemius muscle tear complicated by acute compartment syndrome. Physicians need to be aware of this potentially devastating complication of gastrocnemius rupture.

  18. Clinical evaluation of extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L-R; Zhu, Y-M; Xu, Q; Cao, C-X; Zhang, B-Z

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall is an improved surgical procedure compared with conventional sigmoid colostomy in patients undergoing abdominoperineal resection. Patients with rectal cancer undergoing abdominoperineal resection were selected and randomly divided into two groups: the study group received extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall and the control group received conventional colostomy. Clinical data from both groups were analysed. A total of 128 patients were included: 66 received extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall and 62 received conventional colostomy. Significant differences between the two groups were found in relation to colostomy operating time, defaecation sensation, bowel control and overall stoma-related complications. Duration of postoperative hospital stay was also significantly different between the study groups. Extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall was found to be an improved procedure compared with conventional sigmoid colostomy in abdominoperineal resection, and may reduce colostomy-related complications, shorten operating time and postoperative hospital stay, and potentially improve patients' quality of life.

  19. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in skeletal muscle of humans exposed to high-altitude hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Pilegaard, Henriette; van Hall, Gerrit

    2003-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a model for prolonged oxidative stress in healthy humans. In this study, we investigated the consequences of prolonged high-altitude hypoxia on the basal level of oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in muscle cells, a major oxygen-consuming...

  20. Assessment of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage of the elbow flexors by tensiomyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Angus M; Galloway, Stuart D R; Smith, Iain J; Tallent, Jamie; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Fairweather, Malcolm M; Howatson, Glyn

    2012-06-01

    Exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) impairs maximal torque production which can cause a decline in athletic performance and/or mobility. EIMD is commonly assessed by using maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), creatine kinase (CK) and muscle soreness. We propose as an additional technique, tensiomyography (TMG), recently introduced to measure mechanical and muscle contractile characteristics. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of TMG in detecting changes in maximal torque following EIMD. Nineteen participants performed eccentric elbow flexions to achieve EIMD on the non- dominant arm and used the dominant elbow flexor as a control. TMG parameters, MVC and rate of torque development (RTD) were measured prior to EIMD and repeated for another six consecutive days. Creatine kinase, muscle soreness and limb girth were also measured during this period. Twenty four hours after inducing EIMD, MVC torque, RTD and TMG maximal displacement had significantly (pTMG recovered to 12%, 24% and 17% of respective pre-EIMD values. In conclusion, as hypothesised TMG maximal displacement significantly followed other standard EIMD responses. This could therefore be useful in detecting muscle damage from impaired muscle function and its recovery following EIMD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Impact of Soccer Match Play on the Muscle Damage Response in Youth Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jonathan D; Denton, Katrina; S Lloyd, Rhodri; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Post-match assessment of creatine kinase (CK) activity and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) are common markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and recovery status in soccer players. These responses have not been examined in youth female players. This study examined the effect of competitive match play on CK activity and DOMS in elite youth players. Thirty-four elite female players, divided into three chronological age groups (U13, n=11; U15, n=10; U17 n=12). Players completed baseline testing for CK and DOMS that was repeated immediately (for DOMS), 80, 128 and 168 h post-competitive match play for CK. Significant time effects were reported for CK (P=0.006) and DOMS (Pathletes. Therefore, monitoring strategies to assess muscle damage between training and match play should be considered to track recovery and potentially reduce muscular injury risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Effects of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on both plasma amino acids concentration and muscle energetics changes resulting from muscle damage: A randomized placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouré, Alexandre; Nosaka, Kazunori; Gastaldi, Marguerite; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Boudinet, Hélène; Guye, Maxime; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2016-02-01

    Branched-chain amino acids promote muscle-protein synthesis, reduce protein oxidation and have positive effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and reactive oxygen species scavenging. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential benefits of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on changes in force capacities, plasma amino acids concentration and muscle metabolic alterations after exercise-induced muscle damage. (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical analyses were used to follow the changes after such damage. Twenty six young healthy men were randomly assigned to supplemented branched-chain amino acids or placebo group. Knee extensors maximal voluntary isometric force was assessed before and on four days following exercise-induced muscle damage. Concentrations in phosphocreatine [PCr], inorganic phosphate [Pi] and pH were measured during a standardized rest-exercise-recovery protocol before, two (D2) and four (D4) days after exercise-induced muscle damage. No significant difference between groups was found for changes in maximal voluntary isometric force (-24% at D2 and -21% at D4). Plasma alanine concentration significantly increased immediately after exercise-induced muscle damage (+25%) in both groups while concentrations in glycine, histidine, phenylalanine and tyrosine decreased. No difference between groups was found in the increased resting [Pi] (+42% at D2 and +34% at D4), decreased resting pH (-0.04 at D2 and -0.03 at D4) and the slower PCr recovery rate (-18% at D2 and -24% at D4). The damaged muscle was not able to get benefits out of the increased plasma branched-chain amino acids availability to attenuate changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and muscle metabolic alterations following exercise-induced muscle damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Lifelong training preserves some redox-regulated adaptive responses after an acute exercise stimulus in aged human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, J N; Sakellariou, G K; Owens, D J; Murray, S; Waldron, S; Gregson, W; Fraser, W D; Burniston, J G; Iwanejko, L A; McArdle, A; Morton, J P; Jackson, M J; Close, G L

    2014-05-01

    Several redox-regulated responses to an acute exercise bout fail in aged animal skeletal muscle, including the ability to upregulate the expression of antioxidant defense enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs). These findings are generally derived from studies on sedentary rodent models and thus may be related to reduced physical activity and/or intraspecies differences as opposed to aging per se. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the influence of age and training status on the expression of HSPs, antioxidant enzymes, and NO synthase isoenzymes in quiescent and exercised human skeletal muscle. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and 3 days after an acute high-intensity-interval exercise bout in young trained, young untrained, old trained, and old untrained subjects. Levels of HSP72, PRX5, and eNOS were significantly higher in quiescent muscle of older compared with younger subjects, irrespective of training status. 3-NT levels were elevated in muscles of the old untrained but not the old trained state, suggesting that lifelong training may reduce age-related macromolecule damage. SOD1, CAT, and HSP27 levels were not significantly different between groups. HSP27 content was upregulated in all groups studied postexercise. HSP72 content was upregulated to a greater extent in muscle of trained compared with untrained subjects postexercise, irrespective of age. In contrast to every other group, old untrained subjects failed to upregulate CAT postexercise. Aging was associated with a failure to upregulate SOD2 and a downregulation of PRX5 in muscle postexercise, irrespective of training status. In conclusion, lifelong training is unable to fully prevent the progression toward a more stressed muscular state as evidenced by increased HSP72, PRX5, and eNOS protein levels in quiescent muscle. Moreover, lifelong training preserves some (e.g., CAT) but not all (e.g., SOD2, HSP72, PRX5) of the adaptive redox-regulated responses after an

  4. Regenerative capacity of old muscle stem cells declines without significant accumulation of DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Cousin

    Full Text Available The performance of adult stem cells is crucial for tissue homeostasis but their regenerative capacity declines with age, leading to failure of multiple organs. In skeletal muscle this failure is manifested by the loss of functional tissue, the accumulation of fibrosis, and reduced satellite cell-mediated myogenesis in response to injury. While recent studies have shown that changes in the composition of the satellite cell niche are at least in part responsible for the impaired function observed with aging, little is known about the effects of aging on the intrinsic properties of satellite cells. For instance, their ability to repair DNA damage and the effects of a potential accumulation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs on their regenerative performance remain unclear. This work demonstrates that old muscle stem cells display no significant accumulation of DNA DSBs when compared to those of young, as assayed after cell isolation and in tissue sections, either in uninjured muscle or at multiple time points after injury. Additionally, there is no significant difference in the expression of DNA DSB repair proteins or globally assayed DNA damage response genes, suggesting that not only DNA DSBs, but also other types of DNA damage, do not significantly mark aged muscle stem cells. Satellite cells from DNA DSB-repair-deficient SCID mice do have an unsurprisingly higher level of innate DNA DSBs and a weakened recovery from gamma-radiation-induced DNA damage. Interestingly, they are as myogenic in vitro and in vivo as satellite cells from young wild type mice, suggesting that the inefficiency in DNA DSB repair does not directly correlate with the ability to regenerate muscle after injury. Overall, our findings suggest that a DNA DSB-repair deficiency is unlikely to be a key factor in the decline in muscle regeneration observed upon aging.

  5. Evidence of skeletal muscle damage following electrically stimulated isometric muscle contractions in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Bojsen-Moller, Jens; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    and desmin-negative staining in a small percentage of myofibers in five and four individuals, respectively. z-Line disruption was evident at varying magnitudes in all subjects and displayed a trend toward a positive correlation (r = 0.73, P = 0.0663) with the force produced by stimulation. Increased muscle...

  6. Characteristics of acute groin injuries in the hip flexor muscles - a detailed MRI study in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, A; Weir, A; Tol, J L

    2018-01-01

    acute hip flexor muscle injury were included. A total of 156 athletes presented with acute groin pain of which 33 athletes were included, median age 26 years (range 18-35). There were 16 rectus femoris, 12 iliacus, 7 psoas major, 4 sartorius, and 1 tensor fascia latae injury. Rectus femoris injuries...

  7. Increased sphingosine-1-phosphate improves muscle regeneration in acutely injured mdx mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Presently, there is no effective treatment for the lethal muscle wasting disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we show that increased sphingosine-1-phoshate (S1P) through direct injection or via the administration of the small molecule 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI), an S1P lyase inhibitor, has beneficial effects in acutely injured dystrophic muscles of mdx mice. Methods We treated mdx mice with and without acute injury and characterized the histopathological and functional effects of increasing S1P levels. We also tested exogenous and direct administration of S1P on mdx muscles to examine the molecular pathways under which S1P promotes regeneration in dystrophic muscles. Results Short-term treatment with THI significantly increased muscle fiber size and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle specific force in acutely injured mdx limb muscles. In addition, the accumulation of fibrosis and fat deposition, hallmarks of DMD pathology and impaired muscle regeneration, were lower in the injured muscles of THI-treated mdx mice. Furthermore, increased muscle force was observed in uninjured EDL muscles with a longer-term treatment of THI. Such regenerative effects were linked to the response of myogenic cells, since intramuscular injection of S1P increased the number of Myf5nlacz/+ positive myogenic cells and newly regenerated myofibers in injured mdx muscles. Intramuscular injection of biotinylated-S1P localized to muscle fibers, including newly regenerated fibers, which also stained positive for S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1). Importantly, plasma membrane and perinuclear localization of phosphorylated S1PR1 was observed in regenerating muscle fibers of mdx muscles. Intramuscular increases of S1P levels, S1PR1 and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-rpS6), and elevated EDL muscle specific force, suggest S1P promoted the upregulation of anabolic pathways that mediate skeletal muscle mass and function. Conclusions These data show that S1P is

  8. A rare cause of acute dysphagia: acute calcific tendonitis of the longus colli muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Dargham, Hanadi; Bytyci, Faton; Shuman, Christian; Stolear, Anton

    2017-05-27

    We are presenting a case of a 78-year-old female with multiple comorbidities and history of neck surgery, who presented with acute dysphagia, odynophagia and neck pain that has been progressively getting worse over the course of 2 days, with no recent injury or infection. The patient was afebrile. There were no visible signs of infection on routine oropharyngeal examination. Initial workup was unremarkable except for elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and creatinine. CT of the cervical spine ruled out any fracture or cervical spine injury but showed an area of calcification, prevertebral oedema and fluid collection inferior to the anterior arch of C1. MRI of the cervical spine also showed prevertebral oedema and fluid collection in the retropharyngeal space from the skull base to the C3 level without abnormal surrounding enhancement that supported the diagnosis of acute calcific tendonitis of the longus colli muscle rather than an infectious process. There was significant improvement of symptoms 48 hours after initiating treatment with systemic steroids. The patient remains asymptomatic 6 months after treatment. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. A Comparison of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage Following Maximal Eccentric Contractions in Men and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Chariklia K; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Paschalis, Vassilis; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zalavras, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2017-08-01

    Research regarding exercise-induced muscle-damage mainly focuses on adults. The present study examined exercise-induced muscle-damage responses in adults compared with children. Eleven healthy boys (10-12 y) and 15 healthy men (18-45 y) performed 5 sets of 15 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. Range of motion (ROM), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during squat and walking, and peak isometric, concentric and eccentric torque were assessed before, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postexercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity was assessed before and 72 hr postexercise. Eccentric exercise resulted in DOMS during squat that persisted for up to 96h in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .05), and DOMS during walking that persisted for up to 72 hr in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .01). The ROM was lower in both age groups 48 hr postexercise (p < .001). Isometric (p < .001), concentric (p < .01) and eccentric (p < .01) force decreased post, and up to 48 hr postexercise in men. Except for a reduction in isometric force immediately after exercise, no other changes occurred in boys' isokinetic force. CK activity increased in men at 72 hr postexercise compared with pre exercise levels (p = .05). Our data provide further confirmation that children are less susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage compared with adults.

  10. Inflammation of vertebral bone associated with acute calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihmanli, I.; Kanberoglu, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey); Karaarslan, E. [Intermed Medical Center, Nisantasi, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2001-12-01

    We present a case of acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis with characteristic findings on radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To our knowledge, this is the first acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis report having inflammation of both the vertebra itself and the longus colli muscle diagnosed on MRI. In patients with neck pain, acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis, even if these patients had vertebral pathological signals on MRI. (orig.)

  11. Inflammation of vertebral bone associated with acute calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihmanli, I.; Kanberoglu, K.; Karaarslan, E.

    2001-01-01

    We present a case of acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis with characteristic findings on radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To our knowledge, this is the first acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis report having inflammation of both the vertebra itself and the longus colli muscle diagnosed on MRI. In patients with neck pain, acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis, even if these patients had vertebral pathological signals on MRI. (orig.)

  12. BET 2: LASER THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE HAMSTRING MUSCLE INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tom; Callaghan, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Local laser therapy has been suggested as a promising treatment for acute hamstring muscle tears. We carried out a shortcut systematic review to establish whether therapeutic lasers are beneficial for patients with acute hamstring tears. Despite a comprehensive literature search, no studies that were directly relevant to the question could be identified. The clinical bottom line is therefore that there is currently no evidence for the use of any form of laser therapy in the treatment of acute hamstring muscle tears. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Effect of milk on team sport performance after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Emma; Bell, Phillip G; Stevenson, Emma

    2013-08-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) leads to increases in intramuscular proteins observed in the blood stream and delayed onset of muscle soreness, but crucial for athletes are the decrements in muscle performance observed. Previous research has demonstrated that carbohydrate-protein supplements limit these decrements; however, they have primarily used isokinetic dynamometry, which has limited applicability to dynamic sport settings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a carbohydrate-protein milk supplement consumed after muscle-damaging exercise on performance tests specific to field-based team sports. Two independent groups of seven males consumed either 500 mL of milk or a control immediately after muscle-damaging exercise. Passive and active delayed onset of muscle soreness, creatine kinase, myoglobin, countermovement jump height, reactive strength index, 15-m sprint, and agility time were assessed before and 24, 48, and 72 h after EIMD. The Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test was also performed before and 48 h after EIMD. At 48 h, milk had a possible benefit for limiting increases in 10-m sprint time and a likely benefit of attenuating increases in mean 15-m sprint time during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test. At 72 h, milk had a possible benefit for limiting increases in 15-m sprint time and a likely benefit for the attenuation of increases in agility time. All other effects for measured variables were unclear. The consumption of milk limits decrements in one-off sprinting and agility performance and the ability to perform repeated sprints during the physiological simulation of field-based team sports.

  14. Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP): relationship to Hamman-Rich syndrome, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Parambil, Joseph G

    2012-10-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a term used for an idiopathic form of acute lung injury characterized clinically by acute respiratory failure with bilateral lung infiltrates and histologically by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), a combination of findings previously known as the Hamman-Rich syndrome. This review aims to clarify the diagnostic criteria of AIP, its relationship with DAD and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), key etiologies that need to be excluded before making the diagnosis, and the salient clinical features. Cases that meet clinical and pathologic criteria for AIP overlap substantially with those that fulfill clinical criteria for ARDS. The main differences between AIP and ARDS are that AIP requires a histologic diagnosis of DAD and exclusion of known etiologies. AIP should also be distinguished from "acute exacerbation of IPF," a condition in which acute lung injury (usually DAD) supervenes on underlying usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. MUSCLE STRENGTH AND DAMAGE FOLLOWING TWO MODES OF VARIABLE RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Jalal Aboodarda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nautilus Machine (NM and Elastic Resistance (ER have gained considerable popularity among athletes and recreational lifters seeking to increase muscle strength. However, there is controversy concerning the use of ER for increasing muscle hypertrophy and strength among healthy-trained individuals. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of repeated near maximal contractions by ER/NM on indicators of muscle damage including: maximal strength decrement (MVIC, rate of muscle soreness (DOMS, concentration of plasma creatine kinase (CK and increased high muscle signal on T2 weighted images using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Nine healthy male subjects completed two modalities of exercise (5 sets × 10RM ER/NM in a counterbalance cross-over study design with three weeks "wash-out" period between experiments. The MVIC was measured and DOMS rated and recorded for 4 consecutive days while blood samples were collected on day 1, 3, 5 and 7. Prior to and forty eight hours after completion of each mode of exercise, subjects underwent MRI scanning. The average of applied forces demonstrated significantly higher value for NM compared with ER (362 ± 34.2 N vs 266.73 ± 44.6 N respectively throughout the 5 sets of dynamic exercise (all p < 0.05. However, the indicators of muscle damage (T2 relaxation time, DOMS, MVIC and serum CK exhibited a very similar response across both modes of training. Plasma CK increased significantly following both modes of training with the peak value on Day 3 (p < 0.05. The time course of muscle soreness reached a significant level after both modes of exercise and showed a peak value on the 2nd day (p < 0.05. The T2 relaxation time demonstrated a statistically significant increase following ER and NM compared with the pre-test value (p < 0.05. The similarity of these responses following both the ER and NM exercise training session suggests that both modes of training provide a similar training stress; despite a considerably

  16. Age-related functional changes and susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage in skeletal muscle cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Depending upon external loading conditions, skeletal muscles can either shorten, lengthen, or remain at a fixed length as they produce force. Fixed-end or isometric contractions stabilize joints and allow muscles to act as active struts during locomotion. Active muscles dissipate energy when they are lengthened by an external force that exceeds their current force producing capacity. These unaccustomed eccentric activities often lead to muscle weakness, soreness, and inflammation. During aging, the ability to produce force under these conditions is reduced and appears to be due to not only reductions in muscle mass but also to alterations in the basic mechanisms of contraction. These alterations include impairments in the excitation-contraction process, and the action of the cross-bridges. Also, it is well known that age-related skeletal muscle atrophy is characterized by a preferential atrophy of fast fibers, and increased susceptibility to fast muscle fiber when aged muscles are exposed to eccentric contraction followed by the impaired recovery process has been reported. Taken together, the selective loss of fast muscle fiber in aged muscle could be affected by eccentric-induced muscle damage, which has significant implication to identify the etiology of the age-related functional changes. Therefore, in this review the alteration of age-related muscle function and its impact to/of eccentric induced muscle damage and recovery will be addressed in detail.

  17. Age-related functional changes and susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage in skeletal muscle cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Jun Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Depending upon external loading conditions, skeletal muscles can either shorten, lengthen, or remain at a fixed length as they produce force. Fixed-end or isometric contractions stabilize joints and allow muscles to act as active struts during locomotion. Active muscles dissipate energy when they are lengthened by an external force that exceeds their current force producing capacity. These unaccustomed eccentric activities often lead to muscle weakness, soreness, and inflammation. During aging, the ability to produce force under these conditions is reduced and appears to be due to not only reductions in muscle mass but also to alterations in the basic mechanisms of contraction. These alterations include impairments in the excitation–contraction process, and the action of the cross-bridges. Also, it is well known that age-related skeletal muscle atrophy is characterized by a preferential atrophy of fast fibers, and increased susceptibility to fast muscle fiber when aged muscles are exposed to eccentric contraction followed by the impaired recovery process has been reported. Taken together, the selective loss of fast muscle fiber in aged muscle could be affected by eccentric-induced muscle damage, which has significant implication to identify the etiology of the age-related functional changes. Therefore, in this review the alteration of age-related muscle function and its impact to/of eccentric induced muscle damage and recovery will be addressed in detail.

  18. The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschek, Katelyn; Pritchett, Robert; Bergman, Ethan; Pritchett, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min) completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer) time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving) immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p = 0.97) between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3 ± 160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5 ± 148.8 s). No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK) levels (p = 0.31), or muscle soreness (p = 0.21) between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits. PMID:24362706

  19. The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Peschek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p = 0.97 between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3 ± 160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5 ± 148.8 s. No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK levels (p = 0.31, or muscle soreness (p = 0.21 between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits.

  20. Wheat Germ Oil Attenuates Gamma Radiation- Induced Skeletal Muscles Damage in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; Saada, H.N.; Shedid, Sh.M.; Mahdy, E.M.E.; Shousha, W.Gh.

    2008-01-01

    Muscular strength is important in sport as well as in daily activities. Exposure to ionizing radiation is thought to increase oxidative stress and damage muscle tissue. Wheat germ oil is a natural unrefined vegetable oil. It is an excellent source of vitamin E, octacosanol, linoleic and linolenic essential fatty acids, which may be beneficial in neutralizing the free oxygen radicals. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of wheat germ oil, on radiation-induced oxidative damage in rats skeletal muscle. Wheat germ oil was supplemented orally via gavages to rats at a dose of 54 mg/ kg body weight/day for 14 successive days pre- and 7 post-exposure to 5 Gy (one shot dose) of whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days post radiation exposure. The results revealed that whole body gamma-irradiation of rats induces oxidative stress in skeletal muscles obvious by significant elevation in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with significant decreases in the content of reduced glutathione (GSE1), as well as decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. Irradiated rats showed, also, significant decreases in creatine phosphokinase (CPK), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activities. Furthermore, total iron, total copper and total calcium levels were significantly increased in skeletal muscles of irradiated rats group compared to control group. Wheat germ oil treated-irradiated rats showed significantly less sever damage and remarkable improvement in all the measured parameters, compared to irradiated rats. It could be concluded that wheat germ oil by attenuating radiation induced oxidative stress might play a role in maintaining skeletal muscle integrity

  1. Strenuous exercise induces mitochondrial damage in skeletal muscle of old mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Minjung; Lim, Wonchung; Kim, Taeyoung; Kang, Chounghun

    2015-01-01

    Strenuous exercise is known to cause excessive ROS generation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity in the senescent muscle during high-intensity exercise (HE) are not well studied. Here, we show that HE suppresses up-regulation of mitochondrial function despite increase in mitochondrial copy number, following excessive ROS production, proinflammatory cytokines and NFκB activation. Moreover, HE in the old group resulted in the decreasing of both fusion (Mfn2) and fission (Drp1) proteins that may contribute to alteration of mitochondrial morphology. This study suggests that strenuous exercise does not reverse age-related mitochondrial damage and dysfunction by the increased ROS and inflammation. - Highlights: • Effect of exercise on mitochondrial function of aged skeletal muscles was studied. • Strenuous exercise triggered excessive ROS production and inflammatory cytokines. • Strenuous exercise suppressed mitochondrial function in senescent muscle

  2. Effects of lymphatic drainage and cryotherapy on indirect markers of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Michael; Jedlicka, Diana; Mester, Joachim

    2018-06-01

    Muscle enzymes are cleared from the extracellular space by the lymphatic system, while smaller proteins enter the bloodstream directly. We investigated if manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), local cryotherapy (CRY), and rest (RST) differently affect the time course of creatine kinase (CK, 84 kDa) and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP, 15 kDa) in the blood. Randomized controlled trial. After 4x20 unilateral, eccentric accentuated knee extensions (with one-third of the maximal isometric force) 30 sports students randomly received either a 30 min MLD, CRY or they rested (RST) for the same amount of time. CK, h-FABP, neutrophil granulocytes, and the perceived muscle soreness were assessed before, immediately after, and 1 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours after the exercise. All measures increased significantly (Psports physicians and conditioning specialists who use biochemical muscle damage markers to adjust the training load and volume of athletes.

  3. Strenuous exercise induces mitochondrial damage in skeletal muscle of old mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Minjung [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Wonchung [Department of Sports Medicine, College of Health Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju 363-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taeyoung [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chounghun, E-mail: kangx119@umn.edu [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene and Exercise Science, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota at Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-05-29

    Strenuous exercise is known to cause excessive ROS generation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity in the senescent muscle during high-intensity exercise (HE) are not well studied. Here, we show that HE suppresses up-regulation of mitochondrial function despite increase in mitochondrial copy number, following excessive ROS production, proinflammatory cytokines and NFκB activation. Moreover, HE in the old group resulted in the decreasing of both fusion (Mfn2) and fission (Drp1) proteins that may contribute to alteration of mitochondrial morphology. This study suggests that strenuous exercise does not reverse age-related mitochondrial damage and dysfunction by the increased ROS and inflammation. - Highlights: • Effect of exercise on mitochondrial function of aged skeletal muscles was studied. • Strenuous exercise triggered excessive ROS production and inflammatory cytokines. • Strenuous exercise suppressed mitochondrial function in senescent muscle.

  4. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty...... healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours...... later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral...

  5. Oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure in mice: impact on lung tissue and diaphragm muscle,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Portão de Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate oxidative damage (lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS], and carbonylation and inflammation (expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin [p-AMPK and p-mTOR, respectively] in the lung parenchyma and diaphragm muscles of male C57BL-6 mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS for 7, 15, 30, 45, or 60 days. METHODS: Thirty-six male C57BL-6 mice were divided into six groups (n = 6/group: a control group; and five groups exposed to CS for 7, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with control mice, CS-exposed mice presented lower body weights at 30 days. In CS-exposed mice (compared with control mice, the greatest differences (increases in TBARS levels were observed on day 7 in diaphragm-muscle, compared with day 45 in lung tissue; the greatest differences (increases in carbonyl levels were observed on day 7 in both tissue types; and sulfhydryl levels were lower, in both tissue types, at all time points. In lung tissue and diaphragm muscle, p-AMPK expression exhibited behavior similar to that of TBARS. Expression of p-mTOR was higher than the control value on days 7 and 15 in lung tissue, as it was on day 45 in diaphragm muscle. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that CS exposure produces oxidative damage, not only in lung tissue but also (primarily in muscle tissue, having an additional effect on respiratory muscle, as is frequently observed in smokers with COPD.

  6. Muscle-Derived Cells for Treatment of Iatrogenic Sphincter Damage and Urinary Incontinence in Men

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    H. Gerullis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of injection of autologous muscle-derived cells into the urinary sphincter for treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence in men and to characterize the injected cells prior to transplantation. Methods. 222 male patients with stress urinary incontinence and sphincter damage after uroloical procedures were treated with transurethral injection of autologous muscle-derived cells. The transplanted cells were investigated after cultivation and prior to application by immunocytochemistry using different markers of myogenic differentiation. Feasibility and functionality assessment was achieved with a follow-up of at least 12 months. Results. Follow-up was at least 12 months. Of the 222 treated patients, 120 responded to therapy of whom 26 patients (12% were continent, and 94 patients (42% showed improvement. In 102 (46% patients, the therapy was ineffective. Clinical improvement was observed on average 4.7 months after transplantation and continued in all improved patients. The cells injected into the sphincter were at least ~50% of myogenic origin and representative for early stages of muscle cell differentiation. Conclusions. Transurethral injection of muscle-derived cells into the damaged urethral sphincter of male patients is a safe procedure. Transplanted cells represent different phases of myogenic differentiation.

  7. The efficacy of protein supplementation during recovery from muscle-damaging concurrent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddens, Lee; Browne, Sarah; Stevenson, Emma J; Sanderson, Brad; van Someren, Ken; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of protein supplementation on recovery following muscle-damaging exercise, which was induced with a concurrent exercise design. Twenty-four well-trained male cyclists were randomised to 3 independent groups receiving 20 g protein hydrolysate, iso-caloric carbohydrate, or low-calorific placebo supplementation, per serve. Supplement serves were provided twice daily, from the onset of the muscle-damaging exercise, for a total of 4 days and in addition to a controlled diet (6 g·kg -1 ·day -1 carbohydrate, 1.2 g·kg -1 ·day -1 protein, remainder from fat). Following the concurrent exercise session at time-point 0 h, comprising a simulated high-intensity road cycling trial and 100 drop-jumps, recovery of outcome measures was assessed at 24, 48, and 72 h. The concurrent exercise protocol was deemed to have caused exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), owing to time effects (p 0.05) were observed for any of the outcome measures. The present results indicate that protein supplementation does not attenuate any of the indirect indices of EIMD imposed by concurrent exercise, when employing great rigour around the provision of a quality habitual diet and the provision of appropriate supplemental controls.

  8. Muscle Contraction Induces Acute Hydroxymethylation of the Exercise-Responsive Gene Nr4a3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattamaprapanont, Pattarawan; Garde, Christian; Fabre, Odile

    2016-01-01

    stimulated over time is required to determine whether contraction-induced demethylation is preceded by changes in the hydroxymethylcytosine level. Here, we established an acute skeletal muscle contraction model to mimic the effects of acute exercise on gene expression. We used this model to investigate...... promoters. Exercise induces dynamic DNA demethylation at gene promoters; however, the contribution of the demethylation precursor hydroxymethylcytosine is unknown. Given the evanescent nature of hydroxymethylcytosine, a muscle contraction model that allows for the collection of samples that are repeatedly...... the effect of muscle contraction on DNA demethylation and hydroxymethylation. First, we performed an acute exercise study in healthy humans to identify an exercise-responsive gene that we could study in culture. We identified the nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 (Nr4a3) gene with the highest...

  9. Curcumin and Piperine Supplementation and Recovery Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélémy Delecroix, Abd Elbasset Abaïdia, Cédric Leduc, Brian Dawson, Grégory Dupont

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of oral consumption of curcumin and piperine in combination on the recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Forty-eight hours before and following exercise-induced muscle damage, ten elite rugby players consumed curcumin and piperine (experimental condition or placebo. A randomized cross-over design was performed. Concentric and isometric peak torque for the knee extensors, one leg 6 seconds sprint performance on a non-motorized treadmill, counter movement jump performance, blood creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were assessed immediately after exercise, then at 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise. There were moderate to large effects of the exercise on the concentric peak torque for the knee extensors (Effect size (ES = -1.12; Confidence interval at 90% (CI90%: -2.17 to -0.06, the one leg 6 seconds sprint performance (ES=-1.65; CI90% = -2.51to -0.80 and the counter movement jump performance (ES = -0.56; CI90% = -0.81 to -0.32 in the 48h following the exercise. There was also a large effect of the exercise on the creatine kinase level 72h after the exercise in the control group (ES = 3.61; CI90%: 0.24 to 6.98. This decrease in muscle function and this elevation in creatine kinase indicate that the exercise implemented was efficient to induce muscle damage. Twenty four hours post-exercise, the reduction (from baseline in sprint mean power output was moderately lower in the experimental condition (-1.77 ± 7.25%; 1277 ± 153W in comparison with the placebo condition (-13.6 ± 13.0%; 1130 ± 241W (Effect Size = -1.12; Confidence Interval 90%=-1.86 to -0.86. However, no other effect was found between the two conditions. Curcumin and piperine supplementation before and after exercise can attenuate some, but not all, aspects of muscle damage.

  10. Pulsed ultrasound therapy accelerates the recovery of skeletal muscle damage induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saturnino-Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of pulsed ultrasound therapy (UST and antibothropic polyvalent antivenom (PAV on the regeneration of mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle following damage by Bothrops jararacussu venom. Animals (Swiss male and female mice weighing 25.0 ± 5.0 g; 5 animals per group received a perimuscular injection of venom (1 mg/kg and treatment with UST was started 1 h later (1 min/day, 3 MHz, 0.3 W/cm², pulsed mode. Three and 28 days after injection, muscles were dissected and processed for light microscopy. The venom caused complete degeneration of muscle fibers. UST alone and combined with PAV (1.0 mL/kg partially protected these fibers, whereas muscles receiving no treatment showed disorganized fascicules and fibers with reduced diameter. Treatment with UST and PAV decreased the effects of the venom on creatine kinase content and motor activity (approximately 75 and 48%, respectively. Sonication of the venom solution immediately before application decreased the in vivo and ex vivo myotoxic activities (approximately 60 and 50%, respectively. The present data show that UST counteracts some effects of B. jararacussu venom, causing structural and functional improvement of the regenerated muscle after venom injury.

  11. Effects of air-pulsed cryotherapy on neuromuscular recovery subsequent to exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hug, François; Couturier, Antoine; Regnault, Stéphanie; Bournat, Laure; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Dorel, Sylvain

    2013-08-01

    Localized cooling has been proposed as an effective strategy to limit the deleterious effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on neuromuscular function. However, the literature reports conflicting results. This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the effects of a new treatment, localized air-pulsed cryotherapy (-30°C), on the recovery time-course of neuromuscular function following a strenuous eccentric exercise. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 24 participants were included in either a control group (CONT) or a cryotherapy group (CRYO). Immediately after 3 sets of 20 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of elbow flexors, and then 1, 2, and 3 days after exercise, the CRYO group received a cryotherapy treatment (3 × 4 minutes at -30°C separated by 1 minute). The day before and 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 days after exercise, several parameters were quantified: maximal isometric torque and its associated maximal electromyographic activity recorded by a 64-channel electrode, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), biceps brachii transverse relaxation time (T2) measured using magnetic resonance imaging, creatine kinase activity, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein. Maximal isometric torque decreased similarly for the CONT (-33% ± 4%) and CRYO groups (-31% ± 6%). No intergroup differences were found for DOMS, electromyographic activity, creatine kinase activity, and T2 level averaged across the whole biceps brachii. C-reactive protein significantly increased for CONT (+93% at 72 hours, P cryotherapy delayed the significant increase of T2 and the decrease of electromyographic activity level for CRYO compared with CONT (between day 1 and day 3) in the medio-distal part of the biceps brachii. Although some indicators of muscle damage after severe eccentric exercise were delayed (ie, local formation of edema and decrease of muscle activity) by repeated air-pulsed cryotherapy, we provide evidence that this cooling procedure failed to improve long

  12. The effects of deformation, ischemia, and reperfusion on the development of muscle damage during prolonged loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerakker, S; Manders, E; Strijkers, G J; Nicolay, K; Baaijens, F P T; Bader, D L; Oomens, C W J

    2011-10-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe form of pressure ulcer where tissue damage starts in deep tissues underneath intact skin. In the present study, the contributions of deformation, ischemia, and reperfusion to skeletal muscle damage development were examined in a rat model during a 6-h period. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to study perfusion (contrast-enhanced MRI) and tissue integrity (T2-weighted MRI). The levels of tissue deformation were estimated using finite element models. Complete ischemia caused a gradual homogeneous increase in T2 (∼20% during the 6-h period). The effect of reperfusion on T2 was highly variable, depending on the anatomical location. In experiments involving deformation, inevitably associated with partial ischemia, a variable T2 increase (17-66% during the 6-h period) was observed reflecting the significant variation in deformation (with two-dimensional strain energies of 0.60-1.51 J/mm) and ischemia (50.8-99.8% of the leg) between experiments. These results imply that deformation, ischemia, and reperfusion all contribute to the damage process during prolonged loading, although their importance varies with time. The critical deformation threshold and period of ischemia that cause muscle damage will certainly vary between individuals. These variations are related to intrinsic factors, such as pathological state, which partly explain the individual susceptibility to the development of DTI and highlight the need for regular assessments of individual subjects.

  13. Type of Ground Surface during Plyometric Training Affects the Severity of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage from a bout of plyometric exercise (PE; 10 × 10 vertical jumps performed in aquatic, sand and firm conditions. Twenty-four healthy college-aged men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Aquatic (AG, n = 8, Sand (SG, n = 8 and Firm (FG, n = 8. The AG performed PE in an aquatic setting with a depth of ~130 cm. The SG performed PE on a dry sand surface at a depth of 20 cm, and the FG performed PE on a 10-cm-thick wooden surface. Plasma creatine kinase (CK activity, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, knee range of motion (KROM, maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC of the knee extensors, vertical jump (VJ and 10-m sprint were measured before and 24, 48 and 72 h after the PE. Compared to baseline values, FG showed significantly (p < 0.05 greater changes in CK, DOMS, and VJ at 24 until 48 h. The MIVC decreased significantly for the SG and FG at 24 until 48 h post-exercise in comparison to the pre-exercise values. There were no significant (p > 0.05 time or group by time interactions in KROM. In the 10-m sprint, all the treatment groups showed significant (p < 0.05 changes compared to pre-exercise values at 24 h, and there were no significant (p > 0.05 differences between groups. The results indicate that PE in an aquatic setting and on a sand surface induces less muscle damage than on a firm surface. Therefore, training in aquatic conditions and on sand may be beneficial for the improvement of performance, with a concurrently lower risk of muscle damage and soreness.

  14. Acute calcific tendonitis of dorsal interosseous muscles of the hand: uncommon site of a frequent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schneider

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute calcific tendinopathy is one of the manifestations of hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease. While it is more frequent in the shoulder, it has been described in virtually all areas of the body, but rarely in the muscles of the hand. Its etiopathogenesis is not yet fully understood and despite being a fairly frequent condition, it is commonly misdiagnosed. The onset of the disease is usually acute and resolves spontaneously. Acute calcific tendinitis of the interosseous tendons of the hand is an uncommon site of a frequent condition. The clinical presentation is similar to other entities, thus errors in diagnosis frequently occur, resulting in over-treatment or unnecessary tests. We describe a case of acute calcific tendinitis of the interosseous muscles of the hand with a brief review of the current literature with emphasis on diagnostic imaging methods.

  15. Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Vertical Jump Performance Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing vertical jump performance is critical for many sports. Following high intensity training, individuals often experience exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD. Many recovery modalities have been tested with conflicting results. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV on vertical jump performance following EIMD. 27 females volunteered for 7 sessions and were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and administered each testing day. Vertical jump performance was assessed via vertical jump height (VJH, peak power output (PPO, rate of force development (RFD, relative ground reaction force (GRFz, and peak activation ratio of the vastus medialis (VM via electromyography (EMG before and after 3 days of EIMD via split squats. Two testing sets were collected each day, consisting of pre measures followed by WBV or control, and then post second measures. A 2x8 (group x time mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA was conducted for each variable. No significant interactions or group differences were found in any variable. Significant main effects for time were found in any variable, indicating performance declined following muscle damage. These results indicate that WBV does not aid in muscle recovery or vertical jump performance following EIMD.

  16. Motor-neuron pool excitability of the lower leg muscles after acute lateral ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klykken, Lindsey W; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Kim, Kyung-Min; Ingersoll, Christopher D; Hertel, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Neuromuscular deficits in leg muscles that are associated with arthrogenic muscle inhibition have been reported in people with chronic ankle instability, yet whether these neuromuscular alterations are present in individuals with acute sprains is unknown. To compare the effect of acute lateral ankle sprain on the motor-neuron pool excitability (MNPE) of injured leg muscles with that of uninjured contralateral leg muscles and the leg muscles of healthy controls. Case-control study. Laboratory. Ten individuals with acute ankle sprains (6 females, 4 males; age= 19.2 ± 3.8 years, height= 169.4 ± 8.5 cm, mass= 66.3 ± 11.6 kg) and 10 healthy individuals(6 females,4 males; age= 20.6 ± 4.0 years, height = 169.9 ± 10.6 cm, mass= 66.3 ± 10.2 kg) participated. The independent variables were group (acute ankle sprain, healthy) and limb (injured, uninjured). Separate dependent t tests were used to determine differences in MNPE between legs. The MNPE of the soleus, fibularis longus, and tibialis anterior was measured by the maximal Hoffmann reflex (H(max)) and maximal muscle response (M(max)) and was then normalized using the H(max):M(max) ratio. The soleus MNPE in the ankle-sprain group was higher in the injured limb (H(max):M(max) = 0.63; 95% confidence interval [Cl],0.46, 0.80) than the uninjured limb (H(max):M(max) = 0.47; 95%Cl, 0.08, 0.93)(t(6) = 3.62,P =.01).In the acute ankle-sprain group, tibialis anterior MNPE tended to be lower in the injured ankle (H(max):M(max) =0.06; 95% Cl, 0.01, 0.10) than in the uninjured ankle (H(max):M(max) =0.22; 95%Cl, 0.09, 0.35),but this finding was not different (t(9) =-2.01, P =.07). No differences were detected between injured (0.22; 95% Cl, 0.14, 0.29) and uninjured (0.25; 95%Cl, 0.12, 0.38) ankles for the fibularis longus in the ankle-sprain group (t(9) =-0.739, P =.48). We found no side-to-side differences in any muscle among the healthy group. Facilitated MNPE was present in the involved soleus muscle of patients with acute

  17. Myotoxicity of injections for acute muscle injuries: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Reurink (Gustaaf); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan); M.H. Moen (Maaike); A. Weir (Adam); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); J.L. Tol (Johannes)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Injection therapies are widely used for muscle injuries. As there is only limited evidence of their efficacy, physicians should be aware of the potential harmful effects of these injected preparations. Objectives: The purpose of this review was to systematically review the

  18. Myotoxicity of injections for acute muscle injuries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Moen, Maarten H.; Weir, Adam; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Tol, Johannes L.

    2014-01-01

    Injection therapies are widely used for muscle injuries. As there is only limited evidence of their efficacy, physicians should be aware of the potential harmful effects of these injected preparations. The purpose of this review was to systematically review the literature on the myotoxic effects of

  19. Acute exercise remodels promoter methylation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrès, Romain; Yan, Jie; Egan, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a covalent biochemical modification controlling chromatin structure and gene expression. Exercise elicits gene expression changes that trigger structural and metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle. We determined whether DNA methylation plays a role in exercise-induced gene ex...

  20. Vitamin D2 Supplementation Amplifies Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in NASCAR Pit Crew Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C.; Gillitt, Nicholas D.; Shanely, R. Andrew; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat; Luo, Beibei

    2013-01-01

    This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day) had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n = 13) and placebo (n = 15), and ingested supplements (double-blind) for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test). Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 456% and decreased 25(OH)D3 21% versus placebo (p creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p athletes following eccentric exercise. PMID:24362707

  1. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone administration on recovery from mix-type exercise training-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Liao, Kun-Fu; Kao, Chung-Lan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Ivy, John L; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of DHEA-S in coping against the exercise training mixing aerobic and resistance components. During 5-day successive exercise training, 16 young male participants (19.2 ± 1.2 years) received either a placebo (flour capsule) or DHEA (100 mg/day) in a double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Oral DHEA supplementation significantly increased circulating DHEA-S by 2.5-fold, but a protracted drop (~35 %) was observed from Day 3 during training. In the Placebo group, only a minimal DHEA-S reduction (~17 %) was observed. Changes in testosterone followed a similar pattern as DHEA-S. Muscle soreness was elevated significantly on Day 2 for both groups to a similar extent. Lower muscle soreness was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group on Day 3 and Day 6. In the Placebo group, training increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) levels by approximately ninefold, while only a threefold increase was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group. This mix-type exercise training improved glucose tolerance in both groups, while lowering the insulin response to the glucose challenge, but no difference between treatments was observed. Our results suggest that DHEA-S may play a role in protecting skeletal muscle from exercise training-induced muscle damage.

  2. Skeletal muscle PGC-1a is required for maintaining an acute LPS-induced TNFa response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Larsson, Signe; Iversen, Ninna

    2012-01-01

    Many lifestyle-related diseases are associated with low-grade inflammation and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ¿ coactivator (PGC)-1a has been suggested to be protective against low-grade inflammation. However, whether these anti-inflammatory properties affect acute inflammation is not...... does not exert anti-inflammatory effects during acute inflammation. Lack of skeletal muscle PGC-1a seems however to impair the acute TNFa response, which may reflect a phenotype more susceptible to infections as also observed in type 2 diabetes patients....

  3. Alleviation of acute radiation damages by post-irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, A.; Ono, T.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages in mice were tried to alleviate experimentally by post-treatment. Combined treatment of OK-432 and aztreonam clearly prevented the radiation induced sepsis and elevated the survival rate in mice; the survival was 80% in the OK-432 plus aztreonam group while it was 55% in the group treated with OK-432 alone and 0% with saline. Irsogladine maleate, an anti-ulcer drug, increased the survival rate of jejunal crypt stem cells with a clear dose-related trend. The D 0 for irsogladine maleate was 2.8 Gy although it was 2.3 Gy for saline, These findings suggest that some conventional drugs are effective for radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages and the possibility that they can be applied for people exposed to radiation accidentally. (author)

  4. GENE RESPONSE OF THE GASTROCNEMIUS AND SOLEUS MUSCLES TO AN ACUTE AEROBIC RUN IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. McKenzie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes can be activated or inhibited by signals within the tissues in response to an acute bout of exercise. It is unclear how a particular aerobic exercise bout may influence two muscles with similar actions to the activity. Therefore, the purposes of this investigation was to determine the gene response of selected genes involved in the "stress" response of the gastrocnemius (fast-twitch and soleus (slow-twitch muscles to a single two hour aerobic exercise bout in female Sprague-Dawley Rats at the 1 hour time point after the exercise. Exercised rats were run (n=8 for 2 hours at 20 m.min-1 and one hour after the completion of the bout had their soleus (S and gastrocnemius (G muscles removed. Age and timed matched sedentary control rats had both S and G muscles removed also. RNA was isolated from all muscles. Real-time PCR analysis was performed on the following genes: NFκB, TNFα, and Atf3. GAPDH was used as the housekeeping gene for both muscles. S muscle showed more genes altered (n = 52 vs G (n = 26. NFκB gene expression was 0.83 ± 0.14 in the exercised S but was + 1.36 ± 0.58 in the exercised G and was not significantly different between the muscles. TNFα was altered 1.30 ± 0. 34 in the exercised S and 1.36 ± 0.71 in the exercised G and was not significantly different between the muscles. The gene Atf3 was significantly altered at 4.97 ± 1.01 in the exercised S, while it was not significantly altered in the exercised G (0.70 ± 0.55. This study demonstrates that an acute bout of aerobic exercise can alter gene expression to a different extent in both the S and G muscles. It is highly likely that muscle recruitment was a factor which influenced the gene expression in theses muscles. It is interesting to note that some genes were similarly activated in these two muscles but other genes may demonstrate a varied response to the same exercise bout depending on the type of muscle

  5. Mutagenic and DNA damaging activity in muscle of trout exposed in vivo to nitrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Flora, S; Arillo, A

    1983-09-01

    Muscle ether extracts of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) exposed to lake water enriched with nitrite (450 micrograms/l) reverted plasmid-containing his- strains of Salmonella typhimurium, mainly eliciting frameshift mutations, and induced a DNA damage in Escherichia coli reparable through the recA/lexA-dependent SOS functions. The number of revertants was related to their content in nitroso-derivatives and to the physiological condition of the fish. Mutagenicity was efficiently decreased, through NADPH-requiring pathways, by liver S-9 fractions from rats or rainbow trout, while it was not affected by preliminary heating nor by pre-incubation with human gastric juice.

  6. IL-6, Antioxidant Capacity and Muscle Damage Markers Following High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Cipryan, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and muscle damage markers (creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) in response to three different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols of identical external work. Twelve moderately-trained males participated in the three HIIT trials which consisted of a warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s HIIT sequences with the work/rest ratio...

  7. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP for acute muscle injury: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Shariff A Hamid

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute muscle injury is one of the commonest injuries that often result in loss of training and competition time. The best management for muscle injury has not been identified. Sports medicine practitioners used several approaches in attempt to accelerate time to recovery from muscle injury. More recently growing interest focussed on autologous blood product injection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted systematically using OvidMEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases to retrieve articles published until December 2012. Controlled trials and controlled laboratory studies comparing different strategies to promote early recovery of muscle injury were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed. RESULTS: There are limited studies on the effects of PRP therapy for muscle injury. Three in vivo laboratory studies and one pilot human study were reviewed. The laboratory studies reported histological evidence on significant acceleration of muscle healing in animals treated with autologous conditioned serum (ACS, platelet-rich plasma (PRP and platelet rich fibrin matrix (PRFM. A pilot human study found athletes treated with repeated ACS injection recovers significantly faster than retrospective controls. CONCLUSION: Several in vivo laboratory studies suggest beneficial effects of ACS, PRP and PRFM in accelerating muscle recovery. Evidence to suggest similar effects on humans is however limited, as valuable information from robust human controlled trials is still not available at this moment. Hence, more studies of satisfactory methodological quality with platelet-rich plasma interventions on muscle injury are justified.

  8. Thyroid hormones regulate skeletal muscle regeneration after acute injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Anna Lúcia R C; Albuquerque, João Paulo C; Matos, Marina S; Fortunato, Rodrigo S; Carvalho, Denise P; Rosenthal, Doris; da Costa, Vânia Maria Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroid statuses during the initial phase of skeletal muscle regeneration in rats. To induce hypo- or hyperthyroidism, adult male Wistar rats were treated with methimazole (0.03%) or T4 (10 μg/100 g), respectively, for 10 days. Three days before sacrifice, a crush injury was produced in the solear muscles of one half of the animals, while the other half remained intact. T3, T4, TSH, and leptin serum levels were not affected by the injury. Serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly increased in hyperthyroid and hyper-injury animals. Hypothyroidism was confirmed by the significant increase in serum TSH levels in hypothyroid and hypo-injury animals. Injury increased cell infiltration and macrophage accumulation especially in hyperthyroid animals. Both type 2 and type 3 deiodinases were induced by lesion, and the opposite occurred with the type 1 isoform, at least in the control and hyperthyroid groups. Injury increased both MyoD and myogenin expression in all the studied groups, but only MyoD expression was increased by thyroidal status only at the protein level. We conclude that thyroid hormones modulate skeletal muscle regeneration possibly by regulating the inflammatory process, as well as MyoD and myogenin expression in the injured tissue.

