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Sample records for acute mountain sickness

  1. Acute mountain sickness

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  2. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  3. Acute Mountain Sickness and Hemoconcentration in Next Generation Spacecraft

    Conkin, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the threat astronauts face from acute mountain sickness (AMS). It includes information about the symptoms of AMS, the potential threat to astronauts, and future efforts to mitigate the AMS threat.

  4. Acute mountain sickness: controversies and advances.

    Bartsch, Peter; Bailey, Damian M; Berger, Marc M; Knauth, Michael; Baumgartner, Ralf W

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the impact of recent publications on pathophysiologic concepts and on practical aspects of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Magnetic resonance imaging studies do not provide evidence of total brain volume increase nor edema within the first 6 to 10 h of exposure to hypoxia despite symptoms of AMS. After 16 to 32 h at about 4500 m, brain volume increases by 0.8% to 2.7%, but morphological changes do not clearly correlate with symptoms of AMS, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure was unchanged from normoxic values in individuals with AMS. These data do not support the prevailing hypothesis that AMS is caused by cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure. Direct measurement of increased oxygen radicals in hypoxia and a first study reducing AMS when lowering oxygen radicals by antioxidants suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of AMS. Placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that theophylline significantly attenuates periodic breathing without improving arterial oxygen saturation during sleep. Its effects on AMS are marginal and clearly inferior to acetazolamide. A most recent large trial with Ginkgo biloba clearly showed that this drug does not prevent AMS in a low-risk setting in which acetazolamide in a low dose of 2 x 125 mg was effective. Therefore, acetazolamide remains the drug of choice for prevention and the recommended dose remains 2 x 250 mg daily until a lower dose has been tested in a high-risk setting and larger clinical trials with antioxidants have been performed.

  5. Speech motor control and acute mountain sickness

    Cymerman, Allen; Lieberman, Philip; Hochstadt, Jesse; Rock, Paul B.; Butterfield, Gail E.; Moore, Lorna G.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An objective method that accurately quantifies the severity of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) symptoms is needed to enable more reliable evaluation of altitude acclimatization and testing of potentially beneficial interventions. HYPOTHESIS: Changes in human articulation, as quantified by timed variations in acoustic waveforms of specific spoken words (voice onset time; VOT), are correlated with the severity of AMS. METHODS: Fifteen volunteers were exposed to a simulated altitude of 4300 m (446 mm Hg) in a hypobaric chamber for 48 h. Speech motor control was determined from digitally recorded and analyzed timing patterns of 30 different monosyllabic words characterized as voiced and unvoiced, and as labial, alveolar, or velar. The Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) was used to assess AMS. RESULTS: Significant AMS symptoms occurred after 4 h, peaked at 16 h, and returned toward baseline after 48 h. Labial VOTs were shorter after 4 and 39 h of exposure; velar VOTs were altered only after 4 h; and there were no changes in alveolar VOTs. The duration of vowel sounds was increased after 4 h of exposure and returned to normal thereafter. Only 1 of 15 subjects did not increase vowel time after 4 h of exposure. The 39-h labial (p = 0.009) and velar (p = 0.037) voiced-unvoiced timed separations consonants and the symptoms of AMS were significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Two objective measures of speech production were affected by exposure to 4300 m altitude and correlated with AMS severity. Alterations in speech production may represent an objective measure of AMS and central vulnerability to hypoxia.

  6. Pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary oedema

    Sutton, J R; Lassen, N

    1979-01-01

    We review the evidence that acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) occur together more often than is realized. We hypothesize that AMS and HAPO have a common pathophysiological basis: both are due to increased pressure and flow in the microcirculation, causing...

  7. How can acute mountain sickness be quantified at moderate altitude?

    Roeggla, G; Roeggla, M; Podolsky, A.; Wagner, A; Laggner, A N

    1996-01-01

    Reports of acute mountain sickness (AMS) at moderate altitude show a wide variability, possibly because of different investigation methods. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of investigation methods on AMS incidence. Hackett's established AMS score (a structured interview and physical examination), the new Lake Louise AMS score (a self-reported questionnaire) and oxygen saturation were determined in 99 alpinists after ascent to 2.94 km altitude. AMS incidence was 8% in Hacket...

  8. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H

    1988-01-01

    The effect of adding CO2 to inhaled air in six subjects with acute mountain sickness was investigated during a medical expedition to 5400 m.3% CO2 in ambient air increased ventilation and resulted in a rise in PaO2 of between 24% and 40%. There was a 9-28% increase in PaCO2 and a reduction of the...

  9. Network analysis reveals distinct clinical syndromes underlying acute mountain sickness.

    David P Hall

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a common problem among visitors at high altitude, and may progress to life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral oedema in a minority of cases. International consensus defines AMS as a constellation of subjective, non-specific symptoms. Specifically, headache, sleep disturbance, fatigue and dizziness are given equal diagnostic weighting. Different pathophysiological mechanisms are now thought to underlie headache and sleep disturbance during acute exposure to high altitude. Hence, these symptoms may not belong together as a single syndrome. Using a novel visual analogue scale (VAS, we sought to undertake a systematic exploration of the symptomatology of AMS using an unbiased, data-driven approach originally designed for analysis of gene expression. Symptom scores were collected from 292 subjects during 1110 subject-days at altitudes between 3650 m and 5200 m on Apex expeditions to Bolivia and Kilimanjaro. Three distinct patterns of symptoms were consistently identified. Although fatigue is a ubiquitous finding, sleep disturbance and headache are each commonly reported without the other. The commonest pattern of symptoms was sleep disturbance and fatigue, with little or no headache. In subjects reporting severe headache, 40% did not report sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance correlates poorly with other symptoms of AMS (Mean Spearman correlation 0.25. These results challenge the accepted paradigm that AMS is a single disease process and describe at least two distinct syndromes following acute ascent to high altitude. This approach to analysing symptom patterns has potential utility in other clinical syndromes.

  10. Survey of acute mountain sickness on Mauna Kea.

    Onopa, Janet; Haley, Amanda; Yeow, Mei Ean

    2007-01-01

    Although thousands of people ascend 4205 m to visit the summit of Mauna Kea each year, there has been no information on the rate of altitude illness triggered by such visits. Two surveys were used: one for tourists driving up to the summit and the other for summit astronomy workers staying at lodging facilities at intermediate altitude. The surveys included the standardized Lake Louise Self-report Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) Questionnaire that, when scored, gave the Lake Louise Symptoms Score (LLSS). Thirty percent of surveyed day visitors and 69% of surveyed professional astronomy staff had AMS, defined as a LLSS score of 3 or greater, with headache. Nine participants reported "disorientation/confusion" or greater consciousness changes. A majority of astronomy professionals reported fatigue, disturbed sleep, reduced activity, and mental status changes. Few took any AMS medications. The incidence of AMS in visitors to Mauna Kea's summit warrants increased education and increased availability of supplemental oxygen at the summit. The absence of reported serious altitude illness in the community is probably due to the rapid descent available on Mauna Kea, with prompt reversibility of adverse effects.

  11. Ataxia, acute mountain sickness, and high altitude cerebral edema

    Wu Tianyi; Ma Siqing; Bian Huiping; Zhang Minming

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations suggest that ataxia is common and often one of the most reliable warning signs of high altitude cerebral edema(HACE).The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role of ataxia in acute mountain sickness (AMS) and HACE among mountain rescuers on the quake areas,and in approaching the relation between AMS and HACE.After the earthquake on April 14,2010,approximately 24080 lowland rescuers were rapidly transported from sea level or lowlands to the mountainous rescue sites at 3750 ~ 4568 m,and extremely hardly worked for an emergency treatment after arrival.Assessments of acute altitude illness on the quake areas were using the Lake Louise Scoring System.73 % of the rescuers were found to be developed AMS.The incidence of high altitude pulmonary edema(HAPE) and HACE was 0.73 % and 0.26 %,respectively,on the second to third day at altitude.Ataxia sign was measured by simple tests of coordination including a modified Romberg test.The clinical features of 62 patients with HACE were analyzed.It was found that the most frequent,serious neurological symptoms and signs were altered mental status(50/62,80.6 %)and truncal ataxia (47/62,75.8 %).Mental status change was rated slightly higher than ataxia,but ataxia occurred earlier than mental status change and other symptoms.The earliest sign of ataxia was a vague unsteadiness of gait,which may be present alone in association with or without AMS.Advanced ataxia was correlated with the AMS scores,but mild ataxia did not correlate with AMS scores at altitudes of 3750~4568 m.Of them,14 patients were further examined by computerized tomographic scanning of the brain and cerebral magnetic resonance imagines were examined in another 15 cases.These imaging studies indicated that the presence of the cerebral edema was in 97 % of cases who were clinically diagnosed as HACE (28/29).Ataxia seems to be a reliable sign of advanced AMS or HACE,so does altered mental status.

  12. Relationship between autonomic nervous system function and acute mountain sickness

    Long Min; Huang Lan; Tian Kaixin; Yu Shiyong; Yu Yang; Qin Jun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in acute mountain sickness (AMS) during the initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure. Methods: Ninety-nine healthy sea-level residents rapidly ascended to Tibet plateau (3 675 m altitude) by airplane from Chengdu plain (560 m altitude). ANS function was tested in plain and day 2-4 in Tibet by heart rate variability (HRV), cold pressor test (CPT). AMS was evaluated by clinic symptomatic scores. All subjects were divided into non-AMS group (57, scores(4). Results: Compared with non-AMS group, AMS group had higher standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), root mean square of delta RR (rMSSD), low-frequency (LF) power, and normalized low-frequency (Lfnu) power in plain (P50 ms(PNN50), rMSSD (P<0.01) and SDNN, LF, total power (TP) (P<0.05). Although no significant differences in the increase of SP and DP during CPT were found between 2 groups in plain, the SP increase during CPT of AMS group was less than non-AMS group (P<0.05) at 3 675 m altitude. AMS symptomatic scores was not only positively correlated with SDNN,rMSSD, LF/HF in plain (P<0.05), but also negatively correlated with Hfnu in plain (P<0.05). Conclusion: During the initial high altitude exposure, ANS modulation is generally blunted, but the relatively predominant sympathetic control is enhanced, and this characteristic change of ANS function is positively correlated with the development of AMS.

  13. ALMA to Help Solving Acute Mountain Sickness Mystery

    2007-04-01

    , family and social isolation, commuting, intermittent high altitude exposure and other environmental challenges such as low temperatures. "An adequate acclimatisation to 2500m altitude requires around two weeks, and we can thus speculate that going to 5000m would require more than one month to achieve complete acclimatisation," said Professor Juan Silva Urra, from the University of Antofagasta. However, short and long term effects of regular commuting between sea level and high altitude have scarcely been studied in biomedical terms. Scientifically based guidelines for appropriate preventive handling and care under these conditions are lacking and the new study will help bridging this gap. Among the studies to be done, some involve continuous monitoring of the human body through portable devices, including measurements of hormone levels and application of psychometric tests. All measurements at 5000m will be carried out on a voluntary basis, under strict safety protocols, with the presence of a doctor from the investigation team, paramedic personnel form ALMA and an ambulance. The symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness are headache, sicknesses, gastrointestinal inconveniences, fatigue and insomnia that, depending on their intensities, decrease the capacity to carry out the most routine activities. The valuable data collected will enhance our knowledge of human physiology in extreme environments, generating recommendations that will improve wellbeing and health not only in high-altitude observatories, but also in mining and Antarctic personnel. "We are pleased that ALMA is contributing to other disciplines, like medicine, even before the antennas begin to explore the universe," said Felix Mirabel, ESO's representative in Chile. "This outstanding long-term research that will provide crucial information of human physiology to experts worldwide, has been made possible thanks to the combined effort of Chilean and European universities, in collaboration with ALMA". The Atacama

  14. Increased cerebral output of free radicals during hypoxia: implications for acute mountain sickness?

    Bailey, Damian M; Taudorf, Sarah; Berg, Ronan M G

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether hypoxia causes free radical-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and impaired cerebral oxidative metabolism and whether this has any bearing on neurological symptoms ascribed to acute mountain sickness (AMS). Ten men provided internal jugular vein...

  15. Strategies for the prevention of acute mountain sickness and treatment for large groups making a rapid ascent in China.

    Luo, Yongjun; Yang, Xiaohong; Gao, Yuqi

    2013-10-30

    Approximately 26.8% of China's land area has an elevation of 3000 m above sea level or higher. Because of recent demands for economic development and new construction in highland areas, many people have relocated from the plains to high plateau regions and have to face the possibility of contracting acute mountain sickness. Therefore, prevention and treatment strategies are necessary to reduce the incidence of acute mountain sickness in people who rapidly ascend to plateau areas. This paper describes the Chinese experience when large numbers of people moved to the plateau and the steps that were taken to deal with this illness. These steps included implementing basic prevention measures, increasing medical awareness among populations ascending to high altitudes, and installing standardized medical management systems to prevent and treat acute mountain sickness before, during, and after ascent. The incidence of acute mountain sickness can be reduced by improving prevention and treatment and by implementing the recommendations described in this manuscript.

  16. Predictive Models of Acute Mountain Sickness after Rapid Ascent to Various Altitudes

    2013-01-01

    SR, Rock PB , Fulco CS , et al. Women at altitude: ventilatory acclimatization at 4,300 m. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91(14):1791–9. 25. Peoples GE, Gerlinger...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. I3 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Purpose: Despite decades of research, no predictive models of...Beidleman BA, Muza SR, Fulco CS , et al. Intermittent altitude exposures reduce acute mountain sickness at 4300 m. Clin Sci. 2004;106(3):321–8. 4. Beidleman

  17. Influence of Acute Normobaric Hypoxia on Hemostasis in Volunteers with and without Acute Mountain Sickness

    Marc Schaber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a 12-hour exposure in a normobaric hypoxic chamber would induce changes in the hemostatic system and a procoagulant state in volunteers suffering from acute mountain sickness (AMS and healthy controls. Materials and Methods. 37 healthy participants were passively exposed to 12.6% FiO2 (simulated altitude hypoxia of 4,500 m. AMS development was investigated by the Lake Louise Score (LLS. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, and platelet count were measured and specific methods (i.e., thromboelastometry and a thrombin generation test were used. Results. AMS prevalence was 62.2% (LLS cut off of 3. For the whole group, paired sample t-tests showed significant increase in the maximal concentration of generated thrombin. ROTEM measurements revealed a significant shortening of coagulation time and an increase of maximal clot firmness (InTEM test. A significant increase in maximum clot firmness could be shown (FibTEM test. Conclusions. All significant changes in coagulation parameters after exposure remained within normal reference ranges. No differences with regard to measured parameters of the hemostatic system between AMS-positive and -negative subjects were observed. Therefore, the hypothesis of the acute activation of coagulation by hypoxia can be rejected.

  18. The Effects of Propranolol on Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) and Well- Being at 4300 Meters Altitude

    1989-06-02

    Company, 1984. 11. Sampson JB , Cymerman A, Burse EL, Maher JT, Rock PB. Procedures for the measurement of acute mountain sickness. Aviat. Space...Environ. Med. 1983;54:1063-73. 12. Sampson JB , Kobrick JL. The environmental symptoms questionnaire: Revisions and new field data. Aviat. Space Environ. Med...0 L LU 0 0 I- . U V- -J X < LULLI fe A 0-0 z LU CL >_ LU Q . m W4-q 0 00 0. _m - n* +HI H+- H 4; . C66c; 6 6 vicie 0 h J02 00~- 0 0 M 0n*o-ir q- 00D DC

  19. Transcerebral exchange kinetics of nitrite and calcitonin gene-related peptide in acute mountain sickness: evidence against trigeminovascular activation?

    Bailey, Damian M; Taudorf, Sarah; Berg, Ronan M G;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-altitude headache is the primary symptom associated with acute mountain sickness, which may be caused by nitric oxide-mediated activation of the trigeminovascular system. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of inspiratory hypoxia on the transcerebral exc...

  20. A Signature of Circulating microRNAs Predicts the Susceptibility of Acute Mountain Sickness

    Liu, Bao; Huang, He; Wu, Gang; Xu, Gang; Sun, Bing-Da; Zhang, Er-Long; Chen, Jian; Gao, Yu-Qi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common disabling condition in individuals experiencing high altitudes, which may progress to life-threatening high altitude cerebral edema. Today, no established biomarkers are available for prediction the susceptibility of AMS. MicroRNAs emerge as promising sensitive and specific biomarkers for a variety of diseases. Thus, we sought to identify circulating microRNAs suitable for prediction the susceptible of AMS before exposure to high altitude. Methods: We enrolled 109 healthy man adults and collected blood samples before their exposure to high altitude. Then we took them to an elevation of 3648 m for 5 days. Circulating microRNAs expression was measured by microarray and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). AMS was defined as Lake Louise score ≥3 and headache using Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness Scoring System. Results: A total of 31 microRNAs were differentially expressed between AMS and Non-AMS groups, 15 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated. Up-regulation of miR-369-3p, miR-449b-3p, miR-136-3p, and miR-4791 in patients with AMS compared with Non-AMS individuals were quantitatively confirmed using qRT-PCR (all, P < 0.001). With multiple logistic regression analysis, a unique signature encompassing miR-369-3p, miR-449b-3p, and miR-136-3p discriminate AMS from Non-AMS (area under the curve 0.986, 95%CI 0.970–1.000, P < 0.001, LR+: 14.21, LR–: 0.08). This signature yielded a 92.68% sensitivity and a 93.48% specificity for AMS vs. Non-AMS. Conclusion: The study here, for the first time, describes a signature of three circulating microRNAs as a robust biomarker to predict the susceptibility of AMS before exposure to high altitude. PMID:28228730

  1. Novel drugs in the management of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary edema

    Sikri G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaurav Sikri, Anirban Bhattacharya Department of Physiology, Armed Forces Medical College, Wanowarie, Pune, IndiaWe read with great interest the review article titled “Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field” by Shah et al.1 The authors have comprehensively summarized the recent advances in the field of high altitude medicine relevant to sports and travel medicine. However, Shah et al have described potential drugs for management of high-altitude illnesses, such as acute mountain sickness (AMS, high altitude cerebral edema, and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE as one group under the section “Novel drug treatment for AMS”. The pathophysiologies of these two sets of diseases (AMS/high altitude cerebral edema as one and HAPE as another set are different2 and hence it would have been nice to have had the novel drugs described separately to elucidate the therapeutic approach for the two different classes of diseases.View original paper by Shah et al.

  2. MRI evidence: acute mountain sickness is not associated with cerebral edema formation during simulated high altitude.

    Mairer, Klemens; Göbel, Markus; Defrancesco, Michaela; Wille, Maria; Messner, Hubert; Loizides, Alexander; Schocke, Michael; Burtscher, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common condition among non-acclimatized individuals ascending to high altitude. However, the underlying mechanisms causing the symptoms of AMS are still unknown. It has been suggested that AMS is a mild form of high-altitude cerebral edema both sharing a common pathophysiological mechanism. We hypothesized that brain swelling and consequently AMS development is more pronounced when subjects exercise in hypoxia compared to resting conditions. Twenty males were studied before and after an eight hour passive (PHE) and active (plus exercise) hypoxic exposure (AHE) (F(i)O(2) = 11.0%, P(i)O(2)∼80 mmHg). Cerebral edema formation was investigated with a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and analyzed by voxel based morphometry (VBM), AMS was assessed using the Lake Louise Score. During PHE and AHE AMS was diagnosed in 50% and 70% of participants, respectively (p>0.05). While PHE slightly increased gray and white matter volume and the apparent diffusion coefficient, these changes were clearly more pronounced during AHE but were unrelated to AMS. In conclusion, our findings indicate that rest and especially exercise in normobaric hypoxia are associated with accumulation of water in the extracellular space, however independent of AMS development. Thus, it is suggested that AMS and HACE do not share a common pathophysiological mechanism.

  3. Relationship between oxygen delivery and its compensatory factors and acute mountain sickness

    Ming LI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the changes in oxygen delivery (DO2 to the body and brain and its compensatory factors to acute hypoxia and their relation to acute mountain sickness (AMS. Methods  One hundred and forty-seven participants were recruited from Chinese young men who had lived in plain all along arrived in Tibet by flight. All of them were asked to complete an AMS questionnaire within 48h after arrival. The resting heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, cardiac output (CO, oxygen saturation (SaO2, stroke volume (SV and blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv were measured one week before departure from the plain and within 48h after arrival in Tibet. AMS was diagnosed according to Louis Lake Score System (LLS, and the results were then statistically analyzed. Results  AMS was diagnosed in eighty-six subjects (58.5%. After exposure to hypoxia, SaO2 was decreased by 10% and was negatively correlated with AMS score. Systemic DO2, CO and HR were increased by 19%, 32.5% and 31.7%, respectively, and were positively correlated with AMS, while the SV remained unchanged. MCAv accelerated by 10%, and that of AMS subjects was higher than of non-AMS ones. The cerebral DO2 (DO2C was maintained because the MCAv matched with SaO2 changes. The middle cerebral artery resistance units (RMCA decreased obviously with an increase in MBP, and RMCA in AMS subjects was lower than that in non-AMS ones. HR and MCAv, the key compensation factors of DO2, were used as the objective evaluation indices, in collaboration of HR≥85 beat/min and MCAv≥66cm/s, could be a better means to evaluate AMS, with a positive predictive value of 82.4% and specificity of 90.2%. Conclusions  DO2 and its compensatory factors may play a key role in the regulation response to acclimatize to acute hypoxia. Among them, HR and MCAv may relate to the mechanism of AMS development, and indirectly reflect the compensation level to oxygen debt, implying that HR and MCAv are

  4. Altered free radical metabolism in acute mountain sickness: implications for dynamic cerebral autoregulation and blood-brain barrier function

    Bailey, D M; Evans, K A; James, P E

    2008-01-01

    (2)) and following 6 h passive exposure to hypoxia (12% O(2)). Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured for determination of CA following calculation of transfer function analysis and rate of regulation (RoR). Nine subjects......We tested the hypothesis that dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function would be compromised in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subsequent to a hypoxia-mediated alteration in systemic free radical metabolism. Eighteen male lowlanders were examined in normoxia (21% O...

  5. Population level determinants of acute mountain sickness among young men: a retrospective study

    You Haiyan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many visitors, including military troops, who enter highland regions from low altitude areas may suffer from acute mountain sickness (AMS, which negatively impacts workable man-hours and increases healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the population level risk factors and build a multivariate model, which might be applicable to reduce the effects of AMS on Chinese young men traveling to this region. Methods Chinese highland military medical records were used to obtain data of young men (n = 3727 who entered the Tibet plateau between the years of 2006-2009. The relationship between AMS and travel profile, demographic characteristics, and health behaviors were evaluated by logistic regression. Univariate logistic models estimated the crude odds ratio. The variables that showed significance in the univariate model were included in a multivariate model to derive adjusted odds ratios and build the final model. Data corresponding to odd and even years (2 subsets were analyzed separately and used in a simple cross-validation. Results Univariate analysis indicated that travel profile, prophylactic use, ethnicity, and province of birth were all associated with AMS in both subsets. In multivariate analysis, young men who traveled from lower altitude (600-800 m vs. 1300-1500 m, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.32-1.44 to higher altitudes (4100-4300 m vs. 2900-3100 m, AOR = 3.94-4.12; 3600-3700 m vs. 2900-3100 m, AOR = 2.71-2.74 by air or rapid land transport for emergency mission deployment (emergency land deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.08-2.11; normal air deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.00-2.20; emergency air deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.40-3.34 during the cold season (cold vs. warm, AOR = 1.25-1.28 are at great risk for developing AMS. Non-Tibetan male soldiers (Tibetan vs. Han, AOR = 0.03-0.08, born and raised in lower provinces (eastern vs. northwestern, AOR = 1

  6. Analysis of variance in acute mountain sickness among young men from different regions of China

    Yu WU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS among young men from different regions when arriving in Tibet, and explore the medical geographic differences of high altitude adaptability of people from different regions. Methods Cluster sampling survey of AMS incidence was performed among the young men from different regions when arriving in high altitude area, by using the AMS symptoms scoring method, and the military standards were employed as reference, for classifying and scoring. For distinguishing the differences of geographic environment, the systematic cluster analysis of natural geographical factors of their native places was performed and verified by nonparametric tests. The one-way ANOVA was used to analyze the differences of AMS symptom scores among young men from different regions. Results The native places of the studied subjects were divided into 5 regions by cluster analysis, and the geographic factors among the 5 regions were found to be significantly different (P<0.01. It was found that there were significant differences in the AMS incidence among people came from different regions (P<0.05. Specifically, the AMS incidence was significantly higher (P<0.05 in people from region 2 than in people from region 3, 4 and 5. In terms of main symptoms of AMS, the incidence of headache in people from region 2 was 82.8%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from regions 3, 4 and 5; the incidence of nausea and vomiting was 37.9%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 3; the incidence of fatigue and drowsiness was 724.% and 27.6%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 5. The incidence of vertigo in people from region 1 and 3 was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 5. Conclusions The significant geographic differences of AMS incidence are found to exist among

  7. Intravenous iron supplementation may protect against acute mountain sickness: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Talbot, Nick P; Smith, Thomas G; Privat, Catherine; Nickol, Annabel H; Rivera-Ch, Maria; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Dorrington, Keith L; Robbins, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common and disabling condition that occurs in healthy individuals ascending to high altitude. Based on the ability of iron to influence cellular oxygen sensing pathways, we hypothesized that iron supplementation would protect against AMS. To examine this hypothesis, 24 healthy sea-level residents were randomized to receive either intravenous iron(III)-hydroxide sucrose (200 mg) or saline placebo, before ascending rapidly to Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4340 m). The Lake Louise scoring system was used to assess incidence and severity of AMS at sea level and on the first full day at altitude. No significant difference in absolute AMS score was detected between the two groups either at baseline or at high altitude. However, the mean increase in AMS score was 65% smaller in the iron group than in the saline group (pvolunteers.

  8. Quantification of optic disc edema during exposure to high altitude shows no correlation to acute mountain sickness.

    Gabriel Willmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study aimed to quantify changes of the optic nerve head (ONH during exposure to high altitude and to assess a correlation with acute mountain sickness (AMS. This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT3® was used to quantify changes at the ONH in 18 healthy participants before, during and after rapid ascent to high altitude (4559 m. Slitlamp biomicroscopy was used for clinical optic disc evaluation; AMS was assessed with Lake Louise (LL and AMS-cerebral (AMS-c scores; oxygen saturation (SpO₂ and heart rate (HR were monitored. These parameters were used to correlate with changes at the ONH. After the first night spent at high altitude, incidence of AMS was 55% and presence of clinical optic disc edema (ODE 79%. Key stereometric parameters of the HRT3® used to describe ODE (mean retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL] thickness, RNFL cross sectional area, optic disc rim volume and maximum contour elevation changed significantly at high altitude compared to baseline (p<0.05 and were consistent with clinically described ODE. All changes were reversible in all participants after descent. There was no significant correlation between parameters of ODE and AMS, SpO₂ or HR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Exposure to high altitude leads to reversible ODE in the majority of healthy subjects. However, these changes did not correlate with AMS or basic physiologic parameters such as SpO₂ and HR. For the first time, a quantitative approach has been used to assess these changes during acute, non-acclimatized high altitude exposure. In conclusion, ODE presents a reaction of the body to high altitude exposure unrelated to AMS.

  9. Quantification of Optic Disc Edema during Exposure to High Altitude Shows No Correlation to Acute Mountain Sickness

    Willmann, Gabriel; Fischer, M. Dominik; Schatz, Andreas; Schommer, Kai; Messias, Andre; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Background The study aimed to quantify changes of the optic nerve head (ONH) during exposure to high altitude and to assess a correlation with acute mountain sickness (AMS). This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methodology/Principal Findings A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT3®) was used to quantify changes at the ONH in 18 healthy participants before, during and after rapid ascent to high altitude (4559 m). Slitlamp biomicroscopy was used for clinical optic disc evaluation; AMS was assessed with Lake Louise (LL) and AMS-cerebral (AMS-c) scores; oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) were monitored. These parameters were used to correlate with changes at the ONH. After the first night spent at high altitude, incidence of AMS was 55% and presence of clinical optic disc edema (ODE) 79%. Key stereometric parameters of the HRT3® used to describe ODE (mean retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL] thickness, RNFL cross sectional area, optic disc rim volume and maximum contour elevation) changed significantly at high altitude compared to baseline (p<0.05) and were consistent with clinically described ODE. All changes were reversible in all participants after descent. There was no significant correlation between parameters of ODE and AMS, SpO2 or HR. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to high altitude leads to reversible ODE in the majority of healthy subjects. However, these changes did not correlate with AMS or basic physiologic parameters such as SpO2 and HR. For the first time, a quantitative approach has been used to assess these changes during acute, non-acclimatized high altitude exposure. In conclusion, ODE presents a reaction of the body to high altitude exposure unrelated to AMS. PMID:22069483

  10. Differences Between the "Chinese AMS Score" and the Lake Louise Score in the Diagnosis of Acute Mountain Sickness.

    Wu, Jialin; Gu, Haoran; Luo, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    The Chinese AMS score (CAS) is used in clinical medicine and research to diagnosis acute mountain sickness (AMS). However, the Lake Louise Score (LLS) is the well-accepted standard for diagnosing AMS. The difference between the CAS and LLS questionnaires is that the CAS considers more nonspecific symptoms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in AMS prevalence according to the LLS and CAS criteria. We surveyed 58 males who traveled from Chongqing (300 m) to Lhasa (3658 m) via the Qinghai-Tibet train. Cases of AMS were diagnosed using LLS and CAS questionnaires in a few railway stations at different evaluation areas along the road. We subsequently evaluated discrepancies in values related to the prevalence of AMS determined using the 2 types of questionnaires (CAS and LLS). The prevalence of CAS-diagnosed AMS indicated that the percentage of AMS cases among the 58 young men was 29.3% in Golmud, 60.3% in Tanggula, 63.8% in Lhasa, 22.4% on the first day after arrival in Lhasa, 27.6% on the second day, 24.1% on the third day, and 12.1% on the fourth day. The prevalence of LLS-diagnosed AMS in Golmud was 10.3%, 38% in Lhasa, and 6.9% on day 1, the prevalence in each station was lower than that as assessed by the CAS. Our experimental data indicate that AMS diagnoses ascertained using the CAS indicate a higher AMS prevalence than those ascertained using the LLS. Through statistical analysis, the CAS seems capable of effectively diagnosing AMS as validated by LLS (sensitivity 61.8%, specificity 92.7%).

  11. Bacteriotherapy of acute radiation sickness

    Mal' tsev, V.N.; Korshunov, V.M.; Strel' nikov, V.A.; Ikonnikova, T.B.; Kissina, E.V.; Lyannaya, A.M.; Goncharova, G.I.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1979-04-01

    Acute sickness is associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis; there is a radical decrease in number of microorganisms of lactic fermentation (bifidobacterium, lactobacillus) and an increase in E. coli proteus, enterococcus, and clostridium. Extensive use is made of live microorganisms in the treatment of various diseases associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis; in the case of acute radiation sickness, yeast, colibacterin, and E. coli have been used. In a number of cases, such therapy increased survival and life expectancy of irradiated animals. In this study, microorganisms of lactic fermentation (lactobacillus, bifidobacterium) and colibacterin were used for treatment of acute radiation sickness.

  12. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness

    Bartsch, P.; Saltin, B.

    2008-01-01

    . The alteration at the muscle level at altitude is minor and so is the effect on the metabolism, although it is debated whether a possible reduction in blood lactate accumulation occurs during exercise at altitude. Transient acute mountain sickness (headache, anorexia, and nausea) is present in 10-30% of subjects...... ascent (average ascent rate 300 m/day above 2000 m a.s.l.), primarily in order to sleep and feel well, and minimize the risk of mountain sickness. A new classification of altitude levels based on the effects on performance and well-being is proposed and an overview given over the various modalities using...

  13. Analysis of High-altitude Syndrome and the Underlying Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Acute Mountain Sickness after a Rapid Ascent to High-altitude

    Yu, Jie; Zeng, Ying; Chen, Guozhu; Bian, Shizhu; Qiu, Youzhu; Liu, Xi; Xu, Baida; Song, Pan; Zhang, Jihang; Qin, Jun; Huang, Lan

    2016-12-01

    To investigated the objective indicators and potential genotypes for acute mountain sickness (AMS). 176 male subjects were evaluated for symptoms scores and physiological parameters at 3700 m. EPAS1 gene polymorphisms were explored and verified effects of potential genotypes on pulmonary function by inhaled budesonide. The incidence of AMS was 53.98% (95/176). The individuals who suffered from headache with anxiety and greater changes in heart rate (HR), the forced vital capacity (FVC), and mean flow velocity of basilar artery (Vm-BA), all of which were likely to develop AMS. The rs4953348 polymorphism of EPAS1 gene had a significant correlation with the SaO2 level and AMS, and a significant difference in the AG and GG genotype distribution between the AMS and non-AMS groups. The spirometric parameters were significantly lower, but HR (P = 0.036) and Vm-BA (P = 0.042) significantly higher in the AMS subjects with the G allele than those with the A allele. In summary, changes in HR (≥82 beats/min), FVC (≤4.2 Lt) and Vm-BA (≥43 cm/s) levels may serve as predictors for diagnosing AMS accompanied by high-altitude syndrome. The A allele of rs4953348 is a protective factor for AMS through HR and Vm-BA compensation, while the G allele may contribute to hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in AMS.

  14. A pilot study on the prevalence of acute mountain sickness at the sikh pilgrimage of hemkund sahib in the Indian Himalayas

    Inderjeet S Sahota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemkund Sahib is a popular pilgrimage located at 4,330 m in the Garhwal range of the Indian Himalayas. Many travelers to the region have observed pilgrims exhibiting Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS-like symptoms. However, no systematic study on its prevalence at Hemkund has been conducted. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 25 adults. AMS rates were determined using a standard Lake Louise Score (LLS. Responses to questions related to awareness of AMS, the perceived difficulty of the trek, and physiological data including arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 and pulse rate, amongst others, were collected. Results: Overall prevalence of AMS was 28% (mild AMS 20%, severe AMS 8%. Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE was 3.9/10. Water consumption for the 4-5 hour trek to Hemkund was only 0.9 L and 20% of pilgrims consumed no water at all. Nine pilgrims claimed to be aware of AMS although only one had taken prophylactic medication. SpO 2 was 82.2 ± 1.2% and pulse rate was 106.5 ± 2.9 bpm (mean ± SEM. There were no differences in non-LLS-related parameters when pilgrims were subdivided by presence or absence of AMS. Conclusion: This pilot study has, for the first time, documented the prevalence of AMS amongst pilgrims to Hemkund Sahib in the Indian Himalayas.

  15. Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on symptoms of acute mountain sickness and basic physiological responses in a group of male adolescents during ascent to Mount Everest Base Camp.

    Hennis, Philip J; Mitchell, Kay; Gilbert-Kawai, Edward; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Wade, Angie; Feelisch, Martin; Grocott, Michael P; Martin, Daniel S

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, on acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms and physiological responses, in a group of young males trekking to Mount Everest Base Camp (EBC). Forty healthy male students (mean age (SD): 16 (1) yrs) trekked to EBC over 11 days. Following an overnight fast, each morning participants completed the Lake Louise AMS questionnaire and underwent a series of physiological tests: resting blood pressure as well as resting and exercising heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation. The exercise test consisted of a standardised 2-min stepping protocol and measurements were taken in the last 10 s. Participants in the intervention arm of the study consumed 140 ml of concentrated beetroot juice daily, containing approximately 10 mmol of nitrate, while those in the control arm consumed 140 ml of concentrated blackcurrant cordial with negligible nitrate content. Drinks were taken for the first seven days at high altitude (days 2-8), in two equal doses; one with breakfast, and one with the evening meal. Mixed modelling revealed no significant between-groups difference in the incidence of AMS (Odds Ratio - nitrate vs.

  16. Who are more at risk for acute mountain sickness: a prospective study in Qinghai-Tibet railroad construction workers on Mt.Tanggula

    WU Tian-yi; DING Shou-quan; LIU Jin-liang; JIA Jian-hou; CHAI Zuo-chun; DAI Rui-chen

    2012-01-01

    Background It is important to determine the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) among workers at altitudes between 3500 m and 5000 m on Mt.Tanggula during the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet railroad.This study explored the risk factors predisposing workers to developing AMS and attempted to develop more effective ways of preventing and treating AMS.Methods A total of 11 182 workers were surveyed by completing twice daily a Lake Louise questionnaire,and a score ≥3 indicated AMS.The contributing risk factors were assessed for at least 2 months for the duration of the study in the years from 2001 to 2003.A risk model was developed by multiple Logistic regression.Standard statistical methods were used to analyze data.Results AMS occurred in 56% of workers working at high altitudes on Mt.Tanggula.The incidence of AMS increased with increasing altitude.Rapid ascent to an altitude above 3500 m,sea-level or lowland newcomers,young people under 25 years of age,heavy physical exertion,obese person,and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) below 80% were independent AMS risk factors.No significant association was found between AMS and sex or taking Rhodiola.Medical education contributed to an early diagnosis of AMS.Conclusions This study used the Lake Louise scoring system suggesting that it is a well-validated standard for field evaluation of AMS and for making an early diagnosis.These studies have described many variables regarding risk factors for the development of AMS.Risk factors which can be modified should be attended to,and the physicians should carry out check-ups and tests to identify subjects who are more at risk.Prevention consists in continuous gradual ascent,medical education,and prompt descent to avoid progression in patients with serious AMS.It is most important to effectively control the risk factors of AMS.

  17. 构建急性高原病易感者预测模型的方法学研究%Methodological research on building prediction model of susceptible population of acute mountain sickness

    郑然; 周世伟

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There are some people in population susceptible to acute mountain sickness. Therefore, it is important to analyse, assess and integrate certain research results to build prediction system and mathematics model in order to predict those susceptible people when army goes to tableland.DATA SOURCES: Computer was used to search databases such as Medline, PubMed and PML to find articles regarding prediction of people susceptible to acute mountain sickness from January 1970 to December 2002 with the search words "acute mountain sickness, susceptible population,prediction" . The language was limited to English. At the same time, Chinese Journal Full-text Database, Chinainfo and CBMdisc were searched to find articles from January 1970 to August 2004 by the Chinese language of "acute mountain sickness, susceptible population and prediction". The research targets are susceptible people to acute mountain sickness. At last,trace-back method was used to supplement some literature and monographs.DATA SELECTION: After systematically analyzed and concluded the literature information and screened researches without conducting experiment, full text of the rest literature was searched and used as selective criteria if it could be used as prediction indicator of susceptible people to acute mountain sickness.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally there were 19 prediction indicators generalized. After conducting systemic analysis, Delphi method and analytic hierarchy process(AHP) to the indicators, 13 were selected while the other 6 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: The indicators were classified according to nervous-humoral regulation ability, oxygen capture ability of respiratory system,anti-anoxia ability of central nervous system, mental health and health service ability. Based on these, system analysis, Delphi method and AHP method were used to screen prediction indicators, establish indictor system, confirm the weighted indicators and weighted indicator system as well as standardize the

  18. Ejercicio y la detección del mal agudo de montaña grave Exercise and the detection of severe acute mountain sickness

    Adrián Garófoli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available El mal agudo de montaña (MAM es un conjunto de síntomas inespecíficos padecidos por sujetos que ascienden rápidamente desde baja a alta altura sin adecuada aclimatación. Usualmente es autolimitado, pero las formas graves (edema pulmonar y cerebral pueden causar la muerte. La hipoxemia exagerada en reposo está relacionada con el desarrollo de MAM pero su valor predictivo es limitado. Dado que el ejercicio en altura se acompaña de mayor hipoxemia y síntomas, postulamos el valor predictivo de un simple test de ejercicio para pronosticar MAM grave. Se estudió el valor predictivo de la saturación de oxígeno en reposo y ejercicio submáximo a 2.700 m y 4 300 m en 63 sujetos que ascendían al cerro Aconcagua (6 962 m. Se consideró desaturación de oxígeno con ejercicio a una disminución = 5% respecto al reposo. Se utilizó la escala de Lake-Louise para establecer la presencia de MAM grave. Seis sujetos presentaron MAM grave (9.5% y requirieron evacuación. La saturación de oxígeno en reposo a 2.700 m no fue significativa para clasificar sujetos que luego desarrollaron MAM grave. Por el contrario, la asociación de desaturación durante el ejercicio a 2.700 m más la saturación inapropiada en reposo a 4.300 m fue significativa para clasificar a los sujetos que desarrollaron MAM grave con un valor predictivo positivo de 80% y un valor predictivo negativo del 97%. Nuestros resultados son relevantes para el montañismo y sugieren la adición de un simple test de ejercicio en la predicción del MAM grave.Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a group of non-specific symptoms, seen in subjects that ascend from low to high altitude too quickly, without allowing sufficient time to acclimatize. Usually it is self-limiting, but the severe forms (pulmonary and cerebral edema can be fatal. Exaggerated hypoxemia at rest is related to later development of AMS but its predictive value is limited. Since exercise at altitude induces greater hypoxemia and

  19. Chronic Mountain Sickness-Phobrang Type

    C. S. Nath

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical0 features of 27 cases of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS from the Himalayas are reported. They are compared with 75 native highlanders (NH. All CMS patients were immigrants to high altitude. Mean duration of stay at high altitude was seven years. Mean values for haematocrit and haemoglobin were 80% and 23 G% respectively for the CMS group and 40% and 17.9 G% respectively for the native highlande group. Mean QRS axis in the former was +118 and in the latter +76. Incidence and quantum of protienuria were significantly higher in the CMS group. Cardiac catheteri -sation studies done in eight CMS cases showed elevated Pulmonary Artery (PA pressures even after a mean of 14.2 days at sea level. The disease which has four diagnostic elements-hypoxemia and polycythemia, pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular enlargement and nephropathy with dense proteinuria-is a variant of 'Monge's Disease' and a name CMS Phobrang Type is suggested, along with a new approach to clinical classification which may help in diagnosis before cor pulmonale sets in. Limited therapeutic trials conducted at highaltitude seem to indicate that yogic deep breathing exercises, low-dose aspirin and diamox may be beneficial in the prevention and therapy of CMS Phobrang Type at high  altitude.

  20. Establishment of An Animal Model for Acute Mountain Sickness with A Decompression Chamber%低压氧舱模拟急性高原缺氧动物模型建立的初探

    马慧萍; 吴金华; 高荣敏; 李琳; 樊鹏程; 景临林; 贾正平

    2013-01-01

    目的 模拟高原低压低氧环境建立小鼠急性缺氧模型,探讨不同缺氧时间对小鼠缺氧损伤程度的影响.方法 采用国产低压低氧动物实验舱模拟海拔6000m高原缺氧环境,观察6h、12 h、24h、36 h、2d、3d、5d、7d不同缺氧时间小鼠组织病理学变化情况,并测定血浆LD、LDH和4种ATP酶的变化规律.结果 LD、LDH、T-AOC和ATP酶随缺氧时间的延长而呈波浪式变化,6h后可见组织形态发生明显改变,LD显著升高,T-AOC显著下降,12 h后LDH显著升高,ATP酶显著下降,说明在此条件下缺氧6~12h即可复制出急性高原病动物模型.结论 该模型为下一步研究急性高原病发病机制提供了有利条件,在高原病防治研究中具有重要意义.%Objective To establish an animal model of acute mountain sickness using a decompression chamber and to investigate the effect of different hypoxic durations on the injury degree of experimental mice.Methods Rats were housed in a decompression chamber and exposed to simulated high altitude of 6000 m for 6 h,12 h,24 h,36 h,2 d,3 d,5 d and 7 d respectively.Pathological changes,the serum LD content,LDH activity and ATPase activity were examined respectively.Results The serum LD content,LDH activity and ATPase activity changed with time in a wave-like manner.Pathological changes of heart tissues were observed after 6 h.The LD content was increased while T-AOC was decreased significantly.After 12 h,the LDH activity was increased while AT-Pase activity was decreased.Conclusion An animal model of acute mountain sickness can be established within 6 to 12 h,which facilitates the mechanism study and prevention and treatment of acute mountain sickness.

  1. 非甾体类抗炎药物对急性高原病的预防效果%Observation of the effect of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug to prevent acute mountain sickness

    张俊才; 王引虎; 冯英凯; 刘友生; 崔建华; 李丽; 高江峰; 王琰

    2011-01-01

    目的 验证非甾体类抗炎药物盐酸苄达明对急性高原病的预防效果.方法 将急进5 200 m高原的118例健康青年官兵随机分为安慰剂组(n=20)、复方红景天组(n=33)、复方党参组(n=33)、盐酸苄达明组(n=33),自海拔1 400 m,历时5 d进入5 200 m高原.从出发前5 d开始分别服用盐酸苄达明片、复方红景天胶囊、复方党参胶囊和安慰剂胶囊,定期测试其血氧饱和度(SaO2)和心率(HR),并以军用卫生标准GJB1098-91随访记录受试者急性高原反应症状,然后分度评分;进入高原后第7天进行高原习服基础生理指标测定,进行药效评价.结果 盐酸苄达明对全程试验期内受试者高原缺氧所致头痛和呕吐的预防效果显著优于安慰剂,且对头痛症状的预防效果优于复方红景天与复方党参.盐酸苄达明组受试者急性高原反应GJB评分,进入海拔5 200 m高原第3、5天SaO2、心率,高原习服基础生理指标等均显著优于安慰剂组.结论 非甾体类抗炎药物盐酸苄达明防治急性高原病效果显著.%Objective To test and verify the effects of benzyamine hydrochloride, a non steroid anti inflammatory drug, to prevent acute mountain sickness. Methods Totally 118 cases of healthy young soldiers were randomly divided into four groups respectively treated by placebo(n=20) ,compound rhodiola(n=33) ,compound codonopsis capsules(n=33) ,benzyamine hydrochloride(n=33) starting 5 days before departure and quickly approached into the altitude 5 200 m from 1 400 m in 5 days. Blood oxygen saturation(SaO2 ) and heart rate(HR) were regularly tested and acute mountain sickness symptoms of subjects were follow up recorded and scored according to the military standard GJB1098 91;Basic high altitude acclimatization physiological parameters were determined and evaluated from seventh day after reaching the plateau. Results The effect of benzyamine hydrochloride to prevent head ache and vomiting due to high altitude was

  2. Effect of baicalin capsules on acute mountain sickness in healthy young males at acute high altitude exposure%黄芩苷与红景天胶囊对急性高原病预防作用比较

    段炜; 孙书红; 惠增骞; 高钊; 胡建库; 金峰; 陈虹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨黄芩苷胶囊对急性高原病( acute mountain sickness ,AMS)的预防作用。方法采用随机对照的研究方法,80名急进高原健康男性青年随机分为3组,黄芩苷组(n=32)、红景天组(n=24)和安慰剂组(n=24)。3组在进入高原前2 d、进入高原后连续3 d分别服用黄芩苷胶囊(0.5 g,2次/d)、红景天胶囊(0.76 g,2次/d)和安慰剂(2粒,2次/d)。检测急进高原前(海拔397 m)和急进高原后(3658 m)受试者氧饱和度、心率、收缩压、舒张压,彩色多普勒超声测量肺动脉收缩压(pulmonary artery systolic pressure,PASP)和平均肺动脉压(mean pulmonary arterial pressure,MPAP),统计急进高原后各组的AMS发病率。结果急进高原后安慰剂组、黄芩苷组和红景天组的AMS发病率分别为58.3%(14/24)、25.0%(8/32)和29.2%(7/24),与安慰剂组比较,黄芩苷组及红景天组AMS发病率明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。与急进高原前比较,各组受试者急进高原后心率、血压及肺动脉压均升高,氧饱和度降低(P<0.05);与安慰剂组比较,黄芩苷组血压及心率明显降低(P<0.05),红景天组急进高原后氧饱和度升高、肺动脉压降低(P<0.05)。结论黄芩苷组可能通过降低血压及心率预防AMS的发生,红景天胶囊可能通过升高氧饱和度,降低PASP、MPAP预防AMS的发生。%Objective To investigate the effect of baicalin capsules for acute mountain sickness ( AMS) prevention with rapid airlift ascent to high altitude .Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 80 healthy young men with baicalin capsules (0.5 g bid, n=32), rhodiola capsules (0.76 g bid, n=24), or placebo (n=24), for 2 days prior to airlift ascent (397 m) and for the first 3 days at high altitude (3658 m).AMS, oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR

  3. 心理行为因素对急进高原救灾官兵急性高原反应状况的影响%Study on acute mountain sickness and the psychological factors in the relief force during the initial phase of acute plateau exposure

    高存友; 甘景梨; 赵兰民; 王丽杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解急进高原抗震救灾官兵的急性高原反应状况,并探讨其心理行为相关影响因素,为进一步研究预防措施提供参考依据.方法 整群随机抽取玉树抗震救灾某部162名官兵为研究对象,根据军标GJB1098-9急性高原反应的诊断和处理原则判断官兵的急性高原反应状况,采用一般情况调查表、症状自评量表(SCL-90)和生活事件量表(LES)调查相关因素.结果 救灾官兵急性高原反应的检出率为65.4%,其中轻度17.3%、中度31.5%、重度16.7%.临床表现中以气短、心慌、头昏、口唇发绀和头痛等症状最为多见,在救灾官兵中出现比率分别为83.6%、79.1%、73.1%、61.2%和58.2%.急性高原反应总计分与年龄、婚姻、心理创伤史,LES负性事件,SCL-90总分及其躯体化、强迫、抑郁、焦虑、敌对、恐怖、偏执、食欲睡眠等因子呈显著正相关(r值为0.188~0.619,P<0.01或0.05),与兴趣爱好、社会支持呈显著负相关(r值分别为-0.254,-0.285,P<0.01).多元逐步回归分析显示SCL-90的躯体化因子,兴趣爱好、婚姻、社会支持和年龄等因素进入回归方程.结论 大部分救灾官兵存在明显的急性高原反应,躯体化症状、兴趣爱好、婚姻、社会支持和年龄等因素对官兵的急性高原反应状况影响较大.%Objective To investigate the acute mountain sickness of servicemen during"4.14"Yushu earhquake relief work,and analyze the related factors of the sickness at the initial phase of acute plateau exposure.Methods 162 servicemen were sampled randomly and clusteringly from Yushu relief force during.the inidal phase of acute plateau exposure.According to the"Diagnosis and treatment principles of the acute mountain sickness",the prevalence of the acute mountain sickness was judged among the servicemen.The scales of general status invested score(GSIS),the self-rating symptom scale(SCL-90)and the life event scale(LES)were used to investigate the

  4. 高原脐贴软膏贴脐预防急性高原反应的效果观察%Umbilical therapy with altiplano navel balm in prevention of acute mountain sickness

    江晓霁; 朱丹平; 万萍; 方勇飞; 王志中; 潘柏良; 王勇; 王福领; 王海; 张晓霞; 戚旬伟; 侯晓军

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察高原脐贴软膏贴脐对急性高原反应(acute mountain sickness,AMS)的预防效果.方法 将62例健康青年男性汽车兵按随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组(n=31).自海拔1 392 m,历时5d急进到海拔4 617 m的高原.出发前1d开始,分别予受试者高原脐贴软膏、安慰剂软膏贴脐,膏药每天一换,连续5d.在出发后定期测定受试者心率(HR)、血压(BP)和血氧饱和度(SaO2),并以军用卫生标准GJB1098-91《急性高原反应的诊断和处理原则》制订的《高原临床症状自测问卷表》及《高原急性胃肠应激反应自测评分表》随访记录受试者AMS症状和胃肠道症状;用《不良事件报告表》随访记录受试者的不良反应.结果 急进高原后,观察组胃肠应激反应症状评分和发生率均低于对照组(P<0.01);观察组第1天的AMS发生率低于对照组(P<0.05),第3、5天的AMS症状评分和发生率均低于对照组(P<0.01);观察组第1天的血压和第5天的心率低于对照组(P<0.05),第5天的SaO2高于对照组(P<0.05);试验期间无不良反应发生.结论 高原脐贴软膏贴脐对急性高原反应有明显的预防效果.%Objective To observe the effect of umbilical therapy with altiplano navel balm, an ointment based on a traditional Chinese prescription "Xiaochaihu Decoction" , against acute mountain sickness (AMS). Methods Sixty-two young fit male automotive soldiers, were randomly divided into 2 groups, who were respectively treated by altiplano navel balm (treatment group, n = 31) and placebo ( control group, n = 31). The altiplano navel balm or placebo (one piece per day, for 5 consecutive days) was given to stick umbilical region in the 2 groups respectively in 1 d before departure. Then, they began to move from the altitude 1 392 m and arrived at the altitude 4 617 m on the fifth day. Since departure, their heart rate (HR) , blood pressure (BP) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) were

  5. Excessive erythrocytosis, chronic mountain sickness, and serum cobalt levels.

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Pando, Jacqueline; Tapia, Rosario; Swenson, Erik R; Prchal, Josef; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Hurtado, Abdias; Johnson, Richard J

    2002-02-01

    In a subset of high-altitude dwellers, the appropriate erythrocytotic response becomes excessive and can result in chronic mountain sickness. We studied men with (study group) and without excessive erythrocytosis (packed-cell volume >65%) living in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m), and compared them with controls living in Lima, Peru (at sea-level). Toxic serum cobalt concentrations were detected in 11 of 21 (52%) study participants with excessive erythrocytosis, but were undetectable in high altitude or sea-level controls. In the mining community of Cerro de Pasco, cobalt toxicity might be an important contributor to excessive erythrocytosis.