  9. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  10. Effects of age and acute muscle fatigue on reactive postural control in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-12-01

    Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-min (T15) and 30-min (T30) of rest. Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 min of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduced inflammatory and muscle damage biomarkers following oral supplementation with bioavailable curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Sampson, Jill N Best; Pennel, Kathryn; Vingren, Jakob L; Hill, David W

    2016-06-01

    Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage (EIMD) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) impact subsequent training sessions and activities of daily living (ADL) even in active individuals. In sedentary or diseased individuals, EIMD and DOMS may be even more pronounced and present even in the absence of structured exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of oral curcumin supplementation (Longvida® 400 mg/days) on muscle & ADL soreness, creatine kinase (CK), and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) following EMID (eccentric-only dual-leg press exercise). Subjects (N = 28) were randomly assigned to either curcumin (400 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour) and supplemented 2 days before to 4 days after EMID. Blood samples were collected prior to (PRE), and 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after EIMD to measure CK and inflammatory cytokines. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with P < 0.05. Curcumin supplementation resulted in significantly smaller increases in CK (- 48%), TNF-α (- 25%), and IL-8 (- 21%) following EIMD compared to placebo. We observed no significant differences in IL-6, IL-10, or quadriceps muscle soreness between conditions for this sample size. Collectively, the findings demonstrated that consumption of curcumin reduced biological inflammation, but not quadriceps muscle soreness, during recovery after EIMD. The observed improvements in biological inflammation may translate to faster recovery and improved functional capacity during subsequent exercise sessions. These findings support the use of oral curcumin supplementation to reduce the symptoms of EIMD. The next logical step is to evaluate further the efficacy of an inflammatory clinical disease model.

  12. High-Intensity Exercise Induced Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Muscle Damage in Postpubertal Boys and Girls: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sangita; Chaki, Biswajit; Chattopadhyay, Sreya; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2018-04-01

    Pal, S, Chaki, B, Chattopadhyay, S, and Bandyopadhyay, A. High-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and skeletal muscle damage in post-pubertal boys and girls: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1045-1052, 2018-The purpose of this study was to examine the sex variation in high-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and muscle damage among 44 sedentary postpubertal boys and girls through estimation of postexercise release pattern of muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and oxidative stress markers like extent of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and catalase activity. Muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, LDH, ALT, and AST were measured before, immediately after, and 24 and 48 hours after high-intensity incremental treadmill running. Oxidative stress markers like thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and catalase activity were estimated before and immediately after the exercise. Lipid peroxidation and serum catalase activity increased significantly in both groups after exercise (p exercise level at 24 and 48 hours after exercise in both the sexes, (p exercise, the pattern of postexercise release of these markers were found to be similar in both the groups. Accordingly, it has been concluded from the present investigation that high-intensity exercise induces significant oxidative stress and increases indices of skeletal muscle damage in both postpubertal girls and boys. However, postpubertal girls are relatively better protected from oxidative stress and muscle damage as compared to the boys of similar age and physical activity level. It is further evident that sex difference may not be apparent for all the biomarkers of muscle damage in this age group.

  13. Characterization of an acute muscle contraction model using cultured C2C12 myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Manabe

    Full Text Available A cultured C2C12 myotube contraction system was examined for application as a model for acute contraction-induced phenotypes of skeletal muscle. C2C12 myotubes seeded into 4-well rectangular plates were placed in a contraction system equipped with a carbon electrode at each end. The myotubes were stimulated with electric pulses of 50 V at 1 Hz for 3 ms at 997-ms intervals. Approximately 80% of the myotubes were observed to contract microscopically, and the contractions lasted for at least 3 h with electrical stimulation. Calcium ion (Ca²⁺ transient evoked by the electric pulses was detected fluorescently with Fluo-8. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt (Akt, 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK1/2, which are intracellular signaling proteins typically activated in exercised/contracted skeletal muscle, was observed in the electrically stimulated C2C12 myotubes. The contractions induced by the electric pulses increased glucose uptake and depleted glycogen in the C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 myotubes that differentiated after exogenous gene transfection by a lipofection or an electroporation method retained their normal contractile ability by electrical stimulation. These findings show that our C2C12 cell contraction system reproduces the muscle phenotypes that arise invivo (exercise, in situ (hindlimb muscles in an anesthetized animal, and invitro (dissected muscle tissues in incubation buffer by acute muscle contraction, demonstrating that the system is applicable for the analysis of intracellular events evoked by acute muscle contraction.

  14. Preconditioning of skeletal muscle against contraction-induced damage: the role of adaptations to oxidants in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, F; Spiers, S; Aldemir, H; Vasilaki, A; Beaver, A; Iwanejko, L; McArdle, A; Jackson, M J

    2004-11-15

    Adaptations of skeletal muscle following exercise are accompanied by changes in gene expression, which can result in protection against subsequent potentially damaging exercise. One cellular signal activating these adaptations may be an increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a short period of non-damaging contractions on the subsequent susceptibility of muscle to contraction-induced damage and to examine the changes in gene expression that occur following the initial contraction protocol. Comparisons with changes in gene expression in cultured myotubes following treatment with a non-damaging concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were used to identify redox-sensitive genes whose expression may be modified by the increased ROS production during contractions. Hindlimb muscles of mice were subjected to a preconditioning, non-damaging isometric contraction protocol in vivo. After 4 or 12 h, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles were removed and subjected to a (normally) damaging contraction protocol in vitro. Muscles were also analysed for changes in gene expression induced by the preconditioning protocol using cDNA expression techniques. In a parallel study, C(2)C(12) myotubes were treated with a non-damaging concentration (100 microM) of H(2)O(2) and, at 4 and 12 h following treatment, myotubes were treated with a damaging concentration of H(2)O(2) (2 mM). Myotubes were analysed for changes in gene expression at 4 h following treatment with 100 microM H(2)O(2) alone. Data demonstrate that a prior period of non-damaging contractile activity resulted in significant protection of EDL and soleus muscles against a normally damaging contraction protocol 4 h later. This protection was associated with significant changes in gene expression. Prior treatment of myotubes with a non-damaging concentration of H(2)O(2) also resulted in significant protection against a damaging

  15. 2-Deoxyglucose autoradiography of single motor units: labelling of individual acutely active muscle fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toop, J.; Burke, R.E.; Dum, R.P.; O'Donovan, M.J.; Smith, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    2-Deoxy-D-[1- 14 C]glucose (2DG) was given intravenously during repetitive stimulation of single motor units in adult cats and autoradiographs were made of frozen sections of the target muscles in order to evaluate methods designed to improve the spatial resolution of [ 14 C]2DG autoradiography. With the modifications used, acutely active muscle fibers, independently identified by depletion of intrafiber glycogen, were associated with highly localized accumulations of silver grains over the depleted fibers. The results indicate that [ 14 C]2DG autoradiography can successfully identify individual active muscle fibers and might in principle be used to obtain quantitative data about rates of glucose metabolism in single muscle fibers of defined histochemical type. The modifications may be applicable also to other tissues to give improved spatial resolution with [ 14 C]-labeled metabolic markers. (Auth.)

  16. Atrophy of Swallowing Muscles Is Associated With Severity of Dysphagia and Age in Patients With Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Peter B; Muhle, Paul; Hanning, Uta; Suntrup-Krueger, Sonja; Schwindt, Wolfram; Eversmann, Julian; Warnecke, Tobias; Wirth, Rainer; Zimmer, Sebastian; Dziewas, Rainer

    2017-07-01

    Sarcopenia has been identified as an independent risk factor for dysphagia. Dysphagia is one of the most important and prognostically relevant complications of acute stroke. The role of muscle atrophy as a contributing factor for the occurrence of poststroke dysphagia is yet unclear. To assess whether there is a correlation between age and muscle volume and whether muscle volume is related to dysphagia in acute stroke patients. This retrospective, single-center study included 73 patients with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke who underwent computed tomography angiography on admission and an objective dysphagia assessment by Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing within 72 hours from admission. With the help of semiautomated muscle segmentation and 3-dimensional reconstruction volumetry of the digastric, temporal, and geniohyoid muscles was performed. For further analysis, participants were first divided into 4 groups according to their age (dysphagia severity using the Fiberoptic Endoscopic Dysphagia Severity Scale (FEDSS) (FEDSS 1 and 2, n = 25; FEDSS 3 and 4, n = 32; FEDSS 5 and 6, n = 16). Correlation of muscle volumes with age and dysphagia severity. Muscle volumes of single muscles (except for geniohyoid and the right digastric muscles) as well as the sum muscle volume were significantly and inversely related to dysphagia severity. We found a significant decline of muscle volume with advancing age for most muscle groups and, in particular, for the total muscle volume. Apart from features being determined by the acute stroke itself (eg, site and size of stroke), also premorbid conditions, in particular age-related muscle atrophy, have an impact on the complex pathophysiology of swallowing disorders poststroke. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum measurement of muscle and oxidative damage in soccer players after a game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Aurino de Pinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Futsal is a sport that requires sudden acceleration and deceleration with abruptchanges in direction. The marked impacts experienced by futsal players lead to muscle andoxidative damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of markers ofmuscle and oxidative damage in futsal players after a game. Six players with a mean age of 21.2± 0.98 years, weight of 67.1 ± 5.5 kg and height of 171.0 ± 0.07 cm participated in this study.Measurements were obtained 30 minutes before game 1 (pre-game, immediately after game 1(post-game 1, and immediately after a second game (post-game 2, which was performed 24hours after game 1. Serum was collected for the evaluation of creatine kinase and of damageto proteins and lipids. Creatine kinase concentrations, lipid peroxidation (xylenol and proteincarbonylation were significantly higher after games 1 and 2 when compared to pre-game values.Sulfhydryl levels were lower after the end of games 1 and 2 compared to pre-game values. Nodifference in any of the parameters analyzed was observed between post-game 1 and post-game2. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a futsal match provokes muscle and oxidativedamage. Surprisingly, no increase in the parameters studied was observed after game 2. In viewof the limited knowledge about the time of recovery after a futsal match, this study may provideimportant information to professionals working with this sport.

  18. Ballet dancers cardiorespiratory, oxidative and muscle damage responses to classes and rehearsals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Krause, Mauricio; Cunha, Giovani Dos Santos; Perin, Diana; Martins, Jocelito B; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Schaun, Maximiliano I; De Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe and compare ballet dancers' cardiorespiratory responses, muscle damage and oxidative stress levels during a ballet class (practice of isolated ballet exercises performed with barre/hand-rail support and across-the-floor movements to improve technical skills) and rehearsal (practice of ballet choreography involving technical-artistic skills to improve dancers' performance for shows). The 12 advanced female ballet dancers undertook three exercise sessions: maximum effort test, class and rehearsal. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were continuously measured. Lactate was determined before 15 min and after class and rehearsal. Blood was sampled pre, post and 48 h after class and rehearsal for creatine kinase (CK), lipid peroxides (LPO) and glutathione analysis (GSSG/GSH). Class was of lower intensity than rehearsal as shown by VO2, HR and lactate values: VO2 (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)): 14.5±2.1 vs. 19.1±1.7 (p Ballet dancers' muscle damage and oxidative stress responses seem not to be dependent on exercise intensity based on VO2 responses.

  19. Potential therapeutic effects of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on resistance exercise-based muscle damage in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Luz Claudia R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA supplementation has been considered an interesting nutritional strategy to improve skeletal muscle protein turnover in several conditions. In this context, there is evidence that resistance exercise (RE-derived biochemical markers of muscle soreness (creatine kinase (CK, aldolase, myoglobin, soreness, and functional strength may be modulated by BCAA supplementation in order to favor of muscle adaptation. However, few studies have investigated such effects in well-controlled conditions in humans. Therefore, the aim of this short report is to describe the potential therapeutic effects of BCAA supplementation on RE-based muscle damage in humans. The main point is that BCAA supplementation may decrease some biochemical markers related with muscle soreness but this does not necessarily reflect on muscle functionality.

  20. Strenuous exercise aggravates MDMA-induced skeletal muscle damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Jose A.; Leao, Anabela; Magalhaes, Jose; Ascensao, Antonio; Bastos, Maria L.; Amado, Francisco L.; Vilarinho, Laura; Quelhas, Dulce; Appell, Hans J.; Carvalho, Felix

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ecstasy (MDMA) administration on body temperature and soleus muscle histology in exercised and non-exercised mice. Charles-River mice were distributed into four groups: Control (C), exercise (EX), MDMA treated (M), and M + EX. The treated animals received an i.p. injection (10 mg/kg) of MDMA (saline for C and EX), and the exercise consisted of a 90 min level run at a velocity of 900 m/h, immediately after the MDMA or saline administration. Body temperature was recorded every 30 min via subcutaneous implanted transponder. Animals were sacrificed 1.5, 25.5, and 49.5 h after i.p. injection and the soleus muscles were removed and processed for light and electron microscopy. The MDMA-treated animals showed a significant increase in body temperature (similar in M and M + EX groups), reaching the peak 90 min after i.p. administration; their temperature remained higher than control for more than 5 h. The EX group evidenced a similar and parallel, yet lower temperature increase during exercise and recovery. Morphological signs of damage were rarely encountered in the EX group; they were more pronounced in M group and even aggravated in M + EX group. In conclusion, MDMA and exercise per se increased body temperature but in conjunction did not have a cumulated effect. However, ecstasy and concomitant physical activity might severely accumulate with regard to skeletal muscle toxicity and may lead to rhabdomyolysis

  1. Is Branched-Chain Amino Acids Supplementation an Efficient Nutritional Strategy to Alleviate Skeletal Muscle Damage? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fouré

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids and more precisely, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, are usually consumed as nutritional supplements by many athletes and people involved in regular and moderate physical activities regardless of their practice level. BCAAs have been initially shown to increase muscle mass and have also been implicated in the limitation of structural and metabolic alterations associated with exercise damage. This systematic review provides a comprehensive analysis of the literature regarding the beneficial effects of BCAAs supplementation within the context of exercise-induced muscle damage or muscle injury. The potential benefit of a BCAAs supplementation was also analyzed according to the supplementation strategy—amount of BCAAs, frequency and duration of the supplementation—and the extent of muscle damage. The review protocol was registered prospectively with Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (registration number CRD42017073006 and followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Literature search was performed from the date of commencement until August 2017 using four online databases (Medline, Cochrane library, Web of science and ScienceDirect. Original research articles: (i written in English; (ii describing experiments performed in Humans who received at least one oral BCAAs supplementation composed of leucine, isoleucine and valine mixture only as a nutritional strategy and (iii reporting a follow-up of at least one day after exercise-induced muscle damage, were included in the systematic review analysis. Quality assessment was undertaken independently using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Changes in indirect markers of muscle damage were considered as primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures were the extent of change in indirect markers of muscle damage. In total, 11 studies were included in the analysis. A high heterogeneity was found regarding the

  2. Estrogen supplementation failed to attenuate biochemical indices of neutrophil infiltration or damage in rat skeletal muscles following ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiidus, Peter M; Deller, Mirada; Bombardier, Eric; Gül, Mustafa; Liu, X Linda

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of estrogen supplementation on markers of neutrophil infiltration and damage in skeletal muscle of rats following ischemia. Male and female gonad-intact rats, with or without 14 days of estrogen supplementation were subjected to two hours of hind-limb ischemia and sacrificed at 24, 48 or 72 hours post-ischemia. Control animals were sacrificed without ischemia. Plantaris and red and white gastrocneimus muscles were removed and assayed for myeloperoxidase (MPO), a marker of neutrophil infiltration, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and beta-glucuronidase (betaGLU), as markers of muscle damage. Significant elevations of MPO, G6PD and betaGLU activities were observed at various time points post-ischemia. No systematic differences between genders were noted in any of the measures. Estrogen supplementation in both male and female animals failed to significantly attenuate post-ischemia increases in MPO, G6PD and betaGLU activities in any of the muscles studied and in some cases accentuated activities of some of these measures. Unlike previous findings following exercise in skeletal muscle, this study failed to demonstrate estrogen-induced attenuation of indices of neutrophil infiltration or damage in skeletal muscles of rats up to 72 hours following ischemia. This demonstrates that estrogen may not consistently attenuate neutrophil infiltration and that a number of variables including damage modality, tissue or estrogen level may influence this.

  3. Estrogen supplementation failed to attenuate biochemical indices of neutrophil infiltration or damage in rat skeletal muscles following ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER M TIIDUS

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of estrogen supplementation on markers of neutrophil infiltration and damage in skeletal muscle of rats following ischemia. Male and female gonad-intact rats, with or without 14 days of estrogen supplementation were subjected to two hours of hind-limb ischemia and sacrificed at 24, 48 or 72 hours post-ischemia. Control animals were sacrificed without ischemia. Plantaris and red and white gastrocneimus muscles were removed and assayed for myeloperoxidase (MPO, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and ß-glucuronidase (GLU, as markers of muscle damage. Significant elevations of MPO, G6PD and GLU activities were observed at various time points post-ischemia. No systematic differences between genders were noted in any of the measures. Estrogen supplementation in both male and female animals failed to significantly attenuate post-ischemia increases in MPO, G6PD and GLU activities in any of the muscles studied and in some cases accentuated activities of some of these measures. Unlike previous findings following exercise in skeletal muscle, this study failed to demonstrate estrogen-induced attenuation of indices of neutrophil infiltration or damage in skeletal muscles of rats up to 72 hours following ischemia. This demonstrates that estrogen may not consistently attenuate neutrophil infiltration and that a number of variables including damage modality, tissue or estrogen level may influence this.

  4. Acute MUS81 depletion leads to replication fork slowing and a constitutive DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Meichun; Wang, Xiaohui; Palmai-Pallag, Timea

    2015-01-01

    have investigated the role of MUS81 in human cells by acutely depleting the protein using shRNAs. We found that MUS81 depletion from human fibroblasts leads to accumulation of ssDNA and a constitutive DNA damage response that ultimately activates cellular senescence. Moreover, we show that MUS81...

  5. Resistance training-induced changes in integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis are related to hypertrophy only after attenuation of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, Felipe; Phillips, Stuart M; Libardi, Cleiton A; Vechin, Felipe C; Lixandrão, Manoel E; Jannig, Paulo R; Costa, Luiz A R; Bacurau, Aline V; Snijders, Tim; Parise, Gianni; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2016-09-15

    Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is one of the main outcomes from resistance training (RT), but how it is modulated throughout training is still unknown. We show that changes in myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) after an initial resistance exercise (RE) bout in the first week of RT (T1) were greater than those seen post-RE at the third (T2) and tenth week (T3) of RT, with values being similar at T2 and T3. Muscle damage (Z-band streaming) was the highest during post-RE recovery at T1, lower at T2 and minimal at T3. When muscle damage was the highest, so was the integrated MyoPS (at T1), but neither were related to hypertrophy; however, integrated MyoPS at T2 and T3 were correlated with hypertrophy. We conclude that muscle hypertrophy is the result of accumulated intermittent increases in MyoPS mainly after a progressive attenuation of muscle damage. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is one of the main outcomes of resistance training (RT), but how hypertrophy is modulated and the mechanisms regulating it are still unknown. To investigate how muscle hypertrophy is modulated through RT, we measured day-to-day integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) using deuterium oxide and assessed muscle damage at the beginning (T1), at 3 weeks (T2) and at 10 weeks of RT (T3). Ten young men (27 (1) years, mean (SEM)) had muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) taken to measure integrated MyoPS and muscle damage (Z-band streaming and indirect parameters) before, and 24 h and 48 h post resistance exercise (post-RE) at T1, T2 and T3. Fibre cross-sectional area (fCSA) was evaluated using biopsies at T1, T2 and T3. Increases in fCSA were observed only at T3 (P = 0.017). Changes in MyoPS post-RE at T1, T2 and T3 were greater at T1 (P Muscle damage was the highest during post-RE recovery at T1, attenuated at T2 and further attenuated at T3. The change in MyoPS post-RE at both T2 and T3, but not at T1, was strongly correlated (r ≈ 0.9, P muscle hypertrophy. Initial Myo

  6. The Effects of Multiple Cold Water Immersions on Indices of Muscle Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Stuart; Howatson, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the efficacy of repeated cold water immersions (CWI) in the recovery of exercise induced muscle damage. A randomised group consisting of eighteen males, mean ± s age, height and body mass were 24 ± 5 years, 1.82 ± 0.06 m and 85.7 ± 16.6 kg respectively, completed a bout of 100 drop jumps. Following the bout of damaging exercise, participants were randomly but equally assigned to either a 12 min CWI (15 ± 1 °C; n = 9) group who experienced immersions immediately post-exercise and every 24 h thereafter for the following 3 days, or a control group (no treatment; n = 9). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors, creatine kinase activity (CK), muscle soreness (DOMS), range of motion (ROM) and limb girth were measured pre-exercise and then for the following 96 h at 24 h increments. In addition MVC was also recorded immediately post-exercise. Significant time effects were seen for MVC, CK, DOMS and limb girth (p 0.05). These results suggest that repeated CWI do not enhance recovery from a bout of damaging eccentric contractions. Key pointsCryotherapy, particularly cold water immersions are one of the most common interventions used in order to enhance recovery post-exercise.There is little empirical evidence demonstrating benefits from cold water immersions. Research evidence is equivocal, probably due to methodological inconsistencies.Our results show that the cryotherapy administered did not attenuate any markers of EIMD or enhance the recovery of function.We conclude that repeated cold water immersions are ineffective in the recovery from heavy plyometric exercise and suggest athletes and coaches should use caution before using this intervention as a recovery strategy PMID:24149455

  7. Acute traumatic tear of latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mesut Çelebi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue injuries constitute 30-50% of all sports related injuries; however, injury to the latissimus dorsi muscle is quite rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we describe an acute traumatic tear of the latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete, which has not been reported in the track and field sports before. The injury was caused by forceful resisted arm adduction that took place at hurdling and starting from the block. A pseudotumor appearance in the axillary region was misdiagnosed as a mass. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound alone and the patient was managed conservatively.

  8. Four Weeks of Supplementation With Isolated Soy Protein Attenuates Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Enhances Muscle Recovery in Well Trained Athletes: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Shweta; Dhawan, Mrinal; Singh Sandhu, Jaspal

    2016-09-01

    The effects of consumption of isolated soy protein (ISP) for a chronic period (4 weeks) on exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) in athletic population have never been explored. To examine the effects of ISP on muscle damage indices elicited via a bout of damaging exercise. Forty males (20 boxers, 20 cyclists) aged 18 - 28 years were randomly assigned to two groups (ISP and Placebo) (n = 20). All participants who engaged themselves in specific, regular training of 30 hours a week during the competitive season were included in the study. Participants consumed the supplement and the placebo for 4 weeks. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Pre and post supplementation readings of the criterion variables, highly sensitive C reactive protein (hs-cRP), creatine Kinase (CK), myeloperoxidase (MPO), isometric muscle strength, maximum aerobic capacity (VO 2 max), heart rate (HR) and muscle soreness were obtained at baseline (Day 1), at 24 hours (Day 2) and at 48 hours (Day 3) following EIMD. Differences were observed in pre and post supplementation values (P athletic population.

  9. Acute inhibition of myostatin-family proteins preserves skeletal muscle in mouse models of cancer cachexia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benny Klimek, Margaret E.; Aydogdu, Tufan [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Link, Majik J.; Pons, Marianne [Molecular Oncology Program, Division of Surgical Oncology, DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Koniaris, Leonidas G. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Molecular Oncology Program, Division of Surgical Oncology, DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Molecular Oncology and Experimental Therapeutics Program, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Zimmers, Teresa A., E-mail: tzimmers@med.miami.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Molecular Oncology Program, Division of Surgical Oncology, DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Molecular Oncology and Experimental Therapeutics Program, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Cachexia, progressive loss of fat and muscle mass despite adequate nutrition, is a devastating complication of cancer associated with poor quality of life and increased mortality. Myostatin is a potent tonic muscle growth inhibitor. We tested how myostatin inhibition might influence cancer cachexia using genetic and pharmacological approaches. First, hypermuscular myostatin null mice were injected with Lewis lung carcinoma or B16F10 melanoma cells. Myostatin null mice were more sensitive to tumor-induced cachexia, losing more absolute mass and proportionately more muscle mass than wild-type mice. Because myostatin null mice lack expression from development, however, we also sought to manipulate myostatin acutely. The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A has been shown to increase muscle mass in normal and dystrophic mice by inducing the myostatin inhibitor, follistatin. Although Trichostatin A administration induced muscle growth in normal mice, it failed to preserve muscle in colon-26 cancer cachexia. Finally we sought to inhibit myostatin and related ligands by administration of the Activin receptor extracellular domain/Fc fusion protein, ACVR2B-Fc. Systemic administration of ACVR2B-Fc potently inhibited muscle wasting and protected adipose stores in both colon-26 and Lewis lung carcinoma cachexia, without affecting tumor growth. Enhanced cachexia in myostatin knockouts indicates that host-derived myostatin is not the sole mediator of muscle wasting in cancer. More importantly, skeletal muscle preservation with ACVR2B-Fc establishes that targeting myostatin-family ligands using ACVR2B-Fc or related molecules is an important and potent therapeutic avenue in cancer cachexia.

  10. Acute inhibition of myostatin-family proteins preserves skeletal muscle in mouse models of cancer cachexia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benny Klimek, Margaret E.; Aydogdu, Tufan; Link, Majik J.; Pons, Marianne; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Cachexia, progressive loss of fat and muscle mass despite adequate nutrition, is a devastating complication of cancer associated with poor quality of life and increased mortality. Myostatin is a potent tonic muscle growth inhibitor. We tested how myostatin inhibition might influence cancer cachexia using genetic and pharmacological approaches. First, hypermuscular myostatin null mice were injected with Lewis lung carcinoma or B16F10 melanoma cells. Myostatin null mice were more sensitive to tumor-induced cachexia, losing more absolute mass and proportionately more muscle mass than wild-type mice. Because myostatin null mice lack expression from development, however, we also sought to manipulate myostatin acutely. The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A has been shown to increase muscle mass in normal and dystrophic mice by inducing the myostatin inhibitor, follistatin. Although Trichostatin A administration induced muscle growth in normal mice, it failed to preserve muscle in colon-26 cancer cachexia. Finally we sought to inhibit myostatin and related ligands by administration of the Activin receptor extracellular domain/Fc fusion protein, ACVR2B-Fc. Systemic administration of ACVR2B-Fc potently inhibited muscle wasting and protected adipose stores in both colon-26 and Lewis lung carcinoma cachexia, without affecting tumor growth. Enhanced cachexia in myostatin knockouts indicates that host-derived myostatin is not the sole mediator of muscle wasting in cancer. More importantly, skeletal muscle preservation with ACVR2B-Fc establishes that targeting myostatin-family ligands using ACVR2B-Fc or related molecules is an important and potent therapeutic avenue in cancer cachexia.

  11. Movement patterns and muscle damage during simulated rugby sevens matches in National team players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas A; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Moraes, José E; Kitamura, Katia; Ramos, Solange P; Loturco, Irineu

    2017-02-23

    The aim of this study was to analyze the match performance (i.e., distance covered in different intensities), signs of muscle damage (assessed by means of creatine kinase [CK] activity and rate of force development [RFD]), and neuromuscular fatigue (using linear sprint and vertical jump performances) following three single-day simulated matches performed by rugby sevens players from the Brazilian National Team. Ten male rugby sevens players (25.2 ± 3.6 years; 88.7 ± 7.1 kg; 182.2 ± 6.3 cm) participated in this study. On the day prior to the matches, the athletes performed a 40-m sprint, a vertical jump assessment and a maximal isometric force test. In the morning of the match day, blood samples were collected to analyze the CK activity. Afterwards, three simulated rugby sevens' matches were performed with 2-h intermission periods. The match performance (encompassing total distance and distance covered in different velocity ranges and body loads [BL]) were obtained from global positioning system units. The statistical analysis was performed by using a mixed model approach and the effect sizes (ES) of the differences. The statistical significance level was set at P0.8) and significant (P< 0.05) reductions were demonstrated in the total distance and BL when comparing the 2 with the 1 halves. Decrements in the explosive force capacity (assessed by means of RFD) and the squat jump were noticed (ES varying from 0.55 to 1.14; P< 0.05). The CK activity increased after the matches (ES = 1.29; P< 0.05). The rugby sevens players were able to maintain the physical performance across three successive matches simulating the first day of a tournament. The augmented CK activity and the decreases in the squat jump and RFD suggest that increased levels of muscle damage were experienced on the day after the matches. Therefore, the technical staff are encouraged to implement recovery strategies and planned substitutions during multi-day tournaments in order to reduce the impact of

  12. Acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary function in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal, Mustafa

    2016-06-15

    The acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary functions were examined in 26 healthy male subjects using the pulmonary function test (PFT) in three different trials. The control trial (CON) did not involve inspiratory muscle warm-up, while the placebo (IMWp) and experimental (IMW) trials involved inspiratory muscle warm-up. There were no significant changes between the IMWp and CON trials (p>0.05). All the PFT measurements, including slow vital capacity, inspiratory vital capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and maximal inspiratory pressure were significantly increased by 3.55%, 12.52%, 5.00%, 2.75%, 2.66%, and 7.03% respectively, in the subjects in the IMW trial than those in the CON trial (pcooperation of the upper thorax, neck, and respiratory muscles, and increased level of reactive O2 species in muscle tissue, and potentially improvement of muscle O2 delivery-to-utilization. However, further investigation is required to determine the precise mechanisms responsible from among these candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute sex hormone suppression reduces skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Danielle S; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Bell, Christopher; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2011-10-01

    Comparisons of sympathetic nervous system activity (SNA) between young and older women have produced equivocal results, in part due to inadequate control for potential differences in sex hormone concentrations, age, and body composition. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a short-term reduction in sex hormones on tonic skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), an indirect measure of whole body SNA, using an experimental model of sex hormone deficiency in young women. We also assessed the independent effects of estradiol and progesterone add-back therapy on MSNA. MSNA was measured in 9 women (30±2 years; mean±SE) on three separate occasions: during the mid-luteal menstrual cycle phase, on the fifth day of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHant) administration, and after 5 days add-back of either estradiol (n=4) or progesterone (n=3) during continued GnRHant administration. In response to GnRHant, there were significant reductions in serum estradiol and progesterone (both psuppression attenuates MSNA and that this may be related to the suppression of progesterone rather than estradiol.

  14. Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jeong, Woo-Seok; Lee, Ha-Yan

    2013-12-01

    The increase rate of utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by muscle is reduced to its plasma concentration during prolonged exercise leading to glycogen. BCAA supplementation would reduce the serum activities of intramuscular enzymes associated with muscle damage. To examine the effects of BCAA administration on fatigue substances (serotonin, ammonia and lactate), muscle damage substances (CK and LDH) and energy metabolism substances (FFA and glucose) after endurance exercise. Subjects (n = 26, college-aged males) were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 13, EXP) and a placebo (n = 13, CON) group. Subjects both EXP and CON performed a bout of cycle training (70% VO2max intensity) to exhaustion. Subject in the EXP were administrated BCAA (78ml/kg·w) prior to the bout of cycle exercise. Fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances were measured before ingesting BCAAs and placebos, 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, immediately after exercise, and 30 min after exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANCOVA, correlation and statistical significance was set at p BCAA decreased serum concentrations of the intramuscular enzymes as CK and LDH following exhaustive exercise. This observation suggests that BCAA supplementation may reduce the muscle damage associated with endurance exercise.

  15. Edaravone attenuates brain damage in rats after acute CO poisoning through inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Bi, Ming Jun; Bi, Wei Kang; Kang, Hai; Yan, Le Jing; Guo, Yun-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common cause of death from poisoning all over the world and may result in neuropathologic and neurophysiologic changes. Acute brain damage and delayed encephalopathy are the most serious complication, yet their pathogenesis is poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Edaravone against apoptosis and oxidative stress after acute CO poisoning. The rat model of CO poisoning was established in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber by exposed to CO. Ultrastructure changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TUNEL stain was used to assess apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence double stain were used to evaluate the expression levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) protein and their relationship. By dynamically monitored the carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) level in blood, we successfully established rat model of severe CO poisoning. Ultrastructure changes, including chromatin condensation, cytoplasm dissolution, vacuoles formation, nucleus membrane and cell organelles decomposition, could be observed after CO poisoning. Edaravone could improve the ultrastructure damage. CO poisoning could induce apoptosis. Apoptotic cells were widely distributed in cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Edaravone treatment attenuated neuronal apoptosis as compared with the poisoning group (P Edaravone, the expression of HO-1 and Nrf-2 significantly increased (P Edaravone may inhibit apoptosis, activate the Keapl-Nrf/ARE pathway, and thus improve the ultrastructure damage and neurophysiologic changes following acute CO poisoning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Biochemical and muscle studies in patients with acute onset post-viral fatigue syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Preedy, V R; Smith, D G; Salisbury, J R; Peters, T J

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate in detail various biochemical and pathophysiological indices of muscle pathology in acute onset post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS). METHODS--Twenty three patients with PVFS (of mean duration 4.6 years) were subjected to needle biopsy for histomorphometry and total RNA contents. Plasma analysis included serology and creatine kinase activities. Indices of whole body mass were also measured--namely, whole body potassium content and plasma carnosinase activities. RESULTS--Abo...

  17. The Effects of Aquatic Plyometric Training on Repeated Jumps, Drop Jumps and Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Lavanant, A; Alvero-Cruz, J R; Pareja-Blanco, F; Melero-Romero, C; Rodríguez-Rosell, D; Fernandez-Garcia, J C

    2015-09-22

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of land- vs. aquatic based plyometric training programs on the drop jump, repeated jump performance and muscle damage. Sixty-five male students were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: aquatic plyometric training group (APT), plyometric training group (PT) and control group (CG). Both experimental groups trained twice a week for 10 weeks performing the same number of sets and total jumps. The following variables were measured prior to, halfway through and after the training programs: creatine kinase (CK) concentration, maximal height during a drop jump from the height of 30 (DJ30) and 50 cm (DJ50), and mean height during a repeated vertical jump test (RJ). The training program resulted in a significant increase (Pplyometric training, PT produced greater gains on reactive jumps performance than APT. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Rapid increases in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks (nine training sessions) of stretch-shortening (drop jump) exercise with constant load alternated with steep increases in load. Physically active men (n = 9, mean age 19.1 years) performed....... Maximal jump height increased by 7.8% ± 6.3% (P training session, respectively. Gains in isometric knee extension MVC (7.9% ± 8.2%) and 100-Hz-evoked torque (9.9% ± 9.6%) (both P ... within 17 days after the end of training. The magnitude of improvement was greater after this protocol than that induced by a continuous constant progression loading pattern with small gradual load increments in each training session. These findings suggest that plyometric training using infrequent...

  19. Effects of Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) on exercise-induced oxidative stress, muscle damage, and pain following a half-marathon: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withee, Eric D; Tippens, Kimberly M; Dehen, Regina; Tibbitts, Deanne; Hanes, Douglas; Zwickey, Heather

    2017-01-01

    . Participation in a half-marathon was associated with increased markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, and pain. MSM supplementation was not associated with a decrease from pre-training levels of oxidative stress or muscle damage associated with an acute bout of exercise. MSM supplementation attenuated post-exercise muscle and joint pain at clinically, but not statistically significant levels.

  20. Spirulina does not decrease muscle damage nor oxdidative stress in cycling athletes with adequate nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.M. Franca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Spirulina maxima on oxidative stress and muscle damage in cycling athletes subjected to high volume and intensity of training. Eighteen male athletes were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=11 with age 27.8±3.5 and placebo (n=7 with age 34.3±2.3 in a double-blind fashion. They carried out a protocol of Spirulina dietary supplementation (7.5 g/day of placebo for four weeks and maintained their trainings during this period. A nutritional anamnesis was performed and blood tests were done to determine pre and post levels of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LHD, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA. The supplemented and placebo groups performed the same volume training, has adequate macronutrients and antioxidant vitamins ingestion before study, as well as initial CK, LDH, SOD and MDA levels. Supplementation did not promote a significant alteration in CK levels on supplemented group (158.4±16.3 for 140.0±16.6 U/l, p>0.05, LDH (420±13.2 for 394.9±27.9 UI/l, p>0.05, MDA (2.8±0.2 for 2.9±0.4 nmol/ml, p>0.05, nor an increase in the SOD (7.3±0.6 for 7.0±0.6 U/mg Hb, p>0.05. We conclude that administration of Spirulina does not interfere in the magnitude of muscle damage nor in antioxidant status of cycling athletes that practice intense training.

  1. IL-6, Antioxidant Capacity and Muscle Damage Markers Following High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipryan, Lukas

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and muscle damage markers (creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) in response to three different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols of identical external work. Twelve moderately-trained males participated in the three HIIT trials which consisted of a warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s HIIT sequences with the work/rest ratio 1. The biochemical markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and muscle damage were analysed POST, 3 h and 24 h after the exercise. All HIIT protocols caused an immediate increase in IL-6, TAC, CK, myoglobin and LDH. The most pronounced between-trials differences were found for the POST-exercise changes in IL-6 (Effect size ± 90% confidence interval: 1.51 ± 0.63, 0.84 ± 0.34 and 1.80 ± 0.60 for the 15s/15s, 30s/30s and 60s/60s protocol, respectively) and myoglobin (1.11 ± 0.29, 0.45 ± 0.48 and 1.09 ± 0.22 for the 15s/15s, 30s/30s and 60s/60s protocol, respectively). There were no substantial between-trial differences in other biochemical variables. In conclusion, the 15s/15s and 60s/60s protocols might be preferred to the 30s/30s protocols in order to maximize the training stimulus.

  2. Weight increase and overweight are associated with DNA oxidative damage in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Maza, María-Pía; Olivares, Daniela; Hirsch, Sandra; Sierralta, Walter; Gattás, Vivien; Barrera, Gladys; Bunout, Daniel; Leiva, Laura; Fernández, Mireya

    2006-12-01

    Weight maintenance within normal standards is recommended for prevention of conditions associated with oxidative injury. To compare oxidative damage in a post mitotic tissue, between adults differing in long-term energy balance. During hernia surgery, a sample of skeletal muscle was obtained in 17 non-obese adults. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their self-reported weight change: weight maintainers (WM) reported 5kg increment. Muscle immunohistochemistry for 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG), 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE), and TNF-alpha, as markers of oxidative injury and inflammation, were performed. As known positive controls for oxidative injury, we included 10 elderly subjects (66-101yr). Anthropometric measures and blood samples for clinical laboratory and serum cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) were obtained. 8OHdG was higher in WG compared with WM (149.1+/-16.2 versus 117.8+/-29.5, P=0.03), and was associated with anthropometric indicators of fat accumulation. 4HNE was similar in WG compared with WM (10.9+/-7.6 versus 9.8+/-6.3) but noticeably higher in elderly subjects (21.5+/-15.3, P=0.059). TNF-alpha protein in WG was higher compared with WM (114.0+/-41.7 versus 70.1+/-23.3, P=0.025), and was associated with weight increase. Moderate self-reported weight increase, and body fat accumulation, suggesting long-term positive energy balance is associated with muscle DNA oxidative injury and inflammation.

  3. Exercise-induced muscle damage and the repeated bout effect: evidence for cross transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Chelsea; Eston, Roger G

    2012-03-01

    We examined whether a prior bout of eccentric exercise in the elbow flexors provided protection against exercise-induced muscle damage in the contralateral arm. Fifteen males (age 22.7 ± 2.1 years; height 178.6 ± 6.8 cm, mass 75.8 ± 9.3 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups who performed two bouts of 60 eccentric contractions (30°/s) separated by 2 weeks: ipsilateral (n = 7, both bouts performed in the same arm), contralateral (n = 8, one bout performed in each arm). Strength, muscle soreness and resting arm angle (RAA) were measured at baseline and at 1, 24 and 48 h post exercise. Surface electromyography was recorded during both bouts of exercise. The degree of strength loss was attenuated (p < 0.05) in the ipsilateral group after the second bout of eccentric exercise (-22 cf. -3% for bout 1 and 2 at 24 h, respectively). Strength loss following eccentric exercise was also attenuated (p < 0.05) at 24 h in the contralateral group (-30 cf. 13% for bout 1 and 2, respectively). Muscle soreness (≈34 cf 19 mm) and change in RAA (≈5 cf. 3%) were also lower following the second bout of eccentric exercise (p < 0.05), although there was no difference in the overall change in these values between groups. Median frequency (MF) was decreased by 31% between bouts, with no difference between groups. Data support observations that the repeated bout effect transfers to the opposite (untrained) limb. The similar reduction in MF between bouts for the two groups provides evidence for a centrally mediated, neural adaptation.

  4. Biochemical impact of soccer: an analysis of hormonal, muscle damage, and redox markers during the season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, João Renato; Rebelo, António; Marques, Franklim; Pereira, Laura; Seabra, André; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze changes in performance, muscle function, and stress-related biochemical markers in professional soccer players (n = 14) at 4 timepoints (3 for performance and 4 for stress-related biochemical markers) during the soccer season [Formula: see text] preseason (E1), midseason (E2), end of the season (E3) [Formula: see text] and after the end of the recovery period (E4). Performance in 5- and 30-m sprints, countermovement jump, and agility, and maximal isokinetic knee extension and knee flexion strength were measured (E1 to E3). We observed increased in-season levels of myoglobin (E2 > E1 and E4; p E1 and E4; p player during the competition period), performance, and hormonal and redox parameters (r = 0.456-0.615; p soccer players face significant changes in biomarkers of physiologic strain (muscle damage and oxidative stress-related markers) during the season, but values return to normal during the off-season. Additionally, MAT influences physical, hormonal, and oxidative stress-related parameters in professional soccer players.

  5. Additional effects of taurine on the benefits of BCAA intake for the delayed-onset muscle soreness and muscle damage induced by high-intensity eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Miyazaki, Teruo; Ishikura, Keisuke; Nagayama, Hisashi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Maeda, Seiji; Ito, Masaharu; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ohmori, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Taurine (TAU) has a lot of the biological, physiological, and pharmocological functions including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress. Although previous studies have appreciated the effectiveness of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), consistent finding has not still convinced. The aim of this study was to examine the additional effect of TAU with BCAA on the DOMS and muscle damages after eccentric exercise. Thirty-six untrained male volunteers were equally divided into four groups, and ingested a combination with 2.0 g TAU (or placebo) and 3.2 g BCAA (or placebo), thrice a day, 2 weeks prior to and 4 days after elbow flexion eccentric exercise. Following the period after eccentric exercise, the physiological and blood biochemical markers for DOMS and muscle damage showed improvement in the combination of TAU and BCAA supplementation rather than in the single or placebo supplementations. In conclusion, additional supplement of TAU with BCAA would be a useful way to attenuate DOMS and muscle damages induced by high-intensity exercise.

  6. Effects of concentric and repeated eccentric exercise on muscle damage and calpain-calpastatin gene expression in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, K.; Overgaard, K.; Nedergaard, A.

    2008-01-01

    , and was compared to a control-group (n = 6). Muscle strength and soreness and plasma creatine kinase and myoglobin were measured before and during 7 days following exercise bouts. Muscle biopsies were collected from m. vastus lateralis of both legs prior to and at 3, 24 h and 7 days after exercise and quantified...... for muscle Ca2+-content and mRNA levels for calpain isoforms and calpastatin. Exercise reduced muscle strength and increased muscle soreness predominantly in the eccentric leg (P ... eccentric exercise bout (P muscle Ca2+-content did not differ between interventions. mRNA levels for calpain 2 and calpastatin were upregulated exclusively by eccentric exercise 24 h post-exercise (P

  7. Vorinostat induces reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca A Petruccelli

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi are promising anti-cancer agents, however, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells, HDACi have been reported to arrest growth and induce apoptosis. In this study, we elucidate details of the DNA damage induced by the HDACi vorinostat in AML cells. At clinically relevant concentrations, vorinostat induces double-strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage in AML cell lines. Additionally, AML patient blasts treated with vorinostat display increased DNA damage, followed by an increase in caspase-3/7 activity and a reduction in cell viability. Vorinostat-induced DNA damage is followed by a G2-M arrest and eventually apoptosis. We found that pre-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC reduces vorinostat-induced DNA double strand breaks, G2-M arrest and apoptosis. These data implicate DNA damage as an important mechanism in vorinostat-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in both AML cell lines and patient-derived blasts. This supports the continued study and development of vorinostat in AMLs that may be sensitive to DNA-damaging agents and as a combination therapy with ionizing radiation and/or other DNA damaging agents.

  8. Vorinostat Induces Reactive Oxygen Species and DNA Damage in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Filippa; Retrouvey, Hélène; Skoulikas, Sophia; Miller, Wilson H.

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are promising anti-cancer agents, however, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, HDACi have been reported to arrest growth and induce apoptosis. In this study, we elucidate details of the DNA damage induced by the HDACi vorinostat in AML cells. At clinically relevant concentrations, vorinostat induces double-strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage in AML cell lines. Additionally, AML patient blasts treated with vorinostat display increased DNA damage, followed by an increase in caspase-3/7 activity and a reduction in cell viability. Vorinostat-induced DNA damage is followed by a G2-M arrest and eventually apoptosis. We found that pre-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) reduces vorinostat-induced DNA double strand breaks, G2-M arrest and apoptosis. These data implicate DNA damage as an important mechanism in vorinostat-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in both AML cell lines and patient-derived blasts. This supports the continued study and development of vorinostat in AMLs that may be sensitive to DNA-damaging agents and as a combination therapy with ionizing radiation and/or other DNA damaging agents. PMID:21695163

  9. Supplementation with a Polyphenol-Rich Extract, TensLess® , Attenuates Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness and Improves Muscle Recovery from Damages After Eccentric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Cindy; Freitas, Tomás T; Martínez-Noguera, Francisco J; Laurent, Caroline; Gaillet, Sylvie; Chung, Linda H; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Cases, Julien

    2017-11-01

    High-intensity exercises are known to provoke delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Delayed onset muscle soreness typically occurs within the first 24 h, peaks between 24 and 72 h, and can last as long as 5-7 days post-exercise. Delayed onset muscle soreness is a multifactorial process involving both mechanical and biochemical components, associated with clinical features that may limit range of motion, and athletes seek for effective recovery strategies to optimize future training sessions. TensLess ® is a food supplement developed to help manage post-exercise recovery. The supplement has been investigated on 13 recreationally active athletes of both sex, during a randomized, double-blind, and crossover clinical investigation, including a 3-week washout period. The clinical investigation was based on the study of TensLess ® effects for DOMS management and on the reduction of associated muscle damages following an eccentric exercise protocol. Supplementation with TensLess ® induced significant decrease in DOMS perception (-33%; p = 0.008) as of the first 24 h; this was significantly correlated with a lowered release of muscle damage-associated biomarkers, namely myoglobin, creatinine, and creatine kinase, for the whole length of the recovery period. Taken together, these positive results clearly indicate that post-exercise supplementation with TensLess ® may preserve myocytes and reduce soreness following eccentric exercise-induced damages, and, accordingly, significantly shorten muscle recovery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acids acutely affect triacylglycerol-derived skeletal muscle fatty acid uptake and increases postprandial insulin sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, Anneke; Konings, Ellen; Goossens, Gijs H.; Bouwman, Freek G.; Moors, Chantalle C.; Boekschoten, Mark; Afman, Lydia; Muller, Michael; Mariman, Edwin C.; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary fat quality may influence skeletal muscle lipid handling and fat accumulation, thereby modulating insulin sensitivity. Objective: To examine acute effects of meals with various fatty acid (FA) compositions on skeletal muscle FA handling and postprandial insulin sensitivity in obese insulin

  11. Early detection of skeletal muscle injury by assay of creatine kinase MM isoforms in serum after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apple, F. S.; Hellsten, Ylva; Clarkson, P. M.

    1988-01-01

    We could detect skeletal muscle injury early after an acute exercise bout by measuring creatine kinase (CK, EC 2.7.3.2) MM isoforms in serum. Eleven men performed 120 alternating-arm, eccentric (muscle lengthening) biceps contractions with the intensity of each contraction being 110% of maximal...

  12. Enteric Neuronal Damage, Intramuscular Denervation and Smooth Muscle Phenotype Changes as Mechanisms of Chagasic Megacolon: Evidence from a Long-Term Murine Model of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila França Campos

    Full Text Available We developed a novel murine model of long-term infection with Trypanosoma cruzi with the aim to elucidate the pathogenesis of megacolon and the associated adaptive and neuromuscular intestinal disorders. Our intent was to produce a chronic stage of the disease since the early treatment should avoid 100% mortality of untreated animals at acute phase. Treatment allowed animals to be kept infected and alive in order to develop the chronic phase of infection with low parasitism as in human disease. A group of Swiss mice was infected with the Y strain of T. cruzi. At the 11th day after infection, a sub-group was euthanized (acute-phase group and another sub-group was treated with benznidazole and euthanized 15 months after infection (chronic-phase group. Whole colon samples were harvested and used for studying the histopathology of the intestinal smooth muscle and the plasticity of the enteric nerves. In the acute phase, all animals presented inflammatory lesions associated with intense and diffuse parasitism of the muscular and submucosa layers, which were enlarged when compared with the controls. The occurrence of intense degenerative inflammatory changes and increased reticular fibers suggests inflammatory-induced necrosis of muscle cells. In the chronic phase, parasitism was insignificant; however, the architecture of Aüerbach plexuses was focally affected in the inflamed areas, and a significant decrease in the number of neurons and in the density of intramuscular nerve bundles was detected. Other changes observed included increased thickness of the colon wall, diffuse muscle cell hypertrophy, and increased collagen deposition, indicating early fibrosis in the damaged areas. Mast cell count significantly increased in the muscular layers. We propose a model for studying the long-term (15 months pathogenesis of Chagasic megacolon in mice that mimics the human disease, which persists for several years and has not been fully elucidated. We

  13. Experience on treatment of acute head injury combined with optic nerve damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Heng; Feng Dongxia; Ma Yuanpin; Chen Jinqing

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic principle for the management of acute head injury combined with optic nerve damage. Method: the clinical data of treatment and prognosis from 24 patients, in which 15 received operative and 9 conservative measures were collected and analyzed. Results: In 15 operated cases, the vision of 10 cases including one with blindness before operation was improved obviously, while those of other 5 did not get any improvement. In 9 conservatively treated cases, the vision was improved in 4 cases, deteriorated in 4 case and no change in 1 case with blindness after injury. Conclusion: One the optic nerve damage has been manifested by clinical or radiological evidences in acute head injury patients, despite it was primary or secondary reason, surgical optic nerve bone canal decompression should be done as soon as possible

  14. Proteomic and carbonylation profile analysis of rat skeletal muscles following acute swimming exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Magherini

    Full Text Available Previous studies by us and other groups characterized protein expression variation following long-term moderate training, whereas the effects of single bursts of exercise are less known. Making use of a proteomic approach, we investigated the effects of acute swimming exercise (ASE on protein expression and carbonylation patterns in two hind limb muscles: the Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL and the Soleus, mostly composed of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibres, respectively. Carbonylation is one of the most common oxidative modifications of proteins and a marker of oxidative stress. In fact, several studies suggest that physical activity and the consequent increase in oxygen consumption can lead to increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS production, hence the interest in examining the impact of RONS on skeletal muscle proteins following ASE. Results indicate that protein expression is unaffected by ASE in both muscle types. Unexpectedly, the protein carbonylation level was reduced following ASE. In particular, the analysis found 31 and 5 spots, in Soleus and EDL muscles respectively, whose carbonylation is reduced after ASE. Lipid peroxidation levels in Soleus were markedly reduced as well. Most of the decarbonylated proteins are involved either in the regulation of muscle contractions or in the regulation of energy metabolism. A number of hypotheses may be advanced to account for such results, which will be addressed in future studies.

  15. Deletion of Galgt2 (B4Galnt2) reduces muscle growth in response to acute injury and increases muscle inflammation and pathology in dystrophin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Singhal, Neha; Serinagaoglu, Yelda; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Joshi, Mandar; Bauer, John A; Janssen, Paulus M L; Martin, Paul T

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic overexpression of Galgt2 (official name B4Galnt2) in skeletal muscle stimulates the glycosylation of α dystroglycan (αDG) and the up-regulation of laminin α2 and dystrophin surrogates known to inhibit muscle pathology in mouse models of congenital muscular dystrophy 1A and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Skeletal muscle Galgt2 gene expression is also normally increased in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy compared with the wild-type mice. To assess whether this increased endogenous Galgt2 expression could affect disease, we quantified muscular dystrophy measures in mdx mice deleted for Galgt2 (Galgt2(-/-)mdx). Galgt2(-/-) mdx mice had increased heart and skeletal muscle pathology and inflammation, and also worsened cardiac function, relative to age-matched mdx mice. Deletion of Galgt2 in wild-type mice also slowed skeletal muscle growth in response to acute muscle injury. In each instance where Galgt2 expression was elevated (developing muscle, regenerating muscle, and dystrophic muscle), Galgt2-dependent glycosylation of αDG was also increased. Overexpression of Galgt2 failed to inhibit skeletal muscle pathology in dystroglycan-deficient muscles, in contrast to previous studies in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles. This study demonstrates that Galgt2 gene expression and glycosylation of αDG are dynamically regulated in muscle and that endogenous Galgt2 gene expression can ameliorate the extent of muscle pathology, inflammation, and dysfunction in mdx mice. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical monitoring of spinal cord subcellular damage after acute spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Manouchehri, Neda; So, Kitty; Shortt, Katelyn; Fong, Allan; Streijger, Femke; Macnab, Andrew; Kwon, Brian K.

    2018-02-01

    Introduction: Sudden physical trauma to the spinal cord results in acute spinal cord injury (SCI), leading to spinal cord (SC) tissue destruction, acute inflammation, increased SC intraparenchymal pressure, and tissue ischemia, hypoxia, and cellular necrosis. The ability to monitor SC tissue viability at subcellular level, using a real-time noninvasive method, would be extremely valuable to clinicians for estimating acute SCI damage, and adjusting and monitoring treatment in the intensive care setting. This study examined the feasibility and sensitivity of a custommade near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensor to monitor the oxidation state of SC mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 (CCO), which reflects the subcellular damage of SC tissue in an animal model of SCI. Methods: Six anesthetized Yorkshire pigs were studied using a custom-made multi-wavelength NIRS system with a miniaturized optical sensor applied directly on the surgically exposed SC at T9. The oxidation states of SC tissue hemoglobin and CCO were monitored before, during and after acute SCI, and during mean arterial pressure alterations. Results: Non-invasive NIRS monitoring reflected changes in SC tissue CCO, simultaneous but independent of changes in hemoglobin saturation following acute SCI. A consistent decrease in SC tissue CCO chromophore concentration (-1.98 +/- 2.1 ab, pElevation of mean arterial pressure can reduce SC tissue damage as suggested by different researchers and observed by significant increase in SC tissue CCO concentration (1.51 +/- 1.7 ab, p<0.05) in this study. Conclusions: This pilot study indicates that a novel miniaturized multi-wave NIRS sensor has the potential to monitor post-SCI changes of SC cytochrome aa3 oxygenation state in real time. Further development of this method may offer new options for improved SCI care.

  17. Acute swelling of the limbs: magnetic resonance pictorial review of fascial and muscle signal changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revelon, Geraldine [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Rahmouni, Alain [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Jazaerli, Nedal [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Godeau, Bertrand [Department of Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Chosidow, Olivier [Department of Dermatology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Authier, Jerome [Department of Pathology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Mathieu, Didier [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Roujeau, Jean-Claude [Department of Dermatology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Vasile, Norbert [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France)

    1999-04-01

    Objective: This pictorial review analyzes the magnetic resonance (MR) fascial/muscular changes in 69 patients referred as emergencies with acute swelling of the limbs (ASL) from various causes. Methods and material: A prospective MR imaging (MRI) study of 69 patients referred as emergencies for ASL was performed. Our population consisted of 45 patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis, and pyomyositis), six patients with soft-tissue inflammatory diseases (dermatomyositis, graft-versus-host disease), 11 patients with acute deep venous thrombosis, three patients with rhabdomyolysis, one patient with acute denervation and three other patients with rare diseases. Hematomas, tumorous or infectious bone involvement and soft-tissue tumors were excluded. All studies included spin echo T1-weighted images and spin echo T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced spin echo T1-weighted images were obtained when an abscess was suspected on T2-weighted images. Selective fat-saturated T1- and T2-weighted sequences were also used. MRI analysis was performed to obtain a compartmentalized anatomical approach according to the location of signal abnormalities in subcutaneous fat, superficial and deep fascia and muscle. Results: In all patients with ASL, MRI demonstrated soft-tissue abnormalities involving subcutaneous fat, superficial fascia, deep fascia, or muscle. Although MR findings were non-specific, MRI appears sensitive for detecting subtle fascial and muscle signal changes. Conclusions: In skin and soft-tissue infections, MRI can be helpful for therapeutic management by determining the depth of soft-tissue involvement, particularly within fasciae and muscles, which is partly related to the severity of cellulitis with severe systemic manifestations. MRI can also aid the surgeon in diagnosing abscesses. In inflammatory diseases, MRI can determine the best site for biopsy and also monitor therapeutic response.

  18. Keto analogues and amino acids supplementation induces a decrease of white blood cell counts and a reduction of muscle damage during intense exercise under thermoneutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R C P; Camerino, S R A S; França, T C L; Rodrigues, D S A; Gouveia, M G S; Ximenes-da-Silva, A; Bassini, A; Prado, E S; Cameron, L C

    2017-04-19

    This study evaluated the acute effect of keto analogue and amino acid (AA-KAAA) supplementation on both white blood cell counts and the established biomarkers of muscle damage during exercise under thermoneutral conditions. Sixteen male cyclists received a ketogenic diet for two days and were divided into two equal groups: a group taking AA-KAAA (KA) or a control group (PL). The athletes performed a two hour cycling session followed by a maximum incremental test until voluntary exhaustion (VExh). Blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise for further hematological and biochemical analyses. Exercise-induced ammonemia increased in the PL group at VExh (75%) but remained unchanged in the KA group. Both groups exhibited a significant increase in leukocyte and neutrophil counts of ∼85% (∼13 × 10 9 L -1 ), but the shape of the lymphocytes and the eosinophil counts suggest that AA-KAAA supplementation helps prevent lymphocytosis. AA-KAAA supplementation induced a decrease in creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels at VExh while showing a significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase at 120 min. We found that AA-KAAA supplementation decreases both the lymphocyte count response in blood and the established biomarkers of muscle damage after intense exercise under a low heat stress environment.

  19. Lumbosacral interspinous ligament rupture associated with acute intrinsic spinal muscle degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinkins, Randy J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate lumbosacral interspinous ligament rupture, with or without related acute intrinsic spinal muscle degeneration. This study consisted of a prospective imaging analysis of consecutive 100 MRI studies in adult patients (mean age 56 years) presenting with low back pain. Alterations from the normal in the inter- and perispinal structures of the spine and perispinal soft tissues (e.g., spinal ligaments, perispinal muscles) were sought based upon studies on young volunteers without low back pain (n=10; mean age 23 years). Compared with the group without low back pain, many index cases (n=71, 71%) demonstrated hyperintensity (i.e., sprain or frank ligamentous rupture) of the interspinous ligament(s) on T2-weighted, fat-suppressed MRI studies at one (20 of 71, 28%) or multiple (51 of 71, 72%) levels. Associated intrinsic spinal muscle (e.g., interspinalis, multifidus muscles) degeneration was observed in a minority of cases overall (n=7, 7%), but was only seen in association with cases also demonstrating interspinous ligament degeneration/rupture (7 of 71, 10%). Lumbosacral interspinous ligament sprain or frank rupture, as well as related acute-subacute autotraumatic intrinsic spinal muscle rupture/degeneration, may be overlooked by many observers if fat-suppressed, T2-weighted MRI is not acquired. These musculoligamentous alterations are on occasion the only abnormalities recognized on MRI of the lumbosacral spine and may theoretically be sources of low back morbidity that potentially may respond to specific therapy. Because this study was an observational one, based solely upon medical imaging, future research must focus upon the correlation of the relevance of these findings with an age-matched asymptomatic control group and longitudinal clinicoradiologic therapeutic trials. (orig.)

  20. ASOTHEMIA EFFECT UPON THE LIVER ARGINASE ACTIVITY IN THE ACUTE KIDNEY DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Djordjevic

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The acute damage of the kidney function leads to an outstanding disbalance of many homeostatic mechanisms in the organism that emerges as a consequence of the reduced glomerulic filtration and the accompanying oliguria. This conditions the emergence of asothemia, that is, the state caracterized by an increase of the level of urea, creatinine and other ureic toxins in the blood. The results of the previous exami-nations show that the acute renal insufficiency is a disturbance accompanied with ac-celerated protein catabolism. The urea is a terminal product of the protein catabolism whose synthesis is mainly taking place in the liver; that is why the research aimed at examining the liver arginase activity, terminal enzyme in the urea synthesis cycle in various experimental models of the acute renal insufficiency. The acute asothemia is experimentally caused upon the male Spraque Dawlly rats by means of two models, namely, the model of bilateral binding of the urethra (BPU and the clycerolic model. The arginase activity in the liver tissue homogenate is measured by the Porembsky and Cedra method on the basis of the liberated ornithine liberation. In the plasma of the experimental animals the level of urea and creatinine was measured for the sake of estimating the renal function. In both the models of the acute kidney damage there was a considerable increase of the urea and creatinine concentration in the plasma (p<0,001 which is followed by a significant increase of the hepatic arginase activity with respect to the control group of the animals. On the basis of the obtained results it can be conclude that asothemia in the acute renal insufficiency is followed by an in-crease in the liver arginase activity.

  1. Distinct effects of acute and chronic sleep loss on DNA damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M L; Ribeiro, D A; Bergamaschi, C T; Alvarenga, T A; Silva, A; Zager, A; Campos, R R; Tufik, S

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate genetic damage induced in male rats by experimental sleep loss for short-term (24 and 96 h) and long-term (21 days) intervals, as well as their respective recovery periods in peripheral blood, brain, liver and heart tissue by the single cell gel (comet) assay. Rats were paradoxically deprived of sleep (PSD) by the platform technique for 24 or 96 h, or chronically sleep-restricted (SR) for 21 days. We also sought to verify the time course of their recovery after 24 h of rebound sleep. The results showed DNA damage in blood cells of rats submitted to PSD for 96 h. Brain tissue showed extensive genotoxic damage in PSD rats (both 24 and 96 h), though the effect was more pronounced in the 96 h group. Rats allowed to recover from the PSD-96 h and SR-21 days treatments showed DNA damage as compared to negative controls. Liver and heart did not display any genotoxicity activity. Corticosterone concentrations were increased after PSD (24 and 96 h) relative to control rats, whereas these levels were unaffected in the SR group. Collectively, these findings reveal that sleep loss was able to induce genetic damage in blood and brain cells, especially following acute exposure. Since DNA damage is an important step in events leading to genomic instability, this study represents a relevant contribution to the understanding of the potential health risks associated with sleep deprivation.

  2. Biomechanics Analysis of Pressure Ulcer Using Damaged Interface Model between Bone and Muscle in the Human Buttock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Samuel Susanto; Takano, Naoki; Tanabe, Yoshiyuki; Hatano, Asako; Nagasao, Tomohisa

    This paper aims at building up a computational procedure to study the bio-mechanism of pressure ulcer using the finite element method. Pressure ulcer is a disease that occurs in the human body after 2 hours of continuous external force. In the very early stage of pressure ulcer, it is found that the tissues inside the body are damaged, even though skin surface looks normal. This study assumes that tension and/or shear strain will cause damage to loose fibril tissue between the bone and muscle and that propagation of damaged area will lead to fatal stage. Analysis was performed using the finite element method by modeling the damaged fibril tissue as a cutout. By varying the loading directions and watching both tensile and shear strains, the risk of fibril tissue damage and propagation of the damaged area is discussed, which may give new insight for the careful nursing for patients, particularly after surgical treatment. It was found that the pressure ulcer could reoccur for a surgical flap treatment. The bone cut and surgical flap surgery is not perfect to prevent the bone-muscle interfacial damage.

  3. Purified Human Skeletal Muscle-Derived Stem Cells Enhance the Repair and Regeneration in the Damaged Urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Tamaki, Tetsuro; Hirata, Maki; Soeda, Shuichi; Nitta, Masahiro; Hoshi, Akio; Terachi, Toshiro

    2017-10-01

    Postoperative damage of the urethral rhabdosphincter and nerve-vascular networks is a major complication of radical prostatectomy and generally causes incontinence and/or erectile dysfunction. The human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells, which have a synchronized reconstitution capacity of muscle-nerve-blood vessel units, were applied to this damage. Cells were enzymatically extracted from the human skeletal muscle, sorted using flow cytometry as CD34/45 (Sk-34) and CD29/34/45 (Sk-DN/29) fractions, and separately cultured/expanded in appropriate conditions within 2 weeks. Urethral damage was induced by manually removing one third of the wall of the muscle layer in nude rats. A mixture of expanded Sk-34 and Sk-DN/29 cells was applied on the damaged portion for the cell transplantation (CT) group. The same amount of media was used for the non-CT (NT) group. Urethral pressure profile was evaluated via electrical stimulation to assess functional recovery. Cell engraftments and differentiations were detected using immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. Expression of angiogenic cytokines was also analyzed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and protein array. At 6 weeks after transplantation, the CT group showed a significantly higher functional recovery than the NT group (70.2% and 39.1%, respectively; P cells differentiated into skeletal muscle fibers, nerve-related Schwann cells, perineuriums, and vascular pericytes. Active paracrine angiogenic cytokines in the mixed cells were also detected with enhanced vascular formation in vivo. The transplantation of Sk-34 and Sk-DN/29 cells is potentially useful for the reconstitution of postoperative damage of the urethral rhabdosphincter and nerve-vascular networks.

  4. Muscle Damage After Total Hip Arthroplasty Through the Direct Anterior Approach for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Okura, Toshiaki; Ochiai, Satoshi; Fujibayashi, Takayoshi

    2017-08-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) through the direct anterior approach (DAA) is known to cause less muscle damage than other surgical approaches. However, more complex primary cases, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), might often cause muscle damage. The objective of the present study was to clarify the muscle damage observed 1 year after THA through the DAA for DDH using magnetic resonance imaging. We prospectively compared the muscle cross-sectional area (M-CSA) and fatty atrophy (FA) in muscles by magnetic resonance imaging and the Harris hip score before and at 1-year follow-up after THA through the DAA in 3 groups: 37 patients with Crowe group 1 DDH (D1), 13 patients with Crowe group 2 and 3 DDH (D2 + 3), and 12 patients with osteonecrosis as a control. THA through the DAA for D1 displayed significantly decreased M-CSA and significantly increased FA in the gluteus minimus (Gmini), the tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and the obturator internus (OI). Patients with D2 + 3 group did not have decreased M-CSA in the TFL or increased FA in the Gmini. Postoperatively, a significant negative correlation was observed between the M-CSA and FA for the OI in patients with D1 and D2 + 3. THA through the DAA for DDH caused the damage in the Gmini, the TFL, and the OI; severe damage was observed in the OI, showing increased FA with decreased M-CSA in patients with both D1 and D2 + 3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Skeletal muscle relaxant effect of a standardized extract of Valeriana officinalis L. after acute administration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Caudal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana officinalis L. root extracts are traditionally taken for their sedative and anxiolytic properties and are also used for muscle relaxation. Relaxant effects were clearly observed on smooth muscle whereas data on effects on skeletal muscle are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess whether a standardized extract (SE of V. officinalis had myorelaxant effects by decreasing skeletal muscle strength and/or neuromuscular tone in mice. Mice received an acute dose of V. officinalis SE (2 or 5 g/kg per os or tetrazepam (10 mg/kg ip, a standard myorelaxant drug. Thirty minutes later, the maximal muscle strength was measured using a grip test, while global skeletal muscle function (endurance and neuromuscular tone was assessed in a wire hanging test. Compared to tetrazepam, both doses of V. officinalis SE induced a pronounced decrease in skeletal muscle strength without any significant effects on endurance and neuromuscular tone. This study provides clear evidence that the extract of V. officinalis tested has a relaxant effect on skeletal muscle. By decreasing skeletal muscle strength without impacting endurance and neuromuscular tone, V. officinalis SE could induce less undesirable side effects than standard myorelaxant agents, and be particularly useful for avoiding falls in the elderly. Keywords: Valeriana officinalis, Skeletal muscle relaxant, Strength, Hydroethanolic root extract, Acute treatment, Mouse

  6. Recovery From Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: Cold-Water Immersion Versus Whole-Body Cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaïdia, Abd-Elbasset; Lamblin, Julien; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Leduc, Cédric; McCall, Alan; Nédélec, Mathieu; Dawson, Brian; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Ten physically active men performed single-leg hamstring eccentric exercise comprising 5 sets of 15 repetitions. Immediately postexercise, subjects were exposed in a randomized crossover design to CWI (10 min at 10°C) or WBC (3 min at -110°C) recovery. Creatine kinase concentrations, knee-flexor eccentric (60°/s) and posterior lower-limb isometric (60°) strength, single-leg and 2-leg countermovement jumps, muscle soreness, and perception of recovery were measured. The tests were performed before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise. Results showed a very likely moderate effect in favor of CWI for single-leg (effect size [ES] = 0.63; 90% confidence interval [CI] = -0.13 to 1.38) and 2-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.68; 90% CI = -0.08 to 1.43) 72 h after exercise. Soreness was moderately lower 48 h after exercise after CWI (ES = -0.68; 90% CI = -1.44 to 0.07). Perception of recovery was moderately enhanced 24 h after exercise for CWI (ES = -0.62; 90% CI = -1.38 to 0.13). Trivial and small effects of condition were found for the other outcomes. CWI was more effective than WBC in accelerating recovery kinetics for countermovement-jump performance at 72 h postexercise. CWI also demonstrated lower soreness and higher perceived recovery levels across 24-48 h postexercise.

  7. Early spontaneous intermittent myocardial reperfusion during acute myocardial infarction is associated with augmented thrombogenic activity and less myocardial damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, A.W.; Andreotti, F.; Hackett, D.R.; Tousoulis, D.; Kluft, C.; Maseri, A.; Davies, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated the influence of early spontaneous intermittent reperfusion on the extent of myocardial damage and its relation to endogenous hemostatic activity, Background. In the early phase of acute myocardial infarction coronary occlusion is often intermittent, even before

  8. Running pace decrease during a marathon is positively related to blood markers of muscle damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Completing a marathon is one of the most challenging sports activities, yet the source of running fatigue during this event is not completely understood. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cause(s of running fatigue during a marathon in warm weather. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited 40 amateur runners (34 men and 6 women for the study. Before the race, body core temperature, body mass, leg muscle power output during a countermovement jump, and blood samples were obtained. During the marathon (27 °C; 27% relative humidity running fatigue was measured as the pace reduction from the first 5-km to the end of the race. Within 3 min after the marathon, the same pre-exercise variables were obtained. RESULTS: Marathoners reduced their running pace from 3.5 ± 0.4 m/s after 5-km to 2.9 ± 0.6 m/s at the end of the race (P 15% pace reduction had elevated post-race myoglobin (1318 ± 1411 v 623 ± 391 µg L(-1; P<0.05, lactate dehydrogenase (687 ± 151 v 583 ± 117 U L(-1; P<0.05, and creatine kinase (564 ± 469 v 363 ± 158 U L(-1; P = 0.07 in comparison with marathoners that preserved their running pace reasonably well throughout the race. However, they did not differ in their body mass change (-3.1 ± 1.0 v -3.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.60 or post-race body temperature (38.7 ± 0.7 v 38.9 ± 0.9 °C; P = 0.35. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Running pace decline during a marathon was positively related with muscle breakdown blood markers. To elucidate if muscle damage during a marathon is related to mechanistic or metabolic factors requires further investigation.

  9. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voces, J; Cabral de Oliveira, A C; Prieto, J G; Vila, L; Perez, A C; Duarte, I D G; Alvarez, A I

    2004-12-01

    Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white) and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg) was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 +/- 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group). The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05) after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05) by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  10. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Voces

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group. The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05 after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05 by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  11. Submaximal exercise training, more than dietary selenium supplementation, improves antioxidant status and ameliorates exercise-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle in young equine athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S H; Warren, L K

    2017-02-01

    . In response to SET 2, trained horses had greater muscle SOD activity (P = 0.0002) and lower serum CK activity (P = 0.003) and showed a trend for lower plasma LPO (P = 0.09) and muscle malondialdehyde (P = 0.09) than untrained horses. Muscle GPx activity did not change in response to SET 2 and was unaffected by training or Se. Results indicate that exercise training lessens muscle damage and improves antioxidant defense following an acute bout of prolonged exercise and was not further enhanced by feeding Se above the NRC requirement.

  12. Influence of acute static stretching on the behavior of maximum muscle strength

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    Carmen Lúcia Borges Bastos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the influence of acute static stretching on maximal muscle strength (1RM. The non-probabilistic sample consisted of 30 subjects split into two groups: static stretching (SS= 15 and without stretching group (WS= 15. Muscle strength evaluation (1RM was conducted with a Dynamometer model 32527pp400 Pound push / pull devices coupled in knee extension (KE and bench press (BP. The Wilcoxon test for intragroup comparisons and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparisons between groups (p< 0.05 were selected. There were no significant differences (p> 0.05 between the SS and WS in exercise KE and BP. Therefore, it can be concluded that there was no reduction in the performance of 1RM performing the exercises KE and BP when preceded by static stretching.

  13. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

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    Cristina Herrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM and other extracellular matrix (ECM proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms.

  14. Use of plasma creatine kinase pharmacokinetics to estimate the amount of excercise-induced muscle damage in Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanoit, G P; Lefebvre, H P; Orcel, K; Laroute, V; Toutain, P L; Braun, J P

    2001-09-01

    To assess the effects of moderate exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) pharmacokinetics and to estimate exercise-induced muscle damage in dogs. 6 untrained adult Beagles. The study was divided into 3 phases. In phase 1, dogs ran for 1 hour at a speed of 9 km/h, and samples were used to determine the area under the plasma CK activity versus time curve (AUC) induced by exercise. In phases 2 and 3, pharmacokinetics of CK were calculated in dogs during exercise and at rest, respectively. Values for AUC and plasma clearance (CI) were used to estimate muscle damage. At rest, values for Cl, steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss), and mean retention time (MRT) were 0.32+/-0.02 ml/kg of body weight/min, 57+/-173 ml/kg, and 3.0+/-0.57 h, respectively. During exercise, Cl decreased significantly (0.26+/-0.03 ml/kg/min), MRT increased significantly, (4.4+/-0.97 h), and Vdss remained unchanged. Peak of plasma CK activity (151+/-58.8 U/L) was observed 3 hours after completion of exercise. Estimated equivalent amount of muscle corresponding to the quantity of CK released was 41+/-29.3 mg/kg. These results revealed that exercise had a minor effect on CK disposition and that the equivalent amount of muscle damaged by moderate exercise was negligible. This study illustrates the relevance for use of the minimally invasive and quantitative pharmacokinetic approach when estimating muscle damage.

  15. Acutely damaged axons are remyelinated in multiple sclerosis and experimental models of demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Verena; van der Meer, Franziska; Wrzos, Claudia; Scheidt, Uta; Bahn, Erik; Stadelmann, Christine; Brück, Wolfgang; Junker, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    Remyelination is in the center of new therapies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis to resolve and improve disease symptoms and protect axons from further damage. Although remyelination is considered beneficial in the long term, it is not known, whether this is also the case early in lesion formation. Additionally, the precise timing of acute axonal damage and remyelination has not been assessed so far. To shed light onto the interrelation between axons and the myelin sheath during de- and remyelination, we employed cuprizone- and focal lysolecithin-induced demyelination and performed time course experiments assessing the evolution of early and late stage remyelination and axonal damage. We observed damaged axons with signs of remyelination after cuprizone diet cessation and lysolecithin injection. Similar observations were made in early multiple sclerosis lesions. To assess the correlation of remyelination and axonal damage in multiple sclerosis lesions, we took advantage of a cohort of patients with early and late stage remyelinated lesions and assessed the number of APP- and SMI32- positive damaged axons and the density of SMI31-positive and silver impregnated preserved axons. Early de- and remyelinating lesions did not differ with respect to axonal density and axonal damage, but we observed a lower axonal density in late stage demyelinated multiple sclerosis lesions than in remyelinated multiple sclerosis lesions. Our findings suggest that remyelination may not only be protective over a long period of time, but may play an important role in the immediate axonal recuperation after a demyelinating insult. © 2017 The Authors GLIA Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

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    Howatson Glyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD decreases muscle function and causes soreness and discomfort. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation has been shown to increase protein synthesis and decrease muscle protein breakdown, however, the effects of BCAAs on recovery from damaging resistance training are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a BCAA supplementation on markers of muscle damage elicited via a sport specific bout of damaging exercise in trained volunteers. Methods Twelve males (mean ± SD age, 23 ± 2 y; stature, 178.3 ± 3.6 cm and body mass, 79.6 ± 8.4 kg were randomly assigned to a supplement (n = 6 or placebo (n = 6 group. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Creatine kinase (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, muscle soreness (DOMS, vertical jump (VJ, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC were measured as markers of muscle damage. All variables were measured immediately before the damaging exercise and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Results A significant time effect was seen for all variables. There were significant group effects showing a reduction in CK efflux and muscle soreness in the BCAA group compared to the placebo (P Conclusion The present study has shown that BCAA administered before and following damaging resistance exercise reduces indices of muscle damage and accelerates recovery in resistance-trained males. It seems likely that BCAA provided greater bioavailablity of substrate to improve protein synthesis and thereby the extent of secondary muscle damage associated with strenuous resistance exercise. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01529281.

  17. Changes in Indirect Markers of Muscle Damage and Tendons After Daily Drop Jumping Exercise with Rapid Load Increase

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    Vidas Paleckis, Mantas Mickevičius, Audrius Snieckus, Vytautas Streckis, Mati Pääsuke, Saulius Rutkauskas, Rasa Steponavičiūtė, Albertas Skurvydas, Sigitas Kamandulis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and type I collagen degradation, as well as, patellar and Achilles tendon morphological differences during nine daily drop-jumps sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load to test the hypothesis that frequent drop-jump training results in negative muscular and tendon adaptation. Young men (n = 9 performed daily drop jump workouts with progression every 3 days in terms of number of jumps, platform height and squat amplitude. Voluntary and electrically evoked knee extensor torque, muscle soreness, blood plasma creatine kinase (CK activity and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide (ICTP, patellar and Achilles tendon thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA were assessed at different time points during the training period and again on days 1, 3, 10 and 17 after the training. The findings were as follows: (1 steady decline in maximal muscle strength with major recovery within 24 hours after the first six daily training sessions; (2 larger decline in electrically induced muscle torque and prolonged recovery during last three training sessions; (3 increase in patellar and Achilles tendons CSA without change in thickness towards the end of training period; (4 increase in jump height but not in muscle strength after whole training period. Our findings suggest that frequent drop-jump sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load do not induce severe muscle damage or major changes in tendons, nonetheless, this type of loading is not advisable for muscle strength improvement.

  18. Improved clinicopathologic assessments of acute liver damage due to trauma in Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan M; Holthaus, Lisa; Barron, Heather Wilson; Divers, Stephen J; McBride, Michael; Almy, Frederic; Bush, Sharon; Latimer, Kenneth S

    2012-06-01

    Increased activities of certain biochemical enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) have been associated with blunt liver injury in many species. To evaluate changes in plasma hepatic biochemical parameters in acute avian liver disease caused by trauma and to compare biochemical changes with histologic lesions in hepatic parenchyma, 30 healthy fasted Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) were divided into 2 groups, and traumatic liver injury was caused by endoscopic liver biopsy (group 1) or by liver biopsy and crushing injury to the hepatic parenchyma with endoscopic forceps (group 2) in anesthetized birds. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, and 120 hours in alternate groups to compare analyte values after injury with those at baseline. Results showed consistently decreased plasma ALP activity (excluding 1 time point) throughout the study, which was thought to be associated with isoflurane administration. Plasma glutamate dehydrogenase activity initially increased but rapidly declined thereafter and was attributed to acute focal hepatocellular injury. In both groups, increases in plasma AST, ALT, and LDH activities was most likely caused by muscle injury because creatine kinase activity was concurrently increased. Compared with baseline values, bile acid concentration and y-glutamyl transferase activity were not affected by liver biopsy or crush injury. Plasma sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was the most specific indicator of liver injury in both groups. Histologic changes correlated poorly with biochemical results, possibly because the small area of hepatic parenchyma that was damaged did not affect enzyme values substantially.

  19. The Acute Effect of Cryotherapy on Muscle Strength and Shoulder Proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rui; Silva, Filipa; Pedrosa, Vera; Ferreira, João; Lopes, Alexandre

    2017-11-01

    Cryotherapy, a common intervention used by clinicians, poses several benefits in managing acute injuries. However, cooling muscle tissue can interfere with muscular properties and the sensory-motor system. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of cryotherapy with a crushed-ice pack on shoulder proprioception concerning joint position sense, force sense, the threshold for detecting passive movement, and maximal force production. A randomized, double-blind controlled trial. 48 healthy women aged 22.6 ± 0.4 y with a mean body mass index of 22.8 ±0.37 kg/m2 and a percentage of body fat of 15.4 ± 1.5%. In the experimental group, a crushed-ice pack was applied to the shoulder for 15 min, whereas participants in the control group applied a sandbag at skin temperature, also for 15 min. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess maximal voluntary contraction, force sense, joint position sense, and the threshold for detecting passive movement. Paired sample t tests revealed that maximal voluntary isometric contraction decreased significantly after cryotherapy (P ≤ .001), or approximately 10% of the reduction found in both muscular groups assessed. Shoulder position sense (P < .001) and the threshold for detecting passive movement (P = .01 and P = .01 for lateral and medial shoulder rotator muscles, respectively) also suffered significant impairment. Nevertheless, no significant differences emerged in force sense at 20% and 50% of maximal force reproduction (P = .41 and P = .10 for lateral rotator muscles at 20% and 50%, respectively; and P = .20 and P = .09 for medial rotator muscles at 20% and 50%, respectively). Applying a crushed-ice pack to the shoulder for 15 min negatively affected muscle strength and impaired shoulder proprioception by decreasing joint position sense and the threshold for detecting passive movement.

  20. Role of damage control enterostomy in management of children with peritonitis from acute intestinal disease

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    Emmanuel A Ameh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal anastomosis in severely ill children with peritonitis from intestinal perforation, intestinal gangrene or anastomotic dehiscence (acute intestinal disease is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Enterostomy as a damage control measure may be an option to minimize the high morbidity and mortality. This report evaluates the role of damage control enterostomy in the treatment of these patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 52 children with acute intestinal disease who had enterostomy as a damage control measure in 12 years. Results: There were 34 (65.4% boys and 18 (34.6% girls aged 3 days-13 years (median 9 months, comprising 27 (51.9% neonates and infants and 25 (48.1% older children. The primary indication for enterostomy in neonates and infants was intestinal gangrene 25 (92.6% and perforated typhoid ileitis 22 (88% in older children. Enterostomy was performed as the initial surgery in 33 (63.5% patients and as a salvage procedure following anastomotic dehiscence in 19 (36.5% patients. Enterostomy-related complications occurred in 19 (36.5% patients, including 11 (21.2% patients with skin excoriations and eight (15.4% with hypokalaemia. There were four (7.7% deaths (aged 19 days, 3 months, 3½ years and 10 years, respectively directly related to the enterostomy, from hypokalaemia at 4, 12, 20 and 28 days postoperatively, respectively. Twenty other patients died shortly after surgery from their primary disease. Twenty of 28 surviving patients have had their enterostomy closed without complications, while eight are awaiting enterostomy closure. Conclusion: Damage-control enterostomy is useful in management of severely ill children with intestinal perforation or gangrene. Careful and meticulous attention to fluid and electrolyte balance, and stoma care, especially in the first several days following surgery, are important in preventing morbidity and mortality.

  1. Effects of winter military training on energy balance, whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Martini, Svein; Spitz, Marissa G; Thrane, Ingjerd; McGraw, Susan M; Blatny, Janet-Martha; Castellani, John W; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Gundersen, Yngvar; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2014-12-01

    Physiological consequences of winter military operations are not well described. This study examined Norwegian soldiers (n = 21 males) participating in a physically demanding winter training program to evaluate whether short-term military training alters energy and whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and performance. Energy expenditure (D2(18)O) and intake were measured daily, and postabsorptive whole-body protein turnover ([(15)N]-glycine), muscle damage, soreness, and performance (vertical jump) were assessed at baseline, following a 4-day, military task training phase (MTT) and after a 3-day, 54-km ski march (SKI). Energy intake (kcal·day(-1)) increased (P balance was lower (P military training provide the basis for future studies to evaluate nutritional strategies that attenuate protein loss and sustain performance during severe energy deficits.

  2. Moisture migration, microstructure damage and protein structure changes in porcine longissimus muscle as influenced by multiple freeze-thaw cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingcheng; Li, Fangfei; Diao, Xinping; Kong, Baohua; Xia, Xiufang

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of multiple freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles on water mobility, microstructure damage and protein structure changes in porcine longissimus muscle. The transverse relaxation time T 2 increased significantly when muscles were subjected to multiple F-T cycles (Pcycles caused sarcomere shortening, Z line fractures, and I band weakening and also led to microstructural destruction of muscle tissue. The decreased free amino group content and increased dityrosine in myofibrillar protein (MP) revealed that multiple F-T cycles caused protein cross-linking and oxidation. In addition, the results of size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism spectra, UV absorption spectra, and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy indirectly proved that multiple F-T cycles could cause protein aggregation and degradation, α-helix structure disruption, hydrophobic domain exposure, and conformational changes of MP. Overall, repeated F-T cycles changed the protein structure and water distribution within meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are related to insulin sensitivity and respond to acute exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Sean A; Brozinick, Joseph T; Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Katja; Strauss, Allison N; Bacon, Samantha D; Kerege, Anna A; Bui, Hai Hoang; Sanders, Phil; Siddall, Parker; Wei, Tao; Thomas, Melissa; Kuo, Ming Shang; Nemkov, Travis; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Hansen, Kirk C; Perreault, Leigh; Bergman, Bryan C

    2016-06-01

    Several recent reports indicate that the balance of skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a key determinant of muscle contractile function and metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between skeletal muscle PC, PE and insulin sensitivity, and whether PC and PE are dynamically regulated in response to acute exercise in humans. Insulin sensitivity was measured via intravenous glucose tolerance in sedentary obese adults (OB; n = 14), individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 15), and endurance-trained athletes (ATH; n = 15). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained at rest, immediately after 90 min of cycle ergometry at 50% maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2 max), and 2-h postexercise (recovery). Skeletal muscle PC and PE were measured via infusion-based mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. ATH had greater levels of muscle PC and PE compared with OB and T2D (P insulin sensitivity (both P insulin sensitivity among the entire cohort (r = -0.43, P = 0.01). Muscle PC and PE were altered by exercise, particularly after 2 h of recovery, in a highly group-specific manner. However, muscle PC:PE ratio remained unchanged in all groups. In summary, total muscle PC and PE are positively related to insulin sensitivity while PC:PE ratio is inversely related to insulin sensitivity in humans. A single session of exercise significantly alters skeletal muscle PC and PE levels, but not PC:PE ratio. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. The Effect of Green Tea and Sour Tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Muscle Damage in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Amir; Pourmasoumi, Makan; Kafeshani, Marzieh; Karimian, Jahangir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2017-05-04

    Additional oxygen consumption during intense exercises may lead to oxidative stress and contribute to muscular fatigue. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), which contain various flavonoids and polyphenols, have many healthful properties such as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and heart protecting effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer athletes. This randomized, double-blind control trial was conducted on 54 male soccer players. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups to receive: 450 mg/d green tea extract (GTE) in the first group (n = 18), 450 mg/d sour tea extract (STE) in the second group (n = 18) and 450 mg/d maltodextrin in the control group (n = 18). Fasting whole blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and the end of the study to quantify the serum levels of muscle damage indices, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). After six weeks intervention, athletes who received GTE and STE supplements compared with the placebo had a significantly decreased MDA level (P = 0.008). Furthermore, STE supplementation resulted in a significant increase in TAC level compared with GTE and placebo groups (P = 0.01). However, supplementation with GTE and STE had no significant effects on muscle damage indices. GTE and STE supplementation have beneficial effects on oxidative stress status in male athletes. However, both kinds of tea extract did not affect muscle damage status.

  5. EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT DOSAGE OF BCAA SUPPLEMENTATION ON SERUM INDICES OF MUSCLE DAMAGE AND SORENESS IN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Mohamad-Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigation of the effects of two different dose of BCAA supplementation on serum indices of muscle damage and soreness in soccer players. 30 male soccer players (age: 20.2+-0.6 yr participated as subjects in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups (double-blind design. All subjects performed lower- body resistance exercise (6 sets, 10 repetitions, 70% 1RM. The BCAA was given at doses of 200 and 450 mg.kg -1 BW for supplemental groups 1 and 2, respectively, 30 minutes before and after to exercise tests and carbohydrate was given at dose of 200 mg.kg -1 BW for placebo group. To identify enzymes activity (IU/L, venous blood samples were collected 30 min prior to exercise and at 24 and 48 hrs post exercise. Data were statistically analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and Bonfferoni test. Baseline CK, CK-MB and muscle soreness were determined 30 minutes before the exercise test. Baseline serum values for CK, CK-MB and baseline muscle soreness were not different between groups in the 30 minutes before the exercise test (p>0/05. However, there were significant increases between the pre-exercise and post-exercise values for CK, CK-MB and muscle soreness from 24 hrs to 48 hrs post-test (p<0/05, but there were no significant differences between two groups (p< 0.05(. These results suggested that two different dosages of BCAA supplementation did not affect muscle damage and muscle sureness during resistance exercise bout in soccer players.

  6. The role of mitochondrial DNA damage at skeletal muscle oxidative stress on the development of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Julia Matzenbacher; de Oliveira, Denise Silva; Moreli, Marcos Lazaro; Benite-Ribeiro, Sandra Aparecida

    2018-04-20

    Reduced cellular response to insulin in skeletal muscle is one of the major components of the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Mitochondrial dysfunction involves in the accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leads to insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to verify the involvement of mitochondrial DNA damage at ROS generation in skeletal muscle during development of T2D. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 60% fat over 8 weeks and at day 14 a single injection of STZ (25 mg/kg) was administered (T2D-induced). Control rats received standard food and an injection of citrate buffer. Blood and soleus muscle were collected. Abdominal fat was quantified as well as glucose, triglyceride, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in plasma and mtDNA copy number, cytochrome b (cytb) mRNA, 8-hydroxyguanosine, and 8-isoprostane (a marker of ROS) in soleus muscle. T2D-induced animal presented similar characteristics to humans that develop T2D such as changes in blood glucose, abdominal fat, LDL, HDL and cholesterol total. In soleus muscle 8-isoprostane, mtDNA copy number and 8-hydroxyguanosine were increased, while cytb mRNA was decreased in T2D. Our results suggest that in the development of T2D, when risks factors of T2D are present, intracellular oxidative stress increases in skeletal muscle and is associated with a decrease in cytb transcription. To overcome this process mtDNA increased but due to the proximity of ROS generation, mtDNA remains damaged by oxidation leading to an increase in ROS in a vicious cycle accounting to the development of insulin resistance and further T2D.

  7. The Effect of a Simulated Basketball Game on Players’ Sprint and Jump Performance, Temperature and Muscle Damage

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    Pliauga Vytautas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive data regarding the demands of playing basketball, the relative importance of factors that cause fatigue and muscle potentiation has been explored only tentatively and remains unclear. The aim of this experimental field study was to assess changes in leg muscle power and relate these changes to body temperature modifications and indices of exercise-induced muscle damage in response to a simulated basketball game. College-level male basketball players (n=10 were divided into two teams to play a simulated basketball game. Ten-meter sprint and vertical counter-movement jump tests, core body temperature and creatine-kinase activity were measured within 48 h after the game. The participants’ body temperatures increased after a warm-up (1.9%, p200%, p30%, p<0.05 after the game, indicating damage to the players’ muscles. The basketball players’ sprint and jump performance appear to be at least in part associated with body temperature changes, which might contribute to counteract fatigue during the larger part of a basketball game.

  8. Acute effect of static stretching on muscle force in older women

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    André Luiz Demantova Gurjão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effect of static stretching on the peak rate of force development (PRFD and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC in older women. Ten women (68.5 ± 7.0 years; 70.9 ± 8.1 kg; 159.4 ± 6.0 cm; body mass index: 28.0 ± 3.8 kg/m2 were studied. MVC and PRFD were determined by leg press exercise before and after the control or stretching condition (three sets of 30 seconds of static stretching of the quadriceps on two different days (interval of 24 hours. PRFD was determined as the steepest slope of the curve, calculated within regular windows of 20 milliseconds (∆force/∆time for the first 200 milliseconds after the onset of contraction. MVC was determined as the highest value recorded in each set. Only one condition was tested on each day and the order of application of each condition was determined randomly. The stretching intensity was evaluated by the muscle pain threshold. Four post-condition assessments (post-treatment, 10, 20, and 30 minutes were performed to monitor muscle strength. ANCOVA 2x5, followed by the Scheffé post-hoc test, showed no significant interactions between conditions vs. times (P > 0.05 for PRFD or MVC. In conclusion, acute bouts of static stretching of the quadriceps femoris do not affect the ability of rapid and maximum muscle force production in older women.

  9. A study of acute muscle dysfunction with particular reference to dengue myopathy

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    Rajesh Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute myopathy is a common cause of acute motor quadriparesis which has various etiologies with different courses of illness and prognosis depending on the cause. Understanding this diversity helps us in proper approach toward diagnosis, predicting the prognosis, and possible complications and in improving the treatments that are being provided. This study was planned to study the clinical, electrophysiological, and etiological profile of patients presenting with acute myopathy. We also studied how dengue-related acute myopathy differs from other causes and also difference between myopathy due to myositis and hypokalemia in cases of dengue. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, observational study involving all clinically suspected cases of acute myopathy of not more than 4 weeks duration with raised serum creatine kinase (CK level. They were subjected to detailed clinical evaluation along with hematological, biochemical, microbiological, and electrophysiological studies and followed-up for outcome at 1 and 3 months. Muscle biopsy and histopathological examination were done in selected patients after taking informed consent. Statistical analysis was performed by appropriate methods using SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: We evaluated thirty patients of acute myopathy with raised CK level. Seventeen patients had fever, 11 had myalgia, and 5 had skin lesions. All presented with symmetric weakness, 17 (56.7% patients having predominantly proximal weakness, neck or truncal weakness in 6 (20%, hyporeflexia in 12 (40%, with mean Medical Research Council (MRC sum score of 46.67 ± 6.0. Eight (mean modified Barthel index [MBI] at presentation - 15 ± 3.7 patients had poor functional status according to MBI and 15 according to modified Rankin scale (MRS (mean MRS score - 2.5 ± 1.2. Etiology was dengue viral infection in 14 patients; hypokalemia due to various causes other than dengue in 8; pyomyositis in 3

  10. Erythropoietin receptor in human skeletal muscle and the effects of acute and long-term injections with recombinant human erythropoietin on the skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Hellsten, Ylva; Jensen, Mie B. F.

    2008-01-01

    The presence and potential physiological role of the erythropoietin receptor (Epo-R) were examined in human skeletal muscle. In this study we demonstrate that Epo-R is present in the endothelium, smooth muscle cells, and in fractions of the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle fibers. To study...... the potential effects of Epo in human skeletal muscle, two separate studies were conducted: one to study the acute effects of a single Epo injection on skeletal muscle gene expression and plasma hormones and another to study the effects of long-term (14 wk) Epo treatment on skeletal muscle structure. Subjects...... was studied in subjects (n = 8) who received long-term Epo administration, and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after. Epo treatment did not alter mean fiber area (0.84 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.72 +/- 0.3 mm(2)), capillaries per fiber (4.3 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.4 +/- 1.3), or number of proliferating endothelial cells...

  11. The effect of anthocyanin supplementation on body composition, exercise performance and muscle damage indices in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoome Yarahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flavonoids consider as a large group of plant metabolites that 6,000 types of them have been identified till now. In some studies, it has been shown that they can increase aerobic performance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthocyanin (as one of the most important kind of flavonoids supplementation on body composition, exercise performance and muscle damage indices in athletes. Methods: This double-blinded clinical trial involved 54 female and male athletes at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with athletic history of at least 3 years. Body composition, exercise performance, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were assessed. Individuals were selected by simple sampling method, they divided into two groups using permuted block randomization method. First group received 100 mg anthocyanin pills, and the second group received 100 mg placebo pills, daily for 6 weeks. Participants asked to continue their routine diet and physical activity during the study period, and they were followed through phone calls or text messages. Results: Soft lean mass, total body water and percent body fat were not changed significantly in the anthocyanin group after intervention but VO 2 max increased significantly in the anthocyanin group (48.65 ± 4.73 vs. 52.62 ± 5.04 (P ≤ 0.0001, also a significant difference was observed between two studied groups (52.62 ± 5.04 for intervention group vs. 49.61 ± 5.33 for placebo (P = 0.003. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that the supplementation with anthocyanin in athletes may improve some indices of performance such as VO 2 max.

  12. Mixed martial arts induces significant fatigue and muscle damage up to 24 hours post-combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoul, Nihel; Tabben, Montassar; Miarka, Bianca; Tourny, Claire; Chamari, Karim; Coquart, Jeremy

    2017-06-22

    This study investigates the physiological/physical responses to a simulated mixed martial arts (MMA) competition over 24 hr. Twelve fighters performed a simulated MMA competition, consisting of three 5-min MMA matches. Physiological/physical data were assessed before (Trest), directly after round 1 (Trd1), round 2 (Trd2) and round 3 (Trd3), and then 30-min (Trecovery30min) and/or 24-hr (Trecovery24h) post-competition. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration ([La]) were assessed at Trest, Trd1, Trd2 and Trd3. Biological data were collected at Trest, Trd3, Trecovery30min and Trecovery24h. Physical tests were performed at Trest, Trecovery30min and Trecovery24h. HR, RPE and [La] were high during competition. Leukocytes, hemoglobin, total protein and glycemia were increased at Trd3 compared with all other time points (p<0.05). Cortisol was increased at Trd3 compared with Trest and Trecovery24h (p<0.05). Testosterone was higher at Trd3 and Trecovery30min than Trest (p<0.001). Higher values of uric acid were noted during recovery periods (p<0.001). Lactate dehydrogenase was lower at Trest compared with Trd3, Trecovery30min and Trecovery24h (p<0.05). Countermovement jump was higher at Trest than Trecovery30min (p=0.020). Consequently, MMA is a high-intensity intermittent combat sport that induces significant fatigue and muscle damage, both of which are still present 24-hr post-competition.