  6. 民族地区旅游县241例急性高原病回顾性分析%A retrospective study of 241 cases with acute mountain sickness in a tourism County of minority region

    徐平; 曹灵红; 章成

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemiologic features of acute mountain sickness in a tourism County of minority region at an average altitude above 3000 meters. Methods A retrospective study was performed on a total of 241 patients with acute mountain sickness seen in the emergency department of Songpan County’s people's hospital of in the year of 2013, and the following information were collected for the study: gender composition, age structure, predisposing, clinical manifestations, time distribution, and the outcome. Results Among the 241 patients, the following factors were observed:agenda:119 male and 122 female, age:40.62±17.77 years old;the predisposing factors of AMS included upper respiratory symptoms (14.11%), diarrhea (4.98%), smoking (18.67%), asthma (1.66%), mental factors (5.81%) and migraine (0.82%);and accompanying symptoms included dizziness (24.90%), difficulty sleeping (37.34%), fatigue (42.32%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (14.12%). No peak time was found in a weekly distribution (P>0.05). In accordance with circadian distribution, the occurrence of AMS peaked at 17:21 (P<0.05). In terms of the monthly distribution, the occurrence of AMS was peaked at June 25th (P<0.05). The outcome of AMS was mainly under the observation, with 0%of mortality. Conclusion Understanding epidemiological characteristics of AMS, the measures of the prevention combining with treatment, enhancing education of AMS for the floating population of all ages, and improving the capability of the hospital in the region are considered being effective in reducing acute mountain sickness.%目的:研究一个平均海拔约3000米的民族地区旅游县的急性高原病的流行病学特征。方法回顾性分析2013年所有流动人口到松潘县人民医院急诊科就诊的急性高原病患者,描述性别年龄构成,分析急性高原病的诱因、临床表现及时间分布特点并描述转归。结果急性高原病患者共241例,其中男性119例,女性122

  7. EPAS1基因多态性与急性高原病关联性研究%Relationships between EPAS1 gene polymorphisms and acute mountain sickness

    曾颖; 覃军; 高旭滨; 余洁; 陈国柱; 董俊清; 郑双锦; 黄岚

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨中国平原汉族人群中EPAS1基因多态性同急性高原病(acute mountain sickness,AMS)易感性的关系.方法 采取病例对照研究方法,根据AMS路易斯湖评分系统(LLS)对受试者进行AMS的判定.采用聚合酶链反应-连接酶检测反应方法(PCR-LDR)测定80例AMS患者和86例健康对照组人群EPAS1基因位点rs2044456、rs4953348的基因多态性.结果 AMS组及对照组中基因位点rs2044456、rs4953348均检测出AA、AG、GG基因型,rs2044456位点基因型及等位基因频率组间差异无统计学意义;rs4953348位点AG基因型频率与GG基因型频率相比,组间差异具有统计学意义(OR=0.453,95%CI 0.226~0.908,P=0.026);AMS组A等位基因频数显著低于对照组(25.0%vs 35.5%,OR=0.607,95%CI 0.377~0.975,P=0.039).分别比较各位点不同基因型心率及血氧饱和度水平,发现该两个位点不同基因型携带者高原血氧饱和度具有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 位点rs4953348基因多态性与mAMS易感性相关,携带AG基因型的人群患AMS的风险性可能较携带GG基因型人群低,而A等位基因则可能是mAMS的保护性因素;各位点不同基因型均同血氧饱和度有较强关联性(P<0.05).%Objective To investigate the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphism ( SNP) of the EPAS1 gene and the susceptibility of acute mountain sickness (AMS) among Han population in China. Methods A case-control association study was conducted. Eighty male Chinese patients with AMS , defined according to the Lake Louise acute moun -tain sickness scoring system (LLS) ,were compared with 86 Chinese men free of symptoms of AMS. The polymerase chain reaction4igase detection reaction (PCR4DR) technique was used to detect the SNPs of rs 2044456 and rs4953348 in EP-AS1 gene. Results Genotypes of the SNP rs2044456 ,rs4953348 AA,AG and GG were detected in both AMS and control groups. The genotype and allele frequencies of the rs 2044456 showed no significant

  8. Cerebral Edema in Chronic Mountain Sickness: a New Finding

    Bao, Haihua; Wang, Duoyao; Zhao, Xipeng; Wu, Youshen; Yin, Guixiu; Meng, Li; Wang, Fangfang; Ma, Lan; Hackett, Peter; Ge, Ri-Li

    2017-01-01

    We observed patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) in our clinic who developed progressive neurological deterioration (encephalopathy) and we wished to investigate this. We studied nine such CMS patients, and compared them to 21 CMS patients without encephalopathy, and to 15 healthy control subjects without CMS. All 45 subjects lived permanently at 3200–4000 m. Measurements at 2260 m included CMS symptom score, multi-slice CT, perfusion CT, pulse oximetry (SpO2%), and hemoglobin concentration (Hb). One patient had MRI imaging but not CT; 5 had CSF pressure measurements. CMS subjects had lower SpO2, higher Hb, higher brain blood density, lower mean cerebral blood flow (CBF), and significant cerebral circulatory delay compared to controls. The nine CMS subjects with neurological deterioration showed diffuse cerebral edema on imaging and more deranged cerebral hemodynamics. CSF pressure was elevated in those with edema. We conclude that cerebral edema, a previously unrecognized complication, may develop in CMS patients and cause encephalopathy. Contributing factors appear to be exaggerated polycythemia and hypoxemia, and lower and sluggish CBF compared to CMS patients without cerebral edema; but what triggers this complication is unknown. Recognition and treatment of this serious complication will help reduce morbidity and mortality from CMS. PMID:28233815

  9. Hypoventilation in chronic mountain sickness: a mechanism to preserve energy.

    Zubieta-Calleja, G R; Paulev, P-E; Zubieta-Calleja, L; Zubieta-Calleja, N; Zubieta-Castillo, G

    2006-09-01

    Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) patients have repeatedly been found to hypoventilate. Low saturation in CMS is attributed to hypoventilation. Although this observation seems logical, a further understanding of the exact mechanism of hypoxia is mandatory. An exercise study using the Bruce Protocol in CMS (n = 13) compared to normals N (n = 17), measuring ventilation (VE), pulse (P), and saturation by pulse oximetry (SaO(2)) was performed. Ventilation at rest while standing, prior to exercise in a treadmill was indeed lower in CMS (8.37 l/min compared with 9.54 l/min in N). However, during exercise, stage one through four, ventilation and cardiac frequency both remained higher than in N. In spite of this, SaO(2) gradually decreased. Although CMS subjects increased ventilation and heart rate more than N, saturation was not sustained, suggesting respiratory insufficiency. The degree of veno-arterial shunting of blood is obviously higher in the CMS patients both at rest and during exercise as judged from the SaO(2) values. The higher shunt fraction is due probably to a larger degree of trapped air in the lungs with uneven ventilation of the CMS patients. One can infer that hypoventilation at rest is an energy saving mechanism of the pneumo-dynamic and hemo-dynamic pumps. Increased ventilation would achieve an unnecessary high SaO(2) at rest (low metabolism). This is particularly true during sleep.

  10. RESPIRATORY STUDIES IN CHRONIC MOUNTAIN SICKNESS:THE PERUVIAN EXPERIENCE

    Fabiola León-Velarde

    2005-01-01

    @@ Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) is a multifactorial disease caused by a limited capacity to achieve complete adaptation to life under chronic hypoxic conditions. It is accompanied by excessive erythrocitosis (levels of erythrocytes above the normal value set for each altitude), and in advances cases also by pulmonary hypertension. The hypoxemia, caused by central or peripheral respiratory disorders and/or associated to diverse risk factors, produces the excessive erythrocytosis. The most common symptoms are headaches, dizziness, breathlessness, sleep disturbances, tinnitus, physical and mental fatigue, anorexia, and bone and muscle pain. The most common signs are an intermittent or permanent cyanosis, hyperemia and venous dilatation in hands or feet (Monge-M et al., 1928; Winslow and Monge-C, 1987). Aging, respiratory diseases, sleep, menopause, and overweight has proved to be additional risk factors in the development of CMS (Kryger et al., 1978; León-Velarde et al., 1993; Sime et al., 1975; León-Velarde et al., 1997; León-Velarde et al., 2001; Monge-C et al., 1992; Normand et al., 1992)

  11. Genetic Variation in SENP1 and ANP32D as Predictors of Chronic Mountain Sickness

    Cole, Amy M.; Petousi, Nayia; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Robbins, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Cole, Amy M., Nayia Petousi, Gianpiero L. Cavalleri, and Peter A. Robbins Genetic variation in SENP1 and ANP32D as predictors of chronic mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol 15:497–499, 2014.—Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a serious illness that affects life-long high-altitude residents. A recent study analyzed whole genome sequence data from residents of Cerro de Pasco (Peru) in an effort to identify the genetic basis of CMS and reported SENP1 (rs7963934) and ANP32D (rs72644851) to show ...

  12. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Is Associated with Chronic Mountain Sickness in the Andean Population

    Espinoza, Jose R.; Alvarez, Giancarlo; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Ju Preciado, Hugo F.; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Rodriguez, Jorge; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Espinoza, Jose R., Giancarlo Alvarez, Fabiola León-Velarde, Hugo F. Ju Preciado, Jose-Luis Macarlupu, Maria Rivera-Ch, Jorge Rodriguez, Judith Favier, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, and Jean-Paul Richalet. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is associated with chronic mountain sickness in Andean population. High Alt Med Biol. 15:146–154, 2014.—A study of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) with a candidate gene—vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)—was carried out in a Peruvian population l...

  13. Multifocal atherosclerosis in patient after acute first degree radiation sickness.

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment the heavy psychosomatic and all-somatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology of patient, transferred an acute I degree radiation sickness, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation. Conclusions. The subdepressive and disturbing-depressive syndrome of patient, transferred an acute radiation sickness (ARS of I degree, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation, was independent risk factor of development of multifocal atherosclerosis; Features of development of all-somatic and psychosomatic pathology of patient are based on a combination of genetic prerequisites, environment influences (the stress caused by accident on the ChNPP and social factors, influencing on him during a course of life, especially during early socialization. Thus at development of psychosomatic frustration the combination of feature of the mental reaction connected with the personal characteristic and special relationship between mental (stress and physiological (somatic by aspects of reaction which led to metabolism violation, to aging, decrease in adaptation opportunities of an organism and development age — dependent pathology took place.

  14. Decreased plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor in high-altitude excessive erythrocytosis and Chronic Mountain Sickness

    Villafuerte, Francisco C.; Macarlupú, José Luis; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Corrales-Melgar, Daniela; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Corante, Noemí; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the hallmark of chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a prevalent syndrome in high-altitude Andean populations. Although hypoxemia represents its underlying stimulus, why some individuals develop EE despite having altitude-normal blood erythropoietin (Epo) concentration is still unclear. A soluble form of the Epo receptor (sEpoR) has been identified in human blood and competes directly for Epo with its membrane counterpart (mEpoR). Thus, reduced levels of circulati...

  15. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness

    Villafuerte, Francisco C.; Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS pa...

  16. Altitude mountain sickness among tourist populations: a review and pathophysiology supporting management with hyperbaric oxygen.

    Butler, Gleen J; Al-Waili, N; Passano, D V; Ramos, J; Chavarri, J; Beale, J; Allen, M W; Lee, B Y; Urteaga, G; Salom, K

    2011-01-01

    In the mountain climbing community, conventional prevention of altitude mountain sickness (AMS) relies primarily on a formal acclimatization period. AMS symptoms during mountaineering climbs are managed with medication, oxygen and minor recompression (1524-2438 m altitude) using a portable chamber, such as the Gamow Bag. This is not always an acceptable therapy alternative in a predominantly elderly tourist population. The primary problem with reduced pressure at high altitude is hypoxaemia, which causes increased sympathetic activity, induces pulmonary venous constriction, while increasing pulmonary blood flow and regional perfusion. Rapid assents to altitude contribute to an increased incidence of decompression sickness (DCS). The treatment of choice for DCS is hyperbaric oxygenation, thus, treatment of high-altitude induced hypoxaemia using hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO(2)) is logical. Life Support Technologies group and the Center for Investigation of Altitude Medicine (CIMA, in Cusco, Peru) propose a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to AMS management. This approach encompasses traditional and advanced medical interventions including the use of a clinical HBO(2) chamber capable of recompression to three times greater than sea level pressure (3 atmosphere absolute (ATA)). The system uses a series of AMS hyperbaric treatment profiles that LST has previously developed to the US military and NASA, and that take greater advantage of vasoconstrictive effects of oxygen under true hyperbaric conditions of 1.25 ATA. These profiles virtually eliminate AMS rebound after the initial treatment often seen in conventional AMS treatment, where the patient is either treated at altitude, or does not recompress back to sea level or greater pressure (1.25 ATA), but returns directly to the same altitude where AMS symptoms first manifested.

  17. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is associated with chronic mountain sickness in the Andean population.

    Espinoza, Jose R; Alvarez, Giancarlo; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Preciado, Hugo F Ju; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Rodriguez, Jorge; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2014-06-01

    A study of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) with a candidate gene--vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)--was carried out in a Peruvian population living at high altitude in Cerro de Pasco (4380 m). The study was performed by genotyping of 11 tag SNPs encompassing 2.2 kb of region of VEGFA gene in patients with a diagnosis of CMS (n = 131; 49.1 ± 12.7 years old) and unrelated healthy controls (n = 84; 47.2 ± 13.4 years old). The VEGFA tag SNP rs3025033 was found associated with CMS (p Cerro de Pasco population and HapMap3 population (Fst > 0.36, p < 0.01), suggesting selection is operating on the VEGF gene. Our results suggest that VEGFA is associated with CMS in long-term residents at high altitude in the Peruvian Andes.

  18. A clinical study of acute myocardial infarction with non-thyroid sick syndrome

    高婧

    2014-01-01

    Objective The prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI)is related to age,comorbidities and other factors,in which non-thyroid sick syndrome(NTIS)may also be an important factor.In this study,determination of blood free triiodothyronine(FT3)was used to explore the short-term and long-term mortality relationship of NTIS with acute myocardial infarction.Methods A total of 1 019 cases of newly

  19. Correlative Study of Acute Mountain Sickness,Cognition and Mental Health of Military Personnel in Highland Training%高原外训军人心理健康、认知因素与急性高山病的相关性

    乔昆; 张鹏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨高原外训军人心理健康、认知因素与急性高山病的相关性。方法:采用基本信息问卷、Lake Louise急性高山病评分量表(AMS)、症状自评量表(SCL-90)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)对191名急进高原进行高原适应性训练的军人施以团体测验。结果:研究样本SCL-90的躯体化因子显著高于全国正常成人常模(t=5.019,P<0.001)。 AMS症状阳性组与阴性两组样本在文化程度(t=2.385,P<0.05)、社会支持中的倾诉方式(t=2.542,P<0.05)、求助方式(t=2.133,P<0.05)、对AMS的认知(t=2.423,P<0.05)、SCL-90总分(t=-4.936,P<0.001)及各因子分均有显著差异。 SCL-90总分、对AMS应对策略的认知对预测AMS症状总分有一定的预测作用。结论:高原外训军人心理健康水平、认知因素对AMS有显著的影响,运用合理的心理干预技术,可降低AMS的发生率,增强高原作战部队的战斗力。%Objective:To investigate the relationship between acute mountain sickness,cognition and mental health of military personnel in highland training.Methods:191 military personnel in high altitude area were assessed with the Lake Louise score,SCL-90,SAS,SDS and cognitive assessment to environ-ment and service.Results:Somatization score of military personnel in highland training was higher than the norm(t=5.019,P<0.001).Between the positive symptom group and the negative symptom group, the total score and every factor scores of scl-90,scores of social support,cognition of AMS,cultural level were statistically significant difference(P<0.05).SCL-90 score,cognition about how to cope with AMS had significant influences on the total score of AMS.Conclusion:Cognition and mental health have signif-icant influences on AMS of military personnel in highland training.In the highland training period, it is very necessary to

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CHANGE IN FUNCTION OF AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AND ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS AFTER URGENT ENTERING INTO HIGH ALTITUDE%急进高原自主神经功能变化与急性高原反应的关系

    田开新; 覃军; 黄岚; 隆敏; 喻杨; 于世勇

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究急进高原前、后心血管自主神经(autonomic nervous system,ANS)功能变化及其与急性高原反应(acute mountain sickness,AMS)之间关系, 揭示ANS在AMS发病中的作用,探求预防AMS的可能途径.方法 对99名健康男性青年在海拔450 m平原和空运急进3 700 m高原后2~4 d内进行心率变异性(heart rate variability,HRV)和冷加压试验(cold pressor test,CPT)检测; 在急进高原后1~ 5 d接受AMS发病情况调查.结果 急进高原后第1天AMS发病率92%,其中, 中重度AMS占10%、轻度占36%、基本无反应占54%.LF/HFn随AMS程度减轻而减少,HFn随AMS 程度加重而增加.中重度、轻度、基本无AMS反应组平原时收缩压(SBP)分别为(123.42± 7.14) mmHg、 (120.6±11.22) mmHg、 (122.58±10.92) mmHg, 均显著高于无反应组( 111.31±9.48) mmHg, (P<0.05); 中重度AMS组在平原CPT后心率(H R)变化幅度[(7.57±8.22)b/min]显著低于基本无反应组[(25.47±19.26)b/min,(P<0.05)].急进高原后,中重度、轻度、基本无AMS反应组CPT后SBP变化幅度分别为(8.14±4.95)mmHg、(9.56±7.77)mmHg、(9.97±6.80)mmHg,均显著低于无反应组[(17.00±12.75)mmHg,(P<0.05)];HR变化幅度分别为 (11.13±6.08)b/min、 (10±7.5)b/min、 (12.25±8.14)b/min, 均显著低于无反应组([19.71±9.35)b/min,P<0.05].AMS症状积分与平原时LF/HF正相关(r=0.437,P<0.01),与平原时CPT后HR变化幅度呈负相关(r=-0.35,P=0.01).结论 平原交感神经活动较高者其A NS的应激调节能力相对较小,对AMS易感性较高.改善ANS功能可能有助于预防AMS.

  1. Whole-Genome Sequencing Uncovers the Genetic Basis of Chronic Mountain Sickness in Andean Highlanders

    Zhou, Dan; Udpa, Nitin; Ronen, Roy; Stobdan, Tsering; Liang, Junbin; Appenzeller, Otto; Zhao, Huiwen W.; Yin, Yi; Du, Yuanping; Guo, Lixia; Cao, Rui; Wang, Yu; Jin, Xin; Huang, Chen; Jia, Wenlong; Cao, Dandan; Guo, Guangwu; Gamboa, Jorge L.; Villafuerte, Francisco; Callacondo, David; Xue, Jin; Liu, Siqi; Frazer, Kelly A.; Li, Yingrui; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2013-01-01

    The hypoxic conditions at high altitudes present a challenge for survival, causing pressure for adaptation. Interestingly, many high-altitude denizens (particularly in the Andes) are maladapted, with a condition known as chronic mountain sickness (CMS) or Monge disease. To decode the genetic basis of this disease, we sequenced and compared the whole genomes of 20 Andean subjects (10 with CMS and 10 without). We discovered 11 regions genome-wide with significant differences in haplotype frequencies consistent with selective sweeps. In these regions, two genes (an erythropoiesis regulator, SENP1, and an oncogene, ANP32D) had a higher transcriptional response to hypoxia in individuals with CMS relative to those without. We further found that downregulating the orthologs of these genes in flies dramatically enhanced survival rates under hypoxia, demonstrating that suppression of SENP1 and ANP32D plays an essential role in hypoxia tolerance. Our study provides an unbiased framework to identify and validate the genetic basis of adaptation to high altitudes and identifies potentially targetable mechanisms for CMS treatment. PMID:23954164

  2. Genetic variation in SENP1 and ANP32D as predictors of chronic mountain sickness.

    Cole, Amy M; Petousi, Nayia; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Robbins, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a serious illness that affects life-long high-altitude residents. A recent study analyzed whole genome sequence data from residents of Cerro de Pasco (Peru) in an effort to identify the genetic basis of CMS and reported SENP1 (rs7963934) and ANP32D (rs72644851) to show signatures consistent with natural selection and protective against CMS (Zhou et al. 2013 ). We set out to replicate these observations in two Andean cohorts from Cerro de Pasco, consisting of 84 CMS cases and 91 healthy controls in total. We report evidence of association for rs7963934 (SENP1) in the combined cohorts (meta-analysis p=8.8x10(-4) OR 2.91, CI 1.56-5.5, I=0). The direction of effect was the same as in the original publication. We did not observe any significant correlation between rs72644851 (ANP32D) and the CMS phenotype, within or across cohorts (meta-analysis p=0.204, OR 1.37, CI 0.84-2.241, I=0). Our results provide independent evidence in support of a role for SENP1 in CMS in individuals of Quechua ancestry and suggest the SENP1 and ANP32D signatures of selection are in tight linkage disequilibrium (LD).

  3. The role of menopause in the development of chronic mountain sickness.

    León-Velarde, F; Ramos, M A; Hernández, J A; De Idiáquez, D; Muñoz, L S; Gaffo, A; Córdova, S; Durand, D; Monge, C

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of menopause in the appearance of the physiopathological sequence that leads to chronic mountain sickness (CMS) in a high-altitude female population. The females studied are 30-54 yr old (n = 152) and have permanent residence in Cerro de Pasco (Pasco, Peru; 4,300 m). The sample was divided into postmenopausal and premenopausal groups for comparison. Blood oxygen saturation (SaO2), excessive erythrocytosis [EE, measured by the level of hematocrit (Het)], peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), and a score that represents the main signs and symptoms of CMS (CMSscore) were measured. Postmenopausal women had higher Het (50.2 +/- 4.04 vs. 47.4 +/- 4.13%, P 56%) was found to be 8.8%. Forty-five percent of the postmenopausal subjects presented a high CMSscore (> 21), whereas only 22% of the premenopausal subjects presented this high value (P < 0.02). We can therefore conclude that menopause may represent a contributing factor for the development of CMS.

  4. Decreased plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor in high-altitude excessive erythrocytosis and Chronic Mountain Sickness.

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Macarlupú, José Luis; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Corrales-Melgar, Daniela; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Corante, Noemí; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2014-12-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the hallmark of chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a prevalent syndrome in high-altitude Andean populations. Although hypoxemia represents its underlying stimulus, why some individuals develop EE despite having altitude-normal blood erythropoietin (Epo) concentration is still unclear. A soluble form of the Epo receptor (sEpoR) has been identified in human blood and competes directly for Epo with its membrane counterpart (mEpoR). Thus, reduced levels of circulating sEpoR could lead to higher Epo availability and ultimately to EE. We characterized the relationship between Epo and sEpoR, with hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration in healthy highlanders and CMS patients at 4,340 m in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Our results show that EE patients show decreased plasma sEpoR levels and can be subdivided into two subgroups of normal and high plasma Epo concentration for the altitude of residence, with hemoglobin concentration rising exponentially with an increasing Epo-to-sEpoR ratio (Epo/sEpoR). Also, we showed that the latter varies as an inverse exponential function of arterial pulse O2 saturation. Our findings suggests that EE is strongly associated with higher Epo/sEpoR values, leading to elevated plasma Epo availability to bind mEpoR, and thereby a stronger stimulus for augmented erythropoiesis. Differences in the altitude normal and high Epo CMS patients with a progressively higher Epo/sEpoR supports the hypothesis of the existence of two genetically different subgroups suffering from EE and possibly different degrees of adaptation to chronic high-altitude hypoxia.

  5. Ventilation, autonomic function, sleep and erythropoietin. Chronic mountain sickness of Andean natives.

    Bernardi, Luciano; Roach, Robert C; Keyl, Cornelius; Spicuzza, Lucia; Passino, Claudio; Bonfichi, Maurizio; Gamboa, Alfredo; Gamboa, Jorge; Malcovati, Luca; Schneider, Annette; Casiraghi, Nadia; Mori, Antonio; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola

    2003-01-01

    Polycythemia is one of the key factors involved in the chronic mountain sickness syndrome, a condition frequent in Andean natives but whose causes still remain unclear. In theory, polycythemia may be secondary to abnormalities in ventilation, occurring during day or night (e.g. due to sleep abnormalities) stimulating excessive erythropoietin (Epo) production, or else it may result from either autogenous production, or from co-factors like cobalt. To assess the importance of these points, we studied subjects with or without polycythemia, born and living in Cerro de Pasco (Peru, 4330m asl, CP) and evaluated the relationship between Epo and respiratory variables both in CP and sea level. We also assessed the relationship between sleep abnormalities and the circadian rhythm of Epo. Polycythemic subjects showed higher Epo in all conditions, lower SaO2 and hypoxic ventilatory response, higher physiological dead space and higher CO2, suggesting ventilatory inefficiency. Epo levels could be highly modified by the level of oxygenation, and were related to similar directional changes in SaO2. Cobalt levels were normal in all subjects and correlated poorly with hematologic variables. The diurnal variations in Epo were grossly abnormal in polycythemic subjects, with complete loss of the circadian rhythm. These abnormalities correlated with the levels of hypoxemia during the night, but not with sleep abnormalities, which were only minor even in polycythemic subjects. The increased Epo production is mainly related to a greater ventilatory inefficiency, and not to altered sensitivity to hypoxia, cobalt or sleep abnormalities. Improving oxygenation can represent a possible therapeutic option for this syndrome.

  6. High serum testosterone levels are associated with excessive erythrocytosis of chronic mountain sickness in men.

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gasco, Manuel; Tapia, Vilma; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-06-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE) secondary to hypoventilation. Erythropoietin (Epo) and testosterone regulate erythrocyte production. Low thyroid hormone levels are also associated to hypoventilation. Hence, these hormones can play a role in etiopathogeny of EE. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of sexual and thyroid hormones and Epo in residents from Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m), Peru, and the response to human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation (hCG). Three groups, one at low altitude and two at high altitude [1 with hemoglobin values >16-21 g/dl and the second with Hb >or=21 g/dl (EE)], were studied. hCG was administered intramuscularly in a single dose (1,000 IU), and blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after injection. High-altitude natives present similar levels of gonadotropins and thyroid hormones but lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels (P < 0.01) and greater Epo (P < 0.01), 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (P < 0.01), and testosterone levels (P < 0.01) than those at 150 m. Serum testosterone levels (524.13 +/- 55.91 microg/dl vs. 328.14 +/- 53.23 ng/dl, means +/- SE; P < 0.05) and testosterone/DHEAS ratios are higher (7.98 +/- 1.1 vs. 3.65 +/- 1.1; P < 0.01) and DHEAS levels lower in the EE group (83.85 +/- 14.60 microg/dl vs. 148.95 +/- 19.11 ug/dl; P < 0.05), whereas Epo was not further affected. Testosterone levels were highest and DHEAS levels lowest in the EE group at all times after hCG stimulation. In conclusion, high androgen activity could be involved in the etiopathogeny of CMS. This evidence provides an opportunity to develop new therapeutic strategies.

  7. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness.

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-07-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS patients suggesting increased Epo availability (increased Epo/sEpoR). The present study aimed to characterize the nocturnal concentration profile of sEpoR and Epo and their relationship with SpO2, Hct, and serum testosterone in healthy highlanders (HH) and CMS patients. Epo and sEpoR concentrations were evaluated every 4 h (6 PM to 6 AM) and nighttime SpO2 was continuously monitored (10 PM to 6 AM) in 39 male participants (CMS, n = 23; HH, n = 16) aged 21-65 yr from Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m). CMS patients showed higher serum Epo concentrations throughout the night and lower sEpoR from 10 PM to 6 AM. Consequently, Epo/sEpoR was significantly higher in the CMS group at every time point. Mean sleep-time SpO2 was lower in CMS patients compared with HH, while the percentage of sleep time spent with SpO2 < 80% was higher. Multiple-regression analysis showed mean sleep-time SpO2 and Epo/sEpoR as significant predictors of hematocrit corrected for potential confounders (age, body mass index, and testosterone). Testosterone levels were associated neither with Hct nor with erythropoietic factors. In conclusion, our results show sustained erythropoietic stimulus driven by the Epo system in CMS patients, further enhanced by a continuous exposure to accentuated nocturnal hypoxemia.

  8. Prevalence of Chronic Mountain Sickness in high altitude districts of Himachal Pradesh

    Inderjeet Singh Sahota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS is a maladaptation condition that can affect people who reside permanently at high altitude (HA. It is characterized by polycythemia, hypoxemia and dyspnea and can be fatal. Over 140 million people live permanently at HA around the world. Unfortunately, research into CMS is lacking and accurate data on the prevalence of this condition do not exist for many regions around the world. In this study, we sought to examine prevalence rates of CMS in the Indian Himalayas, focusing on the Northern State of Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 83 individuals (69 males in eight towns across the HA districts of Sirmaur, Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India. Altitudes ranged from 2350 to 4150 m. We used an adapted Qinghai CMS scoring system to diagnose CMS. Information related to subject demographics, medical history, socioeconomic status, and geography were collected to identify risk factors for CMS. Physiologic recordings of oxygen saturation (SpO 2 and pulse rate were made through pulse oximetry. Results: Overall CMS prevalence was 6.17% and mean altitude was 3281 m. At altitudes above 3000 m CMS prevalence rose to 13.73%. All cases of CMS were mild and there was a significant positive correlation between CMS scores and altitude (R = 0.784, P = 0.0213. Mean SpO 2 was 90.7 ± 0.4% and mean pulse rate was 80.3 ± 1.3 bpm. SpO 2 significantly correlated with altitude (R = −0.929, P < 0.001. In our study, age, gender, and tobacco use were not independent risk factors for CMS. Individuals with CMS lived at higher altitudes than their non-CMS counterparts (3736.00 ± 113.30 m vs. 3279.80 ± 69.50 m, respectively; P = 0.017. Conclusion: CMS prevalence in HA towns of the Indian Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh is 6.17% and 13.73% for towns above 3000 m. Further research is required to determine the prevalence of CMS in other regions of the world and to determine risk factors

  9. High serum testosterone levels are associated with excessive erythrocytosis of chronic mountain sickness in men

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Gasco, Manuel; Tapia, Vilma; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE) secondary to hypoventilation. Erythropoietin (Epo) and testosterone regulate erythrocyte production. Low thyroid hormone levels are also associated to hypoventilation. Hence, these hormones can play a role in etiopathogeny of EE. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of sexual and thyroid hormones and Epo in residents from Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m), Peru, and the response to human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation (hCG). Three groups, one at low altitude and two at high altitude [1 with hemoglobin values >16–21 g/dl and the second with Hb ≥21 g/dl (EE)], were studied. hCG was administered intramuscularly in a single dose (1,000 IU), and blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after injection. High-altitude natives present similar levels of gonadotropins and thyroid hormones but lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels (P < 0.01) and greater Epo (P < 0.01), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (P < 0.01), and testosterone levels (P < 0.01) than those at 150 m. Serum testosterone levels (524.13 ± 55.91 μg/dl vs. 328.14 ± 53.23 ng/dl, means ± SE; P < 0.05) and testosterone/DHEAS ratios are higher (7.98 ± 1.1 vs. 3.65 ± 1.1; P < 0.01) and DHEAS levels lower in the EE group (83.85 ± 14.60 μg/dl vs. 148.95 ± 19.11 ug/dl; P < 0.05), whereas Epo was not further affected. Testosterone levels were highest and DHEAS levels lowest in the EE group at all times after hCG stimulation. In conclusion, high androgen activity could be involved in the etiopathogeny of CMS. This evidence provides an opportunity to develop new therapeutic strategies. PMID:19318512

  10. Effect of BMPs on hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice

    Tian Qiong; Zhang Shaozhang; Pu Qin; Zhang Fake [Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an Shaanxi (China); Hannah, X.H. [Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on hematopoietic acute radiation sickness in mice. BMP, rhBMP-2m and PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were obtained separately by chemistry, molecule biological method and genetherapy method. In this study, the effect of BMPs on hematopoiesis was detected at postirradiation: some hematological parameters, 30 days the survival ratio and formation of bone marrow CFU-GM colony. The experiments indicate that when phBMP (purified bovine bone morphogenetic protein) can increase the formation of bone narrow CFU-GM colony (p<0.05) at 10th d after irradiation. Irradiation control group's mice died in 30 days, but effect of rhBMP-2m on the survival of mice after 7.5Gy irradiation, was detected whereas there were 10%, 15% and 35% all mice of survived after injection i.p. with 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg of rhBMP-2m respectively. All hematological parameters of treated mice were significantly higher than control group (p<0.01). PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were established and transplanted into mice irradiated by 7.0Gy r ray by i.p., the survival ratio of treated mice higher than negative control group (p<0.01), and all hematopoietic parameters were increased statistically significant (p<0.01). These data support the our hypothesis: BMPs can treat the acute radiation sickness. The results indicate that in adult mice, BMPs can recover or treat the hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice. (author)

  11. Pifithrin-μ Attenuates Acute Sickness Response to Lipopolysaccharide in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Zhang, Rongping; Wang, Jili; Hu, Yanling; Lu, Xu; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Sickness behavior is a coordinated set of behavioral changes that happen as a response to acute infectious pathogens. Its well-known benefit is to reorganize the organism's priorities to cope with infection, but the uncontrolled development of sickness behavior may trigger negative feelings or chronic depressive events. This study aims at investigating the potential effect of pifithrin-μ, an inhibitor of heat shock protein 70 substrate binding activity, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness response. C57BL/6J mice were submitted to the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), open field test (OFT) and light-dark box test. Food intake and body weight were also evaluated. The serum corticosterone level was measured using an ELISA kit. Treatment of mice with LPS (0.33 mg/kg, i.p.) markedly increased the floating and immobility time in the FST and TST, respectively, and depressed locomotor activity in the OFT. LPS administration prolonged the latency to first transition and reduced the total number of transitions in the light-dark box test. In addition, LPS induced anorexia and increased serum corticosterone levels. Pretreatment with pifithrin-μ (1 or 5 mg/kg) attenuated behavioral changes induced by LPS in the FST, TST, OFT and light-dark box test. Pifithrin-μ also prevented the formation of anorexia as well as the increase in serum corticosterone levels in LPS-treated mice. Our previous studies showed that pifithrin-μ prevents the production of pro-inflammatory factors in both microglia and macrophages. These findings presented here extend the role of pifithrin-μ beyond an anti-inflammatory molecule to a modulator of sickness behavior.

  12. Epidemiology Survey of Tourists' Sicknesses in Huangshan Mountain Scenic Spot%黄山山岳型景区游客发病流行病学调查

    潘海波; 方婷婷; 张牧城; 刘剑; 董学军; 赵芒; 汪晓春; 汪建设; 程利萍; 王莉; 汪秀桃

    2011-01-01

    Objective To probe into the types, characteristics and regular patterns of sickness among tourists who were sightseeing in Huangshan mountain scenic spot, therefore to better facilitate in establishing medical emergency plan and ensure a safe sightseeing.Methods Data of tourists who suffered sickness and received treatment while visiting Huangshan Mountain from January 1,2005 to December 31,2009 were analyzed.Results The top five morbidities among group of children,group of adult and group of aged were as follows respectively: upper respiratory tract infection ,acute gastroenteritis, head trauma, bronchial asthma, wasp sting; upper respiratory tract infection, acute gastroenteritis, sprain of lower extremity, head trauma and monkey scratches or bite;and upper respiratory tract infection, acute gastroenteritis, acute coronary syndromes, high blood pressure and head trauma.Among each age group, the top two morbidities were the same, there were higher number of traumatic patients in group of children and group of adult, whereas, an apparent increase of cardiovascular diseases and sudden death incidents were observed among group of aged.Conclusion It was proved that the morbidities of tourists to certain degree had correlation with the environment in mountainous area.Therefore, to strengthen the publication of knowledge over prevention of the most seen and frequently encountered diseases in mountainous area combined with enhancing tourism related infrastructure construction will bear far-reaching significance as to ensure a safe and health sight-seeing.%目的 探讨黄山山岳型风景区内游客发病的病种、特点及规律,以有利于制定旅游急救预案,保障旅游安全.方法 对2005年1月1日-2009年12月31日在景区内发病就诊的游客患者,进行统计、归类、分析.结果 少儿组、成人组、老年组发病率前5位分别为:上呼吸道感染、急性胃肠炎、头外伤、支气管哮喘、蜂螫伤;上呼吸道感染、急性

  13. Acute electrophysiological effects of dipyridamole on sinus node function in patients with sick sinus syndrome.

    Yeşil, M; Bayata, S; Postaci, N; Aydin, C

    1997-12-01

    One of the most widely used tests for evaluation of sinus node function is sinus node recovery time (SNRT), which requires right heart catheterization. On the other hand SNRT has high specificity but only moderate sensitivity in the diagnosis of sick sinus syndrome (SSS). The authors studied acute electrophysiologic effects of dipyridamole (0.40 mg/kg IV) in 16 patients with clinical SSS. All of them had normal SNRT and had undergone permanent DDD pacemaker implantation. By the aid of temporary pacing inhibition, the authors noninvasively measured the corrected sinus node recovery time (SNRTc) and sinus cycle length (SCL) before and after dipyridamole administration. SCL was slightly decreased from a mean basal value of 1025 +/-323 to 913+/-213 msec after dipyridamole administration (mean -10%), but this was not statistically significant. SNRTc was increased from a mean basal value of 344+/-91 to 606+/-156 msec after dipyridamole administration (+76% Pnode function. SNRT measurement after intravenous dipyridamole may increase sensitivity of this test in patients with suspected SSS and normal SNRT.

  14. SENP1, but not fetal hemoglobin, differentiates Andean highlanders with chronic mountain sickness from healthy individuals among Andean highlanders.

    Hsieh, Matthew M; Callacondo, David; Rojas-Camayo, Jose; Quesada-Olarte, Jose; Wang, Xunde; Uchida, Naoya; Maric, Irina; Remaley, Alan T; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Villafuerte, Francisco C; Tisdale, John F

    2016-06-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) results from chronic hypoxia. It is unclear why certain highlanders develop CMS. We hypothesized that modest increases in fetal hemoglobin (HbF) are associated with lower CMS severity. In this cross-sectional study, we found that HbF levels were normal (median = 0.4%) in all 153 adult Andean natives in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Compared with healthy adults, the borderline elevated hemoglobin group frequently had symptoms (headaches, tinnitus, cyanosis, dilatation of veins) of CMS. Although the mean hemoglobin level differed between the healthy (17.1 g/dL) and CMS (22.3 g/dL) groups, mean plasma erythropoietin (EPO) levels were similar (healthy, 17.7 mIU/mL; CMS, 12.02 mIU/mL). Sanger sequencing determined that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in endothelial PAS domain 1 (EPAS1) and egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1), associated with lower hemoglobin in Tibetans, were not identified in Andeans. Sanger sequencing of sentrin-specific protease 1 (SENP1) and acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member D (ANP32D), in healthy and CMS individuals revealed that non-G/G genotypes were associated with higher CMS scores. No JAK2 V617F mutation was detected in CMS individuals. Thus, HbF and other classic erythropoietic parameters did not differ between healthy and CMS individuals. However, the non-G/G genotypes of SENP1 appeared to differentiate individuals with CMS from healthy Andean highlanders.

  15. Physiological adaptability of members of Chinese National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Rescue Team (CNEDERT) in altitude of Yushu area of Qinghai province and prevention of acute mountain sickness%急进高原救援队员血氧饱和度、心率、血红蛋白动态监测与防范高原反应风险的研究

    焦小杰; 方涛; 樊毫军; 侯世科

    2010-01-01

    Objective As members of CNEDERT, we were trusted to take the mission of medical rescue in April of this year in Yushu area of Qinghai province. As soon as we heard of the news of earthquake with shock of 7.1 on Richter scale happened on 14th April 2010, our team of 32 members from the General Hospital of Armed Police Force rapidly rushed to get there at 19 o'clock on 14th April. It is a cold plateau with 4000 meters in average above sea level. Of course, they would face many difficult problems and some of them could not be figured out in advance. It was really a new and big challenge. First of all, we had to bear the very low barometric pressure,threatening lives of team members. In order to fulfill the mission of medical rescue, and to prevent the acute mountain sickness (AMS) ,we monitored the physiological changes of every member. Method A total of 32 members aged from 27 - 42 years old with average age of (33.26 + 12.54) years, 6 male and 6 female, gathered at Peking, 50 meters above sea level, 6 hours ahead of getting to Yushu and received physical examination with measurements of SaO2, HR, Hb and breath holding test. The team worked in Yushu area for 13 days and returned back to Peking on 27th April at 13 o'clock. The measurements of SaO2, HR and He were kept on from 14th April to 4th May, 21 days in total. The occurrence of AMS was surveyed by questionnaire from 18 to 48 hours after arrival,and the AMSA was diagnosed and scored according to the Lake Louise consensus on the definition and quantification of altitude illness. When the score was equal or above 3, it was considered to be AMS. Our work activities included searching the victims under the collapsed building, carrying out treatment and operation as soon as possible in the mobile hospital, doing medical round visiting, public health and disease prevention, work of joint rescue of multiple professions and psychological counseling. Results Of them 26 (81.25%) members suffered from AMS of various

  16. Carbohydrate-Binding Non-Peptidic Pradimicins for the Treatment of Acute Sleeping Sickness in Murine Models

    Castillo-Acosta, Víctor M.; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis M.; Reichardt, Niels C.; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Liekens, Sandra; Balzarini, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments available for African sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are limited, with poor efficacy and unacceptable safety profiles. Here, we report a new approach to address treatment of this disease based on the use of compounds that bind to parasite surface glycans leading to rapid killing of trypanosomes. Pradimicin and its derivatives are non-peptidic carbohydrate-binding agents that adhere to the carbohydrate moiety of the parasite surface glycoproteins inducing parasite lysis in vitro. Notably, pradimicin S has good pharmaceutical properties and enables cure of an acute form of the disease in mice. By inducing resistance in vitro we have established that the composition of the sugars attached to the variant surface glycoproteins are critical to the mode of action of pradimicins and play an important role in infectivity. The compounds identified represent a novel approach to develop drugs to treat HAT. PMID:27662652

  17. Effect of Hypohydration and Altitude Exposure on Aerobic Exercise Performance and Acute Mountain Sickness

    2010-09-01

    diagnostic of AMS. At the completion of the PDA-based questionnaire, the volunteer’s resting arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) was measured ( Dolphin ...ventral forearm (opposite arm of the blood pressure cuff, forearm kept at heart level) using laser -Doppler flowmetry. The flow probe (sam- pling at 780 nm

  18. Prediction of Acute Mountain Sickness using a Blood-Based Test

    2016-01-01

    reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of...who was AMS resistant. In Phase II, results suggest a completely independent sample was equally effective in predicting AMS susceptibility and...origin, altitude of final study, and gender . QTR 20 Accomplishments (Sep-Dec 2015): As planned we are now addressing specific questions about

  19. Serum-sickness-like disease is a common cause of acute arthritis in children.

    Kunnamo, I; Kallio, P; Pelkonen, P; Viander, M

    1986-11-01

    Among 283 children in a prospective study of arthritis we found 15 patients with a self-limited serum-sickness-like disease consisting of urticaria or joint erythema and mostly polyarticular arthritis. The mean duration of joint symptoms was 5.9 days. A preceding infection was reported in 12 patients and 12 had received drugs, the therapy starting on average 12.8 days before the onset of joint symptoms. In 9 cases the drug was penicillin. Four patients had recurrent attacks. Circulating immune complexes were detected in the serum of 12 patients, but specific IgE antibodies to penicillin only in 3 patients. The estimated annual incidence of the condition was 4.7/100,000 children under age 16.

  20. Fish oil diet associated with acute reperfusion related haemorrhage, and with reduced stroke-related sickness behaviours and motor impairment

    Michaela Celeste Pascoe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFA. However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviours after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioural effects of PUFA supplementation over a six-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute haemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined six weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviours, acute motor impairment and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behaviour.

  1. Serum sickness

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  2. Hyperbaric programs in the United States: Locations and capabilities of treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning: survey results.

    Chin, Walter; Jacoby, Laura; Simon, Olivia; Talati, Nisha; Wegrzyn, Gracelene; Jacoby, Rachelle; Proano, Jacob; Sprau, Susan E; Markovitz, Gerald; Hsu, Rita; Joo, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the primary treatment for arterial gas embolism, decompression sickness and acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Though there has been a proliferation of hyperbaric centers throughout the United States, a scarcity of centers equipped to treat emergency indications makes transport of patients necessary. To locate and characterize hyperbaric chambers capable of treating emergency cases, a survey of centers throughout the entire United States was conducted. Using Google, Yahoo, HyperbaricLink and the UHMS directory, a database for United States chambers was created. Four researchers called clinicians from the database to administer the survey. All centers were contacted for response until four calls went unreturned or a center declined to be included. The survey assessed chamber readiness to respond to high-acuity patients, including staff availability, use of medical equipment such as ventilators and intravenous infusion devices, and responding yes to treating hyperbaric emergencies within a 12-month period. Only 43 (11.9%, N = 361) centers had equipment, intravenous infusion pumps and ventilators, and staff necessary to treat high-acuity patients. Considering that a primary purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the treatment of arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness, more hyperbaric centers nationwide should be able to accommodate these emergency cases quickly and safely.

  3. Mountaineering

    潘步东

    2005-01-01

    Most young people enjoy some forms of physical activities.It may be walking,cycling or swimming,or in wither,skating or skiing.It may be a game of some kind,football,hockey(曲棍球),golf,or tennis.Perhaps it may be mountaineering.

  4. A prospective epidemiological study of acute mountain sickness in Nepalese pilgrims ascending to high altitude (4380 m.

    Martin J MacInnis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Each year, thousands of pilgrims travel to the Janai Purnima festival in Gosainkunda, Nepal (4380 m, ascending rapidly and often without the aid of pharmaceutical prophylaxis. METHODS: During the 2012 Janai Purnima festival, 538 subjects were recruited in Dhunche (1950 m before ascending to Gosainkunda. Through interviews, subjects provided demographic information, ratings of AMS symptoms (Lake Louise Scores; LLS, ascent profiles, and strategies for prophylaxis. RESULTS: In the 491 subjects (91% follow-up rate who were assessed upon arrival at Gosainkunda, the incidence of AMS was 34.0%. AMS was more common in females than in males (RR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.23, 2.00, and the AMS incidence was greater in subjects >35 years compared to subjects ≤35 years (RR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.36, 1.95. There was a greater incidence of AMS in subjects who chose to use garlic as a prophylactic compared to those who did not (RR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.28. Although the LLS of brothers had a moderate correlation (intraclass correlation = 0.40, p = 0.023, sibling AMS status was a weak predictor of AMS. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of AMS upon reaching 4380 m was 34% in a large population of Nepalese pilgrims. Sex, age, and ascent rate were significant factors in the development of AMS, and traditional Nepalese remedies were ineffective in the prevention of AMS.