  13. Damage of the forest tree layer exposed to the acute gamma- irradiation in different phenophases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaban', R.T.; Mishenkov, N.N.; Spirin, D.A.; Prister, B.S.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A programme of radioecological investigations using a specially designed powerful accurate source of gamma radiation (32 kCi 137 Cs) has been initiated in our country to study the consequences of the acute forest irradiation. The irradiation has been carried out twice - in autumn (September, 1973) and in spring (May, 1977). Pine and birch sections of the forest 26-30 years old have been subjected to irradiation. Exposures during autumn and spring irradiation constitute 16 and 8 days, respectively. Forest irradiation has been carried out so as to form isodose sections of considerable square to have a sufficient amount of tress in every isodose section. Pine-trees that perished due to the effect of ionizing radiation have been counted. Presented are the data on pine trees that perished depending on the dose absorbed and new pine shoots one year old (shoots of 1978) depending on the dose in the second year after spring irradiation. The data on the damage of shoots and buds used as the indices of pine radiation damage have been used to forecast that LD 100 for the period of acute effects (4-5 years) in the case of spring irradiation is approximately 1.5-2 krad, i.e. the spring effect on pine trees is 2-2.7 times more radiosensitive, than in autumn. The supposition is made that doses absorbed (about 1-2 krad) are minimum lethal doses for coniferous forests when irradiating them in most radiosensitive phases

  14. Urinary excretion of furosemide in rats with HgCl sub 2 -induced acute renal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Akio; Sudoh, Toshiaki; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Ebihara, Akio (Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    To examine the influence of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2})-induced acute renal damage on urinary excretion of furosemide, HgCl{sub 2} or its vehicle along was given intraperitoneally to Wistar rats. The following two experiments were done. Study 1: three percent body weight (b.w.) of 1% NaCl solution or furosemide in 3% b.w. of 1% NaCl solution was given orally before and after HgCl{sub 2} treatment, and an 8-hour urine was collected. Study 2: furosemide was given orally, and blood samples were obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 hours after administration. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase increased, and urine volume and urinary excretions of furosemide and sodium decreased in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats. There were significant correlations between the urinary furosemide and its diuretic effects. Regression lines after HgCl{sub 2} were significantly different from those before treatment. The values of absorption as well as elimination rate constant were smaller, while the time to maximum concentration and the elimination half-life were longer in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated animals. These results suggest that the urinary excretion of furosemide and the responsiveness of renal tubular cells to this agent are impaired in rats with HgCl{sub 2}-induced acute renal damage.

  15. Effect of acute exercise on glycogen synthase in muscle from obese and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen; Tantiwong, Puntip; Stuenæs, Jorid T; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Sakamoto, Kei; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Insulin stimulates glycogen synthase (GS) through dephosphorylation of serine residues, and this effect is impaired in skeletal muscle from insulin-resistant [obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM)] subjects. Exercise also increases GS activity, yet it is not known whether the ability of exercise to affect GS is impaired in insulin-resistant subjects. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of acute exercise on GS phosphorylation and enzyme kinetic properties in muscle from insulin-resistant individuals. Lean normal glucose-tolerant (NGT), obese NGT, and obese T2DM subjects performed 40 min of moderate-intensity cycle exercise (70% of Vo(2max)). GS kinetic properties and phosphorylation were measured in vastus lateralis muscle before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 3.5 h postexercise. In lean subjects, GS fractional activity increased twofold after 40 min of exercise, and it remained elevated after the 3.5-h rest period. Importantly, exercise also decreased GS K(m) for UDP-glucose from ≈0.5 to ≈0.2 mM. In lean subjects, exercise caused significant dephosphorylation of GS by 50-70% (Ser(641), Ser(645), and Ser(645,649,653,657)), and phosphorylation of these sites remained decreased after 3.5 h; Ser⁷ phosphorylation was not regulated by exercise. In obese NGT and T2DM subjects, exercise increased GS fractional activity, decreased K(m) for UDP-glucose, and decreased GS phosphorylation as effectively as in lean NGT subjects. We conclude that the molecular regulatory process by which exercise promotes glycogen synthesis in muscle is preserved in insulin-resistant subjects.

  16. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  17. Could mesenchymal stem cell therapy help in the treatment of muscle damage caused by Bothrops alternatus venom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita da Costa Telles

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in the treatment of myonecrosis induced by Bothrops alternatus venom in rats. Seventy-five male adult Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups. G1 and G2 were injected in the gastrocnemius muscle with 120μg of B. alternatus venom, while G3 received 200μL of PBS only. Three days after the venom injection, 12 rats from G1 were treated with 5.0 x 106 MSC in PBS, whereas G2 and G3 rats received PBS. Every three days, blood and muscle samples of five animals from each group were taken for serum biochemical and pathological analyses. Histological examinations showed more intense muscle lesions following MSC treatment, characterized by disorganization and loss of muscle fibers, with focal necrosis and inflammatory infiltration by mononuclear cells. In conclusion, the use of MSC for the treatment of local damage caused by inoculation of B. alternatus venom impaired muscle regeneration and interfered in the healing process.

  18. Helium-neon laser used to stimulate regeneration of the skeletal muscle damaged by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, M.F.; Bulyakova, N.V.; Azarova, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the therapeutic effects of transplantation of the regenerating muscular tissue and helium-neon lazer rays on the skeletal muscle received 20 Gy x radiation. The results of four series of experiments showed that the effect of lazer rays on the irradiated transversely cut musculus gastrocnemius is simular to that of transplantation of the minced muscular tissue to the defect of the muscle. Regeneration of the muscle in both cases is normalized so that the regenerating muscular organ slightly differs from the control regenerate of unirradiated muscle

  19. Tetanic contraction induces enhancement of fatigability and sarcomeric damage in atrophic skeletal muscle and its underlying molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2013-11-01

    intracellular resting Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in unloaded soleus muscles. High [Ca2+]i activated calpain-1 which induced a higher degradation of desmin. Desmin degradation may loose connections between adjacent myofibrils and further misaligned Z-disc during repeated tetanic contractions. Passive stretch in unloaded muscle could preserve the stability of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels by means of keeping nNOS activity, and decrease the enhanced protein level and activity of calpain to control levels in unloaded soleus muscles. Therefore, passive stretch restored normal appearance of Z-disc and resisted in part atrophy of unloaded soleus muscles. The above results indicate that enhanced fatigability of high-frequency tetanic contraction is associated to the alteration in K+ channel characteristics, and elevated SERCA activity and slow to fast transition of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms increases fatigability of intermittent tetanic contraction in atrophic soleus muscle. The sarcomeric damage induced by tetanic contraction can be retarded by stretch in atrophic soleus muscles.

  20. Single-cell resolution mapping of neuronal damage in acute focal cerebral ischemia using thallium autometallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöber, Franziska; Baldauf, Kathrin; Ziabreva, Iryna; Harhausen, Denise; Zille, Marietta; Neubert, Jenni; Reymann, Klaus G; Scheich, Henning; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Schröder, Ulrich H; Wunder, Andreas; Goldschmidt, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal damage shortly after onset or after brief episodes of cerebral ischemia has remained difficult to assess with clinical and preclinical imaging techniques as well as with microscopical methods. We here show, in rodent models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), that neuronal damage in acute focal cerebral ischemia can be mapped with single-cell resolution using thallium autometallography (TlAMG), a histochemical technique for the detection of the K(+)-probe thallium (Tl(+)) in the brain. We intravenously injected rats and mice with thallium diethyldithiocarbamate (TlDDC), a lipophilic chelate complex that releases Tl(+) after crossing the blood-brain barrier. We found, within the territories of the affected arteries, areas of markedly reduced neuronal Tl(+) uptake in all animals at all time points studied ranging from 15 minutes to 24 hours after MCAO. In large lesions at early time points, areas with neuronal and astrocytic Tl(+) uptake below thresholds of detection were surrounded by putative penumbral zones with preserved but diminished Tl(+) uptake. At 24 hours, the areas of reduced Tl(+)uptake matched with areas delineated by established markers of neuronal damage. The results suggest the use of (201)TlDDC for preclinical and clinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of hyperacute alterations in brain K(+) metabolism and prediction of tissue viability in cerebral ischemia.

  1. Glycemic Control and Muscle Damage in 3 Athletes With Type 1 Diabetes During a Successful Performance in a Relay Ultramarathon: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Taisa; de Macedo, Denise V; Scariot, Pedro P M; de Araújo, Gustavo G; Dos Reis, Ivan G M; Lazarim, Fernanda L; Nunes, Lázaro A S; Brenzikofer, René; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2017-09-01

    Ultramarathon races are fairly demanding and impose substantial physiological stress on healthy athletes. These competitions may thus be considerably more challenging for individuals with diabetes. This case study aims to describe glycemic control, muscle damage, inflammation, and renal function in 3 athletes with type 1 diabetes during a successful performance in a relay ultramarathon. The team completed the race in 29 hours and 28 minutes, earning third place. The total distance covered by each athlete was 68.7, 84.5, and 65.1 km. Most blood glucose levels showed that athletes were in a zone where it was safe to exercise (90-250 mg/dL or 5.0-13.9 mmol/L). Creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels increased 1.2- to 50.7-fold prerace to postrace, and were higher than the reference ranges for all the athletes postrace. Blood leukocytes, neutrophils, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) increased 1.6- to 52-fold prerace to postrace and were higher than the reference ranges for 2 athletes after the race. Serum creatinine increased 1.2-fold prerace to postrace for all the athletes but did not meet the risk criteria for acute kidney injury. In conclusion, our main findings show evidence of satisfactory glycemic control in athletes with type 1 diabetes during a relay ultramarathon. Moreover, elevation of muscle damage and inflammatory biomarkers occurred without affecting renal function and challenging the maintenance of blood glucose among athletes. These findings are novel and provide an initial understanding of the physiological responses in athletes with type 1 diabetes during ultramarathon races. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phospholemman is not required for the acute stimulation of Na+-K+-ATPase α2-activity during skeletal muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Palanikumar; Radzyukevich, Tatiana L.; Hakim Javadi, Hesamedin; Stiner, Cory A.; Landero Figueroa, Julio A.; Lingrel, Jerry B

    2015-01-01

    The Na+-K+-ATPase α2-isoform in skeletal muscle is rapidly stimulated during muscle use and plays a critical role in fatigue resistance. The acute mechanisms that stimulate α2-activity are not completely known. This study examines whether phosphorylation of phospholemman (PLM/FXYD1), a regulatory subunit of Na+-K+-ATPase, plays a role in the acute stimulation of α2 in working muscles. Mice lacking PLM (PLM KO) have a normal content of the α2-subunit and show normal exercise capacity, in contrast to the greatly reduced exercise capacity of mice that lack α2 in the skeletal muscles. Nerve-evoked contractions in vivo did not induce a change in total PLM or PLM phosphorylated at Ser63 or Ser68, in either WT or PLM KO. Isolated muscles of PLM KO mice maintain contraction and resist fatigue as well as wild type (WT). Rb+ transport by the α2-Na+-K+-ATPase is stimulated to the same extent in contracting WT and contracting PLM KO muscles. Phosphorylation of sarcolemmal membranes prepared from WT but not PLM KO skeletal muscles stimulates the activity of both α1 and α2 in a PLM-dependent manner. The stimulation occurs by an increase in Na+ affinity without significant change in Vmax and is more effective for α1 than α2. These results demonstrate that phosphorylation of PLM is capable of stimulating the activity of both isozymes in skeletal muscle; however, contractile activity alone is not sufficient to induce PLM phosphorylation. Importantly, acute stimulation of α2, sufficient to support exercise and oppose fatigue, does not require PLM or its phosphorylation. PMID:26468207

  3. Tribulus terrestris extracts alleviate muscle damage and promote anaerobic performance of trained male boxers and its mechanisms: Roles of androgen, IGF-1, and IGF binding protein-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Ma

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Taking 1250 mg capsules containing TT extracts did not change muscle mass and plasma levels of testosterone, DHT, and IGF-1 but significantly alleviated muscle damage and promoted anaerobic performance of trained male boxers, which may be related to the decrease of plasma IGFBP-3 rather than androgen in plasma.

  4. Quantification and localisation of damage in rat muscles after controlled loading; a new approach to study the aetiology of pressure sores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, E.M.H.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Straaten, van H.W.M.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Kuipers, H.

    2001-01-01

    To obtain more insight in the aetiology of deep pressure sores, an animal model was developed to relate controlled externalloading to local muscle damage. The tibialis anterior muscle (TA) and overlying skin of a rat were compressed between indentorand tibia. Loads of 10, 70 and 250 kPa at skin

  5. Comparative study of acute lateral skin damage during radio wave and laser exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubensky V.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to study the depth and nature of the zones of thermal damage to the skin under radio wave and laser skin dissection during experiment. Material and Methods. The model of acute thermal damage was full-liner skin wounds of 20 nonlinear rats that were divided into 2 groups and operated by different methods. In the 1st group, the incisions were made by the apparatus of radio wave surgery (Surgitron DF S5, in the 2nd group the animals were operated with a laser surgical apparatus. The magnitude and structure of the lateral thermal damage was evaluated when analyzing the biopsy material. Results. During the study of experimental wounds, the extent of carbonation in the first group (operated with Surgitron DF S5 was 11.56±3.056 urn, coagulation necrosis 116.5±26.78 urn, and the hyper-thermiazone 148.42±60.171 urn. In the group of animals operated with a laser apparatus, the carbonization zone was 22.58±6.62 urn, the coagulation necrosis zone was 331.1±79.08 urn, and the hyperthermia extent was 376.2±53.27 urn. Conclusion. A comparative study of lateral skin damage in radio wave and laser skin dissection revealed a deeper thermal change in the skin and an increase in the extent of thermally altered structures under laser action: the carbonization zone was larger than for radio waves by 11.02 urn, coagulation necrosis by 214.6 urn, and the hyperthermia zone by 227.78 urn.

  6. The impact of exercise-induced muscle damage on performance test outcomes in elite female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony; Sinclair, Wade; Schumann, Moritz; Damas, Felipe; Burt, Dean; Woods, Carl

    2017-09-11

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, to examine the impact exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) on physical fitness qualities following a basketball-specific training session. Secondly, to determine the reproducibility of the sport-specific performance measures in elite female basketball players. Ten elite female basketball players (age 25.6 ± 4.5 years; height 1.8 ± 0.7m; body mass 76.7 ± 8.3kg) undertook a 90-minute training session involving repeated jumping, sprinting and game-simulated training. Indirect muscle damage markers (i.e., countermovement jump [CMJ], delayed-onset of muscle soreness [DOMS] and creatine kinase [CK]) and sport-specific performances (i.e., change of direction [COD] and suicide test [ST]) were measured prior to and 24 hours post training. These measures were also collected one week following training to determine the reproducibility of the basketball-specific performance measures. A significant reduction in lower-body power (-3.5±3.6%; P0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficient and coefficient of variation for the COD and ST were 0.81 and 0.90, respectively, and 1.9% and 1.5%, respectively. In conclusion, appropriate recovery should be considered the day following basketball-specific training sessions in elite basketball players. Furthermore, this study showed the usability of performance measures to detect changes during periods of EIMD, with acceptable reproducibility and minimal measurement error.

  7. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Zhang

    Full Text Available It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS.Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP. All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35-60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment.For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg, lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7 and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9 in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1.Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury.

  8. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Yongcheng; Jiang, Ying; Du, Juan; Chen, Rongchang

    2016-01-01

    It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS. Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB) and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP). All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35-60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV) and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment. For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml) and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg), lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml) and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml) in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7) and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9) in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1). Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury.

  9. Acute fatigue-induced changes in muscle mechanical properties and neuromuscular activity in elite handball players following a handball match

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Michalsik, L B; Madsen, Klavs

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the acute fatigue development in muscle mechanical properties and neuromuscular activity in response to handball match play. Male elite handball players (n = 10) were tested before and after a simulated handball match for maximal isometric strength...... work (6.8%, P handball match play, which...

  10. Acute cocoa flavanol supplementation improves muscle macro- and microvascular but not anabolic responses to amino acids in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Bethan E; Atherton, Philip J; Varadhan, Krishna; Limb, Marie C; Williams, John P; Smith, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    The anabolic effects of nutrition on skeletal muscle may depend on adequate skeletal muscle perfusion, which is impaired in older people. Cocoa flavanols have been shown to improve flow-mediated dilation, an established measure of endothelial function. However, their effect on muscle microvascular blood flow is currently unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore links between the consumption of cocoa flavanols, muscle microvascular blood flow, and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to nutrition in older men. To achieve this objective, leg blood flow (LBF), muscle microvascular blood volume (MBV), and MPS were measured under postabsorptive and postprandial (intravenous Glamin (Fresenius Kabi, Germany), dextrose to sustain glucose ∼7.5 mmol·L(-1)) conditions in 20 older men. Ten of these men were studied with no cocoa flavanol intervention and a further 10 were studied with the addition of 350 mg of cocoa flavanols at the same time that nutrition began. Leg (femoral artery) blood flow was measured by Doppler ultrasound, muscle MBV by contrast-enhanced ultrasound using Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, Mass., USA) perflutren contrast agent and MPS using [1, 2-(13)C2]leucine tracer techniques. Our results show that although older individuals do not show an increase in LBF or MBV in response to feeding, these absent responses are apparent when cocoa flavanols are given acutely with nutrition. However, this restoration in vascular responsiveness is not associated with improved MPS responses to nutrition. We conclude that acute cocoa flavanol supplementation improves muscle macro- and microvascular responses to nutrition, independently of modifying muscle protein anabolism.

  11. Intact initiation of autophagy and mitochondrial fission by acute exercise in skeletal muscle of patientswith type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Sørensen, Rikke; Pedersen, Andreas James Thestrup; Kristensen, Jonas Møller

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysregulation, and, in some studies, exercise resistance in skeletal muscle. Regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial dynamics during exercise and recovery is important for skeletal muscle homeostasis......, and these responses may be altered in T2D. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the effect of acute exercise on markers of autophagy and mitochondrial fusion and fission in skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with T2D (n=13) and weight-matched controls (n=14) before, immediately after and 3h after an acute bout...... of exercise. RESULTS: While mRNA levels of most markers of autophagy ( PIK3C, MAP1LC3B, SQSTM1, BNIP3, BNIP3L ) and mitochondrial dynamics ( OPA1, FIS1 ) remained unchanged, some either increased during and after exercise (GABARAPL1 ), decreased in the recovery period ( BECN1, ATG7, DNM1L ), or both ( MFN2...

  12. Pro- and anti-angiogenic factors in human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Nordsborg, Nikolai; Andersen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of acute exercise and 4 weeks of aerobic training on skeletal muscle gene and protein expression of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors in 14 young male subjects. Training consisted of 60 min of cycling (~ 60% of VO2 max), 3 times/week. Biopsies were obtained from m. v....... lateralis before and after training. Muscle interstitial fluid was collected during cycling at week 0 and 4. Training increased (P ... to acute exercise increased similarly (>6-fold; P training. Resting protein levels of soluble VEGF receptor-1 in interstitial fluid, and of VEGF, Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in muscle, were unaffected by training, whereas e...

  13. Acute effects of short and long duration dynamic stretching protocols on muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Francisco dos Santos

    Full Text Available Objective Compare the acute effects of dynamic stretching protocols on the isokinetic performance of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles at two velocities in adult males.Methodology Included the participation of 14 males (21 ± 2.6 years; 178 ± 0.4 cm; 73.2 ± 20.9 kg were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer before and after following a short or long-duration dynamic stretching protocol or a control protocol. The results were assessed by a two-way ANOVA and a Scheffé’s post hoc test at a 5% significance level.Results No difference was found in the variables assessed at 180°/s after LDDS. At 60°/s, LDDS reduced the power of the knee flexors. The control protocol reduced the power of the knee flexors and increased the power of the extensors. At 60°/s, the work of the knee flexors exhibited a reduction after LDDS. The control protocol resulted in a reduction in the work of the flexors. The peak torque angle exhibited a reduction in the extensors and flexors after LDDS and SDDS.Conclusion Dynamic stretching did not cause any change in the peak torque, which points to its possible use in activities involving velocity and muscle strength. The executing dynamic stretching before physical activities such as running and high-intensity sports might be beneficial by promoting increases in heart rate and in body temperature.

  14. The effect of an acute bout of rubber tube running constraint on kinematics and muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudum, Anita; Birklbauer, Jürgen; Müller, Erich

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of an acute bout of treadmill running with rubber tube (RT) and without rubber tube (NT) elastic constraints on electromyographic (EMG), 3D kinematics variability, and blood lactate concentration (LA). In the RT test, the constraints were attached to the hips and ankles. The selected variables were compared between 30 min of NT running and 30 minutes of RT running in 13 healthy recreationally trained male runners who had no prior exposure to RT. Statistical analysis revealed significantly higher EMG variability (p running influences muscle recruitment and variability, but has only a minor influence on kinematics. Changes in LA were significant, although relatively small. The observed adaptations in EMG and kinematics suggest that the RTs provide a possibility to create within movement variability in various sports, and thus, variable training conditions may foster strategies to increase the ability to flexibly adapt to different and new situations. Key pointsAdaptation to training device occurred quite rapidly.Changes in muscle activity were more pronounced than kinematic changes due to the training device.Training device may be used to increase within-movement variability.Participants may learn to flexibly adapt to variable constraints.

  15. Intermittent pneumatic leg compressions acutely upregulate VEGF and MCP-1 expression in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseguini, Bruno T; Mehmet Soylu, S; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Yang, H T; Newcomer, Sean; Laughlin, M Harold

    2010-06-01

    Application of intermittent pneumatic compressions (IPC) is an extensively used therapeutic strategy in vascular medicine, but the mechanisms by which this method works are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that acute application (150 min) of cyclic leg compressions in a rat model signals upregulation of angiogenic factors in skeletal muscle. To explore the impact of different pressures and frequency of compressions, we divided rats into four groups as follows: 120 mmHg (2 s inflation/2 s deflation), 200 mmHg (2 s/2 s), 120 mmHg (4 s/16 s), and control (no intervention). Blood flow and leg oxygenation (study 1) and the mRNA expression of angiogenic mediators in the rat tibialis anterior muscle (study 2) were assessed after a single session of IPC. In all three groups exposed to the intervention, a modest hyperemia (approximately 37% above baseline) between compressions and a slight, nonsignificant increase in leg oxygen consumption (approximately 30%) were observed during IPC. Compared with values in the control group, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA increased significantly (P < 0.05) only in rats exposed to the higher frequency of compressions (2 s on/2 s off). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha mRNA did not change significantly following the intervention. These findings show that IPC application augments the mRNA content of key angiogenic factors in skeletal muscle. Importantly, the magnitude of changes in mRNA expression appeared to be modulated by the frequency of compressions such that a higher frequency (15 cycles/min) evoked more robust changes in VEGF and MCP-1 compared with a lower frequency (3 cycles/min).

  16. Acute molecular responses to concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval exercise in untrained skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie K; Faulkner, Steve H; Jackson, Andrew P; King, James A; Nimmo, Myra A

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent training involving resistance and endurance exercise may augment the benefits of single-mode training for the purpose of improving health. However, muscle adaptations, associated with resistance exercise, may be blunted by a subsequent bout of endurance exercise, via molecular interference. High-intensity interval training (HIIT), generating similar adaptations to endurance exercise, may offer an alternative exercise mode to traditional endurance exercise. This study examined the influence of an acute HIIT session on the molecular responses following resistance exercise in untrained skeletal muscle. Ten male participants performed resistance exercise (4 × 8 leg extensions, 70% 1RM, (RE)) or RE followed by HIIT (10 × 1 min at 90% HRmax, (RE+HIIT)). Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 2 and 6 h post-RE to determine intramuscular protein phosphorylation and mRNA responses. Phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) decreased at 6 h in both trials (P HIIT (P HIIT with PGC-1α and PGC-1α-ex1b remaining elevated at 6 h, whereas RE-induced increases at 2 and 6 h for PGC-1α-ex1b only (P HIIT versus RE at 2 and 6 h (P effect on protein signaling and mRNA expression, and suggest that HIIT may be an alternative to endurance exercise when performed after resistance exercise in the same training session to optimize adaptations. PMID:25902785

  17. Acute Elevated Glucose Promotes Abnormal Action Potential-Induced Ca2+ Transients in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick O. Hernández-Ochoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A common comorbidity of diabetes is skeletal muscle dysfunction, which leads to compromised physical function. Previous studies of diabetes in skeletal muscle have shown alterations in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC—the sequential link between action potentials (AP, intracellular Ca2+ release, and the contractile machinery. Yet, little is known about the impact of acute elevated glucose on the temporal properties of AP-induced Ca2+ transients and ionic underlying mechanisms that lead to muscle dysfunction. Here, we used high-speed confocal Ca2+ imaging to investigate the temporal properties of AP-induced Ca2+ transients, an intermediate step of ECC, using an acute in cellulo model of uncontrolled hyperglycemia (25 mM, 48 h.. Control and elevated glucose-exposed muscle fibers cultured for five days displayed four distinct patterns of AP-induced Ca2+ transients (phasic, biphasic, phasic-delayed, and phasic-slow decay; most control muscle fibers show phasic AP-induced Ca2+ transients, while most fibers exposed to elevated D-glucose displayed biphasic Ca2+ transients upon single field stimulation. We hypothesize that these changes in the temporal profile of the AP-induced Ca2+ transients are due to changes in the intrinsic excitable properties of the muscle fibers. We propose that these changes accompany early stages of diabetic myopathy.

  18. A psychodynamic model of behavior after acute central nervous system damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groswasser, Z; Stern, M J

    1998-02-01

    This article describes a conceptual psychodynamic model for understanding the neurobehavioral manifestations of acute central nervous system damage (ACNSD) displayed by patients during the rehabilitation process. According to the proposed model, patientsO behavioral responses are viewed as their only means of emotional expression and therefore may not be considered entirely abnormal when viewed from the perspective of patientsO interpersonal contexts. An improved understanding of the dynamic processes through which recovering patients with ACNSD journey may lead to better interaction between the patient and the therapeutic environment, the interdisciplinary team, and family members. Combining this proposed psychodynamic model with an emerging understanding of the neurobehavioral foundations of aggression and depression may also lead to a more rational approach to intervention with various psychopharmacologic agents. During the rehabilitation process, understanding patients' cognitive deficits, motivational drives, and emotional needs and proper implementation of medical and environmental treatment can ultimately lead to a better psychosocial outcome.

  19. Diagnostic usefulness of the oedema-infarct ratio to differentiate acute from chronic myocardial damage using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kiyoyasu; Suzuki, Susumu; Kinoshita, Kousuke; Yokouchi, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Hirokazu; Sawada, Ken; Isobe, Satoshi; Ohshima, Satoru; Murohara, Toyoaki; Hirai, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    To differentiate acute from chronic damage to the myocardium in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) using DE and T2w MR. Short-axis T2w and DE MR images were acquired twice after the onset of MI in 36 patients who successfully underwent emergency coronary revascularisation. The areas of infarct and oedema were measured. The oedema-infarct ratio (O/I) of the left ventricular area was calculated by dividing the oedema by the infarct area. The oedema size on T2w MR was significantly larger than the infarct size on DE MR in the acute phase. Both the oedema size on T2w MR and the infarct size on DE MR in the acute phase were significantly larger than those in the chronic phase. The O/I was significantly greater in the acute phase compared with that in the chronic phase (P < 0.05). An analysis of relative cumulative frequency distributions revealed an O/I of 1.4 as a cut-off value for differentiating acute from chronic myocardial damage with the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 85.1%, 82.7% and 83.9%, respectively. The oedema-infarct ratio may be a useful index in differentiating acute from chronic myocardial damage in patients with MI. (orig.)

  20. Ethanol Exposure Causes Muscle Degeneration in Zebrafish

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    Elizabeth C. Coffey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic myopathies are characterized by neuromusculoskeletal symptoms such as compromised movement and weakness. Although these symptoms have been attributed to neurological damage, EtOH may also target skeletal muscle. EtOH exposure during zebrafish primary muscle development or adulthood results in smaller muscle fibers. However, the effects of EtOH exposure on skeletal muscle during the growth period that follows primary muscle development are not well understood. We determined the effects of EtOH exposure on muscle during this phase of development. Strikingly, muscle fibers at this stage are acutely sensitive to EtOH treatment: EtOH induces muscle degeneration. The severity of EtOH-induced muscle damage varies but muscle becomes more refractory to EtOH as muscle develops. NF-kB induction in muscle indicates that EtOH triggers a pro-inflammatory response. EtOH-induced muscle damage is p53-independent. Uptake of Evans blue dye shows that EtOH treatment causes sarcolemmal instability before muscle fiber detachment. Dystrophin-null sapje mutant zebrafish also exhibit sarcolemmal instability. We tested whether Trichostatin A (TSA, which reduces muscle degeneration in sapje mutants, would affect EtOH-treated zebrafish. We found that TSA and EtOH are a lethal combination. EtOH does, however, exacerbate muscle degeneration in sapje mutants. EtOH also disrupts adhesion of muscle fibers to their extracellular matrix at the myotendinous junction: some detached muscle fibers retain beta-Dystroglycan indicating failure of muscle end attachments. Overexpression of Paxillin, which reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish deficient for beta-Dystroglycan, is not sufficient to rescue degeneration. Taken together, our results suggest that EtOH exposure has pleiotropic deleterious effects on skeletal muscle.

  1. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mikania laevigata Extract on DNA Damage Caused by Acute Coal Dust Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Heuser, V.D.; Tavares, P.; Leffa, D.D.; da Silva, G.A.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.R.T.; Pinho, R.A.; Streck, E.L.; Andrade,V.M. [University of Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    We report data on the possible antigenotoxic activity of Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) after acute intratracheal instillation of coal dust using the comet assay in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and liver cells and the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of Wistar rats. The animals were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution (groups 1 and 2) or MLE (100 mg/kg) (groups 3 and 4). On day 15, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg), and gross mineral coal dust (3 mg/0.3 mL saline) (groups 2 and 4) or saline solution (0.3 mL) (groups 1 and 3) was administered directly in the lung by intratracheal administration. Fifteen days after coal dust or saline instillation, the animals were sacrificed, and the femur, liver, and peripheral blood were removed. The results showed a general increase in the DNA damage values at 8 hours for all treatment groups, probably related to surgical procedures that had stressed the animals. Also, liver cells from rats treated with coal dust, pretreated or not with MLE, showed statistically higher comet assay values compared to the control group at 14 days after exposure. These results could be expected because the liver metabolizes a variety of organic compounds to more polar by-products. On the other hand, the micronucleus assay results did not show significant differences among groups. Therefore, our data do not support the antimutagenic activity of M. laevigata as a modulator of DNA damage after acute coal dust instillation.

  2. [Electrophysiological study on rat conduit pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under normoxia and acute hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Zou, Fei; Cai, Chun-Qing; Wu, Hang-Yu; Yun, Hai-Xia; Chen, Yun-Tian; Jin, Guo-En; Ge, Ri-Li

    2006-10-25

    The present study was designed to investigate the electrophysiological characteristics of rat conduit pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and the response to acute hypoxia. PASMCs of the 1st to 2nd order branches in the conduit pulmonary arteries were obtained by enzymatic isolation. The PASMCs were divided into acute hypoxia preconditioned group and normoxia group. Hypoxia solutions were achieved by bubbling with 5% CO2 plus 95% N2 for at least 30 min before cell perfusion. Potassium currents were compared between these two groups using whole-cell patch clamp technique. The total outward current of PASMCs was measured under normoxia condition when iBTX [specific blocking agent of large conductance Ca-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channel] and 4-AP [specific blocking agent of delayed rectifier K(+) (K(DR)) channel] were added consequently into bath solution. PASMCs were classified into three types according to their size, shape and electrophysiological characteristics. Type I cells are the smallest with spindle shape, smooth surface and discrete perinuclear bulge. Type II cells show the biggest size with banana-like appearance. Type III cells have the similar size with type I, and present intermediary shape between type I and type II. iBTX had little effect on the total outward current in type I cells, while 4-AP almost completely blocked it. Most of the total outward current in type II cells was inhibited by iBTX, and the remaining was sensitive to 4-AP. In type III cells, the total outward current was sensitive to both iBTX and 4-AP. Acute hypoxia reduced the current in all three types of cells: (1614.8+/-62.5) pA to (892.4+/-33.6) pA for type I cells (Ppotassium current and improves the E(m) in PASMCs. These effects may be involved in the modulation of constriction/relaxation of conduit artery under acute hypoxia. Different distribution of K(DR) and BK(Ca) channels in these three types of PASMCs might account for their different constriction

  3. Maltol, a Food Flavoring Agent, Attenuates Acute Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of maltol, a food-flavoring agent, on alcohol-induced acute oxidative damage in mice. Maltol used in this study was isolated from red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Meyer and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, pretreatment with maltol (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg; 15 days drastically prevented the elevated activities of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and triglyceride (TG in serum and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β in liver tissue (p < 0.05. Meanwhile, the levels of hepatic antioxidant, such as catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were elevated by maltol pretreatment, compared to the alcohol group (p < 0.05. Histopathological examination revealed that maltol pretreatment significantly inhibited alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. Interestingly, pretreatment of maltol effectively relieved alcohol-induced oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner. Maltol appeared to possess promising anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities. It was suggested that the hepatoprotective effect exhibited by maltol on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  4. Effect of Black Grape Juice against Heart Damage from Acute Gamma TBI in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ramos de Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential positive effect of black grape juice (BGJ on lipid peroxidation considering Total Body Irradiation (TBI in Wistar rats. As a potential feasible means of evaluation in situ, blood serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels were evaluated as a marker for heart damage from acute radiation syndrome (ARS. Twenty rats were divided into four groups, two of them being irradiated by gamma-rays from a Co-60 source. Animals were treated by gavage with 2 mL per day of BGJ or placebo for one week before and 4 days after 6 Gy whole body gamma-irradiation, when they were euthanasiated. LDH on serum and lipid peroxidation on heart tissue were evaluated. High concentration of metabolites from lipid peroxidation in heart, and high LDH level on serum were found only in gamma-irradiated group given placebo, mainly at the first 24 h after radiation. Phytochemical analysis of BGJ was performed by determining total phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins followed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/DAD analysis, which showed resveratrol as the major constituent. Results suggest that BGJ is a good protective candidate compound against heart damage from ARS and its effects suggest its use as a radiomodifier.

  5. Natural pomegranate juice reduces inflammation, muscle damage and increase platelets blood levels in active healthy Tunisian aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Achraf

    2018-03-01

    Paired simple t-test showed a significant difference between PLA and POMj supplementation effects on systolic blood pressure (SAP, creatinine (CRE, hematological and muscle damage parameters and C-reactive protein (CRP (p < 0.01 with lower values using POMj. Similarly, a significant differences were shown for platelets PLT (p < 0.01 with higher values using POMj supplementation. POMj rich in polyphenols seems to have a power anti-inflammatory effect and to be an effective treatment for patients who suffer from the thrombocyto-penia disease. Therefore, aged populations are advised to add natural POMj to their daily nutrition behavior.

  6. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravina Leyre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soccer is a form of exercise that induces inflammatory response, as well as an increase in free radicals potentially leading to muscle injury. Balanced nutritional intake provides important antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins A, C and E, which may assist in preventing exercise-related muscle damage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammatory and immune response in female soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight female players belonging to two soccer teams of the same professional soccer club participated in this study after being informed about the aims and procedures and after delivering written consent. Each team completed an 8-day dietary record and played one competition match the same week. Participants were divided into two groups: the REC group (who complied with recommended intakes and the NO-REC group (who were not compliant. Laboratory blood tests were carried out to determine hematological, electrolytic and hormonal variables, as well as to monitor markers of cell damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples were obtained 24 h before, immediately after and 18 h after official soccer matches. Student t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare both groups throughout the match. Results At rest, we observed that the REC group had higher levels of total antioxidant status (TAS, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and lower levels of creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in comparison to the NO-REC group. Immediately after the match, levels of TAS, GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, LDH and % lymphocytes were higher and the % of neutrophils were lower in the REC group compared to the NO-REC group. These differences were also maintained 18 h post-match, only for TAS and GPx. Conclusions Our data reveal an association between nutritional intake and muscle damage, oxidative stress, immunity and inflammation

  7. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Soccer is a form of exercise that induces inflammatory response, as well as an increase in free radicals potentially leading to muscle injury. Balanced nutritional intake provides important antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins A, C and E, which may assist in preventing exercise-related muscle damage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammatory and immune response in female soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight female players belonging to two soccer teams of the same professional soccer club participated in this study after being informed about the aims and procedures and after delivering written consent. Each team completed an 8-day dietary record and played one competition match the same week. Participants were divided into two groups: the REC group (who complied with recommended intakes) and the NO-REC group (who were not compliant). Laboratory blood tests were carried out to determine hematological, electrolytic and hormonal variables, as well as to monitor markers of cell damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples were obtained 24 h before, immediately after and 18 h after official soccer matches. Student t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare both groups throughout the match. Results At rest, we observed that the REC group had higher levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lower levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in comparison to the NO-REC group. Immediately after the match, levels of TAS, GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD), LDH and % lymphocytes were higher and the % of neutrophils were lower in the REC group compared to the NO-REC group. These differences were also maintained 18 h post-match, only for TAS and GPx. Conclusions Our data reveal an association between nutritional intake and muscle damage, oxidative stress, immunity and inflammation markers. The benefit

  8. No effect of short-term amino acid supplementation on variables related to skeletal muscle damage in 100 km ultra-runners - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness. We hypothesized that the supplementation of amino acids before and during an ultra-marathon would lead to a reduction in the variables of skeletal muscle damage, a decrease in muscle soreness and an improved performance. Methods Twenty-eight experienced male ultra-runners were divided into two groups, one with amino acid supplementation and the other as a control group. The amino acid group was supplemented a total of 52.5 g of an amino acid concentrate before and during the 100 km ultra-marathon. Pre- and post-race, creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were determined. At the same time, the athletes were asked for subjective feelings of muscle soreness. Results Race time was not different between the groups when controlled for personal best time in a 100 km ultra-marathon. The increases in creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were not different in both groups. Subjective feelings of skeletal muscle soreness were not different between the groups. Conclusions We concluded that short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon had no effect on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness.

  9. Acute effects of muscle fatigue on anticipatory and reactive postural control in older individuals: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V; Garg, Hina; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury and fractures and the No. 1 cause of emergency department visits by older adults. Although declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. In an effort to increase awareness of the detrimental effects of skeletal muscle fatigue on postural control, we sought to systematically review research studies examining this issue. The specific purpose of this review was to provide a detailed assessment of how anticipatory and reactive postural control tasks are influenced by acute muscle fatigue in healthy older individuals. An extensive search was performed using the CINAHL, Scopus, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and AgeLine databases for the period from inception of each database to June 2013. This systematic review used standardized search criteria and quality assessments via the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine Methodology to Develop Systematic Reviews of Treatment Interventions (2008 version, revision 1.2, AACPDM, Milwaukee, Wisconsin). A total of 334 citations were found. Six studies were selected for inclusion, whereas 328 studies were excluded from the analytical review. The majority of articles (5 of 6) utilized reactive postural control paradigms. All studies incorporated extrinsic measures of muscle fatigue, such as declines in maximal voluntary contraction or available active range of motion. The most common biomechanical postural control task outcomes were spatial measures, temporal measures, and end-points of lower extremity joint kinetics. On the basis of systematic review of relevant literature, it appears that muscle fatigue induces clear deteriorations in reactive postural control. A paucity of high-quality studies examining anticipatory postural control supports the need for further research in this area. These results should serve to heighten

  10. The influence of capillarization on satellite cell pool expansion and activation following exercise-induced muscle damage in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederveen, Joshua P; Joanisse, Sophie; Snijders, Tim; Thomas, Aaron C Q; Kumbhare, Dinesh; Parise, Gianni

    2018-03-15

    Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) play a crucial role in repair and remodelling of muscle in response to exercise. Satellite cells are in close spatial proximity to muscle capillaries and therefore may be influenced by them. In this study, we describe the activation and expansion of the satellite cell pool in response to eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage in individuals with significantly different levels of muscle capillarization. Individuals with greater capillarization and capacity for muscle perfusion demonstrated enhanced activation and/or expansion of the satellite cell pool allowing for an accelerated recovery of muscle function. These results provide insight into the critical relationship between muscle capillarization and satellite cells during skeletal muscle repair. Factors that determine the skeletal muscle satellite cell (SC) response remain incompletely understood. It is known, however, that SC activation status is closely related to the anatomical relationship between SCs and muscle capillaries. We investigated the impact of muscle fibre capillarization on the expansion and activation status of SCs following a muscle-damaging exercise protocol in healthy young men. Twenty-nine young men (21 ± 0.5 years) performed 300 unilateral eccentric contractions (180 deg s -1 ) of the knee extensors. Percutaneous muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis and blood samples from the antecubital vein were taken prior to (Pre) exercise and at 6, 24, 72 and 96 h of post-exercise recovery. A comparison was made between subjects who had a relative low mixed muscle capillary-to-fibre perimeter exchange index (CFPE; Low group) and high mixed muscle CFPE index (High group) at baseline. Type I and type II muscle fibre size, myonuclear content, capillarization, and SC response were determined via immunohistochemistry. Overall, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.39; P < 0.05) between the expansion of SC content (change in total Pax7

  11. Effects of acute and chronic administration of fenproporex on DNA damage parameters in young and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cinara L; Rezin, Gislaine T; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Jeremias, Isabela C; Cardoso, Mariane R; Valvassori, Samira S; Munhoz, Bruna J P; Borges, Gabriela D; Bristot, Bruno N; Leffa, Daniela D; Andrade, Vanessa M; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactorial disease, whose prevalence is increasing in many countries. Pharmaceutical strategies for the treatment of obesity include drugs that regulate food intake, thermogenesis, fat absorption, and fat metabolism. Fenproporex is the second most commonly consumed amphetamine-based anorectic worldwide; this drug is rapidly converted in vivo into amphetamine, which is associated with neurotoxicity. In this context, the present study evaluated DNA damage parameters in the peripheral blood of young and adult rats submitted to an acute administration and chronic administration of fenproporex. In the acute administration, both young and adult rats received a single injection of fenproporex (6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle. In the chronic administration, both young and adult rats received one daily injection of fenproporex (6.25, 12.5, or 25 mg/kg i.p.) or Tween for 14 days. 2 h after the last injection, the rats were killed by decapitation and their peripheral blood removed for evaluation of DNA damage parameters by alkaline comet assay. Our study showed that acute administration of fenproporex in young and adult rats presented higher levels of damage index and frequency in the DNA. However, chronic administration of fenproporex in young and adult rats did not alter the levels of DNA damage in both parameters of comet assay. The present findings showed that acute administration of fenproporex promoted damage in DNA, in both young and adult rats. Our results are consistent with other reports which showed that other amphetamine-derived drugs also caused DNA damage. We suggest that the activation of an efficient DNA repair mechanism may occur after chronic exposition to fenproporex. Our results are consistent with other reports that showed some amphetamine-derived drugs also caused DNA damage.

  12. Irreversible muscle damage in bodybuilding due to long-term intramuscular oil injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banke, I J; Prodinger, P M; Waldt, S; Weirich, G; Holzapfel, B M; Gradinger, R; Rechl, H

    2012-10-01

    Intramuscular oil injections generating slowly degrading oil-based depots represent a controversial subject in bodybuilding and fitness. However they seem to be commonly reported in a large number of non-medical reports, movies and application protocols for 'site-injections'. Surprisingly the impact of long-term (ab)use on the musculature as well as potential side-effects compromising health and sports ability are lacking in the medical literature. We present the case of a 40 year old male semi-professional bodybuilder with systemic infection and painful reddened swellings of the right upper arm forcing him to discontinue weightlifting. Over the last 8 years he daily self-injected sterilized sesame seed oil at numerous intramuscular locations for the purpose of massive muscle building. Whole body MRI showed more than 100 intramuscular rather than subcutaneous oil cysts and loss of normal muscle anatomy. 2-step septic surgery of the right upper arm revealed pus-filled cystic scar tissue with the near-complete absence of normal muscle. MRI 1 year later revealed the absence of relevant muscle regeneration. Persistent pain and inability to perform normal weight training were evident for at least 3 years post-surgery. This alarming finding indicating irreversible muscle mutilation may hopefully discourage people interested in bodybuilding and fitness from oil-injections. The impact of such chronic tissue stress on other diseases like malignancy remains to be determined. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. The effects PCSO-524?, a patented marine oil lipid and omega-3 PUFA blend derived from the New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), on indirect markers of muscle damage and inflammation after muscle damaging exercise in untrained men: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mickleborough, Timothy D; Sinex, Jacob A; Platt, David; Chapman, Robert F; Hirt, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PCSO-524?, a marine oil lipid and n-3 LC PUFA blend, derived from New Zealand green- lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), on markers of muscle damage and inflammation following muscle damaging exercise in untrained men. Methods Thirty two untrained male subjects were randomly assigned to consume 1200?mg/d of PCSO- 524? (a green-lipped mussel oil blend) or placebo for 26 d prior to muscle damaging exercise (downhill runni...

  14. Striated Muscle Function, Regeneration, and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrin, I.Y.; Khodabukus, A.; Bursac, N.

    2016-01-01

    As the only striated muscle tissues in the body, skeletal and cardiac muscle share numerous structural and functional characteristics, while exhibiting vastly different size and regenerative potential. Healthy skeletal muscle harbors a robust regenerative response that becomes inadequate after large muscle loss or in degenerative pathologies and aging. In contrast, the mammalian heart loses its regenerative capacity shortly after birth, leaving it susceptible to permanent damage by acute injury or chronic disease. In this review, we compare and contrast the physiology and regenerative potential of native skeletal and cardiac muscles, mechanisms underlying striated muscle dysfunction, and bioengineering strategies to treat muscle disorders. We focus on different sources for cellular therapy, biomaterials to augment the endogenous regenerative response, and progress in engineering and application of mature striated muscle tissues in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we discuss the challenges and perspectives in translating muscle bioengineering strategies to clinical practice. PMID:27271751

  15. Expression of extracellular matrix components and related growth factors in human tendon and muscle after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, K M; Bjerrum, S S; Schjerling, P

    2013-01-01

    Acute kicking exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle in humans, but it is not known if this relates to increased collagen transcription and if other matrix genes are regulated. Young men performed 1 h of one-leg kicking at 67% of max workload. Biopsies were taken from...... the patellar tendon and vastus lateralis muscle of each leg at 2 (n = 10), 6 (n = 11), or 26 h (n = 10) after exercise. Levels of messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA for collagens, noncollagenous matrix proteins, and growth factors were measured with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...

  16. The benefit of a supplement with the antioxidant melatonin on redox status and muscle damage in resistance-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo-Mendonça, Roberto C; Ocaña-Wilhelmi, Javier; de Haro, Tomás; de Teresa-Galván, Carlos; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; Rusanova, Iryna; Fernández-Ortiz, Marisol; Sayed, Ramy K A; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2017-07-01

    Previous data showed that the administration of high doses of melatonin improved the circadian system in athletes. Here, we investigated in the same experimental paradigm whether the antioxidant properties of melatonin has also beneficial effects against exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage in athletes. Twenty-four athletes were treated with 100 mg·day -1 of melatonin or placebo 30 min before bedtime during 4 weeks in a randomized double-blind scheme. Exercise intensity was higher during the study that before starting it. Blood samples were collected before and after treatment, and plasma was used for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitrite plus nitrate (NOx), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) determinations. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulphide (GSSG) levels, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reductase (GRd) activities, were measured in erythrocytes. Melatonin intake increased ORAC, reduced LPO and NOx levels, and prevented the increase of AOPP, compared to placebo group. Melatonin was also more efficient than placebo in reducing GSSG·GSH -1 and GPx·GRd -1 ratios. Melatonin, but not placebo, reduced creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, and total cholesterol levels. Overall, the data reflect a beneficial effect of melatonin treatment in resistance-training athletes, preventing extra- and intracellular oxidative stress induced by exercise, and yielding further skeletal muscle protection against exercise-induced oxidative damage.

  17. Effects of acute exercise on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catoire, Milene; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark; Hangelbroek, Roland; Muller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patricht; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exercising is know to have an effect on exercising skeletal muscle, but unkown is the effect on non-exercising skeletal muscle. Gene expression changes in the non-exercising skeletal muscle would point to a signalling role of skeletal muscle

  18. The Effect of a Simulated Basketball Game on Players' Sprint and Jump Performance, Temperature and Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliauga, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Dargevičiūtė, Gintarė; Jaszczanin, Jan; Klizienė, Irina; Stanislovaitienė, Jūratė; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas

    2015-06-27

    Despite extensive data regarding the demands of playing basketball, the relative importance of factors that cause fatigue and muscle potentiation has been explored only tentatively and remains unclear. The aim of this experimental field study was to assess changes in leg muscle power and relate these changes to body temperature modifications and indices of exercise-induced muscle damage in response to a simulated basketball game. College-level male basketball players (n=10) were divided into two teams to play a simulated basketball game. Ten-meter sprint and vertical counter-movement jump tests, core body temperature and creatine-kinase activity were measured within 48 h after the game. The participants' body temperatures increased after a warm-up (1.9%, pjump height (3.8%, pbasketball game. There was a significant increase in creatine-kinase at 24 h (>200%, p30%, pbasketball players' sprint and jump performance appear to be at least in part associated with body temperature changes, which might contribute to counteract fatigue during the larger part of a basketball game.

  19. The Effect of a Simulated Basketball Game on Players’ Sprint and Jump Performance, Temperature and Muscle Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliauga, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Dargevičiūtė, Gintarė; Jaszczanin, Jan; Klizienė, Irina; Stanislovaitienė, Jūratė; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive data regarding the demands of playing basketball, the relative importance of factors that cause fatigue and muscle potentiation has been explored only tentatively and remains unclear. The aim of this experimental field study was to assess changes in leg muscle power and relate these changes to body temperature modifications and indices of exercise-induced muscle damage in response to a simulated basketball game. College-level male basketball players (n=10) were divided into two teams to play a simulated basketball game. Ten-meter sprint and vertical counter-movement jump tests, core body temperature and creatine-kinase activity were measured within 48 h after the game. The participants’ body temperatures increased after a warm-up (1.9%, pjump height (3.8%, pbasketball game. There was a significant increase in creatine-kinase at 24 h (>200%, p30%, pbasketball players’ sprint and jump performance appear to be at least in part associated with body temperature changes, which might contribute to counteract fatigue during the larger part of a basketball game. PMID:26240660

  20. High prevalence of respiratory muscle weakness in hospitalized acute heart failure elderly patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Verissimo

    Full Text Available Respiratory Muscle Weakness (RMW has been defined when the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP is lower than 70% of the predictive value. The prevalence of RMW in chronic heart failure patients is 30 to 50%. So far there are no studies on the prevalence of RMW in acute heart failure (AHF patients.Evaluate the prevalence of RMW in patients admitted because of AHF and the condition of respiratory muscle strength on discharge from the hospital.Sixty-three patients had their MIP measured on two occasions: at the beginning of the hospital stay, after they had reached respiratory, hemodynamic and clinical stability and before discharge from the hospital. The apparatus and technique to measure MIP were adapted because of age-related limitations of the patients. Data on cardiac ejection fraction, ECG, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels and on the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV were collected.The mean age of the 63 patients under study was 75 years. On admission the mean ejection fraction was 33% (95% CI: 31-35 and the BNP hormone median value was 726.5 pg/ml (range: 217 to 2283 pg/ml; 65% of the patients used NIV. The median value of MIP measured after clinical stabilization was -52.7 cmH2O (range: -20 to -120 cmH2O; 76% of the patients had MIP values below 70% of the predictive value. On discharge, after a median hospital stay of 11 days, the median MIP was -53.5 cmH2O (range:-20 to -150 cmH2O; 71% of the patients maintained their MIP values below 70% of the predictive value. The differences found were not statistically significant.Elderly patients admitted with AHF may present a high prevalence of RMW on admission; this condition may be maintained at similar levels on discharge in a large percentage of these patients, even after clinical stabilization of the heart condition.

  1. Effects of acute ethanol exposure on cytokine production by primary airway smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Kalita, Mridul [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Calhoun, William J., E-mail: William.Calhoun@utmb.edu [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Both chronic and binge alcohol abuse can be significant risk factors for inflammatory lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, metabolic basis of alcohol-related lung disease is not well defined, and may include key metabolites of ethanol [EtOH] in addition to EtOH itself. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EtOH, acetaldehyde [ACE], and fatty acid ethyl esters [FAEEs] on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (p)-NF-κB p65 in primary human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells stimulated to produce cytokines using LPS exposure. Both FAEEs and ACE induced evidence of cellular oxidative stress and ER stress, and increased p-NF-κB in nuclear extracts. EtOH and its metabolites decreased p-AMPKα activation, and induced expression of fatty acid synthase, and decreased expression of sirtuin 1. In general, EtOH decreased secretion of IP-10, IL-6, eotaxin, GCSF, and MCP-1. However, FAEEs and ACE increased these cytokines, suggesting that both FAEEs and ACE as compared to EtOH itself are proinflammatory. A direct effect of EtOH could be consistent with blunted immune response. Collectively, these two features of EtOH exposure, coupled with the known inhibition of innate immune response in our model might explain some clinical manifestations of EtOH exposure in the lung. - Highlights: • Metabolic basis for EtOH toxicity was studied in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. • In HASM cells, EtOH metabolites were found to be relatively more toxic than EtOH itself. • EtOH metabolites mediate deactivation of AMPK via oxidative stress and ER stress. • EtOH metabolites were found to be more proinflammatory than EtOH itself in HASM cells.

  2. Effects of acute ethanol exposure on cytokine production by primary airway smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Kalita, Mridul; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Both chronic and binge alcohol abuse can be significant risk factors for inflammatory lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, metabolic basis of alcohol-related lung disease is not well defined, and may include key metabolites of ethanol [EtOH] in addition to EtOH itself. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EtOH, acetaldehyde [ACE], and fatty acid ethyl esters [FAEEs] on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (p)-NF-κB p65 in primary human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells stimulated to produce cytokines using LPS exposure. Both FAEEs and ACE induced evidence of cellular oxidative stress and ER stress, and increased p-NF-κB in nuclear extracts. EtOH and its metabolites decreased p-AMPKα activation, and induced expression of fatty acid synthase, and decreased expression of sirtuin 1. In general, EtOH decreased secretion of IP-10, IL-6, eotaxin, GCSF, and MCP-1. However, FAEEs and ACE increased these cytokines, suggesting that both FAEEs and ACE as compared to EtOH itself are proinflammatory. A direct effect of EtOH could be consistent with blunted immune response. Collectively, these two features of EtOH exposure, coupled with the known inhibition of innate immune response in our model might explain some clinical manifestations of EtOH exposure in the lung. - Highlights: • Metabolic basis for EtOH toxicity was studied in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. • In HASM cells, EtOH metabolites were found to be relatively more toxic than EtOH itself. • EtOH metabolites mediate deactivation of AMPK via oxidative stress and ER stress. • EtOH metabolites were found to be more proinflammatory than EtOH itself in HASM cells.

  3. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Dourado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each: Group S (0.9% saline solution; Group V (venom and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser. These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6 based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days. The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 µL of concentrated venom (40 µg/mL in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm² energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation.

  4. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, D.M.; Matias, R.; Almeida, M.F.; Paula, K.R. de; Carvalho, P.T.C. [University for the Development of the State and of the Region of Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Histopathology]. E-mail: ccfi@uniderp.br; Vieira, R.P. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine. Dept. of Pathology and Physical Therapy; Oliveira, L.V.F. [Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Masters Program in Rehabilitation Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm) on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each): Group S (0.9% saline solution); Group V (venom) and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser). These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6) based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days). The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 {mu}L of concentrated venom (40 {mu}g/mL) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs) at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm{sup 2} energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001). Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation. (author)

  5. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourado, D.M.; Matias, R.; Almeida, M.F.; Paula, K.R. de; Carvalho, P.T.C.; Vieira, R.P.; Oliveira, L.V.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm) on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each): Group S (0.9% saline solution); Group V (venom) and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser). These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6) based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days). The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 μL of concentrated venom (40 μg/mL) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs) at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm 2 energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001). Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation. (author)

  6. Isometric pre-conditioning blunts exercise-induced muscle damage but does not attenuate changes in running economy following downhill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leonardo C R; Bassan, Natália M; Cardozo, Adalgiso C; Gonçalves, Mauro; Greco, Camila C; Denadai, Benedito S

    2018-05-08

    Running economy (RE) is impaired following unaccustomed eccentric-biased exercises that induce muscle damage. It is also known that muscle damage is reduced when maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) are performed at a long muscle length 2-4 days prior to maximal eccentric exercise with the same muscle, a phenomenon that can be described as isometric pre-conditioning (IPC). We tested the hypothesis that IPC could attenuate muscle damage and changes in RE following downhill running. Thirty untrained men were randomly assigned into experimental or control groups and ran downhill on a treadmill (-15%) for 30 min. Participants in the experimental group completed 10 MVIC in a leg press machine two days prior to downhill running, while participants in the control group did not perform IPC. The magnitude of changes in muscle soreness determined 48 h after downhill running was greater for the control group (122 ± 28 mm) than for the experimental group (92 ± 38 mm). Isometric peak torque recovered faster in the experimental group compared with the control group (3 days vs. no full recovery, respectively). No significant effect of IPC was found for countermovement jump height, serum creatine kinase activity or any parameters associated with RE. These results supported the hypothesis that IPC attenuates changes in markers of muscle damage. The hypothesis that IPC attenuates changes in RE was not supported by our data. It appears that the mechanisms involved in changes in markers of muscle damage and parameters associated with RE following downhill running are not completely shared. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Damage to the Left Precentral Gyrus Is Associated With Apraxia of Speech in Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Ryo; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Kataoka, Yuka; Yazawa, Yukako; Furui, Eisuke; Matsuda, Minoru; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a motor speech disorder, which is clinically characterized by the combination of phonemic segmental changes and articulatory distortions. AOS has been believed to arise from impairment in motor speech planning/programming and differentiated from both aphasia and dysarthria. The brain regions associated with AOS are still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to address this issue in a large number of consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients. We retrospectively studied 136 patients with isolated nonlacunar infarcts in the left middle cerebral artery territory (70.5±12.9 years old, 79 males). In accordance with speech and language assessments, the patients were classified into the following groups: pure form of AOS (pure AOS), AOS with aphasia (AOS-aphasia), and without AOS (non-AOS). Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis was performed on T2-weighted images or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Using the Liebermeister method, group-wise comparisons were made between the all AOS (pure AOS plus AOS-aphasia) and non-AOS, pure AOS and non-AOS, AOS-aphasia and non-AOS, and pure AOS and AOS-aphasia groups. Of the 136 patients, 22 patients were diagnosed with AOS (7 patients with pure AOS and 15 patients with AOS-aphasia). The voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis demonstrated that the brain regions associated with AOS were centered on the left precentral gyrus. Damage to the left precentral gyrus is associated with AOS in acute to subacute stroke patients, suggesting a role of this brain region in motor speech production. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Molgat-Seon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW. Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12 and healthy controls (n=12 underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p0.05. LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05. During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05. LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique.

  9. Quercetin Inhibits Peripheral and Spinal Cord Nociceptive Mechanisms to Reduce Intense Acute Swimming-Induced Muscle Pain in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Sergio M.; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A.; Fattori, Victor; Bussmann, Allan J. C.; Vignoli, Josiane A.; Camilios-Neto, Doumit; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the flavonoid quercetin (3,3´,4´,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) in a mice model of intense acute swimming-induced muscle pain, which resembles delayed onset muscle soreness. Quercetin intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment dose-dependently reduced muscle mechanical hyperalgesia. Quercetin inhibited myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D- glucosaminidase (NAG) activities, cytokine production, oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and gp91phox mRNA expression and muscle injury (creatinine kinase [CK] blood levels and myoblast determination protein [MyoD] mRNA expression) as well as inhibited NFκB activation and induced Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNA expression in the soleus muscle. Beyond inhibiting those peripheral effects, quercetin also inhibited spinal cord cytokine production, oxidative stress and glial cells activation (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP] and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 [Iba-1] mRNA expression). Concluding, the present data demonstrate that quercetin is a potential molecule for the treatment of muscle pain conditions related to unaccustomed exercise. PMID:27583449

  10. Expression profiling of skeletal muscle following acute and chronic β2-adrenergic stimulation: implications for hypertrophy, metabolism and circadian rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Gordon S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic administration of β-adrenoceptor (β-AR agonists has been found to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and significant metabolic changes. In the context of energy homeostasis, the importance of β-AR signaling has been highlighted by the inability of β1-3-AR-deficient mice to regulate energy expenditure and susceptibility to diet induced obesity. However, the molecular pathways and gene expression changes that initiate and maintain these phenotypic modulations are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify differential changes in gene expression in murine skeletal muscle associated with systemic (acute and chronic administration of the β2-AR agonist formoterol. Results Skeletal muscle gene expression (from murine tibialis anterior was profiled at both 1 and 4 hours following systemic administration of the β2-AR agonist formoterol, using Illumina 46K mouse BeadArrays. Illumina expression profiling revealed significant expression changes in genes associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, myoblast differentiation, metabolism, circadian rhythm, transcription, histones, and oxidative stress. Differentially expressed genes relevant to the regulation of muscle mass and metabolism (in the context of the hypertrophic phenotype were further validated by quantitative RT-PCR to examine gene expression in response to both acute (1-24 h and chronic administration (1-28 days of formoterol at multiple timepoints. In terms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, attenuation of myostatin signaling (including differential expression of myostatin, activin receptor IIB, phospho-Smad3 etc was observed following acute and chronic administration of formoterol. Acute (but not chronic administration of formoterol also significantly induced the expression of genes involved in oxidative metabolism, including hexokinase 2, sorbin and SH3 domain containing 1, and uncoupling protein 3. Interestingly, formoterol

  11. Preventive Effects of Eccentric Training on Acute Hamstring Muscle Injury in Professional Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, Richard A.; Perez, Luis; McQueeney, Sean; Toby, E. Bruce; Key, Vincent; Nelson, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the second most common injury causing missed days in professional baseball field players. Recent studies have shown the preventive benefit of eccentric conditioning on the hamstring muscle group in injury prevention. Specifically, Nordic-type exercises have been shown to decrease the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in professional athletes. Purpose: This was a prospective study performed in coordination with a single Major League Baseball (MLB) organization (major and minor league teams) that targeted the effects of Nordic exercises on the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in the professional-level baseball player. Study Design: Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: The daily workouts of 283 professional baseball players throughout all levels of a single MLB organization were prospectively recorded. The intervention group participated in the Nordic exercise program and was compared with a randomly selected control group of professional athletes within the organization not participating in the exercise program. The incidence of hamstring injuries in both groups was compared, and the total number of days missed due to injury was compared with the 2 previous seasons. Results: There were 10 hamstring injuries that occurred during the 2012 season among the 283 professional athletes that required removal from play. There were no injuries that occurred in the intervention group (n = 65, 0.00%; P = .0381). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 hamstring injury was 11.3. The average repetitions per week of the injured group were assessed at multiple time points (2, 4, 6, and total weeks) prior to injury. There were significantly fewer repetitions per week performed in the injured group at all time points compared with overall average repetitions per week in the noninjured group (P = .0459, .0127, .0164, and .0299, respectively). After beginning the Nordic exercise program, there were 136 total days

  12. Intervention of Peiyuan Huayu Decoction on the neuron damage in model rats with acute subdural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Fan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the intervention effect of Peiyuan Huayu Decoction on the neuron damage in model rats with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH. Methods: 160 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, and the ASDH model rats were made by stereotactic autoblood injection, and sham operation group received craniotomy without blood injection. Sham operation group and model group were normally bred after model establishment, and 6 h after model establishment, the treatment group received intragastric administration of Peiyuan Huayu Decoction, and control group received intragastric administration of Piracetam Tablets, 1 time a day. On the 1d, 3d, 5d and 7d after model establishment, the general conditions of rats (activity, food intake and mental state were observed, blood was collected via auricula dextra, ELISA method was used to determine peripheral plasma NSE and S100毬 protein contents, routine HE staining was conducted after perfusion fixation, the neurons in blood injection side of brain tissue were counted, and the neuron damage was observed. Results: 26 rats were dead in the experiment. The general conditions of sham operation group were significantly better than those of other groups, treatment group was significantly better than model group and control group on the 5d group (P0.05; neuron count of sham operation group was basically stable, treatment group was not different from model group and control group on the 1d (P>0.05, treatment group was better than model group (P0.05 on the 3d, and treatment group was better than model group and control group on the 5d and 7d (P0.05, S100毬 protein and NSE contents decreased significantly on the 3d, and treatment group was significantly different from model group and control group (P<0.05, S100毬 protein and NSE contents increased on the 5d and 7d, the increase in treatment group was slower than that in model group and control group, and there was significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusion

  13. Acute effects of different diet compositions on skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obese individuals during caloric restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cecilia C.L.; Adochio, Rebecca L.; Leitner, J. Wayne; Abeyta, Ian M.; Draznin, Boris; Cornier, Marc-Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective The cellular effects of restricting fat versus carbohydrate during a low-calorie diet are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine acute effects of energy and macronutrient restriction on skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obesity. Materials/Methods Eighteen obese individuals without diabetes underwent euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and skeletal muscle biopsy after: (a) 5 days of eucaloric diet (30% fat, 50% carbohydrate), and (b) 5 days of a 30% calorie-restricted diet, either low fat/high carbohydrate (LF/HC: 20% fat, 60% carbohydrate) or high-fat/low carbohydrate (HF/LC: 50% fat, 30% carbohydrate). Results Weight, body composition, and insulin sensitivity were similar between groups after eucaloric diet. Weight loss was similar between groups after hypocaloric diet, 1.3 ± 1.3 kg (pdiet. Skeletal muscle of the LF/HC group had increased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, decreased insulin-stimulated Ser 307 phosphorylation of IRS-1, and increased IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI)3-kinase activity. Conversely, insulin stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylated IRS-1 was absent and serine 307 phosphorylation of IRS-1 was increased on HF/LC, with blunting of IRS-1-associated PI3-kinase activity. Conclusion Acute caloric restriction with a LF/HC diet alters skeletal muscle insulin signalling in a way that improves insulin sensitivity, while acute caloric restriction with a HF/LC diet induces changes compatible with insulin resistance. In both cases, ex vivo changes in skeletal muscle insulin signalling appear prior to changes in whole body insulin sensitivity. PMID:23174405

  14. γ-Oryzanol protects against acute cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiazzi, Cristiano C; Manfredini, Vanusa; Barcellos da Silva, Fabiana E; Flores, Erico M M; Izaguirry, Aryele P; Vargas, Laura M; Soares, Melina B; Santos, Francielli W

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal that is present at low levels mainly in food and water and also in cigar smoke. The present study evaluated the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium exposure and verified the protective role of γ-oryzanol (ORY). Mice were administrated with a single dose of 2.5mg/kg of CdCl2, and then treated with ORY (50mM in canola oil, 5mL/kg). Testes were removed after 24h and tested for lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonylation, DNA breakage, ascorbic acid, cadmium and non-proteic thiols contents, and for the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and δ-aminolevulic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D). Cadmium presented a significant alteration in all parameters, except GPx and CAT activities. Therapy reduced in a slight degree cadmium concentration in testes (around 23%). ORY restored SOD and GST activities as well as TBARS production to the control levels. Furthermore, ORY partially recovered δ-ALA-D activity inhibited by cadmium. This study provides the first evidence on the therapeutic properties of ORY in protecting against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of acute radiation damage of the human brain by 1H-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Shigeru; Kinosada, Yasutomi.

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen patients (17 cases) were treated with the whole brain irradiation. Physiological changes in white matter were measured by in vivo 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Phantom examination proved the accuracy of our 1 H-MRS method to be valid. The measurement was performed 2 or 3 times in each case at the radiation doses ranging from 0 to 40 Gy with 2 Gy daily fractionation. For the measurement of 1 H-MRS, 1.5 T whole body MR system was used and stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) with chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse was applied. Volume of the interest (VOI) was 2.5x2.5x2.5 cm 3 , and the repetition time and echo time were 2000 ms and 272 ms, respectively. Acute radiation damage of the brain was evaluated by the change of peak area ratio (PAR) of choline, creatine and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA). 1 H-MRS spectra before irradiation were different from those observed during irradiation. There were statistically significant (p 1 H-MRS is a powerful modality, detecting the subtle physiological change which is difficult to evaluate with conventional images. (author)

  16. Amino acids augment muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs during acute endotoxemia by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Renán A; Jeyapalan, Asumthia; Escobar, Jeffery; Frank, Jason W; Nguyen, Hanh V; Suryawan, Agus; Davis, Teresa A

    2007-11-01

    In skeletal muscle of adults, sepsis reduces protein synthesis by depressing translation initiation and induces resistance to branched-chain amino acid stimulation. Normal neonates maintain a high basal muscle protein synthesis rate that is sensitive to amino acid stimulation. In the present study, we determined the effect of amino acids on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues in septic neonates. Overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused with endotoxin (LPS, 0 and 10 microg.kg(-1).h(-1)), whereas glucose and insulin were maintained at fasting levels; amino acids were clamped at fasting or fed levels. In the presence of fasting insulin and amino acids, LPS reduced protein synthesis in longissimus dorsi (LD) and gastrocnemius muscles and increased protein synthesis in the diaphragm, but had no effect in masseter and heart muscles. Increasing amino acids to fed levels accelerated muscle protein synthesis in LD, gastrocnemius, masseter, and diaphragm. LPS stimulated protein synthesis in liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, and kidney in fasted animals. Raising amino acids to fed levels increased protein synthesis in liver of controls, but not LPS-treated animals. The increase in muscle protein synthesis in response to amino acids was associated with increased mTOR, 4E-BP1, and S6K1 phosphorylation and eIF4G-eIF4E association in control and LPS-infused animals. These findings suggest that amino acids stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis during acute endotoxemia via mTOR-dependent ribosomal assembly despite reduced basal protein synthesis rates in neonatal pigs. However, provision of amino acids does not further enhance the LPS-induced increase in liver protein synthesis.

  17. Muscle performance following an acute bout of plyometric training combined with low or high intensity weight exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneka, Anastasia G; Malliou, Paraskevi K; Missailidou, Victoria; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Georgiadis, Elias

    2013-01-01

    To determine the time course of performance responses after an acute bout of plyometric exercise combined with high and low intensity weight training, a 3-group (including a control group), repeated-measures design was employed. Changes in performance were monitored through jumping ability by measuring countermovement and squat jumping, and strength performance assessment through isometric and isokinetic testing of knee extensors (at two different velocities). Participants in both experimental groups performed a plyometric protocol consisting of 50 jumps over 50 cm hurdles and 50 drop jumps from a 50 cm plyometric box. Additionally, each group performed two basic weight exercises consisting of leg presses and leg extensions at 90-95% of maximum muscle strength for the high intensity group and 60% of maximum muscle strength for the low intensity group. The results of the study suggest that an acute bout of intense plyometric exercise combined with weight exercise induces time-dependent changes in performance, which are also dependent on the nature of exercise protocol and testing procedures. In conclusion, acute plyometric exercise with weight exercise may induce a substantial decline in jumping performance for as long as 72 hours but not in other forms of muscle strength.

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen in skeletal muscle of rats submitted to total acute left hindlimb ischemia: A research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luis Gustavo Campos; Dalio, Marcelo Bellini; Joviliano, Edwaldo Edner; Feres, Omar; Piccinato, Carlos Eli

    2015-01-01

    Determine the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in skeletal muscle of rats submitted to total acute left hindlimb ischemia. An experimental study was designed using 48 Wistar rats divided into four groups (n = 12): Control; Ischemia (I)--total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes; Hyperbaric oxygen treatment during ischemia (HBO2)--total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes and hyperbaric oxygen during the first 90 minutes; Pre-treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (PHBO2)--90 minutes of hyperbaric oxygen treatment before total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes. Skeletal muscle injury was evaluated by measuring levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total creatine phosphokinase (CPK); muscular malondialdehyde (MDA), muscular glycogen, and serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA). AST was significantly higher in I, HBO2 and PHBO2 compared with control (P = .001). There was no difference in LDH. CPK was significantly higher in I, HBO2 and PHBO2, compared with control (p = .014). MDA was significantly higher in PHBO2, compared with other groups (p = .042). Glycogen was significantly decreased in I, HBO2 and PHBO2, compared with control (p < .001). Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in acute total hindlimb ischemia exerted no protective effect on muscle injury, regardless of time of application. When applied prior to installation of total ischemia, hyperbaric oxygen treatment aggravated muscle injury.

  19. Pilot study: Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on muscle fatigue caused by acute exercise in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Kosuke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle contraction during short intervals of intense exercise causes oxidative stress, which can play a role in the development of overtraining symptoms, including increased fatigue, resulting in muscle microinjury or inflammation. Recently it has been said that hydrogen can function as antioxidant, so we investigated the effect of hydrogen-rich water (HW on oxidative stress and muscle fatigue in response to acute exercise. Methods Ten male soccer players aged 20.9 ± 1.3 years old were subjected to exercise tests and blood sampling. Each subject was examined twice in a crossover double-blind manner; they were given either HW or placebo water (PW for one week intervals. Subjects were requested to use a cycle ergometer at a 75 % maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 for 30 min, followed by measurement of peak torque and muscle activity throughout 100 repetitions of maximal isokinetic knee extension. Oxidative stress markers and creatine kinase in the peripheral blood were sequentially measured. Results Although acute exercise resulted in an increase in blood lactate levels in the subjects given PW, oral intake of HW prevented an elevation of blood lactate during heavy exercise. Peak torque of PW significantly decreased during maximal isokinetic knee extension, suggesting muscle fatigue, but peak torque of HW didn’t decrease at early phase. There was no significant change in blood oxidative injury markers (d-ROMs and BAP or creatine kinease after exercise. Conclusion Adequate hydration with hydrogen-rich water pre-exercise reduced blood lactate levels and improved exercise-induced decline of muscle function. Although further studies to elucidate the exact mechanisms and the benefits are needed to be confirmed in larger series of studies, these preliminary results may suggest that HW may be suitable hydration for athletes.

  20. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  1. Free Radical Damage in Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: An Obstacle in Acute Ischemic Stroke after Revascularization Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shuo Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ischemic stroke is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and endovascular thrombectomy are the main revascularization therapies for acute ischemic stroke. However, ischemia-reperfusion injury after revascularization therapy can result in worsening outcomes. Among all possible pathological mechanisms of ischemia-reperfusion injury, free radical damage (mainly oxidative/nitrosative stress injury has been found to play a key role in the process. Free radicals lead to protein dysfunction, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation, resulting in cell death. Additionally, free radical damage has a strong connection with inducing hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema, which are the major complications of revascularization therapy, and mainly influencing neurological outcomes due to the disruption of the blood-brain barrier. In order to get a better clinical prognosis, more and more studies focus on the pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical neuroprotective therapies against free radical damage. This review discusses the pathological mechanisms of free radicals in ischemia-reperfusion injury and adjunctive neuroprotective therapies combined with revascularization therapy against free radical damage.

  2. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Parise, Gianni; Bellamy, Leeann; Baker, Steven K; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n = 23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m²) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (Pmuscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02), 3-6 h (r = 0.16) or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10). Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46) at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  3. Effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal profile and muscle damage indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Shawn; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Halevy, Orna; Zadik, Zvi

    2010-07-01

    There is a huge market for ergogenic supplements for athletes. However, only a few products have been proven to have ergogenic effects and to be effective at improving muscle strength and body composition. One such supplement is beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). Derived from the amino acid leucine and its keto acid alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC), HMB has been well documented as an oral ergogenic supplement commonly used by athletes. Several studies have shown that combining exercise training with HMB supplementation leads to increased muscle mass and strength, and there is some anecdotal evidence of aerobic improvement. However, HMB supplementation has been found to be effective mainly for untrained individuals. While previous reviews have emphasized three main pathways for HMB's mode of action: 1) enhancement of sarcolemmal integrity via cytosolic cholesterol, 2) inhibition of protein degradation via proteasomes, and 3) increased protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway, more recent studies have suggested additional possible mechanisms for its physiological effects. These include decreased cell apoptosis and enhanced cell survival, increased proliferation, differentiation and fusion via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways, and enhanced IGF-I transcription. These are described here, and hormonal interactions are discussed, along with HMB dosage and safety issues.

  4. Vitamin E supplementation inhibits muscle damage and inflammation after moderate exercise in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S A; Silva, E T; Caris, A V; Lira, F S; Tufik, S; Dos Santos, R V T

    2016-08-01

    Exercise under hypoxic conditions represents an additional stress in relation to exercise in normoxia. Hypoxia induces oxidative stress and inflammation as mediated through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α release that might be exacerbated through exercise. In addition, vitamin E supplementation might attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation resulting from hypoxia during exercise. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E supplementation (250 mg) on inflammatory parameters and cellular damage after exercise under hypoxia simulating an altitude of 4200 m. Nine volunteers performed three sessions of 60 min of exercise (70% maximal oxygen uptake) interspersed for 1 week under normoxia, hypoxia and hypoxia after vitamin E supplementation 1 h before exercise. Blood was collected before, immediately after and at 1 h after exercise to measure inflammatory parameters and cell damage. Percentage oxygen saturation of haemoglobin decreased after exercise and recovered 1 h later in the hypoxia + vitamin condition (P exercise (P exercise in hypoxia increased interleukin (IL)-6, TNF-α, IL-1ra and IL-10 immediately after exercise (P exercise in hypoxia without supplementation (P exercise reduces cell damage markers after exercise in hypoxia and changes the concentration of cytokines, suggesting a possible protective effect against inflammation induced by hypoxia during exercise. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Biological Signatures of Brain Damage Associated with High Serum Ferritin Levels in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Thrombolytic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Millán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Increased body iron stores have been related to greater oxidative stress and brain injury in clinical and experimental cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. We aimed to investigate the biological signatures of excitotoxicity, inflammation and blood brain barrier disruption potentially associated with high serum ferritin levels-related damage in acute stroke patients treated with i.v. t-PA.

  6. The influence of training status on the drop in muscle strength after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Moerch, L; Kjaer, M

    2009-01-01

    to running exercise immediately after immobilization, the muscle strength of the triceps-surae muscles dropped even further, but just in the immobilized leg (41%; P importance of determining the muscle endurance when evaluating the effect of immobilization on muscle......Skeletal muscles fatigue after exercise, and reductions in maximal force appear. A difference in training status between the legs was introduced by unilateral immobilization of the calf muscles for 2 weeks in young men, who were randomly assigned to two groups, either a RUN group (n = 8......) that was exposed to prolonged exercise (1-h running: individual pace) or a REST group (n = 12) that did no exercise after immobilization. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps-surae muscles was calculated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the plantar flexors...

  7. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy vs. far-infrared vs. passive modalities on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in highly-trained runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Hausswirth

    Full Text Available Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC, far infrared (FIR or passive (PAS modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being] were recorded before, immediately after (post, post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h, while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.

  8. Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, François; Pournot, Hervé; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities. PMID:22163272

  9. Plain computed tomography for assessment of early coronary microcirculatory damage after revascularization therapy in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masaya; Dote, Keigo; Sasaki, Shota

    2006-01-01

    Coronary microcirculatory damage is an important factor for the prognosis for acute myocardial infarction (MI) after revascularization. The myocardial enhancement area with contrast media infused during coronary revascularization therapy, detected by computed tomography (CT) just after revascularization, has been reported to correspond to the area of hemorrhagic infarction. The relationship between myocardial contrast enhancement and coronary microcirculatory damage was investigated in the present study. Thirteen patients with acute anterior MI underwent successful coronary revascularization within 6 h of symptom onset were enrolled. The coronary flow velocity pattern was measured using a Doppler guidewire and chest CT assessments were performed immediately after coronary revascularization. The ratio of mean CT number of the highest-enhanced myocardial area and the lumen of the left ventricle was defined as a relative CT number. The relative CT number significantly correlated with coronary diastolic deceleration time (r=-0.78, p<0.002) and coronary diastolic deceleration rate (r=0.74, p<0.04). It also correlated with peak myocardial enzyme release in plasma. Myocardial contrast enhancement detected using plain CT just after coronary reperfusion therapy implies coronary microcirculatory damage in acute MI. The relative CT number is useful in evaluating the impaired coronary microcirculatory state. (author)

  10. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J Mitchell

    Full Text Available Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE in untrained men (n = 23 and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m² underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (P<0.001 above rest 60-180 min post-exercise and 184±28% (P = 0.037 180-360 min post exercise. Quadriceps volume increased 7.9±1.6% (-1.9-24.7% (P<0.001 after training. There was no correlation between changes in quadriceps muscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02, 3-6 h (r = 0.16 or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10. Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05 with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46 at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  11. Blood lipid peroxides and muscle damage increased following intensive resistance training of female weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Fang; Chang, Wei-Yin; Chan, Kuei-Hui; Tsai, Wen-Yee; Lin, Chen-Li; Hsu, Mei-Chieh

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in muscle cell injury and antioxidant capacity of weightlifters following a 1-week intensive resistance-training regimen. Thirty-six female subjects participated in this study, and their ages ranged from 18 to 25 years. The sample group included 19 elite weightlifters with more than 3 years of weightlifting training experience, while the control group comprised 17 non-athletic individuals. Compared with non-athletes, weightlifters had significantly lower glutathione peroxidase activity and plasma vitamin C concentrations. Weightlifters also had significantly higher malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxy 2-(E)-nonenal (MDA+4-HNE) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and creatine kinase (CK) activity. For weightlifters, the plasma vitamin E level and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and CK activity increased significantly (P weightlifters (P injury in female weightlifters. Furthermore, proper rest after intensive training was found to be important for recovery.

  12. Detection and characterization of exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) via thermography and image processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avdelidis, Nicolas; Kappatos, Vassilios; Georgoulas, George

    2017-01-01

    of commonly measurement tools and methods. Thermography has been used successfully as a research detection tool in medicine for the last 6 decades but very limited work has been reported on EIMD area. The main purpose of this research is to assess and characterize EIMD, using thermography and image processing...... techniques. The first step towards that goal is to develop a reliable segmentation technique to isolate the region of interest (ROI). A semi-automatic image processing software was designed and regions of the left and right leg based on superpixels were segmented. The image is segmented into a number...... of regions and the user is able to intervene providing the regions which belong to each of the two legs. In order to validate the image processing software, an extensive experimental investigation was carried out, acquiring thermographic images of the rectus femoris muscle before, immediately post and 24, 48...

  13. Effects of Light-Emitting Diode Therapy on Muscle Hypertrophy, Gene Expression, Performance, Damage, and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: Case-control Study with a Pair of Identical Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Cleber; Bertucci, Danilo; Schiavinato, Josiane; Reiff, Rodrigo; Araújo, Amélia; Panepucci, Rodrigo; Matheucci, Euclides; Cunha, Anderson Ferreira; Arakelian, Vivian Maria; Hamblin, Michael R; Parizotto, Nivaldo; Bagnato, Vanderlei

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to verify how a pair of monozygotic twins would respond to light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) or placebo combined with a strength-training program during 12 weeks. This case-control study enrolled a pair of male monozygotic twins, allocated randomly to LEDT or placebo therapies. Light-emitting diode therapy or placebo was applied from a flexible light-emitting diode array (λ = 850 nm, total energy = 75 J, t = 15 seconds) to both quadriceps femoris muscles of each twin immediately after each strength training session (3 times/wk for 12 weeks) consisting of leg press and leg extension exercises with load of 80% and 50% of the 1-repetition maximum test, respectively. Muscle biopsies, magnetic resonance imaging, maximal load, and fatigue resistance tests were conducted before and after the training program to assess gene expression, muscle hypertrophy and performance, respectively. Creatine kinase levels in blood and visual analog scale assessed muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness, respectively, during the training program. Compared with placebo, LEDT increased the maximal load in exercise and reduced fatigue, creatine kinase, and visual analog scale. Gene expression analyses showed decreases in markers of inflammation (interleukin 1β) and muscle atrophy (myostatin) with LEDT. Protein synthesis (mammalian target of rapamycin) and oxidative stress defense (SOD2 [mitochondrial superoxide dismutase]) were up-regulated with LEDT, together with increases in thigh muscle hypertrophy. Light-emitting diode therapy can be useful to reduce muscle damage, pain, and atrophy, as well as to increase muscle mass, recovery, and athletic performance in rehabilitation programs and sports medicine.

  14. Maternal creatine supplementation during pregnancy prevents acute and long-term deficits in skeletal muscle after birth asphyxia: a study of structure and function of hind limb muscle in the spiny mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRosa, Domenic A; Ellery, Stacey J; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-12-01

    Maternal antenatal creatine supplementation protects the brain, kidney, and diaphragm against the effects of birth asphyxia in the spiny mouse. In this study, we examined creatine's potential to prevent damage to axial skeletal muscles. Pregnant spiny mice were fed a control or creatine-supplemented diet from mid-pregnancy, and 1 d before term (39 d), fetuses were delivered by c-section with or without 7.5 min of birth asphyxia. At 24 h or 33 ± 2 d after birth, gastrocnemius muscles were obtained for ex-vivo study of twitch-tension, muscle fatigue, and structural and histochemical analysis. Birth asphyxia significantly reduced cross-sectional area of all muscle fiber types (P creatine treatment prevented all asphyxia-induced changes in the gastrocnemius, improved motor performance. This study demonstrates that creatine loading before birth protects the muscle from asphyxia-induced damage at birth.

  15. Loss of nNOS inhibits compensatory muscle hypertrophy and exacerbates inflammation and eccentric contraction-induced damage in mdx mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehner, Stanley C.; Reed, Sarah M.; Anderson, Kendra N.; Huang, Paul L.; Percival, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Approaches targeting nitric oxide (NO) signaling show promise as therapies for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. However, the mechanisms by which NO benefits dystrophin-deficient muscle remain unclear, but may involve nNOSβ, a newly discovered enzymatic source of NO in skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the impact of dystrophin deficiency on nNOSβ and use mdx mice engineered to lack nNOSμ and nNOSβ to discern how the loss of nNOS impacts dystrophic skeletal muscle pathology. In mdx muscle, nNOSβ was mislocalized and its association with the Golgi complex was reduced. nNOS depletion from mdx mice prevented compensatory skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy, decreased myofiber central nucleation and increased focal macrophage cell infiltration, indicating exacerbated dystrophic muscle damage. Reductions in muscle integrity in nNOS-null mdx mice were accompanied by decreases in specific force and increased susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage compared with mdx controls. Unexpectedly, muscle fatigue was unaffected by nNOS depletion, revealing a novel latent compensatory mechanism for the loss of nNOS in mdx mice. Together with previous studies, these data suggest that localization of both nNOSμ and nNOSβ is disrupted by dystrophin deficiency. They also indicate that nNOS has a more complex role as a modifier of dystrophic pathology and broader therapeutic potential than previously recognized. Importantly, these findings also suggest nNOSβ as a new drug target and provide a new conceptual framework for understanding nNOS signaling and the benefits of NO therapies in dystrophinopathies. PMID:25214536

  16. The influence of acute resistance exercise on cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 activity and protein levels in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Chad C; O'Connor, Devin T; Steinmeyer, Robert; Del Mundo, Jonathon D; McMullan, David R; Whitt, Jamie A; Ramos, Jahir E; Gonzales, Rayna J

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the activity and content of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 in response to acute resistance exercise (RE) in human skeletal muscle. Previous work suggests that COX-1, but not COX-2, is the primary COX isoform elevated with resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle. COX activity, however, has not been assessed after resistance exercise in humans. It was hypothesized that RE would increase COX-1 but not COX-2 activity. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of nine young men (25 ± 1 yr) at baseline (preexercise), 4, and 24 h after a single bout of knee extensor RE (three sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of maximum). Tissue lysate was assayed for COX-1 and COX-2 activity. COX-1 and COX-2 protein levels were measured via Western blot analysis. COX-1 activity increased at 4 h (P 0.05) with acute RE. In contrast, COX-2 protein levels were nearly 3-fold greater (P > 0.05) at 4 h and 5-fold greater (P = 0.06) at 24 h, compared with preexercise. In conclusion, COX-1 activity increases transiently with exercise independent of COX-1 protein levels. In contrast, both COX-2 activity and protein levels were elevated with exercise, and this elevation persisted to at least 24 h after RE.

  17. CT evaluation of the damaged upper limb muscle in patients with Duchenne type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuke, Yutaka.

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate the changes of CT numbers and cross sectional areas of the muscles, we determined CT scores of the muscle. In twelve patients with Duchenne type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD), we assessed the difference of CT scores of the muscle and the correlation between CT score of the muscle and 9-stage classification of upper extremities. CT scores of the subscapularis muscle and infraspinatus muscle were significantly lower than deltoideus muscle at the level of the shoulder, and flexor muscles showed also significantly lower than extensor muscles at the level of the upper extremity. Good correlations between CT score of the muscle and 9-stage classification of upper extremities were observed in the muscles of shoulder and upper arm. (author)

  18. CT evaluation of the damaged upper limb muscle in patients with Duchenne type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Hiroshi (Anan Central Hospital, Tokushima (Japan)); Matsuke, Yutaka

    1992-04-01

    In order to evaluate the changes of CT numbers and cross sectional areas of the muscles, we determined CT scores of the muscle. In twelve patients with Duchenne type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD), we assessed the difference of CT scores of the muscle and the correlation between CT score of the muscle and 9-stage classification of upper extremities. CT scores of the subscapularis muscle and infraspinatus muscle were significantly lower than deltoideus muscle at the level of the shoulder, and flexor muscles showed also significantly lower than extensor muscles at the level of the upper extremity. Good correlations between CT score of the muscle and 9-stage classification of upper extremities were observed in the muscles of shoulder and upper arm. (author).

  19. Evaluation of Respiratory Muscle Strength in the Acute Phase of Stroke: The Role of Aging and Anthropometric Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvizutto, Gustavo José; Dos Santos, Maria Regina Lopes; Sartor, Lorena Cristina Alvarez; da Silva Rodrigues, Josiela Cristina; da Costa, Rafael Dalle Molle; Braga, Gabriel Pereira; de Oliveira Antunes, Letícia Cláudia; Souza, Juli Thomaz; de Carvalho Nunes, Hélio Rubens; Bazan, Silméia Garcia Zanati; Bazan, Rodrigo

    2017-10-01

    During hospitalization, stroke patients are bedridden due to neurologic impairment, leading to loss of muscle mass, weakness, and functional limitation. There have been few studies examining respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in the acute phase of stroke. This study aimed to evaluate the RMS of patients with acute stroke compared with predicted values and to relate this to anthropometric variables, risk factors, and neurologic severity. This is a cross-sectional study in the acute phase of stroke. After admission, RMS was evaluated by maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP); anthropometric data were collected; and neurologic severity was evaluated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. The analysis of MIP and MEP with predicted values was performed by chi-square test, and the relationship between anthropometric variables, risk factors, and neurologic severity was determined through multiple linear regression followed by residue analysis by the Shapiro-Wilk test; P < .05 was considered statistically significant. In the 32 patients studied, MIP and MEP were reduced when compared with the predicted values. MIP declined significantly by 4.39 points for each 1 kg/m 2 increase in body mass index (BMI), and MEP declined significantly by an average of 3.89 points for each 1 kg/m 2 increase in BMI. There was no statistically significant relationship between MIP or MEP and risk factors, and between MIP or MIP and neurologic severity in acute phase of stroke. There is a reduction of RMS in the acute phase of stroke, and RMS was lower in individuals with increased age and BMI. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Blood-flow restricted training leads to myocelullar macrophage infiltration and upregulation of heat-shock proteins, but no apparent muscle damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob L; Aagaard, Per; Prokhorova, Tatyana A

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that low-load muscle contractions performed under local blood-flow restriction (BFR) may initially induce muscle damage and stress. However, whether these factors are evoked with longitudinal BFR training remains unexplored at the myocellular level. Two distinct study...... into the intervention (Mid8) and 3 and 10 days after training cessation (Post3,Post10) to examine macrophage (M1/M2) content as well as heat-shock protein (HSP27/70) and tenascin-C expression. Blood samples (1 wk) were collected before and after (0.1-24 h) the first and last training session to examine markers...... of muscle damage (CK), oxidative stress (TAC,GSH) and inflammation (MCP1,IL-6,TNFa). M1-macrophage content increased 108-165% with BFRE and LLE at Post3 (P

  1. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matthew B; Nix, Carrie M; Greenwood, Lori D; Greenwood, Mike C

    2018-03-01

    Cooke, MB, Nix, C, Greenwood, L, and Greenwood, M. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 736-747, 2018-The incidence of muscle injuries is prevalent in elite sport athletes and weekend warriors and strategies that safely and effectively hasten recovery are highly desirable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between 3 recovery methods after eliciting muscle damage in recreationally active men relative to maximal isokinetic contractions, perceived muscle soreness, and psychological mood states. Twenty-five recreationally active men (22.15 ± 3.53 years, 75.75 ± 11.91 kg, 180.52 ± 7.3 cm) were randomly matched by V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak (53.86 ± 6.65 ml·kg·min) and assigned to one of 3 recovery methods: anti-gravity treadmill (G-Trainer) (N = 8), conventional treadmill (N = 8) or static stretching (N = 9). Recovery methods were performed 30 minutes, 24, 48, and 72 hours after a 45-minute downhill run. Following eccentrically biased running, no significant differences were noted in isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque, systemic markers of muscle damage, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation such as serum creatine kinase (CK), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively, and subjective ratings of perceived muscle soreness between recovery methods. The G-Trainer group did however display a higher mood state as indicated by the Profile of Mood State global scores at 24 hours postexercise when compared to the conventional treadmill recovery group (p = 0.035). The improved mood state after the use of the anti-gravity treadmill may provide clinical relevance to other populations.

  2. Diaphragm Muscle Weakness Following Acute Sustained Hypoxic Stress in the Mouse Is Prevented by Pretreatment with N-Acetyl Cysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. O’Leary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen deficit (hypoxia is a major feature of cardiorespiratory diseases characterized by diaphragm dysfunction, yet the putative role of hypoxic stress as a driver of diaphragm dysfunction is understudied. We explored the cellular and functional consequences of sustained hypoxic stress in a mouse model. Adult male mice were exposed to 8 hours of normoxia, or hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.10 with or without antioxidant pretreatment (N-acetyl cysteine, 200 mg/kg i.p.. Ventilation and metabolism were measured. Diaphragm muscle contractile function, myofibre size and distribution, gene expression, protein signalling cascades, and oxidative stress (TBARS were determined. Hypoxia caused pronounced diaphragm muscle weakness, unrelated to increased respiratory muscle work. Hypoxia increased diaphragm HIF-1α protein content and activated MAPK, mTOR, Akt, and FoxO3a signalling pathways, largely favouring protein synthesis. Hypoxia increased diaphragm lipid peroxidation, indicative of oxidative stress. FoxO3 and MuRF-1 gene expression were increased. Diaphragm 20S proteasome activity and muscle fibre size and distribution were unaffected by acute hypoxia. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine substantially enhanced cell survival signalling, prevented hypoxia-induced diaphragm oxidative stress, and prevented hypoxia-induced diaphragm dysfunction. Hypoxia is a potent driver of diaphragm weakness, causing myofibre dysfunction without attendant atrophy. N-acetyl cysteine protects the hypoxic diaphragm and may have application as a potential adjunctive therapy.

  3. Chymase mediates injury and mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes during acute ischemia/reperfusion in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junying; Wei, Chih-Chang; Hase, Naoki; Shi, Ke; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Litovsky, Silvio H; Powell, Pamela C; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Ferrario, Carlos M; Rab, Andras; Aban, Inmaculada; Collawn, James F; Dell'Italia, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs because the acute increase in oxidative/inflammatory stress during reperfusion culminates in the death of cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is no drug utilized clinically that attenuates I/R injury in patients. Previous studies have demonstrated degranulation of mast cell contents into the interstitium after I/R. Using a dog model of I/R, we tested the role of chymase, a mast cell protease, in cardiomyocyte injury using a specific oral chymase inhibitor (CI). 15 adult mongrel dogs had left anterior descending artery occlusion for 60 min and reperfusion for 100 minutes. 9 dogs received vehicle and 6 were pretreated with a specific CI. In vivo cardiac microdialysis demonstrated a 3-fold increase in interstitial fluid chymase activity in I/R region that was significantly decreased by CI. CI pretreatment significantly attenuated loss of laminin, focal adhesion complex disruption, and release of troponin I into the circulation. Microarray analysis identified an I/R induced 17-fold increase in nuclear receptor subfamily 4A1 (NR4A1) and significantly decreased by CI. NR4A1 normally resides in the nucleus but can induce cell death on migration to the cytoplasm. I/R caused significant increase in NR4A1 protein expression and cytoplasmic translocation, and mitochondrial degradation, which were decreased by CI. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a high concentration of chymase within cardiomyocytes after I/R. In vitro, chymase added to culture HL-1 cardiomyocytes entered the cytoplasm and nucleus in a dynamin-dependent fashion, and promoted cytoplasmic translocation of NR4A1 protein. shRNA knockdown of NR4A1 on pre-treatment of HL-1 cells with CI significantly decreased chymase-induced cell death and mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of an orally active CI during I/R are mediated in the cardiac interstitium as well as within the cardiomyocyte due to a heretofore-unrecognized chymase

  4. Chymase mediates injury and mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes during acute ischemia/reperfusion in the dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Zheng

    Full Text Available Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury occurs because the acute increase in oxidative/inflammatory stress during reperfusion culminates in the death of cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is no drug utilized clinically that attenuates I/R injury in patients. Previous studies have demonstrated degranulation of mast cell contents into the interstitium after I/R. Using a dog model of I/R, we tested the role of chymase, a mast cell protease, in cardiomyocyte injury using a specific oral chymase inhibitor (CI. 15 adult mongrel dogs had left anterior descending artery occlusion for 60 min and reperfusion for 100 minutes. 9 dogs received vehicle and 6 were pretreated with a specific CI. In vivo cardiac microdialysis demonstrated a 3-fold increase in interstitial fluid chymase activity in I/R region that was significantly decreased by CI. CI pretreatment significantly attenuated loss of laminin, focal adhesion complex disruption, and release of troponin I into the circulation. Microarray analysis identified an I/R induced 17-fold increase in nuclear receptor subfamily 4A1 (NR4A1 and significantly decreased by CI. NR4A1 normally resides in the nucleus but can induce cell death on migration to the cytoplasm. I/R caused significant increase in NR4A1 protein expression and cytoplasmic translocation, and mitochondrial degradation, which were decreased by CI. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a high concentration of chymase within cardiomyocytes after I/R. In vitro, chymase added to culture HL-1 cardiomyocytes entered the cytoplasm and nucleus in a dynamin-dependent fashion, and promoted cytoplasmic translocation of NR4A1 protein. shRNA knockdown of NR4A1 on pre-treatment of HL-1 cells with CI significantly decreased chymase-induced cell death and mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of an orally active CI during I/R are mediated in the cardiac interstitium as well as within the cardiomyocyte due to a heretofore

  5. Does eccentric training of hamstring muscles reduce acute injuries in soccer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a 10-week hamstring exercise training program in reducing the incidence and severity of new and recurrent hamstring injuries among male soccer players. Cluster-randomized (by team)controlled trial, stratified by level of play and geographic location. Sample size was calculated with 80% power to show a relative risk reduction for injury of 50% at P ≤ 0.05. Soccer community study in Denmark during the period January to December 2008. Teams in the top 5 soccer divisions (2 professional and 3 amateur)were invited to participate. The exclusion criterion for teams was that they already used eccentric hamstring exercises, and for participants was that they joined the teams after the beginning of the season. Of 116 teams, 54 were eligible and willing to be randomized and 50 were included in the analysis (942 players). Teams in both the intervention and control groups followed their normal training programs. At the beginning of the study period, the intervention teams added 27 sessions of the Nordicham string exercise (after warm-up) during the 10-week period of the mid-season break. The exercise begins with the player kneeling with the torso upright and rigid, and the feet held down to the ground by a partner. The player lowers his torso forwards toward the ground braking with his hamstring muscles until the chest reaches the ground (eccentric phase). He returns to the upright position, pushing with his hands to minimize the concentric phase load. Sessions per week and sets and repetitions per session increased to 3, 3, and 12, respectively. Team coaches supervised the sessions. A hamstring injury was defined as an acute occurrence of a “physical complaint in the region of the posterior thigh sustained during a soccer match or training, irrespective of the need for medical attention or time loss from soccer activities.” Injuries were recorded by the teams’ medical staff on standardized forms. Only first injuries during the season

  6. Skeletal Muscle Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Phosphorylation and Lactate Accumulation During Sprint Exercise in Normoxia and Severe Acute Hypoxia: Effects of Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morales-Alamo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared to normoxia, during sprint exercise in severe acute hypoxia the glycolytic rate is increased leading to greater lactate accumulation, acidification, and oxidative stress. To determine the role played by pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH activation and reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS in muscle lactate accumulation, nine volunteers performed a single 30-s sprint (Wingate test on four occasions: two after the ingestion of placebo and another two following the intake of antioxidants, while breathing either hypoxic gas (PIO2 = 75 mmHg or room air (PIO2 = 143 mmHg. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before, immediately after, 30 and 120 min post-sprint. Antioxidants reduced the glycolytic rate without altering performance or VO2. Immediately after the sprints, Ser293- and Ser300-PDH-E1α phosphorylations were reduced to similar levels in all conditions (~66 and 91%, respectively. However, 30 min into recovery Ser293-PDH-E1α phosphorylation reached pre-exercise values while Ser300-PDH-E1α was still reduced by 44%. Thirty minutes after the sprint Ser293-PDH-E1α phosphorylation was greater with antioxidants, resulting in 74% higher muscle lactate concentration. Changes in Ser293 and Ser300-PDH-E1α phosphorylation from pre to immediately after the sprints were linearly related after placebo (r = 0.74, P < 0.001; n = 18, but not after antioxidants ingestion (r = 0.35, P = 0.15. In summary, lactate accumulation during sprint exercise in severe acute hypoxia is not caused by a reduced activation of the PDH. The ingestion of antioxidants is associated with increased PDH re-phosphorylation and slower elimination of muscle lactate during the recovery period. Ser293 re-phosphorylates at a faster rate than Ser300-PDH-E1α during the recovery period, suggesting slightly different regulatory mechanisms.