  5. Intermittent Oxygen Inhalation with Proper Frequency Improves Overall Health Conditions and Alleviates Symptoms in a Population at High Risk of Chronic Mountain Sickness with Severe Symptoms

    Bin Feng; Wei-Hao Xu; Yu-Qi Gao; Fu-Yu Liu; Peng Li; Shan-Jun Zheng; Lu-Yue Gai

    2016-01-01

    Background:Oxygen inhalation therapy is essential for the treatment of patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS),but the efficacy of oxygen inhalation for populations at high risk of CMS remains unknown.This research investigated whether oxygen inhalation therapy benefits populations at high risk of CMS.Methods:A total of 296 local residents living at an altitude of 3658 m were included;of which these were 25 diagnosed cases of CMS,8 cases dropped out of the study,and 263 cases were included in the analysis.The subjects were divided into high-risk (180 ≤ hemoglobin (Hb) <210 g/L,n =161) and low-risk (Hb <180 g/L,n =102) groups,and the cases in each group were divided into severe symptom (CMS score ≥6) and mild symptom (CMS score 0-5) subgroups.Severe symptomatic population of either high-or low-risk CMS was randomly assigned to no oxygen intake group (A group) or oxygen intake 7 times/week group (D group);mild symptomatic population of either high-or low-risk CMS was randomly assigned to no oxygen intake group (A group),oxygen intake 2 times/week group (B group),and 4 times/week group (C group).The courses for oxygen intake were all 30 days.The CMS symptoms,sleep quality,physiological biomarkers,biochemical markers,etc.,were recorded on the day before oxygen intake,on the 15th and 30th days of oxygen intake,and on the 15th day after terminating oxygen intake therapy.Results:A total of 263 residents were finally included in the analysis.Among these high-altitude residents,CMS symptom scores decreased for oxygen inhalation methods B,C,and D at 15 and 30 days after oxygen intake and 15 days after termination,including dyspnea,palpitation,and headache index,compared to those before oxygen intake (B group:Z =5.604,5.092,5.741;C group:Z =4.155,4.068,4.809;D group:Z =6.021,6.196,5.331,at the 3 time points respectively;all P < 0.05/3 vs.before intake).However,dyspnea/palpitation (A group:Z =5.003,5.428,5.493,both P < 0.05/3 vs.before intake) and headache (A

  6. Principles of medical rehabilitation of survivors of acute radiation sickness induced by gamma and beta and gumma and neutron radiation

    Nedejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.; Savitsky, A.A.; Sachkov, A.V.; Rtisheva, J.N.; Uvatcheva, I.V.; Filin, S.V. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles of medical rehabilitation different degree acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors, who exposed {gamma}{beta}- and {gamma}{eta}-irradiation in different radiation accidents. The main reasons of working disability in the late consequences of ARS period are consequences of local radiation injures (LRI) and joining somatic diseases. Its revealing and treatment considerably improves quality of life of the patients. The heaviest consequence of LRI of a skin at {gamma}{beta}- radiation exposure is the development of late radiation ulcers and radiation fibrosis, which require repeated plastic surgery. LRI at {gamma}{eta}-radiation exposure differ by the greater depth of destruction of a underlying tissues and similar defects require the early amputations. Last 10 years microsurgery methods of plastic surgery allow to save more large segments of extremities and to decrease expression of the late consequences (radiation fibrosis and late radiation ulcers) LRI severe and extremely severe degrees. Medical rehabilitation of radiation cataract (development at doses more than 2.0 Gy) includes its extraction and artificial lens implantation, if acuity of vision is considerably decreased. Changes of peripheral blood, observed at the period of the long consequences, as a rule, different, moderate, transient and not requiring treatment. Only one ARS survivor dead from chronic myeloid leukemia. Thyroid nodes, not requiring operative intervention, are found out in Chernobyl survivors. Within the time course the concurrent somatic disease become the major importance for patients disability growth, which concurrent diseases seem to be unrelated to radiation dose and their structure does not differ from that found in general public of Russia. The rehabilitation of the persons who have transferred ARS as a result of radiating failure, should be directed on restoration of functions critical for ionizing of radiation of bodies and

  7. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Dizziness and Motion Sickness Dizziness and Motion Sickness Patient ... vision or speech, or hearing loss. What is dizziness? Dizziness can be described in many ways, such ...

  8. Morning sickness (image)

    Morning sickness usually begins during the first month of pregnancy and continues until the 14th to 16th week. ... have nausea and vomiting through their entire pregnancy. Morning sickness is very common and does not hurt the ...

  9. Multi-slice Spiral Computed Tomography Manifestations of Brain and Cerebral Hemodynamics in Chronic Mountain Sickness%慢性高原病脑部MSCT表现与血流动力学研究

    王铎尧; 鲍海华; 赵希鹏; 李文方

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察慢性高原病(chronic mountain sickness,CMS)患者脑部多层螺旋CT(MSCT)改变.方法 研究对象共27例,其中12例为临床确诊的CMS,其余15例为正常健康志愿者.采用Philips Brilliance 16层螺旋CT对27例研究对象行脑部CT平扫加灌注扫描.结果 (1) CMS患者8例CT平扫表现为脑肿胀,脑沟裂变浅,脑室系统变小.12例患者颅内血管密度均有不同程度的增高,尤其以上矢状窦和大脑中动脉为著.通过测量分析上矢状窦CT值和双侧大脑中动脉CT值与血红蛋白(Hb)含量分析,CMS组上矢状窦CT值和双侧大脑中动脉CT值高于正常组 ( t=4.551,P<0.01和t=2.898,P<0.01 ).CMS组Hb含量与上矢状窦及大脑中动脉血管密度CT值均呈正相关(r=0.758,P<0.01 及r=0.740,P<0.01).(2) CMS患者脑灰质脑血流量(CBF)值较正常对照组减小,P<0.01,并且TTP和MTT明显延长,P<0.05和P<0.01;脑白质MTT值明显延长,P<0.01.结论 MSCT对研究CMS脑部形态学和血液动力学方面均具有重要意义.%Objective To obscrve MSCT appearances of brain in chronic mountain sickness(CMS). Methods 27 subjects were collected involved in this study , including 12 patients with CMS and 15 normal adults as control. Plain CT scan and perfusion CT imaging were performed in all subjects. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) , cerebral blood volume ( CBV) , time to pcak enhancement( TTP) and mean transit time ( MTT) were measured within the specific regions of interest (ROI) of the brain,and quantitative analysis was performed. Results (1) Thcre were 8 cases in CMS group with diffuse cerebral edema, small schizencephaly and shrinking ventricular system. The density of blood vessel in the brain was differcntly enhanccment (12 cases). There was an obvious correlation be tween the density of cerebral vesscls ( bilateral middle cerebral artery and supcrior sagittal sinus) and the hemoglobin level. The CT values of bilateral middle cerebral artery and superior sagittal sinus were

  10. Predictors of stable return-to-work in non-acute, non-specific spinal pain: low total prior sick-listing, high self prediction and young age. A two-year prospective cohort study

    Strender Lars-Erik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-specific spinal pain (NSP, comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders in long-term sick-listing. During 2000-2004, 125 Swedish primary-care patients with non-acute NSP, full-time sick-listed 6 weeks-2 years, were included in a randomized controlled trial to compare a cognitive-behavioural programme with traditional primary care. This prospective cohort study is a re-assessment of the data from the randomized trial with the 2 treatment groups considered as a single cohort. The aim was to investigate which baseline variables predict a stable return-to-work during a 2-year period after baseline: objective variables from function tests, socioeconomic, subjective and/or treatment variables. Stable return-to-work was a return-to-work lasting for at least 1 month from the start of follow-up. Methods Stable return-to-work was the outcome variable, the above-mentioned factors were the predictive variables in multiple-logistic regression models, one per follow-up at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after baseline. The factors from univariate analyzes with a p-value of at most .10 were included. The non-significant variables were excluded stepwise to yield models comprising only significant factors (p Results Three variables qualified, all of them represented in 3 follow-ups: Low total prior sick-listing (including all diagnoses was the strongest predictor in 2 follow-ups, 18 and 24 months, OR 4.8 [1.9-12.3] and 3.8 [1.6-8.7] respectively, High self prediction (the patients' own belief in return-to-work was the strongest at 12 months, OR 5.2 [1.5-17.5] and Young age (max 44 years the second strongest at 18 months, OR 3.5 [1.3-9.1]. Conclusions In primary-care patients with non-acute NSP, the strong predictors of stable return-to-work were 2 socioeconomic variables, Low total prior sick-listing and Young age, and 1 subjective variable, High self-prediction. Objective variables from function tests and treatment variables

  11. 三磷酸腺苷二钠对慢性高原病大鼠肝脏保护作用%Protective effect of trinosin on the liver of chronic mountain sickness rat model

    夏克尔江·苏来曼; 高振; 迪丽努尔·买买提依明; 单莲莲; 张向阳; 艾尼娃尔·艾克木

    2015-01-01

    为研究三磷酸腺苷二钠对慢性高原病(chronic mountain sickness,CMS)大鼠肝脏的保护作用,取60只SD大鼠,对其中50例进行慢性高原病造模后,随机分为高原模型组、硝苯地平对照组、三磷酸腺苷二钠低剂量组、三磷酸腺苷二钠中剂量组、三磷酸腺苷二钠高剂量组,每组10只;剩余10只平原环境饲养为正常对照组;造模30 d后,根据大鼠体重进行干预.连续灌胃15d后,测定肺动脉压(pulmonary artery pressure,PAP)、同型半胱氨酸(homocysteine,Hcy)、白介素-6(interleukin-6,IL-6)、C-反应蛋白(C-reactionprotein,CRP)、超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)、丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(glutathione peroxidase,GSH-PX)、谷丙转氨酶(alanine aminotransferase,ALT)、谷草转氨酶(aspartate transaminase,AST)等指标.结果发现,与正常对照组比较,高原模型组和硝苯地平对照组大鼠体内的Hcy,IL-6,CRP,MDA,ALT和AST水平升高,SOD和GSH-PX水平降低,PAP升高,提示高原低氧对大鼠的肝脏造成损害.与高原模型组比较,三磷酸腺苷二钠高剂量组大鼠体内的Hcy,IL-6,CRP,MDA,ALT和AST水平降低(P<0.05),SOD和GSH-PX水平升高(P<0.05).故而认为高剂量的三磷酸腺苷二钠对CMS大鼠肝脏有保护作用.

  12. Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.

    Alexander Choukèr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A substantial number of individuals are at risk for the development of motion sickness induced nausea and vomiting (N&V during road, air or sea travel. Motion sickness can be extremely stressful but the neurobiologic mechanisms leading to motion sickness are not clear. The endocannabinoid system (ECS represents an important neuromodulator of stress and N&V. Inhibitory effects of the ECS on N&V are mediated by endocannabinoid-receptor activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the activity of the ECS in human volunteers (n = 21 during parabolic flight maneuvers (PFs. During PFs, microgravity conditions (<10(-2 g are generated for approximately 22 s which results in a profound kinetic stimulus. Blood endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG were measured from blood samples taken in-flight before start of the parabolic maneuvers, after 10, 20, and 30 parabolas, in-flight after termination of PFs and 24 h later. Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7 showed significantly higher stress scores but lower endocannabinoid levels during PFs. After 20 parabolas, blood anandamide levels had dropped significantly in volunteers with motion sickness (from 0.39+/-0.40 to 0.22+/-0.25 ng/ml but increased in participants without the condition (from 0.43+/-0.23 to 0.60+/-0.38 ng/ml resulting in significantly higher anandamide levels in participants without motion sickness (p = 0.02. 2-AG levels in individuals with motion sickness were low and almost unchanged throughout the experiment but showed a robust increase in participants without motion sickness. Cannabinoid-receptor 1 (CB1 but not cannabinoid-receptor 2 (CB2 mRNA expression in leucocytes 4 h after the experiment was significantly lower in volunteers with motion sickness than in participants without N&V. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that stress and motion sickness in humans are associated with impaired endocannabinoid

  13. Incidence of chronic mountain sickness in soldiers garrisoned at 5,000 m above sea level%海拔5000m以上驻防官兵慢性高原病患病情况调查

    王引虎; 阳盛洪; 冯英凯; 张东; 杨海军; 高亮

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of chronic mountain sickness( CMS )in soldiers garrisoned in Karakorum Mountains at the altitude of over 5,000 m,and to provide evidence for making preventative measures. Methods According to Qing Hai diagnostic standards of CMS, 223 soldiers garrisoned in Karakorum Mountains for 1 year received health examination. The examination results were compared with the results investigated in 2005. Results Among the 223 soldiers,45 ones were diagnosed CMS,and the incidence was 20. 2% . The CMS incidence of 5,380 m group,5,200 m group and 5,100 m group was 29. 6% ,35. 2% and 30. 8% , respectively,and they were significantly higher than those of 4,300 m group( 4. 1% )and 3 ,700 m group( 7. 4% )( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01 ). The hemoglobin content of 5,380 m group,5,200 m group and 5,100 m group was( 196. 7 ± 21. 0 )g/L,( 200. 0 ± 18. 1 )g/L and( 197. 6 ± 17. 1 )g/L,respectively, and they were also significantly higher than those of 4,300 m group( 180. 1 ± 15. 2 )g/L and 3 ,700 m group( 183. 6 ± 17. 2 )g/L( P <0. 01 ). Compared with the investigated results 5 years ago, the incidence of CMS decreased significantly in this research,in which the rate of 5,380 m group decreased from 85.7% to 29. 6% and 4,300 m group decreased from 43. 5% to 4. 1% ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion Compared with 5 years ago, the general health of soldiers garrisoned in Karakorum Mountains improved significantly. However,the research on healthy protection of soldiers at the altitude above 5,000 m should be paid great attention.%目的 了解喀喇昆仑山海拔5000 m以上驻防官兵慢性高原病(CMS)发病情况,为制定针对性防治措施提供依据.方法 依据CMS青海标准,对喀喇昆仑山驻防1年的223名官兵进行健康检查,并与2005年的调查结果 进行比较分析.结果 223名官兵中,45人患有CMS,患病率为20.2%.其中海拔5380 m组、5200 m组、5100 m组CMS患病率分别为29.6%、35.2%、30.8%,显著高于海拔4300 m组(4

  14. ROLE OF INTRAFAMILIAL INFECTION OF SICKLY CHILDREN

    N. A. Abramova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 143 children and 376 of their family members were examined for the study of intrafamilial infection. The study revealed that in the families of the studied sickly children (SC 100% of mothers, 83,3% of fathers, 100% of siblings and 100% of nannies were infected. Herpes viruses: EBV (55,8%, CMV (50,8%, HHV VI (21,7% in combination with intracellular pathogens (Chlamydia and Mycoplasma were prevalent in the sickly children. Examination of the family members revealed presence of the same pathogens. Control group differed significantly and reliably from the group of sickly children. There were not many infected children, no acute forms of diseases; monoinfection predominated. 

  15. 乙醇治疗急性减压病的实验研究%Empirical study of alcohol therapy for acute decompression sickness

    傅敏; 张陆弟; 康建飞

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology of alcohol therapy for acute decompression sickness (ADCS)and its mechanism of action.Methods Thirty-two experimental rabbits were reproduced into model of ADCS,and randomly divided into two groups:alcohol therapy group and control group,16 rabbits for each group.All rabbits were put into animal capsule,whose pressure was risen to 0.6 MPa within 5 min,and had stayed for 30 min,then the capsule's pressure was evenly decompressed to 0.1 MPa within 10 min.After decompression,air bubble was determined by Doppler ultrasound every 5 min.After intravenous anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital(20 mg/kg)through ear vein,vena cava posterior was exposed 10 cm as observation section by operation.The model rabbits of ADCS in therapy group were injected 25% alcoholic solution(3 ml/kg)through ear vein after air bubble determined by Doppler ultrasound,whereas in the control group,10 ml normal saline were instead of.The growth and decline of air bubble were observed through observation section,and integer anatomy was observed fractionally.Results Half of rabbits in control group died one after another within 30 min after out of from capsule.Among the rest rabbits,Ⅰ-Ⅲ grade sound of air bubble was still determined by Doppler ultrasound within 60-100 min and a great quantity of air bubble were observed in many sites,for example,vena cava posterior,subcutaneously,muscle,internal organ,recireulating system and so on.But no rabbits occured death in therapy group,Doppler sound of air bubble disappeared within 30-60 min after out of from capsule.The blood vessel diameter of vena cava posterior,subcutaneously,muscle,internal organ increased one time and blood flow rate significantly increased.There were no or a few of air bubble in recireulating system.Conclusions Alcohol therapy is a quick,effect,economy and pragmatic new method for the etiology of ADCS.%目的 探讨乙醇治疗急性减压病的病因学及其作用机制.方法 将实验兔32

  16. Sick of Taxes?

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price...... responsiveness. High taxes provide an incentive to take more sick leave, as less after tax income is lost when taxes are high. The panel data, which is representative of the Swedish population, allow for extensive controls including unobserved individual characteristics. I find a substantial price elasticity...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  17. Got a Sick Fish?

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  18. 红景天治疗急性高原反应的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Rhodiola rosea in the Treatment of Acute Moutain Sickness

    龚嘎蓝孜; 次仁旺姆; 索朗央宗; 白玛多吉; 多吉卓玛

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察红景天治疗急性高原反应(AMS)的疗效及安全性。方法:将首次从内地进藏的西藏大学新生中发生AMS的患者200例,按随机数字表法分为红景天组(67例)、银杏叶片组(65例)、乙酰唑胺组(68例)。每组受试者从进藏第1天开始服用对应药物,早晚各1次,连续服用7d。观察并比较3组受试者在第1、3、5、7天的临床疗效以及不良反应发生情况。结果:3种药物治疗均对AMS有效。第1、3、5、7天红景天组的AMS症状评分均比银杏叶片组和乙酰唑胺组低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);第1、3天银杏叶片组的AMS症状评分比乙酰唑胺组低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),但第5、7天银杏叶片组的AMS症状评分与乙酰唑胺组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。第3、5、7天红景天组的血氧饱和度(SaO2)高于银杏叶片组和乙酰唑胺组,第1、3、5、7天红景天组的心率(HR)低于银杏叶片组和乙酰唑胺组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);但银杏叶片组和乙酰唑胺组的SaO2及HR比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。红景天组未发生任何不良反应。结论:红景天可以减轻缺氧症状的严重程度,用于治疗AMS临床疗效确切、治愈时间短、安全性好。%OBJECTIVE:To observe therapeutic efficacy and safety of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of acute mountain sick-ness(AMS). METHODS:200 students with AMS in Tibet university from main land China,who had never been at high altitude before,were randomly divided into 3 groups by humber:R. rosea group(67 patients),Ginkgo biloba group(65 patients)and ac-etazolamide group(68 patients). Each group was given relevant medicine on the first day of inbound Tibet,morning and night,for consecutive 7 days. Clinical efficacy and ADR of 3 groups were observed and compared on first,third,fifth and seventh day. RE-SULTS:3 kinds of drugs were

  19. Sick building syndrome

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  20. Efficacy of Residence at Moderate Versus Low Altitude on Reducing Acute Mountain Sickness in Men Following Rapid Ascent to 4300 m

    2013-01-01

    AL, Rock PB, Muza SR, and Cymerman A. (2005). Carbohydrate supplementation im- proves cycle time-trial performance during energy deficit at 4,300-m...Heinicke K, Rojas J, Manuel J, Serrato GM, Mora M, Wolfarth B, Schmid A, and Keul J. (2002). Blood volume and hemoglobin mass in endurance athletes from

  1. [Serum sickness in diphtheria].

    Vozianova, Zh I; Chepilko, K I

    1999-01-01

    As many as 2247 patients with different clinical forms of diphtheria were examined. Antidiphtheric serum (ADS) was administered in 1556 children, the dosage being determined by condition of the patient. Serum sickness developed at day 7 to 9 in 24 (1.5%); 10 patients were found to run a mild course, 14--moderately severe. 6 patients had allergic reactions: 3--to antibiotic (penicillin), urticaria type, 1--to pertussoid-tetanic anatoxin, 2 had pollinosis-type reaction. Thus, serum sickness has practical value, which fact requires a detailed allergic history together with skin tests to be performed before the administration of ADS.

  2. Social inequalities in "sickness"

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    -employment were particularly high in the Anglo-Saxon and Eastern welfare regimes, and lowest in the Scandinavian regime. For men, absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness were lowest in the Southern regime; for women, inequalities were lowest in the Scandinavian regime. The authors conclude......In comparative studies of health inequalities, public health researchers have usually studied only disease and illness. Recent studies have also examined the sickness dimension of health, that is, the extent to which ill health is accompanied by joblessness, and how this association varies...

  3. Sickness and love: an introduction

    S. van der Geest; S. Vandamme

    2008-01-01

    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to sick

  4. Female sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1996-01-01

    It is observed that the working activity period has recently been decreasing in Poland; this applies to both the male and female populations. Since women constitute 48% of all workers employed in the national economy, this tendency may pose an important problem for the community and public health. The main information source for the absenteeism analysis are medical certificates which in Poland obligatorily document every instance of a sick-leave from work, irrespective of the length of sickness. A 15% random sample of all sickness certificates constitutes a database for the monitoring system of sickness absence. The lost time rate is the main parameter analysed by the system. In 1994 the rate of female sickness absence in Poland amounted to 25.1 days per one employee. In Poland the main causes of female sickness absence are: respiratory diseases--18% of all sickness absence (in the 16-19 age group--49%), and disorders of female genital tract and complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium (17% of all sickness absence and 48% in the 20-29 age group). The most important chronic diseases that substantially contribute to the level of sickness absence include: musculoskeletal diseases (15%), diseases of the circulatory system (15%) and the nervous system and sense organs (11%). Over the period of 1990-1994 the highest rate of the female sickness absence related to gynecological diseases and pregnancy complications (mean annual increase--22%), and the musculoskeletal diseases (mean annual increase--10%).

  5. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in acute and prolonged hypoxia

    Kanstrup, I L; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, J M

    1999-01-01

    and 5 days after rapid, passive transport to high altitude (4,559 m). Acute mountain sickness scores ranged from 5 to 16 (maximal attainable score: 20) on the first day but were reduced to 0-8 by the fifth day. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma epinephrine increased on day 1 at altitude...... compared with sea level but declined again on day 5, whereas diastolic and mean blood pressures continued to rise in parallel with plasma norepinephrine. With local cooling, an increased vasoactive response was seen on the fifth day at altitude. Very high pressures were obtained, and the pressure elevation...

  6. Childhood serum sickness: a case report.

    Chao, Y K; Shyur, S D; Wu, C Y; Wang, C Y

    2001-09-01

    Childhood serum sickness is a rare allergic disease that follows the administration of a foreign antigenic material, most commonly caused by injecting a protein or haptenic drug. The disease is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by deposits of circulating immune complexes in small vessels, which leads to complement activation and subsequent inflammation. The clinical features are fever, cutaneous eruptions, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, albuminuria, and nephritis. Serum sickness is an acute self-limited disease. We report a 3-year-old child who presented with fever and a rash; an invasive bacterial infection was strongly suspected. He was therefore given penicillin and gentamicin and responded well. At day 4 after admission, he developed a serum sickness reaction and showed symptoms of arthralgias, generalized edema, purpura, and gross hematuria. The white blood cell count was 12 190/mm3 with 7% eosinophils. Urinalysis revealed red blood cell above 100 per high power field, white blood cell 10 to 15 per high power field, and proteinuria. The antibiotics were discontinued and hydrocortisone (20 mg/kg/d), diphenhydramine HCl (4 mg/kg/d), aspirin (66 mg/kg/d) was administered, plus 1 dose of epinephrine (0.01 mL/kg) administered intramuscularly. On day 7, the 3rd day after withholding antibiotics, his condition dramatically improved. The clinical symptoms resolved progressively and his urinalysis returned to normal.

  7. Sick as a Dog

    2008-01-01

    当形容一个人病得很重时,英语中有这样的说法:Sick as a dog,为什么人们会用"狗"来表示"生病"的意思呢?原来,英语中dog一词有时含有贬义,比如:俚语going to the dogs,表示"糟糕透顶";dog in the manger,表示"犬占马槽、自私自利"的意思。

  8. Cinerama sickness and postural instability

    Bos, J.E.; Ledegang, W.D.; Lubeck, A.J.A.; Stins, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min af

  9. 非甲状腺病态综合征和急性心肌梗死的临床研究%A clinical study of acute myocardial infarction with non-thyroid sick syndrome

    高婧; 任颖; 魏盟; 王俊薇; 赵催春; 杜冬梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective The prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is related to age,comorbidities,and other factors,in which non-thyroid sick syndrome (NTIS) may also be an important factor.In this study,determination of blood free triiodothyronine (FT3) was used to explore the short-term and long-term mortality relationship of NTIS with acute myocardial infarction.Methods A total of 1 019 cases of newly diagnosed patients with acute myocardial infarction were enrolled.According to FT3 levels,the enlisted subjects were divided into Quartile 1-4 groups; survival group and non-survival group; normal thyroid function and NTIS group.The enrolled subjects were followed-up for 6-90 months,with the median follow-up time of 44.5 months.Using logistic regression and Cox hazards model,the relationships of short-term and long-term mortality in AMI with NTIS or FT3 were compared.Results The incidence of NTIS in patients with AMI was 27.78%.With the progressively decreasing FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratio,the mortality rates were progressively increased (Quartile 1 group 9.4%,Quartile 2 group 13.8%,Quartile 3 group 14.3%,Quartile 4 group 34.0%,P<0.01).After being adjusted,FT3 was the strongest influencing factor of mortality within 30 days (RR =0.212,95% CI 0.125-0.359).Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that FT3 was independently associated with long-term mortality (RR =0.674,95% CI 0.514-0.885).Kaplan-Meier showed significant difference in mortality between quartile 1-3 groups and the Quartile 4 group.Even FT3 level was within the low normal range,it was related with the mortality in AMI.Conclusions NTIS is common in patients with AMI.After being adjusted,FT3 was the strongest predictor of mortality within 30 days,and low FT3level in AMI patients was an independent risk factor for long-term all-cause mortality.Even FT3 level was within the normal range,it was still related with mortality in myocardial infarction.%目的 本研究通过检测急性心

  10. IDIOPATHIC SICK SINUS SYNDROME

    S. Y. Nikulina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate changes in hereditary burden of sick sinus syndrome (SSS in families of patients with SSS and assess heart rate variability (HRV in patients with SSS.Results. 33 families of patients with SSS were examined. Clinical study, ECG-Holter monitoring, atropine test, transesophageal left atrial stimulation, echocardiography, veloergometry were fulfilled in all probands and their relatives in 1990 and 2005-2006. Cardiorhythmography was done in patients with SSS only in 2005-2006.Results. Increase in hereditary burden with SSS from 31 to 35% is registered during 15 years. Significant growth of patients with SSS was observed among daughters (from 50 to 71%, nephews (from 33 to 50% and nieces (from 0 to 20%. HRV analysis shows prevalence of sympathetic system activity in patients with SSS.Conclusion. Growth of hereditary burden with SSS especially among female relatives is shown. HRV analysis can be used for SSS diagnostics.

  11. Social inequalities in 'sickness'

    Wel, Kjetil A. van der; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social...... from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more...... inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked ‘sickness’-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived...

  12. Emetic Mechanism in Acute Radiation Sickness

    1987-08-20

    organ (CVO) system comprising a group 1 of subependymal vascular proliferations that are distributed on the pial- ependymal margin of the brain and which...section of cat hemi-medulla oblongata rostral to the opening of the spinal canal . CTZ is the chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting located in the area...of the Vth cranial nerve. In no case was any damage apparent rostrally in the AP. Ventrally, the lesions reached down to the central canal , generally

  13. 重组鼠白细胞介素12对急性放射病小鼠的最佳防护时间%Optimal protection time of interleukin 12 on mice with acute radiation sickness

    王利; 翟瑞仁; 逄朝霞; 张超; 余长林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the optimal protection time of recombinant murine interleukin 12 (rmIL-12) on mice with acute radiation sickness. Methods Fifty-six BALB/c mice were given 6.0Gy 60Co γ-rays total body irradiation and randomly assigned into irradiation control group, rmIL-12 pre-treatment, post-treatment and combined-treatment group. 20 μg/kg of rmIL-12 were administrated intraperitoneally 24 hours before irradiation, 1 hours after irradiation and combination of 24 hours before irradiation and 1 hours after irradiation, respectively. The general condition of mice were observed twice a day, the changes in body weight, peripheral blood cell counts were examined once every three days, bone marrow cells were collected to perform colony cultivation on day 14 and 28 after irradiation. Results The general condition of mice in rmIL-12 treatment group was better than that of irradiation control group. Compared with the irradiation control group, rmIL-12 treatment significantly promoted platelet recovery, resulting in less profound nadirs (16.5% vs. 8.1%,22.4% vs. 8.1%, 18.9% vs. 8.1%,P〈 0.01) and rapid recovery to normal levels (11 days vs. 14 days). The duration of WBC〈50% in rmIL-12 treatment group was shorter than that in the control group(17d vs. 21d). WBC recovery speed in the treatment groups was significantly faster than that in the control group. The nadirs of HGB in rmIL-12 treatment groups were higher than those in the control group (61%~63% vs 50%,P〈 0.01). Semi-solid bone marrow cell culture also demonstrated that rmIL-12 could stimulate bone marrow cells to form more CFU-Mix than those of the irradiation group in vitro on 14th and 28th after irradiation (P〈 0.01), but there was no significant difference between the three dosing schedules of rmIL-12 treatment groups (P 〉 0.05). Conclusion All three different dosing schedules of rmIL-12 can significantly accelerate the recovery of hematopoietic function, especially megakaryocyte lineage, in acute

  14. 白细胞介素12对急性放射病小鼠造血系统的影响%Effect of recombinant murine interleukin 12 on hematopoietic systems in mice of acute radiation sickness

    王利; 王碧薇; 赵红霞; 左洪莉; 赵月莹; 余长林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of recombinant murine interleukin 12(rmIL-12) on the hematopoietic systems in mice of acute radiation sickness. Methods Forty-two BALB/C mice were given 6.0Gy 60Co γrays total body irradiation and randomly assigned into irradiation control group, 5 and 20 μg/kg rmIL-12 treatment groups. Solvent and 5.20 μg/kg of rmIL-12 were administrated intraperitoneally 1 h following irradiation, and was administrated every 3 days after irradiation. The general conditions of mice were observed twice a day, the changes in body weight, peripheral blood cell counts were examined every three days, histopathological sections of femur were prepared to observe the histomorphological changes, and bone marrow cells were collected to perform colony cultivation on day 14 and 28 after irradiation. Results The general conditions of mice in rmIL-12 treatment group were better than those of irradiation control group. Compared with the irradiation control group,rmIL-12 5,20 μg/kg treatment significantly promoted platelet recovery, resulting in less profound nadirs( 15.9% vs 8.1%, 15.1% vs 8.1%, P < 0.05) and rapid recovery to normal levels(11 days vs 14 days). Semi-solid bone marrow cell culture also demonstrated that rmIL-12 could stimulate bone marrow cells to form more CFU-GEMM than those of the irradiation group in vitro. Conclusion RmIL-12 can significantly accelerate the recovery of hematopoietic function in acute radiation sickness mice.%目的 研究重组鼠白细胞介素12(rmIL-12)对急性放射病小鼠造血系统的影响.方法 42只BALB/c小鼠均给予6.0Gy(60)γ射线全身照射,随机分为照射对照组、5和20μg/kg的rmIL-12治疗组,治疗组分别于照后1h及此后每3d一次分别腹腔注射5和20 μg/(kg·d)的rmIL-12,共5次,每日2次观察小鼠一般情况,3d检测1次外周血细胞,分别于照射后14和28 d制备股骨病理切片观察组织形态学改变,收集骨髓细胞进行集落培养.结果 rmIL-12

  15. The cost of sickness: on the effect of the duration of sick leave on post-sick leave earnings.

    Andersen, Signe Hald

    2010-05-01

    Studies analysing the effect of the duration of sick leave on subsequent labour market outcomes do not consider the potential endogenous relationship between duration and labour market outcomes. This paper deals with this shortcoming by using a consistent estimator attained through Instrumental Variables methods for estimating the effect of the duration of a sick leave spell on post-sick leave earnings. I use Danish administrative data and a major 2001 reform of the sick leave system as the instrument for duration. I find that the duration of a sick leave spell has both short and long term effects on post-sick leave earnings.

  16. Sick Leave and Subjective Health Complaints

    Tveito, Torill Helene

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to identify risk factors for high levels of sick leave and investigate what – if anything – can be done to reduce sick leave. What is the role of “subjective health complaints”, coping, and psychosocial work factors in relation to sick leave, and to what extent do these factors and the sick leave relate to quality of life? Are there any interventions with a documented effect on sick leave in the literature? Is it possible to influence sick leave thr...

  17. African horse sickness.

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  18. Sick sinus syndrome: a review.

    Semelka, Michael; Gera, Jerome; Usman, Saif

    2013-05-15

    Sick sinus syndrome refers to a collection of disorders marked by the heart's inability to perform its pacemaking function. Predominantly affecting older adults, sick sinus syndrome comprises various arrhythmias, including bradyarrhythmias with or without accompanying tachyarrhythmias. At least 50 percent of patients with sick sinus syndrome develop alternating bradycardia and tachycardia, also known as tachy-brady syndrome. Sick sinus syndrome results from intrinsic causes, or may be exacerbated or mimicked by extrinsic factors. Intrinsic causes include degenerative fibrosis, ion channel dysfunction, and remodeling of the sinoatrial node. Extrinsic factors can be pharmacologic, metabolic, or autonomic. Signs and symptoms are often subtle early on and become more obvious as the disease progresses. They are commonly related to end-organ hypoperfusion. Cerebral hypoperfusion is most common, with syncope or near-fainting occurring in about one-half of patients. Diagnosis may be challenging, and is ultimately made by electrocardiographic identification of the arrhythmia in conjunction with the presence of symptoms. If electrocardiography does not yield a diagnosis, inpatient telemetry monitoring, outpatient Holter monitoring, event monitoring, or loop monitoring may be used. Electrophysiologic studies also may be used but are not routinely needed. Treatment of sick sinus syndrome includes removing extrinsic factors, when possible, and pacemaker placement. Pacemakers do not reduce mortality, but they can decrease symptoms and improve quality of life.

  19. Separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with sickness absence.

    Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Pain and emotional exhaustion are prevalent conditions with consequences for sickness absence. Although they often co-occur, their combined associations with sickness absence are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with subsequent sickness absence. The data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey sent to 40 to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000 to 2002 (n = 6457) linked with the City of Helsinki personnel register information on sickness absence (3 years on from the survey). Self-certified (1-3 days) and medically certified sickness absence spells (4-14 days, more than 14 days) were used as outcomes. Acute and chronic pain and emotional exhaustion were measured in a questionnaire survey. For the purposes of this study, sickness absence and pain variables were merged to form a new variable with 6 mutually exclusive categories. The main statistical method was negative binomial regression analysis. The synergy index was used to estimate the interaction. Among women, acute and chronic pain with and without emotional exhaustion predicted sickness absence, particularly absence lasting for more than 2 weeks, whereas emotional exhaustion alone did not. The associations persisted when further adjusted for socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, and somatic and mental health. A synergistic interaction effect was found for co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion on medically certified sickness absence. The results for men were mainly similar, but less stable. In order to tackle sickness absence, special attention should be paid to the prevention and treatment of employees with co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion.

  20. Hyperventilation in a motion sickness desensitization program

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.; Nooij, S.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In motion sickness desensitization programs, the motion sickness provocative stimulus is often a forward bending of the trunk on a rotating chair, inducing Coriolis effects. Since respiratory relaxation techniques are applied successfully in these courses, we investigated whether these

  1. Absence and leave; sick leave. Final rule.

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill covered servicemember, as authorized under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, including up to 30 days of advanced sick leave for this purpose. Finally, we are reorganizing the existing sick leave regulations to enhance reader understanding and administration of the program.

  2. Parenthood, gender and sickness absence.

    Mastekaasa, A

    2000-06-01

    It is well documented that women have generally higher morbidity rates than men. In line with this women are also more absent from work due to sickness. This paper considers one popular explanation of the morbidity difference in general and of the difference in sickness absence in particular, viz. that women to a greater extent than men are exposed to the 'double burden' of combining paid work with family obligations. We discuss theories of role overload and role conflict, which both assume that the combination of multiple roles may have negative health effects, as well theories of role enhancement, which assume positive health effects of multiple roles. Using two large Norwegian data sets, the relationship between the number of and the age of children on the one hand and sickness absence on the other is examined separately for men and women and for a number of theoretically interesting subpopulations of women defined in terms of marital status (also taking account of unmarried cohabitation), level of education, and working hours. Generally speaking the association between children and sickness absence is weak, particularly for married people of both genders. To the extent that married persons with children are more absent than married persons without children, this is largely due to respiratory conditions. The relationship between children and sickness absence is somewhat stronger for single, never married mothers, but not for single mothers who have been previously married or for women living in unmarried cohabitation. The findings thus provide little support for either role overload/conflict or role enhancement theories. The possibility that these effects are both present and counterbalancing each other or that they are confounded with uncontrolled selection effects can not, however, be ruled out.

  3. Simulator sickness and its measurement with Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ

    Marcin P. Biernacki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common methods for studying the simulator sickness issue is the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ (Kennedy et al., 1993. Despite the undoubted popularity of the SSQ, this questionnaire has not as yet been standardized and translated, which could allow us to use it in Poland for research purposes. The aim of our article is to introduce the SSQ to Polish readers, both researchers and practitioners. In the first part of this paper, the studies using the SSQ are discussed, whereas the second part consists of the description of the SSQ test procedure and the calculation method of sample results. Med Pr 2016;67(4:545–555

  4. Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon Leads to Acute but Transient Increase in Cerebral Water Diffusivity and Plasma Biomarkers Levels Changes

    Zanchi, Davide; Viallon, Magalie; Le Goff, Caroline; Millet, Grégoire P.; Giardini, Guido; Croisille, Pierre; Haller, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pioneer studies demonstrate the impact of extreme sport load on the human brain, leading to threatening conditions for athlete's health such as cerebral edema. The investigation of brain water diffusivity, allowing the measurement of the intercellular water and the assessment of cerebral edema, can give a great contribution to the investigation of the effects of extreme sports on the brain. We therefore assessed the effect of supra-physiological effort (extreme distance and elevation changes) in mountain ultra-marathons (MUMs) athletes combining for the first time brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood parameters. Methods:This longitudinal study included 19 volunteers (44.2 ± 9.5 years) finishing a MUM (330 km, elevation + 24000 m). Quantitative measurements of brain diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were performed at 3 time-points: Before the race, upon arrival and after 48 h. Multiple blood biomarkers were simultaneously investigated. Data analyses included brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and physiological data comparisons between three time-points. Results:The whole brain ADC significantly increased from baseline to arrival (p = 0.005) and then significantly decreased at recovery (p = 0.005) to lower values than at baseline (p = 0.005). While sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride as well as hematocrit (HCT) changed over time, the serum osmolality remained constant. Significant correlations were found between whole brain ADC changes and osmolality (p = 0.01), cholesterol (p = 0.009), c-reactive protein (p = 0.04), sodium (p = 0.01), and chloride (p = 0.002) plasma level variations. Conclusions:These results suggest the relative increase of the inter-cellular volume upon arrival, and subsequently its reduction to lower values than at baseline, indicating that even after 48 h the brain has not fully recovered to its equilibrium state. Even though serum electrolytes may only indirectly indicate modifications at the brain level due

  5. Sick, the spectroscopic inference crank

    Casey, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives which remain severely under-utilised. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analysing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this Article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbour estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimised point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalise on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-di...

  6. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  7. Self-reported sick leave and long-term health symptoms of Q-fever patients.

    Morroy, G.; Bor, H.; Polder, J.J.; Hautvast, J.L.; Hoek, W. van der; Schneeberger, P.M.; Wijkmans, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In The Netherlands, 1168 Q-fever patients were notified in 2007 and 2008. Patients and general practitioners (GPs) regularly reported persisting symptoms after acute Q-fever, especially fatigue and long periods of sick leave, to the public health authorities. International studies on sma

  8. 高海拔地区多脏器低氧损伤与重症急性高原病患者死亡的关系分析%The relationship analysis between the multi-organ hypoxic damage and the death in acute high altitude sickness severe sase

    李素芝; 郑必海; 黄跃; 闫春城; 李珣; 郑建保; 何袆; 周晓波

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨高海拔地区多脏器低氧损伤与重症急性高原病患者死亡的关系.方法 应用调查表对本院收治的3220例HACE与HAPE病例进行回顾,检出其中多器官功能障碍(MODS)及其死亡病例,分析其临床症状、体征、辅助检查等资料等对高海拔地区重症急性高原病患者临床死亡原因及其特点.结果 8.7%急性高原病患者并发MODS(281/3220),其中治愈3185例,死亡35例,病死率为1.1%,死亡患者的各临床症状、阳性体征及辅助检查阳性发生率分别为2.86%~65.71%、2.86%~100%、14.29%~100%,死亡患者的MODS发生率为100%.281例并发MODS的患者(死亡35例,治愈246例)中死亡组MODS数、心脏功能障碍、脑功能障碍及肾功能障碍方面均显著高于治愈组(P<0.05).重症急性高原病患者死亡与MODS数呈正相关(r=0.3473,P<0.01).结论 高海拔地区重症急性高原病患者的死亡与低氧对各脏器功能的损伤密切相关,心、脑、肾等重要脏器功能障碍是导致患者死亡的重要原因.%Objectives To analyze the relationship between the multi-organ hypoxia damage and the death of acute high altitude sickness severe case. Methods 3220 cases from 1956. 06 to 2005.06 in the hospital were reviewed by questionnaire and the cases in MODS or death were screened out. The cause of death and feature were analyzed by the data as clinical symptom, physical signs and auxiliary examination. Results 281 cases complicated by MODS (include 35 dead cases) were found out by review. The incidence with MODS is 8.73% , and the death rate was 1.09%. The masculine incidence rate of the clinical symptom, physical signs and auxiliary examination in death were 2. 86% ~65. 71% , 2. 86% ~ 100% and 14. 29% ~ 100% , respectively. The MODS incidence in dead cases was 100%. Compared with the curing group, the MODS number, cardiac functional disturbance, brain disorder and renal functional disturbance in the death group had a significantly high

  9. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  10. The sick role and the role of the physician reconsidered.

    Parsons, T

    1975-01-01

    The main substance of this paper was presented orally at a meeting of the Sick Role, organized and chaired by Andrew Twaddle. It was a commentary on four papers and the oral discussion of them. In response to these the paper first discusses the relation of the sick role to deviant behavior and the motivation to become and remain ill. The position was taken that the author never had meant to confine the category of illness to deviant behavior, though its negative valuation should not be forgotten. Nor had he confined it to cases of acute illness, omitting consideration of chronic and other types. The most important issue, however, concerned the structure of the relation between physician and patient. Though insisting that interaction between them is two-way, not one-way, the author insisted that the relation is basically asymmetrical because of the physician's expertise in health matters, gained through training and experience, and his special fiduciary responsibility for the care of the sick. In this respect the relationship is different from others such as the competitive market or the democratic association, but is comparable to the relation of teacher and student in higher education.

  11. SICK: THE SPECTROSCOPIC INFERENCE CRANK

    Casey, Andrew R., E-mail: arc@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambdridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  12. Work-related psychosocial events as triggers of sick leave - results from a Swedish case-crossover study

    Lindholm Christina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although illness is an important cause of sick leave, it has also been suggested that non-medical risk factors may influence this association. If such factors impact on the period of decision making, they should be considered as triggers. Yet, there is no empirical support available. The aim was to investigate whether recent exposure to work-related psychosocial events can trigger the decision to report sick when ill. Methods A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a Swedish cohort of 1 430 employees with a 3-12 month follow-up of new sick-leave spells. Exposure in a case period corresponding to an induction period of one or two days was compared with exposure during control periods sampled from workdays during a two-week period prior to sick leave for the same individual. This was done according to the matched-pair interval and the usual frequency approaches. Results are presented as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Most sick-leave spells happened in relation to acute, minor illnesses that substantially reduced work ability. The risk of taking sick leave was increased when individuals had recently been exposed to problems in their relationship with a superior (OR 3.63; CI 1.44-9.14 or colleagues (OR 4.68; CI 1.43-15.29. Individuals were also more inclined to report sick on days when they expected a very stressful work situation than on a day when they were not under such stress (OR 2.27; CI 1.40-3.70. Conclusions Exposure to problems in workplace relationships or a stressful work situation seems to be able to trigger reporting sick. Psychosocial work-environmental factors appear to have a short-term effect on individuals when deciding to report sick.

  13. GENETIC PREDICTORS OF IDIOPATHIC SICK SINUS SYNDROME

    A. A. Chernova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Published data demonstrating genetic determination of sick sinus syndrome is presented. The definition of this pathology is presented; the main symptoms are described, as well as genes that influence the development of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome, their polymorphisms and role in disorders of the cardiovascular system.

  14. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods P

  15. Predicting motion sickness during parabolic flight

    Harm, Deborah L.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are large individual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness. Attempts to predict who will become motion sick have had limited success. In the present study, we examined gender differences in resting levels of salivary amylase and total protein, cardiac interbeat intervals (R-R intervals), and a sympathovagal index and evaluated their potential to correctly classify individuals into two motion sickness severity groups. METHODS: Sixteen subjects (10 men and 6 women) flew four sets of 10 parabolas aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Saliva samples for amylase and total protein were collected preflight on the day of the flight and motion sickness symptoms were recorded during each parabola. Cardiovascular parameters were collected in the supine position 1-5 days before the flight. RESULTS: There were no significant gender differences in sickness severity or any of the other variables mentioned above. Discriminant analysis using salivary amylase, R-R intervals and the sympathovagal index produced a significant Wilks' lambda coefficient of 0.36, p=0.006. The analysis correctly classified 87% of the subjects into the none-mild sickness or the moderate-severe sickness group. CONCLUSIONS: The linear combination of resting levels of salivary amylase, high-frequency R-R interval levels, and a sympathovagal index may be useful in predicting motion sickness severity.

  16. Motion Sickness Induced by Optokinetic Drums

    Bos, J.E.; Bles, W.

    2004-01-01

    Motion sickness is not only elicited by certain kinds of self-motion, but also by motion of a visual scene. In case of the latter, optokinetic drums are often used and a visual-vestibular conflict is assumed to cause the sickness. When the rotation axis is Earth vertical however, different studies s

  17. Girl Babies Make Mothers Sick

    杨哲

    2000-01-01

    已经或是将要做母亲的女性阅读此文一定兴味盎然。本文告诉我们: …women suffering from extreme morning sickness during the first three months of pregnancy are more likely to be carrying a daughter than a son. 这个结论不是凭空想象出来的,其调查的对象人数多达百万,令人吃惊: Askling and his team compared more than a million births in Sweden with records of women admitted to hospital for extreme morning sickness. 更令人吃惊的是,除了现代的调查之外,研究人员还引用了古希腊名医希波克拉底的观点: …female fetuses gave the mother a pale face, whereas a mother carrying a male fetus has a healthier tone(气色)to her skin.】

  18. Genetic aspects of sick sinus syndrome

    Chernova A.A.

    2013-03-01

    consistent with that of the genotypes of the above genes in the general population of primary sick sinus syndrome patients. The allelic variants of the above genes were not found to be associated with ompensated sick sinus syndrome. Conclusion. The genetic predictors of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome are heterozygous genotypes 44 GA and 4a/4b genes Cx 40 and NOS3 as well as homozygous genotypes in rare allele DD and GG genes ADRA2B and SCN5A. Polymorphic allelic variant 2161C > T (Arg721Trp of MYH6 gene was not revealed in the examined cohort of Krasnoyarsk population. The distribution of the genotypes of the investigated genes in latent sick sinus syndrome patients was found to be consistent with that of the genotypes in the general population of primary sick sinus syndrome patients.

  19. 藏族青少年再次返藏急性高原病发病率调查研究%The incidence of acute mountain sickness in Tibetan middle school students back again from lowland to Tibet

    拉巴桑珠; 朱凯; 龚嘎蓝孜; 潘永越; 央卓玛; 崔超英; 吴天一

    2015-01-01

    目的::通过调查内地西藏班初中生返回高原后急性高原病发病情况,了解藏族青少年再次返回高原后急性高原病发病情况与其血氧饱和度之间的关联。方法:以夏季回西藏参加中考学生在拉萨集中学习的某内地西藏中学中考学生(共计202人)作为研究对象,测量受调查者心率及血氧饱和度,并进行了高原病相关问卷调查。结果:藏族青少年再次返回高原后急性高原病发病率为36.1%。男性发病率为26.9%,女性发病率为42.5%(2=4.839,p0.05)was weak. The prevalence of AMS was 36.1%among Tibetan middle school students who back again to high altitude in Tibet after 3 to 4 years stayed at sea level and prevalence of AMS in girls was significantly greater than that in boys.

  20. Archives, libraries and museums: containers often sick, sometimes seriously sick

    Roberto Nicolucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As far as the feeling of quietness and peace that they often convey, archives, museums and libraries also hide dangers that you may not imagine, either for visitors or especially for the members of the staff. Indeed the poor microclimatic conditions – often the consequences of materials and construction or building technologies that appear definitely obsolete – often arouse suspicion and worry among the staff. Wrong Thermo hygrometric parameters, the presence of volatile organic elements, mineral fibers, biocides, radon gas, aerial dispersive molecules, are among others some of the chemical physical polluters of major influence that may contribute to giving life to the so-called Sick Building Syndrome. But such spaces also bear biological polluters that can provoke pathologies of various types and importance, among which the feared Illness of Legionnaire. The presence of electromagnetic fields, but above all wrong lighting and wrong ergonomic working positions represent some risk factors for members of staff and visitors.

  1. Acute injuries from mountain biking.

    Chow, T K; Bracker, M D; Patrick, K

    1993-08-01

    We questioned members of 2 southern California off-road bicycling organizations about injuries associated with the use of all-terrain bicycles. Cyclists were asked about riding and safety habits, the kind(s) of injury sustained with their most recent accident and whether they sought medical treatment, and the circumstances of the accident. Of 459 mailed surveys, 268 (58.4%) were returned. Respondents (82.8% of whom were male) ranged in age from 14 to 68 years. Of these, 225 (84%) had been injured while riding all-terrain bicycles, 51% in the past year. Although most injuries were characterized as minor, 26% required professional medical care, and 4.4% of those injured were admitted to hospital. Extremity injuries--abrasions, lacerations, contusions--occurred in 201 (90%) cyclists with 27 (12%) sustaining a fracture or dislocation. High levels of helmet use (88%) may explain the low occurrence of head and neck trauma (12%). Frequent riding and riding on paved terrain were associated with increased severity of injury, although most accidents--197 (87.6%)--occurred off paved roads. These results suggest that, compared with regular bicyclists, all-terrain cyclists have more, but not necessarily more severe, injuries. Clinicians and emergency medical personnel should be aware that the increasing popularity of off-road cycling may change the frequency and nature of bicycling injuries.

  2. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model.

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-01-15

    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  3. Workplace bullying and sickness presenteeism

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e., working while ill. Methods: This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees...... with missing values, the final samples were composed of 2,865 and 1,331participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Results: Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e., daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more...... indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being...

  4. Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis: effects on sick leaves and cost of lost workdays.