  7. Possible GABAergic modulation in the protective effect of zolpidem in acute hypoxic stress-induced behavior alterations and oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Goyal, Richa

    2008-03-01

    Hypoxia is an environmental stressor that is known to elicit alterations in both the autonomic nervous system and endocrine functions. The free radical or oxidative stress theory holds that oxidative reactions are mainly underlying neurodegenerative disorders. In fact among complex metabolic reactions occurring during hypoxia, many could be related to the formation of oxygen derived free radicals, causing a wide spectrum of cell damage. In present study, we investigated possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in the protective effect of zolpidem against acute hypoxia-induced behavioral modification and biochemical alterations in mice. Mice were subjected to acute hypoxic stress for a period of 2 h. Acute hypoxic stress for 2 h caused significant impairment in locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior, and antinocioceptive effect in mice. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant increased malondialdehyde, nitrite concentrations and depleted reduced glutathione and catalase levels. Pretreatment with zolpidem (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly improved locomotor activity, anti-anxiety effect, reduced tail flick latency and attenuated oxidative damage (reduced malondialdehyde, nitrite concentration, and restoration of reduced glutathione and catalase levels) as compared to stressed control (hypoxia) (P zolpidem (5 mg/kg) was blocked significantly by picrotoxin (1.0 mg/kg) or flumazenil (2 mg/kg) and potentiated by muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) in hypoxic animals (P zolpidem (5 mg/kg) per se (P zolpidem against hypoxic stress.

  8. Acute interleukin-6 administration does not impair muscle glucose uptake or whole-body glucose disposal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian P; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    adrenaline (epinephrine). IL-6 infusion, irrespective of dose, did not result in any changes to endogenous glucose production, whole-body glucose disposal or leg- glucose uptake. These data demonstrate that acute IL-6 administration does not impair whole-body glucose disposal, net leg-glucose uptake......The cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 has recently been linked with type 2 diabetes mellitus and has been suggested to affect glucose metabolism. To determine whether acute IL-6 administration affects whole-body glucose kinetics or muscle glucose uptake, 18 healthy young men were assigned to one of three...... the cessation of infusion (recovery) to determine endogenous glucose production and whole-body glucose disposal. Infusion with HiIL-6 and LoIL-6 resulted in a marked (P

  9. β2-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated HIF-1α Upregulation Mediates Blood Brain Barrier Damage in Acute Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyun Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB within the thrombolytic time window is an antecedent event to intracerebral hemorrhage in ischemic stroke. Our recent studies showed that 2-h cerebral ischemia induced BBB damage in non-infarcted area and secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 accounted for this disruption. However, the factors that affect MMP-2 secretion and regulate BBB damage remains unknown. Since hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α was discovered as a mater regulator in hypoxia, we sought to investigate the roles of HIF-1α in BBB damage as well as the factors regulating HIF-1α expression in the ischemic brain. in vivo rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD models were used to mimic ischemia. Pretreatment with HIF-1α inhibitor YC-1 significantly inhibited 2-h MCAO-induced BBB damage, which was accompanied by suppressed occludin degradation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF mRNA upregulation. Interestingly, β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR antagonist ICI 118551 attenuated ischemia-induced BBB damage by regulating HIF-1α expression. Double immunostaining showed that HIF-1α was upregulated in ischemic neurons but not in astrocytes andendothelial cells. Of note, HIF-1α inhibition with inhibitor YC-1 or siRNA significantly prevented OGD-induced VEGF upregulation as well as the secretion of VEGF and MMP-2 in neurons. More importantly, blocking β2-AR with ICI 118551 suppressedHIF-1α upregulation in ischemic neurons and attenuated occludin degradation induced by the conditioned media of OGD-treatedneurons. Taken together, blockade of β2-AR-mediated HIF-1α upregulation mediates BBB damage during acute cerebral ischemia. These findings provide new mechanistic understanding of early BBB damage in ischemic stroke and may help reduce thrombolysis-related hemorrhagic complications.

  10. Symmorphosis through dietary regulation: a combinatorial role for proteolysis, autophagy and protein synthesis in normalising muscle metabolism and function of hypertrophic mice after acute starvation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Collins-Hooper

    Full Text Available Animals are imbued with adaptive mechanisms spanning from the tissue/organ to the cellular scale which insure that processes of homeostasis are preserved in the landscape of size change. However we and others have postulated that the degree of adaptation is limited and that once outside the normal levels of size fluctuations, cells and tissues function in an aberant manner. In this study we examine the function of muscle in the myostatin null mouse which is an excellent model for hypertrophy beyond levels of normal growth and consequeces of acute starvation to restore mass. We show that muscle growth is sustained through protein synthesis driven by Serum/Glucocorticoid Kinase 1 (SGK1 rather than Akt1. Furthermore our metabonomic profiling of hypertrophic muscle shows that carbon from nutrient sources is being channelled for the production of biomass rather than ATP production. However the muscle displays elevated levels of autophagy and decreased levels of muscle tension. We demonstrate the myostatin null muscle is acutely sensitive to changes in diet and activates both the proteolytic and autophagy programmes and shutting down protein synthesis more extensively than is the case for wild-types. Poignantly we show that acute starvation which is detrimental to wild-type animals is beneficial in terms of metabolism and muscle function in the myostatin null mice by normalising tension production.

  11. Percutaneous Needle Tenotomy for the Treatment of Muscle and Tendon Contractures in Adults With Brain Damage: Results and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroian, Flavia; Jourdan, Claire; Froger, Jérome; Anquetil, Claire; Choquet, Olivier; Coulet, Bertand; Laffont, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    To study the results and complications of percutaneous needle tenotomy for superficial retracted tendons in patients with brain damage. Prospective observational study. University hospital. Patients with severe brain damage (N=38; mean age, 60.7y; age range, 24-93y; 21 women) requiring surgical management of contractures and eligible for percutaneous needle tenotomy were enrolled between February 2015 and February 2016. The percutaneous needle tenotomy gesture was performed by a physical medicine and rehabilitation physician trained by an orthopedic surgeon, under local or locoregional anesthesia. Treated tendons varied among patients. All patients were evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months to assess surgical outcomes (joint range of motion [ROM], pain, and functional improvement) while screening for complications. Improvements in ROM (37/38) and contractures-related pain (12/12) were satisfactory. Functional results were satisfactory (Goal Attainment Scale score ≥0) for most patients (37/38): nursing (n=12), putting shoes on (n=8), getting in bed or sitting on a chair (n=6), verticalization (n=7), transfers and gait (n=8), and grip (n=2). Five patients had complications related to the surgical gesture: cast-related complications (n=2), hand hematoma (n=2), and cutaneous necrosis of the Achilles tendon in a patient with previous obliterative arteriopathy of the lower limbs (n=1). Percutaneous needle tenotomy yields good results in the management of selected superficial muscle and tendon contractures. The complications rate is very low, and this treatment can be an alternative to conventional surgery in frail patients with neurologic diseases. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Greater muscle damage in athletes with ACTN3 R577X (RS1815739) gene polymorphism after an ultra-endurance race: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, T; Crisp, A H; Verlengia, R

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of ACTN3 R577X gene polymorphism on muscle damage responses in athletes competing in an ultra-endurance race. Twenty moderate to well-trained ultra-runners who had entered in an official 37.1 km adventure race (22.1 km mountain biking, 10.9 km trekking, 4.1 km water trekking, 30 m rope course, and orienteering) volunteered for the study. Blood samples were collected for genotyping and analysis of muscle protein levels before and after the race. Percentage changes (pre- to post-race) of serum myoglobin [XX = 5,377% vs. RX/RR = 1,666%; P = 0.005, effect size (ES) = 1.73], creatine kinase (XX = 836.5% vs. RX/RR = 455%; P = 0.04, ES = 1.29), lactate dehydrogenase (XX = 82% vs. RX/RR = 65%; P = 0.002, ES = 1.61), and aspartate aminotransferase (XX = 148% vs. RX/RR = 75%; P = 0.02, ES = 1.77) were significantly greater for XX than RX/RR genotypes. ES analysis confirmed a large magnitude of muscle damage in XX genotype ultra-runners. Therefore, athletes with the ACTN3 577XX genotype experienced more muscle damage after an adventure race. This suggests that ultra-runners with alpha-actinin-3 deficiency may be more susceptible to rhabdomyolysis and associated health complications during ultra-endurance competitions.

  13. Supplementation with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) reduces signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Someren, Ken A; Edwards, Adam J; Howatson, Glyn

    2005-08-01

    This study examined the effects of beta-hydroxyl-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) supplementation on signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage following a single bout of eccentrically biased resistance exercise. Six non-resistance trained male subjects performed an exercise protocol designed to induce muscle damage on two separate occasions, performed on the dominant or non-dominant arm in a counter-balanced crossover design. Subjects were assigned to an HMB/KIC (3 g HMB and 0.3 g alpha-ketoisocaproic acid, daily) or placebo treatment for 14 d prior to exercise in the counter-balanced crossover design. One repetition maximum (1RM), plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), limb girth, and range of motion (ROM) were determined pre-exercise, at 1h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-exercise. DOMS and the percentage changes in 1RM, limb girth, and ROM all changed over the 72 h period (P HMB//IC supplementation attenuated the CK response, the percentage decrement in 1RM, and the percentage increase in limb girth (P HMB/KIC treatment. In conclusion, 14 d of HMB and KIC supplementation reduced signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in non-resistance trained males following a single bout of eccentrically biased resistance exercise.

  14. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-09-15

    We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10-30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20-50%) increased 24-48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM(+) satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM(+) - and Pax7(+) -positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase(Thr421/Ser424) increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  15. The nervous system does not compensate for an acute change in the balance of passive force between synergist muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Nordez, Antoine; Hug, François

    2017-10-01

    It is unclear how muscle activation strategies adapt to differential acute changes in the biomechanical characteristics between synergist muscles. This issue is fundamental to understanding the control of almost every joint in the body. The aim of this human experiment was to determine whether the relative activation of the heads of the triceps surae [gastrocnemius medialis (GM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and soleus (SOL)] compensates for differential changes in passive force between these muscles. Twenty-four participants performed isometric ankle plantarflexion at 20 N m and 20% of the active torque measured during a maximal contraction, at three ankle angles (30 deg of plantarflexion, 0 and 25 deg of dorsiflexion; knee fully extended). Myoelectric activity (electromyography, EMG) provided an index of neural drive. Muscle shear modulus (elastography) provided an index of muscle force. Passive dorsiflexion induced a much larger increase in passive shear modulus for GM (+657.6±257.7%) than for GL (+488.7±257.9%) and SOL (+106.6±93.0%). However, the neural drive during submaximal tasks did not compensate for this change in the balance of the passive force. Instead, when considering the contraction at 20% MVC, GL root mean square (RMS) EMG was reduced at both 0 deg (-39.4±34.5%) and 25 deg dorsiflexion (-20.6±58.6%) compared with 30 deg plantarflexion, while GM and SOL RMS EMG did not change. As a result, the GM/GL ratio of shear modulus was higher at 0 deg and 25 deg dorsiflexion than at 30 deg plantarflexion, indicating that the greater the dorsiflexion angle, the stronger the bias of force to GM compared with GL. The magnitude of this change in force balance varied greatly between participants. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. The role of tumor necrosis factor-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in mediating autophagy in myositis skeletal muscle: A potential non-immune mechanism of muscle damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Heather M.; Raben, Nina; Pistilli, Emidio; Francia, Dwight; Rawat, Rashmi; Getnet, Derese; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lundberg, Ingrid E.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2011-01-01

    Objective Multinucleated cells are relatively resistant to classical apoptosis, and the factors initiating cell-death and damage in myositis are not well defined. We hypothesized that non-immune autophagic cell death may play a role in muscle fiber damage. Recent literature indicates that tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) may induce both NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-light chain enhancer of activated B cells) activation and autophagic cell death in other systems. Here, we have investigated its role in cell death and pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo using myositis (human and mouse) muscle tissues. Methods Gene expression profiling indicated that expression of TRAIL and several autophagy markers was specifically upregulated in myositis muscle tissue; these results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. We also analyzed TRAIL-induced cell death (apoptosis and autophagy) and NFκB activation in vitro in cultured cells. Results TRAIL was expressed predominantly in muscle fibers of myositis, but not in biopsies from normal or other dystrophic-diseased muscle. Autophagy markers were upregulated in human and mouse models of myositis. TRAIL expression was restricted to regenerating/atrophic areas of muscle fascicles, blood vessels, and infiltrating lymphocytes. TRAIL induced NFκB activation and IκB degradation in cultured cells that are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis but undergo autophagic cell death. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that TRAIL is expressed in myositis muscle and may mediate both activation of NFκB and autophagic cell death in myositis. Thus, this non-immune pathway may be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in myositis. PMID:21769834

  17. Influence of different types of compression garments on exercise-induced muscle damage markers after a soccer match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués-Jiménez, Diego; Calleja-González, Julio; Arratibel-Imaz, Iñaki; Delextrat, Anne; Uriarte, Fernando; Terrados, Nicolás

    2018-01-01

    There is not enough evidence of positive effects of compression therapy on the recovery of soccer players after matches. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the influence of different types of compression garments in reducing exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) during recovery after a friendly soccer match. Eighteen semi-professional soccer players (24 ± 4.07 years, 177 ± 5 cm; 71.8 ± 6.28 kg and 22.73 ± 1.81 BMI) participated in this study. A two-stage crossover design was chosen. Participants acted as controls in one match and were assigned to an experimental group (compression stockings group, full-leg compression group, shorts group) in the other match. Participants in experimental groups played the match wearing the assigned compression garments, which were also worn in the 3 days post-match, for 7 h each day. Results showed a positive, but not significant, effect of compression garments on attenuating EIMD biomarkers response, and inflammatory and perceptual responses suggest that compression may improve physiological and psychological recovery.

  18. Reversible brain damage following acute organic solvents' poisoning determined by magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujmović Irena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute exposure to the effects of volatile solvents is characterized by the abrupt onset of symptoms and signs of poisoning, and relatively fast recovery in the majority of cases. Case report. We report a 24-year-old patient with an acute, accidental poisoning with a mixture of volatile organic solvents (most probably toluene, styrene and xylene, which led to the development of upward gaze paresis, diplopia, hemiparesis, ataxic gate, and the late onset truncal ataxia episodes. After 6 weeks, he recovered completely, while his extensive brain MRI lesions in the caudate nuclei, laterobasal putaminal regions, bilateral anterior insular cortex, central midbrain tegmental area withdrew completely after 4 months. Conclusion. Acute toxic encephalopathy should be a part of the differential diagnosis in any patient with acute neurobehavioral and neurological deficit.

  19. The effects of a multi-ingredient supplement on markers of muscle damage and inflammation following downhill running in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhne, Jessica L; Ormsbee, Michael J; McKune, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on markers of inflammation and muscle damage, perceived soreness and lower limb performance are unknown in endurance-trained female athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of MIPS (NO-Shotgun®) pre-loaded 4 weeks prior to a single-bout of downhill running (DHR) on hsC-Reactive Protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, creatine kinase (CK), muscle soreness, lower limb circumferences and performance. Trained female runners ( n  = 8; 29 ± 5.9 years) (VO 2max : ≥ 50 ml -1 .kg -1 .min -1 , midfollicular phase (7-11 days post-menses) were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner into two groups: MIPS ( n  = 4) ingested one serving of NO Shotgun daily for 28 days prior to DHR and 30 min prior to all post-testing visits; Control (CON) ( n  = 4) consumed an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo in an identical manner to MIPS. hsCRP, IL-6, CK, perceived soreness, limb circumferences, and performance measures (flexibility, squat jump peak power) were tested on 5 occasions; immediately before (PRE), immediately post-DHR, 24, 48 and 72 h post-DHR. There were main effects of time for CK ( p  = 0.05), pain pressure threshold (right tibialis anterior ( p  = 0.010), right biceps femoris ( p  = 0.01), and left iliotibial band (ITB) ( p  = 0.05) across all time points), and maximum squat jump power ( p  = 0.04). Compared with 24 h post-DHR, maximum squat jump power was significantly lower at 48 h post-DHR ( p  = 0.05). Lower body perceived soreness was significantly increased at 24 h ( p  = 0.02) and baseline to 48 h ( p  = 0.02) post DHR. IL-6 peaked immediately post-DHR ( p  = 0.03) and hsCRP peaked at 24 h post-DHR ( p  = 0.06). Calculation of effect sizes indicated a moderate attenuation of hsCRP in MIPS at 72 h post-DHR. Consumption of MIPS for 4 weeks prior to a single bout of DHR attenuated inflammation three days post, but did

  20. Isoform-specific changes in the Na,K-ATPase of rat soleus muscle during acute hindlinb suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoi, Igor; Heiny, Judith; Bouzinova, Elena; Matchkov, Vladimir; Kravtsova, Violetta; Petrov, Aleksey; Zefirov, Andrey; Vasiliev, Alexander

    The largest pool of Na,K-ATPase (NKA) in a vertebrate's body is contained in the skeletal muscles where the alpha1 and alpha2 isoforms of NKA alpha subunit are expressed. The NKA is critically important for excitability, electrogenesis and contractility of skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle use strongly regulates the content of NKA, and increased muscle activity differently regulates the alpha1 and alpha2 isoforms. However, whether skeletal muscle disuse affects NKA content and activity has not been investigated. This study examines for the first time the consequences of acute hindlinb suspension (HS) on the alpha1 and alpha2 NKA isozymes in rat soleus muscle. We subjected rats to HS for 6-12 hours and analyzed its effect on the resting membrane potential (RMP) in different sarcolemma regions of m.soleus fibers; the electrogenic transport activity, protein content and mRNA expression of the alpha1 and alpha2 NKA; the extracellular level of acetylcholine, and the plasma membrane localization of the alpha2 isozyme using confocal microscopy with cytochemistry. Our results show that 6 h HS specifically decreases the electrogenic activity of the NKA alpha2 isozyme and depolarizes m.soleus fibers. These effects are irreversible in the extrajunctional membrane region up to 12 h HS. The decreased alpha2 NKA activity is due to a decrease in enzyme activity rather than by altered protein content, mRNA expression, or localization in the sarcolemma. In addition, HS does not alter the alpha2 NKA electrogenic transport due to decreased extracellular acetylcholine level. However, adaptive mechanism(s) operate at the junctional membrane to restore alpha2 NKA electrogenic activities and the RMP after 12 h of HS. This mechanism operates specifically at the synaptic membrane region, presumably via increase in both alpha2 isozyme mRNA expression and protein content. This basic information on a protein as vital as the NKA is expected to advance our understanding of the cellular and

  1. Antifibrotic effects of Smad4 small interfering RNAs in injured skeletal muscle after acute contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Chen, J; Chen, S; Zhang, Q; Chen, S

    2011-10-01

    Muscle injuries are common musculoskeletal problems encountered in sports medicine clinics. In this study, we examined the effect of lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Smad4 on the suppression of the fibrosis in injured skeletal muscles. We found that Smad4-siRNA could efficiently knock down the expression of Smad4 in the C2C12 myoblast cells and in the contunded mice gastrocnemius muscle. The expression of mRNA level of Smad4 decreased to 11% and 49% compared to the control group, respectively, and the expression of protein level decreased to 13% and 57% respectively. Moreover, the lentivirus-mediated siRNA was stably transfected only into the skeletal muscle and not into the liver of the animals. In contunded mice gastrocnemius, the collagenous and vimentin-positive area in the Smad4 siRNA group reduced to 36% and 37% compared to the control group, respectively. Furthermore, compared to the scrambled Smad4 siRNA-injected mice and PBS control-injected mice, the muscle function of the mice injected with lentivirus-mediated Smad4 siRNA improved in terms of both fast-twitch and tetanic strength (P<0.05). The results suggest that the gene therapy of inhibiting Smad4 by lentivirus-mediated siRNA could be a useful approach to prevent scar tissue formation and improve the function of injured skeletal muscle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Activated protein C attenuates acute ischaemia reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dillon, J P

    2012-02-03

    Activated protein C (APC) is an endogenous anti-coagulant with anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of activated protein C in the setting of skeletal muscle ischaemia reperfusion injury (IRI). IRI was induced in rats by applying rubber bands above the levels of the greater trochanters bilaterally for a period of 2h followed by 12h reperfusion. Treatment groups received either equal volumes of normal saline or activated protein C prior to tourniquet release. Following 12h reperfusion, muscle function was assessed electrophysiologically by electrical field stimulation. The animals were then sacrificed and skeletal muscle harvested for evaluation. Activated protein C significantly attenuated skeletal muscle reperfusion injury as shown by reduced myeloperoxidase content, wet to dry ratio and electrical properties of skeletal muscle. Further in vitro work was carried out on neutrophils isolated from healthy volunteers to determine the direct effect of APC on neutrophil function. The effects of APC on TNF-alpha stimulated neutrophils were examined by measuring CD18 expression as well as reactive oxygen species generation. The in vitro work demonstrated a reduction in CD18 expression and reactive oxygen species generation. We conclude that activated protein C may have a protective role in the setting of skeletal muscle ischaemia reperfusion injury and that this is in part mediated by a direct inhibitory effect on neutrophil activation.

  3. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheshchevik, V.T.; Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.; Reiter, R.J.; Prokopchik, N.I.; Zavodnik, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p 4 displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl 4 , reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage. Highlights: ► After 30-day chronic CCl 4 intoxication mitochondria displayed considerable changes. ► The functional parameters of mitochondria were similar to the control values. ► Melatonin + succinate + flavonoids prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure damage. ► The above complex enhanced regenerative processes in the liver.

  4. The Acute Effect of Local Vibration As a Recovery Modality from Exercise-Induced Increased Muscle Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Pournot, Jérémy Tindel, Rodolphe Testa, Laure Mathevon, Thomas Lapole

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercise involving eccentric muscle contractions is known to decrease range of motion and increase passive muscle stiffness. This study aimed at using ultrasound shear wave elastography to investigate acute changes in biceps brachii passive stiffness following intense barbell curl exercise involving both concentric and eccentric contractions. The effect of local vibration (LV as a recovery modality from exercise-induced increased stiffness was further investigated. Eleven subjects performed 4 bouts of 10 bilateral barbell curl movements at 70% of the one-rep maximal flexion force. An arm-to-arm comparison model was then used with one arm randomly assigned to the passive recovery condition and the other arm assigned to the LV recovery condition (10 min of 55-Hz vibration frequency and 0.9-mm amplitude. Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus measurements were performed prior to exercise (PRE, immediately after exercise (POST-EX and 5 min after the recovery period (POST-REC. Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus was significantly increased at POST-EX (+53 ± 48%; p < 0.001 and POST-REC (+31 ± 46%; p = 0.025 when compared to PRE. No differences were found between passive and LV recovery (p = 0.210. LV as a recovery strategy from exercise-induced increased muscle stiffness was not beneficial, probably due to an insufficient mechanical action of vibrations.

  5. GLUT4 translocation is not impaired after acute exercise in skeletal muscle of women with obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Wagner Silva; Marcondes, José Antonio Miguel; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Perandini, Luiz Augusto; Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Neves, Willian Das; Barcellos, Cristiano Roberto Grimaldi; Rocha, Michele Patrocínio; Yance, Viviane Dos Reis Vieira; Pereira, Renato Tavares Dos Santos; Murai, Igor Hisashi; Pinto, Ana Lucia De Sá; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of acute exercise on insulin signaling in skeletal muscle of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls (CTRL). Fifteen women with obesity and PCOS and 12 body mass index-matched CTRL participated in this study. Subjects performed a 40-min single bout of exercise. Muscle biopsies were performed before and 60 min after exercise. Selected proteins were assessed by Western blotting. CTRL, but not PCOS, showed a significant increase in PI3-k p85 and AS160 Thr 642 after a single bout of exercise (P = 0.018 and P = 0.018, respectively). Only PCOS showed an increase in Akt Thr 308 and AMPK phosphorylation after exercise (P = 0.018 and P = 0.018, respectively). Total GLUT4 expression was comparable between groups (P > 0.05). GLUT4 translocation tended to be significantly higher in both groups after exercise (PCOS: P = 0.093; CTRL: P = 0.091), with no significant difference between them (P > 0.05). A single bout of exercise elicited similar GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle of PCOS and CTRL, despite a slightly differential pattern of protein phosphorylation. The absence of impairment in GLUT4 translocation suggests that PCOS patients with obesity and insulin resistance may benefit from exercise training. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  6. The effects of elevated levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on the acute power output and time to fatigue of maximally stimulated mouse soleus and EDL muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M F; Tallis, J; Price, M J; James, R S

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of elevated buffer capacity [~32 mM HCO₃(-)] through administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on maximally stimulated isolated mouse soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles undergoing cyclical length changes at 37 °C. The elevated buffering capacity was of an equivalent level to that achieved in humans with acute oral supplementation. We evaluated the acute effects of elevated [HCO₃(-)] on (1) maximal acute power output (PO) and (2) time to fatigue to 60 % of maximum control PO (TLIM60), the level of decline in muscle PO observed in humans undertaking similar exercise, using the work loop technique. Acute PO was on average 7.0 ± 4.8 % greater for NaHCO₃-treated EDL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.0) and 3.6 ± 1.8 % greater for NaHCO₃-treated SOL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.3) compared to CON. Increases in PO were likely due to greater force production throughout shortening. The acute effects of NaHCO₃ on EDL were significantly greater (P < 0.001; ES = 0.9) than on SOL. Treatment of EDL (P = 0.22; ES = 0.6) and SOL (P = 0.19; ES = 0.9) with NaHCO₃ did not alter the pattern of fatigue. Although significant differences were not observed in whole group data, the fatigability of muscle performance was variable, suggesting that there might be inter-individual differences in response to NaHCO₃ supplementation. These results present the best indication to date that NaHCO₃ has direct peripheral effects on mammalian skeletal muscle resulting in increased acute power output.

  7. cfDNA as an Earlier Predictor of Exercise-Induced Performance Decrement Related to Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Michely V; Curty, Victor M; Coutinho, João Victor S; Santos, Miguel Ângelo A; Vassallo, Paula F; de Sousa, Nuno F; Barauna, Valério G

    2017-11-28

    The aims of this study were: a) to evaluate whether cell-free DNA (cfDNA) levels increase immediately after an acute light and heavy resistance exercise (RE) bout, and b) to whether cfDNA levels are associated with functional muscle capacity until 48hrs after exercise session. Twenty healthy volunteers performed 3 sets of the leg press resistance exercise with 80% of 1RM (RE80) or 40% of 1RM (RE40) with similar exercise volume. Blood lactate was measured after completion of the 3 sets. Creatine kinase (CK), cfDNA and jump performance were evaluated before (pre) exercise, immediately post-exercise (Post-0) and every 24hrs until 48hrs. Lactate concentration increased similarly in both groups (RE40, 4.0±1.3mmol/L; RE80, 4.8±1.3mmol/L). No changes were observed in squat jump and countermovement jump performance after RE40, however both jumps remained reduced until 48h in RE80 group. CK concentration increased post-24h only in the RE80 group (Pre: 128.8±73.7U/L to Post-24h: 313.8±116.4U/L). cfDNA concentration increased post-0h only in the RE80 group (Pre, 249.8±82.3ng/mL; Post-0h, 406.3±67.2ng/mL). There was a negative correlation between post-0h cfDNA concentration and post-24h squat jump (r=-0.521; p=0.01) and post-0h cfDNA concentration and post-24h countermovement jump (r=-0.539; p=0.01). cfDNA increases in responsive to RE intensity even when not performed until exhaustion. cfDNA measured immediately after RE is a promising biomarker for muscle performance decrement until 48hrs of a RE bout.

  8. Hesperidin Protects against Acute Alcoholic Injury through Improving Lipid Metabolism and Cell Damage in Zebrafish Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenting Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease (ALD is a series of abnormalities of liver function, including alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. Hesperidin, the major constituent of flavanone in grapefruit, is proved to play a role in antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and reducing multiple organs damage in various animal experiments. However, the underlying mechanism of resistance to alcoholic liver injury is still unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of hesperidin against ALD and its molecular mechanism in this study. We established an ALD zebrafish larvae model induced by 350 mM ethanol for 32 hours, using wild-type and transgenic line with liver-specific eGFP expression Tg (lfabp10α:eGFP zebrafish larvae (4 dpf. The results revealed that hesperidin dramatically reduced the hepatic morphological damage and the expressions of alcohol and lipid metabolism related genes, including cyp2y3, cyp3a65, hmgcra, hmgcrb, fasn, and fads2 compared with ALD model. Moreover, the findings demonstrated that hesperidin alleviated hepatic damage as well, which is reflected by the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress and DNA damage related genes (chop, gadd45αa, and edem1. In conclusion, this study revealed that hesperidin can inhibit alcoholic damage to liver of zebrafish larvae by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and DNA damage, regulating alcohol and lipid metabolism.

  9. Effects of acute static, ballistic, and PNF stretching exercise on the muscle and tendon tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, A; Stafilidis, S; Tilp, M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a single static, ballistic, or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching exercise on the various muscle-tendon parameters of the lower leg and to detect possible differences in the effects between the methods. Volunteers (n = 122) were randomly divided into static, ballistic, and PNF stretching groups and a control group. Before and after the 4 × 30 s stretching intervention, we determined the maximum dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM) with the corresponding fascicle length and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius medialis. Passive resistive torque (PRT) and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured with a dynamometer. Observation of muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement with ultrasound allowed us to determine the length changes in the tendon and muscle, respectively, and hence to calculate stiffness. Although RoM increased (static: +4.3%, ballistic: +4.5%, PNF: +3.5%), PRT (static: -11.4%, ballistic: -11.5%, PNF: -13,7%), muscle stiffness (static: -13.1%, ballistic: -20.3%, PNF: -20.2%), and muscle-tendon stiffness (static: -11.3%, ballistic: -10.5%, PNF: -13.7%) decreased significantly in all the stretching groups. Only in the PNF stretching group, the pennation angle in the stretched position (-4.2%) and plantar flexor MVC (-4.6%) decreased significantly. Multivariate analysis showed no clinically relevant difference between the stretching groups. The increase in RoM and the decrease in PRT and muscle-tendon stiffness could be explained by more compliant muscle tissue following a single static, ballistic, or PNF stretching exercise. © 2017 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. AMPKα is essential for acute exercise-induced gene responses but not for exercise training-induced adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim; Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Maag Kristensen, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    -induced increases in exercise capacity and expression of metabolic proteins as well as acute exercise-induced gene regulation would be compromised in AMPKα1 and -α2 muscle-specific double knockout (mdKO) mice. An acute bout of exercise increased skeletal muscle mRNA content of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I......, glucose transporter 4 and VEGF in an AMPK-dependent manner, while cluster of differentiation 36 and fatty acid transport protein 1 mRNA content increased similarly in AMPKα wild type (WT) and mdKO mice. During four weeks of voluntary running wheel exercise training, the AMPKα mdKO mice ran less than WT...

  11. Acute high-intensity interval running increases markers of gastrointestinal damage and permeability but not gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie N; Impey, Samuel G; Doran, Dominic A; Fleming, Simon C; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval running on markers of gastrointestinal (GI) damage and permeability alongside subjective symptoms of GI discomfort. Eleven male runners completed an acute bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (eighteen 400-m runs at 120% maximal oxygen uptake) where markers of GI permeability, intestinal damage, and GI discomfort symptoms were assessed and compared with resting conditions. Compared with rest, HIIT significantly increased serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (0.051 ± 0.016 vs. 0.031 ± 0.021, p = 0.0047; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.006 to 0.036) and sucrose concentrations (0.388 ± 0.217 vs. 0.137 ± 0.148 mg·L -1 ; p HIIT and resting conditions. Plasma intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was significantly increased (p HIIT whereas no changes were observed during rest. Mild symptoms of GI discomfort were reported immediately and at 24 h post-HIIT, although these symptoms did not correlate to GI permeability or I-FABP. In conclusion, acute HIIT increased GI permeability and intestinal I-FABP release, although these do not correlate with symptoms of GI discomfort. Furthermore, by using serum sampling, we provide data showing that it is possible to detect changes in intestinal permeability that is not observed using urinary sampling over a shorter time-period.

  12. Simvastatin dose and acute kidney injury without concurrent serious muscle injury: A nationwide nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne Parkin

    Full Text Available Inconsistent findings from four observational studies suggest that the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI may increase with increasing statin dose or potency, but none of the studies took statin-related severe muscle injury, including rhabdomyolysis, into account. We undertook a nationwide nested case-control study in New Zealand to examine the risk of AKI without concurrent serious muscle injury according to simvastatin dose in two cohorts: people without a history of renal disease and people with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease.A total of 334,710 people aged ≥ 18 years without a history of renal disease (cohort 1 and 5,437 with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (cohort 2 who initiated simvastatin therapy between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2013 were identified using national pharmaceutical dispensing and hospital discharge data. Patients who developed AKI without concurrent serious muscle injury during follow-up (cases were ascertained using hospital discharge and mortality data (n = 931 from cohort 1, n = 160 from cohort 2. Up to 10 controls per case, matched by date of birth, sex, and cohort entry date were randomly selected from the relevant cohort using risk set sampling.Relative to current use of 20mg simvastatin daily, the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI in cohort 1 for current use of 40mg and 80mg were 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.2 and 1.3 (95% CI 0.7-2.3, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio for 40mg in cohort 2 was 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.9; the numbers taking 80mg were very small and the confidence interval was correspondingly wide.The findings of this study suggest that a relationship between statin dose and AKI may not exist independent of serious muscle injury.

  13. Effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on exercise performance and muscle strength in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on repeated sprint ability, exercise performance, and muscle strength in elite endurance athletes. Twenty male elite athletes [VO2max : 69.4 ± 1.8 (Mean ± SE) mL/min/kg], aged 25.9 ± 1.4 years, were....... deltoideus were measured, followed by three repeated Wingate tests. Exercise performance at 110% of VO2max was determined on a bike ergometer. Acute administration of salbutamol increased peak power during first Wingate test by 4.1 ± 1.7% (P ....05) peak power during first and second Wingate test by 6.4 ± 2.0 and 4.2 ± 1.0%. Neither acute nor 2-week administration of salbutamol had any effect on MVC, exercise performance at 110% of VO2max or on isometric endurance. No differences were observed in the placebo group. In conclusion, salbutamol...

  14. Mitochondrial damage: An important mechanism of ambient PM2.5 exposure-induced acute heart injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ruijin; Kou, Xiaojing; Geng, Hong; Xie, Jingfang; Tian, Jingjing; Cai, Zongwei; Dong, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PM 2.5 induces heart mitochondrial morphological damage of rats. • Mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression is important regulation mechanism. • Proinflammatoy cytokine level changes are accompanied with mitochondrial damage. • Alterations in oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis are focused on. - Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggested that ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) exposure was associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism, especially the mitochondrial damage mechanism, of PM 2.5 -induced heart acute injury is still unclear. In this study, the alterations of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis and inflammation in hearts of rats exposed to PM 2.5 with different dosages (0.375, 1.5, 6.0 and 24.0 mg/kg body weight) were investigated. The results indicated that the PM 2.5 exposure induced pathological changes and ultra-structural damage in hearts such as mitochondrial swell and cristae disorder. Furthermore, PM 2.5 exposure significantly increased specific mitochondrial fission/fusion gene (Fis1, Mfn1, Mfn2, Drp1 and OPA1) expression in rat hearts. These changes were accompanied by decreases of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase and increases of levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) as well as levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in rat hearts. The results implicate that mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, cellular homeostasis imbalance and inflammation are potentially important mechanisms for the PM 2.5 -induced heart injury, and may have relations with cardiovascular disease

  15. Sleep loss and acute drug abuse can induce DNA damage in multiple organs of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, T A; Ribeiro, D A; Araujo, P; Hirotsu, C; Mazaro-Costa, R; Costa, J L; Battisti, M C; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the genetic damage induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in combination with cocaine or ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) in multiple organs of male mice using the single cell gel (comet) assay. C57BL/6J mice were submitted to PSD by the platform technique for 72 hours, followed by drug administration and evaluation of DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver and brain tissues. Cocaine was able to induce genetic damage in the blood, brain and liver cells of sleep-deprived mice at the majority of the doses evaluated. Ecstasy also induced increased DNA migration in peripheral blood cells for all concentrations tested. Analysis of damaged cells by the tail moment data suggests that ecstasy is a genotoxic chemical at the highest concentrations tested, inducing damage in liver or brain cells after sleep deprivation in mice. Taken together, our results suggest that cocaine and ecstasy/MDMA act as potent genotoxins in multiple organs of mice when associated with sleep loss.

  16. Esmolol acutely alters oxygen supply-demand balance in exercising muscles of healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, David N; Luck, J Carter; Maman, Stephan R; Leuenberger, Urs A; Muller, Matthew D

    2018-04-01

    Beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists (β blockers) reduce systemic O 2 delivery and blood pressure (BP) during exercise, but the subsequent effects on O 2 extraction within the active limb muscles are unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of the fast-acting, β 1 selective blocker esmolol on systemic hemodynamics and leg muscle O 2 saturation (near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS) during submaximal leg ergometry. Our main hypothesis was that esmolol would augment exercise-induced reductions in leg muscle O 2 saturation. Eight healthy adults (6 men, 2 women; 23-67 year) performed light and moderate intensity bouts of recumbent leg cycling before (PRE), during (β 1 -blocked), and 45 min following (POST) intravenous infusion of esmolol. Oxygen uptake, heart rate (HR), BP, and O 2 saturation (SmO 2 ) of the vastus lateralis (VL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles were measured continuously. Esmolol attenuated the increases in HR and systolic BP during light (-12 ± 9 bpm and -26 ± 12 mmHg vs. PRE) and moderate intensity (-20 ± 10 bpm and -40 ± 18 mmHg vs. PRE) cycling (all P Exercise-induced reductions in SmO 2 occurred to a greater extent during the β 1 -blockade trial in both the VL (P = 0.001 vs. PRE) and MG muscles (P = 0.022 vs. PRE). HR, SBP and SmO 2 were restored during POST (all P exercising muscles of healthy humans. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Acute resistance exercise reduces increased gene expression in muscle atrophy of ovariectomised arthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Furlanetto Jr

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied the effect of resistance exercise (RE on mRNA levels of atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin in the gastrocnemius muscle of arthritic rats after loss of ovarian function (LOF. Material and methods : Thirty female Wistar rats (nine weeks old, 195.3 ±17.4 grams were randomly allocated into five groups: control group (CT-Sham; n = 6; group with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 6; group with rheumatoid arthritis subjected to RE (RAEX; n = 6; ovariectomy group with rheumatoid arthritis (RAOV; n = 6; and an ovariectomy group with rheumatoid arthritis subjected to RE (RAOVEX; n = 6. After 15 days of intra-articular injections with Met-BSA the animals were subjected to RE and six hours after workout were euthanised. Results : The rheumatoid arthritis provoked reduction in the cross-sectional area (CSA of muscle fibres, but the CSA was lower in the RAOV when compared to the RA groups. Skeletal muscle atrogin-1 mRNA level was increased in arthritic rats (RA and RAOV, but the atrogin-1 level was higher in RAOV group when compared to other arthritic groups. The Muscle MuRF-1 mRNA level was also increased in the RAOV group. The increased atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 mRNA levels were lower in the RAOVEX group than in the RAOV group. The myostatin mRNA level was similar in all groups, except for the RAOVEX group, in which it was lower than the other groups. Conclusions : LOF results in increased loss of skeletal muscle-related ubiquitin ligases (atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. However, the RE reduces the atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin mRNA levels in muscle of arthritic rats affected by LOF.

  18. The omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, prevents the damaging effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha during murine skeletal muscle cell differentiation

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    Pearson Stephen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is a ώ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory and anti-cachetic properties that may have potential benefits with regards to skeletal muscle atrophy conditions where inflammation is present. It is also reported that pathologic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α are associated with muscle wasting, exerted through inhibition of myogenic differentiation and enhanced apoptosis. These findings led us to hypothesize that EPA may have a protective effect against skeletal muscle damage induced by the actions of TNF-α. Results The deleterious effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis were completely inhibited by co-treatment with EPA. Thus, EPA prevented the TNF-mediated loss of MyHC expression and significantly increased myogenic fusion (p p p p p p Conclusion In conclusion, EPA has a protective action against the damaging effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis. These findings support further investigations of EPA as a potential therapeutic agent during skeletal muscle regeneration following injury.

  19. Time course of oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage markers for five days after a soccer match: effects of sex and playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souglis, Athanasios; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Chryssanthopoulos, Costas; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Geladas, Nikos D

    2018-01-03

    This study examined the influence of sex and playing position on the time-course of selected oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage markers following an official soccer match. Sixty professional soccer players (30 male and 30 female) were divided into three groups, according to their playing position: defenders, midfielders and attackers. Each group consisted of 10 male and 10 female players. Sixty healthy volunteers (30 males and 30 females) served as control. Blood samples were taken before and after the match and daily for five days after the match. Analysis of variance revealed different responses over time between sex and playing positions, as shown by the 3-way interaction, for creatine kinase (CK), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase, fibrinogen (FIB), uric acid (UA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (p position, for all oxidative, inflammatory and muscle damage indices (psexes, midfielders had higher peaks in all indices compared with defenders (p sex and playing position influence the time-course of selected oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage markers following an official soccer game. This information should be taken into account by practitioners for the design of training programs following match play.

  20. Effect of Maximal Versus Supra-Maximal Exhausting Race on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Activity and Muscle-Damage Biomarkers in Long-Distance and Middle-Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Said; Lamya, Ncir; Hamda, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners) and sedentary subjects. The study has been carried out on 8 middle-distance runners (MDR), 9 long-distance runners (LDR), and 8 sedentary subjects (SS). Each subject has undergone two exhaustive running tests, the first one is an incremental event (VAMEVAL test), the second one is a constant supra-maximal intensity test (limited-time test). Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after each test. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations was observed in SS and MDR after the VAMEVAL test and in LDR after the Limited-Time test. A significant difference was also observed between LDR and the other two groups after the VAMEVAL test, and between LDR and MDR after the Limited-Time test. Significant modifications, notably, in myoglobin, CK, LDH, IL-6, TNF-α, and TAS were likewise noted but depending on the race-type and the sportive specialty. Maximal and supra-maximal races induce a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cause non-negligible inflammation and muscle damage. These effects were relatively related to the physical exercise type and the sportive specialty.

  1. A novel therapy to attenuate acute kidney injury and ischemic allograft damage after allogenic kidney transplantation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faikah Gueler

    Full Text Available Ischemia followed by reperfusion contributes to the initial damage to allografts after kidney transplantation (ktx. In this study we tested the hypothesis that a tetrapeptide EA-230 (AQGV, might improve survival and attenuate loss of kidney function in a mouse model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI and ischemia-induced delayed graft function after allogenic kidney transplantation. IRI was induced in male C57Bl/6N mice by transient bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 35 min. Treatment with EA-230 (20-50mg/kg twice daily i.p. for four consecutive days was initiated 24 hours after IRI when acute kidney injury (AKI was already established. The treatment resulted in markedly improved survival in a dose dependent manner. Acute tubular injury two days after IRI was diminished and tubular epithelial cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by EA-230 treatment. Furthermore, CTGF up-regulation, a marker of post-ischemic fibrosis, at four weeks after IRI was significantly less in EA-230 treated renal tissue. To learn more about these effects, we measured renal blood flow (RBF and glomerular filtration rate (GFR at 28 hours after IRI. EA-230 improved both GFR and RBF significantly. Next, EA-230 treatment was tested in a model of ischemia-induced delayed graft function after allogenic kidney transplantation. The recipients were treated with EA-230 (50 mg/kg twice daily i.p. which improved renal function and allograft survival by attenuating ischemic allograft damage. In conclusion, EA-230 is a novel and promising therapeutic agent for treating acute kidney injury and preventing IRI-induced post-transplant ischemic allograft injury. Its beneficial effect is associated with improved renal perfusion after IRI and enhanced regeneration of tubular epithelial cells.

  2. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Ponce, Herson Antonio; Consolacion Martinez-Saldana, Maria; Rosa Rincon-Sanchez, Ana; Teresa Sumaya-Martinez, Maria; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juarez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients

  3. Acute hydrodynamic damage induced by SPLITT fractionation and centrifugation in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Adriana; Godoy-Silva, Ruben; Hoyos, Mauricio; Camacho, Marcela

    2016-05-01

    Though blood bank processing traditionally employs centrifugation, new separation techniques may be appealing for large scale processes. Split-flow fractionation (SPLITT) is a family of techniques that separates in absence of labelling and uses very low flow rates and force fields, and is therefore expected to minimize cell damage. However, the hydrodynamic stress and possible consequent damaging effects of SPLITT fractionation have not been yet examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the hydrodynamic damage of SPLITT fractionation to human red blood cells, and to compare these effects with those induced by centrifugation. Peripheral whole blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers. Samples were diluted in a buffered saline solution, and were exposed to SPLITT fractionation (flow rates 1-10 ml/min) or centrifugation (100-1500 g) for 10 min. Cell viability, shape, diameter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and membrane potential were measured. Under the operating conditions employed, both SPLITT and centrifugation maintained cell viability above 98%, but resulted in significant sublethal damage, including echinocyte formation, decreased cell diameter, decreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and membrane hyperpolarization which was inhibited by EGTA. Wall shear stress and maximum energy dissipation rate showed significant correlation with lethal and sublethal damage. Our data do not support the assumption that SPLITT fractionation induces very low shear stress and is innocuous to cell function. Some changes in SPLITT channel design are suggested to minimize cell damage. Measurement of membrane potential and cell diameter could provide a new, reliable and convenient basis for evaluation of hydrodynamic effects on different cell models, allowing identification of optimal operating conditions on different scales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Time-Course of Muscle Mass Loss, Damage, and Proteolysis in Gastrocnemius following Unloading and Reloading: Implications in Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Cabrera, Alba; Lund-Palau, Helena; Gea, Joaquim; Barreiro, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Background Disuse muscle atrophy is a major comorbidity in patients with chronic diseases including cancer. We sought to explore the kinetics of molecular mechanisms shown to be involved in muscle mass loss throughout time in a mouse model of disuse muscle atrophy and recovery following immobilization. Methods Body and muscle weights, grip strength, muscle phenotype (fiber type composition and morphometry and muscle structural alterations), proteolysis, contractile proteins, systemic troponin I, and mitochondrial content were assessed in gastrocnemius of mice exposed to periods (1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days) of non-invasive hindlimb immobilization (plastic splint, I cohorts) and in those exposed to reloading for different time-points (1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, R cohorts) following a seven-day period of immobilization. Groups of control animals were also used. Results Compared to non-exposed controls, muscle weight, limb strength, slow- and fast-twitch cross-sectional areas, mtDNA/nDNA, and myosin content were decreased in mice of I cohorts, whereas tyrosine release, ubiquitin-proteasome activity, muscle injury and systemic troponin I levels were increased. Gastrocnemius reloading following splint removal improved muscle mass loss, strength, fiber atrophy, injury, myosin content, and mtDNA/nDNA, while reducing ubiquitin-proteasome activity and proteolysis. Conclusions A consistent program of molecular and cellular events leading to reduced gastrocnemius muscle mass and mitochondrial content and reduced strength, enhanced proteolysis, and injury, was seen in this non-invasive mouse model of disuse muscle atrophy. Unloading of the muscle following removal of the splint significantly improved the alterations seen during unloading, characterized by a specific kinetic profile of molecular events involved in muscle regeneration. These findings have implications in patients with chronic diseases including cancer in whom physical activity may be severely compromised. PMID

  5. Biological Signatures of Brain Damage Associated with High Serum Ferritin Levels in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Thrombolytic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Mónica; Sobrino, Tomás; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; García, María; Nombela, Florentino; Castellanos, Mar; de la Ossa, Natalia Pérez; Cuadras, Patricia; Serena, Joaquín; Castillo, José; Dávalos, Antoni

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Increased body iron stores have been related to greater oxidative stress and brain injury in clinical and experimental cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. We aimed to investigate the biological signatures of excitotoxicity, inflammation and blood brain barrier disruption potentially associated with high serum ferritin levels-related damage in acute stroke patients treated with i.v. t-PA. Methods: Serum levels of ferritin (as index of increased cellular iron stores), glutamate, interleukin-6, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cellular fibronectin were determined in 134 patients treated with i.v. t-PA within 3 hours from stroke onset in blood samples obtained before t-PA treatment, at 24 and 72 hours. Results: Serum ferritin levels before t-PA infusion correlated to glutamate (r = 0.59, p < 0.001) and interleukin-6 (r = 0.55, p <0.001) levels at baseline, and with glutamate (r = 0.57,p <0.001), interleukin-6 (r = 0.49,p <0.001), metalloproteinase-9 (r = 0.23, p = 0.007) and cellular fibronectin (r = 0.27, p = 0.002) levels measured at 24 hours and glutamate (r = 0.415, p < 0.001), interleukin-6 (r = 0.359, p < 0.001) and metalloproteinase-9 (r = 0.261, p = 0.004) at 72 hours. The association between ferritin and glutamate levels remained after adjustment for confounding factors in generalized linear models. Conclusions: Brain damage associated with increased iron stores in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with iv. tPA may be mediated by mechanisms linked to excitotoxic damage. The role of inflammation, blood brain barrier disruption and oxidative stress in this condition needs further research. PMID:19096131

  6. Impact-Induced Muscle Damage and Contact-Sport: Aetiology, Effects on Neuromuscular Function and Recovery, and the Modulating Effects of Adaptation and Recovery Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Mitchell; Miller, Joanna; Slater, Gary J

    2017-11-28

    Athletes involved in contact-sports are habitually exposed to skeletal muscle damage as part of their training and performance environments. This often leads to exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) resulting from repeated eccentric and/or high-intensity exercise, and impact-induced muscle damage (IIMD) resulting from collisions with opponents and the playing surface. Whilst EIMD has been an area of extensive investigation, IIMD has received comparatively little research, with the magnitude and timeframe of alterations following IIMD not presently well understood. It is currently thought that EIMD occurs through an overload of mechanical stress causing ultrastructural damage to the cellular membrane constituents. Damage leads to compromised ability to produce force which manifest immediately and persist for up to 14 days following exercise exposure. IIMD has been implicated in attenuated neuromuscular performance and recovery with inflammatory process implicated, although the underlying time course remains unclear. Exposure to EIMD leads to an adaptation to subsequent exposures, a phenomenon known as the repeated-bout effect. An analogous adaptation has been suggested to occur following IIMD, however, to date this contention remains equivocal. Whilst a considerable body of research has explored the efficacy of recovery strategies following EIMD, strategies promoting recovery from IIMD are limited to investigations using animal contusion models. Strategies such as cryotherapy and antioxidant supplementation, which focus on attenuating the secondary inflammatory response may provide additional benefit in IIMD and are explored herein. Further research is required to firstly establish a model of generating IIMD and then explore broader areas around IIMD in athletic populations.

  7. Infarct-like acute myocarditis: relation between electrocardiographic findings and myocardial damage as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucifora, Gaetano; Miani, Daniela; Di Chiara, Antonio; Piccoli, Gianluca; Artico, Jessica; Puppato, Michela; Slavich, Gianaugusto; De Biasio, Marzia; Gasparini, Daniele; Proclemer, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Acute myocarditis (AM) may occasionally have an infarct-like presentation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between electrocardiographic (ECG) findings in this group of patients and myocardial damage assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique. Myocardial damage may be associated with ECG changes in infarct-like AM. Forty-one consecutive patients (36 males; mean age, 36 ± 12 years) with diagnosis of AM according to cardiac MRI Lake Louise criteria and infarct-like presentation were included. The relation between site of ST-segment elevation (STE), sum of STE (sumSTE), time to normalization of STE, and development of negative T wave with the extent of LGE (expressed as % of left ventricular mass [%LV LGE]), was evaluated. Most (80%) patients presented with inferolateral STE; mean sumSTE was 5 ± 3 mm. Normalization of STE occurred within 24 hours in 20 (49%) patients. Development of negative T wave occurred in 28 (68%) patients. Cardiac MRI showed LGE in all patients; mean %LV LGE was 9.6 ± 7.2%. Topographic agreement between site of STE and LGE was 68%. At multivariate analysis, sumSTE (β = 0.42, P 24 hours (β = 0.39, P 24 hours, and development of negative T wave) may help to identify patients with larger areas of myocardial damage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Protective effect of treatment with thiamine or benfotiamine on liver oxidative damage in rat model of acute ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Deminice, Rafael; Jordão, Alceu Afonso

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible beneficial effects of treatment with thiamine or benfotiamine in an animal model of acute ethanol intoxication. Thirty male Wistar rats were separated at random into three groups of 10 animals each: Ethanol (E), Ethanol treated with thiamine (T) and Ethanol treated with benfotiamine (BE). Rats were gavaged with single dose of ethanol (5g/kg, 40% v:v). After 30min of ethanol gavage the animals were treated with thiamine or benfotiamine. Six hours after first gavage, the animals were euthanized and blood and liver samples were collected for ethanol and oxidative stress biomarkers quantification. Serum ethanol levels were higher in animals treated with thiamine or benfotiamine while hepatic alcohol levels were higher in animals of the group treated with benfotiamine comparing to controls or thiamine treated groups. The lipid peroxidation biomarkers were diminished for the groups treated with thiamine or benfotiamine comparing to E animals. Concerning protein oxidative damage parameters, they were enhanced for animals treated with benfotiamine in relation to other groups. In conclusion, the treatment with thiamine or benfotiamine even 30min after the massive dose of ethanol has proven to be beneficial against liver damage. Improved results were obtained with benfotiamine in relation to oxidative damage from aqueous compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Two cases of acute rhabdomyolysis. Pathogenesis, muscle biopsy, EMG, X-CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Junichi; Maruyama, Hideharu; Yamamura, Yoshinori; Kurihara, Teruyuki; Matsukura, Shigeru

    1988-05-01

    Case 1 was a 25-year-old male who developed coma and the swelling of the left thigh after he was medicated with many kinds of major and minor tranquilizers. Serum CK and myoglobin levels were 26, 600 IU/l (normal value : less than 120 IU/l) and 196 ng/ml (normal value : less than 60 ng/ml), respectively. X-CT revealed low density area in the central portion of the adductor muscle of the left thigh. Case 2 was a 63-year-old male who developed paraplegia and the swelling of the right thigh. Serum CK and myoglobin levels were 39,960 IU/L and 406 ng/ml respectively. The biopsy of the right anterior tibialis muscle revealed non-specific ischemic myogenic changes. Electromyographic studies revealed two different changes. One was myogenic changes in the adductor muscle of the right thigh, which was not complicated by the compartment syndrome. The other was denervation changes in the right tibialis anterior, which was complicated by the compartment syndrome. MRI reflected the biopsy findings, such as the swelling of the myocytes and the interstitial tissues better than X-CT. ARML is one of emergency muscle disorders. Early diagnosis and adequate fluid therapy to prevent renal failure are indispensable and lifesaving. Both cases were treated successfully, and they became ambulatory upon discharge.

  10. Repeated passive stretching : Acute effect on the passive muscle moment and extensibility of short hamstrings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, JPK; Mulder, [No Value; Goeken, LNH; Eisma, WH; Mulder, I.; Göeken, L.N.

    Objective: To examine the response of short hamstring muscles to repeated passive stretching. Design: A repeated measures design. Setting: A university laboratory for human movement analysis in a department of rehabilitation. Subjects: Students (7 men, 10 women) from the Department of Human Movement

  11. Consecutive bouts of diverse contractile activity alter acute responses in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coffey, Vernon G; Pilegaard, Henriette; Garnham, Andrew P

    2009-01-01

    -mTOR-S6 kinase phosphorylation 15 min after each bout of exercise was similar regardless of the exercise mode. The cumulative effect of combined exercise resulted in disparate mRNA responses. IGF-I mRNA content was reduced when cycling preceded resistance exercise (-42%), whereas muscle ring finger...

  12. Leukotriene-mediated neuroinflammation, toxic brain damage, and neurodegeneration in acute methanol poisoning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zakharov, S.; Kotíková, K.; Nurieva, O.; Hlušička, J.; Kačer, P.; Urban, P.; Vaněčková, M.; Seidl, Z.; Diblík, P.; Kuthan, P.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Pelclová, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2017), s. 249-259 ISSN 1556-3650 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : brain damage * leukotrienes * methanol poisoning * Neuroinflammation * nontraumatic brain injury * sequelae of poisoning Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 3.677, year: 2016

  13. Preconditioning by light-load eccentric exercise is equally effective as low-level laser therapy in attenuating exercise-induced muscle damage in collegiate men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausheen S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Samar Nausheen,1 Jamal Ali Moiz,1 Shahid Raza,1 Mohammad Yakub Shareef,2 Shahnawaz Anwer,3,4 Ahmad H Alghadir3 1Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 2Faculty of Dentistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 3Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India Background/objective: Previous studies have already reported an independent effect of light-load eccentric exercise (10% eccentric exercise contraction [EEC] and low-level laser therapy (LLLT as a protective measure against more strenuous eccentric exercise. However, the difference between these two interventions is largely unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the preconditioning effect of 10% EEC vs. LLLT on subjective, physiological, and biochemical markers of muscle damage in elbow flexors in collegiate men.Methods: All 36 enrolled subjects were randomly assigned to either 10% EEC or LLLT group. Subjects in 10% EEC group performed 30 repetitions of an eccentric exercise with 10% maximal voluntary contraction strength 2 days prior to maximal eccentric exercise bout, whereas subjects in LLLT group were given LLLT. All the indirect markers of muscle damage were measured pre-exercise and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the exercise-induced muscle damage protocol.Results: The muscle soreness was reduced in both groups (p = 0.024; however, soreness was attenuated more in LLLT group at 48 hours (33.5 vs. 42.7, p = 0.004. There was no significant difference between the effect of 10% EEC and LLLT groups on other markers of muscle damage like a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (p = 0.47, range of motion (p = 0.16, upper arm circumference (p = 0.70, creatine kinase (p = 0.42, and lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.08. Within-group analysis showed both interventions provided

  14. Dexrazoxane Diminishes Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Ovarian Damage and Preserves Ovarian Function and Fecundity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Kropp

    Full Text Available Advances in cancer treatment utilizing multiple chemotherapies have dramatically increased cancer survivorship. Female cancer survivors treated with doxorubicin (DXR chemotherapy often suffer from an acute impairment of ovarian function, which can persist as long-term, permanent ovarian insufficiency. Dexrazoxane (Dexra pretreatment reduces DXR-induced insult in the heart, and protects in vitro cultured murine and non-human primate ovaries, demonstrating a drug-based shield to prevent DXR insult. The present study tested the ability of Dexra pretreatment to mitigate acute DXR chemotherapy ovarian toxicity in mice through the first 24 hours post-treatment, and improve subsequent long-term fertility throughout the reproductive lifespan. Adolescent CD-1 mice were treated with Dexra 1 hour prior to DXR treatment in a 1:1 mg or 10:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio. During the acute injury period (2-24 hours post-injection, Dexra pretreatment at a 1:1 mg ratio decreased the extent of double strand DNA breaks, diminished γH2FAX activation, and reduced subsequent follicular cellular demise caused by DXR. In fertility and fecundity studies, dams pretreated with either Dexra:DXR dose ratio exhibited litter sizes larger than DXR-treated dams, and mice treated with a 1:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio delivered pups with birth weights greater than DXR-treated females. While DXR significantly increased the "infertility index" (quantifying the percentage of dams failing to achieve pregnancy through 6 gestations following treatment, Dexra pretreatment significantly reduced the infertility index following DXR treatment, improving fecundity. Low dose Dexra not only protected the ovaries, but also bestowed a considerable survival advantage following exposure to DXR chemotherapy. Mouse survivorship increased from 25% post-DXR treatment to over 80% with Dexra pretreatment. These data demonstrate that Dexra provides acute ovarian protection from DXR toxicity, improving reproductive health

  15. Increments in cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in skeletal muscle after injection of tissue-damaging toxins from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Rucavado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Envenomations by the snake Bothrops asper are characterized by prominent local tissue damage (i.e. myonecrosis, blistering, hemorrhage and edema. Various phospholipases A2 and metalloproteinases that induce local pathological alterations have been purified from this venom. Since these toxins induce a conspicuous inflammatory response, it has been hypothesized that inflammatory mediators may contribute to the local pathological alterations described. This study evaluated the local production of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs as a consequence of intramuscular injections of an Asp-49 myotoxic phospholipase A2 (myotoxin III (MT-III and a P-I type hemorrhagic metalloproteinase (BaP1 isolated from B. asper venom. Both enzymes induced prominent tissue alterations and conspicuous increments in interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and a number of MMPs, especially gelatinase MMP-9, rapidly after injection. In contrast, no increments in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon-γ were detected. In agreement, MT-III and BaP1 did not induce the synthesis of TNF-α by resident peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Despite the conspicuous expression of latent forms of MMPs in muscle, evidenced by zymography, there were no increments in activated MMP-2 and only a small increase in activated MMP-9, as detected by a functional enzymatic assay. This suggests that MMP activity was regulated by a highly controlled activation of latent forms and, probably, by a concomitant synthesis of MMP inhibitors. Since no hemorrhage nor dermonecrosis were observed after injection of MT-III, despite a prominent increase in MMP expression, and since inflammatory exudate did not enhance hemorrhage induced by BaP1, it is suggested that endogenous MMPs released in the tissue are not responsible for the dermonecrosis and hemorrhage characteristic of B. asper envenomation. Moreover, pretreatment of mice with the peptidomimetic MMP inhibitor batimastat did not reduce myotoxic nor

  16. Vascular damage after acute local irradiation: a light and electron microscope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verola, O.; Brocheriou, C.

    1986-01-01

    A pig model was used to examine histological and ultrastructural changes after high-dose local irradiation. This model was chosen to simulate accidents which have occurred in man, enabling the determination of several post-irradiation phases. After an initial phase, with superficial lesions, ischaemic necrosis occurred 3 weeks after irradiation as the result of early vascular alterations. After 2 months, expanding necrosis became obvious in the deep muscle, preceded by an initial spread of vascular lesions: these alterations were obvious from the 30th day by light microscopy but could be detected by electron microscopy from the 9th day. (author)

  17. Acute systemic insulin intolerance does not alter the response of the Akt/GSK-3 pathway to environmental hypoxia in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Hulst, Gommaar; Sylow, Lykke; Hespel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate how acute environmental hypoxia regulates blood glucose and downstream intramuscular insulin signaling after a meal in healthy humans. METHODS: Fifteen subjects were exposed for 4 h to normoxia (NOR) or to normobaric hypoxia (HYP, FiO2 = 0.11) in a randomized order 40 min ...... insulin intolerance developed independently of defects in conventional insulin signaling in skeletal muscle....

  18. [A case of rupture of the left ventricle free wall with papillary muscle dysfunction following acute myocardial infarction, operated on successfully].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, R; Perdigão, C; Neves, L; Cravino, J; Dantas, M; Bordalo, A; Pais, F; Diogo, A N; Ferreira, R; Ribeiro, C

    1990-09-01

    The authors present a case of left ventricular free wall rupture post acute myocardial infarction, associated with mitral papillary posterior muscle necrosis, operated by infartectomy and mitral valvular protesis replacement. They refer the various complications occurred during the hospital staying, and discuss its medical and surgical approach. The patient was discharged alive and six months after the infarction keeps a moderate activity.

  19. Effects of Acute Systemic Hypoxia and Hypercapnia on Brain Damage in a Rat Model of Hypoxia-Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchao Yang

    Full Text Available Therapeutic hypercapnia has the potential for neuroprotection after global cerebral ischemia. Here we further investigated the effects of different degrees of acute systemic hypoxia in combination with hypercapnia on brain damage in a rat model of hypoxia and ischemia. Adult wistar rats underwent unilateral common carotid artery (CCA ligation for 60 min followed by ventilation with normoxic or systemic hypoxic gas containing 11%O2,13%O2,15%O2 and 18%O2 (targeted to PaO2 30-39 mmHg, 40-49 mmHg, 50-59 mmHg, and 60-69 mmHg, respectively or systemic hypoxic gas containing 8% carbon dioxide (targeted to PaCO2 60-80 mmHg for 180 min. The mean artery pressure (MAP, blood gas, and cerebral blood flow (CBF were evaluated. The cortical vascular permeability and brain edema were examined. The ipsilateral cortex damage and the percentage of hippocampal apoptotic neurons were evaluated by Nissl staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL assay as well as flow cytometry, respectively. Immunofluorescence and western blotting were performed to determine aquaporin-4 (AQP4 expression. In rats treated with severe hypoxia (PaO2 50 mmHg, hypercapnia protected against these pathophysiological changes. Moreover, hypercapnia treatment significantly reduced brain damage in the ischemic ipsilateral cortex and decreased the percentage of apoptotic neurons in the hippocampus after the CCA ligated rats were exposed to mild or moderate hypoxemia (PaO2 > 50 mmHg; especially under mild hypoxemia (PaO2 > 60 mmHg, hypercapnia significantly attenuated the expression of AQP4 protein with brain edema (p < 0.05. Hypercapnia exerts beneficial effects under mild to moderate hypoxemia and augments detrimental effects under severe hypoxemia on brain damage in a rat model of hypoxia-ischemia.

  20. Greater muscle damage in athletes with ACTN3 R577X (RS1815739 gene polymorphism after an ultra-endurance race: a pilot study

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    T Belli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of ACTN3 R577X gene polymorphism on muscle damage responses in athletes competing in an ultra-endurance race. Twenty moderate to well-trained ultra-runners who had entered in an official 37.1 km adventure race (22.1 km mountain biking, 10.9 km trek¬king, 4.1 km water trekking, 30 m rope course, and orienteering volunteered for the study. Blood samples were collected for genotyping and analysis of muscle protein levels before and after the race. Percentage changes (pre- to post-race of serum myoglobin [XX = 5,377% vs. RX/RR = 1,666%; P = 0.005, effect size (ES = 1.73], creatine kinase (XX = 836.5% vs. RX/RR = 455%; P = 0.04, ES = 1.29, lactate dehydrogenase (XX = 82% vs. RX/RR = 65%; P = 0.002, ES = 1.61, and aspartate aminotransferase (XX = 148% vs. RX/RR = 75%; P = 0.02, ES = 1.77 were significantly greater for XX than RX/RR genotypes. ES analysis confirmed a large magnitude of muscle damage in XX genotype ultra-runners. Therefore, athletes with the ACTN3 577XX genotype experienced more muscle damage after an adventure race. This suggests that ultra-runners with alpha-actinin-3 deficiency may be more susceptible to rhabdomyolysis and associated health complications during ultra-endurance com¬petitions.

  1. Sequenced response of extracellular matrix deadhesion and fibrotic regulators after muscle damage is involved in protection against future injury in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Brandstetter, Simon; Schjerling, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ) 30 d later, or 30 d after a single stimulation bout (RBc). A muscle biopsy was collected from the control leg for comparison with the stimulated leg. Satellite cell content, tenascin C, and muscle regeneration were assessed by immunohistochemistry; real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA levels...... of collagens, laminins, heat-shock proteins (HSPs), inflammation, and related growth factors. The large responses of HSPs, CCL2, and tenascin C detected 48 h after a single bout were attenuated in the RB trial, indicative of protection against injury. Satellite cell content and 12 target genes, including IGF-1......, were elevated 30 d after a single bout. Among those displaying the greatest difference vs. control muscle, ECM laminin-ß1 and collagen types I and III were elevated ~6- to 9-fold (P...

  2. Effects of low-level laser therapy applied before or after plyometric exercise on muscle damage markers: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Carolina Gassen; Dornelles, Maurício Pinto; Severo-Silveira, Lucas; Marques, Vanessa Bernardes; Rosso, Isabele de Albuquerque; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2016-12-01

    Promising effects of phototherapy on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage has been already demonstrated in constant load or isokinetic protocols. However, its effects on more functional situations, such as plyometric exercises, and when is the best moment to apply this treatment (pre- or post-exercise) remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) before or after plyometric exercise on quadriceps muscle damage markers. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 24 healthy men, 12 at pre-exercise treatment group and 12 at post-exercise treatment group. Placebo and LLLT (810 nm, 200 mW per diode, 6 J per diode, 240 J per leg) were randomly applied on right/left knee extensor muscles of each volunteer before/after a plyometric exercise protocol. Muscular echo intensity (ultrasonography images), soreness (visual analogue scale - VAS), and strength impairment (maximal voluntary contraction - MVC) were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise. Legs treated with LLLT before or after exercise presented significantly smaller increments of echo intensity (values up to 1 %) compared to placebo treatments (increased up to ∼7 %). No significant treatment effect was found for VAS and MVC, although a trend toward better results on LLLT legs have been found for VAS (mean values up to 30 % lesser than placebo leg). In conclusion, LLLT applied before or after plyometric exercise reduces the muscle echo intensity response and possibly attenuates the muscle soreness. However, these positive results were not observed on strength impairment.

  3. Effects of combined β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and whey protein ingestion on symptoms of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirato, Minayuki; Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Sato, Teruyuki; Hamano, Saki; Gushiken, Takeshi; Kimura, Naoto; Ochi, Eisuke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combined β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and whey protein ingestion on muscle strength and damage following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Eighteen untrained male subjects were assigned to HMB and Whey protein (HMB + Whey; 3 g/day HMB and 36.6 g/day whey protein, n = 6), HMB (3 g/day, n = 6), or whey protein (36.6 g/day, n = 6) groups. Ingestion commenced 7 days before non-dominant elbow flexor eccentric exercise (30 deg/sec, 6 reps × 7 sets) and continued until 4 days post-exercise. The maximal isometric strength, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assessed pre-exercise, and at 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after exercise. The change scores of maximal isometric strength significantly decreased at day 1, 2, and 5 in the whey protein group compared to pre value and that in HMB + Whey protein and HMB groups decreased at day 1 and 5. The muscle soreness significantly increased in the whey and HMB + Whey protein groups at day 3 compared to pre value (p HMB and whey protein does not have a role to inhibit muscle strength loss and soreness, and decrease in muscle damage markers after eccentric exercise in comparison with HMB and whey protein alone.

  4. Movement does not promote recovery of motor output following acute experimental muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schabrun, Siobhan M.; Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Thapa, Tribikram

    2018-01-01

    Objective.:  To examine the effect of motor activity on the magnitude and duration of altered corticomotor output following experimental muscle pain. Design. : Experimental, pre-post test. Setting. : University laboratory. Subjects. : Twenty healthy individuals. Methods.:  Participants were rando....... Understanding corticomotor depression in the postpain period and what factors promote recovery has relevance for clinical pain syndromes where ongoing motor dysfunction, in the absence of pain, may predispose to symptom persistence or recurrence....

  5. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshchevik, V.T. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Reiter, R.J. [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States); Prokopchik, N.I. [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus); Zavodnik, I.B., E-mail: zavodnik_il@mail.ru [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  6. Visualization of acute liver damage induced by cycloheximide in rats using PET with [(18F]FEDAC, a radiotracer for translocator protein (18 kDa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hatori

    Full Text Available Liver damage induced by drug toxicity is an important concern for both medical doctors and patients. The aim of this study was to noninvasively visualize acute liver damage using positron emission tomography (PET with N-benzyl-N-methyl-2-[7,8-dihydro-7-(2-[(18F]fluoroethyl-8-oxo-2-phenyl-9H-purin-9-yl]acetamide ([(18F]FEDAC, a radiotracer specific for translocator protein (18 kDa, TSPO as a biomarker for inflammation, and to determine cellular sources enriching TSPO expression in the liver. A mild acute liver damage model was prepared by a single intraperitoneal injection of cycloheximide (CHX into rats. Treatment with CHX induced apoptosis and necrotic changes in hepatocytes with slight neutrophil infiltration. The uptake of radioactivity in the rat livers was measured with PET after injection of [(18F]FEDAC. The uptake of [(18F]FEDAC increased in livers damaged from treatment with CHX compared to the controls. Presence of TSPO was examined in the liver tissue using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical assays. mRNA expression of TSPO was elevated in the damaged livers compared to the controls, and the level was correlated with the [(18F]FEDAC uptake and severity of damage. TSPO expression in the damaged liver sections was mainly found in macrophages (Kupffer cells and neutrophils, but not in hepatocytes. The elevation of TSPO mRNA expression was derived from the increase of the number of macrophages with TSPO and neutrophils with TSPO in damaged livers. From this study we considered that PET imaging with [(18F]FEDAC represented the mild liver damage through the enhanced TSPO signal in inflammatory cells. We conclude that this method may be a useful tool for diagnosis in early stage of acute liver damage.

  7. Serum measurement of muscle and oxidative damage in soccer players after a game DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n4p269

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Teodoro Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Futsal is a sport that requires sudden acceleration and deceleration with abrupt changes in direction. The marked impacts experienced by futsal players lead to muscle and oxidative damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of markers of muscle and oxidative damage in futsal players after a game. Six players with a mean age of 21.2 ± 0.98 years, weight of 67.1 ± 5.5 kg and height of 171.0 ± 0.07 cm participated in this study. Measurements were obtained 30 minutes before game 1 (pre-game, immediately after game 1 (post-game 1, and immediately after a second game (post-game 2, which was performed 24 hours after game 1. Serum was collected for the evaluation of creatine kinase and of damage to proteins and lipids. Creatine kinase concentrations, lipid peroxidation (xylenol and protein carbonylation were significantly higher after games 1 and 2 when compared to pre-game values. Sulfhydryl levels were lower after the end of games 1 and 2 compared to pre-game values. No difference in any of the parameters analyzed was observed between post-game 1 and post-game 2. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a futsal match provokes muscle and oxidative damage. Surprisingly, no increase in the parameters studied was observed after game 2. In view of the limited knowledge about the time of recovery after a futsal match, this study may provide important information to professionals working with this sport.

  8. Acute Exercise Induced Mitochondrial H2O2 Production in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: Association with p66Shc and FOXO3a Signaling and Antioxidant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induced skeletal muscle phenotype change involves a complex interplay between signaling pathways and downstream regulators. This study aims to investigate the effect of acute exercise on mitochondrial H2O2 production and its association with p66Shc, FOXO3a, and antioxidant enzymes. Male ICR/CD-1 mice were subjected to an acute exercise. Muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris were taken after exercise to measure mitochondrial H2O2 content, expression of p66Shc and FOXO3a, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that acute exercise significantly increased mitochondrial H2O2 content and expressions of p66Shc and FOXO3a in a time-dependent manner, with a linear correlation between the increase in H2O2 content and p66Shc or FOXO3a expression. The activity of mitochondrial catalase was slightly reduced in the 90 min exercise group, but it was significantly higher in groups with 120 and 150 min exercise compared to that of 90 min exercise group. The activity of SOD was not significantly affected. The results indicate that acute exercise increases mitochondrial H2O2 production in the skeletal muscle, which is associated with the upregulation of p66Shc and FOXO3a. The association of p66Shc and FOXO3a signaling with exercise induced H2O2 generation may play a role in regulating cellular oxidative stress during acute exercise.

  9. [THE CHANGES OF NOCICEPTIVE THRESHOLD AND ACTIVITY OF THE ADENYLYL CYCLASE SYSTEM IN THE SKELETAL MUSCLES OF RATS WITH ACUTE AND MILD TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipilov, V N; Trost, A M; Chistyakova, O V; Derkach, K V; Shpakov, A O

    2016-02-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common complications of the type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). The aim of the work was to study the dynamics of a painful DPN and functional state of the hormone-sensitive ACSS in the skeletal muscles of rats with the models of acute and mild DM1, as well as the study of impact on them of insulin therapy with different ways of hormone delivery - intranasal and peripheral. In both models of DM1, the level of nociceptive threshold in rats decreased and the stimulatory effects of guanine nucleotides (GppNHp) and adrenergic agonists (isoproterenol, BRL-37344) on adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity were attenuated. The AC stimulating effect of relaxin decreased in animals with acute DM1, but in mild DM1, the decrease was insignificant. Peripheral administration of insulin in rats with acute DM1 increased the nociceptive threshold and partially restored the AC effect of ß 3-agonist BRL-37344. Intranasal administration of insulin in rats with DM1 also increased the nociceptive threshold and partially restored the basal and BRL-37344-stimulated AC activity in the skeletal muscles of diabetic animals. Thus, in the skeletal muscles of rats with acute and mild DM1 the nociceptive sensitivity and the functions of ACSS were disturbed, and they were partially restored by the treatment with peripheral (acute DM1) or intranasal (mild DM1) insulin.

  10. Effects on muscle performance of NSAID treatment with piroxicam versus placebo in geriatric patients with acute infection-induced inflammation. A double blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Ingo; Bautmans, Ivan; Njemini, Rose; Demanet, Christian; Bergmann, Pierre; Mets, Tony

    2011-12-30

    Inflammation is the main cause of disease-associated muscle wasting. In a previous single blind study we have demonstrated improved recovery of muscle endurance following celecoxib treatment in hospitalized geriatric patients with acute infection. Here we further evaluate NSAID treatment with piroxicam in a double blind RCT and investigate the role of cytokines and heat shock proteins (Hsp) with respect to muscle performance. We hypothesized that NSAID treatment would preserve muscle performance better than antibiotic treatment alone, by reducing infection-associated inflammation and by increasing expression of cytoprotective Hsp. Consecutive admissions to the geriatric ward were screened. 30 Caucasian patients, median age 84.5 years, with acute infection-induced inflammation and serum levels of CRP > 10 mg/L were included and randomized to active treatment with 10 mg piroxicam daily or placebo. Assessment comprised general clinical and biochemical parameters, 25 cytokines in serum, intra-and extracellular Hsp27 and Hsp70, Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS) scores, grip strength (GS), fatigue resistance (FR) and lean body mass (LBM). Patients were evaluated until discharge with a maximum of 3 weeks after treatment allocation. EMS scores, FR and grip work (GW), a measure taking into account GS and FR, significantly improved with piroxicam, but not with placebo. Early decreases in IL-6 serum levels with piroxicam correlated with better muscle performance at week 2. Basal expression of Hsp27 in monocytes without heat challenge (WHC) was positively correlated with FR at baseline and significantly increased by treatment with piroxicam compared to placebo. Profound modifications in the relationships between cytokines or Hsp and changes in muscle parameters were observed in the piroxicam group. Piroxicam improves clinically relevant measures of muscle performance and mobility in geriatric patients hospitalized with acute infection-induced inflammation. Underlying mechanisms may

  11. Topography of acute stroke in a sample of 439 right brain damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Christoph; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the typical lesion topography and volumetry is important for clinical stroke diagnosis as well as for anatomo-behavioral lesion mapping analyses. Here we used modern lesion analysis techniques to examine the naturally occurring lesion patterns caused by ischemic and by hemorrhagic infarcts in a large, representative acute stroke patient sample. Acute MR and CT imaging of 439 consecutively admitted right-hemispheric stroke patients from a well-defined catchment area suffering from ischemia (n = 367) or hemorrhage (n = 72) were normalized and mapped in reference to stereotaxic anatomical atlases. For ischemic infarcts, highest frequencies of stroke were observed in the insula, putamen, operculum and superior temporal cortex, as well as the inferior and superior occipito-frontal fascicles, superior longitudinal fascicle, uncinate fascicle, and the acoustic radiation. The maximum overlay of hemorrhages was located more posteriorly and more medially, involving posterior areas of the insula, Heschl's gyrus, and putamen. Lesion size was largest in frontal and anterior areas and lowest in subcortical and posterior areas. The large and unbiased sample of stroke patients used in the present study accumulated the different sub-patterns to identify the global topographic and volumetric pattern of right hemisphere stroke in humans.

  12. Acute hypoxia and hypoxic exercise induce DNA strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Loft, S; Lundby, C

    2001-01-01

    ; lymphocytes were isolated for analysis of DNA strand breaks and oxidatively altered nucleotides, detected by endonuclease III and formamidipyridine glycosylase (FPG) enzymes. Urine was collected for 24 h periods for analysis of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage...... oxygen species, generated by leakage of the mitochondrial respiration or during a hypoxia-induced inflammation. Furthermore, the presence of DNA strand breaks may play an important role in maintaining hypoxia-induced inflammation processes. Hypoxia seems to deplete the antioxidant system of its capacity...

  13. Whole body proton irradiation causes acute damage to bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Wang, Yingying; Pathak, Rupak; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Jones, Tamako; Mao, Xiao Wen; Nelson, Gregory; Boerma, Marjan; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to proton irradiation during missions in deep space can lead to bone marrow injury. The acute effects of proton irradiation on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells remain undefined and thus were investigated. We exposed male C57BL/6 mice to 0.5 and 1.0 Gy proton total body irradiation (proton-TBI, 150 MeV) and examined changes in peripheral blood cells and bone marrow (BM) progenitors and LSK cells 2 weeks after exposure. 1.0 Gy proton-TBI significantly reduced the numbers of peripheral blood cells compared to 0.5 Gy proton-TBI and unirradiated animals, while the numbers of peripheral blood cell counts were comparable between 0.5 Gy proton-TBI and unirradiated mice. The frequencies and numbers of LSK cells and CMPs in BM of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy irradiated mice were decreased in comparison to those of normal controls. LSK cells and CMPs and their progeny exhibited a radiation-induced impairment in clonogenic function. Exposure to 1.0 Gy increased cellular apoptosis but not the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CMPs two weeks after irradiation. LSK cells from irradiated mice exhibited an increase in ROS production and apoptosis. Exposure to proton-TBI can induce acute damage to BM progenitors and LSK cells.

  14. Role of DNA damage and repair as predeterminant factor in the development of radiotherapy induced acute adverse reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satish Rao, B.S.; Kamalesh, D.M.; Goutham, H.V.; Donald, J.F.; Sharan, Krishna; Vadhiraja, B.M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy induced normal tissue toxicity is one of the major limitations for the compromised the therapeutic outcome and also worsens the quality of life of survivors. Further, the clinical experience demonstrated inter-individual variability with respect to their normal tissue toxicity. Therefore, the discovery of contributing key factors of variability or predicting the risk of developing acute reactions before the initiation of radiation therapy may serve as a powerful predictive biomarker for individualizing radiotherapy, anticipating increased therapeutic effect. DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction and its repair in lymphocytes of head-and-neck and breast cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation or radiation therapy alone were analyzed by performing γ-H2AX foci, neutral comet and a modified neutral filter elution assays. Treatment induced normal tissue adverse reactions (acute skin reaction, oral mucositis) were assessed by the criteria of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. The residual damage (RD) at 6 hrs of post irradiation was used as parameters to measure cellular radiosensitivity and for its correlation with radiotherapy induced acute reactions in patients stratified as non-over responders (NOR) and over responders (OR). A large inter-individual variation in the radiosensitivity was observed in the cancer individuals with respect to their lymphocyte radiosensitivity and the severity of normal tissue adverse reactions. There was a significant difference in RD (p<0.05) between the NOR and OR in breast cancer radiotherapy. Further, the increased normal tissue toxicity such as oral mucositis and skin reactions was associated with the reduced DSB repair (p<0.05) in head-and-neck cancer patients. The percentile analysis was found to be useful in predicting the OR amongst the head-and-neck cancer patients. Our results suggest that γ-H2AX analysis may have its potential to be developed into a clinically useful predictive assay for identifying the

  15. Feasibility of using optical coherence tomography to detect acute radiation-induced esophageal damage in small animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvehgaran, Pouya; de Bruin, Daniel Martijn; Salguero, F. Javier; Borst, Gerben Roelof; Song, Ji-Ying; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; de Boer, Johannes F.; Alderliesten, Tanja; van Herk, Marcel

    2018-04-01

    Lung cancer survival is poor, and radiation therapy patients often suffer serious treatment side effects. The esophagus is particularly sensitive leading to acute radiation-induced esophageal damage (ARIED). We investigated the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for minimally invasive imaging of the esophagus with high resolution (10 μm) to detect ARIED in mice. Thirty mice underwent cone-beam computed tomography imaging for initial setup assessment and dose planning followed by a single-dose delivery of 4.0, 10.0, 16.0, and 20.0 Gy on 5.0-mm spots, spaced 10.0 mm apart in the esophagus. They were repeatedly imaged using OCT up to three months postirradiation. We compared OCT findings with histopathology obtained three months postirradiation qualitatively and quantitatively using the contrast-to-background-noise ratio (CNR). Histopathology mostly showed inflammatory infiltration and edema at higher doses; OCT findings were in agreement with most of the histopathological reports. We were able to identify the ARIED on OCT as a change in tissue scattering and layer thickness. Our statistical analysis showed significant difference between the CNR values of healthy tissue, edema, and inflammatory infiltration. Overall, the average CNR for inflammatory infiltration and edema damages was 1.6-fold higher and 1.6-fold lower than for the healthy esophageal wall, respectively. Our results showed the potential role of OCT to detect and monitor the ARIED in mice, which may translate to humans.

  16. Mecanismos del daño celular en la insuficiencia renal aguda Mechanisms of cell damage in acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martínez

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Los mecanismos del da no celular en la insuficiencia renal aguda Incluyen alteraciones en la producción de energía, la permeabilidad celular y el transporte de calcio. Dichas alteraciones producen cambios progresivos en la estructura celular que pueden ser reversibles si desaparece la causa que llevó a la falla renal, excepto cuando se alcanza la fase final de la lesión de la membrana y se llega a necrosis celular. Este mismo fenómeno probablemente ocurre tambIén en situaciones clínicas.

    The mechanisms of cellular damage In acute renal failure Include alterations In energy production, cell membrane permeability and calcium transport. These changes lead to progressive damage of the whole cellular structure which In general can be reversible If the precipitating cause disappears, except when the final stages of cell membrane lesion take place and cellular necrosis has occurred. This phenomenon probably applies for the clinical settling as well.

  17. Evaluation of DMSA scintigraphy and urography in assessing both acute and permanent renal damage in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokland, E.; Jacobsson, B. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden).; Hellstroem, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Jodal, U. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Sixt, R. [Dept. of Pediatric Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    1998-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and urography in the detection of renal involvement in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) in order to identify patients with a high risk of developing renal damage. Material and Methods: A total of 157 children (median age 0.4 years, range 5 days to 5.8 years) with first-time symptomatic UTI were examined scintigraphy (with an assessment of renal area involvement) and urography at the time of UTI and 1 year later. All evaluations were made blindly. Results: Of the total 314 kidneys, 80 (25%) were abnormal at initial scintigraphy. Of these 80 kidneys, 44 (55%) had normalized at follow-up. Of the 234 initially normal kidneys, 29 (12%) were abnormal at follow-up. One year after UTI, abnormalities were seen in 59 children at scintigraphy and in 18 children at urography. Renal area involvement was larger and split function abnormalities more common in kidneys that were abnormal at both scintigraphy and urography than in kidneys with only scintigraphic abnormalities. Conclusion: Quantitation of renal area involvement and split renal function at early scintigraphy would seem to be useful in identifying patients at risk of developing renal damage. Urography at 1 year after infection identified mainly those with the most severe scintigraphic abnormalities. The clinical importance of scintigraphic abnormalities that are not confirmed by urography is not known. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of DMSA scintigraphy and urography in assessing both acute and permanent renal damage in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokland, E.; Jacobsson, B.; Jodal, U.; Sixt, R.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and urography in the detection of renal involvement in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) in order to identify patients with a high risk of developing renal damage. Material and Methods: A total of 157 children (median age 0.4 years, range 5 days to 5.8 years) with first-time symptomatic UTI were examined scintigraphy (with an assessment of renal area involvement) and urography at the time of UTI and 1 year later. All evaluations were made blindly. Results: Of the total 314 kidneys, 80 (25%) were abnormal at initial scintigraphy. Of these 80 kidneys, 44 (55%) had normalized at follow-up. Of the 234 initially normal kidneys, 29 (12%) were abnormal at follow-up. One year after UTI, abnormalities were seen in 59 children at scintigraphy and in 18 children at urography. Renal area involvement was larger and split function abnormalities more common in kidneys that were abnormal at both scintigraphy and urography than in kidneys with only scintigraphic abnormalities. Conclusion: Quantitation of renal area involvement and split renal function at early scintigraphy would seem to be useful in identifying patients at risk of developing renal damage. Urography at 1 year after infection identified mainly those with the most severe scintigraphic abnormalities. The clinical importance of scintigraphic abnormalities that are not confirmed by urography is not known. (orig.)

  19. Acute pulmonary injury induced by experimental muscle trauma Lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por trauma muscular experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Andréa da Silva Carvalho Sombra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an easily reproducible model of acute lung injury due to experimental muscle trauma in healthy rats. METHODS: Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomized in 3 groups (n=6: G-1- control, G-2 - saline+trauma and G-3 - dexamethasone+trauma. Groups G-1 and G-2 were treated with saline 2,0ml i.p; G-3 rats were treated with dexamethasone (DE (2 mg/kg body weight i.p.. Saline and DE were applied 2h before trauma and 12h later. Trauma was induced in G-2 and G-3 anesthetized (tribromoethanol 97% 100 ml/kg i.p. rats by sharp section of anterior thigh muscles just above the knee, preserving major vessels and nerves. Tissue samples (lung were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO assay and histopathological evaluation. RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after muscle injury there was a significant increase in lung neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity and edema, all reversed by dexamethasone in G-3. CONCLUSION: Trauma by severance of thigh muscles in healthy rats is a simple and efficient model to induce distant lung lesions.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo facilmente reprodutível de lesão pulmonar aguda decorrente de trauma muscular experimental em ratos sadios. MÉTODOS: Dezoito ratos Wistar adultos foram randomizados em 3 grupos (n=6: G-1-controle, G-2 - trauma+salina e G-3 - trauma+dexametasona. Grupos G-1 e G-2 foram tratados com salina 2,0 ml ip, G-3 ratos foram tratados com dexametasona (DE (2 mg/kg peso corporal ip. Salina e DE foram aplicadas 2h antes e 12h depois do trauma. Trauma foi induzido em ratos G-2 e G-3 anestesiados (tribromoetanol 97% de 100 ml/kg, i.p. por secção da musculatura anterior da coxa logo acima da articulação do joelho, preservando os grandes vasos e nervos. Amostras de tecido (pulmão foram coletadas para avaliação da mieloperoxidase (MPO, e exames histopatológicos. RESULTADOS: Vinte e quatro horas após a indução da lesão muscular houve um aumento significativo na infiltração de neutr

  20. Acute exercise induces biphasic increase in respiratory mRNA in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Kizaki, Takako; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki; Takemasa, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) promotes the expression of oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that activation of the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) in response to exercise was associated with exercise-induced PGC-1α and respiratory enzymes expression and aimed to demonstrate this under the physiological level. We subjected mice to a single bout of treadmill running and found that the exercise induced a biphasic increase in the expression of respiratory enzymes mRNA. The second phase of the increase was accompanied by an increase in PGC-1α protein, but the other was not. Administration of SB203580 (SB), an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suppressed the increase in PGC-1α expression and respiratory enzymes mRNA in both phases. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is associated with the exercise-induced expression of PGC-1α and biphasic increase in respiratory enzyme mRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle under physiological conditions

  1. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy (-110 °C) on proprioception and indices of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, J T; Algar, L A; Donnelly, A E

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on proprioceptive function, muscle force recovery following eccentric muscle contractions and tympanic temperature (T(TY) ). Thirty-six subjects were randomly assigned to a group receiving two 3-min treatments of -110 ± 3 °C or 15 ± 3 °C. Knee joint position sense (JPS), maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the knee extensors, force proprioception and T(TY) were recorded before, immediately after the exposure and again 15 min later. A convenience sample of 18 subjects also underwent an eccentric exercise protocol on their contralateral left leg 24 h before exposure. MVIC (left knee), peak power output (PPO) during a repeated sprint on a cycle ergometer and muscles soreness were measured pre-, 24, 48 and 72h post-treatment. WBC reduced T(TY) , by 0.3 °C, when compared with the control group (P<0.001). However, JPS, MVIC or force proprioception was not affected. Similarly, WBC did not effect MVIC, PPO or muscle soreness following eccentric exercise. WBC, administered 24 h after eccentric exercise, is ineffective in alleviating muscle soreness or enhancing muscle force recovery. The results of this study also indicate no increased risk of proprioceptive-related injury following WBC. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Low vitamin D does not predict statin associated muscle symptoms but is associated with transient increases in muscle damage and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beth A; Lorson, Lindsay; White, C Michael; Thompson, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    Low vitamin D (VITD) may contribute to statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). We examined the influence of baseline and change in VITD in patients with verified SAMS. SAMS was verified in 120 patients with prior statin muscle complaints using 8-week randomized, double-blind crossover trials of simvastatin (SIMVA) 20 mg/d and placebo. 25 (OH)vitamin D was measured at each phase of the trial. Forty-three patients (35.8%) experienced muscle pain on SIMVA but not placebo, exhibiting confirmed SAMS. VITD (mean ± standard deviation) prior to SIMVA treatment was not different between patients who did (31.7 ± 12.1 ng/mL, n = 43) or did not (31.6 ± 10.3 ng/mL, n = 77) develop SAMS and did not predict SAMS (p = 0.96). The change in VITD with SIMVA treatment was not different between patients with and without SAMS (0.3 ± 5.9 vs. 0.2 ± 8.3 ng/mL, respectively) and did not predict SAMS (p = 0.96). The proportion of patients classified as VITD deficient (statin VITD were inversely related to the change in creatine kinase (CK) with statin therapy (p = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively), independent of SAMS (p = 0.36 and 0.35). Baseline VITD, VITD deficiency/insufficiency and changes in VITD with statin therapy do not predict SAMS in patients with rigorously verified SAMS. However, low VITD may exacerbate statin-induced muscle injury and could contribute to SAMS development with a longer duration of statin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage After a Bout of Accentuated Eccentric Load Drop Jumps and the Repeated Bout Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Lee A; Gill, Nicholas D; Dulson, Deborah K; McGuigan, Michael R

    2017-02-01

    Bridgeman, LA, Gill, ND, Dulson, DK, and McGuigan, MR. The effect of exercise induced muscle damage after a bout of accentuated eccentric load drop jumps and the repeated bout effect. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 386-394, 2017-Although previous studies have investigated exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) after a bout of unloaded drop jumps (DJs), none have investigated the effects of accentuated eccentric load (AEL) DJs on EIMD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 30 and 50 AEL DJs on strength, jump performance, muscle soreness, and blood markers. Eight resistance trained athletes participated in this study. In week 1, baseline countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), concentric and eccentric peak force (PF), creatine kinase, and muscle soreness were assessed. Subjects then completed 30 AEL DJs and baseline measures were retested immediately postintervention, 1, 24, and 48 hours later. Two weeks later, the subjects completed the same protocol with an increase in AEL DJ volume (50). Subjects' SJ height was reduced in week 1 compared with week 3, postintervention, 1, 24, and 48 hours later (ES = -0.34, -0.44, -0.38, and -0.40). Subjects' CMJ height was reduced in week 1 compared with week 3, postintervention, 1, and 24 hours later (ES = -0.37, -0.29, and -0.39). Concentric PF was reduced in week 1 compared with week 3, postintervention and 24 and 48 hours later (ES = -0.02, -0.23, and -0.32). Eccentric PF was reduced in week 1 compared with week 3, postintervention, 24, and 48 hours later (ES = -0.24, -0.16, and -0.50). In this sample, 30 AEL DJs attenuated the effects of EIMD following which 50 AEL DJs completed 2 weeks later.

  4. The Effects of Adding Whey Protein and Branched-chain Amino Acid to Carbohydrate Beverages on Indices of Muscle Damage after Eccentric Resistance Exercise in Untrained Young Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Asjodi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs plus carbohydrate (CHO and whey protein plus CHO on muscle damage indices after eccentric resistant exercise. Materials and Methods: Twenty four untrained healthy males participated in this study. They were randomly divided into three groups, BCAA +glucose (0.1+0.1g/kg supplement group (n=8, Whey+glucose (0.1+0.1g/kg supplement group (n=8, and placebo (malto dextrin 0.2g/kg group (n=8. Each subject consumed a carbohydrate beverage with addition of whey protein or branched-chain amino acid or placebo 30 minutes before exercise in a randomized,double-blind fashion. Serum levels of Creatine Kinase (CK, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and muscle pain were measured before, 24, 48, 72 h after exercise. Follow-up analyses included 1-way repeated measures ANOVAs, and Bonferroni post hoc comparisons. Results: 24 h after test, serum levels of CK, LDH and muscle pain in both supplement groups were increased less than placebo group (0.015, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively. Also, the levels of CK and LDH showed significant changes in both intervention groups compared to placebo group at 24 h (0.001, 0. 015, respectively. Similarly, significant differences in the levels of CK and LDH between groups were observed. Conclusion: These data indicate that muscle damage and pain after resistant exercise were reduced by an ingestion of either BCAA drink or whey protein drink.