    Jaana I Halonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2007, part of a drinking water distribution system was accidentally contaminated with waste water effluent causing a gastroenteritis outbreak in a Finnish town. We examined the acute and cumulative effects of this incidence on sick leaves among public sector employees residing in the clean and contaminated areas, and the additional costs of lost workdays due to the incidence. METHODS: Daily information on sick leaves of 1789 Finnish Public Sector Study participants was obtained from employers' registers. Global Positioning System-coordinates were used for linking participants to the clean and contaminated areas. Prevalence ratios (PR for weekly sickness absences were calculated using binomial regression analysis. Calculations for the costs were based on prior studies. RESULTS: Among those living in the contaminated areas, the prevalence of participants on sick leave was 3.54 (95% confidence interval (CI 2.97-4.22 times higher on the week following the incidence compared to the reference period. Those living and working in the clean area were basically not affected, the corresponding PR for sick leaves was 1.12, 95% CI 0.73-1.73. No cumulative effects on sick leaves were observed among the exposed. The estimated additional costs of lost workdays due to the incidence were 1.8-2.1 million euros. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of sickness absences among public sector employees residing in affected areas increased shortly after drinking water distribution system was contaminated, but no long-term effects were observed. The estimated costs of lost workdays were remarkable, thus, the cost-benefits of better monitoring systems for the water distribution systems should be evaluated.

  5. MOUNTAINS UNITE

    Svitlana Dovbenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Schools in the Ukrainian Carpathian mountain region work in specific conditions. They have original traditions, a special nature of learning and work. Indeed, because of a remote location mountain village school becomes the center for a cultural and spiritual life. Of course, it is related to a present social and economic situation in the country and a slow progress of society. Therefore, we need to look at mountain school with a broader angle, help it in comprehensive development of an individual and ensure an availability of quality education for children living in mountainous areas. Here we should talk about learning as well as laying the foundations for a life success. The international research project Mountain School. Status. Problems. Prospects for Development. Is established to help solve these problems. Precarpathian National University is an active member of the project.

  6. Controlled progressive innate immune stimulation regimen prevents the induction of sickness behavior in the open field test.

    Chen, Qun; Tarr, Andrew J; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yufen; Reed, Nathaniel S; Demarsh, Cameron P; Sheridan, John F; Quan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral immune activation by bacterial mimics or live replicating pathogens is well known to induce central nervous system activation. Sickness behavior alterations are often associated with inflammation-induced increases in peripheral proinflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin [IL]-1β and IL-6). However, most researchers have used acute high dose endotoxin/bacterial challenges to observe these outcomes. Using this methodology may pose inherent risks in the translational interpretation of the experimental data in these studies. Studies using Escherichia coli have yet to establish the full kinetics of repeated E. coli peripheral injections. Therefore, we sought to examine the effects of repeated low dose E. coli on sickness behavior and local peripheral inflammation in the open field test. Results from the current experiments showed a behavioral dose response, where increased amounts of E. coli resulted in correspondingly increased sickness behavior. Furthermore, animals that received a subthreshold dose (ie, one that did not cause sickness behavior) of E. coli 24 hours prior were able to withstand a larger dose of E. coli on the second day (a dose that would normally cause sickness behavior in mice without prior exposure) without inducing sickness behavior. In addition, animals that received escalating subthreshold doses of E. coli on days 1 and 2 behaviorally tolerated a dose of E. coli 25 times higher than what would normally cause sickness behavior if given acutely. Lastly, increased levels of E. coli caused increased IL-6 and IL-1β protein expression in the peritoneal cavity, and this increase was blocked by administering a subthreshold dose of E. coli 24 hours prior. These data show that progressive challenges with subthreshold levels of E. coli may obviate the induction of sickness behavior and proinflammatory cytokine expression.

  7. Metals: In Sickness and in Health

    ... All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Metals: In Sickness and in Health By Stephanie Dutchen Posted February 1, 2012 ... only strengthens bones but also plays a role in muscle, nerve function and blood clotting. Sodium and ...

  8. Evidence Report: Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Norcross, Jason R.; Wessel, James H., III; Klein, Jill S.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Given that tissue inert gas partial pressure is often greater than ambient pressure during phases of a mission, primarily during extravehicular activity (EVA), there is a possibility of decompression sickness (DCS).

  9. P6 acupressure reduces morning sickness.

    Dundee, J W; Sourial, F B; Ghaly, R G; Bell, P F

    1988-08-01

    A prospective study was designed to test the efficacy of pressure at the P6 (Neiguan) acupuncture point, in preventing morning sickness. Three groups of patients in early pregnancy recorded the severity and frequency of sickness over a period of 4 consecutive days following daily pressure at P6 point, pressure at a point near the right elbow and with no treatment. Troublesome sickness was significantly less in both the genuine (23/119) and dummy (41/112) pressure groups as compared with the control series (67/119). When the data are adversely 'weighted' to compensate for the lower incidence of fully completed returns in the active treatment groups, only the P6 group show a significant reduction in sickness. No side effects occurred in either group and while anticipation of benefit may offer a partial explanation for the findings, pressure at the Neiguan point appears to have a specific therapeutic effect.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: sick sinus syndrome

    ... the structure of myosin, which can affect cardiac muscle contraction and increase the likelihood of developing an abnormal heartbeat. More commonly, sick sinus syndrome is caused by other ... such as muscular dystrophy, abnormal inflammation, or a shortage of oxygen ( ...

  11. Mountaineering Tourism

    Patrick Maher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountaineering Tourism Edited by Ghazali Musa, James Higham, and Anna Thompson-Carr. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2015. xxvi + 358 pp. Hardcover. US$ 145.00. ISBN 978-1-138-78237-2.

  12. European EVA decompression sickness risks

    Vogt, Lorenz; Wenzel, Jürgen; Skoog, A. I.; Luck, S.; Svensson, Bengt

    For the first manned flight of Hermes there will be a capability of performing EVA. The European EVA Space Suit will be an anthropomorphic system with an internal pressure of 500 hPa of pure oxygen. The pressure reduction from the Hermes cabin pressure of 1013 hPa will induce a risk for Decompression Sickness (DCS) for the EVA crewmember if no adequate protective procedures are implemented. Specific decompression procedures have to be developed. From a critical review of the literature and by using knowledge gained from research conducted in the past in the fields of diving and aerospace medicine safe protective procedures are proposed for the European EVA scenario. An R factor of 1.2 and a tissue half-time ( t1/2) of 360 minutes in a single-tissue model have been identified as appropriate operational values. On the basis of an acceptable risk level of approximately 1%, oxygen prebreathing times are proposed for (a) direct pressure reduction from 1013 hPa to a suit pressure of 500 hPa, and (b) staged decompression using a 700 hPa intermediate stage in the spacecraft cabin. In addition, factors which influence individual susceptibility to DCS are identified. Recommendations are also given in the areas of crew selection and medical monitoring requirements together with therapeutic measures that can be implemented in the Hermes scenario. A method for demonstration of the validity of proposed risks and procedures is proposed.

  13. Predictors of differences in the perception of antimicrobial resistance risk in the treatment of sick, at-risk, and high-risk feedlot cattle.

    Jan, Jie-Sheng; McIntosh, Wm Alex; Dean, Wesley; Scott, H Morgan

    2012-09-01

    Concerns exist that some uses of antimicrobials in cattle may lead to the emergence, proliferation, dissemination and persistence of resistant pathogenic bacteria in animal agriculture, which in turn can infect humans via the food supply. The degree of perceived risk varies with the clinical indication for which the antimicrobial in question is used. In this study, four uses of antimicrobials are considered, including in acutely sick, chronically sick, at-risk, and high-risk cattle, contrasting the degree of risk among these uses. Using a random sample of 103 feedlot cattle veterinarians and variables drawn from the theory of planned behavior, we predict differences in risk perception by clinical indication with differences in perceived efficacy of antimicrobials, social pressures to use antimicrobials, and moral obligations to use antimicrobials. In most models, veterinarians who perceived that others in the feedlot industry (i.e., other feedlot veterinarians, nutritionists, feedlot clients, and retained owners of cattle) were more likely to expect them to use antimicrobials in one situation versus another, the less likely those veterinarians perceived the risk of antimicrobial risk to be greater in the former versus the latter situation. Only two of these contrasts contained influences outside the immediate feedlot relationships. This exception involves the 'downstream' public: meat packers, retailers, and consumers. Veterinarians who believe that using antimicrobials for acutely sick cattle is more beneficial than using antimicrobials for chronically sick cattle were more likely to believe that antimicrobial resistance was a less probable outcome in acutely sick cattle than in chronically sick cattle.

  14. Structural and functional changes of the human macula during acute exposure to high altitude.

    M Dominik Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to quantify structural and functional changes at the macula during acute exposure to high altitude and to assess their structure/function relationship. This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry were used to quantify changes of central retinal structure and function in 14 healthy subjects during acute exposure to high altitude (4559 m. High-resolution volume scans and fundus-controlled microperimetry of the posterior pole were performed in addition to best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA measurements and assessment of acute mountain sickness. Analysis of measurements at altitude vs. baseline revealed increased total retinal thickness (TRT in all four outer ETDRS grid subfields during acute altitude exposure (TRT(outer = 2.80 ± 1.00 μm; mean change ± 95%CI. This change was inverted towards the inner four subfields (TRT(inner = -1.89 ± 0.97 μm with significant reduction of TRT in the fovea (TRT(foveal = -6.62 ± 0.90 μm at altitude. BCVA revealed no significant difference compared to baseline (0.06 ± 0.08 logMAR. Microperimetry showed stable mean sensitivity in all but the foveal subfield (MS(foveal = -1.12 ± 0.68 dB. At baseline recordings before and >2 weeks after high altitude exposure, all subjects showed equal levels with no sign of persisting structural or functional sequels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: During acute exposure to high altitude central retinal thickness is subject to minor, yet statistically significant changes. These alterations describe a function of eccentricity with an increase in regions with relatively higher retinal nerve fiber content and vascular arcades. However, these changes did not correlate with measures of central retinal function or acute mountain sickness. For the first time a quantitative approach has been used to assess these changes during acute

  15. Structural and Functional Changes of the Human Macula during Acute Exposure to High Altitude

    Fischer, M. Dominik; Willmann, Gabriel; Schatz, Andreas; Schommer, Kai; Zhour, Ahmad; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to quantify structural and functional changes at the macula during acute exposure to high altitude and to assess their structure/function relationship. This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methodology/Principal Findings Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry were used to quantify changes of central retinal structure and function in 14 healthy subjects during acute exposure to high altitude (4559 m). High-resolution volume scans and fundus-controlled microperimetry of the posterior pole were performed in addition to best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurements and assessment of acute mountain sickness. Analysis of measurements at altitude vs. baseline revealed increased total retinal thickness (TRT) in all four outer ETDRS grid subfields during acute altitude exposure (TRTouter = 2.80±1.00 μm; mean change±95%CI). This change was inverted towards the inner four subfields (TRTinner = −1.89±0.97 μm) with significant reduction of TRT in the fovea (TRTfoveal = −6.62±0.90 μm) at altitude. BCVA revealed no significant difference compared to baseline (0.06±0.08 logMAR). Microperimetry showed stable mean sensitivity in all but the foveal subfield (MSfoveal = −1.12±0.68 dB). At baseline recordings before and >2 weeks after high altitude exposure, all subjects showed equal levels with no sign of persisting structural or functional sequels. Conclusions/Significance During acute exposure to high altitude central retinal thickness is subject to minor, yet statistically significant changes. These alterations describe a function of eccentricity with an increase in regions with relatively higher retinal nerve fiber content and vascular arcades. However, these changes did not correlate with measures of central retinal function or acute mountain sickness. For the first time a quantitative approach has been used to assess these changes during acute, non

  16. Successful Female Mountaineers

    TANSIYIN

    2004-01-01

    The Third Mountaineering Meet took place from September 26 to October 8, 2003. It was sponsored by the Tibet Association for Mountaineers and undertaken by the Tibet Mountaineering Team and the Tibet Mountaineering School.

  17. Coriolis effects and motion sickness modelling.

    Bles, W

    1998-11-15

    Coriolis effects are notorious in relation to disorientation and motion sickness in aircrew. A review is provided of experimental data on these Coriolis effects, including the modulatory effects of adding visual or somatosensory rotatory motion information. A vector analysis of the consequences of head movements during somatosensory, visual and/or vestibular rotatory motion stimulation revealed that the more the sensed angular velocity vector after the head movements is aligned with the gravitoinertial force vector, the less nauseating effects are experienced. It is demonstrated that this is a special case of the subjective vertical conflict theory on motion sickness that assumes that motion sickness may be provoked if a discrepancy is detected between the subjective vertical and the sensed vertical as determined on the basis of incoming sensory information.

  18. Genetic aspects of sick sinus syndrome

    Chernova A.A.; Nikulina S.Yu.; Tret’yakova S.S.; Voyevoda M.I.; Maksimov V.N.; Chernov V.N.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To study the association between polymorphic allelic variants of the alpha-2В-adrenoreceptor gene (ADRA2B), endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3), connexin protein gene 40 (Cx40), cardiac myosin heavy chain gene (MYH6), and voltage-gated sodium channels gene (SCN5A) and development of the idiopathic sick sinus syndrome. Methods. 14 probands with primary symptoms of sick sinus syndrome and their 110 relatives of the I–III degree kinship were examined. At the Berzon City Clinical H...

  19. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    a linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer......'s Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...

  20. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  1. The effects on sick leave of changes in the sickness insurance system

    Henrekson, Magnus; Persson, Mats

    2001-01-01

    In order to get a more complete picture of how labor supply is affected by economic incentives, the effects on absenteeism and not just on contracted hours should be taken into account. In particular, the effects on absenteeism due to sick leave can be considerable. In this paper we examine whether the level of sick leave compensation affects sick leave behavior. Using time-series data for Sweden spanning a long period (1955-99) with numerous changes of the compensation level, we generally fi...

  2. Changbai Mountains

    1995-01-01

    The Changbai Mountains are located within the boundaries of Antu County, Fusong County and Changbai County of Jilin City of Jilin Province. They cover a total area of more than 200,000 hectares and is one of the largest nature preserves in China. There are abundant species of living things, such as Dongbei Tiger, sika, sable and

  3. Mountain medicin

    Bay, Bjørn; Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen

    2016-01-01

    Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain...

  4. Job satisfaction and sickness absence : a questionnaire survey

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background When dissatisfaction with work precedes sickness absence, screening for satisfaction levels might usefully detect workers at risk of sickness absence. Aim To investigate whether job satisfaction was associated with subsequent sickness absence days or episodes. Methods A sample of workers

  5. 5 CFR 630.401 - Granting sick leave.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting sick leave. 630.401 Section 630.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.401 Granting sick leave. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) through (e) of...

  6. 5 CFR 630.402 - Requesting sick leave.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requesting sick leave. 630.402 Section 630.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.402 Requesting sick leave. An employee must file an application—written, oral,...

  7. Controlling sickness absence: a study of changes in the Danish sickness absence legislation since 1973

    Johansen, Kristina; Andersen, John Sahl; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To outline the principles underlying changes overtime in entitlement to sickness absence benefit in Denmark. METHODS: The Danish sickness benefit scheme during the past 30 years has been studied based on a comprehensive review of the Sickness Benefit Act from 1973, and all later...... amendments to the act. RESULTS: Entitlement to sickness benefit in Denmark has undergone considerable changes during the past 30 years. The guiding principles of the reforms have been financial savings in combination with an assumption that human behaviour can be controlled through bureaucratic......'s policy is to some extent a return to the biopsychosocial approach in the sense that the citizen is not regarded a passive victim of disease but an active player in influencing own working capacity. Added to this is, however, a new element of much tighter control leaving less room for autonomy....

  8. Serum sickness-like reaction with clarithromycin.

    Sohail, Muhammad Adnan; Nasir, Junaid; Ikram, Umaira; Genese, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Serum sickness-like reaction is a rare immunological condition which may develop following exposure to certain drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, among many others. It is described classically as a type III hypersensitivity response to heterologous proteins. Its true mechanism is still unclear. We present a case of serum sickness-like reaction to clarithromycin, a commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. The patient had been taking this drug for 3 days when she experienced generalized body aches, rash, arthralgia, and shortness of breath, prompting presentation to the emergency department. Laboratory studies showed decreased C4 and total complement with a slightly elevated sedimentation rate. After exclusion of other possible causes, the diagnosis of serum sickness-like reaction was made. The patient responded well to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medication, antihistamines, and a short, tapering dose of steroids. To our knowledge, serum sickness-like reaction to clarithromycin has never been reported previously. This case emphasizes the need for increased clinical awareness of such an adverse outcome to clarithromycin use.

  9. Do junior doctors take sick leave?

    Perkin, M R; Higton, A; Witcomb, M

    2003-09-01

    Nosocomial infections place a heavy burden on overstretched health services. An audit of junior doctors' sick leave behaviour was undertaken in 1993 and again in 2001. The object was to ascertain the level of common infectious illness and to investigate whether junior doctors were remaining at work inappropriately. The doctors were asked if any factors had influenced their decision to take sick leave or not. Between the two audits several initiatives have been introduced to improve the working conditions of junior doctors, including the New Deal to reduce hours of work. Eighty one junior doctors in a large teaching hospital participated in 1993 and 110 in 2001. The number reporting an infectious illness in the previous six months was similar (61.7% in 1993, 68.2% in 2001). There had been a significant increase in the percentage of infectious illness episodes for which the doctors took sick leave (15.1% in 1993, 36.8% in 2001, p work (72% in 1993, 68% in 2001). Consultant pressure was cited by 26% (1993) and 20% (2001). Use of the staff occupational health unit was minimal, with none of the ill doctors contacting the department in 1993 and only three in 2001. Overall, despite the reduction in the number of infectious doctors not taking sick leave, the majority remained at work. Fundamental changes are needed if potentially infected doctors are not to present a risk of iatrogenic infection.

  10. The Negotiation of the Sick Role

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In encounters between general practitioners (GPs) and patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), the negotiation of the sick role is a social process. In this process, GPs not only use traditional biomedical diagnostic tools but also rely on their own opinions and evaluations of a patient...

  11. Controlled progressive innate immune stimulation regimen prevents the induction of sickness behavior in the open field test

    Chen Q

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Qun Chen, Andrew J Tarr, Xiaoyu Liu, Yufen Wang, Nathaniel S Reed, Cameron P DeMarsh, John F Sheridan, Ning QuanDivision of Oral Biology, Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Peripheral immune activation by bacterial mimics or live replicating pathogens is well known to induce central nervous system activation. Sickness behavior alterations are often associated with inflammation-induced increases in peripheral proinflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin [IL]-1β and IL-6. However, most researchers have used acute high dose endotoxin/bacterial challenges to observe these outcomes. Using this methodology may pose inherent risks in the translational interpretation of the experimental data in these studies. Studies using Escherichia coli have yet to establish the full kinetics of repeated E. coli peripheral injections. Therefore, we sought to examine the effects of repeated low dose E. coli on sickness behavior and local peripheral inflammation in the open field test. Results from the current experiments showed a behavioral dose response, where increased amounts of E. coli resulted in correspondingly increased sickness behavior. Furthermore, animals that received a subthreshold dose (ie, one that did not cause sickness behavior of E. coli 24 hours prior were able to withstand a larger dose of E. coli on the second day (a dose that would normally cause sickness behavior in mice without prior exposure without inducing sickness behavior. In addition, animals that received escalating subthreshold doses of E. coli on days 1 and 2 behaviorally tolerated a dose of E. coli 25 times higher than what would normally cause sickness behavior if given acutely. Lastly, increased levels of E. coli caused increased IL-6 and IL-1β protein expression in the peritoneal cavity, and this increase was blocked by administering a subthreshold dose of E. coli 24 hours prior. These data show that progressive

  12. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    Nilsen, Stein Tore; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore general practitioners ’(GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patientssuffering from subjective health complaints. Design: Focus-group study. Setting: Nine focus-group interviews in three citiesin different regions of Norway. Participants: 48...... to sick leave. Conclusions and implications: GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick leave negotiations has...

  13. Acute heart failure: too sick for discharge teaching?

    Hill, Catherine A

    2009-01-01

    Most patients with heart failure (HF) respond within a matter of hours to days to available medical treatments. Nursing's current challenge in HF inpatient care is their short length of stay and content dense patient education needs. Only 54% of US hospitalized HF patients received all HF-1 mandated discharge education components. By using nursing evidence and adult learning principles, we can transform HF-1 topic descriptions into a "workable" plan for our newly stable HF patients. Pragmatically viewed, we need to turn the 5 key areas upside down to meet our HF patient's needs during early hospitalization: (1) recognizing symptoms, (2) pacing rest and exercise, (3) daily weights, (4) restricting sodium and fluids, and (5) managing medications. This "organizing" issue is important to our success and costly to all those who accepted the published order as prescriptive for their video, audio, and printed discharge education materials.

  14. Therapeutic effect of rmIL- 12 early administrated on acute radiation sickness produced by γ- rays irradiation in mice%白细胞介素12早期干预对急性放射病小鼠的治疗作用

    王利; 翟瑞仁; 逄朝霞; 张超; 余长林

    2012-01-01

    subcutaneously half and 24 hours following irradiation in rmTPO treatment group. The general conditions of mice were observed twice a day, the changes in body weight,peripheral blood cell counts were examined once every three days,bone marrow cells were collected to perform colony cultivation on the 14th and 28th day after irradiation. Results: The general conditions of mice in rmIL— 12 treatment group were better than those of irradiation control group. Compared with the irradiation control group,the decline speed of platelet was significantly slower than that of control group. rmIL - 12 treatment significantly promoted platelet recovery, resulting in less profound nadirs (18.9% vs8.1%,P<0.05) and rapid recover-y to normal levels(11 days vs 14 days). The platelet recovery speed in rmIL - 12 treatment group was as fast as that of rmTPO treatment group. Semi — solid bone marrow cell culture also demonstrated that rmIL - 12 could stimulate bone marrow cells to form more CFU - Mix than those of the irradiation control group in vitro on 14th and 28th after ir-radiation( P < 0. 01) , there was no significant difference between rmIL - 12 and rmTPO treatment group. Conclusion; RmIL - 12 can significantly accelerate the recovery of hematopoietic function in acute radiation sickness mice, its radioprotective effect is as good as rmTPO, and it might be chosen as a new therapeutic drug in the treatment of a-cute radiation sickness.

  15. Medical follow-up of four cases with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness twelve years after the accident%四例骨髓型急性放射病患者受照后12年医学随访观察

    王优优; 刘玉龙; 赵风玲; 吕玉民; 李元; 卞华慧; 陈炜博; 邱梦悦; 姜梅玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the late effects of ionizing radiation,in order to provide information and gain experience for medical treatments in nuclear accident emergencies,by medical followup of the four cases with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness who were exposed to 60Co accidentally in 1999.Methods Histories were taken by one or several doctors,who observed and wrote down the clinical symptoms of the patients.The general health situation was evaluated by laboratory and equipment examinations,including blood cells,liver and kidney function,thyroid function,humoral immunity,levels of sex hormones,tumor markers and ophthalmic examination,thyroid ultrasonography,abdominal ultrasound,ECG and chest X-ray examination.The radiation genetics analysis was performed by chromosome aberration and micronucleus assay (CB method).Real-time PCR was used to quantify the expressions of peripheral blood GADD45 and nm23-H1 gene mRNA,which were compared with the control group.The psychological qualities of patients were evaluated by 16PF,SDS,SAS.Results The hematopoietic system and immune function had basically returned to normal 12 years after the accident.HBV markers showed that HBsAg and HBcAb of Tian were positive,which showed that infectivity was weak.All of their eye lenses had varying degrees of turbidity changes,Mei had radiation-incuded cataract 3years after irradiation.The levels of sex hormones of Mei,Tian,Min were abnormal.Translocation could be seen by analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosome aberration.The expressions of GADD45 and nm23-H1 gene mRNA had no significant difference with the control group.Psychological tests showed that the radiation incident caused different degrees of mental disorder to the exposed individuals.Conclusions The medical follow-up and psychological evaluation of four cases with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness are successful,which provides information for clinical treatment and medical follow-up of similar

  16. Changes in sickness absenteeism following the introduction of a qualifying day for sickness benefit--findings from Sweden Post

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: In 1993, a qualifying day without sickness benefit was introduced to the Swedish sickness benefit system. The aim of the present study is to investigate sickness absenteeism before and after the introduction of the qualifying day, in the light of conditions inside and outside working life....... METHODS: The study was based on 1,952 female and 2,229 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by sickness incidence one year before and one year after the introduction of the qualifying day (sick-leave events/person days at risk). Information about explanatory factors was collected...... lifting at work more often showed an increase in incidence compared to men without heavy lifting, and the same tendency was found for women. CONCLUSION: The reduction in sickness incidence following the introduction of the qualifying day was fairly independent of different work-related and non-work...

  17. Study on experimental motion sickness in children.

    Takahashi, M; Toriyabe, I; Takei, Y; Kanzaki, J

    1994-05-01

    To clarify the characteristics of motion sickness in children we investigated autonomic nervous symptoms and instability evoked by walking while wearing horizontally reversing goggles in 90 children aged 4 to 15 years. Kindergarten children had hardly any autonomic nervous symptoms except headache; however, they often fell, could not stand up or move, and exhibited a to-and-fro deviation gait. Although the frequency and severity of sickness gradually increased during growth, the severity of gait disorder became milder as age increased. On the basis of these findings it seems likely that functions which perceive disorder of spatial orientation and action are immature in young children, and once spatial orientation is impaired, instability becomes very severe, since inadequate control is not stopped by an alarm function against disorientation.

  18. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ... New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases ...

  19. [Genetic predictors of sick sinus node syndrome].

    Chernova, A A; Nikulina, S Iu; Tret'iakova, S S

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the role of heredity in development of the sick sinus node syndrome (SSNS). We have examined 14 probands and 110 their relatives from families with idiopathic SSNS and established the role in development of hereditary SSNS of polymorphisms of the following genes: -2-adrenoreceptor, enzyme endothelial NO synthase, protein connexin 40, voltage dependent cardiac sodium channels, cardiac myosin heavy chains. We also revealed associations of clinical variants of idiopathic SSNS with genotypes of the studied genes.

  20. Sick sinus syndrome: a family study.

    Rogińska, Natalia; Bieganowska, Katarzyna

    2014-02-01

    A case of related individuals affected by sick sinus syndrome is presented in this study. The clinical and electrocardiographic signs of sinus node dysfunction and the most common causes of this disease are presented. Subsequently, the article includes descriptions of sinus node disease in three related children as well as details of the disease in their relatives. A literature review of the genetics of familial sinus node dysfunction concludes the study.

  1. Severe serum sickness reaction to oral and intramuscular penicillin.

    Clark, Brychan M; Kotti, George H; Shah, Anand D; Conger, Nicholas G

    2006-05-01

    Serum sickness is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by immune complex deposition with subsequent complement activation, small-vessel vasculitis, and tissue inflammation. Although the overall incidence of serum sickness is declining because of decreased use of heterologous sera and improved vaccinations, rare sporadic cases of serum sickness from nonprotein drugs such as penicillins continue to occur. Drug-induced serum sickness is usually self-limited, with symptoms lasting only 1-2 weeks before resolving. We report an unusual case of a severe and prolonged serum sickness reaction that occurred after exposure to an intramuscular penicillin depot injection (probable relationship by Naranjo score) and discuss how pharmacokinetics may have played a role. Clinicians should be familiar with serum sickness reactions particularly as they relate to long-acting penicillin preparations. Accurate diagnosis in conjunction with cessation of drug exposure and prompt initiation of antiinflammatory treatment with corticosteroids can produce complete recovery

  2. Rizatriptan reduces vestibular-induced motion sickness in migraineurs.

    Furman, Joseph M; Marcus, Dawn A; Balaban, Carey D

    2011-02-01

    A previous pilot study suggested that rizatriptan reduces motion sickness induced by complex vestibular stimulation. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study we measured motion sickness in response to a complex vestibular stimulus following pretreatment with either rizatriptan or a placebo. Subjects included 25 migraineurs with or without migraine-related dizziness (23 females) aged 21-45 years (31.0 ± 7.8 years). Motion sickness was induced by off-vertical axis rotation in darkness, which stimulates both the semicircular canals and otolith organs of the vestibular apparatus. Results indicated that of the 15 subjects who experienced vestibular-induced motion sickness when pretreated with placebo, 13 showed a decrease in motion sickness following pretreatment with rizatriptan as compared to pretreatment with placebo (P rizatriptan, reduces vestibular-induced motion sickness by influencing serotonergic vestibular-autonomic projections.

  3. Morning sickness and vitamin B6 status of pregnant women.

    Schuster, K; Bailey, L B; Dimperio, D; Mahan, C S

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the vitamin B6 status of 180 pregnant women and the incidence and degree of morning sickness experienced during the first trimester was investigated. There were no significant differences in plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activity, and stimulation of erythrocyte AspAT activity by exogenous PLP between subjects who experienced morning sickness and those who did not. No relationship was found between these indicators of vitamin B6 status and the degree of morning sickness experienced by this group during early pregnancy. There were no differences in the number of women who experienced morning sickness or in the number with different degrees of sickness when plasma levels of PLP, erythrocyte AspAT activity or stimulation by PLP were divided into upper and lower 50th percentile groups and compared. Therefore these data show no relationship between vitamin B6 status and the incidence or degree of morning sickness.

  4. Serum levels of eleven steroid hormones following motion sickness.

    Stalla, G K; Doerr, H G; Bidlingmaier, F; Sippel, W G; von Restorff, W

    1985-10-01

    In order to grade motion sickness objectively, the following 11 adrenal hormones were investigated in subjects with different motion sickness susceptibility: Aldosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17-OH-progesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, testosterone, androstendione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Motion sickness was induced by the coriolis effect on a rotary chair. Both severe kinetosis after short rotation time and mild motion sickness after 30 min of rotation occurred together with small hormonal changes. Androstendione and 11-deoxycortisol appear to be sensitive indicators of motion sickness if the rotation time is taken into consideration. A significant increase of all hormones except progesterone, cortisone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was observed when pronounced malaise had come after a long rotation stress (24.6 min). The changes in plasma aldosterone concentration appeared to correlate with time only. The present study demonstrates that hormonal analysis can be helpful in estimating the degree of motion sickness.

  5. Serum sickness-like illness associated with ciprofloxacin.

    Slama, T G

    1990-05-01

    Serum sickness is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction initially reported in children receiving horse serum. Drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and sulfonamides are now noted to be the most common etiologic agents of serum sickness-like reactions. This case report describes a serum sickness-like reaction temporally related to ciprofloxacin, a previously unreported adverse effect of this drug or any of the other quinolones.

  6. 奥美拉唑联合山莨菪碱治疗急性胰腺炎的临床研究%Omeprazole combined mountain scopolamine clinical research for the treatment of acute pancreatitis

    朱健

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨奥美拉唑联合山莨菪碱治疗急性胰腺炎的治疗效果。方法选取2010年1月~2013年12月在我院消化科治疗的急性胰腺炎病例160例,从中选出符合研究标准的样本病例50例进行回顾性分析。将50例病例按照单双数分成治疗组和对照组,每组病例各25例。两组病例采用不同的治疗方法,治疗组使用奥美拉唑联合山莨菪碱,并且附带常规治疗。奥美拉唑(常州四药制药有限公司)40mg,静脉输液2次/d,山莨菪碱20mg融入250ml生理盐水,静脉输液2次/d,治疗时间7d为一个疗程。对照组单独使用奥美拉唑(常州四药制药有限公司)40mg,静脉输液2次/d,7d为一个疗程。两组病例的常规治疗内容包括,禁食、禁水、胃肠减压、镇静、止痛、吸氧、保证电解质平衡、营养支持、适当的抗生素防止感染。结果治疗组在使用奥美拉唑联合山莨菪碱治疗后效果明显,治疗组总有效率为92%。对照组单独使用奥美拉唑进行治疗,总有效率为60%。从7d的治疗结果来看治疗组的效果明显要优于对照组。治疗组的各项病症消失较快,治疗组的治疗时长明显短于对照组。两组病例治疗前后,胆固醇(T C)、三酰甘油(T G)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(L D L-C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇CHDL-C)均存在明显改变。结论在急性胰腺炎的临床治疗中,奥美拉唑联合山莨菪碱的疗效优于单独使用奥美拉唑。%Objective to explore the omeprazole combined mountain scopolamine treatment effect for the treatment of acute pancreatitis.Methods from January 2010 to December 2010 in our hospital cases, 160 cases of digestive department treatment of acute pancreatitis, choose the standard sample cases of 50 cases were retrospectively analyzed. The 50 cases according to the number of single and double were divided into treatment group and control group, each group of 25

  7. Trends of Sickness Certifications in Primary Health Care in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

    Faiz A’Rashdy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sickness certification (SC is common practice in primary health care with proven implications on the health system. To assess the rate of sickness certifications in the Bowsher province and describe related demographic, occupational and medical factors. Methods: Our retrospective, cross-sectional study retrieved data for all consultations, with patients aged six to 65 years old, which ended with SC. The data from four primary health care centers in the Bowsher provice were collected during 2011 using the electronic medical record system. Collected data included patient demographics, occupation, date issued, duration of sickness certification, recorded vital signs, and clinical diagnosis. Suitable rates were calculated as percentages and important differences were compared using the chi-square test. Results: The total number of consultation visits for the targeted population was 189,275. Of these 26,096 consultations resulted in SC to a total of 15,758 patients. The overall rate of SC was 13.8 per 100 consultation-years (confidence interval (CI: 13.6–14. SC rates in males were significantly higher than females (17 and 11 per 100 consultations/year, respectively. Patients aged 19–29 years old had the highest rate of SC (18.6/100 consultations/year. School students aged six to 18 years made up 28% of patients, and 24% and 22% of patients were working in the private and public sectors, respectively. No vital signs record was found for 30% of SC visits. The highest rate of SC was in October (17% and the lowest was in August (9%. Acute respiratory infections were the most frequent diagnoses (31% resulting in certifications. The rate of SC issued for Omanis and non-Omanis was 14 and 9 per 100 consultations per year, respectively. Conclusion: Sickness certification is a burden on primary health care in the studied health centers with approximately one in seven consultations ending with SC issued. More investigations are needed to

  8. The body weight loss during acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia in sea level residents.

    Ge, Ri-Li; Wood, Helen; Yang, Hui-Huang; Liu, Yi-Ning; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Babb, Tony

    2010-12-25

    Weight loss is frequently observed after acute exposure to high altitude. However, the magnitude and rate of weight loss during acute exposure to high altitude has not been clarified in a controlled prospective study. The present study was performed to evaluate weight loss at high altitude. A group of 120 male subjects [aged (32±6) years] who worked on the construction of the Golmud-Lhasa Railway at Kunlun Mountain (altitude of 4 678 m) served as volunteer subjects for this study. Eighty-five workers normally resided at sea level (sea level group) and 35 normally resided at an altitude of 2 200 m (moderate altitude group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were measured in all subjects after a 7-day stay at Golmud (altitude of 2 800 m, baseline measurements). Measurements were repeated after 33-day working on Kunlun Mountain. In order to examine the daily rate of weight loss at high altitude, body weight was measured in 20 subjects from the sea level group (sea level subset group) each morning before breakfast for 33 d at Kunlun Mountain. According to guidelines established by the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) consensus report, each subject completed an AMS self-report questionnaire two days after arriving at Kunlun Mountain. After 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m, the average weight loss for the sea level group was 10.4% (range 6.5% to 29%), while the average for the moderate altitude group was 2.2% (-2% to 9.1%). The degree of weight loss (Δ weight loss) after a 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m was significantly correlated with baseline body weight in the sea level group (r=0.677, P0.05). In the sea level subset group, a significant weight loss was observed within 20 d, but the weight remained stable thereafter. AMS-score at high altitude was significantly higher in the sea level group (4.69±2.48) than that in the moderate altitude group (2.97±1.38), and was significantly correlated with baseline body weight

  9. Sick sinus syndrome secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism

    Osman Beton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hypercalcemia on the heart and the resulting alternations of the electrocardiogram have been well established. However, there are only limited number of reports in the literature on primary hyperparathyroidism leading to clinically significant arrhythmias. We present a patient who was diagnosed with symptomatic sick sinus syndrome in the setting of moderate hyper-calcemia secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism in this case report. After the surgical opera-tion for primary hyperparathyroidism, serum calcium level returned to normal range and patient’s complaints and arrhytmic findings recovered. The patient was asymptomatic for the following 13 years.

  10. Short-term sick leave and future risk of sickness absence and unemployment - the impact of health status

    Hultin Hanna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In previous studies the authors have found sick leave to be a predictor of future sick leave, unemployment and disability pension. Although sick leave reflects underlying health problems, some studies have suggested that sick leave may have consequences beyond the consequences of the underlying illness. However, few studies have aimed at studying consequences of sick leave while adjusting for ill health. This study aims to explore whether short-term sick leave increases the risk of future long-term sick leave, disability pension, and unemployment. Furthermore, we aim to control for the potentially confounding effects of physical and mental health status. Methods Data were gathered from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort (SPHC, restricted to 11,156 employed individuals (48.6% men aged 18–59, without long-term sick leave, disability pension or in-patient care the year before inclusion (2002. These were followed-up with regard to unemployment, long-term sick leave, and disability pension in 2006 and 2007. Odds ratios (OR with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated by logistic regression, controlling for six different measures of health status (limiting long-standing illness, self-rated health, mental health, somatic disease, musculoskeletal pain and in-patient care and socio-demographic factors. Results Results from the unadjusted analyses indicated increased risks of long-term sick leave (OR 2.00; CI 1.62-2.46 and short-term unemployment (OR 1.76; CI 1.35-2.29 for individuals exposed to more than one short-term sick-leave spell. There were no increased odds of long-term unemployment (OR 0.54; CI 0.28-1.04 or disability pension (OR 0.72; CI 0.42-1.24. After adjusting for the different measures of health status the odds ratio for short-term unemployment was not statistically significant (OR 1.29; CI 0.97-1.74. The odds ratios for the other outcomes slightly increased after adjustment for the used measures of

  11. Nuancing the relationship between motion sickness and postural stability

    Bos, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    The most cited theory on motion sickness is the conflict theory by Reason and Brand (1975) [1], stating that motion sickness occurs due to a conflict between the senses and stored patterns of motion. In addition, there seems to be evidence for another theory stating that postural instability is a ne

  12. Recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bultmann, U.; Roelen, C.A.; Hoedeman, R.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Common mental disorders (CMDs) are an important cause of work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. This study examines the recurrence risk of sickness absence due to CMDs. METHODS: A cohort o

  13. Parametric hazard rate models for long-term sickness absence

    Koopmans, Petra C.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    In research on the time to onset of sickness absence and the duration of sickness absence episodes, Cox proportional hazard models are in common use. However, parametric models are to be preferred when time in itself is considered as independent variable. This study compares parametric hazard rate m

  14. Identifying workers at risk of sickness absence by questionnaire

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Pol, Tjepke R.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2006-01-01

    Background Sickness absence is an important economic problem, because of high costs and lost productivity. Determining factors associated with increased risk of sickness absence may lead to the development of preventive measures. Aims To determine whether self-report questionnaires can identify thos

  15. 5 CFR 630.502 - Sick leave recredit.

    2010-01-01

    ... different leave systems under section 6308 of title 5, United States Code, 7 calendar days of sick leave are... leave system to which he or she can transfer only a part of his or her sick leave is entitled to a... employee returns to the leave system under which it was earned on or after December 2, 1994. (f)...

  16. 5 CFR 831.302 - Unused sick leave.

    2010-01-01

    ... annuity is increased by the days of unused sick leave to his credit under a formal leave system. (b) An...) A formal leave system is one which is provided by law or regulation or operates under written rules... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unused sick leave. 831.302 Section...

  17. Sick leave analysis among self-employed Dutch farmers

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background Agriculture is one of the most physically demanding and risky industries. Aim The objective of this study was to provide baseline data on the diagnoses, occurrence and duration of sick leave of self-employed Dutch farmers. Method A database of 22807 sick leave claims of 12627 farmers duri

  18. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical, wor

  19. Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

    Faber, A; Sell, L; Hansen, J V;

    2012-01-01

    High muscle strength is considered relevant for preventing musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence. However, prospective studies on the association between muscle strength and future musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence are few and show contrasting results....

  20. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to infec

  1. Less sickness with more motion and/or mental distraction

    Bos, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Motion sickness may reduce passenger comfort and crew performance. Countermeasures are dominated by medication with specific and often undesirable side effects. OBJECTIVE: To shown that sickness due to motion can be reduced by adding an inherent non-sickening vibration and by mental dist

  2. Late stage infection in sleeping sickness.

    Hartwig Wolburg

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19(th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.

  3. Morning sickness: impact on offspring salt preference.

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1995-12-01

    These studies examined the relationship between salt preference of adult offspring and their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness during pregnancy. College students who could provide information about their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness completed a survey about their dietary salt intake (study 1; n = 169) or rated and consumed ten snack foods (study 2; n = 66). In study 1 a salt-use score was calculated based on responses to the Salt Intake Questionnaire; offspring of women with moderate or severe vomiting reported a significantly higher level of salt use (p < 0.01) than those whose mothers report little or no symptoms. In study 2 saltiness and pleasantness ratings of high-salt foods, intake of those foods and total sodium intake were the focus of analysis. Offspring of women reporting moderate or severe vomiting showed a significantly greater preference for the snack food subjects rated as saltiest than those whose mothers reported no or mild vomiting. They also ate more of that food and consumed more total sodium during the test session. Effects were stronger in Caucasian than Asian subjects. These studies suggest that moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy can be associated with significantly higher salt intake in offspring. Thus, a gestational event may be an important determinant of salt intake and preference in adulthood.

  4. Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), assisted reproductive therapy (ART), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise and the risk of sickness absence in pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy...... weeks. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected from 1996 until 2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were...... calculated by Cox regression, using time of first episode of sickness absence as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Multiparity 1.26 (95% CI 1.10-1.45), overweight 1.13 (95% CI 1.08-1.18), obesity 1.23 (95% CI 1.15-1.31), ART 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20), and TTP >12 months 1.06 (95% CI 0.99-1.13) were associated...

  5. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees.

  6. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3......) the rate of return to work among sick listed individuals without a psychiatric disorder, who are registered on long-term sickness absence (LSA). Methods. A total of 2,414 incident individuals on LSA with a response rate of 46.4%, were identified for a two-phase study. The subsample of this study involved...... individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present...

  7. Therapeutic effect of different dosing regimens of rmlL-12 on acute radiation sickness in mice%白介素12不同给药方案对急性放射病小鼠的治疗作用

    王利; 王松雷; 曹务锐; 耿斌; 翟瑞仁; 逄朝霞; 张超; 余长林

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the therapeutic effect of different dosing regimens of recombinant murine interleu-kin 12(rmIL - 12) on the mice irradiated by γ -rays. Methods: Forty -two BALB/c mice were given 6.0Gy 60Co γ - rays total body irradiation and randomly assigned into irradiation control group,rmIL - 12 one dose and five doses treatment group. 20μg/kg of rmIL - 12 was administrated intraperitoneally 1 hour following irradiation in one dose treatment group, and was administrated every 3 days after irradiation for four times additionally in five doses treatment group. The general conditions of mice were observed twice a day, the changes in body weight, peripheral blood cell counts were examined once every three days, bone marrow cells were collected to perform colony cultivation on the 14th and 28th day after irradiation. Results: The general conditions of mice in rmIL - 12 treatment group were better than those of irradiation control group. The decline speed of platelet in rmIL - 12 one and five doses treatment group was significantly slower than that of control group. rmIL - 12 treatment significantly promoted platelet recovery, resulting in less profound nadirs(18.9% vs 8. 1% ,22.5% vs 8. 1% ,P0. 05). The white blood cell recovery speed in two treatment groups was faster than that of the irradiation control group(P<0.05) ,but there was no significant difference between two treatment groups. Semi - solid bone marrow cell culture also demonstrated that rmIL - 12 could stimulate bone marrow cells to form more CFU - Mix than those of the irradiation control group on 14th after irradiation(P <0. 01) ,and there were more CFU - GM and CFU - Mix in two rmIL - 12 treatment group than those of the irradiation control group on 28th after irradiation (P < 0.05, P< 0.01). Conclusion: 1 and 5 dosing regimens of rmIL - 12 can significantly accelerate the recovery of hematopoietic function , especially the recovery of megakaryocyte in acute radiation sickness mice.%目的:

  8. Therapeutic Effect of rmIL-12 Combined with G-CSF on Acute Radiation Sickness Produced by γ-Ray Irradiation in Mice%白介素12与粒细胞集落刺激因子联合应用对急性放射病小鼠的治疗作用

    王利; 翟瑞仁; 逄朝霞; 张超; 余长林

    2012-01-01

    -CSF can significantly accelerate the recovery of hematopoietic function in mice with acute radiation sickness.%本研究旨在探究重组鼠白介素12(rmIL-12)与粒细胞集落刺激因子(G-CSF)联合应用对γ射线急性放射病小鼠的治疗作用.56只BALB/c小鼠给予60Co γ射线6.0 Gy一次全身照射,然后随机分为照射对照、rmIL-12治疗、G-CSF治疗和rmIL-12+ G-CSF治疗4组.rmIL-12治疗组小鼠于照射后1h及此后每3d1次腹腔注射rmIL-12 20 g/kg,共5次;G-CSF治疗组小鼠于照射后2h开始每天1次皮下注射G-CSF 100 μg/kg,共14 d;联合治疗组给予rmIL-12+ G-CSF治疗,方法同上.每天2次观察小鼠一般情况,3d检测1次外周血细胞数,分别于照射后14 d和28 d收集骨髓细胞进行集落培养.结果表明,联合治疗组小鼠外周血白细胞(WBC)数恢复时间较对照组明显提前(7d vs 11d),恢复速度与G-CSF治疗组相当,血小板(Plt)数开始恢复时间较对照组明显提前(11 d vs 14 d),且Plt最低值明显高于对照组(16.5% vs 8.1%,P<0.01),恢复速度与rmIL-12治疗组相当.照射后14和28 d骨髓有核细胞集落培养结果提示,联合治疗组CFU-GM、CFU-Mix均明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:rmIL-12与G-CSF联合应用可明显促进急性放射病小鼠造血功能的恢复.

  9. DETECTION AND REMEDIES FOR INDUSTRIAL SICKNESS IN SMALL INDUSTRIAL UNITS OF BANGLADESH: A STUDY ON SICK INDUSTRIAL UNITS OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATES IN SYLHET DIVISION

    Abdul Latif

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Small industrial units are the seedbed on industrial development in underdeveloped economy for its less capital involvement and more employment generation capability. But this sector cannot contribute expectedly for infection to sickness that ultimately prevents the entrepreneurial bases of economy. Sickness can be occurred in the inception period, in operation and /or in macro environment.There are various techniques to prevent sickness and to make the treatment of occurred sickness. In this study, the researchers selected 13 sick units of BSCIC industrial units and collected the information regarding the causes, stages and measures to prevent sickness. It is found that 07 are born to sick due to improper capital budgeting, 06 are made sick for managerial problems and no units are bound to be sick for environmental problems.

  10. Motion sickness history, food neophobia, and sensation seeking.

    Alley, Thomas R; Willet, Kathleen A; Muth, Eric R

    2006-06-01

    Motion sickness is believed to be caused by conflicting sensory signals, a situation that mimics the effects of ingesting certain toxins. Thus, one might suspect that individuals who have experienced a relatively high frequency of motion sickness may be particularly vigilant about avoiding anything that produces nausea, induding potentially nauseating toxins. Consequently, they may be more resistant to trying new foods, i.e., be more food neophobic, since unfamiliar foods can have unexpected adverse effects due to toxins or allergens. Likewise, many highly stimulating experiences can trigger motion sickness, so individuals who are more susceptible may be more prone to avoid such experiences, i.e., be less sensation seeking. Finally, it was expected that food neophobia would be more frequent in individuals low on sensation seeking tendencies. Self-reported motion sickness history in 308 adults (M= 18.8 yr.; SD = 1.6) was correlated with scores on the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking and the Food Neophobia Scale. As predicted, greater history of motion sickness was associated with lower Sensation Seeking scores. Food Neophobia was not correlated with motion sickness history but, as expected, was negatively correlated (r = -.42) with scores on Sensation Seeking. Further research is recommended that measures actual sensitivity to motion sickness.

  11. "Children get sick all the time"

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal; Bjertrup, Pia Juul; Samuelsen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Burkina Faso, the government has implemented various health sector reforms in order to overcome financial and geographical barriers to citizens' access to primary healthcare throughout the country. Despite these efforts, morbidity and mortality rates among children remain high...... facilities. Focusing on mothers as the primary caregivers, we follow their pathways from the onset of symptoms through their various attempts of providing treatment for their sick children. The overall objective is to discuss the interconnectedness of various factors, inside and outside of the primary health...... care services. Due to their accumulated vulnerabilities, mothers shift pragmatically from one treatment to another. However, the sporadic nature of their treatment-seeking hinders them in obtaining long-term solutions and the result is recurrent child illnesses and relapses over long periods of time...

  12. The Person in a State of Sickness.

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur; Hjörleifsson, Stefán

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we discuss the ideas of Eric J. Cassell about the patient-professional relationship. We argue that his approach combines in an interesting way features from the literature on patient autonomy and paternalistic practices. We suggest that these seemingly paternalistic features of practicing medicine, which are widely either ignored or condemned in bioethical discussion, are of vital significance in medical practice. In the first sections of the article, we describe the main features of Cassell's understanding of the sick person and his version of personalized medicine. We pay particular attention to his notion of information control and compare his ideas about conversation with patients to Hans-Georg Gadamer's analysis of patient-professional dialogue. In the latter part of the article, we explore through a couple of examples the implications these ideas have for medical practice.

  13. Desempenho da potência anaeróbia em atletas de elite do mountain bike submetidos à suplementação aguda com creatina Anaerobic power output of elite off-road cyclists with acute oral creatine supplementation

    Guilherme Eckhardt Molina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos da suplementação aguda com creatina no desempenho da potência anaeróbia de atletas de elite do mountain bike, 20 atletas em período básico do macrociclo de treinamento foram distribuídos aleatoriamente (duplo-cego em dois grupos: placebo (PLA, n = 10 e creatina (CRE, n = 10. Foram avaliados quanto à composição corporal (pesagem hidrostática e potência anaeróbia (teste de Wingate - TW antes (PRÉ e depois (PÓS de sete dias de suplementação. A creatina ou maltodextrina foi usada em três doses diárias de 0,3g/kg de massa corporal diluídos em meio líquido adoçado. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas variáveis morfológicas após sete dias de suplementação (PRÉ x PÓS, e os grupos não diferiram apesar da variação percentual (Δ% contrária (positiva para o grupo CRE e negativa para o PLA. A potência anaeróbia pico (PP e o instante da potência pico (IPP aumentaram e o índice de fadiga diminuiu do PRÉ para o PÓS-testes no grupo CRE, enquanto que o grupo PLA não apresentou diferenças significantes. A PP apresentou forte tendência em ser maior e o IPP foi maior no grupo CRE comparado com o PLA. Conclui-se que existem evidências de que a suplementação com creatina (0,3g/kg em curto prazo (sete dias pode retardar o IPP (CRE 3,0 ± 0,5/3,6 ± 0,8 Δ%= 20% no teste de Wingate em atletas de elite do mountain bike, sugerindo que a suplementação com creatina pode melhorar o desempenho físico quanto à potência anaeróbia durante o trabalho de alta intensidade e curta duração.In order to investigate the effect of a high dose, acute oral creatine supplementation on anaerobic power of male off-road cyclists, twenty elite athletes training at the basic period were randomly (double-blind assigned into 2 groups: placebo (PLA n=10 and creatine (CRE n=10. They were submitted to a body composition evaluation (underwater weighting and Wingate Anaerobic Test (TW before

  14. Sickness absence in Poland after socio-economic transformation

    Zuzanna Szubert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the analysis was to determine the magnitude and causes of the sickness-related temporary incapacity for work in Poland, and to identify changes in sickness absence and its differences by the type of economic activity and region. Material and Methods: This analysis is based on the 2006-2012 data on sickness absence compiled from medical certificates of temporary incapacity for work and published by the Social Insurance Institution (Zakład Ubezpieczeń Społecznych. The sickness absence is described in terms of the number of sick leave days relative to the number of the employed or insured people. Results: In 2012, the number of days of disability per one employed was 14.5 (12.1 men, 17.4 women, representing 3.98% of the time lost due to illness. The main causes of absence were: complications of pregnancy and mother's diseases during pregnancy (33% of the sick leave days in women, injury and poisoning (men: 24%; women: 8%, diseases of the musculoskeletal system (men: 17%; woman: 11%. The highest level of sickness absence was noted in the łódzkie, śląskie and warmińsko-mazurskie provinces (38-19% higher than nationwide and in the administrative and support sectors (22.2 days per 1 employee, when analyzed by sectors of the national economy. Conclusions: The high increase in sickness absence over the recent 7 years due to cancer, mental and muscloskeletal disorders may be an important risk factor for early assessment of permanent incapacity for work. Another major problem is female sickness absence due to pregnancy complications and mother's diseases during pregnancy. Med Pr 2014;65(1:73–84

  15. 5 CFR 630.403 - Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave.

    2010-01-01

    ... leave. 630.403 Section 630.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.403 Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave. (a) An agency may grant sick leave only when the need for sick leave is supported by administratively...

  16. Pharmacological and neurophysiological aspects of space/motion sickness

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1991-01-01

    A motorized motion testing device modeled after a Ferris wheel was constructed to perform motion sickness tests on cats. Details of the testing are presented, and some of the topics covered include the following: xylazine-induced emesis; analysis of the constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A (5-HT sub 1A) agonists; other 5HT receptors; antimuscarinic mechanisms; and antihistaminergic mechanisms. The ability of the following drugs to reduce motion sickness in the cats was examined: amphetamines, adenosinergic drugs, opioid antagonists, peptides, cannabinoids, cognitive enhancers (nootropics), dextromethorphan/sigma ligands, scopolamine, and diphenhydramine.

  17. Motion Sickness: A Study of Its Effects on Human Physiology.

    1987-12-01

    SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Pierre J. Gaudreault Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/87D- 2 0 TO STEC TEo VN;FB 1 0 1988...ENG/87D-20 MOTION SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Pierre J. Gaudreault Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/87D-20 Approved for public...SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology

  18. Heart failure accompanied by sick euthyroid syndrome and exercise training.

    Psirropoulos, D; Lefkos, N; Boudonas, G; Efthimiadis, A; Vogas, V; Keskilidis, C; Tsapas, G

    2002-05-01

    Sick euthyroid syndrome is defined as the decrease of serum free triiodothyronine with normal free L-thyroxin and thyrotropin. Its appearance in patients with chronic heart failure is an indicator of severity. Exercise training through a wide variety of mechanisms reverses sick euthyroid syndrome (normalization of free triiodothyronine levels) and improves the ability to exercise. There is a connection during exercise among dyspnea, hyperventilation, fatigue, catecholamines, a decrease in the number and function of beta-blocker receptors, and elevation of serum free triiodothyronine. It is not known whether sick euthyroid syndrome contributes to the development of heart failure or is only an attendant syndrome.

  19. 0144 Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave

    Stapelfeldt, Christina; Vinther Nielsen, Claus; Trolle Andersen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The public health care sector is challenged by high sick leave rates among home-care personnel. This group also has a high probability of being granted a disability pension. We studied whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator...... of future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among eldercare workers. METHOD: 2774 employees' sick leave days were categorised: 0-2 and 3-17 short (1-7 days) spells, 2-13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells, and long spells only. Disability pension and long-term sick leave were subsequently...... the pseudo values method adjusted for age, occupation and unfavourable work factors. RESULTS: A frequent short-term and a mixed sick leave pattern increased the RR of being granted a disability pension; the RR was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.00-4.35) and 2.61 (95% CI: 1.33-5.12). Inversely, the long-term sick leave...

  20. Sick Leave within 5 Years of Whiplash Trauma Predicts Recovery: A Prospective Cohort and Register-Based Study.

    Tina Birgitte Wisbech Carstensen

    Full Text Available 10-22% of individuals sustaining whiplash trauma develop persistent symptoms resulting in reduced working ability and decreased quality of life, but it is poorly understood why some people do not recover. Various collision and post-collision risk factors have been studied, but little is known about pre-collision risk factors. In particular, the impact of sickness and socioeconomic factors before the collision on recovery is sparsely explored. The aim of this study was to examine if welfare payments received within five years pre-collision predict neck pain and negative change in provisional situation one year post-collision.719 individuals with acute whiplash trauma consecutively recruited from emergency departments or primary care after car accidents in Denmark completed questionnaires on socio-demographic and health factors immediately after the collision. After 12 months, a visual analogue scale on neck pain intensity was completed. 3595 matched controls in the general population were sampled, and national public register data on social benefits and any other welfare payments were obtained for participants with acute whiplash trauma and controls from five years pre-collision to 15 months after. Participants with acute whiplash trauma who had received sickness benefit for more than 12 weeks pre-collision had increased odds for negative change in future provisional situation (Odds Ratio (OR (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 3.8 (2.1;7.1 and future neck pain (OR (95%CI = 3.3 (1.8;6.3, controlling for other known risk factors. Participants with acute whiplash trauma had weaker attachment to labour market (more weeks of sick leave (χ2(2 = 36.7, p < 0.001 and unemployment (χ2(2 = 12.5, p = 0.002 pre-collision compared with controls. Experiencing a whiplash trauma raised the odds for future negative change in provisional situation (OR (95%CI = 3.1 (2.3;4.4 compared with controls.Sick leave before the collision strongly predicted prolonged recovery

  1. Follow-up observation on long-term effects of hematopoietic system in patients with bone marrow acute radiation sickness%骨髓型急性放射病患者造血系统远期效应随访观察

    于程程; 吕玉民; 赵凤玲; 刘金星; 邢志伟; 王雯; 姜梅玲; 翟贺争; 姜恩海; 江波; 赵欣然; 王晓光

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the long-term effects of hematopoietic system function in patients with bone marrow type acute radiation sickness ( ARS ) . Methods A 15-year-long follow-up observation on the long-term effects of the hematopoietic system was carried out to patients with severe bone marrow type ARS named Mei, and the patient with moderate bone marrow type ARS named Tian and Wang in the 1999 Co-60 ( 60 Co ) source radiation accident in Henan province.The peripheral blood hemogram, bone marrow smears inspection and bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cell cultivation of these 3 cases were collected and analyzed.Results White blood cells ( WBC) count, neutrophil percentage ( NEUT%) , the percentage of lymphocytes, platelets ( PLT) count, red blood cell count and hemoglobin ( Hb) level of 3 patients were all decreased after the exposure, and WBC and PLT counts reduced to less than 1.00 ×109/L and 20.00 × 109/L within a month;the decrease of these indicators of Mei came earlier with longer duration and had the lower minimum values than those of Tian and Wang.These indicators of 3 patients returned to normal status about two months after irradiation.During the follow-up observation, peripheral blood hemogram of 3 patients were normal, except Mei ’ s following decreased indexes:lower PLT 6 months and 1 year after irradiation, lower Hb level 5 years after irradiation and lower NEUT% 13 years after irradiation.The myeloproliferative of the 3 patients reduced extremely 20 days after irradiation, with the decreasing degree as Mei>Wang>Tian.Bone marrow myelogram of the 3 patients began to recover 37 to 44 days after irradiation.Bone marrow of the 3 patients showed hyperplasia or obvious hyperplasia from 6 months to 7 years after irradiation.Erythrocyte colony-forming units (CFU-E), burst-type red blood cell colony-forming units (BFU-E) and granulocyte-monocyte colony-forming units ( CFU-GM) of the 3 patients dropped sharply 20 to 44 days after irradiation and

  2. 3例骨髓型急性放射病15年远期效应医学随访%A 15-year-long clinical follow-up and long-term effect observation on 3 cases of bone marrow type acute radiation sickness

    邢志伟; 姜恩海; 于程程; 姜梅玲; 江波; 吕玉民; 赵凤玲; 刘金星

    2015-01-01

    acute radiation sickness ( ARS) . Methods We investigated the long-term effects in 3 cases (“Mei”,“Tian” and“Wang”) with bone marrow type ARS in the 1999 Co-60 ( 60 Co) source radiation accident in Henan province by clinical follow up for 15 years and focused on the alteration of hematopoietic system , immune system , endocrine system , reproductive system and ophthalmology .Results The white blood cell count , blood platelet count and hemoglobin levels of 3 patients were all decreased within one month after the irradiation and returned to normal level 6 months after the irradiation .Down-regulated granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating was found in all 3 patients in 6 months after the irradiation and returned to normal level in 1 to 2 years. The immunoglobulin G ( IgG) level of “Mei” was increased in the 5th, 11th and 13th year while the complement 3 level was decreased compared to the normal value in the 6th month and the 2nd year after the irradiation.Similarly, the enhanced IgG level of “Tian” was indicated in the 5th year after the irradiation .The percentage of CD3 +T cell, CD3 +CD4+T cell, CD3 +CD8 +T cell and the values of CD3+CD4 +/CD3 +CD8 +in 3 patients were observed lower than normal level within 6 months after the irradiation , which recovered in the 2nd year.Amenorrhea happened in “Mei” after the irradiation, while gradually decreased numbers of sperm and dead sperm were found in “Tian” in 3 months after the irradiation, which returned to normal level in 3 to 7 years.Thyroid nodules were found in “Mei” and“Tian” in 15 years after the accident.All these 3 patients had various degree of lens turbidity and “Mei” was treated with cataract extractionin the left eye followed with crystalline lens implantation in the 13th year.Peripheral blood lymphocyte micronuclei rates of“Mei” and “Wang” were 3‰ and 1‰ respectively, while the chromosome aberration examination showed that the numbersof reciprocal

  3. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  4. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meaningfulness of the job, collaboration among colleagues, trustworthiness of the closest superior and bullying have previously been shown to be major covariates of intention to quit the job. AIMS: To test if these elements of the psychosocial work environment are also the most...... essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer...... high sickness absence and 29 psychosocial work elements were analysed, adjusting for relevant confounders. Following multiple logistic regression analysis, three elements had an independent statistically significant association with high sickness absence: no exposure to bullying (odds ratio (95...

  5. Diclectin for morning sickness: Long-term neurodevelopment.

    Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon

    2011-02-01

    Question A pregnant patient recently asked me whether using Diclectin for morning sickness might affect the development of her child. Answer Our recent large study does show such a trend, although the differences are not necessarily clinically significant.

  6. A Study of Motion Sickness: Mathematical Modeling and Data Analysis

    1988-12-01

    levels of motion sick- ness experienced by a test subject during the course of an experiment (21:97; 25:59; 27:84). In 1987, Drylie, Fix, and Gaudreault ...pro- cedures. Drylie and Gaudreault reported additional conclusions concerning motion sickness trends (11; 17). Fix developed a new equation for...and Gaudreault also noted low frequency EEG signals in the 0.1 Hz range (17:28). However, only one of their subjects had EEG signals with an amplitude

  7. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  8. A Model for the Analysis of Sick Leave in Sweden

    David Edgerton; Curt Wells

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how to model individual behavior in the face of changes in the set of rules that govern the social welfare system in Sweden. To this end, the Swedish sickness insurance provides an excellent study object, since the system has often been changed during the past decade. The question of employee compensation for sick leave is one the more widely discussed aspects of Swedish social welfare legislation, and it is therefore of interest to examine how individuals...

  9. Is Physics Sick? [In Praise of Classical Physics

    Ghassib, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, it is argued that theoretical physics is more akin to an organism than to a rigid structure.It is in this sense that the epithet, "sick", applies to it. It is argued that classical physics is a model of a healthy science, and the degree of sickness of modern physics is measured accordingly. The malady is located in the relationship between mathematics and physical meaning in physical theory.

  10. A New Measure of Decompression Sickness in the Rat

    Peter Buzzacott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we assessed the reliability of a tilting-board grip score as a measure of decompression sickness in rats. In experiments using a hyperbaric compression/decompression protocol, rats were observed for signs of decompression sickness and their grip strength measured on a tilting particle board hinged to a metal frame. Angles at which rats lost grip were converted to gravitational vectors. Decreased mean grip scores following decompression were fitted to a logistic regression model with strain, age, and weight. Decrease in grip score was significantly associated with observed decompression sickness (P=0.0036. The log odds ratio for decompression sickness = 1.40 (decrease in grip score. In rats with no decrease in mean grip score there was a 50% probability of decompression sickness (pDCS. This increased steadily with decreases in mean grip score. A decrease of 0.3 had a 60% pDCS, a decrease of 0.6 had a 70% pDCS, and a decrease of 2.1 had a 95% pDCS. The tilting board grip score is a reliable measure of the probability of decompression sickness.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment for sick building; Diagnostico y tratamiento para edificios saludables

    Perez, Maria M; Salomon, Jorge A; Lazcano, Alejandro S [Facultad de Ingenieria UADY, Merida Yucatan (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In recent years, the indoor air quality (IAQ) in work spaces have acquired special importance. Health symptoms refer to a productivity and economic loss. IAQ health symptoms associated with acute discomfort that improve while away from work. More common, however, are apparent outbreaks of illness within work spaces in which neither environmental causes non recognized diseases can be identified. Usually reported within the last years, these events are often called sick building syndrome. To determine a sick building diagnosis and treatment, it is necessary to plan methodology based on environment comfort, habitability, energy efficiency use and nature preservation. Hereby it is presented a methodology to determine a sick building diagnosis and treatment which was applied in Superior Court of Justice building (Tribunales Primero y Segundo del Decimocuarto Circuito del Poder Judicial de la Federacion), where employees have expressed diseases as sleepiness, cold and difficulty breathing. [Spanish] En los ultimos anos, la calidad del aire en el ambiente de trabajo ha adquirido especial interes debido a la importancia que representa para el bienestar, eficiencia y productividad de los empleados. Los edificios carentes de esa calidad del aire ocasionan trastornos de salud relacionados con la falta de confort que prevalece en el ambiente de trabajo, es comun encontrar en los empleados que alli laboran, brotes de sintomas como dolores de cabeza, letargo y resfriados, entre otros. Usualmente encontrados en los ultimos anos en ambientes de oficinas a estos sintomas se les llama sindrome del edificio enfermo. Para lograr el diagnostico y tratamiento de un edificio enfermo es necesario plantear una metodologia basada en criterios de confort ambiental, habitabilidad, uso eficiente de la energia y preservacion del medio ambiente. En este trabajo presentamos una metodologia para el diagnostico y tratamiento de edificios con ese sindrome y presentamos un estudio de casos de los

  12. Does self-efficacy predict return-to-work after sickness absence? A prospective study among 930 employees with sickness absence for three weeks or more

    Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl B;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare levels of self-efficacy among the general working population and employees with sickness absence from work, and to examine if general self-efficacy measured before occurrence of sickness absence predicted subsequent onset of sickness absence and Return-to-Work. METHODS: The study...

  13. Infant salt preference and mother's morning sickness.

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1998-06-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults. To determine whether effects on NaCl preference are expressed in infancy, the present study examined 16-week-old infants whose mothers reported either little or no vomiting (N = 15) or frequent moderate to severe vomiting (N = 14) during the first 14 weeks of their pregnancy. The infants' oral-motor facial reactions to each solution and their relative intakes of distilled water and 0.1m and 0.2m NaCl were used as measures of preference. Infants of mothers who reported no or mild symptoms had a significantly lower relative intake of salt solutions than infants whose mothers reported moderate to severe symptoms (p < 0.01). The former infants also showed a greater number of aversive facial responses when given 0.2m NaCl (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that maternal dehydration, induced by moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy, can lead to enhanced salt preference in offspring. They also provide a potential explanation for some of the variability encountered when human infants are tested for their salt preference.

  14. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first.......73-2.09, HRnight 1.52, 95% CI 1.15-2.01), monthly night shifts HRtrend 1.12, 95% CI 1.11-1.14, increasing weekly work hours HRtrend 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95 and high job strain HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.42-1.63. Some exposures influenced HR in either a positive or negative time-dependent way. CONCLUSION: Our results support...

  15. The effect of part-time sick leave for employees with mental disorders

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    Previous studies find that part-time sick-listing it is an effective instrument for reducing sick leave durations for employees with musculoskeletal disorders and for sick-listed employees in general. This paper provides new evidence by studying whether the Danish part-time sick leave programme...... hours for employees with physical disorders. In contrast, we find that part-time sick-listing does not reduce durations for employees with mental disorders. The analyses also illustrate the importance of adjusting for unobserved differences between part-time sick-listed and full-time sick...... the employee is able to work regular hours. We use combined survey and register data about 226 long-term sick-listed employees with mental disorders and 638 employees with physical disorders. Our analyses show that part-time sick-listing significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working...

  16. Increased oxidative stress following acute and chronic high altitude exposure.

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Simoni, Jan; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Swenson, Erik R; Wesson, Donald E; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Johnson, Richard J; Hurtado, Abdias

    2004-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species is typically associated with hyperoxia and ischemia reperfusion. Recent evidence has suggested that increased oxidative stress may occur with hypoxia. We hypothesized that oxidative stress would be increased in subjects exposed to high altitude hypoxia. We studied 28 control subjects living in Lima, Peru (sea level), at baseline and following 48 h exposure to high altitude (4300 m). To assess the effects of chronic altitude exposure, we studied 25 adult males resident in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m). We also studied 27 subjects living in Cerro de Pasco who develop excessive erythrocytosis (hematocrit > 65%) and chronic mountain sickness. Acute high altitude exposure led to increased urinary F(2)-isoprostane, 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.31 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 2.15 +/- 1.1, p = 0.001) and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.37 +/- 0.09, p = 0.002), with a trend to increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 63.8 +/- 27, p = NS). High altitude residents had significantly elevated levels of urinary 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.3 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 4.1 +/- 3.4, p = 0.007), plasma TBARS (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 85 +/- 28, p = 0.008), and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.55 +/- 0.19, p < 0.0001) compared to sea level. High altitude residents with excessive erythrocytosis had higher levels of oxidative stress compared to high altitude residents with normal hematological adaptation. In conclusion, oxidative stress is increased following both acute exposure to high altitude without exercise and with chronic residence at high altitude.

  17. Testosterone treatment diminishes sickness behavior in male songbirds.

    Ashley, Noah T; Hays, Quentin R; Bentley, George E; Wingfield, John C

    2009-06-01

    Males of many vertebrate species are typically more prone to disease and infection than female conspecifics, and this sexual difference is partially influenced by the immunosuppressive properties of testosterone (T) in males. T-induced immunosuppression has traditionally been viewed as a pleiotropic handicap, rather than an adaptation. Recently, it has been hypothesized that suppression of sickness behavior, or the symptoms of infection, may have adaptive value if sickness interferes with the expression of T-mediated behaviors important for male reproductive success. We conduct a classic hormone replacement experiment to examine if T suppresses sickness behavior in a seasonally-breeding songbird, Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). Triggered experimentally by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sickness behavior includes decreased activity, anorexia, and weight loss. Gonadectomized (GDX) males that were treated with silastic implants filled with T exhibited suppression of behavioral and physiological responses to LPS compared to GDX and sham-GDX controls given empty implants. Sickness responses of control groups were statistically indistinguishable. T-implanted birds had significantly higher plasma T than control groups and levels were within the range associated with aggressive interactions during male-to-male contests. These findings imply that suppression of sickness behavior could occur when T is elevated to socially-modulated levels. Alternatively, it is possible that this suppressive effect is mediated through a stress-induced mechanism, as corticosterone levels were elevated in T-implanted subjects compared to controls. We propose that males wounded and infected during contests may gain a brief selective advantage by suppressing sickness responses that would otherwise impair competitive performance. The cost of immunosuppression would be manifested in males through an increased susceptibility to disease, which is presumably

  18. Mountain Plover [ds109

    California Department of Resources — Point locations representing observations of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) feeding and roosting flocks (and occasional individuals) documented during an...

  19. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  20. Delayed recompression for decompression sickness: retrospective analysis.

    Amir Hadanny

    Full Text Available Most cases of decompression sickness (DCS occur soon after surfacing, with 98% within 24 hours. Recompression using hyperbaric chamber should be administrated as soon as feasible in order to decrease bubble size and avoid further tissue injury. Unfortunately, there may be a significant time delay from surfacing to recompression. The time beyond which hyperbaric treatment is non effective is unclear. The aims of the study were first to evaluate the effect of delayed hyperbaric treatment, initiated more than 48 h after surfacing for DCS and second, to evaluate the different treatment protocols.From January 2000 to February 2014, 76 divers had delayed hyperbaric treatment (≥48 h for DCS in the Sagol center for Hyperbaric medicine and Research, Assaf-Harofeh Medical Center, Israel. Data were collected from their medical records and compared to data of 128 patients treated earlier than 48 h after surfacing at the same hyperbaric institute.There was no significant difference, as to any of the baseline characteristics, between the delayed and early treatment groups. With respect to treatment results, at the delayed treatment divers, complete recovery was achieved in 76% of the divers, partial recovery in 17.1% and no improvement in 6.6%. Similar results were achieved when treatment started early, where 78% of the divers had complete recovery, 15.6% partial recovery and 6.2% no recovery. Delayed hyperbaric treatment using US Navy Table 6 protocol trended toward a better clinical outcome yet not statistically significant (OR=2.786, CI95%[0.896-8.66], p=0.07 compared to standard hyperbaric oxygen therapy of 90 minutes at 2 ATA, irrespective of the symptoms severity at presentation.Late recompression for DCS, 48 hours or more after surfacing, has clinical value and when applied can achieve complete recovery in 76% of the divers. It seems that the preferred hyperbaric treatment protocol should be based on US Navy Table 6.

  1. Decompression sickness ('the bends') in sea turtles.

    García-Párraga, D; Crespo-Picazo, J L; de Quirós, Y Bernaldo; Cervera, V; Martí-Bonmati, L; Díaz-Delgado, J; Arbelo, M; Moore, M J; Jepson, P D; Fernández, Antonio

    2014-10-16

    Decompression sickness (DCS), as clinically diagnosed by reversal of symptoms with recompression, has never been reported in aquatic breath-hold diving vertebrates despite the occurrence of tissue gas tensions sufficient for bubble formation and injury in terrestrial animals. Similarly to diving mammals, sea turtles manage gas exchange and decompression through anatomical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations. In the former group, DCS-like lesions have been observed on necropsies following behavioral disturbance such as high-powered acoustic sources (e.g. active sonar) and in bycaught animals. In sea turtles, in spite of abundant literature on diving physiology and bycatch interference, this is the first report of DCS-like symptoms and lesions. We diagnosed a clinico-pathological condition consistent with DCS in 29 gas-embolized loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta from a sample of 67. Fifty-nine were recovered alive and 8 had recently died following bycatch in trawls and gillnets of local fisheries from the east coast of Spain. Gas embolization and distribution in vital organs were evaluated through conventional radiography, computed tomography, and ultrasound. Additionally, positive response following repressurization was clinically observed in 2 live affected turtles. Gas embolism was also observed postmortem in carcasses and tissues as described in cetaceans and human divers. Compositional gas analysis of intravascular bubbles was consistent with DCS. Definitive diagnosis of DCS in sea turtles opens a new era for research in sea turtle diving physiology, conservation, and bycatch impact mitigation, as well as for comparative studies in other air-breathing marine vertebrates and human divers.

  2. The menstrual cycle and susceptibility to coriolis-induced sickness.

    Cheung, B; Heskin, R; Hofer, K; Gagnon, M

    2001-01-01

    Survey studies on motion sickness susceptibility suggest that females tend to report greater severity in illness and higher incidence of vomiting than males. Menstruation is said to be a contributing factor. A recent study suggested that females were least susceptible to seasickness during ovulation in a "round the world" yacht race. Sixteen subjects (18-36 years old) were exposed to Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation in the laboratory. They were tested once during permenstruation (Day 1-5), ovulation (Day 12-15) and premenstruation (Day 24-28), based on a normalized 28-day cycle, in a randomised design. Physiological measurements of motion sickness included forearm and calf cutaneous blood flow. Subjective evaluation of sickness symptoms was based on Graybiel's diagnostic criteria and Golding's rating method. Our results indicated that under controlled laboratory conditions, different phases of the menstrual cycle appear to have no influence on subjective symptoms of motion sickness or on cutaneous blood flow increase in the forearm and calf. The lack of commonality between the types and levels of hormones that are released during motion sickness and those that are involved in different menstrual phases appears to support our findings.

  3. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness.

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS.

  4. Molecular hydrogen reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammation and promotes recovery from sickness behaviour in mice.

    Stefan Spulber

    Full Text Available Molecular hydrogen has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in mouse models of acute neurodegeneration. The effect was suggested to be mediated by its free-radical scavenger properties. However, it has been shown recently that molecular hydrogen alters gene expression and protein phosphorylation. The aim of this study was to test whether chronic ad libitum consumption of molecular hydrogen-enriched electrochemically reduced water (H-ERW improves the outcome of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Seven days after the initiation of H-ERW treatment, C57Bl/6 mice received a single injection of LPS (0.33 mg/kg i.p. or an equivalent volume of vehicle. The LPS-induced sickness behaviour was assessed 2 h after the injection, and recovery was assessed by monitoring the spontaneous locomotor activity in the homecage for 72 h after the administration of LPS. The mice were killed in the acute or recovery phase, and the expression of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus was assessed by real-time PCR. We found that molecular hydrogen reduces the LPS-induced sickness behaviour and promotes recovery. These effects are associated with a shift towards anti-inflammatory gene expression profile at baseline (downregulation of TNF- α and upregulation of IL-10. In addition, molecular hydrogen increases the amplitude, but shortens the duration and promotes the extinction of neuroinflammation. Consistently, molecular hydrogen modulates the activation and gene expression in a similar fashion in immortalized murine microglia (BV-2 cell line, suggesting that the effects observed in vivo may involve the modulation of microglial activation. Taken together, our data point to the regulation of cytokine expression being an additional critical mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen.

  5. QAP collaborates in development of the sick child algorithm.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms which specify procedures for proper diagnosis and treatment of common diseases have been available to primary health care services in less developed countries for the past decade. Whereas each algorithm has usually been limited to a single ailment, children often present with the need for more comprehensive assessment and treatment. Treating just one illness in these children leads to incomplete treatment or missed opportunities for preventive services. To address this problem, the World Health Organization has recently developed a Sick Child Algorithm (SCA) for children aged 2 months-5 years. In addition to specifying case management procedures for acute respiratory illness, diarrhea/dehydration, fever, otitis, and malnutrition, the SCA prompts a check of the child's immunization status. The specificity and sensitivity of this SCA were field-tested in Kenya and the Gambia. In Kenya, the Malaria Branch of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tested the SCA under typical conditions in Siaya District. The Quality Assurance Project of the Center for Human Services carried out a parallel facility-based systems analysis at the request of the Malaria Branch. The assessment which took place in September-October 1993, took the form of observations of provider/patient interactions, provider interviews, and verification of supplies and equipment in 19 rural health facilities to determine how current practices compare to actions prescribed by the SCA. This will reveal the type and amount of technical support needed to achieve conformity to the SCA's clinical practice recommendations. The data will allow officials to devise the proper training programs and will predict quality improvements likely to be achieved through adoption of the SCA in terms of effective case treatment and fewer missed immunization opportunities. Preliminary analysis indicates that the primary health care delivery in Siya deviates in several significant respects from performance

  6. Multidimensional intervention and sickness absence in assistant nursing students

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik;

    2009-01-01

    if a multidimensional prevention programme combining physical training, patient transfer technique and stress management prevents sickness absence and LBP in NA students. METHODS: The study was a 14-month cluster randomized controlled study. The participants were NA students from 37 randomly selected classes located...... at two schools of health and social care in Copenhagen, Denmark. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding sickness absence, LBP and psychosocial factors on commencement and after completion of the study. RESULTS: Of 766 female NA students, 668 (87%) completed the baseline......BACKGROUND: When handling patients, nursing assistant (NA) students and nurse students are frequently exposed to risk factors for low back pain (LBP) including sudden loads and twisting and bending of the spine. Furthermore, LBP is a major cause of sickness absence. AIMS: To ascertain...

  7. Analyzing sickness absence with statistical models for survival data

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Per Kragh; Smith-Hansen, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    absence data deal with events occurring over time, the use of statistical models for survival data has been reviewed, and the use of frailty models has been proposed for the analysis of such data. METHODS: Three methods for analyzing data on sickness absences were compared using a simulation study...... involving the following: (i) Poisson regression using a single outcome variable (number of sickness absences), (ii) analysis of time to first event using the Cox proportional hazards model, and (iii) frailty models, which are random effects proportional hazards models. Data from a study of the relation...... between the psychosocial work environment and sickness absence were used to illustrate the results. RESULTS: Standard methods were found to underestimate true effect sizes by approximately one-tenth [method i] and one-third [method ii] and to have lower statistical power than frailty models. CONCLUSIONS...

  8. Acupressure therapy for morning sickness. A controlled clinical trial.

    Hyde, E

    1989-01-01

    A prospective, controlled clinical trial examined the efficacy of acupressure therapy for morning sickness, using a two group, random assignment, crossover design. Subjects in Group 1 (N = 8) used acupressure wristbands for five days, followed by five days without therapy. Subjects in Group 2 (N = 8) had no therapy for five days, followed by five days use of wristbands. The Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist and Sickness Impact Profile were used, and extent of nausea was assessed at baseline, day five, and day ten. Use of acupressure wristbands relieved morning sickness for 12 of 16 subjects (chi 2 = 5.31 with Yates' correction factor, df = 1, p less than .025). Acupressure therapy resulted in statistically significant (p less than .05) reductions in anxiety, depression, behavioral dysfunction, and nausea. Limitations of the study and suggestions for future research are presented.

  9. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The study estimates the incidence of psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA; more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence) over one year. The study is the first accounting for everybody on LSA by linking a psychiatric assessment for all persons on LSA to public...... registers. METHODS: In a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants all 2,414 incident persons on LSA within one year were posted a questionnaire, of whom 1,121 (46.4%) responded. In a two phase design the 1,121 sick-listed persons were screened for psychiatric disorders. Phase 2 consisted of 844 people...... examined persons in Phase 2 showed by binomial tests the following frequencies: any psychiatric disorder 57%, any depression 42%, and any anxiety 18%. In Phase 1, representative for everyone on LSA, the frequencies were 48% for any psychiatric disorder, 35% for any depression, 15% for any anxiety, and 7...

  10. Impacts on Cardiac Electrophysiology and Na+-K+-ATP in the Rabbits with Acute Sick Sinus Syndrome Treated with Modified Shengxian Decoction%升陷汤加味方对急性病态窦房结综合征兔心肌电生理和Na+-K+-ATP酶的影响

    许成; 芦志娟; 管建存; 张军; 刘玉洁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the impacts of modified shengxian decoction on heart rate, sinus node function and myocardial Na +- K +- ATP in the rabbit model of myocardial sick sinus syndrome.Methods 30 big ear white rabbits were randomized into six groups: blank group, model group, xinbao group, and high - dose, medium - dose and low - dose groups of shengxian decoction.Medication with gastric lavage was done continuously for 3 days in each group, then, the model was settled.Finally, heart rate, sinus node function and myocardial Na +- K +- ATP activity were measured and observed.Results The changes in heart rate, sinus node function and myocardial Na +- K +- ATP activity in every medication group were superior to model group( P < 0.05 ).Of them, the levels of the above indexes in high - dose group of modified shengjiang decoction were not different significantly as compared with xinbao group in statistics ( P > 0.05 ).The improvements in the indexes of medium - dose and low - dose groups of modified shengjiang decoction were not superior to xinbao group,indicating significant difference in statistical comparison of the groups( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Modified shengxian decoction may improve heart rate of sick sinus syndrome of rabbit model,protect sinus node function, enhance myocardial Na +- K +- ATP activity and strengthen the ability of sinus cell to conquer damage.%目的 观察升陷汤加味方对兔病态窦房结综合征模型心率、窦房结功能和心肌Na+ -K+ -ATP酶的影响.方法 将30只大耳白兔随机分成六组:空白组、模型组、心宝组、升陷汤加味方高、中、低剂量组,各组先连续灌胃给药7 d,再行造模,测量并观察心率、窦房结功能和心肌Na+ -K+ -ATP酶活力的变化.结果 各用药组心率、窦房结功能和心肌Na+ -K+ -ATP酶活力变化均优于模型组(P<0.05),其中升陷汤加味方高剂量组以上各指标与心宝组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);升陷汤加味方中

  11. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sicknes......: Certain physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors were important determinants of incidence of sickness, independently of each other. Some of the associations were sex specific.......OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...

  12. Certificated sickness absence in industrial employees threatened with redundancy.

    Beale, N; Nethercott, S

    1988-05-28

    The proposition that workers take less sick leave when threatened by redundancy was examined in a longitudinal, controlled study using information from case records in a general practice. The hypothesis was only partly supported--certificated sickness absence dropped only in employees under the age of 40. Workers fearing job loss reported more illness, and their periods of absence were significantly longer, especially for men and for workers who had previously consulted their general practitioner infrequently. This study provides further evidence that the fear of mass redundancy is stressful to workers so threatened and costly to a society experiencing rising unemployment.

  13. Morning sickness: a mechanism for protecting mother and embryo.

    Flaxman, S M; Sherman, P W

    2000-06-01

    Approximately two-thirds of women experience nausea or vomiting during the first trimester of pregnancy. These symptoms are commonly known as morning sickness. Hook (1976) and Profet (1988) hypothesized that morning sickness protects the embryo by causing pregnant women to physically expel and subsequently avoid foods that contain teratogenic and abortifacient chemicals, especially toxic chemicals in strong-tasting vegetables, caffeinated beverages and alcohol. We examined this hypothesis by comprehensively reviewing the relevant medical, psychological and anthropological literature. In its support, (i) symptoms peak when embryonic organogenesis is most susceptible to chemical disruption (weeks 6-18), (ii) women who experience morning sickness are significantly less likely to miscarry than women who do not (9 of 9 studies), (iii) women who vomit suffer fewer miscarriages than those who experience nausea alone, and (iv) many pregnant women have aversions to alcoholic and nonalcoholic (mostly caffeinated) beverages and strong-tasting vegetables, especially during the first trimester. Surprisingly, however, the greatest aversions are to meats, fish, poultry, and eggs. A cross-cultural analysis using the Human Relations Area Files revealed 20 traditional societies in which morning sickness has been observed and seven in which it has never been observed. The latter were significantly less likely to have animal products as dietary staples and significantly more likely to have only plants (primarily corn) as staples than the 20 societies in which morning sickness occurred. Animal products may be dangerous to pregnant women and their embryos because they often contain parasites and pathogens, especially when stored at room temperatures in warm climates. Avoiding foodborne microorganisms is particularly important to pregnant women because they are immunosuppressed, presumably to reduce the chances of rejecting tissues of their own offspring (Haig 1993). As a result

  14. The determinants of sick leave durations of Dutch self-employed

    Spierdijk, Laura; van Lomwel, Gijsbert; Peppelman, Wilko

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes sickness absenteeism among self-employed in the Netherlands. Using a unique data set provided by a large Dutch private insurance company, we assess the determinants of sick leave durations. Our study suggests that several risk factors affect the sick leave durations of self-emplo

  15. 5 CFR 630.405 - Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity. 630.405 Section 630.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.405 Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity....

  16. 5 CFR 630.406 - Records on the use of sick leave.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records on the use of sick leave. 630.406 Section 630.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.406 Records on the use of sick leave. An agency must maintain records...

  17. 5 CFR 630.404 - Use of sick leave during annual leave.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of sick leave during annual leave. 630.404 Section 630.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.404 Use of sick leave during annual leave. Subject to §...

  18. Chronic Radiation Sickness Among Techa Riverside Residents

    1998-02-01

    9 Acute abdomen 68416 F 1955 0.6031555 5 1960 71 Unknown cause 148220 F 1954 0.3748812 0 1954 40 9 571 4 Hepatitis, achylic gastritis 164125 M 1956...12.5 (7.15-20.25) relation to the dose. The results of the analysis are residents who were adolescents when exposure listed in table 4 and figure 2...composition of this0 group indicates that many were exposed in child- hood or adolescence . Thus, among the 66 verified -500 0I I cases, there were 46

  19. Development of a neural net paradigm that predicts simulator sickness

    Allgood, G.O.

    1993-03-01

    A disease exists that affects pilots and aircrew members who use Navy Operational Flight Training Systems. This malady, commonly referred to as simulator sickness and whose symptomatology closely aligns with that of motion sickness, can compromise the use of these systems because of a reduced utilization factor, negative transfer of training, and reduction in combat readiness. A report is submitted that develops an artificial neural network (ANN) and behavioral model that predicts the onset and level of simulator sickness in the pilots and aircrews who sue these systems. It is proposed that the paradigm could be implemented in real time as a biofeedback monitor to reduce the risk to users of these systems. The model captures the neurophysiological impact of use (human-machine interaction) by developing a structure that maps the associative and nonassociative behavioral patterns (learned expectations) and vestibular (otolith and semicircular canals of the inner ear) and tactile interaction, derived from system acceleration profiles, onto an abstract space that predicts simulator sickness for a given training flight.

  20. Occupational rewards relate to sickness absence frequency but not duration

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Work stress is an important problem that shifted sickness absence research to the psychosocial work environment at the expense of physical or chemical hazards. Most studies investigated the psychosocial work environment using the Demand-Control model. However, this model does not consider coping sty

  1. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.

    2009-01-01

    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency ra

  2. The role of work group in individual sickness absence behavior.

    Väänänen, Ari; Tordera, Nuria; Kivimäki, Mika; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of our two-year follow-up study was to examine the effect of the social components of the work group, such as group absence norms and cohesion, on sickness absence behavior among individuals with varying attitudes toward work attendance. The social components were measured using a questionnaire survey and data on sickness absence behavior were collected from the employers' records. The study population consisted of 19,306 Finnish municipal employees working in 1,847 groups (78% women). Multilevel Poisson regression modeling was applied. The direct effects of work group characteristics on sickness absence were mostly insignificant. In contrast, both of the social components of a work group had an indirect impact: The more tolerant the group absence norms (at both individual- and cross-level) and the lower the group cohesion (at the individual level), the more the absence behavior of an individual was influenced by his or her attitude toward work attendance. We conclude that work group moderates the extent to which individuals with a liberal attitude toward work attendance actually engage in sickness absence behavior.

  3. The association between commuter cycling and sickness absence

    Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Simons, M.; Garre, F.G.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the association between commuter cycling and all-cause sickness absence, and the possible dose-response relationship between absenteeism and the distance, frequency and speed of commuter cycling. Method: Cross-sectional data about cycling in 1236 Dutch employees were collected us

  4. Management of Sick Leave due to Musculoskeletal Disorders

    E. Faber (Elske)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMusculoskeletal disorders are a common problem that may lead to func-Ational limitations and (work) disability. It is not clear yet how improvement in Apain or functional limitations is related to return to work after an episode of sick Aleave. Furthermore, several physicians are involve

  5. What bothers the sick-listed employee with severe MUPS?

    Hoedeman, R.; Blankenstein, A. H.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to explore what employees with severe medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) experience as causes of distress with regard to employees with mild or no MUPS. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of a cross-sectional study in which 486 sick-listed emplo

  6. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  7. Landforms of High Mountains

    Derek A. McDougall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Landforms of High Mountains. By Alexander Stahr and Ewald Langenscheidt. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2015. viii + 158 pp. US$ 129.99. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-642-53714-1.

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  9. Diurnal variation of mountain waves

    R. M. Worthington

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain waves could be modified as the boundary layer varies between stable and convective. However case studies show mountain waves day and night, and above e.g. convective rolls with precipitation lines over mountains. VHF radar measurements of vertical wind (1990–2006 confirm a seasonal variation of mountain-wave amplitude, yet there is little diurnal variation of amplitude. Mountain-wave azimuth shows possible diurnal variation compared to wind rotation across the boundary layer.

  10. General practitioners' management of the long-term sick role.

    Higgins, Angela; Porter, Sam; O'Halloran, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we use qualitative research techniques to examine the role of general practitioners in the management of the long-term sickness absence. In order to uncover the perspectives of all the main agents affected by the actions of general practitioners, a case study approach focussing on one particular employment sector, the public health service, is adopted. The role of family physicians is viewed from the perspectives of health service managers, occupational health physicians, employees/patients, and general practitioners. Our argument is theoretically framed by Talcott Parsons's model of the medical contribution to the sick role, along with subsequent conceptualisations of the social role and position of physicians. Sixty one semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted in three Health and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland between 2010 and 2012. There was a consensus among respondents that general practitioners put far more weight on the preferences and needs of their patients than they did on the requirements of employing organisations. This was explained by respondents in terms of the propinquity and longevity of relationships between doctors and their patients, and by the ideology of holistic care and patient advocacy that general practitioners viewed as providing the foundations of their approach to patients. The approach of general practitioners was viewed negatively by managers and occupational health physicians, and more positively by general practitioners and patients. However, there is some evidence that general practitioners would be prepared to forfeit their role as validators of sick leave. Given the imperatives of both state and capital to reduce the financial burden of long-term sickness, this preparedness puts into doubt the continued role of general practitioners as gatekeepers to legitimate long-term sickness absence.

  11. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  12. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    Arends, Iris; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R.; Bultmann, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental di

  13. Allometric scaling of decompression sickness risk in terrestrial mammals; cardiac output explains risk of decompression sickness

    Fahlman, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    A probabilistic model was used to predict decompression sickness (DCS) outcome in pig (70 and 20 kg), hamster (100 g), rat (220 g) and mouse (20 g) following air saturation dives. The data set included 179 pig, 200 hamster, 360 rat, and 224 mouse exposures to saturation pressures ranging from 1.9–15.2 ATA and with varying decompression rates (0.9–156 ATA • min‑1). Single exponential kinetics described the tissue partial pressures (Ptiss) of N2: Ptiss =  ∫(Pamb – Ptiss) • τ‑1 dt, where Pamb is ambient N2 pressure and τ is a time constant. The probability of DCS [P(DCS)] was predicted from the risk function: P(DCS) = 1‑e‑r, where r = ∫(PtissN2 ‑ Thr ‑ Pamb) • Pamb–1 dt, and Thr is a threshold parameter. An equation that scaled τ with body mass included a constant (c) and an allometric scaling parameter (n), and the best model included n, Thr, and two c. The final model provided accurate predictions for 58 out of 61 dive profiles for pig, hamster, rat, and mouse. Thus, body mass helped improve the prediction of DCS risk in four mammalian species over a body mass range covering 3 orders of magnitude.

  14. [Sperm count and seminal biochemistry of high altitude inhabitants and patients with chronic altitude sickness].

    García-Hjarles, M A

    1989-04-01

    Semen analysis has been studied in 9 healthy adult males from sea level (150 m), age 19-32 years old and 15 healthy males from high altitude (NA), 9 from Cerro de Pasco (4,300 m) and 6 from Morococha (4,540 m), ages 19-45 years old. Five patients with chronic mountain sickness (MMC), whose ages ranged from 23 to 52 years old were also studied. The volume and motility were similar in NA and MMC, however both were below than in sea level subjects, but still in the normal range; the number of spermatozoa per 1 ml was lower at sea level than in NA and MMC, although the total number was higher at sea level due to the higher semen volume. Fructose at sea level was 356 +/- 53 mg/100 ml (mean +/- S.E.) which is similar to NA 237 +/- 45 whereas a MMC was significantly lower, 142 +/- 60. Citric acid was lower at sea level than in NA and MMC. Na, K and Cl, were similar among the three groups. The lower concentration of fructose in MMC parallels the decreased testicular function already found in these groups. However it is worthy to point out that the fertility is preserved in all the groups. The normal reproductive function in MMC is against the concept that this process occurs as a consequence of environmental disadaptation.

  15. Exercise and nitric oxide prevent bubble formation: a novel approach to the prevention of decompression sickness?

    Wisløff, Ulrik; Richardson, Russell S; Brubakk, Alf O

    2004-03-16

    Nitrogen dissolves in the blood during dives, but comes out of solution if divers return to normal pressure too rapidly. Nitrogen bubbles cause a range of effects from skin rashes to seizures, coma and death. It is believed that these bubbles form from bubble precursors (gas nuclei). Recently we have shown that a single bout of exercise 20 h, but not 48 h, before a simulated dive prevents bubble formation and protects rats from severe decompression sickness (DCS) and death. Furthermore, we demonstrated that administration of N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a non-selective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS), turns a dive from safe to unsafe in sedentary but not exercised rats. Therefore based upon previous data an attractive hypothesis is that it may be possible to use either exercise or NO-releasing agents before a dive to inhibit bubble formation and thus protect against DCS. Consequently, the aims of the present study were to determine whether protection against bubble formation in 'diving' rats was provided by (1) chronic and acute administration of a NO-releasing agent and (2) exercise less than 20 h prior to the dive. NO given for 5 days and then 20 h prior to a dive to 700 kPa lasting 45 min breathing air significantly reduced bubble formation and prevented death. The same effect was seen if NO was given only 30 min before the dive. Exercise 20 h before a dive suppressed bubble formation and prevented death, with no effect at any other time (48, 10, 5 and 0.5 h prior to the dive). Pre-dive activities have not been considered to influence the growth of bubbles and thus the risk of serious DCS. The present novel findings of a protective effect against bubble formation and death by appropriately timed exercise and an NO-releasing agent may form the basis of a new approach to preventing serious decompression sickness.

  16. Differences in predictors of return to work among long-term sick-listed employees with different self-reported reasons for sick leave

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The present study aimed to gain insight in the predictors of full return to work (RTW) among employees on long-term sick leave due to three different self-reported reasons for sick leave: physical, mental or comorbid physical and mental problems. This knowledge can be used to develop di

  17. Exposure to exhaled air from a sick occupant in a two-bed hospital room with mixing ventilation: effect of distance from sick occupant and air change rate

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Georgiev, Emanuil

    2011-01-01

    an exposed patient lying in the second bed. The doctor stood 0.55 m or 1.1 m facing the sick patient. The breathing mode of the “sick patient” was: exhalation mouth/inhalation nose. Tracer gas (R-134a) was mixed with the exhaled air. Important finding of this study is that airflow distribution...

  18. Bayesian approach to decompression sickness model parameter estimation.

    Howle, L E; Weber, P W; Nichols, J M

    2017-03-01

    We examine both maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches for estimating probabilistic decompression sickness model parameters. Maximum likelihood estimation treats parameters as fixed values and determines the best estimate through repeated trials, whereas the Bayesian approach treats parameters as random variables and determines the parameter probability distributions. We would ultimately like to know the probability that a parameter lies in a certain range rather than simply make statements about the repeatability of our estimator. Although both represent powerful methods of inference, for models with complex or multi-peaked likelihoods, maximum likelihood parameter estimates can prove more difficult to interpret than the estimates of the parameter distributions provided by the Bayesian approach. For models of decompression sickness, we show that while these two estimation methods are complementary, the credible intervals generated by the Bayesian approach are more naturally suited to quantifying uncertainty in the model parameters.

  19. Pregnancy in sick sinus syndrome with pacemaker - two cases.

    Parveen, T; Begum, F; Akhter, N; Sharmin, F

    2013-04-01

    Sick sinus syndrome is a generalized abnormality of cardiac impulse formation that may be caused by extrinsic causes or by intrinsic disease of the sinus node making it unable to perform pace making function. It can be manifested for the first time in pregnancy. First case was diagnosed as sick sinus syndrome at 8 weeks of gestation having Mobitz type I heart block (Wenckebach block), and needed temporary pacemaker during caesarean section. Second case was diagnosed at 24 weeks of gestation having complete heart block and needed permanent pacemaker at 38 weeks of gestation due to exaggeration of the symptoms. Both the cases were dealt successfully by caesarean section under general anesthesia in close collaboration with cardiologists and anesthesiologists.

  20. Mechanisms of selective attention and space motion sickness

    Kohl, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The neural mismatch theory of space motion sickness asserts that the central and peripheral autonomic sequelae of discordant sensory input arise from central integrative processes falling to reconcile patterns of incoming sensory information with existing memory. Stated differently, perceived novelty reaches a stress level as integrative mechanisms fail to return a sense of control to the individual in the new environment. Based on evidence summarized here, the severity of the neural mismatch may be dependent upon the relative amount of attention selectively afforded to each sensory input competing for control of behavior. Components of the limbic system may play important roles in match-mismatch operations, be therapeutically modulated by antimotion sickness drugs, and be optimally positioned to control autonomic output.

  1. African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses.

    Weyer, C T; Quan, M; Joone, C; Lourens, C W; MacLachlan, N J; Guthrie, A J

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether subclinical cases, together with clinical cases, of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in immunised horses in field conditions, whole blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures recorded weekly from 50 Nooitgedacht ponies resident in open camps at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, during 2008-2010. The samples were tested for the presence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) RNA by a recently developed real-time RT-PCR. It was shown that 16% of immunised horses in an AHS endemic area were infected with AHSV over a 2 year period, with half of these (8%) being subclinically infected. The potential impact of such cases on the epidemiology of AHS warrants further investigation.

  2. Doppler bubble detection and decompression sickness: a prospective clinical trial.

    Bayne, C G; Hunt, W S; Johanson, D C; Flynn, E T; Weathersby, P K

    1985-09-01

    Decompression sickness in human beings exposed to high ambient pressure is thought to follow from gas bubble formation and growth in the body during return to low pressure. Detection of Doppler-shifted ultrasonic reflections in major blood vessels has been promoted as a noninvasive and sensitive indicator of the imminence of decompression sickness. We have conducted a double-blind, prospective clinical trial of Doppler ultrasonic bubble detection in simulated diving using 83 men, of whom 8 were stricken and treated for the clinical disease. Diagnosis based only on the Doppler signals had no correlation with clinical diagnosis. Bubble scores were only slightly higher in the stricken group. The Doppler technique does not appear to be of diagnostic value in the absence of other clinical information.

  3. EEG-based learning system for online motion sickness level estimation in a dynamic vehicle environment.

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Ko, Li-Wei

    2013-10-01

    Motion sickness is a common experience for many people. Several previous researches indicated that motion sickness has a negative effect on driving performance and sometimes leads to serious traffic accidents because of a decline in a person's ability to maintain self-control. This safety issue has motivated us to find a way to prevent vehicle accidents. Our target was to determine a set of valid motion sickness indicators that would predict the occurrence of a person's motion sickness as soon as possible. A successful method for the early detection of motion sickness will help us to construct a cognitive monitoring system. Such a monitoring system can alert people before they become sick and prevent them from being distracted by various motion sickness symptoms while driving or riding in a car. In our past researches, we investigated the physiological changes that occur during the transition of a passenger's cognitive state using electroencephalography (EEG) power spectrum analysis, and we found that the EEG power responses in the left and right motors, parietal, lateral occipital, and occipital midline brain areas were more highly correlated to subjective sickness levels than other brain areas. In this paper, we propose the use of a self-organizing neural fuzzy inference network (SONFIN) to estimate a driver's/passenger's sickness level based on EEG features that have been extracted online from five motion sickness-related brain areas, while either in real or virtual vehicle environments. The results show that our proposed learning system is capable of extracting a set of valid motion sickness indicators that originated from EEG dynamics, and through SONFIN, a neuro-fuzzy prediction model, we successfully translated the set of motion sickness indicators into motion sickness levels. The overall performance of this proposed EEG-based learning system can achieve an average prediction accuracy of ~82%.

  4. Returning long-term Sick-Listed to Work

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    The Danish policy towards work-disabled persons seems to comprise contradictory forces. On the one hand, the state seeks to enhance labour market integration of work-disabled persons through vocational rehabilitation. On the other hand, lax job protection legislation makes it easy for employers...... facilitates a flexible labour market, but an important drawback seems to be that many sick-listed employees loose their labour market attachment....

  5. Motion Sickness Prevention by Stroboscopic Environment during Simulated Military Transport

    2009-07-20

    known, most of these drugs fall into three classes: antidopaminergics, anticholinergics, and antihistamines ( Drug Facts and Comparisons, 1999...vomiting 2 center also is directly stimulated by motion and by high levels of acetylcholine. Therefore, most drugs that are used to prevent or...Brendley, K. W., Marti, J., & DiZio, P. 2003. Motion Coupled Visual Environment (MOCOVE): Drug -Free Alleviations of Motion Sickness. U.S

  6. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen

    1988-01-01

    Previous experiments with moving platform posturography have shown that different people have varying abilities to resolve conflicts among vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive sensory signals used to control upright posture. In particular, there is one class of subjects with a vestibular disorder known as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) who often are particularly sensitive to inaccurate visual information. That is, they will use visual sensory information for the control of their posture even when that visual information is inaccurate and is in conflict with accurate proprioceptive and vestibular sensory signals. BPPV has been associated with disorders of both posterior semicircular canal function and possibly otolith function. The present proposal hopes to take advantage of the similarities between the space motion sickness problem and the sensory orientation reference selection problems associated with the BPPV syndrome. These similarities include both etiology related to abnormal vertical canal-otolith function, and motion sickness initiating events provoked by pitch and roll head movements. The objectives of this proposal are to explore and quantify the orientation reference selection abilities of subjects and the relation of this selection to motion sickness in humans.

  7. Absence from work and the medical sickness certificate.

    Massoni, F; Salesi, M; Sarra, M V; Ricci, S

    2013-03-01

    Internet and dematerialization have greatly facilitated the medical profession. Contractual physicians and national health service doctors now have efficient tools for the electronic management of their routine administrative workload. A recent innovation is the medical sickness certificate issued by primary care providers and national health service physicians. Following postponements and uncertainties, procedures for the electronic completion and online transmission of the sickness certificate are now complete. The changes introduced by the so-called "Brunetta decree", however, have made its application difficult and continuous improvement to the system is needed, considering also the severe penalties imposed for violations. In the light of serious legal repercussions for health care professionals, this article examines various critical issues, highlighting the pitfalls and the network's enormous potential for ascertaining evidence of irregularities. The overheated debate on absenteeism due to illness, the diverse roles of national health physicians and self-employed doctors responsible for issuing a sickness certificate, and problems related to circumstances in which a doctor operates, are the key topics in this discussion. Computerization is an effective tool for optimizing public resources; however, it also seeks to ferret out, through the traceability of certification, abuse of medical certification, with severe penalties applied if certificates are discovered to contain misleading or untrue information.

  8. The significance of motion sickness in the vestibular system.

    Takahashi, M; Ogata, M; Miura, M

    1997-01-01

    In order to clarify the significance of motion sickness in the vestibular system, we compared the findings of experimental motion sickness between different kinds of subjects, some of which were already reported. Subjects were healthy adults, healthy children between the ages of 4 and 15 years, and patients with congenital and acquired labyrinthine loss. They were asked to walk while wearing horizontally and vertically reversing goggles. Equilibrium ataxia as well as motion sickness were evoked by horizontal reversal, but not by vertical reversal in healthy subjects. Kindergarten children exhibited severe ataxia, but little nausea. The frequency of severe ataxia decreased during growth, inversely as the frequency of nausea syndrome increased. Although a patient with acquired loss became severely ataxic, a patient with congenital loss did not show any ataxia at all. The present study suggests that vestibular cues are indispensable to the ego-spatial relationship in the brain, and once the ego-spatial relationship becomes inadequate, discomfort acts as a safety device to brake uncontrollable actions. Then, perception of the outer world may automatically adjust voluntary actions by affecting motor commands. The importance of visual cues for representing an alternative framework may differ between congenital and acquired labyrinthine loss.

  9. SICK BUILDING SYNDROME CASES BEHIND THE UNKNOWN SYMPTOMES

    Oguz OZYARAL

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, several mycological analyses made in the houses of the sick people whose sensitivity against allergens was examined in line with the people and their histories who applied to Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty Department of Pulmonery Disease. Clinically, in the blood serums of three housewives, who have complaints about respiration difficulties, specific lgG antibody against several mold, thermophylic actinomycetes and bird antigens were examined. As a result of the analysis it is found out that there is a 75% direct relation between in-house molds flora and the molds that the sick person gained sensitivity. Findings appeared in housewives who are living in houses surrounded by molds are regarded as “sick building syndrome”. In this particular work, knowledge is given about real agents that are hidden behind some general symptoms of anemnesia and examination of patients with chronic complaints. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(5.000: 352-363

  10. Ascent schedules, acute altitude illness, and altitude acclimatization: Observations on the Yushu Earthquake

    Wu Tianyi; Hou Shike; Li Shuzhi; Li Wenxiang; Gen Deng

    2013-01-01

    During the Yushu Earthquake on April 14,2010,a large number of rescuers from sea level or lowlands ascended to the quake areas very rapidly or rapidly less than 24 h.However,Yushu Earthquake is the highest quake in the world at altitudes between 3750 m and 4878 m where is a serious hypoxic environment.A high incidence of acute altitude illness was found in the unacclimatized rescuers; the mountain rescue operation changed as "rescue the rescuers".Lesson from the Yushu Earthquake is that the occurrence of acute altitude illness may be closely related to the ascent schedules.This prompted us to study the relationship between ascent rate and the incidence and severity of acute altitude illness; five different groups were compared.The first group was 42 sea level male young soldiers who ascended to quake area very rapidly within 8 h at 4000 m; the second group was 48 sea level male young soldiers who ascended to 4000 m rapidly less than 18 h; the third group was 66 acclimatized medical workers from 2261 m who ascended to 4000 m rapidly within 12 h; the fourth group was 56 Tibetan medical workers from 2800 m who ascended to 4000 m rapidly within 8 h; the fifth group was 50 male sea level workers who ascended to 4000 m gradually over a period of 4 d.The results showed that the sea level rescuers ascended to 4000 m very rapidly or rapidly had the highest incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) with the greatest AMS scores and the lowest arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) ; the sea level workers ascended to 4000 m gradually had moderate incidence of AMS with moderate AMS scores and SaO2 values; whereas the acclimatized and adapted rescuers had the lowest incidence of AMS,lowest AMS scores and higher SaO2; especially none AMS occurred in Tibetan rescuers.AMS score is inversely related to the ascent rate (r=-0.24,p<0.001).Additionally,acute altitude illness is significantly influenced by altitude acclimatization.The ascent rate is inversely related to

  11. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  12. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  13. Understand mountain studies from earthquake

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Sichuan earthquake on 12 May was the most devastating one to hit China over the past 60 years or so. As the affected were mostly mountainous areas, serious damages were caused by various secondary disasters ranging from mountain collapse to the formation of quake lakes. This leaves Prof. DENG Wei, director-general of the Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS, much to think about, and he is calling for strengthening studies on mountain science.

  14. Sick leave among home-care personnel: a longitudinal study of risk factors

    Holmström Eva B

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick leave due to neck, shoulder and back disorders (NSBD is higher among health-care workers, especially nursing aides/assistant nurses, compared with employees in other occupations. More information is needed about predictors of sick leave among health care workers. The aim of the study was to assess whether self-reported factors related to health, work and leisure time could predict: 1 future certified sick leave due to any cause, in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group I and 2 future self-reported sick leave due to NSBD in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group II. Methods Study group I, comprised 443 female nursing aides/assistant nurses, not on sick leave at baseline when a questionnaire was completed. Data on certified sick leave were collected after 18 months. Study group II comprised 274 of the women, who at baseline reported no sick leave during the preceding year due to NSBD and who participated at the 18 month follow-up. Data on sick leave due to NSBD were collected from the questionnaire at 18 months. The associations between future sick leave and factors related to health, work and leisure time were tested by logistic regression analyses. Results Health-related factors such as previous low back disorders (OR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.20–2.97 and previous sick leave (OR 6.40; 95%CI 3.97–10.31, were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to any cause. Factors related to health, work and leisure time, i.e. previous low back disorders (OR: 4.45; 95% CI 1.27–15.77 previous sick leave, not due to NSBD (OR 3.30; 95%CI 1.33–8.17, high strain work (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.05–5.23 and high perceived physical exertion in domestic work (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.12–5.86 were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to NSBD. In the final analyses, previous low back disorders and previous sick leave remained significant in both study groups. Conclusion The results suggest a focus on previous low

  15. Unusual Presentation of Acute Annular Urticaria: A Case Report

    Gilles Guerrier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute urticarial lesions may display central clearing with ecchymotic or haemorrhagic hue, often misdiagnosed as erythema multiforme, serum-sickness-like reactions, or urticarial vasculitis. We report a case of acute annular urticaria with unusual presentation occurring in a 20-month-old child to emphasize the distinctive morphologic manifestations in a single disease. Clinicians who care for children should be able to differentiate acute urticaria from its clinical mimics. A directed history and physical examination can reliably orientate necessary diagnostic testing and allow for appropriate treatment.

  16. Influence of acute exposure to high altitude on basal and postprandial plasma levels of gastroenteropancreatic peptides.

    Rudolf L Riepl

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is characterized by headache often accompanied by gastrointestinal complaints that vary from anorexia through nausea to vomiting. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high altitude on plasma levels of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP peptides and their association to AMS symptoms. Plasma levels of 6 GEP peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 11 subjects at 490 m (Munich, Germany and, after rapid passive ascent to 3454 m (Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, over the course of three days. In a second study (n = 5, the same peptides and ghrelin were measured in subjects who consumed standardized liquid meals at these two elevations. AMS symptoms and oxygen saturation were monitored. In the first study, both fasting (morning 8 a.m. and stimulated (evening 8 p.m. plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide (PP and cholecystokinin (CCK were significantly lower at high altitude as compared to baseline, whereas gastrin and motilin concentrations were significantly increased. Fasting plasma neurotensin was significantly enhanced whereas stimulated levels were reduced. Both fasting and stimulated plasma motilin levels correlated with gastrointestinal symptom severity (r = 0.294, p = 0.05, and r = 0.41, p = 0.006, respectively. Mean O(2-saturation dropped from 96% to 88% at high altitude. In the second study, meal-stimulated integrated (= area under curve plasma CCK, PP, and neurotensin values were significantly suppressed at high altitude, whereas integrated levels of gastrin were increased and integrated VIP and ghrelin levels were unchanged. In summary, our data show that acute exposure to a hypobaric hypoxic environment causes significant changes in fasting and stimulated plasma levels of GEP peptides over consecutive days and after a standardized meal. The changes of peptide levels were not uniform. Based on the inhibition of PP and neurotensin release a reduction of the cholinergic tone can be postulated.

  17. Does Perceived Stress Mediate the Association Between Workplace Bullying and Long-Term Sickness Absence?

    Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if perceived stress mediated the association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence. METHODS: The PRISME cohort was established in 2007 and re-examined in 2009. Questionnaire data about workplace bullying and perceived stress were obtained from...... 4114 individuals. Participants were followed in registers on long-term sickness absence (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence). RESULTS: Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent sickness absence (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57 to 2.65) and concurrent high...... perceived stress levels (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.96). A high perceived stress level was also associated with subsequent sickness absence (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56). Perceived stress explained 13% (95% CI: 6 to 23%) of the total association between bullying and sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS...

  18. 大鼠脂肪间充质干细胞移植治疗急性放射病的安全性%Safety of rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in the treatment of acute radiation sickness

    许文黎; 张伟; 秦秀军; 岳娟; 李曙芳; 王永丽; 闻建华

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨急性放射性大鼠经静脉输注异体脂肪间充质干细胞(adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells,ADSCs)后的安全性。方法:SPF级雄性SD大鼠45只,随机分为空白对照组,照射对照组和照射移植组,每组15只。体外分离培养大鼠脂肪间充60质干细胞,照射对照组与照射移植组大鼠经 Co治疗机一次性7 Gy剂量全身照射后,照射移植组大鼠按10 mL/kg尾静脉注射脂肪间6充质干细胞,细胞浓度为1×10/mL;空白对照组和照射对照组注射等体积的无菌生理盐水。分别于照射后16和34 d进行血液学、血液生化学和组织病理学检查。结果:移植组大鼠体质量、血常规、血液生化与照射对照组相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);移植组大鼠脏器病理学观察与照射组、空白对照组相比无明显差别;未见移植组大鼠出现急慢性移植物抗宿主病反应。结论:急性放射性大鼠异体静脉输注脂肪间充质干细胞是安全可行的,对受者无不良影响。%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety of intravenous injection of allogeneic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells(ADSCs) in rats after acute radiation. METHODS:A total of 45 SPF male SD rats were equally and randomly divided into three groups:blank control group,radiation control group and radiation grafting group. Rat ADSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro. Irradiated control group and irradiated grafting rats were received 7 Gy dose 6total body irradiation once. Rats in each group received injection via tail vein,with 10 mL/kg of 1×10 ADSCs as the irradiated grafting group and the equal volume physiological saline as blank control group and irradiated control group. The rats were observed for 34 days for their general reactions before they were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected for hematological studies at the 16th day and biochemical studies at the 34th day. Visceral organs were inspected and studied

  19. Xiuhua Mountain Museum

    1999-01-01

    XIUHUA Mountain Museum,a building nestled amongthe hills,is the first private museum of the Tujiaethnicity.Its name is an amalgamation of the names ofthe couple who run it,Gong Daoxiu and her husband ChenChuhua.According to Chen,the reason that he put his wife’s

  20. Sick sinus syndrome associated with hypopituitarism: a case report and literature review

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Zhang, Qing; Lu, Jingping; Zhang, Gang; Lu, Huihe; Huang, Jianfei; Shan, Qijun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Though an association between autoimmune diseases and sick sinus syndrome has been reported, there has been no report on the association of hypopituitarism and sick sinus syndrome. Herein, we provide the first case report of hypopituitarism accompanying sick sinus syndrome in a 51-year-old woman presented to our hospital with syncope due to cardiac arrest. The patient was successfully managed by pacemaker installation and hormone replacement therapy. PMID:25332716

  1. MALIGNANT LYMPHOMA DEMONESTRATING SICK SINUS SYNDROME AND SUPERIOR VENA CAVA SYNDROME

    S K Forouzannia; M h Abdollahi; Mirhosseini, S. J.; S H Moshtaghion; HOSSEINI, H; Jorat, M. V.; M Moeeni; M A Karimi-Zarchi

    2008-01-01

    "nReports which describe sick sinus syndrome due to malignant lymphoma have been rare and only eight cases have been reported until now. This is a case of sick sinus syndrome and superior vena cava syndrome secondary to invasion of occult malignant lymphoma of the lung in a 60 years old male. There were no symptoms or signs of malignancy before the first presentation with sick sinus syndrome. Patient was treated with implantation of a permanent pacemaker. SA node involvement by lymphoma ...

  2. A pilot study of rizatriptan and visually-induced motion sickness in migraineurs

    Furman, Joseph M.; Marcus, Dawn A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Limited evidence suggests that rizatriptan given before vestibular stimulation reduces motion sickness in persons with migraine-related dizziness. The present study was designed to test whether rizatriptan is also effective in protecting against visually-induced motion sickness and to test whether rizatriptan blocks the augmentation of motion sickness by head pain. Material and Methods: Using randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled methodology, 10 females, 6 with migrainous ve...

  3. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    . The hazard ratio for sickness absence with weekly increase of one hour in computer use was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00). Low satisfaction with work place arrangements and female gender both doubled the risk of sickness absence.We have earlier found that computer use did not predict persistent pain in the neck...... and upper limb, and it seems that computer use neither predicts future long-term sickness absence of all causes....

  4. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  5. Acute pancreatitis

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... pancreatitis; Pancreas - inflammation Images Digestive system Endocrine glands Pancreatitis, acute - CT scan Pancreatitis - series References Forsmark CE. Pancreatitis. ...

  6. Cystitis - acute

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  7. Experiences of sickness absence, marginality and Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms - A focus group study

    E.L., Werner; A, Aamland; Malterud, Kirsti

    2013-01-01

    with a purposive sample of 12 participants, six men and six women, aged 24-59 years. Their average duration of sickness absence was 10.5 months. Participants were invited to share stories about experiences from the process leading to the ongoing sickness absence, with a focus on the causes being medically......PURPOSE: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a major cause of sickness absence. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may influence further marginalization among patients with MUPS on long-term sickness absence. METHODS: Two focus-group discussions were conducted...

  8. Employers' Importance for the Return to Work of Sick-Listed Workers

    Holm, Sociologisk Institut, Københavns Universitet, Anders; V Benn, Nis; Høgelund, Jan

    Using matched survey-register panel data about 419 long-term sick-listed workers and their sick leave employer, this paper assesses how sick-listed workers react to employers’ threat of dismissal. We simultaneously estimate the duration until the sick-listed worker either separate from the pre-si...... for Applied Microeconomics, University of Copenhagen, senior researcher, Jan Høgelund, the Danish National Institute of Social Research, and research assistant Nis Vilhelm Benn, the Danish National Institute of Social Research....

  9. MALIGNANT LYMPHOMA DEMONESTRATING SICK SINUS SYNDROME AND SUPERIOR VENA CAVA SYNDROME

    S K Forouzannia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nReports which describe sick sinus syndrome due to malignant lymphoma have been rare and only eight cases have been reported until now. This is a case of sick sinus syndrome and superior vena cava syndrome secondary to invasion of occult malignant lymphoma of the lung in a 60 years old male. There were no symptoms or signs of malignancy before the first presentation with sick sinus syndrome. Patient was treated with implantation of a permanent pacemaker. SA node involvement by lymphoma should be considered as an etiological factor when sick sinus syndrome of unknown cause is encountered.

  10. Standing body sway in women with and without morning sickness in pregnancy.

    Yu, Yawen; Chung, Hyun Chae; Hemingway, Lauren; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Morning sickness typically is attributed to hormonal changes in pregnancy. We asked whether morning sickness is associated with changes in standing postural equilibrium, as occurs in research on visually induced motion sickness. Twenty-one pregnant women (mean age=30 years, mean height=163cm; mean weight=63kg) were tested during the first trimester. Laboratory-based balance measures were collected, along with perceived postural stability, the presence of morning sickness, and the severity of subjective symptoms. We varied the distance between the feet and the visual task performed during stance. Participants were classified as either experiencing (Sick, n=12) or not experiencing (Well, n=9) morning sickness. Perceived balance stability was lower for Sick than for Well women. The positional variability of sway was reduced for the Sick group, relative to the Well group. Positional variability decreased with wider stance width, and was reduced during performance of a more demanding visual task. Stance width and visual task also influenced the temporal dynamics of sway. Effects of stance width and visual task on postural sway were similar to effects in non-pregnant adults, suggesting that sensitive tuning of posture is maintained during the first trimester. The findings suggest that women with morning sickness may attempt to stabilize their bodies by reducing overall body sway. It may be useful to recommend that women adopt wider stance early in pregnancy.

  11. Predictors of return to work in employees sick-listed with mental health problems

    D.Nielsen, Maj Britt; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Bültmann, Ute;

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs.......Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs....

  12. Does evening work predict sickness absence among female carers of the elderly?

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to predict the risk ratio of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks due to shift work among Danish workers caring for the elderly during the evening and at night. METHODS: A sample of Danish carers of the elderly were interviewed in 2005. The response......) of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.52). The rate ratio for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks was 1.24 (95% CI 0.99-1.56). CONCLUSIONS: Evening work may cause long-term sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks....

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE AND CHRONIC LARYNGITIS DEPENDING ON RESULTS OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF LARYNX MICROFLORA

    K. I. Chuikova; T. N. Zaripova; V. I. Mukhina

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes study of larynx microflora in patients with acute laryngtis and exacerbations of chronic laryngitis. Therapeutic algorithm based on bacteriologic examination data was developed reduce. New algorithm helps reduce sickness terms and to decrease prevalence of desease.123 patients of age from 18 to 60 were under observation: 43 patients with acute laryngitis and 80 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. 22 patients with acute laryngitis and 58 patients with exacerb...

  14. Motion sickness susceptibility related to ACTH, ADH and TSH

    Kohl, R. L.; Leach, C.; Homick, J. L.; Larochelle, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    The hypothesis that endogenous levels of certain hormones might be indicative of an individual's susceptibility to stressful motion is tested in a comparison of subjects classified as less prone to motion sickness with those of higher susceptibility. The levels of ACTH and vasopressin measured before exposure to stressful motion were twice as high in the less-suceptible group. No significant differences were noted in the levels of angiotensin, aldosterone, or TSH. The differences between the two groups were greater for a given hormone than for any of the changes induced by exposure to stressful motion.

  15. Common Mental Disorders in Longterm-Sickness Absence

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    Common Mental Disorders (CMD) such as depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorders impose heavy burdens on individuals and on society in the form of sickness absence. CMD are frequently undetected in primary care which postpone the initiation of proper treatment. This seriously worsens return...... to work (RTW). Comorbidity with somatic disorders also worsens RTW. CMD are, controlled for lifestyle, independent causes for the development of chronic and disabling somatic disorders. Collaborative care seems to be most effective intervention with regard to RTW. In this dissertation, the intervention...

  16. Acute Bronchitis

    ... Smoking also slows down the healing process. Acute bronchitis treatment Most cases of acute bronchitis can be treated at home.Drink fluids, but ... bronchial tree. Your doctor will decide if this treatment is right for you. Living with acute bronchitis Most cases of acute bronchitis go away on ...

  17. Sickness presenteeism predicts suboptimal self-rated health and sickness absence: a nationally representative study of the Swedish working population.

    Marina Taloyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have suggested that sickness presenteeism (SP may be a risk factor for future health problems. The purpose of the present study was to test this in a nationally representative prospective study of Swedish workers. METHODS: Prospective cohort with a representative sample of the Swedish working population surveyed in 2008 and 2010. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Those who reported more than 7 days of SP had higher risk of suboptimal SRH compared to those who reported no SP (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 4.98-7.12, also after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.30-2.06. Those who reported 1-7 days of SP also had an increased risk before and after adjustments. Inclusion of self-rated physical and psychological work capacity did not attenuate the associations, whereas of emotional exhaustion attenuated the ORs to non-significance for both outcomes, indicating that the health consequences associated with SP are largely related to mental health. CONCLUSION: The results strengthen earlier findings suggesting that SP can be a risk factor for future suboptimal general health and sickness absence, particularly through mental health problems. This indicates that asking about SP could yield important information for employers, occupational health practitioners and GPs, possibly leading to more timely intervention that could decrease the risk of future sickness absence and more serious health problems, especially in the mental domain. Further studies of the possible causal pathways between SP and future health development are also warranted, especially since going to work is often seen as desirable also for those with poor health.

  18. A prospective cohort study on musculoskeletal risk factors for long-term sickness absence among healthcare workers in eldercare

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Thomas; Mortensen, Ole S;

    2012-01-01

    The socioeconomic burden of sickness absence from musculoskeletal disorders is considerable. However, knowledge about the risk of sickness absence from pain in different body regions among specific job groups is needed to more efficiently target preventative strategies. This study estimates...

  19. Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment: active suspension systems vs. active passengers

    Golding, J.F.; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.; Haynes, T.; Gresty, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Maneuvering in vehicles exposes occupants to low frequency forces (<1 Hz) which can provoke motion sickness. Hypothesis: Aligning with the tilting inertial resultant (gravity + imposed horizontal acceleration: gravito-inertial force (GIF)) may reduce motion sickness when tilting is either 'active' (

  20. 75 FR 63810 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; SICK, Inc. (Photo-Electronic Industrial Sensors...

    2010-10-18

    ... Sensors); Bloomington, MN Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... industrial sensor manufacturing and distribution facility of SICK, Inc., located in Bloomington, Minnesota... sensors at the SICK, Inc., facility located in Bloomington, Minnesota (Subzone 119G), as described in...

  1. Predicting long-term sickness absence and early retirement pension from self-reported work ability

    Sell, Lea; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market.......The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market....

  2. [Polymorphism of connexin 40 gene-- a novel genetic marker of the sick sinus node syndrome].

    Chernova, A A; Nikulina, S Iu; Shul'man, V A; Kukushkina, T S; Voevoda, M I; Maksimov, V N

    2011-01-01

    In this work we have demonstrated for the first time on the clinico-genetic material association between hereditary sick sinus node syndrome and connexin 40 gene polymorphism. We have revealed that heterozygous variant of connexin 40 gene variant is more frequent among patients with sick sinus node syndrome and their healthy relatives than in persons of control group.

  3. Predictors of outcome in fatigued employees on sick leave: results from a randomised trial.

    Huibers, M.J.H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Amelsvoort, L.G. van; Beurskens, A.J.H.M.; Schayck, C.P. van; Bazelmans, E.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to identify predictors of fatigue caseness, work resumption and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-like caseness in a sample of fatigued employees on sick leave. METHODS: For 12 months, 151 fatigued employees on sick leave, 44% of whom met research criteri

  4. The impact of effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on teachers' sickness absence.

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Van de Ven, Bart; Rots, Isabel; Clays, Els

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of the effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on sickness absence duration and sickness absence frequency among beginning teachers in Flanders (Belgium). A total of 603 teachers, who recently graduated, participated in this study. Effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12 months follow-up were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. An imbalance between high efforts and low rewards (extrinsic hypothesis) was associated with longer sickness absence duration and more frequent absences. A low level of learning motivation (intrinsic hypothesis) was not associated with longer sickness absence duration but was significantly positively associated with sickness absence frequency. No significant results were obtained for the interaction hypothesis between imbalance and learning motivation. Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the impact of psychosocial work conditions and personal resources on both sickness absence duration and frequency. Specifically, attention could be given to optimizing or reducing efforts spent at work, increasing rewards and stimulating learning motivation to influence sickness absence.

  5. Does hospital discharge policy influence sick-leave patterns in the case of female breast cancer?

    Lindqvist, Rikard; Stenbeck, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    . The effect of the hospital median length of stay (LOS) was U-shaped, suggesting that hospitals with a median LOS that is either short or long are associated with longer sick-leave. In the intermediate range, women treated in hospitals with a median LOS of 2 days had 22 days longer sick-leave than those...

  6. The effect of part-time sick leave for employees with mental disorders

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders; Falgaard Eplov, Lene

    2012-01-01

    Background: Part-time sick leave (PTSL) allows employees on full-time sick leave (FTSL) to resume work at reduced hours. When the partly absent employee’s health improves, working hours are increased until the employee is able to work regular hours. Studies have found that PTSL is an effective...

  7. Eye movements to yaw, pitch, and roll about vertical and horizontal axes : Adaptation, and motion sickness

    Bos, J.E.; Bles, W.; Graaf, B. de

    2002-01-01

    Background: In the search for parameters to predict motion sickness that can be measured in the laboratory, we performed a longitudinal investigation in aviators. Since the vestibular system is involved in the generation of motion sickness as well as eye movements, vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) para

  8. Leadership styles of nurse managers and registered sickness absence among their nursing staff

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence leads to understaffing and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. It has been reported in literature that managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence in the working population. Purposes: This study investigated the relationship betwee

  9. A pilot study of rizatriptan and visually-induced motion sickness in migraineurs

    Joseph M. Furman, Dawn A. Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited evidence suggests that rizatriptan given before vestibular stimulation reduces motion sickness in persons with migraine-related dizziness. The present study was designed to test whether rizatriptan is also effective in protecting against visually-induced motion sickness and to test whether rizatriptan blocks the augmentation of motion sickness by head pain. Material and Methods: Using randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled methodology, 10 females, 6 with migrainous vertigo (V+ and four without vertigo (V- received 10 mg rizatriptan or placebo two hours prior to being stimulated by optokinetic stripes. Visual stimulation was coupled with three pain conditions: no pain (N, thermally-induced hand pain (H and temple pain (T. Motion sickness and subjective discomfort were measured. Results: Motion sickness was less after pre-treatment with rizatriptan for 4 of 10 subjects and more for 5 of 10 subjects. Augmentation of motion sickness by head pain was seen in 6 of 10 subjects; this effect was blunted by rizatriptan in 4 of these 6 subjects. Subjective discomfort was significantly more noticeable in V+ subjects as compared with V- subjects. Conclusions: These pilot data suggest that rizatriptan does not consistently reduce visually-induced motion sickness in migraineurs. Rizatriptan may diminish motion sickness potentiation by cranial pain.

  10. What makes men and women with musculoskeletal complaints decide they are too sick to work?

    Hooftman, W.E.; Westerman, M.J.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine what makes men and women with musculoskeletal complaints decide to call in sick for work. Methods: Qualitative, face-to-face interviews were used with employees (16 men and 14 women) who had called in sick due to a musculoskeletal complaint and

  11. Stress-related mental disorders with sick leave: a minimal intervention in general practice

    Bakker, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    1. Introduction As stated in chapter 1, this study is carried out because patients and their care-givers have much to gain by the development and implementation of effective care for patients on sick leave having stress-related mental disorders (SMDs). Most people having SMDs with sick leave consult

  12. Work ability assessment of employees on long term sick leave in insurance medicine

    Sánchez Mendoza, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term sick leave generates high financial costs for society and causes personal suffering to patients and their families; however, crucial knowledge about the factors associated with long-term sick leave is still missing. This thesis is focused on factors relevant to the work ability assessment

  13. Predictors of changes in sick leave in workers with asthma: a follow-up study.

    Boot, C.R.L.; Vercoulen, J.H.M.M.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der; Orbon, K.H.; Rooijackers, J.; Weel, C. van; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate predictors of 1-year changes in sick leave in workers with asthma. METHODS: The initial cohort consisted of 111 workers with asthma. One-hundred and one participants completed the follow-up after 1 year. Self-reported sick leave over th

  14. Impact of alignment to gravito-inertial force on motion sickness and cardiopulmonary variables

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: In tilting trains partial alignment to the gravito-inertial force (GIF) in the curves seems to be the best tilt compensation to reduce the incidence of motion sickness. We investigated the effect of alignment to the GIF on the development of motion sickness during low-frequency horizon

  15. Transitions between sickness absence, work, unemployment, and disability in Denmark 2004-2008

    Pedersen, Jacob; Bjørner, Jakob; Burr, Hermann;

    2012-01-01

    Studies of labor market outcomes like sickness absence are usually restricted to a single outcome. This paper investigates the use of multi-state models for studying multiple transitions between sick-listing, work, unemployment, and disability pension by analyzing longitudinal register data. Every...

  16. 5 CFR 630.1008 - Accrual of annual and sick leave.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accrual of annual and sick leave. 630.1008 Section 630.1008 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1008 Accrual of annual and sick leave. (a) Except...

  17. 5 CFR 630.907 - Accrual of annual and sick leave.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accrual of annual and sick leave. 630.907 Section 630.907 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.907 Accrual of annual and sick leave. (a) Except...

  18. Employees sick-listed with mental disorders : Who returns to work and when?

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Norder, G.; Koopmans, P.C.; Rhenen, van W.; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    To investigate return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed with mental disorders classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Methods: Sickness absences (SA) medically certified as emotional disturbance (ICD-10 R45) or mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-10 F00–F99)

  19. Employees Sick-Listed with Mental Disorders : Who Returns to Work and When?

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Norder, G.; Koopmans, P. C.; van Rhenen, W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Bultmann, U.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed with mental disorders classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Methods Sickness absences (SA) medically certified as emotional disturbance (ICD-10 R45) or mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-10 F

  20. Longitudinal relationships between organizational justice, productivity, loss and sickness absence older employees

    Ybema, J.F.; Meer, L. van der; Leijten, F.R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess whether organizational justice lowers productivity loss and sickness absence, and whether there are reverse effects of productivity loss and sickness absence on organizational justice.Method A longitudinal study with 2 years of follow-up was conducted amon

  1. [Study on medicinal plant allelopathy and soil sickness based on ecological niche].

    Sun, Hao; Huang, Lu-ming; Huang, Lu-qi; Guo, Lan-ping; Zhou, Jie; Lv, Dong-mei; Zeng, Yan

    2008-09-01

    Based on the conception and theory of ecological niche, authors analyzed the cause of the allelopathy and soil sickness of medicinal plants and the relationship between them. Methods to resolve problems in the cultivating medicinal plant was found, that is to construct the ecological niche based on allelopathy theory and avoid the soil sickness.

  2. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence due to depressive disorders : A delphi approach involving scientists and physicians

    Norder, G.; Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Buitenhuis, J.; Bültmann, U.

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common and highly recurrent mental disorder that is accompanied by poor functioning at home and at work. Not all depressed employees report sick and little is known about variables associated with sickness absence (SA) due to depression. Recurrent SA due to depression tends to margin

  3. Leadership effectiveness and recorded sickness absence among nursing staff : a cross-sectional pilot study

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; Van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate nurse managers' leadership behaviour in relation to the sickness absence records of nursing staff. Background Sickness absence is high in healthcare and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. Nurse managers' leadership behaviour may be associated with nursing staff sickne

  4. Exposure to physical risk factors in Dutch agriculture : Effect on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders

    Hartman, E; Vrielink, HHEO; Metz, JHM; Huirne, RBM

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study examined the association between Dutch farmers' exposure to single physical risk factors or combinations of them and sick leave due to back disorders and neck, shoulder or upper extremity disorders. The sick leave claims of an insurance company in the years 1998-2001 for back (S

  5. Exposure to physical risk factors in Dutch agriculture: Effect on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Metz, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study examined the association between Dutch farmers¿ exposure to single physical risk factors or combinations of them and sick leave due to back disorders and neck, shoulder or upper extremity disorders. The sick leave claims of an insurance company in the years 1998¿2001 for back (S

  6. Predictors of Recurrent Sickness Absence Due to Depressive Disorders - A Delphi Approach Involving Scientists and Physicians

    Norder, Giny; Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Rhenen, Willem; Buitenhuis, Jan; Bultmann, Ute; Anema, Johannes R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common and highly recurrent mental disorder that is accompanied by poor functioning at home and at work. Not all depressed employees report sick and little is known about variables associated with sickness absence (SA) due to depression. Recurrent SA due to depression ten

  7. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition.

  8. Comparison of efficacy of ginger with various antimotion sickness drugs

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Wood, M. J.; Manno, B. R.; Mims, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Ginger and several other medications were compared with scopolamine and d-amphetamine for effectiveness in prevention of motion sickness. Methods: Double-blind techniques were used. The subjects were given the medications two hours before they were rotated in a chair making head movements until a symptom total short of vomiting was reached. Standardized N.A.S.A. techniques were used for speed of rotation and end-point of motion sickness. Results: The three doses of ginger were all at the placebo level of efficacy. Amitriptyline, ethopropazine and trihexyphenidyl increased the tolerated head movements but the increase was not statistically significant. Significant levels of protection were produced by dimenhydrinate, promethazine, scopolamine and d-amphetamine. Protection was further increased by combination of these latter drugs with d-amphetamine. Efficacy was greatest as the dose was increased. Conclusions: The medication of choice in this study was scopolamine 0.6 mg with d-amphetamine 10 mg. This combination provided good protection with acceptable side effects.

  9. [The construction of the "sick-subject" in RSI].

    Verthein, M A; Minayo-Gomez, C

    2000-01-01

    There is a running debate over the relationship between work and disease, namely the disease known as repetitive strain injury (RSI), or else work-related osteomuscular disturbances (in Portuguese DORT), as it was renamed in 1997 by the Instituto Nacional de Seguridade Social (INSS) in accordance with the Disability Assessment Norms. Standing out among the signs brought about by this new infirmity process is its restricted focus on the subjective aspects in the analysis of the disease. Underlying the INSS stance is the view of a sickness-prone subject and the notion of health as capacity for work. This paper analyzes the historical context which characterizes these health/work and body/disease notions. It also discusses the construction of the 'sick-subject' and the way in which such a subjectivizing process entraps the subject itself. Finally, we show the way in which the INSS in Rio de Janeiro has managed to stop this disease of its work-related characteristics, fighting and reducing the occurrences of RSI as well as the costs with work compensation claims.

  10. Morning sickness and salt intake, food cravings, and food aversions.

    Crystal, S R; Bowen, D J; Bernstein, I L

    1999-08-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults and as infants. To determine whether the association between early pregnancy sickness and salt preference of offspring is secondary to familiar similarity in salt preference, the present study examined the self-reported salt intake and dietary cravings and aversions of pregnant women. Women who reported little or no vomiting (n = 108) were compared to women who reported moderate to severe vomiting (n = 21) during pregnancy. The women's self-reported salt use and reported cravings and aversions for common food were measured via survey for time periods prior to and during their current pregnancy. Women did not differ in reported salt use prior to pregnancy as a function of their pregnancy symptoms. Women reported more aversions during, than prior to, pregnancy (p < 0.05). Women with more severe vomiting reported a greater number of aversions (p < 0.05) both prior to and during pregnancy. There was a significant association between experiencing cravings and aversions prior to pregnancy and experiencing craving and aversions during pregnancy (p < 0.05). These findings do not provide evidence for an association between dietary levels of sodium and the likelihood of experiencing severe pregnancy symptoms. Therefore, these data do not support the suggestion that reported elevations in salt preference in offspring of women with moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy are mediated by familial dietary practices.

  11. A Systematic Review of Carrion Eaters' Adaptations to Avoid Sickness.

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Rangchi, Tiana N; Briggs, Tiandra; De Andrade, Fabrine Souza; Natterson-Horowtiz, Barbara

    2017-02-13

    Species that scavenge on dead animals are exposed to enhanced disease risks. Eight hypotheses have been suggested to explain how scavengers avoid becoming sick from their diet. We conducted a systematic review of the literature and found correlative support for four of the eight hypotheses but limited evidence of systematic studies of the hypotheses. We found no support that using urine to sterilize carcasses, having bald heads, eating rapidly, or food-washing behavior reduced disease risk in carrion eaters. With the exception of food washing, none of these hypotheses have been properly evaluated as an adaptation to avoid sickness from carrion. There is some support for having a specialized microbiome, having enhanced immunologic defenses, avoiding rotten food, and maintaining a low gastric pH to eliminate pathogens. Specialized immunologic defenses and having a low pH have the most support, but the diversity of mechanisms suggests that there is a great opportunity for even more detailed study. Increased knowledge in these mechanisms may provide biomimetic insights to help combat foodborne illnesses and enhance health.

  12. Decompression sickness among Moroami diving fishermen in Jakarta

    Chichi Wahab

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is an archipelago with many traditional divers, however research on decompression sickness (DCS has not yet elaborated. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of DCS and factors related to it. The study was conducted on October-November 2007 among fisherman moroami divers in Seribu Island Jakarta. Anamnesis and physical examination was taken before and three times after diving. Subject was diagnosed as having DCS if experienced one of these symptom or sign: myalgia, muscle pain, skin rash, ankle weakness, bowel movement & bladder dysfunction, visual disturbances, headache, vertigo, dyspnoe, chest pain, convulsion, unconsciousness, nausea and vomiting. Among 123 potential divers, five were having upper respiratory infection, so only 117 divers participated in this study. Final model analysis showed that regulator, valsava when having ear pain, ascending speed to surface, and lack of training were risk factors to obtain DCS. Divers whose ascending speed more than 9 m per minutes had two times risk to get DCS [adjusted ratio = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI= 1.11 – 3.56]. Having DCS before diving, increased risk 20% (RRa = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.86-1.68; P=0,285. Beside knowledge to use regulator correctly and valsava, fisherman Moroami divers need to be trained to ascend speed to sea level surface less than 9 m per minute. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 197-202Keywords: decompression sickness, ascending speed, regulator, valsava

  13. Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C.; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (<5 days/year) compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999–2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute’s annual statistical reports for the period 1987–2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8), and 2.14–2.72% (median 2.49%), respectively. Short sick-leave spells (<4 days) may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991–1997 and an increase in 1998–2004) combined with a small yet significant decline as a general trend. These

  14. Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

    Eleni Jelastopulu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently ( < 5 days/year compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999–2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece were retrieved from the Institute’s annual statistical reports for the period 1987–2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (% were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8, and 2.14–2.72% (median 2.49%, respectively. Short sick-leave spells ( < 4 days may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991–1997 and an increase in 1998–2004 combined with a small yet significant decline as a

  15. Genetic variants associated with motion sickness point to roles for inner ear development, neurological processes and glucose homeostasis

    Hromatka, Bethann S.; Joyce Y Tung; Kiefer, Amy K.; Do, Chuong B.; Hinds, David A.; Eriksson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Roughly one in three individuals is highly susceptible to motion sickness and yet the underlying causes of this condition are not well understood. Despite high heritability, no associated genetic factors have been discovered. Here, we conducted the first genome-wide association study on motion sickness in 80 494 individuals from the 23andMe database who were surveyed about car sickness. Thirty-five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with motion sickness at a genome-wide-si...

  16. Sickness: From the focus on cytokines, prostaglandins, and complement factors to the perspectives of neurons.

    Poon, David Chun-Hei; Ho, Yuen-Shan; Chiu, Kin; Wong, Hoi-Lam; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2015-10-01

    Systemic inflammation leads to a variety of physiological (e.g. fever) and behavioral (e.g. anorexia, immobility, social withdrawal, depressed mood, disturbed sleep) responses that are collectively known as sickness. While these phenomena have been studied for the past few decades, the neurobiological mechanisms by which sickness occurs remain unclear. In this review, we first revisit how the body senses and responds to infections and injuries by eliciting systemic inflammation. Next, we focus on how peripheral inflammatory molecules such as cytokines, prostaglandins, and activated complement factors communicate with the brain to trigger neuroinflammation and sickness. Since depression also involves inflammation, we further elaborate on the interrelationship between sickness and depression. Finally, we discuss how immune activation can modulate neurons in the brain, and suggest future perspectives to help unravel how changes in neuronal functions relate to sickness responses.

  17. [Duration of sick-leave and the moment of recovery in the hotel industry].

    Folgerø, I S; Larsen, S

    1991-09-10

    The paper addresses the problem of sick leave in the hotel industry. It was hypothesized that there would be a tendency for granted sick leaves to include weekends, thus imposing an additional financial burden on the hotel in question. A total of 401 medical certificates from a large city hotel were reviewed. According to these certificates one third of the patients regained their health between Sunday and Monday. Of the patients with "short" sick leaves (less than a fortnight), 40% recovered between Sunday and Monday. The average duration of the sick leave for this group was 1.3 days longer than that of the patients whose sick leaves ended on other days of the week. The results are discussed in terms of the ambiguous position of the medical practitioner.

  18. Leptin, a neuroendocrine mediator of immune responses, inflammation, and sickness behaviors.

    Carlton, Elizabeth D; Demas, Gregory E; French, Susannah S

    2012-08-01

    Effective immune responses are coordinated by interactions among the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Mounting immune, inflammatory, and sickness responses requires substantial energetic investments, and as such, an organism may need to balance energy allocation to these processes with the energetic demands of other competing physiological systems. The metabolic hormone leptin appears to be mediating trade-offs between the immune system and other physiological systems through its actions on immune cells and the brain. Here we review the evidence in both mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates that suggests leptin is involved in regulating immune responses, inflammation, and sickness behaviors. Leptin has also been implicated in the regulation of seasonal immune responses, including sickness; however, the precise physiological mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we discuss recent data in support of leptin as a mediator of seasonal sickness responses and provide a theoretical model that outlines how seasonal cues, leptin, and proinflammatory cytokines may interact to coordinate seasonal immune and sickness responses.

  19. Ventilation in day care centers and sick leave among nursery children

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Z. Jovanovic; Ibfelt, T.;

    2015-01-01

    ventilation in DCCs and sick leave among nursery children. Data on child sick leave within an 11 week period was obtained for 635 children attending 20 DCCs. Ventilation measurements included three proxies of ventilation: air exchange rate (ACR) measured with the decay method, ACR measured...... by the perfluorocarbon tracer gas (PFT) method, and CO2 concentration measured over a 1-week period. All but two DCCs had balanced mechanical ventilation system, which could explain the low CO2 levels measured. The mean concentration of CO2 was 643 ppm, exceeding 1000 ppm in only one DCC. A statistically significant...... inverse relationship between the number of sick days and ACR measured with the decay method was found for crude and adjusted analysis, with a 12% decrease in number of sick days per 1 h(-1) increase in ACR measured with the decay method. This study suggests a relationship between sick leave among nursery...

  20. Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study

    Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Vaez, Marjan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. METHODS......: More subjects from the Swedish study population reported more than 7 days of sickness absence. Factors associated with sickness absence were largely similar in the two countries. The difference in absence level between Sweden and Denmark was not associated with differences in age, gender, skill level...... compared with the Danish labour market. A possible explanation for the differences in sickness absence ascertained in this study could be due to differences in the sickness insurance legislation....

  1. Effects of organizational justice on depressive symptoms and sickness absence: a longitudinal perspective.

    Ybema, Jan F; van den Bos, Kees

    2010-05-01

    A longitudinal three-wave study among a large representative sample of 1519 employees of various companies in The Netherlands examined how organizational justice (as measured by distributive and procedural justice) was related to depressive symptoms and sickness absence. It was predicted that perceived justice would contribute to lower depressive symptoms and sickness absence, whereas depressive symptoms and absenteeism in turn would contribute to lower perceptions of organizational justice. In line with the predictions, we found that both distributive and procedural justice contributed to lower depressive symptoms, and distributive justice contributed to lower sickness absence in the following year. With regard to reversed effects, sickness absence contributed to lower perceptions of distributive justice to some extent. Moreover, sickness absence was related to higher depressive symptoms a year later. This research shows the importance of justice in organizations as a means to enhance the wellbeing of people at work and to prevent absenteeism.

  2. Physical and mental fatigue as predictors of sickness absence among Norwegian nurses.

    Roelen, Corné A M; Bültmann, Ute; Groothoff, Johan; van Rhenen, Willem; Magerøy, Nils; Moen, Bente E; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-10-01

    We investigated whether fatigue can be used to screen nursing populations for risk of sickness absence. Data were available from a prospective cohort study of 2,059 Norwegian nurses working in hospital care, psychiatric care, and nursing home/home care settings. Physical and mental fatigue were measured at baseline with Chalder's Fatigue Questionnaire (FQ). Self-rated sickness absence at 1-year follow-up was considered high if nurses reported >30 sick days in the past year. Physical fatigue accurately predicted high sickness absence and adequately discriminated between high- and low-risk nurses in nursing home/home care settings. Mental fatigue was not predictive in any setting. The FQ is suitable for screening specific nursing populations for the risk of high sickness absence.

  3. HENDUAN MOUNTAINS A Dazzling World

    2002-01-01

    The Indian Continent drifted northward and eventually collideawith the Euro-Asian Continent,pushing up the piece of land weknow today as the Himalayas and Henduan Mountains.Located where Qinghai,Tibet,Yunnan and Sichuan all meet.Asia,including the Nujiang,Jinshajiang and Lancanjiang.In the mountains,rivers Wave a drop of about 2,500 meters.Late last year,we drove into the mountainous area,covering adistance of some 1,000 km.

  4. A Breath of Mountain Air

    YU LINTAO

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are everywhere,and rivers flow in almost every valley.This is the Qinling Mountains,a major eastto-west range in southern Shaanxi Province,bordering Hubei and Henan provinces.Because of its huge forest coverage,the Qinling Mountains are also known as one of the lungs of China.Expectations for travelling are changing in China as the lifestyle of city dwellers has become fast-paced and demanding.That provides the Qirding Mountain area a great opportunity to develop leisure tourism.

  5. Portable Sensor for Detecting Microbubbles in Real Time to Prevent Decompression Sickness for Safe Diving During Subaquatic Navy Activities

    2015-03-17

    Contains Proprietary information Final Report: Portable Sensor for Detecting Microbubbles in Real Time to Prevent Decompression Sickness for Safe Diving ...Portable Sensor for Detecting Microbubbles in Real Time to Prevent Decompression Sickness for Safe Diving During Subaquatic Navy Activities Report Title The...Portable Sensor for Detecting Microbubbles in Real Time to Prevent Decompression Sickness for Safe Diving During Subaquatic Navy Activities Final

  6. Factors associated with first return to work and sick leave durations in workers with common mental disorders

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Krol, Boudien; Bultmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Background: Associations are examined between socio-demographic, medical, work-related and organizational factors and the moment of first return to work (RTW) (within or after 6 weeks of sick leave) and total sick leave duration in sick leave spells due to common mental disorders. Methods: Data are

  7. Determinants for return to work among sickness certified patients in general practice

    von Celsing Anna-Sophia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term sickness absence is one of the main risk factors for permanent exit out of the labour market. Early identification of the condition is essential to facilitate return to work. The aim of this study was to analyse possible determinants of return to work and their relative impact. Methods All 943 subjects aged 18 to 63 years, sickness certified at a Primary Health Care Centre in Sweden from 1 January until 31 August 2004, were followed up for three years. Baseline information on sex, age, sick leave diagnosis, employment status, extent of sick leave, and sickness absence during the year before baseline was obtained, as was information on all compensated days of sick leave, disability pension and death during follow-up. Results Slightly more than half the subjects were women, mean age was 39 years. Half of the study population returned to work within 14 days after baseline, and after three years only 15 subjects were still on sick leave. In multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis the extent of previous sick leave, age, being on part-time sick leave, and having a psychiatric, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous disease, digestive system, or injury or poisoning diagnosis decreased the return to work rate, while being employed increased it. Marital status, sex, being born in Sweden, citizenship, and annual salary had no influence. In logistic regression analyses across follow-up time these variables altogether explained 88-90% of return to work variation. Conclusions Return to work was positively or negatively associated by a number of variables easily accessible in the GP’s office. Track record data in the form of previous sick leave was the most influential variable.

  8. How primary health care physicians make sick listing decisions: The impact of medical factors and functioning

    Svärdsudd Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision to issue sickness certification in Sweden for a patient should be based on the physician's assessment of the reduction of the patient's work capacity due to a disease or injury, not on psychosocial factors, in spite of the fact that they are known as risk factors for sickness absence. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of medical factors and functioning on sick listing probability. Methods Four hundred and seventy-four patient-physician consultations, where sick listing could be an option, in general practice in Örebro county, central Sweden, were documented using physician and patient questionnaires. Information sought was the physicians' assessments of causes and consequences of the patients' complaints, potential to recover, diagnoses and prescriptions on sick leave, and the patients' view of their family and work situation and functioning as well as data on the patients' former and present health situation. The outcome measure was whether or not a sickness certificate was issued. Multivariate analyses were performed. Results Complaints entirely or mainly somatic as assessed by the physician decreased the risk of sick listing, and complaints resulting in severe limitation of occupational work capacity, as assessed by the patient as well as the physician, increased the risk of sick listing, as did appointments for locomotor complaints. The results for patients with infectious diseases or musculoskeletal diseases were partly similar to those for all diseases. Conclusion The strongest predictors for sickness certification were patient's and GP's assessment of reduced work capacity, with a striking concordance between physician and patient on this assessment. When patient's complaints were judged to be non-somatic the risk of sickness certification was enhanced.

  9. "Christ is the Mountain"

    Carl Hallencreutz

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author focuses on the religious function of symbols in the encounter and interaction of Christianity and other religions. Some observations on the religious function of the symbol of the Holy Mountain in different African contexts are presented. These contexts are a traditional Kikuyu religion, b a Christian hymn from Northern Tanzania, and c the New Year's Fiest of the independent Nazaretha Church among Zulu in South Africa. The examples of how the symbol of the holy mountain is used in different religious contexts in Africa are, of course, too limited to provide a basis for far-reaching generalizations on how symbols function religiously in the encounter of Christianity and other religions. However, this kind of analysis can be applied also when studying other encounters of religions inside and outside Africa. The symbol functions both as a carrier of a new religious message and as an indigenous means to appropriate this message locally and give it adequate form in different milieus. The symbols, which most likely have the religious functions are those which are of a general nature; light, way, living water, and which some are tempted to speak of as archetypes. Yet the comparison between the Chagga-hymn to the holy mountain and Shembe's interpretation of the blessing of the New Year's Fiest on Inhlangakozi indicates, that in the encounter of Christianity and other religions it is not only the symbols as such which produce the local appropriation of the new religious message and give it adequate localized form. Not even in the encounter of Christianity and other religions the symbols function religiously without human beings as actors in the historical process.

  10. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  11. Effectiveness of early part-time sick leave in musculoskeletal disorders

    Karppinen Jaro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of staying active instead of bed rest has been acknowledged in the management of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. This emphasizes the potential benefits of adjusting work to fit the employee's remaining work ability. Despite part-time sick leave being an official option in many countries, its effectiveness has not been studied yet. We have designed a randomized controlled study to assess the health effects of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-day sick leave. Our hypothesis is that if work time is temporarily reduced and work load adjusted at the early stages of disability, employees with MSDs will have less disability days and faster return to regular work duties than employees on a conventional sick leave. Methods/Design The study population will consist of 600 employees, who seek medical advice from an occupational physician due to musculoskeletal pain. The inclusion requires that they have not been on a sick leave for longer than 14 days prior to the visit. Based on the physician's judgement, the severity of the symptoms must indicate a need for conventional sick leave, but the employee is considered to be able to work part-time without any additional risk. Half of the employees are randomly allocated to part-time sick leave group and their work time is reduced by 40–60%, whereas in the control group work load is totally eliminated with conventional sick leave. The main outcomes are the number of days from the initial visit to return to regular work activities, and the total number of sick leave days during 12 and 24 months of follow-up. The costs and benefits as well as the feasibility of early part-time sick leave will also be evaluated. Conclusion This is the first randomised trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-time sick leave in the management of MSDs. The data collection continues until 2011, but preliminary

  12. Mountains and Tropical Circulation

    Naiman, Z.; Goodman, P. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Malyshev, S.; Russell, J. L.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observed tropical convection exhibits zonal asymmetries that strongly influence spatial precipitation patterns. The drivers of changes to this zonally-asymmetric Walker circulation on decadal and longer timescales have been the focus of significant recent research. Here we use two state-of-the-art earth system models to explore the impact of earth's mountains on the Walker circulation. When all land-surface topography is removed, the Walker circulation weakens by 33-59%. There is a ~30% decrease in global, large-scale upward vertical wind velocities in the middle of the troposphere, but only minor changes in global average convective mass flux, precipitation, surface and sea-surface temperatures. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is also largely unchanged. Following the spatial pattern of changes to large-scale vertical wind velocities, precipitation becomes less focused over the tropics. The weakening of the Walker circulation, but not the Hadley circulation, is similar to the behavior of climate models during radiative forcing experiments: in our simulations, the weakening is associated with changes in vertical wind velocities, rather than the hydrologic cycle. These results indicate suggest that mountain heights may significantly influence the Walker circulation on geologic time scales, and observed changes in tropical precipitation over millions of years may have been forced by changes in tropical orography.

  13. Protected areas in mountains

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  14. mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [

    Full Text Available mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [gbrod]: 2 CDS's (760... of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground ...

  15. Motion sickness: an evolutionary and genetic basis for the negative reinforcement model.

    Knox, Glenn W

    2014-01-01

    It has been theorized that motion sickness evolved as a negative reinforcement system which terminates motion involving postural instability and/or sensory conflict. A hypothetical example is provided by a "thought experiment" whereby protohominids are in a tree looking for food. Selection pressure results when the organisms that have an aversion to motion-producing sensory conflict do not venture out too far on the tree limbs and therefore tend to survive. In order to support an evolutionary model for motion sickness there must be evidence for genetic and/or heritable predisposition. The present study involves a retrospective literature review which reveals abundant evidence for genetic/heritable factors in motion sickness. Examples include genetic polymorphism of the alpha-2-adrenergic receptor, which has been shown to increase susceptibility to motion sickness, examination of family trees revealing heritable motion sickness susceptibility, evidence indicating that Asians are hyper-susceptible to motion sickness, and twin studies, just to mention a few. Thus, the theory of heritable negative reinforcement as a basis for motion sickness is supported by extensive evidence in the medical literature. This theory is compared and contrasted with other theories. Further areas for research are suggested.

  16. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    Mikkelsen Sigurd

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate if weekly duration of computer use predicted sickness absence for more than two weeks at a later time. A cohort of 2146 frequent computer users filled in a questionnaire at baseline and was followed for one year with continuously recording of the duration of computer use and furthermore followed for 300 weeks in a central register of sickness absence for more than 2 weeks. 147 participants of the 2,146 (6.9% became first time sick listed in the follow-up period. Overall, mean weekly computer use did not turn out to be a risk factor for later sickness absence. The hazard ratio for sickness absence with weekly increase of one hour in computer use was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00. Low satisfaction with work place arrangements and female gender both doubled the risk of sickness absence. We have earlier found that computer use did not predict persistent pain in the neck and upper limb, and it seems that computer use neither predicts future long-term sickness absence of all causes.

  17. Glutamine Supplementation in Sick Children: Is It Beneficial?

    Elise Mok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evidence is available on the benefits of Gln supplementation in pediatric patients. This includes premature infants, infants with gastrointestinal disease, children with Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, malnutrition/diarrhea, cancer, severe burns/trauma, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and type 1 diabetes. Moreover, methodological issues have been noted in some studies. Further mechanistic data is needed along with large randomized controlled trials in select populations of sick children, who may eventually benefit from supplemental Gln.

  18. Agrochemicals against malaria, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.

    Matthias Witschel

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively.

  19. Vection-induced gastric dysrhythmias and motion sickness

    Koch, K. L.; Stern, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Gastric electrical and mechanical activity during vection-induced motion sickness was investigated. The contractile events of the antrum and gastric myoelectric activity in healthy subjects exposed to vection were measured simultaneously. Symptomatic and myoelectric responses of subjects with vagotomy and gastric resections during vection stimuli were determined. And laboratory based computer systems for analysis of the myoelectric signal were developed. Gastric myoelectric activity was recorded from cutaneous electrodes, i.e., electrogastrograms (EGGs), and antral contractions were measured with intraluminal pressure transducers. Vection was induced by a rotating drum. gastric electromechanical activity was recorded during three periods: 15 min baseline, 15 min drum rotation (vection), and 15 to 30 min recovery. Preliminary results showed that catecholamine responses in nauseated versus symptom-free subjects were divergent and pretreatment with metoclopramide HC1 (Reglan) prevented vection-induced nausea and reduced tachygastrias in two previously symptomatic subjects.

  20. [Congenital sick sinus syndrome in a healthy heart: case report].

    Ben Ameur, Youssef; Hmam, Mohamed; Battikh, Kaïes; Mlika, Azmi; Terras, Mouna; Longo, Salma; Kraïem, Sondes; Slimane, Mohamed L

    2003-06-01

    Isolated congenital sick sinusal syndrome on non harmed heart is a rare affection. Its association with an atrio-ventricular block is exceptional. The authors report a case of a 19 year-old patient, with an early history of bradycardia, hospitalised for effort intolerance. His electrocardiogram reveals a high degree sino-atrial block replaced by a junctional rhythm at 30/mn. During Treadmill test, the sinusal acceleration is satisfactory and an effort atrio-ventricular block was present. He later had a definitive stimulation under DDDR. This report shows that the sinusal node, in the same way as the atrio-ventricular node may be injured by congenital dysimmunitary process. The coexistence of these two conductive troubles worsen the prognosis and should lead more often to the practice of definitive stimulation by the only mode DDDR.

  1. Autophagy--A free meal in sickness-associated anorexia.

    van Niekerk, Gustav; Loos, Ben; Nell, Theo; Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the immune system is metabolically costly, yet a hallmark of an infection is a reduction in appetite with a subsequent reduction in metabolite provision. What is the functional value of decreasing nutrient intake when an infection imposes large demands on metabolic parameters? Here, we propose that sickness-associated anorexia (SAA) upregulates the ancient process of autophagy systemically, thereby profoundly controlling not only immune- but also nonimmune-competent cells. This allows an advanced impact on the resolution of an infection through direct pathogen killing, enhancement of epitope presentation and the contribution toward the clearance of noxious factors. By rendering a 'free meal,' autophagy is thus most fundamentally harnessed during an anorexic response in order to promote both host tolerance and resistance. These findings strongly suggest a reassessment of numerous SAA-related clinical applications and a re-evaluation of current efforts in patient care.

  2. Dexamethasone mimicks the antimotion sickness effects of amphetamine and scopolamine

    Kohl, Randall Lee

    Based on preliminary suggestions that individual differences in susceptibility to stressful motion might be related to physiological differences in responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, we tested the efficacy of dexamethasone and metyrapone in subjects exposed to cross-coupled accelerative semicircular canal stimulation on a rotating chair. Subjects given 0.5 mg of dexamethasone every 6 h for 48 h could endure 80% more stressful motion ( P = 0.03) in a within-subjects design study, whereas, no improvement followed treatment with 750 mg of metryapone every 4 h for 24 h. The efficacy of dexamethasone might be explained in terms of its neurochemical actions on several neurotransmitter systems which are also modulated by such classical antimotion sickness drugs as amphetamine and scopolamine. Because dexamethasone induces adaptive changes within the central nervous system it may prove superior to scopolamine and amphetamine which possess significant side effects, are short acting, and rapidly tolerated.

  3. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  4. Sick building syndrome: A disease of modern age

    Nikić Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome (SBS is a term used to describe situation in building when more than 30% of occupants suffer from various symptoms which tend to increase by severity during the time people spend in "sick" building and disappear when they leave the building. Typical cases of SBS report vague symptoms, which cannot be objectively measured, and sufferers usually show no clinical signs of illness. Symptom heterogeneity suggests that they do not represent a single disorder. The objective of our study was to establish if SBS is present in our town because new buildings have been built lately producing the artificial environment - exclusively artificial lightning and mechanical ventilation. A total of 812 subjects were included in our study. The investigation of SBS was performed by standardized questionnaires to determine the prevalence of symptoms and complaints. Questionnaires were used to collect data on perception of environment conditions and health during the period they work in this building. The subjects were divided in three groups according to sex, level of education and ownership. Our data suggested that the incidence of symptoms was higher in employers than in owners of the offices. Moreover, the prevalence of SBS was very high - up to 74.76%. It is obvious that certain physical, psychological and organizational factors are involved in the incidence of symptoms, but our investigation suggests that physical factor has a dominant role in development of symptoms, particularly low humidity and low air flow. In addition, our judgment is that SBS exists in our city, probably in the whole country and, therefore, it must be investigated properly.

  5. Body mass affects seasonal variation in sickness intensity in a seasonally breeding rodent

    Carlton, Elizabeth D.; Demas, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Species that display seasonal variation in sickness intensity show the most intense response in the season during which they have the highest body mass, suggesting that sickness intensity may be limited by an animal's energy stores. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) display lower body masses and less intense sickness when housed in short, winter-like days as opposed to long, summer-like days. To determine whether reduced sickness intensity displayed by short-day hamsters is a product of seasonal changes in body mass, we food restricted long-day hamsters so that they exhibited body mass loss that mimicked the natural photoperiod-induced loss of body mass in short-day hamsters. We then experimentally induced sickness with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and compared sickness responses among long-day food-restricted and long- and short-day ad libitum fed groups, predicting that long-day food-restricted hamsters would show sickness responses comparable to those of short-day ad libitum fed hamsters and attenuated in comparison to long-day ad libitum fed hamsters. We found that long-day food-restricted hamsters showed attenuated LPS-induced anorexia, loss of body mass and hypothermia compared with long-day ad libitum fed animals; however, anorexia remained elevated in long-day food-restricted animals compared with short-day ad libitum fed animals. Additionally, LPS-induced anhedonia and decreases in nest building were not influenced by body mass. Results of hormone assays suggest that cortisol levels could play a role in the attenuation of sickness in long-day food-restricted hamsters, indicating that future research should target the roles of glucocorticoids and natural variation in energy stores in seasonal sickness variation. PMID:25852068

  6. Leptin mediates seasonal variation in some but not all symptoms of sickness in Siberian hamsters.

    Carlton, Elizabeth D; Demas, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    Many seasonally breeding species, including Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), exhibit seasonal variation in sickness responses. One hypothesis regarding the mechanism of this variation is that sickness intensity tracks an animal's energetic state, such that sickness is attenuated in the season that an animal has the lowest fat stores. Energetic state may be signaled via leptin, an adipose hormone that provides a signal of fat stores. Siberian hamsters respond to extended housing in short, winter-like days by reducing fat stores and leptin levels, relative to those housed in long, summer-like days. Sickness responses are also attenuated in short-day hamsters as compared to long-day hamsters. We hypothesized that leptin provides a physiological signal by which seasonally breeding animals modulate sickness responses, such that animals with higher leptin levels show increased sickness intensity. To test this, we provided short-day hamsters with a long-day-like leptin signal and assessed their responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a sickness-inducing antigen. We compared these responses to short-day vehicle-, long-day vehicle-, and long-day leptin-treated hamsters. Unexpectedly, LPS induced a hypothermic response (rather than fever) in all groups. Short-day vehicle-treated hamsters exhibited the greatest LPS-induced hypothermia, and leptin treatment attenuated this response, making hypothermia more long-day-like. Contrary to our hypothesis, short-day leptin-treated hamsters showed the least pronounced LPS-induced anorexia among all groups. These results suggest that leptin may mediate some but not all aspects of seasonal sickness variation in this species. Future studies should be targeted at determining roles of other energetic hormones in regulating seasonal sickness response variation.

  7. 西藏导游人员高原病知识培训效果分析%Analysis of training effect of altitude sickness knowledge among tour guides in Tibet

    冯娟; 拥巴; 常春; 卓玛; 曾维艳; 达拉; 邱红; 罗布; 布琼

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the effect of training on improving the plateau relevant knowledge of tour guides via carrying out those trainings,and provide a theoretical basis for developing the training of altitude sickness knowledge,reducing the plateau response caused by lack of the knowledge about altitude sickness,as well as improving the capability of response to altitude sickness among tour guides.[Methods] The self-designed questionnaire about altitude sickness knowledge was adopted to survey the tour guides twice before and after training on March 7 and 8,2011.The results were statistically analyzed.[Results] 65.7% of tour guides accepted the training of altitude sickness knowledge for the first time.The awareness rate of altitude sickness increased from 66.7% before training to 82.8% after training,with significant difference (x2 =6.709,P <0.01).In addition,after the training,the proportion of tour guides who was active to inform travelers the knowledge about altitude sickness increased from 77.1% to 88.2%.The awareness rate of sickness symptom,measures to deal with acute altitude sickness and self-monitoring indicators after entering Tibet were all significantly increased.[Conclusion] The training can improve the awareness of tour guides towards altitude sickness.Therefore,it is necessary to strengthen the training of altitude sickness among tour guides and travelers.%目的 通过对导游人员进行高原病知识培训,了解培训对导游人员高原相关知识的提高效果,为通过开展高原病知识培训,减少由于高原病知识的缺乏引发的高原反应,提高导游人员对高原病发生后的处理能力提供理论依据.方法 采用自编的高原病知识问卷,2011年3月7和8日,让高原旅行导游人员在培训前、培训后2次填写问卷,根据填写结果进行统计学分析.结果 有65.7%的高原导游人员是首次接受高原病知识培训.培训后对高原病的知晓率从66.7%提高到82.8

  8. Cost effectiveness of a multi-stage return to work program for workers on sick leave due to low back pain, design of a population based controlled trial [ISRCTN60233560

    Anema Johannes R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the design of a population based randomized controlled trial (RCT, including a cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing participative ergonomics interventions between 2–8 weeks of sick leave and Graded Activity after 8 weeks of sick leave with usual care, in occupational back pain management. Methods Design An RCT and cost-effectiveness evaluation in employees sick-listed for a period of 2 to 6 weeks due to low back pain. Interventions used are 1. Communication between general practitioner and occupational physician plus Participative Ergonomics protocol performed by an ergonomist. 2. Graded Activity based on cognitive behavioural principles by a physiotherapist. 3. Usual care, provided by an occupational physician according to the Dutch guidelines for the occupational health management of workers with low back pain. The primary outcome measure is return to work. Secondary outcome measures are pain intensity, functional status and general improvement. Intermediate variables are kinesiophobia and pain coping. The cost-effectiveness analysis includes the direct and indirect costs due to low back pain. The outcome measures are assessed before randomization (after 2–6 weeks on sick leave and 12 weeks, 26 weeks and 52 weeks after first day of sick leave. Discussion The combination of these interventions has been subject of earlier research in Canada. The results of the current RCT will: 1. crossvalidate the Canadian findings in an different sociocultural environment; 2. add to the cost-effectiveness on treatment options for workers in the sub acute phase of low back pain. Results might lead to alterations of existing (international guidelines.

  9. Self-rated coping styles and registered sickness absence among nurses working in hospital care : A prospective 1-year cohort study

    Schreuder, J. A. H.; Plat, N.; Mageroy, N.; Moen, B. E.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Groothoff, J. W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence is an important problem in healthcare that affects the quality of care. Sickness absence has been related to coping strategies. Problem-focused coping was shown to be associated with low sickness absence and emotion-focused coping with high sickness absence among postal

  10. European mountain biodiversity

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  11. Profound bradycardia with lidocaine during anesthesia induction in a silent sick sinus syndrome patient.

    Kim, Kyoung Ok; Chung, Seunghyun; Lee, Kyoungjin; Cho, Hun

    2011-05-01

    Sick sinus syndrome is caused by sinus node dysfunction that renders it unable to function as a pacemaker. Patients with sick sinus syndrome are often asymptomatic or have symptoms that are mild and nonspecific. Lidocaine (0.5 mg/kg) injection is used for reduction of pain associated with intravenous injection of propofol. Episodes of marked bradycardia with sinus arrest after prophylactic lidocaine injection are reported in a 69-y-old man with no apparent preoperative cardiac disease or electrocardiographic abnormality. Surgery was postponed, and he was later diagnosed with sick sinus syndrome.

  12. Nocturnal periodic breathing and the development of acute high altitude illness.

    Eichenberger, U; Weiss, E; Riemann, D; Oelz, O; Bärtsch, P

    1996-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that periodic breathing (PB) at high altitude is more frequent and arterial oxygen desaturation more severe during sleep in subjects developing high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) or acute mountain sickness (AMS) compared with subjects remaining healthy. We registered thoraco-abdominal movement, electro-encephalogram and oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter (pSao2) in 21 subjects during the first night spent at the altitude of 4,559 m. During the subsequent stay at 4,559 m, eight subjects remained well (controls), five subjects developed AMS and eight subjects developed HAPE. PB was found in all sleep stages and the percentage PB in any sleep stage was not significantly different between groups. There was a trend towards more PB in the HAPE vs. AMS and control group lasting 80 +/- 5 (mean +/- SE), 58 +/- 7, 57 +/- 9% of analyzable time, respectively (p = 0.09). The mean nocturnal decrease of pSao2 for these groups was 8.7 +/- 1.9, 5.4 +/- 2.1, 4.8 +/- 1.2%; (p = 0.36) and the median nocturnal pSao2 was 49 +/- 3, 63 +/- 3, and 63 +/- 4% (p = 0.02). Arterial blood gas analysis before and after sleep recordings indicate that the significantly lower Sao2 in the HAPE group is secondary to gas exchange rather than ventilation. The nocturnal decrease of pSao2 did not correlate with the time of PB nor the number of desaturation events > or = 4%. These findings suggest that more frequent PB in the HAPE group is a consequence of lower Sao2 due to impairment of gas exchange.

  13. Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results

    Gail Heath

    2012-07-01

    Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

  14. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  15. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions : Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  16. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  17. Glacial effects limiting mountain height.

    Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E

    2009-08-13

    The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces.

  18. Diagnostic criteria of acute rheumatic fever.

    Burke, Rebecca J; Chang, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever is an inflammatory sequela of Group A Streptococcal pharyngitis that affects multiple organ systems. The incidence of acute rheumatic fever has been declining even before the use of antibiotics became widespread, however the disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children, particularly in developing countries and has been estimated to affect 19 per 100,000 children worldwide. Acute rheumatic fever is a clinical diagnosis, and therefore subject to the judgment of the clinician. Because of the variable presentation, the Jones criteria were first developed in 1944 to aid clinicians in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever. The Jones criteria have been modified throughout the years, most recently in 1992 to aid clinicians in the diagnosis of initial attacks of acute rheumatic fever and to minimize overdiagnosis of the disease. Diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever is based on the presence of documented preceding Group A Streptococcal infection, in addition to the presence of two major manifestations or one major and two minor manifestations of the Jones criteria. Without documentation of antecedent Group A Streptococcal infection, the diagnosis is much less likely except in a few rare scenarios. Carditis, polyarthritis and Sydenham's chorea are the most common major manifestations of acute rheumatic fever. However, despite the predominance of these major manifestations of acute rheumatic fever, there can be significant overlap with other disorders such as Lyme disease, serum sickness, drug reactions, and post-Streptococcal reactive arthritis. This overlap between disease processes has led to continued investigation of the pathophysiology as well as development of new biomarkers and laboratory studies to aid in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever and distinction from other disease processes.

  19. Space motion sickness: The sensory motor controls and cardiovascular correlation

    Souvestre, Philippe A.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Landrock, Clinton K.

    Background and PurposeSpace motion sickness (SMS) and related symptoms remain a major limiting factor in Space operations. A recent comprehensive literature review [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y] concluded that SMS does not represent a unique diagnostic entity, and there is no adequate predictor of SMS' susceptibility and severity. No countermeasure has been found reliable to prevent or treat SMS symptoms onset. Recent neurophysiological findings on sensory-motor controls monitoring [P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] and heart-rate variability (HRV) measurements relationship could explain post-flight orthostatic intolerance (PFOI) in astronauts [A.P. Blaber, R.L. Bondar, M.S. Kassam, Heart rate variability and short duration space flight: relationship to post-flight orthostatic intolerance, BMC Physiology 4 (2004) 6]. These two methodologies are generally overlooked in SMS' analysis. In this paper we present the case for a strong relationship between sensory-motor controls related symptoms, including orthostatic intolerance (OI) and SMS symptoms. MethodsThis paper expands on several previously published papers [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y; P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] along with an updated literature review. An analysis of a 10-year period clinical data from trauma patients experiencing postural deficiency syndrome (PDS) show assessment and monitoring techniques which successfully identify trauma

  20. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  1. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain...

  2. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  3. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  4. Sickness absence in student nursing assistants following a preventive intervention programme

    Svensson, A L; Marott, J L; Suadicani, P;

    2011-01-01

    after a further 36 months of follow-up and to analyse the association of GH, MH and VT scores with sickness absence. METHODS: This was a cluster randomized prospective study. The original study involved assessment at baseline and follow-up at 14 months (the duration of the student NA course). Of 568......BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that a multidimensional programme combining physical training, patient transfer techniques and stress management significantly reduced sickness absence rates in student nurse assistants (NAs) after 14 months of follow-up. At follow-up, the control group had...... subjects from the original intervention study, 306 (54%) completed a postal questionnaire at 36 months. RESULTS: Sickness absence increased in both groups between the first and second follow-up. At the second follow-up, the intervention group had a mean of 18 days of sickness absence compared with 25...

  5. Sickness Presenteeism Among Health Care Workers and the Effect of BMI, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Kongstad, Malte Bue; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between sickness presenteeism and body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). METHODS: Female health care workers (n = 139) were analyzed cross-sectional as well...... as longitudinal after 3 and 12-month follow-up. Sickness presenteeism was assessed as a summed score using validated questions from three questionnaires: Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Quantity and Quality Method. CRF was assessed by a maximal cycling test and MVC from four...... muscle groups. RESULTS: Significant relationships were found between sickness presenteeism and BMI as well as MVC both cross-sectional and as changes over 3 months. Participants with BMI more than 30 kg/m had significantly higher sickness presenteeism than those with BMI less than 25 kg/m. CONCLUSIONS...

  6. Work participation and health-related characteristics of sickness absence beneficiaries with multiple somatic symptoms

    Momsen, A H; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Nielsen, M B D

    2016-01-01

    . Methods: In 2011-2012, 736 (34%) of 2172 sick-listed individuals completed a posted questionnaire and were included. Main outcome was self-reported employment status. The Symptom Check List (SCL-SOM)'s sum score (0-48) was categorized in high (>18) and low (≤18) levels. Previous employment, sick-listing......Objectives: The primary aim was to study whether high levels of multiple symptoms influenced sick-listed individuals' employment status or desire to return to work (RTW) and whether this was associated with social relations at work. Study design: A cross-sectional study nested in a clinical trial...... unemployed was higher for this group than for those with a low score. Adjusting for general health reduced the association between symptoms and unemployment, whereas problems with social relations only affected it marginally. Conclusions: Sick-listed individuals reporting high levels of symptoms were more...

  7. The effects of fixation and restricted visual field on vection-induced motion sickness

    Stern, Robert M.; Hu, Senqi; Anderson, Richard B.; Leibowitz, Herschel W.; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 60 percent of healthy human subjects experience motion sickness when exposed to a rotating optokinetic drum. Here, the effects of certain visual factors on susceptibility to motion sickness were determined. Vection data (illusory self-motion), horizontal eye movement recordings, subjective motion sickness report, and a measure of gastric myoelectric activity were obtained from 45 subjects, who were randomly divided into the following three groups: a control group that observed the entire visual field with no fixation, a group that fixated on a central target, and a third group that had a visual field restricted to 15 deg. The experimental session was divided into three 12-min periods: baseline, drum rotation, and recovery. The results showed that fixation greatly reduced nystagmus and slightly reduced vection. The restricted visual field slightly reduced nystagmus and greatly reduced vection. Both of these manipulations significantly reduced symptoms of motion sickness and abnormal gastric myoelectric activity.

  8. Sickness absence associated with shared and open-plan offices - a national cross sectional questionnaire survey

    Pejtersen, Jan; Feveile, H; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether shared and open-plan offices are associated with more days of sickness absence than cellular offices. Methods The analysis was based on a national survey of Danish inhabitants between 18–59 years of age (response rate 62%), and the study...... of office; the analysis was adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and physical activity during leisure time. Results Sickness absence was significantly related to having a greater number of occupants in the office (P...-plan offices (>6 persons) had 62% more days of sickness absence (RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.30–2.02). Conclusion Occupants sharing an office and occupants in open-plan offices (>6 occupants) had significantly more days of sickness absence than occupants in cellular offices....

  9. Economic benefits of an economizer system: Energy savings and reduced sick leave

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2004-02-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, D.C. with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The annual financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modeling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  10. Economizer system cost effectiveness: Accounting for the influence of ventilation rate on sick leave

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2003-06-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, DC with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modelling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  11. Phenytoin as a countermeasure for motion sickness in NASA maritime operations

    Woodard, Daniel; Knox, Glenn; Myers, K. J.; Chelen, William; Ferguson, Becki

    1993-01-01

    Seasickness is the most prevalent form of motion sickness and is an operational problem during Space Shuttle Solid-fueled Rocket Booster (SRB) retrieval. Phenytoin has been shown to protect against motion sickness induced by Coriolis stress. We exposed SRB recovery personnel to off-vertical rotation and sea motion after phenytoin or placebo. Phenytoin blood levels of at least 9 micrograms/ml were protective against motion sickness at sea. No change in susceptibility to nitrogen narcosis was seen in divers in chamber tests at 460 KPa. Phenytoin was used during the performance of critical and hazardous tasks during training and actual SRB recovery operations. Phenytoin is an effective operational countermeasure for motion sickness for selected SRB crew members.

  12. Association between Sick Leave Prescribing Practices and Physician Burnout and Empathy.

    Oriol Yuguero Torres

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between sick leave prescription and physician burnout and empathy in a primary care health district in Lleida, Spain.This descriptive study included 108 primary care doctors from 22 primary care centers in Lleida in 2014 (183,600 patients. Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and empathy with the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. The reliability of the instruments was measured by calculating Cronbach's alpha and normal distribution was analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov-Lilliefors and χ2 tests. Burnout and empathy scores were analyzed by age, sex, and place of work (urban vs rural. Sick leave data were obtained from the Catalan Health Institute.High empathy was significantly associated with low burnout. Neither empathy nor burnout were significantly associated with sick leave prescription.Sick leave prescription by physicians is not associated with physicians' empathy or burnout and may mostly depend on prescribing guidelines.

  13. Living in hemodialysis without social insurance: The voices of renal sick people and their families.

    Francisco J Mercado-Martínez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the perspectives and practices of renal sick people and their families without social insurance regarding problems faced while on dialysis treatment. Materials and methods. A qualitative research was developed in Guadalajara, Mexico. Thirty-seven renal sick people on hemodialysis and 50 relatives participated; all affiliated to Seguro Popular. Information was gathered through individual and group interviews. Directed content analysis was carried out. Results. Renal sick people and their families face multiple difficulties while on hemodialysis treatment; nevertheless, economic ones are perceived as a priority due to treatment expenses, lack of financial resources and noncoverage of kidney disease by Seguro Popular. Multiple actions are combined in a circular searching for help process to face the economic burden. Conclusion. Hemodialysis treatment is an unbearable economic burden for renal sick people and their families without social insurance. Universal access to renal therapies should be implemented urgently.

  14. Sick from Freedom: An Unusual Perspective on the Civil War and Reconstruction

    Elisabeth Davis Elder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction; Jim Downs; (2012. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. 280 pages.

  15. Introducing waiting times for health care in a labor supply model for sickness absence

    Daniela Andrén

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the association between waiting times for different health care services and the duration of sick leave, using a Swedish register database supplemented with information from questionnaires for 3,653 employees. The duration of sick leave is positively associated with waiting two weeks or more for primary care, technical investigations and specialists, compared to waiting one week or less. Except for waiting for a specialist, there is no indication that waiting four weeks or more is associated with longer durations of sick leave than waiting two to three weeks. Long waiting times for surgery is negatively associated with the duration of sick leave, which might be explained by prioritizing where patients with longer waiting times are those with less severe conditions. Including these waiting time variables did not induce substantial changes on the impact of traditional labor supply variables, which suggests that the parameter estimates of traditional variables are relatively robust.

  16. Implementation of the participatory approach for supervisors to prevent sick leave : a process evaluation

    Kraaijeveld, R. A.; Schaafsma, F. G.; Ketelaar, S.M.; Boot, C. R. L.; Bultmann, U.; Anema, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    To perform a process evaluation of a multifaceted strategy to implement the participatory approach for supervisors to prevent sick leave in three organisations. The implementation strategy incorporated a working group meeting with stakeholder representatives, supervisor training, and optional superv

  17. SICK BUILDING SYNDROME: POSSIBLE ASSOCIATIONS WITH EXPOSURE TO MYCOTOXINS FROM INDOOR AIR FUNGI.

    Introduction. Chronic human illness associated with residential or occupational buildings, commonly referred to as sick building syndrome (SBS), may be a multifactorial condition, involving in some cases volatile organic compounds, CO or CO2, pesticides, biologic agents, temperat...

  18. Workplace levels of psychosocial factors as prospective predictors of registered sickness absence

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether workplace levels of psychosocial work environment factors predict individual sickness absence. METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces in three organizations: municipal care, technical services, and a pharmaceutical...... company. Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors and individual level sickness absence from absence registries as outcome. RESULTS: High workplace levels of decision authority predicted low sickness...... absence in the technical services (rate ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.86) and high workplace levels of skill discretion predicted low sickness absence in the pharmaceutical company (rate ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.88) after control for relevant confounders. Workplaces...

  19. 0156 Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy - a Danish cohort study

    Lausten Hansen, Mette; Marie Thulstrup, Ane; Kolding Kristensen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    30 was 36%. Preliminary results indicate that sickness absence is related to fertility treatment and obesity. Women receiving fertility treatment had increased odds of sickness absence in pregnancy week 30; OR: 1.31 (95% CI: 1.21-1.42). Obese women had increased odds of sickness absence compared......OBJECTIVES: To investigate if parity, fertility treatment, body mass index (BMI), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise are risk factors for sickness absence during pregnancy weeks 10 to 30. METHOD: We use data from The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and the Danish...... Register for Evaluation of Marginalisation (DREAM). DNBC contains information on 100 418 pregnancies included from 1996 until 2002. Around pregnancy weeks 12-16 the participants were interviewed by telephone and provided information on potential predictors, on occupational exposures, lifestyle factors...

  20. Job strain and informal caregiving as predictors of long-term sickness absence

    Mortensen, Jesper; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis;

    2017-01-01

    .20, 95% CI 1.03-1.41), but the excess risk was not more than expected from joint exposure to caregiving and job strain. Neither job strain nor informal caregiving predicted sickness absence for men. CONCLUSIONS: High job strain and informal caregiving predicted long-term sickness absence among women......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the individual, joint and interactive effects of job strain and informal caregiving on long-term sickness absence with special attention to gender differences. METHODS: The study comprised a prospective cohort study of 6798 working adults from...... France, 14 727 from Finland, and 5275 from the UK. A total of 26 800 participants, age 52 (interquartile range 47-56) years participated in the study. Job strain was assessed using the demand-control model. Informal caregiving was defined as care for a sick, disabled, or elderly person. Long...

  1. A prediction rule for shoulder pain related sick leave: a prospective cohort study

    van der Heijden Geert JMG

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is common in primary care, and has an unfavourable outcome in many patients. Information about predictors of shoulder pain related sick leave in workers is scarce and inconsistent. The objective was to develop a clinical prediction rule for calculating the risk of shoulder pain related sick leave for individual workers, during the 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Methods A prospective cohort study with 6 months follow-up was conducted among 350 workers with a new episode of shoulder pain. Potential predictors included the results of a physical examination, sociodemographic variables, disease characteristics (duration of symptoms, sick leave in the 2 months prior to consultation, pain intensity, disability, comorbidity, physical activity, physical work load, psychological factors, and the psychosocial work environment. The main outcome measure was sick leave during 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Results Response rate to the follow-up questionnaire at 6 months was 85%. During the 6 months after first consultation 30% (89/298 of the workers reported sick leave. 16% (47 reported 10 days sick leave or more. Sick leave during this period was predicted in a multivariable model by a longer duration of sick leave prior to consultation, more shoulder pain, a perceived cause of strain or overuse during regular activities, and co-existing psychological complaints. The discriminative ability of the prediction model was satisfactory with an area under the curve of 0.70 (95% CI 0.64–0.76. Conclusion Although 30% of all workers with shoulder pain reported sick leave during follow-up, the duration of sick leave was limited to a few days in most workers. We developed a prediction rule and a score chart that can be used by general practitioners and occupational health care providers to calculate the absolute risk of sick leave in individual workers with shoulder pain, which

  2. A New Perspective in the Etiology, Treatment, Prevention and Prediction of Space Motion Sickness

    1988-12-01

    sickness experienced by a test subject during the course of an experiment (22:97). * In 1987, Drylie, Fix, and Gaudreault continued the collection of...and numerically analyze the experimental data. In 1987, Drylie and Gaudreault reported additional conclusions concerning motion sickness trends (13;17...Drylie, Fix, and Gaudreault also noted low frequency EEG signals in the 0.1 Hz range (17:29). However, only one of their subjects had EEG signals with an

  3. Novel Mutation in the α-Myosin Heavy Chain Gene Is Associated With Sick Sinus Syndrome

    Ishikawa, Taisuke; Jou, Chuanchau J.; Nogami, Akihiko; Kowase, Shinya; Arrington, Cammon B.; Barnett, Spencer M.; Harrell, Daniel T.; Arimura, Takuro; Tsuji, Yukiomi; Kimura, Akinori; Makita, Naomasa

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have demonstrated an association between MYH6, the gene encoding α-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC), and sinus node function in the general population. Moreover, a rare MYH6 variant, R721W, predisposing susceptibility to sick sinus syndrome has been identified. However, the existence of disease-causing MYH6 mutations for familial sick sinus syndrome and their underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Methods and Results-We screened 9 genotype-negative probands wit...

  4. Investigation of anti-motion sickness drugs in the squirrel monkey

    Cheung, B. S.; Money, K. E.; Kohl, R. L.; Kinter, L. B.

    1992-01-01

    Early attempts to develop an animal model for anti-motion sickness drugs, using dogs and cats; were unsuccessful. Dogs did not show a beneficial effect of scopolamine (probably the best single anti-motion sickness drug for humans thus far) and the findings in cats were not definitive. The authors have developed an animal model using the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) of the Bolivian phenotype. Unrestrained monkeys in a small lucite cage were tested in an apparatus that induces motion sickness by combining vertical oscillation and horizontal rotation in a visually unrestricted laboratory environment. Signs of motion sickness were scored using a rating scale. Ten susceptible monkeys (weighing 800-1000 g) were given a total of five tests each, to establish the baseline susceptibility level. Based on the anticholinergic activity of scopolamine, the sensitivity of squirrel monkey to scopolamine was investigated, and the appropriate dose of scopolamine for this species was determined. Then various anti-motion sickness preparations were administered in subsequent tests: 100 ug scopolamine per monkey; 140 ug dexedrine; 50 ug scopolamine plus 70 ug dexedrine; 100 ug scopolamine plus 140 ug dexedrine; 3 mg promethazine; 3 mg promethazine plus 3 mg ephedrine. All these preparations were significantly effective in preventing motion sickness in the monkeys. Ephedrine, by itself, which is marginally effective in humans, was ineffective in the monkeys at the doses tried (0.3-6.0 mg). The squirrel monkey appears to be a good animal model for antimotion sickness drugs. Peripherally acting antihistamines such as astemizole and terfenadine were found to be ineffective, whereas flunarizine, and an arginine vasopressin V1 antagonist, showed significant activity in preventing motion sickness.

  5. Documentation for the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine Altitude Decompression Sickness Research Database

    2010-05-01

    with a SensorMedics 2900Z Metabolic Measurement Cart ( Wiegman et al., 1993; Pilmanis et al., 1999). From the VO2max obtained during the Bruce test...1999;70:365. 23. Fischer MD, Wiegman JF, McLean SA, Olson RM. Evaluation of four different exercise types for use in altitude decompression sickness...Fischer MD, Wiegman JF, Webb JT. Exercise-induced altitude decompression sickness. Aviat Space Environ Med 1999;70:22-9. 72. Pilmanis AA, Olson RM

  6. Civil conflict and sleeping sickness in Africa in general and Uganda in particular

    Berrang Ford Lea

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conflict and war have long been recognized as determinants of infectious disease risk. Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1970s has coincided with extensive civil conflict in affected regions. Sleeping sickness incidence has placed increasing pressure on the health resources of countries already burdened by malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. In areas of Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola, sleeping sickness occurs in epidemic proportions, and is the first or second greatest cause of mortality in some areas, ahead of HIV/AIDS. In Uganda, there is evidence of increasing spread and establishment of new foci in central districts. Conflict is an important determinant of sleeping sickness outbreaks, and has contributed to disease resurgence. This paper presents a review and characterization of the processes by which conflict has contributed to the occurrence of sleeping sickness in Africa. Conflict contributes to disease risk by affecting the transmission potential of sleeping sickness via economic impacts, degradation of health systems and services, internal displacement of populations, regional insecurity, and reduced access for humanitarian support. Particular focus is given to the case of sleeping sickness in south-eastern Uganda, where incidence increase is expected to continue. Disease intervention is constrained in regions with high insecurity; in these areas, political stabilization, localized deployment of health resources, increased administrative integration and national capacity are required to mitigate incidence. Conflict-related variables should be explicitly integrated into risk mapping and prioritization of targeted sleeping sickness research and mitigation initiatives.

  7. Civil conflict and sleeping sickness in Africa in general and Uganda in particular.

    Berrang Ford, Lea

    2007-03-29

    Conflict and war have long been recognized as determinants of infectious disease risk. Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1970s has coincided with extensive civil conflict in affected regions. Sleeping sickness incidence has placed increasing pressure on the health resources of countries already burdened by malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. In areas of Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola, sleeping sickness occurs in epidemic proportions, and is the first or second greatest cause of mortality in some areas, ahead of HIV/AIDS. In Uganda, there is evidence of increasing spread and establishment of new foci in central districts. Conflict is an important determinant of sleeping sickness outbreaks, and has contributed to disease resurgence. This paper presents a review and characterization of the processes by which conflict has contributed to the occurrence of sleeping sickness in Africa. Conflict contributes to disease risk by affecting the transmission potential of sleeping sickness via economic impacts, degradation of health systems and services, internal displacement of populations, regional insecurity, and reduced access for humanitarian support. Particular focus is given to the case of sleeping sickness in south-eastern Uganda, where incidence increase is expected to continue. Disease intervention is constrained in regions with high insecurity; in these areas, political stabilization, localized deployment of health resources, increased administrative integration and national capacity are required to mitigate incidence. Conflict-related variables should be explicitly integrated into risk mapping and prioritization of targeted sleeping sickness research and mitigation initiatives.

  8. Disability, sickness, and unemployment benefits among long-term sickness absentees five years before, during, and after a multidisciplinary medical assessment

    Pia Svedberg

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Klas Gustafsson1, Göran Lundh1, Pia Svedberg1, Jürgen Linder2, Kristina Alexanderson1, Staffan Marklund11Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Diagnostic Centre, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenAim: The aim was to describe how a multidisciplinary medical assessment changed the distribution of long-term sickness absentees between three different forms of social security support during a period of eleven years.Methods: The study group (n = 1002 consisted of persons on long-term sickness absence who were referred to a multidisciplinary medical assessment by the Social Insurance Office in Stockholm, Sweden between 1998 and 2007. Register data from the years 1993–2008 were linked to the study group. A calculation was provided for the number of days per person and year on unemployment benefits, sickness benefits, and disability pension, five years before, during, and five years after the assessment. Also, differences in the average number of days per person and year were calculated with one-way analysis of variance.Results: The number of days on sickness benefits increased up to the time of multidisciplinary medical assessment, from 69 to 218 days on average. After the assessment there was a decrease in the average number of days on sickness benefits, from 218 to 16 days. Before the assessment the number of days on disability pension was 21, but this increased after the assessment from 104 days to an average of 272 days five years after the assessment. There were age differences regarding number of compensated days, and these were particularly pronounced for disability days after the assessment. Further, there were significant differences between types of diagnosis in relation to average days on disability pension after the assessment.Conclusion: The study shows that after a multidisciplinary medical assessment there is a rapid increase in disability pension

  9. Effect of a participatory organizational-level occupational health intervention on short-term sickness absence

    Framke, Elisabeth; Sørensen, Ole Henning; Pedersen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether employees in pre-schools that implemented a participatory organizational-level intervention focusing on the core task at work had a lower incidence of short-term sickness absence compared to employees in the control group. Methods: The clus......Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether employees in pre-schools that implemented a participatory organizational-level intervention focusing on the core task at work had a lower incidence of short-term sickness absence compared to employees in the control group. Methods......, workshops, and workplace-directed intervention activities focusing on the core task at work. Using Poisson regression, we tested differences in incidence rates in short-term sickness absence between the intervention and control groups during a 29-months follow-up. Results: Estimated short-term sickness...... analysis and 0.89 (95% CI 0.83–0.96) when adjusting for age, sex, job group, type and size of workplace, and workplace average level of previous short-term sickness absence. A supplementary analysis showed that the intervention also was associated with a reduced risk of long-term sickness absence...

  10. Sickness absence among female employees with migraine and co-existing conditions.

    Mäki, K; Vahtera, J; Virtanen, M; Elovainio, M; Pentti, J; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Kivimäki, M

    2008-11-01

    This prospective cohort study examined the risk of sickness absence among 27,127 female public-sector employees by status of migraine and co-existing conditions. A baseline survey was used to assess chronic disorders and demographic factors. Information on sickness absence in the 3 years following the survey was obtained from employers' registers. Migraine was related to 5.4 extra sickness absence days per person-year, with the corresponding figures being 14.6 and 6.1 for depression and respiratory disorders, respectively. After adjusting for age, marital status, socioeconomic status and presence of depression or respiratory disorders, employees with migraine had a 1.21 (95% confidence interval 1.18, 1.24) times higher risk of self-certified sickness absence episodes ( 3 days) was 1.15 (1.12, 1.19). Among employees with depression or respiratory disorders, secondary migraine was associated with an increased risk of sickness absence episode of 1.15 to 1.23. These findings suggest that migraine is associated with increased risk of recorded sickness absence independent of depression and respiratory disorders.

  11. Motion sickness severity and physiological correlates during repeated exposures to a rotating optokinetic drum

    Hu, Senqi; Grant, Wanda F.; Stern, Robert M.; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-two subjects were exposed to a rotating optokinetic drum. Ten of these subjects who became motion sick during the first session completed two additional sessions. Subjects' symptoms of motion sickness, perception of self-motion, electrogastrograms (EGGs), heart rate, mean successive differences of R-R intervals (RRI), and skin conductance were recorded for each session. The results from the first session indicated that the development of motion sickness was accompanied by increased EGG 4-9 cpm activity (gastric tachyarrhythmia), decreased mean succesive differences of RRI, increased skin conductance levels, and increased self-motion perception. The results from the subjects who had three repeated sessions showed that 4-9 cpm EGG activity, skin conductance levels, perception of self-motion, and symptoms of motion sickness all increased significantly during the drum rotation period of the first session, but increased significantly less during the following sessions. Mean successive differences of RRI decreased significantly during the drum rotation period for the first session, but decreased significantly less during the following sessions. Results show that the development of motion sickness is accompanied by an increase in gastric tachyarrhythmia, and an increase in sympathetic activity and a decrease in parasympathetic activity, and that adaptation to motion sickness is accompanied by the recovery of autonomic nervous system balance.

  12. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    Andersen, JH; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if weekly duration of computer use predicted sickness absence for more than two weeks at a later time.A cohort of 2146 frequent computer users filled in a questionnaire at baseline and was followed for one year with continuously recording of the duration...... of computer use and furthermore followed for 300 weeks in a central register of sickness absence for more than 2 weeks.147 participants of the 2,146 (6.9%) became first time sick listed in the follow-up period. Overall, mean weekly computer use did not turn out to be a risk factor for later sickness absence....... The hazard ratio for sickness absence with weekly increase of one hour in computer use was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00). Low satisfaction with work place arrangements and female gender both doubled the risk of sickness absence.We have earlier found that computer use did not predict persistent pain in the neck...

  13. Sickness and healing and the evolutionary foundations of mind and minding.

    Horacio, Fabrega

    2011-01-01

    Disease represents a principal tentacle of natural selection and a staple theme of evolutionary medicine. However, it is through a small portal of entry and a very long lineage that disease as sickness entered behavioural spaces and human consciousness. This has a long evolutionary history. Anyone interested in the origins of medicine and psychiatry as social institution has to start with analysis of how mind and body were conceptualised and played out behaviourally following the pongid/hominin split and thereafter. The early evolution of medicine provides a template for clarifying elemental characteristics of mind and minding. Sickness and healing in chimpanzees represents an early manifestation of (ethno) medicine, termed a behavioural tradition, which is found played out in routines of helping, caring, and healing as well as other social behaviours. Chimpanzees seem to know they are sick since they resort to self-medication when exhibiting signs and symptoms of disease. Also, they help those exhibiting physical and cognitive disability. Among hominins, awareness of consequences and implications of sickness and coping with them represented an important feature of human consciousness and a major factor in the origins of vaunted human abilities involving language, cognition, and culture as we know them. A philosophical examination of the early evolution of sickness and healing provides a window into an understanding of evolving human capacities such as self-awareness, awareness and implications of suffering, theory of mind, altruism, conceptual grasp of sickness and healing and morality.

  14. Sickness and healing and the evolutionary foundations of mind and minding

    Fabrega Jr Horacio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease represents a principal tentacle of natural selection and a staple theme of evolutionary medicine. However, it is through a small portal of entry and a very long lineage that disease as sickness entered behavioural spaces and human consciousness. This has a long evolutionary history. Anyone interested in the origins of medicine and psychiatry as social institution has to start with analysis of how mind and body were conceptualised and played out behaviourally following the pongid/hominin split and thereafter. The early evolution of medicine provides a template for clarifying elemental characteristics of mind and minding. Sickness and healing in chimpanzees represents an early manifestation of (ethno medicine, termed a behavioural tradition, which is found played out in routines of helping, caring, and healing as well as other social behaviours. Chimpanzees seem to know they are sick since they resort to self-medication when exhibiting signs and symptoms of disease. Also, they help those exhibiting physical and cognitive disability. Among hominins, awareness of consequences and implications of sickness and coping with them represented an important feature of human consciousness and a major factor in the origins of vaunted human abilities involving language, cognition, and culture as we know them. A philosophical examination of the early evolution of sickness and healing provides a window into an understanding of evolving human capacities such as self-awareness, awareness and implications of suffering, theory of mind, altruism, conceptual grasp of sickness and healing and morality.

  15. Sickness and healing and the evolutionary foundations of mind and minding

    Horacio Fabrega Jr

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Disease represents a principal tentacle of natural selection and a staple theme of evolutionary medicine. However, it is through a small portal of entry and a very long lineage that disease as sickness entered behavioural spaces and human consciousness. This has a long evolutionary history. Anyone interested in the origins of medicine and psychiatry as social institution has to start with analysis of how mind and body were conceptualised and played out behaviourally following the pongid/hominin split and thereafter. The early evolution of medicine provides a template for clarifying elemental characteristics of mind and minding. Sickness and healing in chimpanzees represents an early manifestation of (ethno medicine, termed a behavioural tradition, which is found played out in routines of helping, caring, and healing as well as other social behaviours. Chimpanzees seem to know they are sick since they resort to self-medication when exhibiting signs and symptoms of disease. Also, they help those exhibiting physical and cognitive disability. Among hominins, awareness of consequences and implications of sickness and coping with them represented an important feature of human consciousness and a major factor in the origins of vaunted human abilities involving language, cognition, and culture as we know them. A philosophical examination of the early evolution of sickness and healing provides a window into an understanding of evolving human capacities such as self-awareness, awareness and implications of suffering, theory of mind, altruism, conceptual grasp of sickness and healing and morality.

  16. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  17. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  18. A mountain of millipedes IV

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Two species of the genus Prionopetalum Attems, 1909, are recorded from the Udzungwa Mountains: P. asperginis sp. nov. and P. kraepelini (Attems, 1896). Prionopetalum stuhlmanni Attems, 1914, is synonymized under P. kraepelini. Odontopyge fasciata Attems, 1896, is transferred from Prionopetalum...

  19. THE MOST SUCCE SSFUL MOUNTAINEERS

    2007-01-01

    Tsering Dorje:I Dream of Climbing Mt. Qomolangma Carrying the Olympic Torch Tsering Dorje,the oldest of the Tibetan professional mountaineers,has successfully reached a total of fourteen of the world's highest mountain summits.His companions jokingly refer to him as"Aku"(meaning"uncle"in Tibetan).However, acting as an uncle,he has to shoulder the responsibilities of team leader to take care of the others.

  20. Acute cholecystitis

    Halpin, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis causes unremitting right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and if untreated can lead to perforations, abscess formation, or fistulae. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones.It is thought that blockage of the cystic duct by a gallstone or local inflammation can lead to acute cholecystitis, but we don't know whether bacterial infection is also necessary.

  1. Fluoxetine protection in decompression sickness in mice is enhanced by blocking TREK-1 potassium channel with the spadin antidepressant.

    Nicolas eVallée

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In mice, disseminated coagulation, inflammation and ischemia induce neurological damages that can lead to the death. These symptoms result from circulating bubbles generated by a pathogenic decompression. An acute fluoxetine treatment or the presence of the TREK-1 potassium channel increased the survival rate when mice are subjected to an experimental dive/decompression protocol. This is a paradox because fluoxetine is a blocker of TREK-1 channels. First, we studied the effects of an acute dose of fluoxetine (50mg/kg in wild-type (WT and TREK-1 deficient mice (Knockout homozygous KO and heterozygous HET. Then, we combined the same fluoxetine treatment with a five-day treatment by spadin, in order to specifically block TREK-1 activity (KO-like mice. KO and KO-like mice could be regarded as antidepressed models.167 mice (45 WTcont 46 WTflux 30 HETflux and 46 KOflux constituting the flux-pool and 113 supplementary mice (27 KO-like 24 WTflux2 24 KO-likeflux 21 WTcont2 17 WTno dive constituting the spad-pool were included in this study. Only 7% of KO-TREK-1 treated with fluoxetine (KOflux and 4% of mice treated with both spadin and fluoxetine (KO-likeflux died from decompression sickness (DCS symptoms. These values are much lower than those of WT control (62% or KO-like mice (41%. After the decompression protocol, mice showed a significant consumption of their circulating platelets and leukocytes.Spadin antidepressed mice were more likely to declare DCS. Nevertheless, which had both blocked TREK-1 channel and were treated with fluoxetine were better protected against DCS. We conclude that the protective effect of such an acute dose of fluoxetine is enhanced when TREK-1 is inhibited. We confirmed that antidepressed models may have worse DCS outcomes, but a concomitant fluoxetine treatment not only decreases DCS severity but increases the survival rate.

  2. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review.

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  3. Combating the 'Sick Building Syndrome' by Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Pongchai Nimcharoenwon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that many of symptoms attributed to the Sick Building Syndrome in air-conditioned office buildings are a result of considerably reduced negative ions in the internal atmosphere and that replacing the depleted negative ions can improve indoor air quality. This paper describes a method used to develop a formula (DOF-NIL formula for calculating the amount of negative ions to be added to air-conditioned buildings, to improve air quality. The formula enables estimates to be made based on how negative ions in the air are reduced by three main factors namely, Video Display Terminals (VDT; heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC and Building Contents (BC. Calculations for a typical air-conditioned office, are compared with an Air Ion Counter instrument. The results show that the formula, when applied to a typical air-conditioned office, provides an accurate estimate for design purposes. The typical rate of additional negative-ions (ion-generating for a negative ion condition is found to be approximately 12.0 billion ions/hr for at least 4 hour ion-generating.

  4. [Sickness - disease - illness - health: Problems of global definitions and consequences].

    Schroeder-Kurth, Traute Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Globalization on the one side is highly wellcome as simplifying trade, communication or tourism. On the other side globalization seems to uniform cultural values, which causes anxieties and outrage in many countries. Since decades "western" medical knowledge is being transferred into the Third World. This paper begins with the problem of a worldwide understanding of terms like sickness, disease, illness and health. Results gained from investigations in the field of Medical Anthropology emphasize the importance to integrate any cultural values and symbols of the target population. Examples given to demonstrate difficulties and requirements for any transfer of western medicine into those countries. A close view into the health systems, concepts of health and disease, coping and treatment in England, France, Germany and the USA shows considerable divergences. "Western" medicine is not based on an uniform conception, but is modulated by traditional values of the nations. Any attempt to globalize "western" medicine must respect and integrate the inherited thinking pattern and medical system of a population in order to benefit the people.

  5. Protective effects of fluoxetine on decompression sickness in mice.

    Jean-Eric Blatteau

    Full Text Available Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS that can result in central nervous system disorders or even death. Bubbles alter the vascular endothelium and activate blood cells and inflammatory pathways, leading to a systemic pathophysiological process that promotes ischemic damage. Fluoxetine, a well-known antidepressant, is recognized as having anti-inflammatory properties at the systemic level, as well as in the setting of cerebral ischemia. We report a beneficial clinical effect associated with fluoxetine in experimental DCS. 91 mice were subjected to a simulated dive at 90 msw for 45 min before rapid decompression. The experimental group received 50 mg/kg of fluoxetine 18 hours before hyperbaric exposure (n = 46 while controls were not treated (n = 45. Clinical assessment took place over a period of 30 min after surfacing. At the end, blood samples were collected for blood cells counts and cytokine IL-6 detection. There were significantly fewer manifestations of DCS in the fluoxetine group than in the controls (43.5% versus 75.5%, respectively; p = 0.004. Survivors showed a better and significant neurological recovery with fluoxetine. Platelets and red cells were significantly decreased after decompression in controls but not in the treated mice. Fluoxetine reduced circulating IL-6, a relevant marker of systemic inflammation in DCS. We concluded that fluoxetine decreased the incidence of DCS and improved motor recovery, by limiting inflammation processes.

  6. Morning sickness: adaptive cause or nonadaptive consequence of embryo viability?

    Flaxman, Samuel M; Sherman, Paul W

    2008-07-01

    "Morning sickness" is the common term for nausea and vomiting in early human pregnancy (NVP). Recent interest in why NVP occurs-that is, in the evolutionary costs and benefits of NVP-has spurred the development of two alternative hypotheses. The "prophylaxis," or "maternal and embryonic protection," hypothesis suggests that NVP serves a beneficial function by expelling foods that may contain harmful toxins and microorganisms and triggering aversions to such foods throughout pregnancy. The alternative "by-product" hypothesis suggests that NVP is a nonfunctional by-product of conflict--over resource allocation--between the pregnant woman and the embryo. The critical predictions of the prophylaxis hypothesis have been developed and tested, whereas the by-product hypothesis has not been subjected to similar scrutiny. To address this gap, we developed a graphical model and used it to derive predictions from the by-product hypothesis under two different assumptions, namely, that NVP is either (i) a by-product of current conflict between a pregnant woman and an embryo or (ii) a by-product of honest signals of viability produced by the embryo. Neither version of the by-product hypothesis is fully consistent with available data. By contrast, the timing of NVP, its variation among societies, and associated patterns of food cravings and aversions are consistent with the prophylaxis hypothesis.

  7. Mechanics of Coriolis stimulus and inducing factors of motion sickness.

    Isu, N; Shimizu, T; Sugata, K

    2001-12-01

    To specify inducing factors of motion sickness comprised in Coriolis stimulus, or cross-coupled rotation, the sensation of rotation derived from the semicircular canal system during and after Coriolis stimulus under a variety of stimulus conditions, was estimated by an approach from mechanics with giving minimal hypotheses and simplifications on the semicircular canal system and the sensory nervous system. By solving an equation of motion of the endolymph during Coriolis stimulus, rotating angle of the endolymph was obtained, and the sensation of rotation derived from each semicircular canal was estimated. Then the sensation derived from the whole semicircular canal system was particularly considered in two cases of a single Coriolis stimulus and cyclic Coriolis stimuli. The magnitude and the direction of sensation of rotation were shown to depend on an angular velocity of body rotation and a rotating angle of head movement (amplitude of head oscillation when cyclic Coriolis stimuli) irrespective of initial angle (center angle) of the head relative to the vertical axis. The present mechanical analysis of Coriolis stimulus led a suggestion that the severity of nausea evoked by Coriolis stimulus is proportional to the effective value of the sensation of rotation caused by the Coriolis stimulus.

  8. The relation of motion sickness to the spatial-temporal properties of velocity storage

    Dai, Mingjia; Kunin, Mikhail; Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard; Young, L. R. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Tilting the head in roll to or from the upright while rotating at a constant velocity (roll while rotating, RWR) alters the position of the semicircular canals relative to the axis of rotation. This produces vertical and horizontal nystagmus, disorientation, vertigo, and nausea. With recurrent exposure, subjects habituate and can make more head movements before experiencing overpowering motion sickness. We questioned whether promethazine lessened the vertigo or delayed the habituation, whether habituation of the vertigo was related to the central vestibular time constant, i.e., to the time constant of velocity storage, and whether the severity of the motion sickness was related to deviation of the axis of eye velocity from gravity. Sixteen subjects received promethazine and placebo in a double-blind, crossover study in two consecutive 4-day test series 1 month apart, termed series I and II. Horizontal and vertical eye movements were recorded with video-oculography while subjects performed roll head movements of approx. 45 degrees over 2 s to and from the upright position while being rotated at 138 degrees /s around a vertical axis. Motion sickness was scaled from 1 (no sickness) to an endpoint of 20, at which time the subject was too sick to continue or was about to vomit. Habituation was determined by the number of head movements that subjects made before reaching the maximum motion sickness score of 20. Head movements increased steadily in each session with repeated testing, and there was no difference between the number of head movements made by the promethazine and placebo groups. Horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) time constants declined in each test, with the declines being closely correlated to the increase in the number of head movements. The strength of vertiginous sensation was associated with the amount of deviation of the axis of eye velocity from gravity; the larger the deviation of the eye velocity axis from gravity, the

  9. The origins of mountain geoecology

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mountain geoecology, as a sub-discipline of Geography, stems from the life and work of Carl Troll who, in turn, was inspired by the philosophy and mountain travels of Alexander von Humboldt. As founding chair of the IGU Commission on High-Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll laid the foundations for inter-disciplinary and international mountain research. The paper traces the evolution of the Commission and its close links with the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (1972- and the United Nations University’s mountain Project (1978-. This facilitated the formation of a major force for inclusion of a mountain chapter in AGENDA 21 during the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Herat Summit (UNCED and the related designation by the United Nations of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. In this way, mountain geoecology not only contributed to worldwide mountain research but also entered the political arena in the struggle for sustainable mountain development and the well-being of mountain people.La geoecología de montaña, como sub-disciplina de la Geografía, entronca con la vida y trabajo de Carl Troll, quien, a su vez, fue inspirado por la filosofía y viajes de Alexander von Humboldt. Como presidente fundador de la comisión de la UGI sobre High Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll colocó las bases para la investigación interdisciplinar e internacional de las montañas. Este trabajo presenta la evolución de la Comisión y sus estrechas relaciones con el Programa Hombre y Biosfera de UNESCO (1972- y con el Proyecto de montaña de la Universidad de Naciones Unidas (1978-. Esto facilitó la inclusión de un capítulo sobre la montaña en AGENDA 21 durante la Cumbre de la Tierra de Río de Janeiro (UNCED, y la consiguiente designación de 2002 como el Año Internacional de las Montañas por parte de Naciones Unidas. En este sentido, la geoecología de montaña no sólo contribuyó a la investigación de las montañas del mundo sino que también empujó a la pol

  10. Physical work environment risk factors for long term sickness absence: prospective findings among a cohort of 5357 employees in Denmark

    Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    of onset of long term sickness absence was increased by extreme bending or twisting of the neck or back, working mainly standing or squatting, lifting or carrying loads, and pushing or pulling loads. Significant interactions were found for three combinations of physical and psychosocial work environment...... risk factors among female employees (Ppushing or pulling loads increased the risk of onset of long term sickness absence. The study shows a potential for reducing long term sickness absence through modifying work...... of long term sickness absence, defined as receiving sickness absence compensation for eight consecutive weeks or more. RESULTS: 348 participants (6.9%) developed long term sickness absence during follow-up. Of these, 194 (55.7%) were women and 154 (44.3%) were men. For both female and male employees, risk...

  11. Indications of a Scarring Effect of Sickness Absence Periods in a Cohort of Higher Educated Self-Employed

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E. C.; Brouwer, Sandra; Buitenhuis, Jan; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known regarding incidence and recurrence of sickness absence in self-employed. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the number of prior episodes of sickness absence on the risk of subsequent periods of sickness absence in higher educated self-employed. Methods In a historic register study based on the files of a Dutch private disability insurance company all sickness absence periods of 30 days or more were analysed. Results A total of 15,868 insured persons contributed 141,188 person years to the study. In total, 5608 periods of sickness absence occurred during follow-up. The hazard of experiencing a new period of sickness absence increased with every previous period, ranging from a hazard ratio of 2.83 in case of one previous period of sickness absence to a hazard ratio of 6.72 in case of four previous periods. This effect was found for both men and women and for all diagnostic categories of the first period of sickness absence. Conclusions Our study shows that for all diagnostic categories the hazard of experiencing a recurrence of sickness absence is appreciably higher than for experiencing a first episode. This suggests that this increased hazard may be related to the occurrence of sickness absence itself rather than related to characteristics of the insured person or of the medical condition. These findings could indicate that sickness absence periods may have a scarring effect on the self-employed person experiencing the sickness absence. PMID:27213963

  12. Green Tobacco Sickness among Thai Traditional Tobacco Farmers, Thailand

    T Saleeon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L. is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS.Objective: To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand.Methods: 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS.Results: The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%. Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73, smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47, skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68, wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23, process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72.Conclusion: The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.

  13. Tsetse Control and Gambian Sleeping Sickness; Implications for Control Strategy.

    Inaki Tirados

    Full Text Available Gambian sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis, HAT outbreaks are brought under control by case detection and treatment although it is recognised that this typically only reaches about 75% of the population. Vector control is capable of completely interrupting HAT transmission but is not used because it is considered too expensive and difficult to organise in resource-poor settings. We conducted a full scale field trial of a refined vector control technology to determine its utility in control of Gambian HAT.The major vector of Gambian HAT is the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes which lives in the humid zone immediately adjacent to water bodies. From a series of preliminary trials we determined the number of tiny targets required to reduce G. fuscipes populations by more than 90%. Using these data for model calibration we predicted we needed a target density of 20 per linear km of river in riverine savannah to achieve >90% tsetse control. We then carried out a full scale, 500 km2 field trial covering two HAT foci in Northern Uganda to determine the efficacy of tiny targets (overall target density 5.7/km2. In 12 months, tsetse populations declined by more than 90%. As a guide we used a published HAT transmission model and calculated that a 72% reduction in tsetse population is required to stop transmission in those settings.The Ugandan census suggests population density in the HAT foci is approximately 500 per km2. The estimated cost for a single round of active case detection (excluding treatment, covering 80% of the population, is US$433,333 (WHO figures. One year of vector control organised within the country, which can completely stop HAT transmission, would cost US$42,700. The case for adding this method of vector control to case detection and treatment is strong. We outline how such a component could be organised.

  14. The continuing problem of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).

    Kennedy, Peter G E

    2008-08-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a neglected disease, and it continues to pose a major threat to 60 million people in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly, the disease is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma and comes in two types: East African human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and the West African form caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. There is an early or hemolymphatic stage and a late or encephalitic stage, when the parasites cross the blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system. Two critical current issues are disease staging and drug therapy, especially for late-stage disease. Lumbar puncture to analyze cerebrospinal fluid will remain the only method of disease staging until reliable noninvasive methods are developed, but there is no widespread consensus as to what exactly defines biologically central nervous system disease or what specific cerebrospinal fluid findings should justify drug therapy for late-stage involvement. All four main drugs used for human African trypanosomiasis are toxic, and melarsoprol, the only drug that is effective for both types of central nervous system disease, is so toxic that it kills 5% of patients who receive it. Eflornithine, alone or combined with nifurtimox, is being used increasingly as first-line therapy for gambiense disease. There is a pressing need for an effective, safe oral drug for both stages of the disease, but this will require a significant increase in investment for new drug discovery from Western governments and the pharmaceutical industry.

  15. The Mars Project: Avoiding Decompression Sickness on a Distant Planet

    Conkin, Johnny

    2000-01-01

    A cost-effective approach for Mars exploration is to use available resources, such as water and atmospheric gases. Nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar) are available and could form the inert gas component of a habitat atmosphere at 8.0, 9.0, or 10.0 pounds per square inch (psia). The habitat and space suit are designed as an integrated system: a comfortable living environment about 85% of the time and a safe working environment about 15% of the time. A goal is to provide a system that permits unrestricted exploration of Mars, but the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) during the extravehicular activity in a 3.75-psia suit, after exposure to any of the three habitat conditions, may limit unrestricted exploration. I evaluate here the risk of DCS since a significant proportion of a trinary breathing gas in the habitat might contain Ar. I draw on past experience and published information to extrapolate into untested, multivariable conditions to evaluate risk. A rigorous assessment of risk as a probability of DCS for each habitat condition is not yet possible. Based on many assumptions about Ar in hypobaric decompressions, I conclude that the presence of Ar significantly increases the risk of DCS. The risk is significant even with the best habitat option: 2.56 psia oxygen, 3.41 psia N2, and 2.20 psia Ar. Several hours of prebreathing 100% 02, a higher suit pressure, or a combination of other important variables such as limited exposure time on the surface or exercise during prebreathe would be necessary to reduce the risk of DCS to an acceptable level. The acceptable level for DCS risk on Mars has not yet been determined. Mars is a great distance from Earth and therefore from primary medical care. The acceptable risk would necessarily be defined by the capability to treat DCS in the Rover vehicle, in the habitat, or both.

  16. Gender and Decompression Sickness: A Critical Review and Analysis

    2004-01-01

    The author addressed the following questions: are women at greater risk of decompression sickness and venous gas emboli at certain times in their reproductive cycle, is risk modified by the use of birth control pills (BCP), and is there a difference in overall risk between men and women under the same decompression dose? The summary considers information from the few abstracts and reports that were available. Except for the observation of more Type II DCS in women, particularly in women who fly after diving, there was no compelling evidence of a difference in DCS risk between men and women SCUBA divers. Many women that presented with DCS symptoms seemed to be in or near menses, with statistically fewer cases reported as time increased from menses. There was no compelling evidence that the use of BCP in SCUBA divers increases the risk of DCS. There were insufficient data about VGE from SCUBA diving to make any conclusion about the incidence of VGE and gender. In contrast, there were ample data about VGE from research in altitude chambers. Women produced less VGE and less Grade IV VGE compared to men under the same decompression dose, certainly when resting oxygen prebreathe (PB) was performed prior to ascent to altitude. Dual-cycle ergometry exercise during PB tends to reduce the differences in VGE between men and women. There was no compelling evidence that the risk of altitude DCS was different between men and women. However, a large number of DCS cases were associated with menses, and the use of BCP did seem to put women at a slightly greater risk than those that did not use BCP. There were substantial observations that women comprised a larger number of difficult cases that required complicated medical management.

  17. Breast feeding a sick child; can social media influence practice?

    Mylod, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Breast milk represents optimum infant nutrition. The World Health Organization's recommendation that babies should be exclusively breastfed for a minimum of 6 months (Kramer & Kakuma, 2001) remains unchanged in its second decade (Kramer & Kakuma, 2014), which is acknowledged in industrialized countries by successive policies and guidelines for the promotion and care of breastfeeding in children's wards and departments. The known protective influence of breast milk in preventing the onset of disease in later life is of particular import for any sick infant, but the user voice as represented by Helen Calvert's Twitter campaign @heartmummy#hospitalbreastfeeding has united service user and professional voices to call for improved breastfeeding support in pediatric care. Although breastfeeding rates in industrialized countries drop markedly in the first 6 weeks, breastfed babies with cardiac conditions benefit from better oxygen saturations, faster weight gain, and shorter hospital stays. Unwell babies are most in need of the benefits of breast milk. However, families and staff overcome physical barriers to the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding, including lack of space, privacy, and separation of the maternal-infant dyad. Many women are motivated to breastfeed or express milk but are reluctant to approach health professionals for help and advice. Despite robust evidence and sound guidelines and policies, breastfeeding knowledge and experience amongst Child Health professionals is often inadequate and leaves them unable to support families. While @heartmummy#hospitalbreastfeeding highlights the issue, Child Health strategy needs investment in young people's long term health by increasing staff skills and focusing on breastfeeding as a core therapeutic intervention. Lactation Consultants could offer training, disseminate good practice, and address the needs of breastfeeding families.

  18. Acute Kidney Failure

    ... out of balance. Acute kidney failure — also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury — develops rapidly over ... 2015. Palevsky PM. Definition of acute kidney injury (acute renal failure). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April ...

  19. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  20. A prospective study of prognostic factors for duration of sick leave after endoscopic carpal tunnel release

    Dalsgaard Jesper

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoscopic carpal tunnel release with a single portal technique has been shown to reduce sick leave compared to open carpal tunnel release, claiming to be a less invasive procedure and reducing scar tenderness leading to a more rapid return to work, and the purpose of this study was to identify prognostic factors for prolonged sick leave after endoscopic carpal tunnel release in a group of employed Danish patients. Methods The design was a prospective study including 75 employed patients with carpal tunnel syndrome operated with ECTR at two hospitals. The mean age was 46 years (SD 10.1, the male/female ratio was 0.42, and the mean preoperative duration of symptoms 10 months (range 6-12. Only 21 (28% were unable to work preoperatively and mean sick leave was 4 weeks (range 1-4. At base-line and at the 3-month follow-up, a self-administered questionnaire was collected concerning physical, psychological, and social circumstances in relation to the hand problem. Data from a nerve conduction examination were collected at baseline and at the 3-month follow-up. Significant prognostic factors were identified through multiple logistic regression analysis. Results After the operation, the mean functional score was reduced from 2.3 to 1.4 (SD 0.8 and the mean symptom score from 2.9 to 1.5 (SD 0.7. The mean sick leave from work after the operation was 19.8 days (SD 14.3. Eighteen patients (24% had more than 21 days of sick leave. Two patients (3% were still unable to work after 3 months. Significant prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis for more than 21 days of postoperative sick leave were preoperative sick leave, blaming oneself for the hand problem and a preoperative distal motor latency. Conclusion Preoperative sick leave, blaming oneself for the hand problem, and a preoperative distal nerve conduction motor latency were prognostic factors for postoperative work absence of more than 21 days. Other factors may be important

  1. Sickness certification as a complex professional and collaborative activity - a qualitative study

    Kiessling Anna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians have an important but problematic task to issue sickness certifications. A manifold of studies have identified a wide spectrum of medical and insurance-related problems in sickness certification. Despite educational efforts aiming to improve physicians’ knowledge of social insurance medicine there are no signs of reduction of these problems. We hypothesised that the quality deficits is not only due to lack of knowledge among issuing physicians. The aim of the study was to explore physicians’ challenges when handling sickness certification in relation to their professional roles as physicians and to their interaction with different stakeholders. Methods One hundred seventy-seven physicians in Stockholm County, Sweden, participated in a sick-listing audit program. Participants identified challenges in handling sick-leave issues and formulated action plans for improvement. Challenges and responsible stakeholders were identified in the action plans. To deepen the understanding facilitators of the program were interviewed. A qualitative content analysis was performed exploring challenge categories and categories of stakeholders with responsibility to initiate actions to improve the quality of the sick-listing process. The challenge categories were then related by their content to professional competence roles in accord with the Canadian Medical Education Directions for Specialists (CanMEDS framework and to the stakeholder categories. Results Seven categories of challenges were identified. Practitioner patient interaction, Work capacity assessment, Interaction with the Social Insurance Administration, The patient’s workplace and the labour market, Sick-listing practice, Collaboration and resource allocation within the Health Care System, Leadership and routines at the Health Care Unit. The challenges were related to all seven CanMEDS roles. Five categories of stakeholders were identified and several stakeholders

  2. Sickness as cultural performance: drama, trajectory, and pilgrimage root metaphors and the making social of disease.

    Frankenberg, R

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the use of root metaphors in the description of social activity and especially the performance of sickness. It starts with a critical account of Susan Sontag's examination of the use of illness as metaphor in literature. There then follows a brief analysis of another account of society based on the discussion of creative literature-Kenneth Burke's "Dramatism," itself acknowledged as a source by Erving Goffman. Goffman's own expressed reservations about his supposed use of a dramatic metaphor are then extended to suggest that Goffman was more concerned with "performance" in a broader sense. The discussion of performative metaphors is then shifted by a critical consideration of Anselm Strauss and colleagues' view of sickness as manifold performances of work rather than drama, expressed in their metaphor of "trajectory." Sickness as a process compounded of many performances is further explored using ideas developed by the anthropologist Victor Turner toward the end of his life, in collaboration with his wife, Edith Turner. It is finally suggested that sickness as cultural performance enables us to understand the dialectical relationships between expressive and instrumental activities surrounding sickness. This in turn leaves room for the nonreductionist understanding, within a sociological framework, of individual idiosyncrasy, biological accident, and the discourse of healing.

  3. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness, supplement 2S

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen

    1987-01-01

    Previous experiments with moving platform posturography have shown that different people have varying abilities to resolve conflicts among vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive sensory signals. The conceptual basis of the present proposal hinges on the similarities between the space motion sickness problem and the sensory orientation reference selection problems associated with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) syndrome. These similarities include both etiology related to abnormal vertical canal-otolith function, and motion sickness initiating events provoked by pitch and roll head movements. The objectives are to explore and quantify the orientation reference selection abilities of subjects and the relation of this selection to motion sickness in humans. The overall objectives are to determine: if motion sickness susceptibility is related to sensory orientation reference selection abilities of subjects; if abnormal vertical canal-otolith function is the source of abnormal posture control strategies and if it can be quantified by vestibular and oculomotor reflex measurements, and if it can be quantified by vestibular and oculomotor reflex measurements; and quantifiable measures of perception of vestibular and visual motion cues can be related to motion sickness susceptibility and to orientation reference selection ability.

  4. Tsetse elimination: its interest and feasibility in the historical sleeping sickness focus of Loos islands, Guinea

    Kagbadouno M.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Guinea is the West African country which is currently the most prevalent for sleeping sickness. The littoral area is the region where most of the recent sleeping sickness cases have been described, especially the mangrove sleeping sickness foci of Dubreka and Boffa where Glossina palpalis gambiensis is the vector. Loos islands constitute a small archipelago 5 km apart from the capital, Conakry. Medical, animal, and entomological surveys were implemented in these islands in Oct-Nov 2006. No pathogenic trypanosomes were found in these surveys. The locally very high tsetse densities (up to more than 100 tsetse/trap/day linked to pig rearing, constitute a high potential risk for humans (taking into account populations movements with neighboring active sleeping sickness foci of the Guinea littoral, and the history of sleeping sickness on these islands, and for the economically important pig rearing, as well as a danger for tourism. This situation, associated to the possibility of elimination of these tsetse populations due to low possibility of reinvasion, led the National Control Program to launch a tsetse elimination project following an “area wide” strategy for the first time in West Africa, which participates in the global objective of the PATTEC (Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  5. Paid sick leave and preventive health care service use among U.S. working adults.

    DeRigne, LeaAnne; Stoddard-Dare, Patricia; Collins, Cyleste; Quinn, Linda

    2017-02-09

    Managing work and health care can be a struggle for many American workers. This paper explored the relationship between having paid sick leave and receiving preventive health care services, and hypothesized that those without paid sick leave would be less likely to obtain a range of preventive care services. In 2016, cross-sectional data from a sample of 13,545 adults aged 18-64 with current paid employment from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were examined to determine the relationship between having paid sick leave and obtaining eight preventive care services including: (1) blood pressure check; (2) cholesterol check; (3) fasting blood sugar check; (4) having a flu shot; (5) having seen a doctor for a medical visit; (6) getting a Pap test; (7) getting a mammogram; (8) getting tested for colon cancer. Findings from multivariable logistic regressions, holding 10 demographic, work, income, and medical related variables stable, found respondents without paid sick leave were significantly less likely to report having used six of eight preventive health services in the last 12months. The significant findings remained robust even for workers who had reported having been previously told they had risk factors related to the preventive services. These findings support the idea that without access to paid sick leave, American workers risk foregoing preventive health care which could lead to the need for medical care at later stages of disease progression and at a higher cost for workers and the American health care system as a whole.

  6. Ventilation in day care centers and sick leave among nursery children.

    Kolarik, B; Andersen, Z Jovanovic; Ibfelt, T; Engelund, E Hoj; Møller, E; Bräuner, E Vaclavik

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have reported poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in day care centers (DCCs), and other studies have shown that children attending them have an increased risk of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between ventilation in DCCs and sick leave among nursery children. Data on child sick leave within an 11-week period were obtained for 635 children attending 20 DCCs. Ventilation measurements included three proxies of ventilation: air exchange rate (ACR) measured with the decay method, ACR measured by the perfluorocarbon tracer gas (PFT) method, and CO2 concentration measured over a 1-week period. All but two DCCs had balanced mechanical ventilation system, which could explain the low CO2 levels measured. The mean concentration of CO2 was 643 ppm, exceeding 1000 ppm in only one DCC. A statistically significant inverse relationship between the number of sick days and ACR measured with the decay method was found for crude and adjusted analysis, with a 12% decrease in number of sick days per hour increase in ACR measured with the decay method. This study suggests a relationship between sick leave among nursery children and ventilation in DCCs, as measured with the decay method.

  7. Predictors of self-efficacy in women on long-term sick leave.

    Andersén, Åsa; Larsson, Kjerstin; Lytsy, Per; Kristiansson, Per; Anderzén, Ingrid

    2015-12-01

    Self-efficacy has been shown to be related to sick leave and to be a predictor of return to work after sickness absence. The aim of this study was to investigate whether factors related to sick leave predict self-efficacy in women on long-term sick leave because of pain and/or mental illness. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 337 Swedish women with pain and/or mental illness. All included women took part in vocational rehabilitation. Data were collected through a sick leave register and a baseline questionnaire. General self-efficacy, sociodemographics, self-rated health, anxiety, depression, view of the future, and social support were measured and analyzed by univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. The full multivariate linear regression model, which included mental health factors together with all measured factors, showed that anxiety and depression were the only predictive factors of lower self-efficacy (adjusted R2=0.46, Pself-efficacy. The mean scores of general self-efficacy were low, especially in women born abroad, those with low motivation, those with uncertainties about returning to work, and women reporting distrust. Anxiety and depression are important factors to consider when targeting self-efficacy in vocational rehabilitation.

  8. Changes in the dark focus of accommodation associated with simulator sickness

    Fowlkes, Jennifer E.; Kennedy, Robert S.; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Harm, Deborah L.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the dark focus of accommodation and simulator sickness, a form of motion sickness, was examined in three experiments. In Experiment 1, dark focus was measured in 18 college students in a laboratory setting before and after they viewed a projected motion scene depicting low altitude helicopter flight. In Experiments 2 and 3, dark focus was measured in pilots (N = 16 and 23, respectively) before and after they 'flew' in moving-base helicopter flight simulators with optical infinity CRT visual systems. The results showed that individuals who experienced simulator sickness had either an inward (myopic) change in dark focus (Experiments 1 and 3) or attenuated outward shifts in dark focus (Experiment 2) relative to participants who did not get sick. These results are consonant with the hypothesis that parasympathetic activity, which may be associated with simulator sickness, should result in changes in dark focus that are in a myopic direction. Night vision goggles, virtual environments, extended periods in microgravity, and heads-up displays all produce related visual symptomatology. Changes in dark focus may occur in these conditions, as well, and should be measured.

  9. Lack of adjustment latitude at work as a trigger of taking sick leave-a Swedish case-crossover study.

    Hanna Hultin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Research has shown that individuals reporting a low level of adjustment latitude, defined as having few possibilities to temporarily adjust work demands to illness, have a higher risk of sick leave. To what extent lack of adjustment latitude influences the individual when making the decision to take sick leave is unknown. We hypothesize that ill individuals are more likely to take sick leave on days when they experience a lack of adjustment latitude at work than on days with access to adjustment latitude. METHODS: A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a cohort of 1 430 employees at six Swedish workplaces, with a 3-12 month follow-up of all new sick-leave spells. Exposure to lack of adjustment latitude on the first sick-leave day was compared with exposure during several types of control periods sampled from the previous two months for the same individual. RESULTS: Only 35% of the respondents reported variations in access to adjustment latitude, and 19% reported a constant lack of adjustment latitude during the two weeks prior to the sick-leave spell. Among those that did report variation, the risk of sick leave was lower on days with lack of adjustment latitude, than on days with access (Odds Ratio 0.36, 95% Confidence Interval 0.25-0.52. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show the influence of adjustment latitude on the decision to take sick leave. Among those with variations in exposure, lack of adjustment latitude was a deterrent of sick leave, which is contrary to the à priori hypothesis. These results indicate that adjustment latitude may not only capture long-lasting effects of a flexible working environment, but also temporary possibilities to adjust work to being absent. Further studies are needed to disentangle the causal mechanisms of adjustment latitude on sick-leave.

  10. WHITE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. If mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significanlty, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  11. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  12. Life in the Taihang Mountains

    2004-01-01

    THE Taihang Mountain Range meanders for 500 kilometers across the territories of Henan, Shanxi and Hebei provinces. It is an important ecological screen for the North China Plain and source of water. In Hebei’s Shexian County sits Wangjinzhuang, a 300-year-old stone village nestled in the mountains.The village is a stone world-lanes, houses, court-yard walls, towers, pavilions, tables, benches and mills are all hewn fom ancient rock. Streets and lanes are paved in stones of various shapes and sizes whose sur-

  13. Job performance in the mountain metros

    Mark C. Snead; Kate Watkins

    2012-01-01

    This issue of the Rocky Mountain Economist explores the labor market performance of the mountain state metropolitan areas, including recent industry trends and comparisons to state and national job performance.

  14. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics ...

  15. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station NPDES Permit

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  16. Joint association of sleep problems and psychosocial working conditions with registered long-term sickness absence

    Madsen, Ida E. H.; Larsen, Ann D.; Thorsen, Sannie V.

    2016-01-01

    questionnaire response. We defined sleep problems by self-reported symptoms and/or register data on hypnotics purchases of hypnotics. Psychosocial working conditions included quantitative and emotional demands, influence, supervisor recognition and social support, leadership quality, and social support from......Objectives: Sleep problems and adverse psychosocial working conditions are associated with increased risk of long-term sickness absence. Because sleep problems affect role functioning they may also exacerbate any effects of psychosocial working conditions and vice versa. We examined whether sleep...... problems and psychosocial working conditions interact in their associations with long-term sickness absence. Methods: We linked questionnaire data from participants to two surveys of random samples of the Danish working population (N=10 752) with registries on long-term sick leave during five years after...

  17. Effect of the Danish return-to-work program on long-term sickness absence

    Poulsen, Otto M; Aust, Birgit; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    participant receiving ordinary sickness benefit management (OSM). Study participants were working-age adults receiving long-term (≥8 weeks or more) benefits, included regardless of reason for sickness absence or employment status. Each beneficiary was followed-up for a maximum period of 52 weeks. Cox......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Danish return-to-work (RTW) program on long-term sickness absence in a randomized controlled trial in three municipalities. METHODS: The intervention group comprised 1948 participants while the control group comprised 1157...... proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for return to work (RTW) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: The intervention effect differed significantly between the municipalities (P=0.00005). In one municipality (M2) the intervention resulted in a statistically significant...

  18. Sickness absence and workplace levels of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions at public service workplaces

    Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Wieclaw, Joanna; Agerbo, Esben;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the impact of psychosocial work conditions on sickness absence while addressing methodological weaknesses in earlier studies. METHODS: The participants were 13,437 employees from 698 public service workplace units in Aarhus County, Denmark....... Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions was rated on a scale from 0 (low) to 10 (high). Individual ratings were aggregated to workplace scores. Analysis of variance was used to compare the average number of days of yearly sickness absence in three groups with different levels of satisfaction...... with psychosocial work conditions. RESULTS: Sickness absence was 30.8% lower in the most satisfied group (11.7 days/year (CI 95%: 10.2; 13.1)) than in the least satisfied group (16.9 days/year (CI 95%: 15.3; 18.6)) adjusted for the covariates included. CONCLUSIONS: Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions has...

  19. Workplace social capital and risk of long-term sickness absence

    Rugulies, Reiner; Hasle, Peter; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2016-01-01

    Background: Workplace social capital (WSC) is an emerging topic among both work environment professionals and researchers. We examined (i) whether high WSC protected against risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in a random sample of the Danish workforce during a 1-year follow-up and (ii......) whether the association of WSC with sickness absence was modified by occupational grade. Methods: We measured WSC by self-report in a cohort of 3075 employees and linked responses to a national register of sickness absence. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of onset...... variables, prevalent health problems and health behaviours (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.74–0.99). The HR was attenuated and lost statistical significance after further adjustment for occupational grade (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.78–1.04). When stratified by occupational grade, high WSC predicted a decreased risk...

  20. The attribution of work environment in explaining gender differences in long-term sickness absence

    Labriola, Merete; Holte, Kari Anne; Christensen, Karl Bang;

    2011-01-01

    40.2 years) was interviewed in 2000 regarding gender, age, family status, socio-economic position and psychosocial and physical work environment factors. The participants were followed for 18 months in order to assess their incidence of long-term sickness absence exceeding 8 consecutive weeks...... in psychosocial work environment exposures explained 32% of the differences in risk of long-term sickness absence between men and women, causing the effect of gender to become statistically insignificant. The combined effect of physical and psychosocial factors was similar, explaining 30% of the gender difference....... Conclusion Differences in psychosocial work environments in terms of emotional demands, reward at work, management quality and role conflicts, explained roughly 30% of women's excess long-term sickness absence risk. Assuming women and men had identical working conditions would leave the larger part...

  1. The effect of intelligent physical exercise training on sickness absence and job performance among office workers

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen;

    The effect of intelligent physical exercise training on sickness absence and job performance among office workers: a randomized controlled trial Christensen, JR. 1, Sjøgaard, G. 1, Søgaard, K. 1, Justesen, JB. 1 SDU (Odense, Denmark) Introduction Physical training may improve health and decrease...... the risk of sickness absence and low job performance. The aim of this paper was thus to investigate the effect of individually tailored intelligent physical exercise training (IPET) on sickness absence and job performance among office workers. Methods In a randomized controlled trial employees from six...... absence between the two groups. A per protocol analysis, where 89 (46%) office workers participated ≥70 % showed a significant 6% improvement in job performance (p =

  2. Comparative assessment of vestibular, optokinetic, and optovestibular stimulation in the development of experimental motion sickness.

    Matsnev, E I; Kuz'min, M P; Zakharova, L N

    1987-10-01

    The contribution of vestibular, optokinetic, and optovestibular stimulation to experimental motion sickness was evaluated in 29 volunteer subjects. Vestibular stimulation (Coriolis effect) was found to induce the most significant vestibular-autonomic disorders. Optokinetic stimulation (pseudo-Coriolis effect) and optovestibular stimulation could provoke such disorders only in susceptible subjects. In quantitative terms, optokinetic and optovestibular stimulation were less effective than vestibular Coriolis stress. Nystagmic reactions of susceptible subjects to the three types of stimulation differed significantly from those of tolerant subjects. This may be important from the theoretical point of view because susceptibility to motion sickness and responses to vestibular and optokinetic stimulation may be universal and associated with the general CNS mechanism, i.e. inhibition mechanism. The identified correlation between the duration of postoptokinetic illusion and motion sickness susceptibility may be used to differentiate susceptible and tolerant subjects.

  3. First reported outbreak of green tobacco sickness in Brazil Primeiro relato do surto da doença da folha verde do tabaco no Brasil

    Patricia Pereira Vasconcelos de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dermal absorption of nicotine by people harvesting tobacco may cause an acute intoxication called green tobacco sickness. Although Brazil is the second largest producer of tobacco in the world, green tobacco sickness had not been reported in the country to date. We conducted a 1:1 matched case-control study among persons involved in tobacco farming to determine the occurrence of green tobacco sickness in the northeast region of Brazil and to identify the risk factors involved. A case-patient was a person who received a diagnosis by health professional of acute intoxication during the study period and had a cotinine level over 10ng/mL detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. We identified 107 case-patients. The main signs and symptoms observed were dizziness, weakness, vomit, nausea and headache. Independent risk factors identified were being male, a non smoker and having worked in the harvest of tobacco leaves. Case-patients had higher median urinary cotinine levels than controls (p A absorção dérmica da nicotina por agricultores que trabalham com o cultivo do tabaco provoca uma intoxicação aguda denominada doença da folha verde do tabaco. Apesar de o Brasil ser o segundo produtor mundial de tabaco, a doença da folha verde do tabaco ainda não havia sido relatada no país. Conduzimos um estudo de caso-controle pareado (1:1 entre pessoas envolvidas na cultura do tabaco para determinar a ocorrência de doença da folha verde do tabaco na Região Nordeste do Brasil e identificar fatores de risco. Um paciente-caso foi a pessoa que no período de estudo foi diagnosticada de intoxicação aguda por profissionais de saúde e teve nível de cotinina acima de 10ng/mL pela Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Identificamos 107 pacientes-caso. Principais sinais e sintomas observados foram tontura, fraqueza, vômito, náusea e cefaléia. Foram associados ao adoecimento ser do sexo masculino, não-fumantes e ter trabalhado na fase da

  4. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever KidsHealth > For Parents > Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Print A A A What's in ... en español La rickettsiosis maculosa About RMSF Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection that's ...

  5. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  6. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  7. Storymakers: Hopa Mountain's Early Literacy Program

    Templin, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Hopa Mountain's StoryMakers program is an innovative, research-based program for donating high quality young children's books to parents. Hopa Mountain is a nonprofit organization based in Bozeman, Montana. Hopa Mountain works with groups of rural and tribal citizen leaders who form StoryMakers Community Teams to talk one-on-one with local parents…

  8. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  9. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  10. Predicting sickness during a 2-week soccer camp at 3600 m (ISA3600)

    Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Soria, Rudy; Hunt, Robert A; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J; Bourdon, Pitre C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the time course of changes in wellness and health status markers before and after episodes of sickness in young soccer players during a high-altitude training camp (La Paz, 3600 m). Methods Wellness and fatigue were assessed daily on awakening using specifically-designed questionnaires and resting measures of heart rate and heart rate variability. The rating of perceived exertion and heart rate responses to a submaximal run (9 km/h) were also collected during each training session. Players who missed the morning screening for at least two consecutive days were considered as sick. Results Four players met the inclusion criteria. With the exception of submaximal exercise heart rate, which showed an almost certain and large increase before the day of sickness (4%; 90% confidence interval 3 to 6), there was no clear change in any of the other psychometric or physiological variables. There was a very likely moderate increase (79%, 22 to 64) in self-reported training load the day before the heart rate increase in sick players (4 of the 4 players, 100%). In contrast, training load was likely and slightly decreased (−24%, −78 to −11) in players who also showed an increased heart rate but remained healthy. Conclusions A >4% increased heart rate during submaximal exercise in response to a moderate increase in perceived training load the previous day may be an indicator of sickness the next day. All other variables, that is, resting heart rate, heart rate variability and psychometric questionnaires may be less powerful at predicting sickness. PMID:24282199

  11. A ‘Balanced’ Life: Work-Life Balance and Sickness Absence in Four Nordic Countries

    D Antai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little attention has been given to the relationship between work-life balance and sickness absence.Objective: To investigate the association between poor work-life balance and sickness absence in 4 Nordic welfare states.Methods: Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed on pooled cross-sectional data of workers aged 15–65 years from Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway (n=4186 obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS. Poor work-life balance was defined based on the fit between working hours and family or social commitments outside work. Self-reported sickness absence was measured as absence for ≥7 days from work for health reasons.Results: Poor work-life balance was associated with elevated odds (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.80 of self-reported sickness absence and more health problems in the 4 Nordic countries, even after adjusting for several important confounding factors. Work-related characteristics, ie, no determination over schedule (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.53, and job insecurity (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.02 increased the likelihood of sickness absence, and household characteristics, ie, cohabitation status (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.96 reduced this likelihood. The associations were non-significant when performed separately for women and men.Conclusion: Sickness absence is predicted by poor work-life balance. Findings suggest the need for implementation of measures that prevent employee difficulties in combining work and family life.

  12. Low job satisfaction does not identify nurses at risk of future sickness absence : Results from a Norwegian cohort study

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Mageroy, N.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Pallesen, S.; Bjorvatn, B.; Moen, B. E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence is high in healthcare and contributes to nursing staff shortages reducing the efficiency and quality of patient care. Assessing the risk of sickness absence in working nurses opens opportunities for preventive strategies. Job satisfaction has attracted much attention in

  13. Low job satisfaction does not identify nurses at risk of future sickness absence : Results from a Norwegian cohort study

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Magerøy, B.; Rhenen, van W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Pallesen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Sickness absence is high in healthcare and contributes to nursing staff shortages reducing the efficiency and quality of patient care. Assessing the risk of sickness absence in working nurses opens opportunities for preventive strategies. Job satisfaction has attracted much attention in healthcare r

  14. Mental and physical health-related functioning mediates between psychological job demands and sickness absence among nurses

    Roelen, Corne; van Rhenen, Willem; Schaufeli, Wilmar; van der Klink, Jac; Mageroy, Nils; Moen, Bente; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Pallesen, Stale

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To investigate whether health-related functioning mediates the effect of psychological job demands on sickness absence in nurses. Background. Nurses face high job demands that can have adverse health effects resulting in sickness absence. Design. Prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up.

  15. Predictors of return to work in employees sick-listed with mental health problems : findings from a longitudinal study

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Bultmann, Ute; Christensen, Ulla; Diderichsen, Finn; Rugulies, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs. Methods: Employe

  16. Low heart rate variability is associated with extended pain-related sick leave among employed care-seekers

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Ektor-Andersen, John; Bondesson, Elisabeth;

    2011-01-01

    To examine the association between autonomic regulation and length of pain-related sick leave in subjects receiving a cognitive behavioural therapy-based return to work intervention.......To examine the association between autonomic regulation and length of pain-related sick leave in subjects receiving a cognitive behavioural therapy-based return to work intervention....

  17. Decompression Sickness and U-2 Operations: Summary of Research, Findings, and Recommendations Regarding Use of Exercise During Prebreathe

    2010-03-01

    Fischer MD, Wiegman JF, Webb JT. Exercise-induced altitude decompression sickness. Aviat Space Environ Med 1999; 70:22-9. 14. Pilmanis AA...22. Webb JT, Dixon GA, Wiegman JF. Potential for reduction of decompression sickness by prebreathing with 100% oxygen while exercising. SAE Technical

  18. Brain endothelial- and epithelial-specific Interferon Receptor Chain 1 drives virus-induced sickness behavior and cognitive impairment

    Blank, Thomas; Detje, Claudia N; Spieß, Alena; Hagemeyer, Nora; Brendecke, Stefanie M; Wolfart, Jakob; Staszewski, Ori; Zöller, Tanja; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Schneider, Justus; Paricio-Montesinos, Ricardo; Eisel, Ulrich L M; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Jansen, Stephan; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Lu, Bao; Imai, Yumiko; Müller, Marcus; Goelz, Susan E; Baker, Darren P; Schwaninger, Markus; Kann, Oliver; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Kalinke, Ulrich; Prinz, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Sickness behavior and cognitive dysfunction occur frequently by unknown mechanisms in virus-infected individuals with malignancies treated with type I interferons (IFNs) and in patients with autoimmune disorders. We found that during sickness behavior, single-stranded RNA viruses, double-stranded RN

  19. Using an ICT Tool as a Solution for the Educational and Social Needs of Long-Term Sick Adolescents

    Zhu, Chang; Van Winkel, Lies

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the role of an ICT tool for meeting the educational and social needs of long-term sick adolescents. Both surveys and interviews were conducted in this study. The participants of this study were sick school students between 12-19 years old. The interviewed participants had used the ICT-supporting tool for three months to…

  20. Years Spent on Mountain Roads

    1998-01-01

    SONG Fangrong, the Tu nationality girl who grew up drinking water from mountain springs, walked into the Great Hall of the People in Beijing to accept the highest prize for China’s youth—the "May 4th Youth Prize." Not long before, she had been named one of the National Ten Outstanding Youths. She is the only individual to have won both.