  5. Probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 Supplementation Attenuates Performance and Range-of-Motion Decrements Following Muscle Damaging Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Jäger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the potential benefit of probiotics on the inflammation subsequent to strenuous exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design separated by a 21-day washout, 15 healthy resistance-trained men ingested an encapsulated probiotic Streptococcus (S. thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium (B. breve BR03 at 5 bn live cells (AFU concentration each, or a placebo, daily for 3 weeks prior to muscle-damaging exercise (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02520583. Isometric strength, muscle soreness, range of motion and girth, and blood interleukin-6 (IL-6 and creatine kinase (CK concentrations were measured from pre- to 72 h post-exercise. Statistical analysis was via mixed models and magnitude-based inference to the standardized difference. Probiotic supplementation resulted in an overall decrease in circulating IL-6, which was sustained to 48 h post-exercise. In addition, probiotic supplementation likely enhanced isometric average peak torque production at 24 to 72 h into the recovery period following exercise (probiotic–placebo point effect ±90% CI: 24 h, 11% ± 7%; 48 h, 12% ± 18%; 72 h, 8% ± 8%. Probiotics also likely moderately increased resting arm angle at 24 h (2.4% ± 2.0% and 48 h (1.9% ± 1.9% following exercise, but effects on soreness and flexed arm angle and CK were unclear. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with probiotic strains S. thermophilus FP4 and B. breve BR03 attenuates performance decrements and muscle tension in the days following muscle-damaging exercise.

  6. Probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 Supplementation Attenuates Performance and Range-of-Motion Decrements Following Muscle Damaging Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Stone, Jason D; Turner, Stephanie M; Anzalone, Anthony J; Eimerbrink, Micah J; Pane, Marco; Amoruso, Angela; Rowlands, David S; Oliver, Jonathan M

    2016-10-14

    Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the potential benefit of probiotics on the inflammation subsequent to strenuous exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design separated by a 21-day washout, 15 healthy resistance-trained men ingested an encapsulated probiotic Streptococcus ( S. ) thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium ( B. ) breve BR03 at 5 bn live cells (AFU) concentration each, or a placebo, daily for 3 weeks prior to muscle-damaging exercise (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02520583). Isometric strength, muscle soreness, range of motion and girth, and blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were measured from pre- to 72 h post-exercise. Statistical analysis was via mixed models and magnitude-based inference to the standardized difference. Probiotic supplementation resulted in an overall decrease in circulating IL-6, which was sustained to 48 h post-exercise. In addition, probiotic supplementation likely enhanced isometric average peak torque production at 24 to 72 h into the recovery period following exercise (probiotic-placebo point effect ±90% CI: 24 h, 11% ± 7%; 48 h, 12% ± 18%; 72 h, 8% ± 8%). Probiotics also likely moderately increased resting arm angle at 24 h (2.4% ± 2.0%) and 48 h (1.9% ± 1.9%) following exercise, but effects on soreness and flexed arm angle and CK were unclear. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with probiotic strains S. thermophilus FP4 and B. breve BR03 attenuates performance decrements and muscle tension in the days following muscle-damaging exercise.

  7. Evaluation of acute cardiac and chest wall damage after shocks with a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Melnick, Sharon B; Litovsky, Silvio H; Ideker, Raymond E; Walcott, Gregory P

    2013-10-01

    A subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) could ease placement and reduce complications of transvenous ICDs, but requires more energy than transvenous ICDs. Therefore we assessed cardiac and chest wall damage caused by the maximum energy shocks delivered by both types of clinical devices. During sinus rhythm, anesthetized pigs (38 ± 6 kg) received an S-ICD (n = 4) and five 80-Joule (J) shocks, or a transvenous ICD (control, n = 4) and five 35-J shocks. An inactive S-ICD electrode was implanted into the same control pigs to study implant trauma. All animals survived 24 hours. Troponin I and creatine kinase muscle isoenzyme (CK-MM) were measured as indicators of myocardial and skeletal muscle injury. Histopathological injury of heart, lungs, and chest wall was assessed using semiquantitative scoring. Troponin I was significantly elevated at 4 hours and 24 hours (22.6 ± 16.3 ng/mL and 3.1 ± 1.3 ng/mL; baseline 0.07 ± 0.09 ng/mL) in control pigs but not in S-ICD pigs (0.12 ± 0.11 ng/mL and 0.13 ± 0.13 ng/mL; baseline 0.06 ± 0.03 ng/mL). CK-MM was significantly elevated in S-ICD pigs after shocks (6,544 ± 1,496 U/L and 9,705 ± 6,240 U/L; baseline 704 ± 398 U/L) but not in controls. Electrocardiogram changes occurred postshock in controls but not in S-ICD pigs. The myocardium and lungs were histologically normal in both groups. Subcutaneous injury was greater in S-ICD compared to controls. Although CK-MM suggested more skeletal muscle injury in S-ICD pigs, significant cardiac, lung, and chest wall histopathological changes were not detected in either group. Troponin I data indicate significantly less cardiac injury from 80-J S-ICD shocks than 35-J transvenous shocks. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of acute cardiac and chest wall damage after shocks with a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    KILLINGSWORTH, CHERYL R.; MELNICK, SHARON B.; LITOVSKY, SILVIO H.; IDEKER, RAYMOND E.; WALCOTT, GREGORY P.

    2013-01-01

    Background A subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) could ease placement and reduce complications of transvenous ICDs, but requires more energy than transvenous ICDs. Therefore we assessed cardiac and chest wall damage caused by the maximum energy shocks delivered by both types of clinical devices. Methods During sinus rhythm, anesthetized pigs (38±6 kg) received an S-ICD (n = 4) and five 80-Joule (J) shocks, or a transvenous ICD (control, n = 4) and five 35-J shocks. An inactive S-ICD electrode was implanted into the same control pigs to study implant trauma. All animals survived 24-hours. Troponin I and creatine kinase muscle isoenzyme (CK-MM) were measured as indicators of myocardial and skeletal muscle injury. Histopathological injury of heart, lungs, and chest wall was assessed using semi-quantitative scoring. Results Troponin I was significantly elevated at 4- and 24-hours (22.6±16.3 and 3.1±1.3 ng/ml; baseline 0.07±0.09 ng/ml) in control pigs but not in S-ICD pigs (0.12±0.11 and 0.13±0.13 ng/ml; baseline 0.06±0.03 ng/ml). CK-MM was significantly elevated in S-ICD pigs after shocks (6544±1496 and 9705±6240 U/L; baseline 704±398 U/L) but not in controls. ECG changes occurred post-shock in controls but not in S-ICD pigs. The myocardium and lungs were histologically normal in both groups. Subcutaneous injury was greater in S-ICD compared to controls. Conclusion Although CK-MM suggested more skeletal muscle injury in S-ICD pigs, significant cardiac, lung, and chest wall histopathological changes were not detected in either group. Troponin I data indicate significantly less cardiac injury from 80-J S-ICD shocks than 35-J transvenous shocks. PMID:23713608

  9. The Effects of Adding Whey Protein and Branched-chain Amino Acid to Carbohydrate Beverages on Indices of Muscle Damage after Eccentric Resistance Exercise in Untrained Young Males

    OpenAIRE

    Foad Asjodi; Hamid Mohebi; Ebrahim Mirzajani; Azimeh Izadi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) plus carbohydrate (CHO) and whey protein plus CHO on muscle damage indices after eccentric resistant exercise. Materials and Methods: Twenty four untrained healthy males participated in this study. They were randomly divided into three groups, BCAA +glucose (0.1+0.1g/kg) supplement group (n=8), Whey+glucose (0.1+0.1g/kg) supplement group (n=8), and placebo (ma...

  10. 99mTc-HDP Bone Scan Findings of Acute Rhabdomyolysis of Lumbar Multifidus and Thigh Muscles and Bone Scan and US Signs of Acute Tubular Necrosis in Excessive Rabbit's Leaping: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Jang Min

    2008-01-01

    Marked rhabdomyolysis (RML) complicated by acute tubular necrosis is not a rare disease. It is characterized by disintegration of skeletal muscle fibers due to a variety of causes including excessive physical exercise, trauma, operation, infection, bed-ridden life, alcohol, drugs, toxins, exhaustion and others. We report a case of RML with acute renal failure studied using magnification bone scan which specifically identified the muscles injured by excessive rabbit's leap. The injured muscles recognized were the multifidus of the lumbar spine and the anterior and posterior muscle groups of the thigh. In addition, 99 mTc-HDP bone scan findings of acute tubular necrosis correlated with that of the sonographic signs are described. Patient was treated simply with normal saline hydration and bed rest and uneventfully recovered to be discharged on the fourth hospital day. Lab data on the final hospital day: LDH=20 IU/L (normalized) and CPK=600 IU/L (still higher than normal), BUN=14.2 mg/dl (normalized) and creatinin=1.5 mg/dl (normalized) GOT=20 mg/dl (normalized) and GPT=72 mg/dl (higher than normal), respectively

  11. {sup 99m}Tc-HDP Bone Scan Findings of Acute Rhabdomyolysis of Lumbar Multifidus and Thigh Muscles and Bone Scan and US Signs of Acute Tubular Necrosis in Excessive Rabbit's Leaping: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Jang Min [Sung Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Marked rhabdomyolysis (RML) complicated by acute tubular necrosis is not a rare disease. It is characterized by disintegration of skeletal muscle fibers due to a variety of causes including excessive physical exercise, trauma, operation, infection, bed-ridden life, alcohol, drugs, toxins, exhaustion and others. We report a case of RML with acute renal failure studied using magnification bone scan which specifically identified the muscles injured by excessive rabbit's leap. The injured muscles recognized were the multifidus of the lumbar spine and the anterior and posterior muscle groups of the thigh. In addition, {sup 99}mTc-HDP bone scan findings of acute tubular necrosis correlated with that of the sonographic signs are described. Patient was treated simply with normal saline hydration and bed rest and uneventfully recovered to be discharged on the fourth hospital day. Lab data on the final hospital day: LDH=20 IU/L (normalized) and CPK=600 IU/L (still higher than normal), BUN=14.2 mg/dl (normalized) and creatinin=1.5 mg/dl (normalized) GOT=20 mg/dl (normalized) and GPT=72 mg/dl (higher than normal), respectively.

  12. Effect of Acute Exercise on AMPK Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Coletta, Dawn K.; Wajcberg, Estela; Balbontin, Gabriela B.; Reyna, Sara M.; Barrientes, John; Eagan, Phyllis A.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Cersosimo, Eugenio; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Sakamoto, Kei; Musi, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by exercise induces several cellular processes in muscle. Exercise activation of AMPK is unaffected in lean (BMI ~25 kg/m2) subjects with type 2 diabetes. However, most type 2 diabetic subjects are obese (BMI >30 kg/m2), and exercise stimulation of AMPK is blunted in obese rodents. We examined whether obese type 2 diabetic subjects have impaired exercise stimulation of AMPK, at different signaling levels, spanning from the upstream kinase, LKB1, to the putative AMPK targets, AS160 and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor coactivator (PGC)-1α, involved in glucose transport regulation and mitochondrial biogenesis, respectively. Twelve type 2 diabetic, eight obese, and eight lean subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 40 min. Muscle biopsies were done before, during, and after exercise. Subjects underwent this protocol on two occasions, at low (50% VO2max) and moderate (70% VO2max) intensities, with a 4–6 week interval. Exercise had no effect on LKB1 activity. Exercise had a time- and intensity-dependent effect to increase AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation. Obese and type 2 diabetic subjects had attenuated exercise-stimulated AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation. Type 2 diabetic subjects had reduced basal PGC-1 gene expression but normal exercise-induced increases in PGC-1 expression. Our findings suggest that obese type 2 diabetic subjects may need to exercise at higher intensity to stimulate the AMPK-AS160 axis to the same level as lean subjects. PMID:17327455

  13. Lipoprotein particle distribution and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity after acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael; Moyna, Niall M; Zderic, Theodore W; O'Gorman, Donal J; McCaffrey, Noel; Carson, Brian P; Hamilton, Marc T

    2012-07-10

    Many of the metabolic effects of exercise are due to the most recent exercise session. With recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS), it is possible to gain insight about which lipoprotein particles are responsible for mediating exercise effects. Using a randomized cross-over design, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) responses were evaluated in eight men on the morning after i) an inactive control trial (CON), ii) exercising vigorously on the prior evening for 100 min followed by fasting overnight to maintain an energy and carbohydrate deficit (EX-DEF), and iii) after the same exercise session followed by carbohydrate intake to restore muscle glycogen and carbohydrate balance (EX-BAL). The intermediate, low and high density lipoprotein particle concentrations did not differ between trials. Fasting triglyceride (TG) determined biochemically, and mean VLDL size were lower in EX-DEF but not in EX-BAL compared to CON, primarily due to a reduction in VLDL-TG in the 70-120 nm (large) particle range. In contrast, VLDL-TG was lower in both EX-DEF and EX-BAL compared to CON in the 43-55 nm (medium) particle range. VLDL-TG in smaller particles (29-43 nm) was unaffected by exercise. Because the majority of VLDL particles were in this smallest size range and resistant to change, total VLDL particle concentration was not different between any of these conditions. Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was also not different across these 3 trials. However, in CON only, the inter-individual differences in LPL activity were inversely correlated with fasting TG, VLDL-TG, total, large and small VLDL particle concentration and VLDL size, indicating a regulatory role for LPL in the non-exercised state. These findings reveal a high level of differential regulation between different sized triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following exercise and feeding, in the absence of changes in LPL activity.

  14. Changes in mitochondrial perilipin 3 and perilipin 5 protein content in rat skeletal muscle following endurance training and acute stimulated contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, S V; Turnbull, P C; MacPherson, R E K; LeBlanc, P J; Ward, W E; Peters, S J

    2015-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? The aim was to determine whether mitochondrial protein content of perilipin 3 (PLIN3) and perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is increased following endurance training and whether mitochondrial PLIN5 protein is increased to a greater extent in endurance-trained rats when compared with sedentary rats following acute contraction. What is the main finding and its importance? Mitochondrial PLIN3 but not PLIN5 protein was increased in endurance-trained compared with sedentary rats, suggesting a mitochondrial role for PLIN3 due to chronic exercise. Contrary to our hypothesis, acute mitochondrial PLIN5 protein was similar in both sedentary and endurance-trained rats. Endurance training results in an increased association between skeletal muscle lipid droplets and mitochondria. This association is likely to be important for the expected increase in intramuscular fatty acid oxidation that occurs with endurance training. The perilipin family of lipid droplet proteins, PLIN(2-5), are thought to play a role in skeletal muscle lipolysis. Recently, results from our laboratory demonstrated that skeletal muscle mitochondria contain PLIN3 and PLIN5 protein. Furthermore, 30 min of stimulated contraction induces an increased mitochondrial PLIN5 content. To determine whether mitochondrial content of PLIN3 and PLIN5 is altered with endurance training, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into sedentary or endurance-trained groups for 8 weeks of treadmill running followed by an acute (30 min) sciatic nerve stimulation to induce lipolysis. Mitochondrial PLIN3 protein was ∼1.5-fold higher in red gastrocnemius of endurance-trained rats compared with sedentary animals, with no change in mitochondrial PLIN5 protein. In addition, there was an increase in plantaris intramuscular lipid storage. Acute electrically stimulated contraction in red gastrocnemius from sedentary and endurance-trained rats resulted in a similar increase of mitochondrial PLIN5 between

  15. Acute crush injuries of skeletal muscle of mice with ice-compression therapy: a dynamic study with diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengzhe; Pan Shinong; An Qi; Shu Hong; Li Qi; Sun He; Zhang Guangxin; Guo Qiyong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of ice-compression therapy in mice skeletal muscle after acute crush injuries and correlate treatment effect with different compression time by MR DTI. Methods: Forty Weistar mice were randomly divided into 4 groups by random number table method: control group (A), 5 min compression time group (B), 15 min compression time group (C) and 30 min compression time group (D). Diffusion tensor imaging examinations were performed before, immediately after, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injuries. ADC and FA values were calculated by fiber tracking tool. The morphological changes were confirmed by histopathology, and immunohistochemical methods were used for the assessment of Desmin expression with mean of A value. Statistical analysis by LSD-t test and Spearman rank correlation. Results: (1) For every group before injuries, ADC values were (1.38±0.04) × 10 -3 , (1.38±0.08) × 10 -3 , (1.34±0.05) × 10 -3 , (1.36±0.09) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s respectively, FA value were 0.46±0.05, 0.45±0.03, 0.45±0.05, 0.48±0.04 respectively. ADC values increased significantly and FA values reduced in each group immediately after injuries compared with pre-injury values. ADC values were (1.84± 0.10) × 10 -3 (1.79±0.09) × 10 -3 , (1.55±0.07) × 10 -3 , (1.57±0.04) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s respectively, FA value were 0.21±0.04, 0.26±0.03, 0.31±0.02, 0.30±0.04 respectively. ADC values were still higher and FA values lower than pre-injury values at 24 hours after injury in A, B groups. ADC values were (1.54±0.13) × 10 -3 , (1.57±0.13) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, FA value were 0.25±0.03, 0.26±0.02. (2) DTT showed fibers distorted and the number of fiber bundles reduced, some separation and displacement in each group immediately after injury. C, D groups improved more than A, B groups over time. (3) The disorder arrangement of skeletal muscle cells with edema and filaments separation were found in HE staining after injury, but the degree mitigated in C, D groups. Desmin

  16. Effects of acute respiratory and metabolic acidosis on diaphragm muscle obtained from rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Pierre; Carreira, Serge; Demoule, Alexandre; Amour, Julien; Langeron, Olivier; Riou, Bruno; Coirault, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory acidosis is associated with alterations in diaphragm performance. The authors compared the effects of respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis in the rat diaphragm in vitro. Diaphragmatic strips were stimulated in vitro, and mechanical and energetic variables were measured, cross-bridge kinetics calculated, and the effects of fatigue evaluated. An extracellular pH of 7.00 was obtained by increasing carbon dioxide tension (from 25 to 104 mmHg) in the respiratory acidosis group (n = 12) or lowering bicarbonate concentration (from 24.5 to 5.5 mM) in the metabolic acidosis group (n = 12) and the results compared with a control group (n = 12, pH = 7.40) after 20-min exposure. Respiratory acidosis induced a significant decrease in maximum shortening velocity (-33%, P Respiratory acidosis impaired more relaxation than contraction, as shown by impairment in contraction-relaxation coupling under isotonic (-26%, P acidosis group. In rat diaphragm, acute (20 min) respiratory acidosis induced a marked decrease in the diaphragm contractility, which was not observed in metabolic acidosis.

  17. Studies on the application of tryptophan metabolites as indicators of acute radiation damage and their modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    1979-01-01

    It has been the aim of the investigations to continue earlier studies on the amplication of tryptophan metabolites as biochemical indicators after irradiation. These metabolites are of interest as they apparently indicate radiation effects in contrast to other metabolites like taurine and deoxycytidine in a dose range which leads to acute radiation sickness with the consequence of death. This assumption has been confirmed by the results of these studies. Measurements in the urine of rats demonstrate that the excretion of kynurenic acid and of xanthurenic acid as well as especially the ratio of kynurenic acid/anthranilic acid increases considerably in those animals which die some days later. The excretion of the surviving anilic acid increases considerably in those animals which die some days later. The excretion of the surviving animals is characteristical different. This abnormal excretion is induced by changes of specific, hepatic enzyme activities. The investigations have shown that the effects on the enzyme activities apppear not only after X-rays irradiation but also after neutrons. The studies, which have been performed with human material on the NAD-metabolism, demonstrate that with respect to the enzyme activities in the spleen as well as to the urinary excretion the same or similar effects, which have been found with animal experiments, can be expected. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 CKA [de

  18. Cranial irradiation in children with lymphoblastic acute leukemia: results and damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchetti, E.; Brandoli, V.

    1979-01-01

    From 1973 to 1976, 81 children with lymphoblastic acute leukemia were treated with cranial prophylactic irradiation at the Istituto di Radioterapia ''L. Galvani'' del'Universita di Bologna. We divided the patients into 6 groups according to different characteristics. At the beginning of 1978 the survival rate was 82%; 60 patients (74%) were in complete continuous remission. We studied the encephalic post irradiation syndrome that is present in children over 2 years of age only when doses are higher than 2500 rad and in children under 2 years of age when doses exceed 2000 rad. This complication occurs frequently in the experience of other authors; however, it is absent under certain doses with which it is possible to obtain the same good results. We feel that among the different techniques and methods, the best radiological treatment is daily bilateral cranial irradiation for patients early in remission; we recommend doses of 2400 rad for children above 2 years of age and 1950 rad for those under 2 years

  19. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herson Antonio González-Ponce

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP-induced acute liver failure (ALF is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800mg/kg/day, orally were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20mmol/LAPAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF.

  20. Metallothionein blocks oxidative DNA damage induced by acute inorganic arsenic exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Wei, E-mail: qu@niehs.nih.gov; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2015-02-01

    We studied how protein metallothionein (MT) impacts arsenic-induced oxidative DNA damage (ODD) using cells that poorly express MT (MT-I/II double knockout embryonic cells; called MT-null cells) and wild-type (WT) MT competent cells. Arsenic (as NaAsO{sub 2}) was less cytolethal over 24 h in WT cells (LC{sub 50} = 11.0 ± 1.3 μM; mean ± SEM) than in MT-null cells (LC{sub 50} = 5.6 ± 1.2 μM). ODD was measured by the immuno-spin trapping method. Arsenic (1 or 5 μM; 24 h) induced much less ODD in WT cells (121% and 141% of control, respectively) than in MT-null cells (202% and 260%). In WT cells arsenic caused concentration-dependent increases in MT expression (transcript and protein), and in the metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), which is required to induce the MT gene. In contrast, basal MT levels were not detectable in MT-null cells and unaltered by arsenic exposure. Transfection of MT-I gene into the MT-null cells markedly reduced arsenic-induced ODD levels. The transport genes, Abcc1 and Abcc2 were increased by arsenic in WT cells but either showed no or very limited increases in MT-null cells. Arsenic caused increases in oxidant stress defense genes HO-1 and GSTα2 in both WT and MT-null cells, but to much higher levels in WT cells. WT cells appear more adept at activating metal transport systems and oxidant response genes, although the role of MT in these responses is unclear. Overall, MT protects against arsenic-induced ODD in MT competent cells by potential sequestration of scavenging oxidant radicals and/or arsenic. - Highlights: • Metallothionein blocks arsenic toxicity. • Metallothionein reduces arsenic-induced DNA damage. • Metallothionein may bind arsenic or radicals produced by arsenic.

  1. Macrophage Plasticity and the Role of Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle Repair

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    Yacine Kharraz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective repair of damaged tissues and organs requires the coordinated action of several cell types, including infiltrating inflammatory cells and resident cells. Recent findings have uncovered a central role for macrophages in the repair of skeletal muscle after acute damage. If damage persists, as in skeletal muscle pathologies such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, macrophage infiltration perpetuates and leads to progressive fibrosis, thus exacerbating disease severity. Here we discuss how dynamic changes in macrophage populations and activation states in the damaged muscle tissue contribute to its efficient regeneration. We describe how ordered changes in macrophage polarization, from M1 to M2 subtypes, can differently affect muscle stem cell (satellite cell functions. Finally, we also highlight some of the new mechanisms underlying macrophage plasticity and briefly discuss the emerging implications of lymphocytes and other inflammatory cell types in normal versus pathological muscle repair.

  2. Is Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Effective in the Treatment of Acute Muscle Injuries? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Alberto; Napoli, Francesca; Romandini, Iacopo; Samuelsson, Kristian; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Candrian, Christian; Filardo, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    Muscle lesions account for one-third of sport-related injuries, thus representing a substantial problem for both players and their teams. The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections is rapidly growing in clinical practice, prompted by an unmet clinical need with a large commercial market. However, after early reports of positive preliminary experience, higher quality studies recently questioned the real benefit provided by PRP injections to promote muscle healing and return to sport. To evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections on outcomes following acute muscle injuries. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs), Level I. PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane (CENTRAL), Web of Science, clinicaltrials.gov, who.int, isrctn.com, greylit.org, opengrey.eu. RCTs investigating the effect of PRP for the treatment of acute muscle injuries against at least one control group including patients treated with placebo injection or physical therapy. The outcomes evaluated were time to return to sport, re-injuries, complications, pain, muscle strength, range of motion (ROM)/flexibility, muscle function, and imaging. Six studies, involving 374 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. The time to return to sport evaluated in all six studies was significantly shorter in patients treated with PRP (mean difference = - 7.17 days). However, if only the double-blind studies (n = 2) or studies including only hamstring injuries (n = 3) were considered, non-significant differences were found. Re-injuries (relative risk = - 0.03) and complications (relative risk = 0.01) were also similar between the two groups (p > 0.05), nor were any substantial differences found regarding pain, muscle strength, ROM/flexibility, muscle function, and imaging. The performance bias was high risk due to the lack of patient blinding in four studies. The quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was

  3. Acute impact of intermittent pneumatic leg compression frequency on limb hemodynamics, vascular function, and skeletal muscle gene expression in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Ryan D; Roseguini, Bruno T; Thyfault, John P; Crist, Brett D; Laughlin, M H; Newcomer, Sean C

    2012-06-01

    The mechanisms by which intermittent pneumatic leg compression (IPC) treatment effectively treats symptoms associated with peripheral artery disease remain speculative. With the aim of gaining mechanistic insight into IPC treatment, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of IPC frequency on limb hemodynamics, vascular function, and skeletal muscle gene expression. In this two study investigation, healthy male subjects underwent an hour of either high-frequency (HF; 2-s inflation/3-s deflation) or low-frequency (LF; 4-s inflation/16-s deflation) IPC treatment of the foot and calf. In study 1 (n = 11; 23.5 ± 4.7 yr), subjects underwent both HF and LF treatment on separate days. Doppler/ultrasonography was used to measure popliteal artery diameter and blood velocity at baseline and during IPC treatment. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and peak reactive hyperemia blood flow (RHBF) were determined before and after IPC treatment. In study 2 (n = 19; 22.0 ± 4.6 yr), skeletal muscle biopsies were taken from the lateral gastrocnemius of the treated and control limb at baseline and at 30- and 150-min posttreatment. Quantitative PCR was used to assess mRNA concentrations of genes associated with inflammation and vascular remodeling. No treatment effect on vascular function was observed. Cuff deflation resulted in increased blood flow (BF) and shear rate (SR) in both treatments at the onset of treatment compared with baseline (P < 0.01). BF and SR significantly diminished by 45 min of HF treatment only (P < 0.01). Both treatments reduced BF and SR and elevated oscillatory shear index compared with baseline (P < 0.01) during cuff inflation. IPC decreased the mRNA expression of cysteine-rich protein 61 from baseline and controls (P <0 .01) and connective tissue growth factor from baseline (P < 0.05) in a frequency-dependent manner. In conclusion, a single session of IPC acutely impacts limb hemodynamics and skeletal muscle gene expression in a frequency

  4. Effect of acute exposure to moderate altitude on muscle power: hypobaric hypoxia vs. normobaric hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Feriche

    Full Text Available When ascending to a higher altitude, changes in air density and oxygen levels affect the way in which explosive actions are executed. This study was designed to compare the effects of acute exposure to real or simulated moderate hypoxia on the dynamics of the force-velocity relationship observed in bench press exercise. Twenty-eight combat sports athletes were assigned to two groups and assessed on two separate occasions: G1 (n = 17 in conditions of normoxia (N1 and hypobaric hypoxia (HH and G2 (n = 11 in conditions of normoxia (N2 and normobaric hypoxia (NH. Individual and complete force-velocity relationships in bench press were determined on each assessment day. For each exercise repetition, we obtained the mean and peak velocity and power shown by the athletes. Maximum power (Pmax was recorded as the highest P(mean obtained across the complete force-velocity curve. Our findings indicate a significantly higher absolute load linked to P(max (∼ 3% and maximal strength (1 RM (∼ 6% in G1 attributable to the climb to altitude (P<0.05. We also observed a stimulating effect of natural hypoxia on P(mean and P(peak in the middle-high part of the curve (≥ 60 kg; P<0.01 and a 7.8% mean increase in barbell displacement velocity (P<0.001. No changes in any of the variables examined were observed in G2. According to these data, we can state that acute exposure to natural moderate altitude as opposed to simulated normobaric hypoxia leads to gains in 1 RM, movement velocity and power during the execution of a force-velocity curve in bench press.

  5. Lipoprotein particle distribution and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity after acute exercise

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Michael

    2012-06-06

    AbstractBackgroundMany of the metabolic effects of exercise are due to the most recent exercise session. With recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS), it is possible to gain insight about which lipoprotein particles are responsible for mediating exercise effects.MethodsUsing a randomized cross-over design, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) responses were evaluated in eight men on the morning after i) an inactive control trial (CON), ii) exercising vigorously on the prior evening for 100 min followed by fasting overnight to maintain an energy and carbohydrate deficit (EX-DEF), and iii) after the same exercise session followed by carbohydrate intake to restore muscle glycogen and carbohydrate balance (EX-BAL).ResultsThe intermediate, low and high density lipoprotein particle concentrations did not differ between trials. Fasting triglyceride (TG) determined biochemically, and mean VLDL size were lower in EX-DEF but not in EX-BAL compared to CON, primarily due to a reduction in VLDL-TG in the 70–120 nm (large) particle range. In contrast, VLDL-TG was lower in both EX-DEF and EX-BAL compared to CON in the 43–55 nm (medium) particle range. VLDL-TG in smaller particles (29–43 nm) was unaffected by exercise. Because the majority of VLDL particles were in this smallest size range and resistant to change, total VLDL particle concentration was not different between any of these conditions. Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was also not different across these 3 trials. However, in CON only, the inter-individual differences in LPL activity were inversely correlated with fasting TG, VLDL-TG, total, large and small VLDL particle concentration and VLDL size, indicating a regulatory role for LPL in the non-exercised state.ConclusionsThese findings reveal a high level of differential regulation between different sized triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following exercise and feeding, in the absence of changes in LPL activity.

  6. Lipoprotein particle distribution and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity after acute exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many of the metabolic effects of exercise are due to the most recent exercise session. With recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS, it is possible to gain insight about which lipoprotein particles are responsible for mediating exercise effects. Methods Using a randomized cross-over design, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL responses were evaluated in eight men on the morning after i an inactive control trial (CON, ii exercising vigorously on the prior evening for 100 min followed by fasting overnight to maintain an energy and carbohydrate deficit (EX-DEF, and iii after the same exercise session followed by carbohydrate intake to restore muscle glycogen and carbohydrate balance (EX-BAL. Results The intermediate, low and high density lipoprotein particle concentrations did not differ between trials. Fasting triglyceride (TG determined biochemically, and mean VLDL size were lower in EX-DEF but not in EX-BAL compared to CON, primarily due to a reduction in VLDL-TG in the 70–120 nm (large particle range. In contrast, VLDL-TG was lower in both EX-DEF and EX-BAL compared to CON in the 43–55 nm (medium particle range. VLDL-TG in smaller particles (29–43 nm was unaffected by exercise. Because the majority of VLDL particles were in this smallest size range and resistant to change, total VLDL particle concentration was not different between any of these conditions. Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL activity was also not different across these 3 trials. However, in CON only, the inter-individual differences in LPL activity were inversely correlated with fasting TG, VLDL-TG, total, large and small VLDL particle concentration and VLDL size, indicating a regulatory role for LPL in the non-exercised state. Conclusions These findings reveal a high level of differential regulation between different sized triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following exercise and feeding, in the absence of changes in

  7. Repeated mild traumatic brain injury can cause acute neurologic impairment without overt structural damage in juvenile rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Meconi

    Full Text Available Repeated concussion is becoming increasingly recognized as a serious public health concern around the world. Moreover, there is a greater awareness amongst health professionals of the potential for repeated pediatric concussions to detrimentally alter the structure and function of the developing brain. To better study this issue, we developed an awake closed head injury (ACHI model that enabled repeated concussions to be performed reliably and reproducibly in juvenile rats. A neurological assessment protocol (NAP score was generated immediately after each ACHI to help quantify the cumulative effects of repeated injury on level of consciousness, and basic motor and reflexive capacity. Here we show that we can produce a repeated ACHI (4 impacts in two days in both male and female juvenile rats without significant mortality or pain. We show that both single and repeated injuries produce acute neurological deficits resembling clinical concussion symptoms that can be quantified using the NAP score. Behavioural analyses indicate repeated ACHI acutely impaired spatial memory in the Barnes maze, and an interesting sex effect was revealed as memory impairment correlated moderately with poorer NAP score performance in a subset of females. These cognitive impairments occurred in the absence of motor impairments on the Rotarod, or emotional changes in the open field and elevated plus mazes. Cresyl violet histology and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI indicated that repeated ACHI did not produce significant structural damage. MRI also confirmed there was no volumetric loss in the cortex, hippocampus, or corpus callosum of animals at 1 or 7 days post-ACHI. Together these data indicate that the ACHI model can provide a reliable, high throughput means to study the effects of concussions in juvenile rats.

  8. Coordinated collagen and muscle protein synthesis in human patella tendon and quadriceps muscle after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Benjamin F; Olesen, Jens L; Hansen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that an acute bout of strenuous, non-damaging exercise would increase rates of protein synthesis of collagen in tendon and skeletal muscle but these would be less than those of muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Two groups (n = 8 and 6) of healthy young men were studied...... collagen (0.077% h(-1)), muscle collagen (0.054% h(-1)), myofibrillar protein (0.121% h(-1)), and sarcoplasmic protein (0.134% h(-1))). The rates decreased toward basal values by 72 h although rates of tendon collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis remained elevated. There was no tissue damage...... of muscle visible on histological evaluation. Neither tissue microdialysate nor serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4) or procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide changed from resting values. Thus, there is a rapid increase in collagen synthesis after strenuous exercise...

  9. Acute and long-term administration of palmitoylcarnitine induces muscle-specific insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepinsh, Edgars; Makrecka-Kuka, Marina; Makarova, Elina; Volska, Kristine; Vilks, Karlis; Sevostjanovs, Eduards; Antone, Unigunde; Kuka, Janis; Vilskersts, Reinis; Lola, Daina; Loza, Einars; Grinberga, Solveiga; Dambrova, Maija

    2017-09-10

    Acylcarnitine accumulation has been linked to perturbations in energy metabolism pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that long-chain (LC) acylcarnitines are active metabolites involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism in vivo. Single-dose administration of palmitoylcarnitine (PC) in fed mice induced marked insulin insensitivity, decreased glucose uptake in muscles, and elevated blood glucose levels. Increase in the content of LC acylcarnitine induced insulin resistance by impairing Akt phosphorylation at Ser473. The long-term administration of PC using slow-release osmotic minipumps induced marked hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, suggesting that the permanent accumulation of LC acylcarnitines can accelerate the progression of insulin resistance. The decrease of acylcarnitine content significantly improved glucose tolerance in a mouse model of diet-induced glucose intolerance. In conclusion, we show that the physiological increase in content of acylcarnitines ensures the transition from a fed to fasted state in order to limit glucose metabolism in the fasted state. In the fed state, the inability of insulin to inhibit LC acylcarnitine production induces disturbances in glucose uptake and metabolism. The reduction of acylcarnitine content could be an effective strategy to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2017 BioFactors, 43(5):718-730, 2017. © 2017 The Authors BioFactors published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Guanosine prevents behavioral alterations in the forced swimming test and hippocampal oxidative damage induced by acute restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettio, Luis E B; Freitas, Andiara E; Neis, Vivian B; Santos, Danúbia B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Rosa, Priscila B; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2014-12-01

    Guanosine is a guanine-based purine that modulates glutamate uptake and exerts neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. In a previous study, our group demonstrated that this endogenous nucleoside displays antidepressant-like properties in a predictive animal model. Based on the role of oxidative stress in modulating depressive disorders as well as on the association between the neuroprotective and antioxidant properties of guanosine, here we investigated if its antidepressant-like effect is accompanied by a modulation of hippocampal oxidant/antioxidant parameters. Adult Swiss mice were submitted to an acute restraint stress protocol, which is known to cause behavioral changes that are associated with neuronal oxidative damage. Animals submitted to ARS exhibited an increased immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) and the administration of guanosine (5mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o., positive control) before the exposure to stressor prevented this alteration. Moreover, the significantly increased levels of hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA; an indicator of lipid peroxidation), induced by ARS were not observed in stressed mice treated with guanosine. Although no changes were found in the hippocampal levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), the group submitted to ARS procedure presented enhanced glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and reduced catalase (CAT) activity in the hippocampus. Guanosine was able to prevent the alterations in GPx, GR, CAT activities, and in SOD/CAT activity ratio, but potentiated the increase in SOD activity elicited by ARS. Altogether, the present findings indicate that the observed antidepressant-like effects of guanosine might be related, at least in part, to its capability of modulating antioxidant defenses and mitigating hippocampal oxidative damage induced by ARS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Freshwater Clam Extract Supplementation on Time to Exhaustion, Muscle Damage, Pro/Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines, and Liver Injury in Rats after Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Wen Liao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potent anti-inflammatory activities and tissue-protective effects of freshwater clams (Corbicula fluminea have been well reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of freshwater clam extract (FCE supplementation on time to exhaustion, muscle damage, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and liver injury in rats after exhaustive exercise. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC; SC group with FCE supplementation (SC+FCE; exhaustive exercise (E; and E group with FCE supplementation (E+FCE. The SC+FCE and E+FCE groups were treated with gavage administration of 20 mg/kg for seven consecutive days. Blood samples were collected for the evaluation of biochemical parameters. The cytokine levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were also examined. Twenty-four hours after exhaustive exercise, the rat livers were removed for H & E staining. The FCE supplementation could extend the time to exhaustion in exercised rats. The levels of CPK, LDH, AST, ALT, lactate, TNF-α and H & E stains of the liver injury were significantly decreased in the E+FCE group, but the blood glucose and IL-10 were significantly higher in comparison with the E group. This study suggests that FCE supplementation may improve endurance performance and reduce exercise-induced muscle damage, inflammatory stress and liver injury.

  12. Damage to Liver and Skeletal Muscles in Marathon Runners During a 100 km Run With Regard to Age and Running Speed

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    Jastrzębski Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine: (1 whether damage to liver and skeletal muscles occurs during a 100 km run; (2 whether the metabolic response to extreme exertion is related to the age or running speed of the participant; (3 whether it is possible to determine the optimal running speed and distance for long-distance runners’ health by examining biochemical parameters in venous blood. Fourteen experienced male amateur ultra-marathon runners, divided into two age groups, took part in a 100 km run. Blood samples for liver and skeletal muscle damage indexes were collected from the ulnar vein just before the run, after 25, 50, 75 and 100 km, and 24 hours after termination of the run. A considerable increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST was observed with the distance covered (p < 0.05, which continued during recovery. An increase in the mean values of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and C-reactive protein (CRP (p < 0.05 was observed with each sequential course. The biggest differences between the age groups were found for the activity of liver enzymes and LDH after completing 75 km as well as after 24 hours of recovery. It can be concluded that the response to extreme exertion deteriorates with age in terms of the active movement apparatus.

  13. Wisdom tooth extraction causing lingual nerve and styloglossus muscle damage: a mimic of multiple cranial nerve palsies

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, A. S.; Evans, M.; Shah, S.; Catania, S.; Warren, J. D.; Gleeson, M. J.; Reilly, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The combination of tongue hemianaesthesia, dysgeusia, dysarthria and dysphagia suggests the involvement of multiple cranial nerves. We present a case with sudden onset of these symptoms immediately following wisdom tooth extraction and highlight the clinical features that allowed localisation of the lesion to a focal, iatrogenic injury of the lingual nerve and adjacent styloglossus muscle.

  14. The effect of protein intake and resistance training on muscle mass in acutely ill old medical patients - A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Sussi F; Andersen, Aino L; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2016-01-01

    admission and a daily protein supplement (18.8 g protein) and resistance training 3 times per week the 12 weeks following discharge. Muscle mass was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Muscle strength was assessed by Hand Grip Strength and Chair Stand Test. Functional ability was assessed...... mass (unadjusted: β-coefficient = -1.28 P = 0.32, adjusted for gender: β-coefficient = -0.02 P = 0.99, adjusted for baseline lean mass: β-coefficient = -0.31 P = 0.80). The de Morton Mobility Index significantly increased in the Control Group (β-coefficient = -11.43 CI: 0.72-22.13, P = 0.04). No other...... differences were found. CONCLUSION: No significant effect on muscle mass was observed in this group of acutely ill old medical patients. High compliance was achieved with the dietary intervention, but resistance training was challenging. Clinical trials identifier NCT02077491....

  15. APTO-253 Stabilizes G-quadruplex DNA, Inhibits MYC Expression, and Induces DNA Damage in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local, Andrea; Zhang, Hongying; Benbatoul, Khalid D; Folger, Peter; Sheng, Xia; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Howell, Stephen B; Rice, William G

    2018-06-01

    APTO-253 is a phase I clinical stage small molecule that selectively induces CDKN1A (p21), promotes G 0 -G 1 cell-cycle arrest, and triggers apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells without producing myelosuppression in various animal species and humans. Differential gene expression analysis identified a pharmacodynamic effect on MYC expression, as well as induction of DNA repair and stress response pathways. APTO-253 was found to elicit a concentration- and time-dependent reduction in MYC mRNA expression and protein levels. Gene ontogeny and structural informatic analyses suggested a mechanism involving G-quadruplex (G4) stabilization. Intracellular pharmacokinetic studies in AML cells revealed that APTO-253 is converted intracellularly from a monomer to a ferrous complex [Fe(253) 3 ]. FRET assays demonstrated that both monomeric APTO-253 and Fe(253) 3 stabilize G4 structures from telomeres, MYC, and KIT promoters but do not bind to non-G4 double-stranded DNA. Although APTO-253 exerts a host of mechanistic sequelae, the effect of APTO-253 on MYC expression and its downstream target genes, on cell-cycle arrest, DNA damage, and stress responses can be explained by the action of Fe(253) 3 and APTO-253 on G-quadruplex DNA motifs. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(6); 1177-86. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Cardiac damage associated with stress hyperglycaemia and acute coronary syndrome changes according to level of presenting blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jumaily, Talib; Rose'Meyer, Roselyn B; Sweeny, Amy; Jayasinghe, Rohan

    2015-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of stress hyperglycaemia in people presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and the relationships between admission glucose and cardiac damage, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. In a prospective observational study people presenting with ACS at the Gold Coast Hospital had their admission glucose (AG) level tested to determine stress hyperglycaemia. A range of measurements supplemented this data including troponin levels, category of ACS and major adverse coronary events (MACEs) were obtained through hospital records and patient follow-up post-discharge. One hundred eighty-eight participants were recruited. The prevalence of stress hyperglycaemia in ACS was 44% with 31% having a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and 7.7% had undiagnosed diabetes. The stress hyperglycaemic group had a significantly higher median troponin levels compared to participants with normal blood glucose levels on admission (pglucose group (>15 mmol/L) had troponin levels similar to people presenting with normal blood glucose levels and ACS (p>0.05). Cardiac necrosis as measured by troponin levels is significantly increased in people with ACS and stress hyperglycaemia. This study found that one in four participants presenting with ACS and an admission glucose of >7.0 had no previous diagnosis for diabetes. Consistently ordering HbA1C testing on patients with high AG can enable earlier diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Oncogenic RAS enables DNA damage- and p53-dependent differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia cells in response to chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Meyer

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a clonal disease originating from myeloid progenitor cells with a heterogeneous genetic background. High-dose cytarabine is used as the standard consolidation chemotherapy. Oncogenic RAS mutations are frequently observed in AML, and are associated with beneficial response to cytarabine. Why AML-patients with oncogenic RAS benefit most from high-dose cytarabine post-remission therapy is not well understood. Here we used bone marrow cells expressing a conditional MLL-ENL-ER oncogene to investigate the interaction of oncogenic RAS and chemotherapeutic agents. We show that oncogenic RAS synergizes with cytotoxic agents such as cytarabine in activation of DNA damage checkpoints, resulting in a p53-dependent genetic program that reduces clonogenicity and increases myeloid differentiation. Our data can explain the beneficial effects observed for AML patients with oncogenic RAS treated with higher dosages of cytarabine and suggest that induction of p53-dependent differentiation, e.g. by interfering with Mdm2-mediated degradation, may be a rational approach to increase cure rate in response to chemotherapy. The data also support the notion that the therapeutic success of cytotoxic drugs may depend on their ability to promote the differentiation of tumor-initiating cells.

  18. Relative and Absolute Interrater Reliabilities of a Hand-Held Myotonometer to Quantify Mechanical Muscle Properties in Patients with Acute Stroke in an Inpatient Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Leung Ambrose Lo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The reliability of using MyotonPRO to quantify muscles mechanical properties in a ward setting for the acute stroke population remains unknown. Aims. To investigate the within-session relative and absolute interrater reliability of MyotonPRO. Methods. Mechanical properties of biceps brachii, brachioradialis, rectus femoris, and tibialis anterior were recorded at bedside. Participants were within 1 month of the first occurrence of stroke. Relative reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Absolute reliability was assessed by standard error of measurement (SEM, SEM%, smallest real difference (SRD, SRD%, and the Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement. Results. ICCs of all studied muscles ranged between 0.63 and 0.97. The SEM of all muscles ranged within 0.30–0.88 Hz for tone, 0.07–0.19 for decrement, 6.42–20.20 N/m for stiffness, and 0.04–0.07 for creep. The SRD of all muscles ranged within 0.70–2.05 Hz for tone, 0.16–0.45 for decrement, 14.98–47.15 N/m for stiffness, and 0.09–0.17 for creep. Conclusions. MyotonPRO demonstrated acceptable relative and absolute reliability in a ward setting for patients with acute stroke. However, results must be interpreted with caution, due to the varying level of consistency between different muscles, as well as between different parameters within a muscle.

  19. Acute insulin resistance stimulates and insulin sensitization attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation.

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    Cersosimo, Eugenio; Xu, Xiaojing; Upala, Sikarin; Triplitt, Curtis; Musi, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    Differential activation/deactivation of insulin signaling, PI-3K and MAP-K pathways by high glucose and palmitate, with/out the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone (PIO), have been previously shown in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To determine the biological impact of these molecular changes, we examined VSMC migration and proliferation ("M"&"P") patterns in similar conditions. VSMCs from healthy human coronary arteries were incubated in growth medium and "M"&"P" were analyzed after exposure to high glucose (25 mmol/L) ± palmitate (200 μmol/L) and ± PIO (8 μmol/L) for 5 h. "M"&"P" were assessed by: (1) polycarbonate membrane barrier with chemo-attractants and extended cell protrusions quantified by optical density (OD595 nm); (2) % change in radius area (2D Assay) using inverted microscopy images; and (3) cell viability assay expressed as cell absorbance (ABS) in media. "M" in 25 mmol/L glucose media increased by ~25% from baseline and % change in radius area rose from ~20% to ~30%. The addition of PIO was accompanied by a significant decrease in "M" from 0.25 ± 0.02 to 0.19 ± 0.02; a comparable decline from 0.25 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.02 was also seen with 25 mmol/L of glucose +200 μmol/L of palmitate. When PIO was coincubated with high glucose plus palmitate there was a 50% reduction in % change in radius. A ~10% increase in ABS, reflecting augmented "P" in media with 25 mmol/L glucose versus control was documented. The addition of PIO reduced ABS from 0.208 ± 0.03 to 0.183 ± 0.06. Both high glucose and palmitate showed ABS of ~0.140 ± 0.02, which decreased with PIO to ~0.120 ± 0.02, indicating "P" was reduced. These results confirm that high glucose and palmitate stimulate VSMCs migration and proliferation in vitro, which is attenuated by coincubation with the insulin sensitizer PIO. Although, we cannot ascertain whether these functional changes are coincident with the activation/deactivation of signal molecules, our findings are consistent with the

  20. Pathomorphological features of the skin and muscle tissue of experimental animals in the case of lifetime and postmortem damage

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    A. V. Kis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of forensic medical diagnosis of tissue injury is currently the subject of numerous investigations. Pathomorphological changes of the skin and muscle tissue of experimental animals, resulting in the case of lifetime and postmortem traumatic injuries, depending on the time and temperature, were revealed by the author. Data obtained by the author is very necessary for improving the forensic medical diagnosis of traumatic soft tissue injuries.

  1. Post-injury stretch promotes recovery in a rat model of muscle damage induced by lengthening contractions.

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    Mori, Tomohiro; Agata, Nobuhide; Itoh, Yuta; Inoue-Miyazu, Masumi; Mizumura, Kazue; Sokabe, Masahiro; Taguchi, Toru; Kawakami, Keisuke

    2017-06-30

    We investigated the cellular mechanisms and therapeutic effect of post-injury stretch on the recovery process from muscle injury induced by lengthening contractions (LC). One day after LC, a single 15-min bout of muscle stretch was applied at an intensity of 3 mNm. The maximal isometric torque was measured before and at 2-21 days after LC. The myofiber size was analyzed at 21 days after LC. Developmental myosin heavy chain-immunoreactive (dMHC-ir) cells, a marker of regenerating myofibers, were observed in the early recovery stage (2-5 days after LC). We observed that LC-induced injury markedly decreased isometric torque and myofiber size, which recovered faster in rats that underwent stretch than in rats that did not. Regenerating myofiber with dMHC-ir cells was observed earlier in rats that underwent stretch. These results indicate that post-injury stretch may facilitate the regeneration and early formation of new myofibers, thereby promoting structural and functional recovery from LC-induced muscle injury.

  2. Leucine supplementation stimulates protein synthesis and reduces degradation signal activation in muscle of newborn pigs during acute endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepsis disrupts skeletal muscle proteostasis and mitigates the anabolic response to leucine (Leu) in muscle of mature animals. We have shown that Leu stimulates muscle protein synthesis (PS) in healthy neonatal piglets. To determine if supplemental Leu can stimulate PS and reduce protein degradation...

  3. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  4. Effects of acute exposure of heavy ion to spinal cord on the properties of motoneurons and muscle fibers in rats. The 2nd report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiha