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Sample records for acute mental symptoms

  1. Excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes, aseptic meningitis and acute mental symptoms, following metrizamide lumbar myelography

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    Gelmers, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A clinical constellation of excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), together with aseptic meningitis, and acutre mental symptoms occurred following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Excacerbation of SLE has not been previously described following myelography with any contrast agent. Meningeal reactions and acute mental symptoms have been reported earlier, but this clinical constellation is new.

  2. Depressive symptoms are associated with mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia after acute myocardial infarction.

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    Jingkai Wei

    Full Text Available Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI, and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI.We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men age 38-60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task, and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS, obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores.There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30, p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56, p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress.Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological stress.

  3. Psychiatric nurse practitioners’ experiences of working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms

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    Kgalabi J. Ngako

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric nurse practitioners (PNPs working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms work in a complex environment. This environment is characterised by mental health care users who may present with a history of violence, sexual assault and substance misuse.The objectives of this study were twofold: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of PNPs working with mental health care users (MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms; and secondly, to make recommendations for the advanced PNPs to facilitate promotion of the mental health of PNPs with reference to nursing practice, research and education.A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. The target population was PNPs working with MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms in a public mental health care institution in Gauteng. Data were collected by means of four focus group interviews involving 21 PNPs. The researcher made use of drawings, naïve sketches and field notes for the purpose of data triangulation. Data were analysed in accordance with Tesch’s method of open coding.The three themes that emerged were: PNPs experienced working with these MHCUs as entering an unsafe world where care became a burden; they experienced negative emotional reactions and attitudes towards these MHCUs that compromised quality nursing care; and they made a plea for a nurturing environment that would enhance quality nursing care.The PNPs suggest skills and competency development, organisational support, and a need for external resources. Creation of a positive environment and mobilisation of resources as well as the identification and bridging of obstacles are essential in the promotion of the overall wellbeing and mental health of PNPs. 

  4. Symptoms, functioning and quality of life after treatment in a residential sub-acute mental health service in Australia.

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    Thomas, Kerry A; Rickwood, Debra J; Brown, Patricia M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess clients' and service providers' perspectives on changes in mental health after an admission to a residential recovery-focused, sub-acute service, in Australia. Clients were either step-up clients, entering the service directly from the community, or step-down clients who were transitioning from an inpatient unit to home. During the 30-month period of data collection (August 2011 to January 2014) all clients (N = 102) were invited to participate in the longitudinal study and 41 clients consented to be involved (38% response rate). At admission and exit, participants completed the Behaviour and Symptom Identification Scale (Basis-32) and service providers completed the Life Skills Profile-16 and Health of the Nations Outcome Scales. Follow-up data 3 months after exit were available for 12 clients, including the Basis-32 and a self-report measure of quality of life (Assessment of Quality of Life 8-dimension). Both client groups reported positive improvements between admission and exit in the areas of relation to self and others, psychosis, daily living and presence of depression or anxiety symptoms. Service providers reported gains for clients in the areas of self-care, level of symptoms and presence of social problems. At 3 months, clients generally reported positive quality of life, although there was no significant change in symptoms and functioning. This study demonstrates that after an admission to a sub-acute service, step-up clients experience an improvement in their symptoms and functioning, have avoided a hospital admission and are well enough to return home. Step-down clients also experience further improvements in their symptoms and functioning, indicating that the service has assisted them in their transition to independent living after a hospital admission. Sub-acute residential units provide a continuation of care for inpatients preparing to return home, and people with a mental health problem living in the

  5. Pizotifen relieves acute migraine symptoms

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    A.S.M. Kamrul Huda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: Various pharmacological agents are used for the treatment of migraine. In the last five years, various drug companies in Bangladesh have been marketing pizotifen as a preventive treatment of all types of migraine. Pizotifen is a serotonin antagonist acting mainly at the 5-HT1, 5-HT2A and 5HT2C receptors. It also has some activity as an antihistamine (1. Pizotifen is a well-established preventative therapy of migraine. I would like to report my own experience in using pizotifen in treating the acute attacks of migraine. Pizotifen was prescribed as acute therapy in 11 patients, 6 females (4 had migraine without aura and 2 had migraine with aura and 5 males (all had migraine without aura. Three female and 5 male patients, who had migraine without aura, reported no beneficial effect of pizotifen as treatment for the acute attacks. Three female patients (two with migraine with aura and one with migraine without aura had their headache relieved by use of pizotifen as treatment for the acute attacks. This is an initial observation about the effectiveness of pizotifen as acute therapy in migraine. However, this could be simply a placebo affect. Nevertheless, it will be worth exploring the role of pizotifen as a therapeutic agent for acute attacks of migraine by conducting well-designed randomized, controlled studies.

  6. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms

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    Rebecca M. Schwartz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130. There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = −0.33, p < 0.01 and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD scores (mean difference = −1.98, p = 0.001 between baseline and follow-up. Experiencing a combination of personal and property damage was positively associated with long-term PTSD symptoms (ORadj 1.2, 95% CI [1.1–1.4] but not with anxiety or depression. Having anxiety, depression, or PTSD at baseline was a significant predictor of persistent anxiety (ORadj 2.8 95% CI [1.1–6.8], depression (ORadj 7.4 95% CI [2.3–24.1 and PTSD (ORadj 4.1 95% CI [1.1–14.6] at follow-up. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  7. [Enterobius vermicularis causing symptoms of acute appendicitis].

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    Antal, András; Kocsis, Béla

    2008-08-01

    The authors present a case of enterobiasis of the appendix. Enterobius infection is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible unless there is a strong clinical suspicion. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis. Careful observation of the appendix stump may lead to intraoperative diagnosis of enterobiasis. A quick diagnosis and appropriate treatment may prevent future complications.

  8. ACUTE SYMPTOMS AND COMPLICATIONS OF HEMODIALYSIS

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    Bárbara Paula Magalhães de Deus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Chronic Kidney Disease and the number of patients on renal replacement therapies have become more frequent in recent decades. Even with new technologies used in hemodialysis, which result in greater patient safety, acute symptoms and complications after the procedure may still occur. Recognizing these complications and knowing how to manage them is crucial to ensure a better quality of life for these patients. Content: This is a literature search on symptoms related to hemodialysis, carried out in electronic databases: Periodicals CAPES (Coordination of Higher Education Personnel Training, Brazil, Scientific Electronic Library Online - SciELO, LILACS and Pubmed, from which 30 articles were selected on the main complications observed and described during the course of hemodialysis. Conclusion: There was a prevalence of symptoms related to fluid and electrolyte imbalance and hemodynamic changes, especially headache. KEYWORDS: Renal Insufficiency Chronic; Symptoms; Renal Dialysis.

  9. [Acute urologic symptoms associated with uterine myoma].

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    Ferreira, E L; Alexsandro da Silva, E; Pereiro, B; Roque Devesa, A; Zungri Telo, E

    1999-01-01

    While prevalence of uterine leiomyoma is high, its presentation affecting the urinary tract is uncommon. We contribute the cases of two adult women with symptoms of nephritic colic and urinary retention. Etiology was acute obstruction of the urinary tract due to previously asymptomatic urine myomas. Management in both patients was surgery, using hysterectomy to resolve the urinary obstruction. A brief review of the literature is included.

  10. Symptoms of acute myocardial infarction: A correlational study of the discrepancy between patients' expectations and experiences.

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    Abed, Mona A; Ali, Raeda M Abu; Abu Ras, Motaz M; Hamdallah, Faten O; Khalil, Amani A; Moser, Debra K

    2015-10-01

    Patients' responses to acute myocardial infarction symptoms are affected by symptom incongruence, which is the difference between the symptoms they expect to experience and the symptoms they actually experienced during an acute myocardial infarction. To examine the relationship of patients' demographics, clinical characteristics and sources of information about acute myocardial infarction with their symptom expectations, actual experiences and symptom incongruence. Descriptive correlational study. Patients were recruited from ten hospitals in the two most populated cities in Jordan (Amman and Al Zarqa). Jordanian patients with acute myocardial infarction were recruited. Inclusion criteria were age 18 years or older, diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, oriented, mentally competent and fluent in Arabic. Exclusion criteria were experiencing acute myocardial infarction during a hospitalization or having severe psychiatric illnesses. The Morgan Incongruence of Heart Attack Symptoms Index was used to quantify symptom incongruence and identify patients' expected and experienced acute myocardial infarction symptoms. Patients' information sources about acute myocardial infarction and demographic and clinical characteristics were collected by interview and medical chart review. Patients (N=299) were mostly males (80%) and married (92%). The average age was 56±12.3 years. Patients expected a limited number of acute myocardial infarction symptoms and these expectations were largely confined to typical symptoms and matched their experiences. Patients who were female, elderly, nonsmokers, poorly educated, with low income, and those who were normolipidemic, had no personal or family cardiac history, and were informed about acute myocardial infarction by relatives expected fewer symptoms (mostly typical and atypical) than their counterparts. Elderly patients and those with hyperlipidemia experienced fewer typical symptoms than their counterparts. Patients with ST

  11. Prevalence of symptoms associated with mental illness in Salvadorians

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    José Ricardo Gutiérrez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study arises the purpose of describing and explaining some behaviors considered abnormal, that with Salvadorans present, which in many occasions are the result of greater conflicts; for example, social violence, familiar violence, delinquency, homicides, depression and anxiety, among others. The specific objectives that were considered at the beginning of the project were to identify the incidence of symptoms of mental upheavals; to establish the difference of symptoms in relation to the sex of the population; to determine if sex affects the mental upheavals; and to establish the prevalence of symptoms of the mental upheavals in each geographic zone of the country. In the methodology of the study, the following strategies were used: It was determined that it was a descriptive study, the design of investigation was transactional descriptive; the random sampling by conglomerates was used; the technique used was the survey directed to 1.668 people distributed in the 31 more important cities of El Salvador; the instrument used was the Illustrated Questionnaire of Symptoms (designed by the PAHO/WHO that measures the presence of symptoms of ten mental upheavals and behavior. The results can be synthesized in percentages of prevalence of symptoms and some of these are the following: 50% of the interviewed people presented symptoms of compulsive obsessive upheaval, 47,7% presented anxiety symptoms and distresses, 36,8% presented somatization characteristics. Also, 29,1% presented some symptoms of depression; 33,2% of the evaluated population declared to have symptoms of the convulsive Syndrome. 35,8% demonstrated some suspicions of symptoms of an organic cerebral Syndrome. The final part of the study contains the conclusions and a set of solution strategies.

  12. Psychosocial employment characteristics and postpartum maternal mental health symptoms.

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    Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Ramirez, Marizen; Ashida, Sato; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    For new mothers returning to work, the role of the workplace psychosocial environment on maternal mental health has not been fully described. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between psychosocial employment characteristics and mothers' postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Ninety-seven women answered survey questions regarding employment, job demand, control, and support, and postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms soon after live birth and 6 months later. Working and nonworking mothers reported similar mental health symptoms. Psychological characteristics of employment were not associated with increased odds of mental health symptoms. Increased social support provided by coworkers, supervisors, and the organization was associated with reduced odds of anxiety symptoms. Our findings identified lack of workplace social support as a modifiable risk factor for postpartum anxiety. Future evaluations of workplace social support interventions may be explored to improve postpartum mental health symptoms. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:109-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The hermeneutics of mental symptoms in the Cambridge School

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    Massimiliano Aragona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current Psychiatry is in crisis. Decades of neuroscientific research have not yet delivered adequate explanations or treatments. One reason for this failure may be the wrongness of its central assumption, namely that mental symptoms and disorders are natural kinds. The Cambridge School has proposed that a new Epistemology must be constructed for Psychiatry, and that this should start with the development of a new model of mental symptom-formation. ‘Mental symptoms’ should be considered as hermeneutic co-constructions occurring in a intersubjective space created by the dialogue between sufferer and healer. Subjective experiences (caused either by neurobiological or psychosocial upheaval penetrate the awareness of sufferers causing perplexity and/or distress. To understand, handle and communicate these experiences, sufferers proceed to configure them by means of templates borrowed from their own culture. Importantly, however, the same neurobiological information can be configured into different symptoms; and different neurobiological information into the same symptom. Therefore, ‘mental symptoms’ are dissimilar hybrid combinations of neurobiological and cultural information. To be ethical, therapeutic interventions must take into account such dissimilarities. Blind manipulation of the brain in all cases should be considered as counterproductive.

  14. Overeducation and depressive symptoms: diminishing mental health returns to education.

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    Bracke, Piet; Pattyn, Elise; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2013-11-01

    In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - years of education and ISCED97 categories - and two objective indicators of overeducation (the realised matches method and the job analyst method) in a sample of the working population of 25 European countries (unweighted sample N = 19,089). Depression is measured using an eight-item version of the CES-D scale. We find diminishing mental health returns to education. In addition, overeducated people report more depression symptoms. Both findings hold irrespective of the indicators used. The results must be interpreted in the light of the enduring expansion of education, as our findings show that the discussion of the relevance of the human capital perspective, and the diploma disease view on the relationship between education and modern society, is not obsolete. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Are Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Related to Mental Health Service Use?

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    Madsen, Trine; Andersen, Søren Bo; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2016-01-01

    the Danish registers. RESULTS: The prevalence of PTSD symptoms increased over time, and almost 10% of the sample reported high levels of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years postdeployment. Overall, 37% of the soldiers utilized mental health services; 6% utilized psychiatric services, and 12.4% redeemed a prescription...... of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers before and after deployment to Afghanistan. METHODS: Prospectively, 703 Danish soldiers who deployed from January 2009 to August 2009 were followed up with 6 assessments from predeployment to 2.5 years postdeployment in 2012. At assessments, the soldiers...... responded to a comprehensive questionnaire including a measure of PTSD symptoms (the PTSD Checklist-Civilian version). These self-reported data were combined with individual-level records of receiving psychotherapy from the Military Psychological Division at the Danish Defense and psychiatric treatment from...

  16. [Acute delusional disorder with dissociative symptoms--case report].

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    Małyszczak, Krzysztof; Pawłowski, Tomasz; Tersa, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    Delusions are amongst the main symptoms of schizophrenia. Delusional states may be caused by stress, somatic illness, or may be idiopathic, such as the persistent delusional disorder. Determination of a cause is usually difficult, but it is really important for the treatment. A case report of acute delusional disorder complicated by dissociative symptoms, suggesting an organic cause of the disorder is presented. Delirium caused by neuroleptic intoxication was an additional complication. Detailed informations gathered from relatives and psychological examinations made it possible to determine personality disorder as a ground, and stress as a precipitating factor of acute delusional disorder. Hospitalisation and psychological support helped in getting rid of the psychotic symptoms.

  17. Symptoms of cardiovascular diseases in the course of mental disorders

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    Anna Ostachowska

    2016-05-01

    Disscussion: It is worth to remember, that for high proportion of patients with mental disorders somatic syndrome is the only symptom they report to physicians. Emotion regulation theory, alexithymia theory and desomatization and resomatization theory find it as the effect of unsolved problems with emotions. Moreover, functional neuroimaging studies seem to reveal coherent findings. Based on it, the neurophysilogical model of emotion regulation and the mechanism of cognitive-emotional executive control were described. Accordingly, literature shows that in heart disease patients the incorporation of psychological interventions in healing process significantly reduces mortality and relapse.

  18. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

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    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  19. Mental health symptoms in combat medic training: a longitudinal examination.

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    Robinson, Michael E; Teyhen, Deydre S; Wu, Samuel S; Dugan, Jessica L; Wright, Alison C; Childs, John D; Yang, Guijun; George, Steven Z

    2009-06-01

    Mental health symptoms in military populations are rising and constitute a significant health concern. This study examined the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation in soldiers (N = 3,792) undergoing combat medic training. At the start of training, 10.4%, 15.5%, and 4.1% of soldiers had clinically significant depression, anxiety, or suicidal ideation, respectfully. These percentages increased to 12.2%, 20.3%, and 5.7% at completion of training, respectfully. Worsening of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation occurred for 7.7%, 11.4%, and 4% of soldiers. Higher percentages of symptoms were associated with females, lower education, and lower income. Active duty personnel were more likely to worsen following training with respect to suicidal ideation (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9) compared to reservists. The identification of these significant predictors of mental health status may serve to identify individuals at risk. Additional work to examine the relative contribution of anticipatory (impending deployment) factors vs. training-related factors is warranted.

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may explain poor mental health in patients with fibromyalgia.

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    Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann

    2015-10-20

    Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.

  1. Symptoms of Acute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients With Acute Hand Injuries

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    Opsteegh, Lonneke; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Postema, Klass; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with hand injuries may delay return to work, even when criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV are not met. This study investigated which biomedical and psychosocial factors relate to symptoms of ac

  2. Inpatients’ perspectives of occupational therapy in acute mental health

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    Lim, KH; Morris, J; Craik, C

    2007-01-01

    Background Research into service users’ views of occupational therapy in acute mental health is extremely limited. This collaborative study between South West London and St George’s Mental Health NHS Trust and Brunel University (UK) obtained inpatients’ perspectives of occupational therapy. Methods Service users and occupational therapists were involved in designing a self-report questionnaire and, following training, in recruiting participants and collecting data. Results Si...

  3. Predictors of Mental Health Symptoms, Automatic Thoughts, and Self-Esteem Among University Students.

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    Hiçdurmaz, Duygu; İnci, Figen; Karahan, Sevilay

    2017-01-01

    University youth is a risk group regarding mental health, and many mental health problems are frequent in this group. Sociodemographic factors such as level of income and familial factors such as relationship with father are reported to be associated with mental health symptoms, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem. Also, there are interrelations between mental health problems, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem. The extent of predictive effect of each of these variables on automatic thoughts, self-esteem, and mental health symptoms is not known. We aimed to determine the predictive factors of mental health symptoms, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem in university students. Participants were 530 students enrolled at a university in Turkey, during 2014-2015 academic year. Data were collected using the student information form, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Mental health symptoms, self-esteem, perception of the relationship with the father, and level of income as a student significantly predicted automatic thoughts. Automatic thoughts, mental health symptoms, participation in family decisions, and age had significant predictive effects on self-esteem. Finally, automatic thoughts, self-esteem, age, and perception of the relationship with the father had significant predictive effects on mental health symptoms. The predictive factors revealed in our study provide important information to practitioners and researchers by showing the elements that need to be screened for mental health of university students and issues that need to be included in counseling activities.

  4. Mental health nurses' views of recovery within an acute setting.

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    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Hunt, Glenn E

    2013-06-01

    How the principles of a recovery-oriented mental health service are incorporated in the day-to-day nursing practice of mental health nurses in inpatient settings is unclear. In this study, we interviewed 21 mental health nurses working in acute inpatient mental health units about a range of recovery-focused topics. Three overlapping themes were identified: (i) the perception of recovery; (ii) congruent humanistic approaches; and (iii) practical realities. Only four interviewees had some formal training about recovery. Most respondents recognize that positive attitudes, person-centred care, hope, education about mental illness, medication and side-effects, and the acknowledgement of individual recovery pathways are necessary to prevent readmission, and are central to a better life for people who live with a mental illness. This research supports the view that ideas and practices associated with the recovery movement have been adopted to some degree by nurses working at the acute end of the services continuum. However, most saw the recovery orientation as rhetoric rather than as an appropriately resourced, coordinated, and integrated program. These nurses, however, speak of much more detailed aspects of working with patients and being required to prepare them for the exigencies of living in the community post-discharge.

  5. [Symptom Clusters in Korean Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction].

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    Park, Eunjin; Lee, Jia

    2015-06-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) leads to death if the patient does not receive emergency treatment. Thus it is very important to recognize the symptoms in the early stage. The purpose of this study was to identify clusters of symptoms that represent AMI in Koreans. The study used a retrospective, descriptive design with secondary data analysis. Data were abstracted from 725 medical records of AMI patients admitted from June 1, 2006 to August 15, 2014 at a university hospital. Analysis of the AMI symptoms revealed five symptom clusters; Cluster 1 (n=140): middle chest pain (100%), shortness of breath, and cold sweating, Cluster 2 (n=256): substernal pain (100%), cold sweating, and shortness of breath, Cluster 3 (n=47): substernal pain (95.7%), left arm pain, shortness of breath, cold sweating, left shoulder pain, right arm pain, and the lower neck pain, Cluster 4 (n=212): shortness of breath (28.3%), left chest pain, and upper abdominal pain, and Cluster 5 (n=70): cold sweating (100%), left chest pain, shortness of breath, left shoulder pain, and upper abdominal pain. Length of hospital stay and mortality rate were significantly different according to symptom clusters (F=2.52, p=.040; F=3.62, p=.006, respectively). Symptom clusters of AMI from this study can be used for AMI patients in order to recognize their symptoms at an early stage. The study findings should be considered when developing educational prevention programs for Koreans with AMI.

  6. Depressive Symptoms Displayed by Persons with Mental Retardation: A Review.

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    Pawlarcyzk, Douglas; Beckwith, Bill E.

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III" diagnostic criteria for "Major Depressive Episode" within a population of persons with mild and moderate mental retardation was validated by reviewing reports of severe depression among these individuals. (Author/DB)

  7. Acute symptoms of drug hypersensitivity (urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock).

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    Limsuwan, Ticha; Demoly, Pascal

    2010-07-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are the adverse effects of drugs which, when taken at doses generally tolerated by normal subjects, clinically resemble allergy. Immediate-reaction of drug HSRs are those that occur less than 1 hour after the last drug intake, usually in the form of urticaria, angioedema, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock. Acute urticarial and angioedema reactions are common clinical problems frequently encountered by internists and general practitioners. They are not specific to drug allergic reaction, and can be caused by various pathogenic mechanisms. Despite the benign course of urticaria and angioedema, a mucocutaneous swelling of the upper respiratory tract could be life-threatening by itself or a feature of anaphylaxis. This article reviews acute symptoms of drug HSR-related urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis, and anaphylactic shock, and how clinicians should approach these problems.

  8. Differences in psychiatric symptoms and barriers to mental health care between volunteer and career firefighters.

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    Stanley, Ian H; Boffa, Joseph W; Hom, Melanie A; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    Firefighters are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about differences in psychiatric symptoms between volunteer and career firefighters. This study aimed to (1) describe differences in psychiatric symptoms and barriers to mental health care between U.S. firefighters in volunteer-only and career-only departments; and (2) determine if greater self-reported structural barriers to mental health care (e.g., cost, availability of resources) explain the differences in psychiatric symptom levels. Overall, 525 current U.S. firefighters participated. Analyses of covariance and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate group differences between volunteer (n=204) and career (n=321) firefighters, adjusting for demographic and occupational characteristics. Volunteer firefighters reported significantly elevated levels of depression, posttraumatic stress, and suicidal symptoms compared to career firefighters. Career firefighters reported relatively elevated levels of problematic alcohol use. Volunteer firefighters additionally reported greater structural barriers to mental health care (e.g., cost, availability of resources), and these barriers accounted for the differences in mental health variables between volunteer and career firefighters. Findings suggest that volunteer firefighters report elevated psychiatric symptoms compared to career firefighters and greater structural barriers to mental health treatment may explain this link. Increased efforts are needed to develop firefighter-specific interventions and bolster mental health service utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ASTHMA AND MENTAL HEALTH SYMPTOMS AMONG ADULT ARAB AMERICANS IN THE DETROIT AREA

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    The burden of managing chronic health problems such as asthma is often compounded by psychological distress and debilitating mental health problems associated with these conditions. In this study we assessed the relationship between asthma and self-reported mental health symptom...

  10. SYMPTOMS OF PUPILS’ MENTAL STATE IN PERCEPTION OF MONOCOLORS

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    Gulshat Tavkilevna Shavalieva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of mental states, depending on the color shade or monocolors proposed for the perception. The dependence of mental states on the specific exposures and the role of color characteristics (monocolors identified on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the manifestations of mental states was clarified.Purpose: To study the features of mental states of "school age" children in the perception monocolors and in combinations of them.Method or the methodology of the work: Studies were conducted on the basis of a systematic methodology and activity theory developed by Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria and subject approach of A.V. Brushlinsky, S.L. Rubinstein and also theoretical principles and provisions of the concept of individual mental states (A.O.Prohorov and concepts of color (Goethe, P.V. Yanshin etc.. Research material istheoretical analysis of general and specialized literature on color perception.Results: Our studies suggest that mental states are in a constant depending on the perceived hue (monocolors, or combinations of them, and its impact on the human condition occur at a more subtle level, i.e. depending on the palette Tinted monocolors.Practical implications:: The results of our study can be applied in the course of the educational process, the organization of practice, creativity of younger schoolchildren, adolescents and children adolescence. The study can also be continued, complicating exposure studying manifestations of mental states in mental activity of respondents.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-3-7

  11. The Impact of Religiosity on Quality of Life and Psychological Symptoms in Chronic Mental Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimunović, Martina; Tokmakčija, Stanija; Pavlović, Marko; Babić, Romana; Vasilj, Marina; Martinac, Marko; Vasilj, Ivan; Babić, Dragan

    2017-05-01

    In recent decades, there is more and more scientific research and evidence that religiosity has a positive impact on quality of life and mental health. The aim this study is to evaluate the impact of religiosity on the quality of life and psychological symptoms of chronic mental patients. The test group was consisted of 100 chronic mental patients at the Clinic for Psychiatry UCH Mostar, and control group was consisted of 80 somatic patients surveyed from the Infirmary of family medicine of the Health Center Mostar. The survey was conducted by the social and demographic questionnaire, a questionnaire on the quality of life of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF, the questionnaire on religiosity and self-assessment questionnaire for psychological symptoms SCL-90(th). For the socio-demographic data we obtained results that chronic mental patients as opposed to chronic somatic patients have significantly higher percent of an average lifestyle habits. There is statistically significant difference in the place of residence, chronic mental patients live in the city as opposed to somatic who live in the countryside. On the question of religiosity we received information that the chronic mental patients in relation to chronic somatic patients significantly more attend public religious gatherings, but however, chronic somatic patients compared to chronic mental significantly more use religiosity for better financial position, social comfort. In self evaluation of psychological symptoms we received information that the chronic mental patients as opposed to chronic somatic patients had significantly more psychotic features. To test the quality of life between the two groups, we received the information that chronic mental patients have significantly better physical and mental health, social relationships and caring for the environment as opposed to chronic somatic patients. Quality of life was significantly better in the chronic mental patients. Also, chronic mental

  12. Internalized stigma of mental illness and depressive and psychotic symptoms in homeless veterans over 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani

    2016-06-30

    We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Perceived Discrimination and Mental Health Symptoms among Black Men with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Galvan, Frank H.; Landrine, Hope; Klein, David J.; Sticklor, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV (PLWH) exhibit more severe mental health symptoms than do members of the general public (including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder/PTSD symptoms). We examined whether perceived discrimination, which has been associated with poor mental health in prior research, contributes to greater depression and PTSD symptoms among HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at high risk for discrimination from multiple stigmatized characteristics (HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation). Method A total of 181 Black MSM living with HIV completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) that included measures of mental health symptoms (depression, PTSD) and scales assessing perceived discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Results In bivariate tests, all three perceived discrimination scales were significantly associated with greater symptoms of depression and PTSD (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales) (all p-values discrimination types (p discrimination was negatively associated with depression symptoms when considered in isolation from other forms of discrimination, but positively associated when all three types of discrimination were present. In multivariate tests, only perceived HIV-related discrimination was associated with PTSD symptoms (p discrimination contribute to poor mental health among PLWH. Researchers need to take into account intersecting stigmas when developing interventions to improve mental health among PLWH. PMID:21787061

  14. Mental health symptoms identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders : prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoffen, Marieke F. A.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are a leading cause of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Workers at risk of mental LTSA should preferably be identified before they report sick. The objective of this study was to examine mental health symptoms as predictors of future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted

  15. Mental health symptoms identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders : prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoffen, Marieke F. A.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are a leading cause of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Workers at risk of mental LTSA should preferably be identified before they report sick. The objective of this study was to examine mental health symptoms as predictors of future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted

  16. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…

  17. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  18. Occupational Stress and Mental Health Symptoms: Examining the Moderating Effect of Work Recovery Strategies in Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Gargi; Jennings, Kristen S; Britt, Thomas W; Sliter, Michael T

    2017-06-12

    The goal of this research was to examine the moderating effect of work recovery strategies on the relationship between occupational stress experienced by firefighters and mental health symptoms. Work recovery strategies were identified through semistructured interviews with 20 firefighters and a literature search on recovery strategies. A total of 7 work recovery strategies emerged using the 2 methods: work-related talks, stress-related talks, time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise, recreational activities, relaxation, and mastery experiences. Using a prospective study design with a 1-month time interval in a sample of 268 firefighters, experienced occupational stress at Time 1 was positively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. In addition, with the exception of spending time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise and mastery experiences, recovery strategies at Time 1 were negatively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. Lastly, all work recovery strategies, except stress-related talks and relaxation, moderated the relationship between experienced occupational stress at Time 1 and mental health symptoms at Time 2. Specifically, the positive relationship between experienced occupational stress and mental health symptoms was stronger when firefighters engaged in low, rather than high, work recovery strategies. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Internalizing Symptoms and Safe Sex Intentions among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment: Personal Factors as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Meredith C.; Rizzo, Christie J.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Dattadeen, Jodi-Ann; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about why some adolescents with internalizing symptoms engage in sexual behaviors that increase their risk for HIV. This study tested a mediation model of internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Self-efficacy for HIV prevention, HIV knowledge, and worry about HIV were hypothesized to mediate associations between internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among sexually active and non-active adolescents receiving mental health treatment (N = 893, M age = 14.9). Significant indirect effects from internalizing symptoms to safe sex intentions varied according sexual experience: for sexually non-active adolescents, HIV worry and knowledge mediated this link, whereas for sexually active adolescents, HIV self-efficacy was the significant mediator. Increasing both HIV knowledge and self-efficacy for HIV prevention are important targets for HIV prevention with adolescents with internalizing symptoms, and careful attention should be paid towards targeting these interventions to sexually experienced and inexperienced youth. PMID:25284921

  20. Psychiatric symptoms moderate the effects of mental illness self-management in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigman, Pamela J; Pickett, Susan A; Diehl, Sita M; Fox, Anthony; Grey, Dennis D; Shipley, Patricia; Cook, Judith A

    2014-03-01

    Depression has been shown to moderate the effects of physical illness self-management (ISM) programs. We attempted to replicate these findings for a mental ISM intervention. Outpatients with serious mental illness (N = 428) from eight Tennessee communities were randomly assigned to receive a peer-led self-management intervention called Building Recovery of Individual Dreams and Goals Through Education and Support or services as usual. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory; the outcome of personal empowerment was measured by the Empowerment Scale. Intent-to-treat analysis using mixed-effects random regression found significant interaction effects between study condition and three moderating symptom profiles. Empowerment was greater for the intervention participants with high levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and general symptom distress than for the experimental participants with low symptom levels and the control subjects with high or low levels of symptoms. These results shed light on how mental ISM programs operate and ways these can be improved.

  1. Recognizing the Symptoms of Mental Illness following Concussions in the Sports Community: A Need for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Zhang, Stanley; Wong, Hatty; Lam, Emily; Jing, Rowan; Russell, Kelly; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the awareness of concussion-related symptoms amongst members of the sports community in Canada. A cross-sectional national electronic survey was conducted. Youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals across Canada were recruited through mailing lists from sports-related opt-in marketing databases. Participants were asked to identify, from a list of options, the symptoms of a concussion. The proportion of identified symptoms (categorized as physical, cognitive, mental health-related and overall) as well as participant factors associated with symptom recognition were analyzed. The survey elicited 6,937 responses. Most of the respondents (92.1%) completed the English language survey, were male (57.7%), 35-54 years of age (61.7%), with post-secondary education (58.2%), or high reported yearly household income (>$80,000; 53.0%). There were respondents from all provinces and territories with the majority of respondents from Ontario (35.2%) or British Columbia (19.1%). While participants identified most of the physical (mean = 84.2% of symptoms) and cognitive (mean = 91.2% of symptoms), they on average only identified 53.5% of the mental health-related symptoms of concussions. Respondents who were older, with higher education and household income, or resided in the Northwest Territories or Alberta identified significantly more of the mental health-related symptoms listed. While Canadian youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals are able to identify most of the physical and cognitive symptoms associated with concussion, identification of mental health-related symptoms of concussion is still lagging.

  2. Recognizing the Symptoms of Mental Illness following Concussions in the Sports Community: A Need for Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Topolovec-Vranic

    Full Text Available To evaluate the awareness of concussion-related symptoms amongst members of the sports community in Canada.A cross-sectional national electronic survey was conducted. Youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals across Canada were recruited through mailing lists from sports-related opt-in marketing databases. Participants were asked to identify, from a list of options, the symptoms of a concussion. The proportion of identified symptoms (categorized as physical, cognitive, mental health-related and overall as well as participant factors associated with symptom recognition were analyzed.The survey elicited 6,937 responses. Most of the respondents (92.1% completed the English language survey, were male (57.7%, 35-54 years of age (61.7%, with post-secondary education (58.2%, or high reported yearly household income (>$80,000; 53.0%. There were respondents from all provinces and territories with the majority of respondents from Ontario (35.2% or British Columbia (19.1%. While participants identified most of the physical (mean = 84.2% of symptoms and cognitive (mean = 91.2% of symptoms, they on average only identified 53.5% of the mental health-related symptoms of concussions. Respondents who were older, with higher education and household income, or resided in the Northwest Territories or Alberta identified significantly more of the mental health-related symptoms listed.While Canadian youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals are able to identify most of the physical and cognitive symptoms associated with concussion, identification of mental health-related symptoms of concussion is still lagging.

  3. Bilateral anterior capsulotomy and amygdalotomy for mental retardation with psychiatric symptoms and aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhen; Zhou, Peizhi; Jiang, Shu; Li, Peng; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Mental retardation (MR) is a chronic condition that often has no readily identifiable cause or treatment. Aggression and psychiatric symptoms are prevalent in children with MR. Surgical treatment of aggression and psychiatric symptoms of MR is seldom investigated and studies are limited. Patient concerns: We encountered a 19-year-old female who had MR with aggression and psychiatric symptoms. Diagnoses: She was diagnosed with mild MR with aggressiveness and psychiatric symptoms. Interventions: Because the patient was refractory to conservative treatment, bilateral anterior capsulotomy and amygdaloid neurosurgery were performed for her psychiatric symptoms and aggression. The benefits and side effects of the surgery were analyzed. Outcomes: After surgery, the patient showed significant alleviation of her psychiatric symptoms and aggression with no observed side effects. Lessons: Bilateral anterior capsulotomy in combination with amygdaloid neurosurgery may resolve both psychiatric and aggressive symptoms. Future investigations of control studies with large patient cohorts are needed. PMID:28072743

  4. Cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundermann, Jane M; Chu, Ann T; DePrince, Anne P

    2013-01-01

    Women exposed to more types of violence (e.g., emotional, physical, or sexual violence)--referred to here as cumulative violence exposure--are at risk for more severe mental health symptoms compared to women who are exposed to a single type of violence or no violence. Women exposed to violence may also experience greater emotional nonacceptance compared to women with no exposure to violence. Emotional nonacceptance refers to an unwillingness to experience emotional states, including cognitive and behavioral attempts to avoid experiences of emotion. Given the links between cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms among female victims of violence, the current study tested victims' emotional nonacceptance as a partial mediator between cumulative violence exposure and the severity of 3 types of symptoms central to complex trauma responses: depression, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. A non-treatment-seeking community sample of women (N = 89; M age = 30.70 years) completed self-report questionnaires and interviews. Bootstrap procedures were then used to test 3 mediation models for the separate predictions of depression, dissociation, and PTSD symptoms. Results supported our hypotheses that emotional nonacceptance would mediate the relationship between women's cumulative violence exposure and severity for all symptom types. The current findings highlight the role that emotional nonacceptance may play in the development of mental health symptoms for chronically victimized women and point to the need for longitudinal research in such populations.

  5. Common mental disorder symptoms among patients with malaria attending primary care in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Tesfaye

    Full Text Available Common Mental Disorders (CMDs are frequent among patients attending primary care. In Africa, CMDs are often misdiagnosed as physical illnesses because many of the patients complain of somatic symptoms of mental distress. We explored whether there was difference in the levels of CMD symptoms between patients with thick film confirmed and clinical cases of malaria with negative thick film in primary care.A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 300 adults with a clinical diagnosis of malaria in primary care centres in Jimma, Ethiopia. Patients were recruited consecutively until 100 cases of 'malaria' with a negative thick film and 200 cases of malaria with a positive thick film consented to participate. The 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 was used to measure CMD. The non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to explore the association between thick film result and CMD.Participants had a mean age of 28.2 (S.D = 10.9 years and the majority (57.3% were women. The prevalence of high CMD symptoms (six or more symptoms on the SRQ-20 was 24.5%. Suicidal ideation was reported by 13.8% of the participants. CMD symptoms were significantly higher in patients who had taken medication prior to visiting the primary care (p = 0.012 and in those whose symptoms had been present for seven days or more (p = 0.041. There was no statistically significant association between level of CMD symptoms and having a negative thick film result (OR 0.98; 95%CI 0.92, 1.04 or objective presence of fever (OR 1.04; 95%CI 0.93, 1.15.CMD symptoms among cases of malaria did not appear to be associated with a negative thick film result. The high levels of CMD symptoms, including suicidal ideation, calls for further studies to investigate the persistence and progression of these symptoms following resolution of the acute malarial episode.

  6. Mental Strain and Chronic Stress among University Students with Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D. Gulewitsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the degree of mental strain and chronic stress in a German community sample of students with IBS-like symptoms. Methods and Materials. Following an internet-based survey about stress, this study recruited 176 German university students (23.45±2.48 years; 48.3% males with IBS-like symptoms according to Rome III and 181 students without IBS (23.55±2.82 years; 50.3% males and compared them regarding current mental strain (SCL-90-R and the extend of chronic stress. Beyond this, IBS subtypes, IBS severity, and health care utilization were assessed. Results. Students fulfilling IBS criteria showed significantly elevated values of mental strain and chronic stress. Nearly 40% of the IBS group (versus 20% of the controls reached a clinically relevant value on the SCL-90-R global severity scale. IBS subtypes did not differ in terms of mental distress or chronic stress. Somatization, anxiety, and the chronic stressors “work overload,” “social tension,” and “dissatisfaction with job” were most closely connected to IBS symptom severity. Regarding health care utilization, our results show that consulting a physician frequently was not associated significantly with elevated mental strain or chronic stress but with IBS symptom severity. Conclusion. Our data contribute additional evidence to the distinct association between psychological stress and IBS in community samples.

  7. Symptoms of mental impairment among elderly adults and their effects on family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deimling, G T; Bass, D M

    1986-11-01

    Research that has examined the relationship between caregiving stress and elders' symptoms of mental impairment has focused primarily on cognitive incapacity. This research expands the symptoms of mental impairment to include caregivers' reports of problems in elders' social functioning and the presence of disruptive behavior, in addition to the traditional measure of cognitive incapacity. Results from a study of 614 families living with and caring for an impaired elder show cognitive incapacity to have a less important direct effect on caregiving stress than disruptive behavior and impaired social functioning. Cognitive incapacity does have an important indirect effect through its influence on disruptive behavior and social functioning.

  8. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Slone; Anat Shoshani

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the ...

  9. Signs and symptoms of acute mania: a factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva Varuni A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major diagnostic classifications consider mania as a uni-dimensional illness. Factor analytic studies of acute mania are fewer compared to schizophrenia and depression. Evidence from factor analysis suggests more categories or subtypes than what is included in the classification systems. Studies have found that these factors can predict differences in treatment response and prognosis. Methods The sample included 131 patients consecutively admitted to an acute psychiatry unit over a period of one year. It included 76 (58% males. The mean age was 44.05 years (SD = 15.6. Patients met International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10 clinical diagnostic criteria for a manic episode. Patients with a diagnosis of mixed bipolar affective disorder were excluded. Participants were evaluated using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS. Exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis was carried out and factors with an eigenvalue > 1 were retained. The significance level for interpretation of factor loadings was 0.40. The unrotated component matrix identified five factors. Oblique rotation was then carried out to identify three factors which were clinically meaningful. Results Unrotated principal component analysis extracted five factors. These five factors explained 65.36% of the total variance. Oblique rotation extracted 3 factors. Factor 1 corresponding to 'irritable mania' had significant loadings of irritability, increased motor activity/energy and disruptive aggressive behaviour. Factor 2 corresponding to 'elated mania' had significant loadings of elevated mood, language abnormalities/thought disorder, increased sexual interest and poor insight. Factor 3 corresponding to 'psychotic mania' had significant loadings of abnormalities in thought content, appearance, poor sleep and speech abnormalities. Conclusions Our findings identified three clinically meaningful factors corresponding to 'elated mania', 'irritable mania

  10. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Slone

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children’s externalizing symptoms. Fathers’ parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children’s mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  11. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children’s externalizing symptoms. Fathers’ parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children’s mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict. PMID:28878705

  12. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12-14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children's externalizing symptoms. Fathers' parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children's mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  13. Tele-Interpersonal Psychotherapy Acutely Reduces Depressive Symptoms in Depressed HIV-Infected Rural Persons: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Timothy G; Heckman, Bernadette D; Anderson, Timothy; Lovejoy, Travis I; Markowitz, John C; Shen, Ye; Sutton, Mark

    2016-04-26

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive rural individuals carry a 1.3-times greater risk of a depressive diagnosis than their urban counterparts. This randomized clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered interpersonal psychotherapy (tele-IPT) acutely relieved depressive symptoms in 132 HIV-infected rural persons from 28 states diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), partially remitted MDD, or dysthymic disorder. Patients were randomized to either 9 sessions of one-on-one tele-IPT (n = 70) or standard care (SC; n = 62). A series of intent-to-treat (ITT), therapy completer, and sensitivity analyses assessed changes in depressive symptoms, interpersonal problems, and social support from pre- to postintervention. Across all analyses, tele-IPT patients reported significantly lower depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems than SC controls; 22% of tele-IPT patients were categorized as a priori "responders" who reported 50% or higher reductions in depressive symptoms compared to only 4% of SC controls in ITT analyses. Brief tele-IPT acutely decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in depressed rural people living with HIV.

  14. The influence of psychological symptoms on mental health literacy of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin E; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan

    2015-11-01

    Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report 2 studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Mental Health Symptoms among Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Sandi D.; Branscum, Adam J.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if and to what extent student service members/veterans differ from civilian college students in the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of poor mental health. Participants: The Fall 2011 implementation of the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment included 27,774…

  16. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease: Mental Status Examination versus Caregiver Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Benjamin; Buswell, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    To examine possible reasons for conflicting prevalence data on psychiatric features of Alzheimer's disease, compared results of mental status examination by physician with questionnaire completed by caregivers in eliciting 12 different psychiatric symptoms. Found agreement only on categories suggesting agitation. Formal examination showed more…

  17. Mental Health Symptoms among Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Sandi D.; Branscum, Adam J.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if and to what extent student service members/veterans differ from civilian college students in the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of poor mental health. Participants: The Fall 2011 implementation of the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment included 27,774…

  18. Depressive symptoms and disability in acute patients with comorbidities in departments of internal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore La Carrubba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are few data on the prevalence of depression among acute patients with comorbidities. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients admitted to Internal Medicine Units and the correlation between these symptoms and comorbidities and disability indexes. Materials and methods: All consecutive patients admitted to 26 Internal Medicine Units of the Italian National Public Health System in Sicily, Italy, from September 2001 to March 2002 were screened. Within 24 hours of admission, patients were administered the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, Mini-Mental State Examination, Activities of Daily Living (ADL, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL and Charlson’s Comorbidity Index. Results: 1,947 subjects were included in the analyses. Of the patients, 509 (26.1% showed depressive symptoms (indicated by GDS score > 15. Depression was significantly associated (univariate analyses with hypertension (OR 1.45; CI 95% 1.18-1.79, diabetes (OR 1.48, CI 95% 1.17-1.87, cerebrovascular disease (OR 1.50, CI 95% 1.08-2.07, cirrhosis (OR 1.49, CI 95% 1.01- 2.19, ADL score (OR 0.72: CI 95% 0.63-0.82, and IADL score (OR 0.83; CI 95% 0.78-0.87, but not with Charlson’s Comorbidity Index (OR 1.04; CI 95% 0.98-1.10. Multivariate analysis showed that independent predictive factors for depression were age (OR 1.02, CI 95% 1.01-1.02, female gender (OR 2.29, CI 95% 1.83 - 2.87, and IADL score (OR 0.86, CI 95% 0.81 - 0.93. Conclusions: The data suggest that depressive symptoms are not linked to worse clinical conditions but are associated with the loss of autonomy in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living.

  19. Personality, Attentional Biases towards Emotional Faces and Symptoms of Mental Disorders in an Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Pihl, Robert O; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Conrod, Patricia J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of personality factors and attentional biases towards emotional faces, in establishing concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorder diagnosis in adolescence. Data were obtained as part of the IMAGEN study, conducted across 8 European sites, with a community sample of 2257 adolescents. At 14 years, participants completed an emotional variant of the dot-probe task, as well two personality measures, namely the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale and the revised NEO Personality Inventory. At 14 and 16 years, participants and their parents were interviewed to determine symptoms of mental disorders. Personality traits were general and specific risk indicators for mental disorders at 14 years. Increased specificity was obtained when investigating the likelihood of mental disorders over a 2-year period, with the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale showing incremental validity over the NEO Personality Inventory. Attentional biases to emotional faces did not characterise or predict mental disorders examined in the current sample. Personality traits can indicate concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorders in a community youth sample, and identify at-risk youth beyond the impact of baseline symptoms. This study does not support the hypothesis that attentional biases mediate the relationship between personality and psychopathology in a community sample. Task and sample characteristics that contribute to differing results among studies are discussed.

  20. Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

  1. Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

  2. Mental and somatic symptoms related to suicidal ideation in patients visiting a psychosomatic clinic in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Yoshimasu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Kouichi Yoshimasu1, Tetsuya Kondo2,4, Shoji Tokunaga3, Yoshio Kanemitsu2, Hideyo Sugahara2, Mariko Akamine2, Kanichiro Fujisawa2, Kazuhisa Miyashita1, Chiharu Kubo21Department of Hygiene, School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan; 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate school of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Medical Informatics, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 4Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Kansai University of Health Sciences, Osaka, JapanAbstract: Patients with suicidal ideation (SI have various mental or somatic symptoms. A questionnaire-based interview elicited details concerning mental and somatic symptoms in patients visiting a psychosomatic clinic in Japan. Univariate logistic regression analyses followed by multiple regression models using a stepwise method were selected for identifying the candidate symptoms. Overall, symptoms related to depression were associated with SI in both sexes. Although women showed more various somatic symptoms associated with SI than men, many of those associations were diminished once severity of the depression was controlled. The current results suggest that a variety of self-reported symptoms, mainly related to depression, might reveal suicidal risk in outpatients with an urban hospital clinical setting.Keywords: suicidal ideation, psychosomatic clinic, subjective symptoms

  3. Prevalence of mental health symptoms in Dutch military personnel returning from deployment to Afghanistan : A 2-year longitudinal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, A.; Rademaker, A. R.; Vermetten, E.; Geuze, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies in troops deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan have shown that combat exposure and exposure to deployment-related stressors increase the risk for the development of mental health symptoms. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of mental health symptoms in a cohort

  4. Comorbid internet addiction in male clients of inpatient addiction rehabilitation centers: psychiatric symptoms and mental comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Koch, Andreas; Dickenhorst, Ulrike; Müller, Kai W

    2013-11-01

    Addictive Internet use has recently been proposed to be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Still, little is known about its nosological features, including comorbidity with other mental disorders and disorder-specific psychopathological symptoms. To investigate whether Internet addiction (IA) is an issue in patients in addiction treatment, 1826 clients were surveyed in 15 inpatient rehabilitation centers. Male patients meeting criteria for comorbid IA (n = 71) were compared with a matched control group of male patients treated for alcohol addiction without addictive Internet use (n = 58). The SCL-90-R, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder were used to assess associated psychiatric symptoms and further comorbid disorders. Comorbid IA was associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, especially depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity. Moreover, the patients with IA more frequently met criteria for additional mental disorders. They display higher rates of psychiatric symptoms, especially depression, and might be in need of additional therapeutic treatment. In rehabilitation centers, a regular screening for IA is recommended to identify patients with this (non-substance-related) addiction and supply them with additional disorder-specific treatment.

  5. Acute and subacute symptoms among workers in the printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Andersen, I; Mølhave, Lars

    1982-01-01

    of smell were also carried out. The printers had significantly more eye, airway, and neurological symptoms than the controls; the main complaints being irritation of eyes, nose, throat, and a reduced sense of taste. The neurological symptoms were disorders of vision, vertigo, feeling of intoxication......The study population comprised 52 male printers and 52 controls. Each person was interviewed about job history, general health, and work-related symptoms. Symptoms from eyes and airways, neurological symptoms, and general symptoms were recorded. A lung function test and a measurement of the sense...

  6. Recovery-oriented care in acute inpatient mental health settings: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Dhital, Deepa; Ennis, Garry; Houghton, James; Lupson, Christine; Toomey, Nigel

    2014-07-01

    Australian mental health nurses will need to care with consumers of mental health services, within the domains of recovery. However, in acute inpatient mental health settings, nurses are without a clear description of how to be recovery-oriented. The intent of this qualitative study was to ask nurses to reflect on and describe current practice within acute inpatient services that are not overtly recovery-oriented. Results show that nurses can identify recovery and articulate with pragmatic clarity how to care within a recovery-oriented paradigm. Pragmatic modes of care described by nurses support using "champions" to assist with eventual system transformation in the delivery of mental health services.

  7. Shared versus distinct genetic contributions of mental wellbeing with depression and anxiety symptoms in healthy twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Kylie M; Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Leanne M; Harris, Anthony; Schofield, Peter R; Clark, C Richard; Gatt, Justine M

    2016-10-30

    Mental wellbeing and mental illness symptoms are typically conceptualized as opposite ends of a continuum, despite only sharing about a quarter in common variance. We investigated the normative variation in measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety in 1486 twins who did not meet clinical criteria for an overt diagnosis. We quantified the shared versus distinct genetic and environmental variance between wellbeing and depression and anxiety symptoms. The majority of participants (93%) reported levels of depression and anxiety symptoms within the healthy range, yet only 23% reported a wellbeing score within the "flourishing" range: the remainder were within the ranges of "moderate" (67%) or "languishing" (10%). In twin models, measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety shared 50.09% of variance due to genetic factors and 18.27% due to environmental factors; the rest of the variance was due to unique variation impacting wellbeing or depression and anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that an absence of clinically-significant symptoms of depression and anxiety does not necessarily indicate that an individual is flourishing. Both unique and shared genetic and environmental factors may determine why some individuals flourish in the absence of symptoms while others do not.

  8. The effects of mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences among at-risk adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A; Hunter, Sarah B.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Based on expectancy theory, adolescents at risk for mental health symptoms, such as those involved in the juvenile court system, may use marijuana due to the belief that use will attenuate anxiety and depressive symptoms. In a diverse sample of youth involved in the Santa Barbara Teen Court system (N = 193), we examined the association between mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences. In general, stronger positive expectancies and weaker negative exp...

  9. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Professional Football (Soccer Across Five European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gouttebarge, Frank J.G. Backx, Haruhito Aoki, Gino M.M.J. Kerkhoffs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence on the prevalence of symptoms related to distress, anxiety/depression or substance abuse/dependence, – typically referred to as symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD – is lacking in European professional football (soccer. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of symptoms related to CMD (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, and adverse nutrition behaviour in professional footballers from five European countries, and to explore associations of the outcome measures under study with life events and career dissatisfaction. A cross-sectional design was used. Questionnaires were distributed among professional footballers by the national players’ unions in Finland, France, Norway, Spain and Sweden. The highest prevalence of symptoms related to common mental disorders were 18% for distress (Sweden, 43% for anxiety/depression (Norway, 33% for sleeping disturbance (Spain, 17% for adverse alcohol behaviour (Finland, and 74% for adverse nutrition behaviour (Norway. In Finland, France and Sweden, both life events and career dissatisfaction were associated with distress, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol behaviour, and adverse nutrition behaviour. Results suggest the need for self-awareness in professional football about common mental disorders and a multidisciplinary approach by the medical team.

  10. Anxiety Symptoms in Psychotic Disorders: Results from the Second Australian National Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosanac, Peter; Mancuso, Sam G; Castle, David J

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of anxiety symptoms among Australians with psychotic disorders was examined as part of the Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP). A two-phase design was used. Of 7,955 people who were screened positive for psychosis and eligible, there were 1,825 participants (18-34 years and 35-64 years) interviewed. Data were collected on symptomatology, substance use, cognitive ability, functioning, disability, physical health, mental health service utilization, medication use, education, employment and housing. Anxiety symptomatology was divided into generalized anxiety, panic, phobic, social anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The most common ICD-10 diagnoses were schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (63.0%) and bipolar (mania) disorder (17.5%). Overall, 59.8% (n=1,092) of participants reported experiencing anxiety symptoms in the previous twelve months. Female gender was highly associated with all domains of anxiety. Smoking was significantly associated with all domains of anxiety, except generalized anxiety. The presence of any depressive symptoms in the previous twelve months was significantly associated with all anxiety symptoms. Medication side effects were associated with phobic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Social dysfunction was associated with social anxiety, and less so for obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Anxiety symptoms are common in people with psychotic disorders. Appropriate screening and treatment should be a clinical priority.

  11. Family functioning and mental health in runaway youth: association with posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J; Cochran, Gerald; Barczyk, Amanda N

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the direct effects of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, poor family communication and worries concerning family relationships, depression, anxiety, and dissociation on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Runaway youth were recruited from emergency youth shelters in New York and Texas. Interviews were completed with 350 youth who averaged 15 years of age. Structural equation modeling was used to examine family functioning, maltreatment, depression, dissociation, and anxiety in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results indicated that direct effects of family relationship worry to dissociation, β = .77, p family communication and youth dissociation, β = .42, p stress symptoms, but depression was not. Findings underscore the critical role of family relationships in mental health symptoms experienced by runaway adolescents. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  12. Dynamic changes in saliva after acute mental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Ella A.; Sandulescu, Tudor; Bochnig, Clemens; Khatib, Philipp Al; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

    2014-01-01

    Stress-related variations of fluoride concentration in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment, salivary cortisol, total protein and pH after acute mental stress were assessed. The hypothesis was that stress reactions have no influence on these parameters. Thirty-four male students were distributed into two groups: first received the stress exposure followed by the same protocol two weeks later but without stress exposure, second underwent the protocol without stress exposure followed by the stress exposure two weeks later. The stressor was a public speech followed by tooth brushing. Saliva was collected before, immediately after stress induction and immediately, at 10, 30 and 120 min. after tooth brushing. Cortisol concentrations, total protein, intraoral pH, and fluoride content in saliva were measured. The data were analyzed statistically. Salivary sediment was ca 4.33% by weight of whole unstimulated saliva. Fluoride bioavailability was higher in salivary sediment than in supernatant saliva. The weight and fluoride concentration was not altered during 2 hours after stress exposure. After a public speech, the salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased after 20 minutes compared to the baseline. The salivary protein concentration and pH also increased. Public speaking influences protein concentration and salivary pH but does not alter the fluoride concentration of saliva. PMID:24811301

  13. Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder: Relationship to Acute Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    A study examined maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of acute pediatric treatment of children with major depressive disorder (MDD). Results suggested a direct and possible reciprocal association between maternal and child depression severity.

  14. Affective symptoms and cognitive functions in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Elberling, Tina V; Hørding, Merete

    2007-01-01

    In the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis patients often have subjective cognitive complaints. Continuing controversy exists about the nature of these symptoms and whether they persist after treatment. This prospective study included 31 consecutively referred, newly diagnosed, and untreated pa...

  15. Reactions and attitudes to postpartal mental symptoms in a rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähärä, Kirsti; Tulisalo, Ulla; Grönlund, Juhani; Mattila, Kari J

    2014-10-01

    We examined the reactions of population, social and health care professionals and local politicians in the context of a narrative case of a newborn and her mother evincing postpartal mental symptoms. The results of this postal questionnaire study indicated that in assessing the urgent need for support, a significant positive association prevailed in the resident cohort with female gender, age over 50 years or being a parent. Professionals and politicians estimated that appropriate care and access to care would be obtained in the maternity and child health clinic in the local health centre. Residents would contact relatives rather than social and health care professionals. A future challenge is to promote the knowledge and sensitivity of the general population in recognizing mental symptoms in mothers with small children. Adequate information is also called for regarding local services and means of access to care.

  16. The risk of unintended pregnancy among young women with mental health symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Yasamin; Gatny, Heather; Barber, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Depression and stress have been linked with poor contraceptive behavior, but whether existing mental health symptoms influence women's subsequent risk of unintended pregnancy is unclear. We prospectively examined the effect of depression and stress symptoms on young women's pregnancy risk over one year. We used panel data from a longitudinal study of 992 U.S. women ages 18-20 years who reported a strong desire to avoid pregnancy. Weekly journal surveys measured relationship, contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes. We examined 27,572 journal surveys from 940 women over the first study year. Our outcome was self-reported pregnancy. At baseline, we assessed moderate/severe depression (CESD-5) and stress (PSS-4) symptoms. We estimated the effect of baseline mental health symptoms on pregnancy risk with discrete-time, mixed-effects, proportional hazard models using logistic regression. At baseline, 24% and 23% of women reported moderate/severe depression and stress symptoms, respectively. Ten percent of young women not intending pregnancy became pregnant during the study. Rates of pregnancy were higher among women with baseline depression (14% vs. 9%, p=0.04) and stress (15% vs. 9%, p=0.03) compared to women without symptoms. In multivariable models, the risk of pregnancy was 1.6 times higher among women with stress symptoms compared to those without stress (aRR 1.6, CI 1.1,2.7). Women with co-occurring stress and depression symptoms had over twice the risk of pregnancy (aRR 2.1, CI 1.1,3.8) compared to those without symptoms. Among women without a prior pregnancy, having co-occurring stress and depression symptoms was the strongest predictor of subsequent pregnancy (aRR 2.3, CI 1.2,4.3), while stress alone was the strongest predictor among women with a prior pregnancy (aRR 3.0, CI 1.1,8.8). Depression symptoms were not independently associated with young women's pregnancy risk. In conclusion, stress, and especially co-occurring stress and depression symptoms

  17. Diphenhydramine for Acute Extrapyramidal Symptoms After Propofol Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, James; Salazar, Tomas; Schesing, Kevin B; McPartland, Shannon; Kornitzer, Jeffrey

    2017-02-01

    Extrapyramidal symptoms are an uncommon but well-recognized side effect after the administration of general anesthesia in patients without a significant neurologic history. Several case reports implicate propofol as the likely causative agent producing these symptoms, which include ballismus, dystonia, choreoathetosis, and opisthotonus. Currently, there is no clear consensus on first-line treatment of these symptoms. In each of the published cases, anticholinergic medications and benzodiazepines were central to initial management, although the speed and extent of symptom resolution were variable. Here we present a case of a 17-year-old boy with ulcerative colitis who presented with ballismus, torticollis, tongue thrusting, and oculogyric movements after colonoscopy under general anesthesia with propofol. The patient responded promptly to treatment with diphenhydramine. This is the first reported case in which diphenhydramine was successfully used as the primary treatment of severe extrapyramidal symptoms in a pediatric patient after propofol administration. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Borchardt Triade: A Symptom of Acute Gastric Volvulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Bilici

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus, especially cases with an acute onset, may result in strangulation, perforation, peritonitis, shock and death. The disease is rarely seen in children, but early diagnosis and treatment is essential due to its life-threatening potential. In patients with acute gastric volvulus, the clinical Borchardt triade may be observed, which is characterized by acute severe pain and distension in the upper abdomen or lower thoracic region, retching and the inability to pass a nasogastric tube. In this article, We  aimed to emphasize the Borchardt’s triad by presenting a pediatric case who was diagnosed with Borchardt’s triad and who had acute mesenteric axial gastric volvulus which diaphragmatic hernia and mobile (wandering spleen were accompanied.

  19. Comparing the Obvious: Interactional characteristics of staff in acute mental health nursing and forensic psychiatric nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on and compares two separate studies of the interactional characteristics of forensic mental health staff and acute mental health staff as they interact with inpatients, respectively. Both studies were conducted using participant observation, along with informal and formal...... interviews. Findings show that both acute and forensic mental health nursing practice is characterized by two overriding themes; ‘trust and relationship-enabling care’ and ‘behavior and perception-corrective care.’ The comparison of the two studies shows no major differences in the characteristics of staff...

  20. Atypical symptom cluster predicts a higher mortality in patients with first-time acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seon Young; Ahn, Young Geun; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2012-01-01

    Identifying symptom clusters of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and their clinical significance may be useful in guiding treatment seeking behaviors and in planning treatment strategy. The aim of this study was to identify clusters of acute symptoms and their associated factors that manifested in patients with first-time AMI, and to compare clinical outcomes among cluster groups within 1-year of follow-up. A total of 391 AMI patients were interviewed individually using a structured questionnaire for acute and associated symptoms between March 2008 and June 2009 in Korea. Among 14 acute symptoms, three distinct clusters were identified by Latent Class Cluster Analysis: typical chest symptom (57.0%), multiple symptom (27.9%), and atypical symptom (15.1%) clusters. The cluster with atypical symptoms was characterized by the least chest pain (3.4%) and moderate frequencies (31-61%) of gastrointestinal symptoms, weakness or fatigue, and shortness of breath; they were more likely to be older, diabetic and to have worse clinical markers at hospital presentation compared with those with other clusters. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that, when age and gender were adjusted for, the atypical symptom cluster significantly predicted a higher risk of 1-year mortality compared to the typical chest pain cluster (hazard ratio 3.288, 95% confidence interval 1.087-9.943, p=0.035). Clusters of symptoms can be utilized in guiding a rapid identification of symptom patterns and in detecting higher risk patients. Intensive treatment should be considered for older and diabetic patients with atypical presentation.

  1. Depressive Symptoms and Mental Stress Induced Myocardial Ischemia in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Stephen; Samad, Zainab; Becker, Richard C.; Williams, Redford; Kuhn, Cynthia; Ortel, Thomas L.; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Prybol, Kevin; Rogers, Joseph; O’Connor, Christopher; Velazquez, Eric J.; Jiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The primary focus of this study was to examine associations between depressive symptoms and mental stress induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods Adult patients with documented CHD were recruited for baseline mental stress and exercise stress screening testing as a part of the enrollment process of the REMIT trial. Patients were administered the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). Following a 24-48-hour Beta-blocker withdrawal, consented patients completed three mental stress tests followed by a treadmill exercise test. Ischemia was defined as 1) any development or worsening of any wall motion abnormality (WMA), 2) reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥ 8% by transthoracic echocardiography, and/or ischemic ST-segment change by electrocardiography during stress testing. MSIMI was considered present when ischemia occurred in at least one mental test. Data were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for age, gender, and resting left ventricular ejection fraction. Results One hundred twenty five (44.2 %) of 283 patients were found to have MSIMI and 93 (32.9%) had ESIMI. Unadjusted analysis showed that BDI-II scores were positively associated with the probability of MSIMI (OR = .1.30: 95% CI 1.06 – 1.60, p = .013) and number of MSIMI positive tasks (all p < .005). These associations were still significant after adjustment for covariates (ps ≤ .05). Conclusions In CHD patients, depressive symptoms were associated with a higher probability of MSIMI. These observations may enhance our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the association of depressive symptoms to future cardiovascular events. PMID:24163385

  2. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National Guide

  3. Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults - a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Hagberg Mats; Härenstam Annika; Dellve Lotta; Thomée Sara

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Prospective associations have been found between high use of information and communication technology (ICT) and reported mental symptoms among young adult university students, but the causal mechanisms are unclear. Our aim was to explore possible explanations for associations between high ICT use and symptoms of depression, sleep disorders, and stress among young adults in order to propose a model of possible pathways to mental health effects that can be tested epidemiolog...

  4. Mental health of young offenders in Switzerland: Recognizing psychiatric symptoms during detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisin, Dimitri; Haller, Dagmar M; Cerutti, Bernard; Wolff, Hans; Bertrand, Dominique; Sebo, Paul; Heller, Patrick; Niveau, Gerard; Eytan, Ariel

    2012-08-01

    We reviewed the medical records of the 118 adolescent detainees which had at least one consultation by a psychiatrist at the prison health facility during 2007. General practitioners used the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2) for recording health problems. Psychiatrists used the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) for making psychiatric diagnoses. The concordance between the mental health assessment done by general practitioners using the ICPC-2 and the diagnoses proposed by psychiatrists was globally satisfying. The five most frequent ICD categories (conduct disorder, drug abuse, alcohol abuse, personality disorder, adjustment disorder) encompassed the most frequently reported ICPC-2 psychological symptoms. Several associations between psychological symptoms and socio-demographic characteristics were observed. Apart from providing a description of the mental health of adolescent detainees in one of Switzerland's largest detention centre for minors, results suggest that general practitioners can adequately identify frequent mental disorders in such contexts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex and Race Differences in Mental Health Symptoms in Juvenile Justice: The MAYSI-2 National Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Gina M.; Grisso, Thomas; Terry, Anna; Banks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The study uses the MAYSI-2 gathered data from multiple US juvenile justice systems to examine whether mental health symptoms were connected to consistent sex and ethnicity/race-related differences. Results concluded a greater proportion of girls having serious mental health problems and though whites had problems with alcohol and drugs, they were…

  6. Lifetime Traumatic Events and High-Risk Behaviors as Predictors of PTSD Symptoms in People with Severe Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.

    2009-01-01

    Research is limited regarding the role of high-risk behaviors, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The current survey of 276 community mental health clients diagnosed with either a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or a major mood disorder examined the mediating role of lifetime…

  7. Does Mother–Child Interaction Mediate the Relation Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children’s Mental Health Problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, Marleen M. E. M.; Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Lichtwarck-aschoff, Anna; Bodden, Denise; Jansen, Mélou; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    The relation between maternal depressive symptoms and children’s mental health problems has been well established. However, prior studies have predominantly focused on maternal reports of children’s mental health problems and on parenting behavior, as a broad and unilateral concept. This

  8. Relations of Personality to Substance Use Problems and Mental Health Disorder Symptoms in Two Clinical Samples of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Susan R.; Pencer, Alissa; McGonnell, Melissa; Durdle, Heather; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2013-01-01

    There is a high overlap between substance misuse and mental health disorders in adolescents. Certain personality traits (i.e., sensation seeking, impulsivity, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) may be related to increased risk for mental health symptoms and/or substance misuse. The current study examined the relationships between personality…

  9. Symptoms of epilepsy and organic brain dysfunctions in patients with acute, brief depression combined with other fluctuating psychiatric symptoms: a controlled study from an acute psychiatric department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linaker Olav M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In psychiatric acute departments some patients present with brief depressive periods accompanied with fluctuating arrays of other psychiatric symptoms like psychosis, panic or mania. For the purpose of the present study we call this condition Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS. The aims of the present study were to compare clinical signs of organic brain dysfunctions and epilepsy in patients with AUDS and Major Depressive Episode (MDE. Methods Out of 1038 consecutive patients admitted to a psychiatric acute ward, 16 patients with AUDS and 16 age- and gender-matched MDE patients were included in the study. Using standardized instruments and methods we recorded clinical data, EEG and MRI. Results A history of epileptic seizures and pathologic EEG activity was more common in the AUDS group than in the MDE group (seizures, n = 6 vs. 0, p = 0.018; pathologic EEG activity, n = 8 vs. 1, p = 0.015. Five patients in the AUDS group were diagnosed as having epilepsy, whereas none of those with MDE had epilepsy (p = 0.043. There were no differences between the groups regarding pathological findings in neurological bedside examination and cerebral MRI investigation. Conclusion Compared to patients admitted with mood symptoms fulfilling DSM 4 criteria of a major depressive disorder, short-lasting atypical depressive symptoms seem to be associated with a high frequency of epileptic and pathologic EEG activity in patients admitted to psychiatric acute departments. Trial registration NCT00201474

  10. Neurosensory Symptom Complexes after Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Hoffer

    Full Text Available Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI is a prominent public health issue. To date, subjective symptom complaints primarily dictate diagnostic and treatment approaches. As such, the description and qualification of these symptoms in the mTBI patient population is of great value. This manuscript describes the symptoms of mTBI patients as compared to controls in a larger study designed to examine the use of vestibular testing to diagnose mTBI. Five symptom clusters were identified: Post-Traumatic Headache/Migraine, Nausea, Emotional/Affective, Fatigue/Malaise, and Dizziness/Mild Cognitive Impairment. Our analysis indicates that individuals with mTBI have headache, dizziness, and cognitive dysfunction far out of proportion to those without mTBI. In addition, sleep disorders and emotional issues were significantly more common amongst mTBI patients than non-injured individuals. A simple set of questions inquiring about dizziness, headache, and cognitive issues may provide diagnostic accuracy. The consideration of other symptoms may be critical for providing prognostic value and treatment for best short-term outcomes or prevention of long-term complications.

  11. Substance dependence among those without symptoms of substance abuse in the World Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Luise; Glantz, Meyer D; Kessler, Ronald C; Sampson, Nancy A; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Florescu, Silvia; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2017-02-17

    The World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative uses the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The first 13 surveys only assessed substance dependence among respondents with a history of substance abuse; later surveys also assessed substance dependence without symptoms of abuse. We compared results across the two sets of surveys to assess implications of the revised logic and develop an imputation model for missing values of lifetime dependence in the earlier surveys. Lifetime dependence without symptoms of abuse was low in the second set of surveys (0.3% alcohol, 0.2% drugs). Regression-based imputation models were built in random half-samples of the new surveys and validated in the other half. There were minimal differences for imputed and actual reported cases in the validation dataset for age, gender and quantity; more mental disorders and days out of role were found in the imputed cases. Concordance between imputed and observed dependence cases in the full sample was high for alcohol [sensitivity 88.0%, specificity 99.8%, total classification accuracy (TCA) 99.5%, area under the curve (AUC) 0.94] and drug dependence (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.8%, TCA 99.8%, AUC 1.00). This provides cross-national evidence of the small degree to which lifetime dependence occurs without symptoms of abuse. Imputation of substance dependence in the earlier WMH surveys improved estimates of dependence.

  12. Acute headache as a presenting symptom of tacrolimus encephalopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiemeneij, I.M.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Ramos, L.; Gijn, J. van

    2003-01-01

    A 24 year old woman presented with a sudden excruciating headache mimicking an acute vascular event. She had undergone a lung transplantation because of cystic fibrosis and was receiving maintenance treatment with tacrolimus and prednisone. Ancillary investigation excluded vascular causes. Magnetic

  13. Community Support as a Moderator of Postdisaster Mental Health Symptoms in Urban and Nonurban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jenny S.; Price, Matthew; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between disaster exposure, community support, and mental health outcomes in urban and nonurban participants of Galveston and Chambers counties after Hurricane Ike. The moderating effect of community support was evaluated as a protective factor relative to postdisaster mental health. Methods A representative population-based sample of 157 urban and 714 nonurban adults were interviewed 12 to 17 months after the hurricane about their mental health functioning, disaster exposure, and perceptions of community support. A series of multiple regressions demonstrated that disaster exposure was associated with mental health outcomes for both groups. The strength of the association varied across population samples. Results Community support moderated the association between interpersonal effects of the disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression outcomes in nonurban participants and the association between property damage and PTSD in urban participants. Conclusions Community support played a larger role in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms associated with the interpersonal effects of a disaster in the nonurban sample only. Communities may play a more beneficial role in the recovery process in nonurban areas that have elevated levels of injury or death attributed to a disaster. PMID:24274123

  14. Basic symptoms and their contribution to the differential typology of acute schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabisch, K; Fabisch, H; Langs, G; Macheiner, H; Fitz, W; Hönigl, D

    2001-01-01

    One hundred and fifty male inpatients - 128 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and 22 patients with DSM-IV schizoaffective disorder - were investigated, over the course of their acute psychosis, on whether there were differences in the extent of basic symptoms (measured by the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms) according to their diagnostic subtype. Another aim was to find out if the diagnostic subtypes could be discriminated by means of basic symptoms and if clusters gained from basic symptoms were in accordance with the diagnostic subtypes. Differences in basic symptoms were found between the subtypes, but a clear discrimination of diagnostic subtypes by means of basic symptoms could not be achieved. There was indication that patients with prominent delusions or auditory hallucinations reported more basic symptoms than patients with exclusively prominent disorganization.

  15. Personality Traits and Mental Symptoms are Associated with Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Patients' Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Marie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that personality traits are associated with self-reported health status in the general population. COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is increasingly used to assess health status such as the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on patients' daily life, but knowledge about the influence of personality traits on CAT score is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Big Five personality traits on CAT score and the relation between personality traits and mental symptoms with respect to their influence on CAT score. A sample of 168 patients diagnosed with COPD was consecutively recruited in a secondary care outpatient clinic. All participants completed CAT, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between personality traits and CAT scores and how this association was influenced by mental symptoms. The personality traits neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness; and the mental symptoms depression and anxiety showed significant influence on CAT score when analysed in separate regression models. Identical R-square (R = 0.24) was found for personality traits and mental symptoms, but combining personality traits and mental symptoms in one regression model showed substantially reduced effect estimates of neuroticism, conscientiousness and anxiety, reflecting the strong correlations between personality traits and mental symptoms. We found that the impact of COPD on daily life measured by CAT was related to personality and mental symptoms, which illustrates the necessity of taking individual differences in personality and mental status into account in the management of COPD.

  16. Acute and subacute symptoms among workers in the printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Andersen, I; Mølhave, Lars

    1982-01-01

    a slightly lower threshold of smell than the controls. Although the total load due to organic solvents and dust in the air was far below legal limits, the number of magnitude of symptoms experienced by the printers exceeded what is supposed when norms for workroom exposure are set. It is suggested...

  17. Signs and symptoms that differentiate acute sinusitis from viral upper respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nader; Hoberman, Alejandro; Kearney, Diana H; Colborn, D Kathleen; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Jeong, Jong H; Haralam, Mary Ann; Bowen, A'Delbert; Flom, Lynda L; Wald, Ellen R

    2013-10-01

    Differentiating acute bacterial sinusitis from viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is challenging; 20% to 40% of children diagnosed with acute sinusitis based on clinical criteria likely have an uncomplicated URI. The objective of this study was to determine which signs and symptoms could be used to identify the subgroup of children who meet current clinical criteria for sinusitis but who nevertheless have a viral URI. We obtained sinus radiographs in consecutive children meeting a priori clinical criteria for acute sinusitis. We considered the subgroup of children with completely normal sinus radiographs to have an uncomplicated URI despite meeting the clinical diagnostic criteria for sinusitis. We examined the utility of signs and symptoms in identifying children with URI. Of 258 children enrolled, 54 (20.9%) children had completely normal radiographs. The absence of green nasal discharge, the absence of disturbed sleep and mild symptoms were associated with a diagnosis of URI. No physical exam findings were particularly helpful in distinguishing between children with normal versus abnormal radiographs. Among children meeting current criteria for the diagnosis of acute sinusitis, those with mild symptoms are significantly more likely to have a URI than those with severe symptoms. In addition to assessing overall severity of symptoms, practitioners should ask about sleep disturbance and green nasal discharge when assessing children with suspected sinusitis; their absence favors a diagnosis of URI.

  18. Mutual Partner Violence: Mental Health Symptoms among Female and Male Victims in Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Moises; Kim, Miseong

    2009-01-01

    This study examines racial/ethnic and sex differences in the prevalence of mutual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health symptoms. The authors asked 676 university students in heterosexual relationships if they had experienced IPV, coercive victimization, and/or perpetration as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, hostility, and…

  19. Mental Symptoms in Huntington's Disease and a Possible Primary Aminergic Neuron Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J. John; Stanley, Michael; Gershon, Samuel; Rossor, M.

    1980-12-01

    Monoamine oxidase activity was higher in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia of patients dying from Huntington's disease than in controls. Enzyme kinetics and multiple substrate studies indicated that the increased activity was due to elevated concentrations of monoamine oxidase type B. Concentrations of homovanillic acid were increased in the cerebral cortex but not in the basal ganglia of brains of patients with Huntington's disease. These changes may represent a primary aminergic lesion that could underlie some of the mental symptoms of this disease.

  20. Time to standardize and broaden the criteria of acute coronary syndrome symptom presentations in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, John G; Canto, Elizabeth A; Goldberg, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is essential to improving patient management and associated outcomes. It is widely reported that women might have a different ACS symptom presentation than men. Multiple review articles have examined sex differences in symptom presentation of ACS and these studies have yielded inconclusive results and/or inconsistent recommendations. This is largely because these studies have included diverse study populations, different methods of assessing the chief complaint and associated coronary symptoms, relatively small sample sizes of women and men, and lack of adequate adjustment for age or other potentially confounding differences between the sexes. There is a substantial overlap of ACS symptoms that are not mutually exclusive according to sex, and are generally found in women and men. However, there are apparent differences in the frequency and distribution of ACS symptoms among women and men. Women, on average, are also more likely to have a greater number of ACS-related symptoms contributing to the perception that women have more atypical symptoms than men. In this review, we address issues surrounding whether women should have a different ACS symptom presentation message than men, and provide general recommendations from a public policy perspective. In the future, our goal should be to standardize ACS symptom presentation and to elucidate the full range of ACS and myocardial infarction symptoms considering the substantial overlap of symptoms among women and men rather than use conventional terms such as "typical" and "atypical" angina.

  1. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  2. Explanations of mental health symptoms by the Bedouin-Arabs of the Negev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Krenawi, A

    1999-01-01

    Sixty Bedouin-Arab patients (36 females, 24 males) referred to the psychiatric clinic of the Soroka Medical Centre in the Negev, Israel were interviewed before they met with the psychiatrists and again two weeks later. An open-ended questionnaire was administered during three month period, to examine the patients' explanations of their mental health symptoms. Findings revealed that all patients, male and female alike, perceived and explained their symptoms as being caused by supernatural powers. There were gender differences, however, regarding the perceived nature of, and behaviour of, these supernatural powers. Males explained their symptoms as caused by God's will, whether directly through Him, or indirectly through evil-spirits. In both instances, human behaviour was not a primary concern. In contrast, 97% of the female patients explained their symptoms as a result of sorcery, a phenomenon which integrates human behaviour with supernatural powers. Cultural and language differences between the patients and psychiatrists were also found to cause miscommunications and inappropriate treatment, with the result that 50% of the sample terminated psychiatric treatment after two sessions.

  3. Acute headache as a presenting symptom of tacrolimus encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemeneij, I M; de Leeuw, F-E; Ramos, L M P; van Gijn, J

    2003-08-01

    A 24 year old woman presented with a sudden excruciating headache mimicking an acute vascular event. She had undergone a lung transplantation because of cystic fibrosis and was receiving maintenance treatment with tacrolimus and prednisone. Ancillary investigation excluded vascular causes. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated hyperintense lesions in the infratentorial and parieto-occipital regions consistent with posterior leucencephalopathy syndrome. Both her clinical condition improved and the lesions disappeared completely after withdrawal of tacrolimus, suggesting that her condition could be explained by a tacrolimus encephalopathy.

  4. Differences in Parents' and Teachers' Ratings of ADHD Symptoms and Other Mental Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaya Papageorgiou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD symptoms and other mental health problems appear early in life and proper treatment is essential for a positive long-term outcome. The present study examines the level of agreement, and potential gender differences, between parents' and teachers' reports of ADHD symptoms and other mental health problems in 305 Greek children aged between 6-9 years. Methods: Parents and teachers of 147 boys and 158 girls attending the first three grades of 10 primary schools in the wider area of Northern Greece completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ- Goodman, 1997 and the Child Attention Profile (CAP- Barkley, 1990. Results: The level of agreement between parents' and teachers' reports was low to moderate for the SDQ (0.16-0.34 and satisfactory for the CAP (0.60-0.66. Parents reported more hyperactivity, emotional, and conduct problems than teachers according to SDQ and more overactivity and attention-deficit with hyperactivity according to CAP. Gender differences in ratings were found as well, since boys were reported as being more hyperactive according to SDQ and as having more overactivity and attention-deficit with hyperactivity according to CAP than girls. Conclusions: Findings are discussed in terms of the importance of using multiple informants to gather data on disruptive behaviour through rating scales.

  5. Acute Relationship between Cognitive and Psychological Symptoms of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between acute psychological reactions and cognition as well as postconcussive symptoms in patients with MTBI. Research Methods. Sociodemographic and medical history data were gathered for 59 patients diagnosed with MTBI. Validated and standardized tools were used to assess anxiety, depression, and cognitive function two weeks after trauma. Postconcussive symptoms were assessed with the Rivermead postconcussive questionnaire. Re...

  6. Depressive Symptoms during an Acute Schizophrenic Episode: Frequency and Clinical Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Depressive symptoms are common in schizophrenia and are associated with poorer functioning, lower quality of life, and an elevated risk of suicidal behaviour. There are few studies on the occurrence and correlates of these symptoms in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia. Method. 72 acutely ill patients with schizophrenia were assessed for depression using the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). A cut-off score of ≥6 on the CDSS was used to identify clinically significant depressive symptoms. The relationship between depression and illness variables, including psychotic symptom dimensions as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS), was examined. Results. Eleven (15.3%) patients had clinically significant depressive symptoms. These patients scored higher on the positive and general psychopathology scales of the PANSS and had higher rates of suicidal behavior and poorer functioning. The severity of depressive symptoms was positively correlated with the PANSS positive subscale and negatively correlated with the PANSS negative subscale. Discussion. These findings confirm previous reports that depressive symptoms in active schizophrenia is related to the severity of positive psychotic symptoms and is a risk factor for suicidal behaviour in these patients.

  7. Depressive Symptoms during an Acute Schizophrenic Episode: Frequency and Clinical Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Depressive symptoms are common in schizophrenia and are associated with poorer functioning, lower quality of life, and an elevated risk of suicidal behaviour. There are few studies on the occurrence and correlates of these symptoms in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia. Method. 72 acutely ill patients with schizophrenia were assessed for depression using the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS. A cut-off score of ≥6 on the CDSS was used to identify clinically significant depressive symptoms. The relationship between depression and illness variables, including psychotic symptom dimensions as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS, was examined. Results. Eleven (15.3% patients had clinically significant depressive symptoms. These patients scored higher on the positive and general psychopathology scales of the PANSS and had higher rates of suicidal behavior and poorer functioning. The severity of depressive symptoms was positively correlated with the PANSS positive subscale and negatively correlated with the PANSS negative subscale. Discussion. These findings confirm previous reports that depressive symptoms in active schizophrenia is related to the severity of positive psychotic symptoms and is a risk factor for suicidal behaviour in these patients.

  8. Experience based co-design reduces formal complaints on an acute mental health ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springham, Neil; Robert, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    An acute mental health triage ward at Oxleas NHS Foundation Trust was attracting high levels of formal service user and family complaints. The Trust used experience based co-design to examine the issues and redesign procedures. This resulted in an immediate eradication of formal complaints for a period of 23 months. This paper describes two outcomes: firstly, the successful adaptations made to the experience based co-design methodology from its origins in physical care, in order to ensure it was safe and effective in an acute mental health setting; and, secondly, the changes made to the ward as a result of this quality improvement intervention.

  9. Mental disorders, psychological symptoms and quality of life 8 years after an earthquake: findings from a community sample in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Marchi, Fabio; Bini, Lucia; Flego, Martina; Costa, Ana; Galeazzi, Gian

    2011-07-01

    Various studies assessed mental disorders and psychological symptoms following natural disasters, including earthquakes. Yet, samples were often non-representative, and the periods of time between earthquake and assessments were usually short. This study aims to assess the prevalence of mental disorders, level of psychological symptoms and subjective quality of life in a random sample in a rural region in Italy 8 years after an earthquake. Using a random sampling method, a pool of potential participants of working age who had experienced the earthquake were identified 8 years after the earthquake. They were sequentially approached until the target sample of 200 was reached. Mental disorders were assessed on the MINI, psychological symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and subjective quality of life on the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). 200 people were interviewed, and the response rate of contacted people was 43%. In the MINI, 15 participants (7.5%) had any type of mental disorder; 5 participants had PTSD at any time since the earthquake, and 1 participant at the time of the interview. Symptom levels were low (Global Severity Index of BSI mean = 0.29, SD = 0.30; IES total mean = 0.40, SD = 3.33) and subjective quality of life (MANSA mean = 5.26, SD = 0.59) was in a positive range. The distribution of mental health outcomes made it difficult to explore factors associated with them. There is no evidence that the earthquake had a negative impact on the mental health of the affected population years later. Possible reasons include the relatively weak nature of the earthquake, strong community support that helped overcome mental distress, the long period of time (8 years) between the occurrence of the earthquake and the study, and a capacity of people to maintain or restore mental health after a natural disaster in the long term.

  10. Symptom Effects on Employment in a Structural Model of Mental Illness and Treatment: Analysis of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eric; Salkever, David

    2001-03-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a long tradition in the health and mental health economics literatures of estimating the impacts of disorders on employment and earnings. Several analyses have associated mental illness with poorer labor market outcomes, often using indicators of disorders to measure mental illness, but it is unclear to what extent unobserved medical treatment biases the estimated impacts of disorders on labor market outcomes. In this study we argue that in order to judge the true employment costs of mental illness and the potential benefits of treatment it is necessary to account for the structural relationship between treatment, symptoms, and employment outcomes. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The study proposes a structural model for understanding mental illness impacts on employment and empirically estimates one element of this structural model that links symptoms of schizophrenia to patients' employment status. In addition, we use our empirical estimates to simulate employment consequences of more effective treatment and reductions in symptom levels. EMPIRICAL METHODS: Our empirical analyses use a sample of 1,643 adults with a schizophrenia diagnosis. We predict the likelihood of three outcomes - not employed, employed in a sheltered or supported job, and employed in a non-supported job. Analyses include measures of demographic characteristics, illness history, location differences, and detailed symptom measures. RESULTS: We find that negative symptoms have a substantial adverse impact on participation in both non-supported jobs and in sheltered or supported jobs. The impacts on employment of other symptoms of schizophrenia are not as large, but significant effects are also found for symptoms of depression. Simulations suggest, however, that only one-third of consumers would be employed in any type of job even given a large reduction in symptom levels. DISCUSSION: Negative symptoms are particularly important for role functioning and employment. The marginal effect on

  11. Impaired mental rotation in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and acute vestibular neuritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eCandidi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular processing is fundamental to our sense of orientation in space which is a core aspect of the representation of the self. Vestibular information is processed in a large subcortical-cortical neural network. Tasks requiring mental rotations of human bodies in space are known to activate neural regions within this network suggesting that vestibular processing is involved in the control of mental rotation. We studied whether mental rotation is impaired in patients suffering from two different forms of unilateral vestibular disorders (Vestibular Neuritis – VN- and Benign Paroxysmal positional Vertigo – BPPV with respect to healthy matched controls (C. We used two mental rotation tasks in which participants were required to: i mentally rotate their own body in space (egocentric rotation thus using vestibular processing to a large extent and ii mentally rotate human figures (allocentric rotation thus using own body representations to a smaller degree. Reaction times and accuracy of responses showed that VN and BPPV patients were impaired in both tasks with respect to C. Significantly, the pattern of results was similar in the three groups suggesting that patients were actually performing the mental rotation without using a different strategy from the control individuals. These results show that dysfunctional vestibular inflow impairs mental rotation of both own body and human figures suggesting that unilateral acute disorders of the peripheral vestibular input massively affect the cerebral processes underlying mental rotations.

  12. Subthreshold psychotic symptom distress, self-stigma, and peer social support among college students with mental health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denenny, Danielle; Thompson, Elizabeth; Pitts, Steven C; Dixon, Lisa B; Schiffman, Jason

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore the potential moderating effect of social support on the relation between distress caused by psychosis risk symptoms and self-stigma among college students with mental health diagnoses. Participants were young adult college students who endorsed having a past or present mental health diagnosis (n = 63). Self-report data were examined from the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief, a measure of subthreshold psychosis risk symptoms; the Self-Concurrence/Application subscale of the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, a measure of self-stigma; and the Friendships subscale of the Lubben Social Network Scale-Revised, a measure of social support from peers. There was a modest direct relation between distress associated with psychosis risk symptoms and self-stigma. There was a larger relation between distress from risk symptoms and self-stigma for those with low social support compared to those with mean and high social support. Although causality cannot be determined based on this study, a strong relation between symptom distress and stigma was found among those reporting low peer social support. Interventions that target both self-stigma and social support might be relevant for young adults with a history of mental health concerns who currently endorse subthreshold psychotic symptoms. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagberg Mats

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective associations have been found between high use of information and communication technology (ICT and reported mental symptoms among young adult university students, but the causal mechanisms are unclear. Our aim was to explore possible explanations for associations between high ICT use and symptoms of depression, sleep disorders, and stress among young adults in order to propose a model of possible pathways to mental health effects that can be tested epidemiologically. Methods We conducted a qualitative interview study with 16 women and 16 men (21-28 years, recruited from a cohort of university students on the basis of reporting high computer (n = 28 or mobile phone (n = 20 use at baseline and reporting mental symptoms at the one-year follow-up. Semi-structured interviews were performed, with open-ended questions about possible connections between the use of computers and mobile phones, and stress, depression, and sleep disturbances. The interview data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and summarized in a model. Results Central factors appearing to explain high quantitative ICT use were personal dependency, and demands for achievement and availability originating from the domains of work, study, social life, and individual aspirations. Consequences included mental overload, neglect of other activities and personal needs, time pressure, role conflicts, guilt feelings, social isolation, physical symptoms, worry about electromagnetic radiation, and economic problems. Qualitative aspects (destructive communication and information were also reported, with consequences including vulnerability, misunderstandings, altered values, and feelings of inadequacy. User problems were a source of frustration. Altered ICT use as an effect of mental symptoms was reported, as well as possible positive effects of ICT on mental health. Conclusions The concepts and ideas of the young adults with high ICT use and mental

  14. Structured physical exercise improves neuropsychiatric symptoms in acute dementia care : a hospital-based RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleiner, Tim; Dauth, Hannah; Gersie, Marleen; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Haussermann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this trial is to investigate the effects of a short-term exercise program on neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms in acute hospital dementia care. METHODS: Within a hospital-based randomized controlled trial, the intervention group conducted a 2-week exercise

  15. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animalsWhitney S. Krueger1,2, Elizabeth D. Hilborn2, Timothy J. Wade21Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA2Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Research and Development, U...

  16. Toward an Improved Scale for Assessing Symptom Severity in Children With Acute Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nader; Hoberman, Alejandro; Rockette, Howard E; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Paradise, Jack L

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether changes in the previously developed 7-item Acute Otitis Media Severity of Symptoms scale could improve its responsiveness and its longitudinal construct validity. The items "diminished activity" and "diminished appetite" had low or borderline levels of responsiveness and longitudinal construct validity. Dropping these items seems to be potentially advantageous.

  17. Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms and Heart Diseases: Can Health Care and Mental Health Care Professionals Collaboratively Improve the Assessment and Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and…

  18. Symptoms of peritraumatic and acute traumatic stress among victims of an industrial disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmes, Philippe J; Brunet, Alain; Coppin-Calmes, Dominique; Arbus, Christophe; Coppin, Dominique; Charlet, Jean-Paul; Vinnemann, Nathalie; Juchet, Henri; Lauque, Dominique; Schmitt, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have examined peritraumatic distress, peritraumatic dissociation, and acute stress disorder as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors examined whether these three predictors were associated with PTSD symptoms when considered simultaneously. Two-hundred victims of a factory explosion in Toulouse, France, were surveyed two and six months after the event with use of retrospective self-reports of peritraumatic distress, peritraumatic dissociation, and acute stress disorder. A hierarchical multiple regression predicting PTSD symptoms six months posttrauma indicated that all three constructs explained unique variance, accounting for up to 62 percent. Peritraumatic distress and dissociation and acute stress disorder appear conceptually different from one another and show promise in identifying who is at risk of PTSD.

  19. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Frazier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms and the self reported somatic depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II among patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and explored the impact of gender on both. A convenience sample of 789 adults (248 women and 541 men was recruited for the study during hospital admission for ACS and participants were screened for self-reported depressive symptoms. BDI-II scores of ≥14 indicate a moderate level of depressive symptoms and this cut-off score was used to categorize patients into depressed and non-depressed groups. Pearson chi-square tests for independence (categorical variables and t tests for independent samples (continuous variables were used for gender comparisons. Results showed that depressive symptoms during ACS episodes were different between women and men. Women reported greater overall depressive symptoms (BDI-II mean = 11.89, S.D. = 9.68 than men (BDI-II mean = 9.00, S.D. = 7.93 (P<0.000. Significantly more women (7.66% were identified positive for somatic depressive symptoms (sleep and appetite disturbances and fatigue than men (2.22% (P=0.0003. Findings support that there are gender differences in depressive symptoms experienced by patients hospitalized for ACS. Somatic symptoms of depression may be important indicators of depression especially among female ACS patients.

  20. Symptom experience and management among people with acute myeloid leukaemia in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temtap, Suthisa; Nilmanat, Kittikorn

    2011-08-01

    In Thailand, haematological malignancy is one of the most common types of cancer. This cross-sectional study, conducted in Southern Thailand, aimed to describe the symptom experiences of and symptom management strategies among patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Sixty hospitalized patients with AML were recruited. The Symptom Experience Scale and two open-ended questions regarding symptom-management strategies were used to collect data via face-to-face interviews 2 weeks after the induction phase of the AML protocol. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. High fever, weakness, nausea, and anorexia were the four most prevalent symptoms reported. Other prevalent symptoms included weight loss, bleeding, nausea and vomiting, dysphagia, and a cluster of psycho-emotional symptoms: worrying, fear, feeling discouraged, and feeling bored. Patients used various approaches and strategies to alleviate their symptoms, which could be categorized into five groups: preventive, direct, distraction, complementary, and restorative approaches. This study has provided important information for the development of symptom-management nursing programmes for patients with AML, particularly in Thailand.

  1. Pain in the left ear as the presenting symptom of acute myocardial infarction in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic-Jukic, N; Novosel, D; Ivanac, I; Danic-Hadzibegovic, A; Kes, P

    2014-01-01

    Chest pain is the main presenting symptom in patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, many patients present with atypical symptoms, which may delay proper diagnosis and treatment. We present the first documented case of pain in the left ear as an atypical presentation of acute myocardial infarction 5 days after renal transplantation.

  2. Comparing the Obvious: Interactional characteristics of staff in acute mental health nursing and forensic psychiatric nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2013-01-01

    interviews. Findings show that both acute and forensic mental health nursing practice is characterized by two overriding themes; ‘trust and relationship-enabling care’ and ‘behavior and perception-corrective care.’ The comparison of the two studies shows no major differences in the characteristics of staff...

  3. Role of Nasopharyngeal Bacteria and Respiratory Viruses in Acute Symptoms of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitti, Johanna M; Tähtinen, Paula A; Laine, Miia K; Huovinen, Pentti; Ruuskanen, Olli; Ruohola, Aino

    2015-10-01

    The spectrum of acute symptoms in young outpatient children with respiratory tract infection (RTI) is variable, and it cannot be explained by the diagnosis of acute otitis media (AOM) versus uncomplicated RTI. We studied that the variation of symptoms is explained by the nasopharyngeal bacteria and/or respiratory viruses. Children aged 6-35 months with acute symptoms with AOM (n = 201) or without AOM (n = 225) were eligible in this cross-sectional study. We analyzed their nasopharyngeal samples for pathogenic bacteria by culture and for respiratory viruses by polymerase chain reaction. We surveyed 17 symptoms (fever, respiratory, ear related, nonspecific, gastrointestinal) with a structured questionnaire. Fever had a positive association with influenza viruses [odds ratio (OR): 6.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-26.27], human metapneumovirus (OR: 3.84; 95% CI: 1.25-11.77), coronaviruses (OR: 3.45; 95% CI: 1.53-7.75) and parainfluenza viruses (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.07-4.47). Rhinitis (OR: 5.07; 95% CI: 1.93-13.36), nasal congestion (OR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.25-3.31) and cough (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.15-3.17) had positive associations with Moraxella catarrhalis. Furthermore, cough had a positive association with respiratory syncytial virus (OR: 7.20; 95% CI: 1.59-32.71) and parainfluenza viruses (OR: 2.79; 95% CI: 1.02-7.69). The variation of acute symptoms in young children may be influenced by both nasopharyngeal bacteria and respiratory viruses. Our results showed a strong association between fever and respiratory viruses; rhinitis, nasal congestion and cough were associated with M. catarrhalis in the presence of viruses. Further studies are required to determine the possible synergistic role of M. catarrhalis in symptoms of RTI.

  4. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Affect and Arousal in Inpatient Mental Health Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Reaburn, Peter; Happell, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Acute exercise performed at a self-selected intensity improves affect and may improve long-term adherence. Similarly, in people with severe depression, acute aerobic exercise performed at self-selected intensity improves affect and arousal. However, the relationship between changes in affect and arousal and perceived exercise intensity in people with mental illness has not been evaluated. Affect and arousal were assessed immediately prior to, and immediately following, a group exercise program performed at a self-selected intensity in 40 inpatient mental health consumers who received a diagnosis of anxiety or bipolar or depressive disorders. Exercise intensity was assessed immediately after exercise. Postexercise affect was significantly improved for people with bipolar and depressive disorders but not for people with anxiety disorders. For the group as a whole, results showed a significant curvilinear relationship between ratings of perceived exertion and postexercise affect. These data will inform the development and delivery of future exercise interventions for inpatient mental health consumers.

  5. Mental function and morbidity after acute hip surgery during spinal and general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, D; Adelhøj, B; Petring, O U; Pederson, N O; Busch, P; Kalhke, P

    1985-07-01

    Forty elderly patients (mean age 78.9 years) undergoing acute surgery for hip fracture were given at random either spinal analgesia with bupivacaine 0.75% or general anaesthesia with diazepam, fentanly and N2O/O2. Mental function was studied pre-operatively with an abbreviated mental test and 1 week and 3 months postoperatively in both groups. Mortality and number of complications was similar in the two groups, but a shorter time of ambulation was seen in the spinal group compared to the general anaesthetic group. No persistent impairment in mental function was found after acute hip surgery under spinal or general anaesthesia and the only advantage of regional technique was a shorter time of ambulation.

  6. Mental health nurses' perceptions of good work in an acute setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Jackson, Debra; Hunt, Glenn E

    2012-10-01

    Frequently, research and conference papers explore difficult or problematic areas of practice that can inadvertently render daily nursing accomplishments invisible and create the perception of a discipline in crisis. In this qualitative study, we explore the views of registered nurses about achievements in the workplace and good nursing work in an acute inpatient mental health setting in Sydney, Australia. Mental health nurses were asked a series of questions about their experiences and understanding of what constitutes good nursing work as well as their sense of optimism about their work. A total of 40 structured face-to-face interviews were completed. Among the responses to questions about achievements and good nursing practice, five broad themes were identified: i) teamwork; (ii) interpersonal interactions with patients; (iii) providing practical and holistic support to patients; (iv) patients' mental health improvements; and (v) optimism-pessimism continuum. Findings contribute to a discussion of good nursing work in acute mental health settings, as well as self-perceptions of optimism and hopefulness, which are important contributors to positive, supportive health-care settings and patient recovery. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Bussing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207 and low risk (n = 167 for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents’ psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Results: Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Conclusions: Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care.

  8. Empowerment in the interpersonal field: discourses of acute mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, M

    2007-08-01

    Social policy greatly influences the working environment of mental health nurses but in practice can be difficult to translate. Empowerment of service users is one area that is constantly significant in policy, locally and nationally, yet quite difficult to define in practice. This ethnomethodological study explored the practice of 10 mental health nurses working in an acute admissions unit. Through semi-structured interviews, the nurses were asked to discuss the taken-for-granted methods of empowerment with individual service users, their families and with work colleagues. The results were thematically analysed and compared with international findings, which reflected an awareness among mental health nurses of empowering practice in four areas. These were: Working with mental illness, Making connections, Responsibility and Teamworking.

  9. The impact of mental health symptoms on heavy goods vehicle drivers' performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Staddon, Zoe; Sheridan, Judith; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2009-05-01

    High levels of psychological distress in fulltime employees are prevalent (4.5% per month). Symptoms of impaired mental health include difficulties with attention, concentration, motivation, decision-making, visuo-motor control, and psychomotor reaction times. There is limited research on the impact these symptoms have on heavy goods vehicle (HGV) drivers' performance. In this study 1324 HGV drivers were surveyed using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS) and the Health and Performance at Work Questionnaire (HPQ). Depression, anxiety and stress had little effect on driver absenteeism rates or self-rated driving performance. However, severe (1.5% of drivers) and very severe (1.8% of drivers) depression was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR=4.5 and 5.0, respectively) for being involved in an accident or near miss in the past 28 days. This odd ratio is akin to driving with a blood alcohol content of about 0.08%. Given the number of HGV vehicles and the prevalence of depression this equates to 10,950 HGV drivers with an increased statistical risk of an accident or near miss. As the impact of HGV accidents is potentially large, including loss of life, it would be sensible to extend the research findings here into an action plan.

  10. Women's experiences and behaviour at onset of symptoms of ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herning, Margrethe; Hansen, Peter R; Bygbjerg, B;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimizing time from onset of symptoms to treatment (treatment delay) is crucial for patients with ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), and one of the great challenges is to reduce the delay relating to the prehospital behaviour of the patient (patient delay......). Studies indicate that women delay longer than men and insights into this area could lead to improved health education programmes aimed at reducing patient delay in women with STEMI. METHOD: Open interviews with 14 women with STEMI were held during their hospital stay from June to September 2009...... for medical assistance or to cope with the situation. (3) Actions and strategies taken after onset of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Three factors determined whether women showed appropriate behaviour for reduced patient delay after onset of symptoms: (1) identifying the symptoms as being of cardiac origin, (2...

  11. [Thrombopenia as the presenting symptom of acute disseminated lupus erythematosus: Moschcowitz's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrier, P; Cousteau, C; Gounant, C; Grodner, F; Ruf, R; Szpirglas, H; Texier, J; Laufer, J

    1983-01-01

    Possible relationships between Moschcowitz's disease and acute systemic lupus erythematosus are analyzed based on findings in one case. Initial exclusively buccal symptoms suggested a diagnosis of lupus, and then of Moschcowitz's disease leading to a fatal outcome. The main points discussed relate to diagnostic difficulties to enable distinction between the two diseases. A thrombotic thrombopenic purpura during the second phase of the disease showed a characteristic microangiopathy associated with a non-autoimmune hemolytic anemia and a schizocytosis: two forms of the affection are recognized, one with a chronic and one with an acute course. The latter, which has a fulminating progression leading to death, was that described in the case reported.

  12. Comparing cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression in myocardial infarction patients and depressed patients in primary and mental health care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke A Groenewold

    Full Text Available Depression in myocardial infarction patients is often a first episode with a late age of onset. Two studies that compared depressed myocardial infarction patients to psychiatric patients found similar levels of somatic symptoms, and one study reported lower levels of cognitive/affective symptoms in myocardial infarction patients. We hypothesized that myocardial infarction patients with first depression onset at a late age would experience fewer cognitive/affective symptoms than depressed patients without cardiovascular disease. Combined data from two large multicenter depression studies resulted in a sample of 734 depressed individuals (194 myocardial infarction, 214 primary care, and 326 mental health care patients. A structured clinical interview provided information about depression diagnosis. Summed cognitive/affective and somatic symptom levels were compared between groups using analysis of covariance, with and without adjusting for the effects of recurrence and age of onset. Depressed myocardial infarction and primary care patients reported significantly lower cognitive/affective symptom levels than mental health care patients (F (2,682 = 6.043, p = 0.003. Additional analyses showed that the difference between myocardial infarction and mental health care patients disappeared after adjusting for age of onset but not recurrence of depression. These group differences were also supported by data-driven latent class analyses. There were no significant group differences in somatic symptom levels. Depression after myocardial infarction appears to have a different phenomenology than depression observed in mental health care. Future studies should investigate the etiological factors predictive of symptom dimensions in myocardial infarction and late-onset depression patients.

  13. Student and Nonstudent National Guard Service Members/Veterans and Their Use of Services for Mental Health Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E.; Bohnert, Kipling M.; Walters, Heather M.; Ganoczy, Dara; Valenstein, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare mental health symptoms and service utilization among returning student and nonstudent service members/veterans (SM/Vs). Participants: SM/Vs (N = 1,439) were predominately white (83%) men (92%), half were over age 30 (48%), and 24% were students. Methods: SM/Vs completed surveys 6 months post deployment (October 2011-July…

  14. Craniofacial pain can be the sole prodromal symptom of an acute myocardial infarction: an interdisciplinary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, Marcelo; Álvarez, Ramón; Michelis, Virginia; Waldenström, Anders; Isberg, Annika

    2016-04-01

    We recently found craniofacial pain to be the sole symptom of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 4% of patients. We hypothesized that this scenario is also true for symptoms of prodromal (pre-infarction) angina. We studied 326 consecutive patients who experienced myocardial ischemia. Intra-individual variability analyses with respect to ECG findings and pain characteristics were performed for those 150 patients who experienced at least one recurrent ischemic episode. AMI patients (n=113) were categorized into two subgroups: "abrupt onset" (n=81) and "prodromal angina" (n=32). Age, gender and risk factor comparisons were performed between groups. Craniofacial pain constituted the sole prodromal symptom of an AMI in 5% of patients. In those who experienced two ischemic episodes, women were more likely than men to experience craniofacial pain in both episodes (ppain quality descriptors "pressure" and "burning". This study is to our knowledge the first to report that craniofacial pain can be the only symptom of a pre-infarction angina. Craniofacial pain constitutes the sole prodromal AMI symptom in one out of 20 AMI patients. Recognition of this atypical symptom presentation is low because research on prodromal AMI symptoms has to date studied only patients with chest pain. To avoid a potentially fatal misdiagnosis, awareness of this clinical presentation needs to be brought to the attention of clinicians, researchers and the general public.

  15. Impact of patients' symptom interpretation on care-seeking behaviors of patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li; YAN Hong-bing; YANG Jin-gang; SUN Yi-hong; HU Da-yi

    2010-01-01

    Background Delay in seeking medical care in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is receiving increasing attention. This study aimed to examine the association between expected symptoms and experienced symptoms of AMI and its effects on care-seeking behaviors of patients with AMI.Methods Between November 1, 2005 and December 31, 2006, a cross-sectional and multicenter survey was conducted in 19 hospitals in Beijing and included 799 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) admitted within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. Data were collected by structured interviews and medical record review.Results The median (25%, 75%) prehospital delay was 140 (75, 300) minutes. Only 264 (33.0%) arrived at the hospital by ambulance. The most common symptoms expected by patients with STEMI were central or left chest pain (71.4%),radiating arm or shoulder pain (68.7%), shortness of breath or dyspnea (65.5%), and loss of consciousness (52.1%). The most common symptoms experienced were central or left chest pain (82.1%), sweats (71.8%), shortness of breath or dyspnea (43.7%), nausea or vomiting (32.3%), and radiating pain (29.4%). A mismatch between symptoms experienced and those expected occurred in 41.8% of patients. Patients who interpreted their symptoms as noncardiac in origin were more likely to arrive at the hospital by self-transport (86.5% vs. 52.9%, P <0.001) and had longer prehospital delays (medians, 180 vs. 120 minutes, P <0.001) compared to those who interpreted their symptoms as cardiac in origin.Conclusions Symptom interpretation influenced the care-seeking behaviors of patients with STEMI in Beijing. A mismatch between expectation and actual symptoms was associated with longer prehospital delay and decreased use of emergency medical service (EMS).

  16. Student and Nonstudent National Guard Service Members/Veterans and Their Use of Services for Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E; Bohnert, Kipling M; Walters, Heather M; Ganoczy, Dara; Valenstein, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    To compare mental health symptoms and service utilization among returning student and nonstudent service members/veterans (SM/Vs). SM/Vs (N = 1,439) were predominately white (83%) men (92%), half were over age 30 (48%), and 24% were students. SM/Vs completed surveys 6 months post deployment (October 2011-July 2013). Students and nonstudent SM/Vs did not differ in positive screens for depression, anxiety, hazardous drinking, or posttraumatic stress disorder. Students (n = 81) and nonstudents (n = 265) with mental health symptoms had low levels of mental health service use (eg, Department of Veterans Affairs [VA], civilian, or military facilities), at 47% and 57%. respectively. Fewer students used VA mental health services. Common barriers to treatment seeking included not wanting treatment on military records and embarrassment. Like other returning SM/Vs, student SM/Vs have unmet mental health needs. The discrepancy between potential need and treatment seeking suggests that colleges might be helpful in further facilitating mental health service use for student SM/Vs.

  17. A pilot RCT of psychodynamic group art therapy for patients in acute psychotic episodes: feasibility, impact on symptoms and mentalising capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christiane; Haase, Laura; Seidel, Dorothea; Bayerl, Martin; Gallinat, Jürgen; Herrmann, Uwe; Dannecker, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning. Secondary outcomes were mentalising function, estimated with the Reading the mind in the eyes test and the Levels of emotional awareness scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, quality of life and satisfaction with care. Assessments were made at baseline, at post-treatment and at 12 weeks' follow-up. At 12 weeks, 55% of patients randomised to art therapy, and 66% of patients receiving treatment as usual were examined. In the per-protocol sample, art therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction of positive symptoms and improved psychosocial functioning at post-treatment and follow-up, and with a greater mean reduction of negative symptoms at follow-up compared to standard treatment. The significant reduction of positive symptoms at post-treatment was maintained in an attempted intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences regarding depressive symptoms. Of secondary outcome parameters, patients in the art therapy group showed a significant improvement in levels of emotional awareness, and particularly in their ability to reflect about others' emotional mental states. This is one of the first randomised controlled trials on psychodynamic group art therapy for patients with acute psychotic episodes receiving hospital treatment. Results prove the feasibility of trials on art therapy during acute psychotic episodes and justify

  18. A pilot RCT of psychodynamic group art therapy for patients in acute psychotic episodes: feasibility, impact on symptoms and mentalising capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Montag

    Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning. Secondary outcomes were mentalising function, estimated with the Reading the mind in the eyes test and the Levels of emotional awareness scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, quality of life and satisfaction with care. Assessments were made at baseline, at post-treatment and at 12 weeks' follow-up. At 12 weeks, 55% of patients randomised to art therapy, and 66% of patients receiving treatment as usual were examined. In the per-protocol sample, art therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction of positive symptoms and improved psychosocial functioning at post-treatment and follow-up, and with a greater mean reduction of negative symptoms at follow-up compared to standard treatment. The significant reduction of positive symptoms at post-treatment was maintained in an attempted intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences regarding depressive symptoms. Of secondary outcome parameters, patients in the art therapy group showed a significant improvement in levels of emotional awareness, and particularly in their ability to reflect about others' emotional mental states. This is one of the first randomised controlled trials on psychodynamic group art therapy for patients with acute psychotic episodes receiving hospital treatment. Results prove the feasibility of trials on art therapy during acute psychotic

  19. Acute high dose lithium-induced exacerbation of obsessive compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Shreekantiah; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder whose pathophysiology is linked to serotonergic dysfunction. More recently, the role of glutamate has also been posited. Lithium is used as an adjunctive for the treatment of OCD which is found to enhance serotonergic transmission. We present a case of OCD who was on stable dose of sertraline developed exacerbation of obsessive compulsive symptoms with acute high dose of lithium but improved after dose reduction.

  20. 'Living a life in shades of grey': experiencing depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Siren E; Kirkevold, Marit; Engedal, Knut; Kim, Hesook S

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the lived experience of stroke survivors suffering from depressive symptoms in the acute phase; addressing the following questions: (a) what is the nature of depression as experienced by post-stroke patients in the acute phase? (b) what is it like to live with depression within the first weeks following stroke? Post-stroke depression occurs in at least one quarter of stroke survivors and is linked to poorer outcomes. This qualitative study is methodologically grounded in hermeneutic phenomenology, influenced by van Manen and Ricoeur. A descriptive, qualitative design was used applying in-depth interviews as the method of data collection with nine participants. The data collection took place in 2008. The material revealed two main themes that generate the feeling and description of 'living a life in shades of grey': (a) being trapped and (b) losing oneself. 'Shades of grey' could be understood as being confined in a new life-world and losing oneself as the person one knew. The participants confirmed suffering from depressive symptoms, but depression was not seen as meaningful on its own. They related their experiences of post-stroke depression in the acute phase to the losses they experienced. Nurses ought to take into account the depth of the life changes that stroke survivors may experience. There is a need for continued empirical research on how nurses may help and support stroke survivors dealing with depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke and how depressive symptoms develop over time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The A-Test: a symptom validity indicator embedded within a mental status examination for Social Security Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    During the Psychological Consultative Examination (PCE) for Social Security Disability evaluations, there is a need for symptom validity measures to validate the findings for claims of disability (Chafetz, 2010 ). The "A" Random Letter Test of Auditory Vigilance (A-Test) is a simple auditory continuous performance test utilized as part of a comprehensive mental status examination (Strub & Black, 1993 ). The present study validates the use of the A-Test as a symptom validity measure easily administered as part of the PCE for Social Security Disability evaluations. This study shows that the A-Test is well correlated with other symptom validity measures, discriminates multiple symptom validity failure from nonmultiple failure, and has good classification accuracy statistics in two different studies of these claimants. The A-Test can thus easily be used as a symptom validity measure in professional psychological examinations of Social Security claimants without additional cost or much added time to the evaluation.

  2. Patients and acute coronary syndrome - Prehospital delay and mental and emotional delaying responses - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Vibeke; Larsen, Birte Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    . A phenomenological design inspired by Steinar Kvale provided the methodological foundation. 15 women and 15 men with a first-time diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome were interviewed 48-72 hours after admission. On symptom debut, the participants’ strategies were to «wait and see» and «let me be». Chest pains were...

  3. Acute atropine intoxication with psychiatric symptoms by herbal infusion of Pulmonaria officinalis (Lungwort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Baca-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lungwort infusion is a preparation extracted from Pulmonaria officinalis which is occasionally used as a folk remedy for the common cold. The current report aims to describe acute atropine intoxications with delirium caused by Lungwort infusion in several members of the same family. Methods: Description of three case reports. Search of literature through Medline. Results: Three generations of a same family presented acute and moderately severe atropine intoxications after drinking an infusion prepared with Pulmonaria officinalis. Conclusions: Despite the lack of scientific evidence for its clinical use, medicinal plants continue being widely used. In spite of severe adverse effects reported, the general thought is that herbal remedies are harmless. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute atropine intoxications with psychiatric symptoms secondary to Pulmonaria officinalis in several members of a family. We suspect that the lungwort infusion may have been contaminated with some other substance with atropinic properties.

  4. Common stressful life events and difficulties are associated with mental health symptoms and substance use in young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nancy CP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stressful life events are associated with mood disorders in adults in clinical settings. Less described in the literature is the association between common life stressors and a wide range of psychopathology in young adolescents. This study uses a large non-clinical sample of young adolescents to describe the associations among worry or stress about common life events/difficulties, mental health and substance use. Methods Data on lifetime stress or worry about common life events/difficulties (i.e., romantic breakups, family disruption, interpersonal difficulties, and personal stress (health, weight, school work, symptoms of depression, conduct disorder symptoms, and substance use were collected from 1025 grade 7 students (mean age 12.9 years; 45% male. The association between each source of stress and each mental health and substance use indicator was modeled in separate logistic regression analyses. Results The proportion of adolescents reporting worry or stress ranged from 7% for new family to 53% for schoolwork. Romantic breakup stress was statistically significantly associated with all the mental health and substance use indicators except illicit drug use. Family disruption was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms, marijuana use, and cigarette use. Interpersonal difficulties stress was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms. All sources of personal stress were statistically significantly related to depression symptoms. In addition, health-related stress was inversely related to binge drinking. Conclusion Young adolescents may benefit from learning positive coping skills to manage worry or stress about common stressors and in particular, worry or stress related to romantic breakups. Appropriate management of mental health symptoms and substance use related to common stressful life events and difficulties may help reduce emerging psychopathology.

  5. Common stressful life events and difficulties are associated with mental health symptoms and substance use in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Nancy Cp; Dugas, Erika; O'Loughlin, Erin; Rodriguez, Daniel; Contreras, Gisele; Chaiton, Michael; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2012-08-17

    Stressful life events are associated with mood disorders in adults in clinical settings. Less described in the literature is the association between common life stressors and a wide range of psychopathology in young adolescents. This study uses a large non-clinical sample of young adolescents to describe the associations among worry or stress about common life events/difficulties, mental health and substance use. Data on lifetime stress or worry about common life events/difficulties (i.e., romantic breakups, family disruption, interpersonal difficulties, and personal stress (health, weight, school work)), symptoms of depression, conduct disorder symptoms, and substance use were collected from 1025 grade 7 students (mean age 12.9 years; 45% male). The association between each source of stress and each mental health and substance use indicator was modeled in separate logistic regression analyses. The proportion of adolescents reporting worry or stress ranged from 7% for new family to 53% for schoolwork. Romantic breakup stress was statistically significantly associated with all the mental health and substance use indicators except illicit drug use. Family disruption was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms, marijuana use, and cigarette use. Interpersonal difficulties stress was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms. All sources of personal stress were statistically significantly related to depression symptoms. In addition, health-related stress was inversely related to binge drinking. Young adolescents may benefit from learning positive coping skills to manage worry or stress about common stressors and in particular, worry or stress related to romantic breakups. Appropriate management of mental health symptoms and substance use related to common stressful life events and difficulties may help reduce emerging psychopathology.

  6. Informative content of clinical symptoms of acute appendicitis in different terms of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutovoy A.B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to evaluate diagnostic efficacy of some clinical symptoms of acute appendicitis 75 women in different terms of pregnancy were examined. Informative content of such symptoms as Kocher- Volkovich, Rovsing, Bartomje - Michelson, Sitkovsky, Gabay, Brendo, Michelson, Ivanov was studied. Pain syndrome was fixed in all examined women. Pain localization was various and depended on the pregnancy term. During the I trimester of pregnancy the most often pain was manifestated in epigastrium and right lower quadrant, rarely in other abdomen regions. In the II trimester in majority of cases pain occurred in right lower quadrant. During III trimester pain prevailed in right upper quadrant of abdomen. Analyzing informative component of researching symptoms there was noted significant decrease (р<0,05; р<0,01; р<0,001 of their diagnostic value with growth of pregnancy term. Therefore Kocher – Volkovich and Rovsing symptoms were the most informative in the I trimester of pregnancy. Diagnostic efficacy of Brendo(67,3%, Michelson(55,7%, Ivanov(59,6% symptoms was higher than that of Kocher – Volkovich (36,5%, Rovsing (28,8%, Sitkovsky (51,9%, Bartomje – Michelson (55,7% symptoms, their value was diminishing together with increase of pregnancy terms.

  7. Natural language processing to extract symptoms of severe mental illness from clinical text: the Clinical Record Interactive Search Comprehensive Data Extraction (CRIS-CODE) project.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R. G.; Patel, R.(Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA); Jayatilleke, N.; Kolliakou, A; Ball, M; Gorrell, G.; Roberts, A; Dobson, R. J.; Stewart, R.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to use natural language processing to develop a suite of language models to capture key symptoms of severe mental illness (SMI) from clinical text, to facilitate the secondary use of mental healthcare data in research. DESIGN: Development and validation of information extraction applications for ascertaining symptoms of SMI in routine mental health records using the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) data resource; description of their distribution in a corpus of ...

  8. Harm reduction-a systematic review on effects of alcohol reduction on physical and mental symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Based on the knowledge that alcohol misuse causes a multitude of diseases and increased mortality, this systematic review examines whether a reduction of the individual alcohol consumption can contribute to a minimization of health risks within a harm reduction approach. In fact, the reviewed 63 studies indicate that interventions aiming at alcohol reduction (including total abstinence as one possible therapeutic aim) indeed resulted in or were associated with positive effects in harmful, hazardous or alcohol-dependent drinkers. Major benefits were observed for reducing alcohol-associated injuries, recovery of ventricular heart function in alcoholic cardiomyopathy, blood pressure lowering, normalization of biochemical parameter, body weight reduction, histological improvement in pre-cirrhotic alcohol-related liver disease and slowed progression of an already existing alcohol-attributable liver fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced withdrawal symptoms, prevalence of psychiatric episodes and duration of in-patient hospital days, improvement of anxiety and depression symptoms, self-confidence, physical and mental quality of life, fewer alcohol-related adverse consequences as well as lower psychosocial stress levels and better social functioning can result from reduced alcohol intake. The reviewed literature demonstrated remarkable socioeconomic cost benefits in areas such as the medical health-care system or workforce productivity. Individuals with heightened vulnerability further benefit significantly from alcohol reduction (e.g. hypertension, hepatitis C, psychiatric co-morbidities, pregnancy, but also among adolescents and young adults). Concluding, the reviewed studies strongly support and emphasize the importance and benefits of early initial screening for problematic alcohol use followed by brief and other interventions in first contact medical health-care facilities to reduce alcohol intake. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Basic symptoms and psychotic symptoms: their relationships in the at risk mental states, first episode and multi-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparelli, Anna; De Carolis, Antonella; Emili, Emanuele; Rigucci, Silvia; Falcone, Ilaria; Corigliano, Valentina; Curto, Martina; Trovini, Giada; Dehning, Julia; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Girardi, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    In the field of the early psychosis two main approaches attempt to develop rating tools, one investigating the basic symptoms domain, and the other the attenuated psychotic symptoms. To explore the relationship between basic symptoms (BSs) and other symptom domains in different phases of the psychotic illness 32 at ultra-high risk (UHR), 49 first episode schizophrenia (FES), 42 multiple episode schizophrenia (MES), and 28 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients were enrolled. Participants were assessed using the SIPS/SOPS and the FCQ scales. Analyses of covariance taking into account socio-demographic and clinical variables significantly different between groups were applied to compare FCQ and SOPS scores. Finally FCQ and SOPS principal component analysis was carried out in the schizophrenia spectrum group. SOPS scores were higher in the UHR, FES and MES groups compared to the GAD control group. Concordantly, FES and MES groups had a higher number of basic symptoms in comparison with the GAD group, whereas UHR did not differ from the control group. The largest number of correlations between BSs and psychotic symptoms was found in the GAD group. According to the principal component analysis (PCA) five factors were extracted, with the BSs loading on a unique factor. Our findings imply that the boundary between psychotic and non-psychotic conditions cannot be outlined on the basis of the presence/absence of basic and psychotic symptoms.

  10. Externalizing symptoms moderate associations among interpersonal skills, parenting, and depressive symptoms in adolescents seeking mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents' interpersonal skills are associated with fewer teen depressive symptoms and more positive parenting, but little is known about how teens' externalizing problems moderate these relationships. This study examines links among teens' interpersonal skills, parenting, and withdrawn-depressed symptoms in adolescents seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment with elevated or non-elevated externalizing problems. Adolescents (N = 346; 42 % female; 61 % African-American) ages 12-19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and parents completed assessments at baseline and 6 months. At baseline parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed and externalizing symptoms, and were observed interacting to assess teen interpersonal skills. At 6 months adolescents reported on parenting, and parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed symptoms. Structural equation modeling tested two models (one with teen reported symptoms and one with parent reported symptoms). Model fit was better for youth with elevated externalizing problems regardless of reporter. For youth with elevated externalizing problems, baseline teen positive interpersonal skills were not directly associated with 6-month withdrawn-depressed symptoms, but more positive parenting was associated with fewer withdrawn-depressed symptoms. In the teen report model, more positive teen interpersonal skills were associated with more positive parenting, and there was a trend for parenting to indirectly account for the relationship between interpersonal skills and withdrawn-depressed symptoms. The findings extend research on the role of externalizing problems in teens' depression risk. Interventions for depression that target interpersonal skills may be particularly effective in youth with elevated externalizing problems.

  11. Preliminary Study of Acute Changes in Emotion Processing in Trauma Survivors with PTSD Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests traumatic experience can rapidly alter brain activation associated with emotion processing. However, little is known about acute changes in emotion neurocircuits that underlie PTSD symptom development. To examine acute alterations in emotion circuit activation and structure that may be linked to PTSD symptoms, thirty-eight subjects performed a task of appraisal of emotional faces as their brains were functionally and structurally studied with MRI at both two weeks and three months after motor vehicle collision (MVC. As determined by symptoms reported in the PTSD Checklist at three months, sixteen survivors developed probable PTSD, whereas the remaining 22 did not meet criteria for PTSD diagnosis (non-PTSD. The probable PTSD group had greater activation than the non-PTSD group in dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC and vmPFC while appraising fearful faces within two weeks after MVC and in left insular cortex (IC three months after MVC. dmPFC activation at two weeks significantly positively correlated with PTSD symptom severity at two weeks (R = 0.462, P = 0.006 and three months (R = 0.418, p = 0.012. Changes over time in dmPFC activation and in PTSD symptom severity were also significantly positively correlated in the probable PTSD group (R = 0.641, P = 0.018. A significant time by group interaction was found for volume changes in left superior frontal gyrus (SFG, F = 6.048, p = 0.019 that partially overlapped dmPFC active region. Between two weeks and three months, left SFG volume decreased in probable PTSD survivors. These findings identify alterations in frontal cortical activity and structure during the early post-trauma period that appear to be associated with development of PTSD symptoms.

  12. Prevalence and determinants of symptoms of common mental disorders in retired professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to explore the associations between stressors (life events, Rugby Union career dissatisfaction) and the health conditions under study. Therefore, cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study of retired professional Rugby Union players. An electronic questionnaire was established using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of CMD and stressors. The electronic questionnaire was subsequently distributed to retired players by the national Rugby Union players' associations in France, Ireland and South Africa. Among 295 retired professional Rugby Union players (mean age of 38 years), prevalence rates were 25% for distress, 28% for anxiety/depression, 29% for sleeping disturbance, 62% for adverse nutrition behaviour, 15% for smoking and 24% for adverse alcohol behaviour. A higher number of life events were associated with distress (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4), anxiety/depression (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1), sleeping disturbance (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.5). A higher level of dissatisfaction of the player's Rugby Union career was associated with distress (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-1.0), sleeping disturbance (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0), smoking (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-0.9). In conclusion, our study suggests that prevalence of symptoms of CMD is high among retired professional Rugby Union players, being associated with both a higher number of life events and a higher level of Rugby Union career dissatisfaction.

  13. The association between acculturation patterns and mental health symptoms among Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Shoshani, Anat; Lurie, Ido

    2015-07-01

    Past research has documented the role acculturation plays in the process of adjustment to new cultures among migrants. Yet little attention has been paid thus far to the role of acculturation in the context of forced migration. In this study we examined the association between acculturation patterns and mental health symptoms among a convenience sample of Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers (n = 118) who accessed health services at the Physicians for Human Rights Open-Clinic in Israel. Participants completed measures on sociodemographic information as well as detention history, mental health symptoms, exposure to traumatic events, and acculturation pattern, in their native language upon accessing services. Consistent with our predictions, findings showed that acculturation predicted depressive symptoms among asylum seekers beyond the effect of history of detention and reports of experiences of traumatic events. Assimilated compared with integrated asylum seekers reported higher depressive symptoms. Findings draw attention to the paradox of assimilation, and the mental health risks it poses among those wishing to integrate into the new culture at the expanse of their original culture. Asylum seekers may be particularly vulnerable to the risks of assimilation in the restrictive policies that characterize many industrial countries in recent years.

  14. Acute post-traumatic stress symptoms and age predict outcome in military blast concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donald, Christine L; Adam, Octavian R; Johnson, Ann M; Nelson, Elliot C; Werner, Nicole J; Rivet, Dennis J; Brody, David L

    2015-05-01

    High rates of adverse outcomes have been reported following blast-related concussive traumatic brain injury in US military personnel, but the extent to which such adverse outcomes can be predicted acutely after injury is unknown. We performed a prospective, observational study of US military personnel with blast-related concussive traumatic brain injury (n = 38) and controls (n = 34) enrolled between March and September 2012. Importantly all subjects returned to duty and did not require evacuation. Subjects were evaluated acutely 0-7 days after injury at two sites in Afghanistan and again 6-12 months later in the United States. Acute assessments revealed heightened post-concussive, post-traumatic stress, and depressive symptoms along with worse cognitive performance in subjects with traumatic brain injury. At 6-12 months follow-up, 63% of subjects with traumatic brain injury and 20% of controls had moderate overall disability. Subjects with traumatic brain injury showed more severe neurobehavioural, post-traumatic stress and depression symptoms along with more frequent cognitive performance deficits and more substantial headache impairment than control subjects. Logistic regression modelling using only acute measures identified that a diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, older age, and more severe post-traumatic stress symptoms provided a good prediction of later adverse global outcomes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.84). Thus, US military personnel with concussive blast-related traumatic brain injury in Afghanistan who returned to duty still fared quite poorly on many clinical outcome measures 6-12 months after injury. Poor global outcome seems to be largely driven by psychological health measures, age, and traumatic brain injury status. The effects of early interventions and longer term implications of these findings are unknown.

  15. The effects of optimism and gratitude on adherence, functioning and mental health following an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Celano, Christopher M; Beale, Eleanor E; Beach, Scott R; Suarez, Laura; Belcher, Arianna M; Januzzi, James L; Huffman, Jeff C

    This study examined the effects of optimism and gratitude on self-reported health behavior adherence, physical functioning and emotional well-being after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Among 156 patients, we examined associations between optimism and gratitude measured 2 weeks post-ACS and 6-month outcomes: adherence to medical recommendations, mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical functioning, depressive symptoms and anxiety. Multivariable linear regression models were used, controlling for increasing levels of adjustment. Optimism [β=.11, standard error (S.E.)=.05, P=.038] and gratitude (β=.10, S.E.=.05, P=.027) at 2 weeks were associated with subsequent self-reported adherence to medical recommendations (diet, exercise, medication adherence, stress reduction) at 6 months in fully adjusted models. Two-week optimism and gratitude were associated with improvements in mental HRQoL (optimism: β=.44, S.E.=.13, P=.001; gratitude: β=.33, S.E.=.12, P=.005) and reductions in symptoms of depression (optimism: β=-.11, S.E.=.05, P=.039; gratitude: β=-.10, S.E.=.05, P=.028) and anxiety (optimism: β=-.15, S.E.=.05, P=.004; gratitude: β=-.10, S.E.=.05, P=.034) at 6 months. Optimism and gratitude at 2 weeks post-ACS were associated with higher self-reported adherence and improved emotional well-being 6 months later, independent of negative emotional states. Optimism and gratitude may help recovery from an ACS. Interventions promoting these positive constructs could help improve adherence and well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of mental distress in patients with low back pain and a population-based control group measured by Symptoms Check List

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Fisker, Annette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to compare mental symptoms and distress as measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 in sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed patients with low back pain with a population-based control group. METHODS: Mental distress was compared in a group of patients with low back pain (n......=770) and a randomly selected population-based reference group (n=909). Established Danish cut-off values for mental distress were used to evaluate the mental distress status in the low back pain and control group and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the Global Severity Index......PURPOSE: Mental distress is common in persons experiencing low back pain and who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed. It is, however, not known how mental distress measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 differs between patients with low back pain and the general population...

  17. Acute short-term mental stress does not influence salivary flow rate dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella A Naumova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. METHODS: Saliva of male subjects was collected for five minutes before, immediately, 10, 30 and 120 min after toothbrushing. Before toothbrushing, the subjects were exposed to acute stress in the form of a 2 min public speech. Salivary flow rate and total protein was measured. The physiological stress marker cortisol was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the subjects' psychological stress reaction, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory State questionnaire (STAI data were obtained. The subjects were divided into stress subgroup (S1 (psychological reactivity, stress subgroup (S2 (psychological and physiological reactivity and a control group. The area under the curve for salivarycortisol concentration and STAI-State scores were calculated. All data underwent statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Immediately after stress exposure, all participants exhibited a psychological stress reaction. Stress exposure did not change the salivary flow rate. Only 69% of the subjects continued to display a physiological stress reaction 20 minutes after the public talk. There was no significant change in the salivary flow rate during the psychological and the physiological stress reaction phases relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress has no impact on the salivary flow rate; however, there may be other responses through salivary proteins that are increased with the acute stress stimuli. Future studies are needed to examine

  18. The use of self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning after exposure to chlorpyrifos 50 % plus cypermethrin 5 % among Nepali farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Dea Haagensen; Jørs, Erik; Varma, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    cholinesterase (PchE) activity, in addition to the symptoms, when assessing occupational acute pesticide poisoning. This study evaluated self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning among Nepali farmers by examining self-reported acute organophosphate poisoning symptoms and PchE activity......%: moderately hazardous) spray session or a 2-h placebo spray session, and after 7 days' washout, the farmers were assigned to the other spray session. Before and after each spray session farmers were interviewed about acute organophosphate poisoning symptoms and PchE activity was measured. Analyses were...... symptoms among the farmers regardless of organophosphate exposure or poisoning. Thus, self-reported acute organophosphate symptoms seem to be a poor proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning as the occurrence of these symptoms is not necessarily associated with acute organophosphate poisoning. TRIAL...

  19. Physical and mental health symptoms among NYC transit workers seven and one-half months after the WTC attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Loren C; Baron, Sherry; Bernard, Bruce; Driscoll, Richard; Mueller, Charles; Wallingford, Ken

    2005-06-01

    On September 11, 2001, 600-800 New York City transit (NYCT) workers were working near the World Trade Center (WTC) Towers. After the disaster, employees reported physical and mental health symptoms related to the event. Two hundred sixty-nine NYC transit employees were surveyed for mental and physical health symptoms 7(1/2) months after the WTC disaster. Workers in the dust cloud at the time of the WTC collapse had significantly higher risk of persistent lower respiratory (OR = 9.85; 95% CI: 2.24, 58.93) and mucous membrane (OR = 4.91; 95% CI: 1.53, 16.22) symptoms, depressive symptoms (OR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.12, 5.51), and PTSD symptoms (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.003, 8.16) compared to those not exposed to the dust cloud. Additional WTC exposures and potential confounders were also analyzed. Clinical follow up for physical and psychological health conditions should be provided for public transportation workers in the event of a catastrophic event.

  20. Pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among men and women attending an outpatient mental health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, David; Tsai, Michelle; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relationship between types of pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among psychiatric outpatients. Patients (N = 95) completed measures of somatic symptoms, narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability, and psychiatric symptoms. Relationships among variables were analysed using t-tests and correlations, controlling for psychiatric distress. Somatic symptoms were positively associated with two types of narcissistic dysfunction. Among women there was a positive association between somatic symptoms and narcissistic vulnerability, but not grandiosity. Among men, somatic symptoms were positively associated with narcissistic grandiosity, but not vulnerability. The connection between narcissistic pathology and somatic symptom severity appears to differ based on gender. Further research is needed to confirm and extend this preliminary finding.

  1. Acute child and mother psychophysiological responses and subsequent PTSD symptoms following a child's traumatic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Sarah A; Christopher, Norman C; van Dulmen, Manfred H M; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between acute cortisol responses to trauma and subsequent PTSD symptoms (PTSS) in children and their biological mothers. Urinary cortisol levels were assessed in 54 children aged 8-18 upon admission to a level-1 trauma center. Six weeks posttrauma, 15-hour urine samples were collected from children and their mothers. Depression and PTSS were assessed at 6 weeks (N = 44) and 7 months (N = 38) posttrauma. Higher child in-hospital cortisol significantly predicted 6-week child PTSS. This was true only for boys at 7 months. In mothers, lower 6-week cortisol levels significantly predicted 7-month PTSS. Results extend findings of differing directions of acute hormonal predictors of PTSS in adults versus children to a sample of genetically related individuals.

  2. Clustering of symptoms of mental disorder in the medium-term following conflict: an epidemiological study in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Ivancic, Lorraine; Rees, Susan; Bateman-Steel, Catherine; Steel, Zachary

    2014-10-30

    It is important to define subpopulations with mental health and psychosocial reactions in the medium-term following conflict to ensure that an appropriate array of services are provided to meet the diversity of needs. We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) on epidemiological data drawn from an urban and rural sample of 1221 adults (581 men and 640 women, response 82%) in post-conflict Timor Leste 4 years after the cessation of violence. The prevalence of PTSD was 4.9%; severe distress 4.8%; anger attacks 38.3%; and paranoid-like symptoms 10.9%. The best fitting LCA yielded three classes comprising those with no or minimal symptoms (86%), a class with anger-paranoia (13%) and a comorbid mental disorder class (1.5%) characterized by PTSD (100%) and severe distress (98%). The comorbid mental disorder class had an over-representation of men, the unemployed, residents in the urban area and persons with the greatest exposure to human rights trauma, murder and health stress. The anger-paranoia class experienced moderate levels of trauma and had an over-representation of urban dwellers, women, and those with higher levels of education. The analysis assists in clarifying the populations with mental disorder and adverse psychosocial reactions in need of intervention in the medium-term following conflict.

  3. Maintenance of a positive outlook during acute stress protects against pro-inflammatory reactivity and future depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, K.; Epel, E.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Prather, A.A.; Puterman, E.; Dhabhar, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and affective responses to acute stress influence pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity, and peripheral cytokines (particularly lnterleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)), can act on the brain to promote depressive symptoms. It is unknown whether acute stress-induced changes in positive affect and cognitions (POS) and pro-inflammatory reactivity predict future depressive symptoms. We examined acute stress responses among women, to determine prospective predictors of depressive symptoms. Hypotheses: 1) Stress-induced decreases in POS will be associated with stress-related increases in circulating IL-1β. 2) Acute stress-induced decreases in POS and increases in IL-1β reactivity will predict increases in depressive symptoms one year later. Thirty-five post-menopausal women were exposed to acute stress with the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and provided blood samples under resting conditions and 30 minutes after the conclusion of the TSST, which were assayed for IL-1β. IL-1β reactivity was quantified as post minus pre-TSST. Failure to maintain POS was quantified as the decrease in POS during the TSST. Change in depressive symptoms from the study baseline to the following year was determined. Greater acute stress-induced declines in POS were significantly associated with increased IL-1β reactivity (p≤.02), which significantly predicted increases in depressive symptoms over the following year (p<.01), controlling for age, body mass index, chronic stress, antidepressant use and baseline depressive symptoms. IL-1β reactivity was a significant mediator of the relationship between POS decline and future increases in depressive symptoms (p=.04). Difficulty maintaining positivity under stress and heightened pro-inflammatory reactivity may be markers and/or mechanisms of risk for future increases in depressive symptoms. PMID:22119400

  4. Exploring DSM-5 criterion A in Acute Stress Disorder symptoms following natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenda, Osnat; Grossman, Ephraim S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Hoffman, Yaakov

    2017-10-01

    The present study examines the DSM-5 Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) diagnostic criteria of exposure, in the context of a natural disaster. The study is based on the reports of 1001 Filipinos following the aftermath of super typhoon Haiyan in 2013. Participants reported exposure to injury, psychological distress and ASD symptoms. Findings indicated the association of criterion A with the prevalence of meeting all other ASD diagnostic criteria and high psychological distress. The diagnostic properties of Criterion A are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ready, aim fire! Mental health nurses under siege in acute inpatient facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Louise

    2013-04-01

    It has been clearly acknowledged and well-documented that physical, emotional, and psychological violence is a central theme and an expected workplace hazard for registered nurses working in acute inpatient mental health care facilities. Limited research, however, has focused on how registered nurses have been able to cope within this environment and adequately protect themselves from harm. A critical feminist research project recently explored the lived experience of 13 Australian, female, registered nurses working in a busy metropolitan acute inpatient mental health care facility. "Fear" was exposed as the precursor to violence and aggression, both "fear as experienced by the nurse" and "fear as experienced by the patient." The participants reported experiencing a sense of fear when they could not accurately or confidently anticipate a patient response or reaction. They identified this relationship with fear as being "part of the job" and part of the unpredictable nature of caring for people experiencing complex distortions in thinking and behavior. The participants believed, however, that additional workplace pressures complicated the therapeutic environment, resulting in a distraction from patient care and observation. This distraction could lead to nurse-patient miscommunication and the potential for violence. This article discusses a major theme to emerge from this study, "Better the devil you know!" The theme highlights how mental health nurses cope with violence and why they choose to continue working in this complex care environment.

  6. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouttebarge

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional behaviour among current and retired professional footballers. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among current and retired professional footballers. Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries across three continents. Results A total of 607 current professional footballers (mean age of 27 years and 219 retired professional footballers (mean age of 35 years were involved in the study. Among retired professional footballers, statistically significant negative correlations were found between employment status and symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression (P < 0.05, as well as between number of working hours and symptoms of anxiety/depression (P < 0.05. No other statistically significant associations were found among retired players. Among current professional footballers, level of education was not associated with symptoms of common mental disorders. Conclusions Among retired professional footballers, employment status as well as a higher number of working hours was weakly correlated to symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression. Combining a football career with sustainable attention for educational and career planning might be important and of high priority.

  7. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Verhagen, Evert; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional behaviour) among current and retired professional footballers. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among current and retired professional footballers. Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries across three continents. Results A total of 607 current professional footballers (mean age of 27 years) and 219 retired professional footballers (mean age of 35 years) were involved in the study. Among retired professional footballers, statistically significant negative correlations were found between employment status and symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression (P < 0.05), as well as between number of working hours and symptoms of anxiety/depression (P < 0.05). No other statistically significant associations were found among retired players. Among current professional footballers, level of education was not associated with symptoms of common mental disorders. Conclusions Among retired professional footballers, employment status as well as a higher number of working hours was weakly correlated to symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression. Combining a football career with sustainable attention for educational and career planning might be important and of high priority. PMID:27625749

  8. Investigating the Relationships among Stressors, Stress Level, and Mental Symptoms for Infertile Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Patients with infertility are a high risk group in depression and anxiety. However, an existing theoretically and empirically validated model of stressors, stress, and mental symptoms specific for infertile patients is still a void. This study aimed to determine the related factors and their relational structures that affect the level of depressive and anxiety symptoms among infertile patients.A cross-sectional sample of 400 infertility outpatients seeking reproduction treatments in three teaching hospitals across Taiwan participated in the structured questionnaire survey in 2011. The hypothesized model comprising 10 latent variables was tested by Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 17.Goodness-of-fit indexes, including χ2/DF = 1.871, PGFI = 0.746, PNFI = 0.764, and others, confirmed the modified model fit the data well. Marital stressor, importance of children, guilt-and-blame, and social stressor showed a direct effect on perceived stress. Instead of being a factor of stress, social support was directly and positively related to self-esteem. Perceived stress and self-esteem were the two major mediators for the relationships between stressors and mental symptoms. Increase in social support and self-esteem led to decrease in mental symptoms among the infertile patients.The relational structures were identified and named as the Stressors Stress Symptoms Model, clinically applied to predict anxiety and depression from various stressors. Assessing sources and level of infertility-related stress and implementing culturally-sensitive counseling with an emphasis on positive personal value may assist in preventing the severity of depression and anxiety.

  9. Exploring psychotic symptoms: a comparison of motor related neuronal activation during and after acute psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheridan Rains Luke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delusions and hallucinations are classic positive symptoms of schizophrenia. A contemporary cognitive theory called the ‘forward output model’ suggests that the misattribution of self-generated actions may underlie some of these types of symptoms, such as delusions of control – the experience of self-generated action being controlled by an external agency. In order to examine the validity of this suggestion, we performed a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study examining neuronal activation associated with motor movement during acute psychosis. Methods We studied brain activation using fMRI during a motor task in 11 patients with schizophrenia and 9 healthy controls. The patient group was tested at two time points separated by 6–8 weeks. Results At initial testing, the patient group had a mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score of 56.3, and showed significantly increased activation within the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL compared to controls. Patients reported significantly decreased positive symptoms at 6–8 week followup and IPL activation had returned to normal. Our results demonstrate that first-rank positive symptoms are associated with hyperactivation in the secondary somatosensory cortex (IPL. Conclusions These findings lend further credence to the theory that a dysfunction in the sensory feedback system located in the IPL, and which is thought to underlie our sense of agency, may contribute to the aetiology of delusions of control.

  10. Focused Sonographic Examination of the Heart, Lungs and Deep Veins in Acute Admitted Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Christian Borbjerg; Sloth, Erik; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg;

    2012-01-01

    of the clinical examination. In addition, most of the diseases, which are commonly seen in patients with acute respiratory symptoms, can be diagnosed using sonography. Sonography could be integrated as a part of the primary evaluation, potentially improving the diagnostic performance. We therefore evaluated...... the use of sonographic examination of the heart, lungs and deep veins, performed within one hour of the primary evaluation, in acute admitted patients with respiratory symptoms. Methods: We performed a prospective cross sectional blinded observational study, conducted in a medical emergency department....... Patients were included if one or more of the following symptoms or clinical findings were present: respiratory rate > 20, saturation heart, lungs and deep veins...

  11. A follow-up study on the association of working conditions and lifestyles with the development of (perceived) mental symptoms in workers of a telecommunication enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwazono, Y; Okubo, Y; Kobayashi, E; Kido, T; Nogawa, K

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the association of working conditions and lifestyle with mental health in Japanese workers. A follow-up study was carried out in the Kanto district of Japan of workers in a telecommunications enterprise who received their first annual health check-up between 1992 and 1996 and were between 20 and 54 years old. Workers who reported mental symptoms, had a past history of disease, or current illness at their first check-up were excluded from the analysis. In total, the study included 23 837 workers. The association between working conditions and lifestyle and the development of mental symptoms was investigated by pooled logistic regression analyses. Working long hours and part-time work, as opposed to normal daytime hours of work, were factors associated with the development of mental symptoms in males, as were smoking, short sleeping hours, little physical exercise, rarely taking three meals a day, frequently eating within 1 h before sleep, much preference for salty meals and little preference for vegetables. Consumption of alcohol was negatively associated with the development of mental symptoms in males. Overall, the results suggested that the lower the Healthy Work and Lifestyle Score, the higher the risk of developing mental symptoms. Working conditions and lifestyle, especially food preferences, have an apparent influence on the mental health of Japanese workers. Moreover, the Healthy Work and Lifestyle Score indicates that working conditions and lifestyle appear to have a cumulative influence upon the mental health of Japanese workers.

  12. [Prevalence of Mental Symptoms, Possible Cases and Disorders in Victims Displaced by the Internal Armed Conflict in Colombia: A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi Celina; Herazo, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    In Colombia, the internal armed conflict is a public health problem that generates various forms of violence (forced disappearances, forced displacement, massacres, torture and sexual violence). Violence is a major psychosocial stressor that impairs the mental health of the Colombian population. However, there are no real estimates on the prevalence of mental symptoms, possible cases and disorders in victims of violence in displacement situations. To determine the prevalence of mental symptoms, possible cases and disorders due to the forced displacement of victims of the armed conflict in Colombia during the past two decades (1994-2013). A systematic review was carried out on all available studies published over the last twenty years. The keywords used were "armed conflict", "mental disorders", "mental health", "prevalence" and "Colombia". Authors observed the frequency of symptoms, possible cases, and mental disorders. Thirteen studies involving adults were included. The prevalence of symptoms was observed as between 9.9% and 63%; possible cases, between 21% and 97.3%; and mental disorders, between 1.5% and 32.9%. The prevalence of symptoms, possible cases and mental disorders is high in this Colombian population. This finding should be interpreted with caution due to the high heterogeneity and low quality of the studies. More research is needed. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Mental Health Literacy in Emerging Adults in a University Setting: Distinctions between Symptom Awareness and Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Michelle M.; Gelinas, Bethany L.; Friesen, Lindsay N.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns in university populations, students are unlikely to seek formal help. The current study examined help-seeking behaviors among emerging adults in a university setting using a mental health literacy framework. Responses from 122 university undergraduates were examined. Students ranged in age from…

  14. Quality of life in patients with non-psychotic mental disorders, suffering from acute and chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Y.M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the quality of life and clinical features of non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis. Polymorphic mental disorders of different clinical content and severity in most cases not only comorbid diseases of the pancreas, but often are the first earliest clinical manifestations of the disease. The data on clinical and psychopathological features of non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis are given. The share of cardinal syndromes such as asthenic-neurotic and anxious-depressive was established and described. The study was conducted using the following methods: clinical psychiatric questionnaire of common type MOS Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36 and methods of mathematical processing. The sample included 131 patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis. Clinical variant of acute and chronic pancreatitis debut were the features of mental disorders and psychotic-pathologic structure of non-psychotic mental disorders. Various indicators of quality of life in acute and chronic pancreatitis in presence of psychotic disorders were revealed.

  15. Respiratory virus infection as a cause of prolonged symptoms in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, M; Ziegler, T; Ruuskanen, O

    1990-05-01

    We studied respiratory viruses in 22 children with acute otitis media who had failed to improve after at least 48 hours of antimicrobial therapy. The mean duration of preenrollment antimicrobial therapy was 4.8 days. For comparison we studied 66 children with newly diagnosed acute otitis media. Respiratory viruses were isolated from middle ear fluid or from the nasopharynx, or both, significantly more often in the patients unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy than in the comparison patients (68% vs 41%, p less than 0.05). Viruses were recovered from the middle ear fluid in 32% of the study patients and from 15% of the comparison group. Bacteria were isolated from the middle ear fluid of four (18%) children in the study group; one child had an isolate resistant to initial antimicrobial therapy. All four children with bacteria in the middle ear fluid had evidence of concomitant respiratory virus infection. Our results indicate that respiratory virus infection is often present in patients with acute otitis media unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy, and may explain the prolongation of symptoms of infection. Resistant bacteria seem to be a less common cause of failure of the initial treatment.

  16. Effects of age on symptom burden, mental health and quality of life amongst people with HIV in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McGowan

    2014-11-01

    trend, adjusted models. Conclusions: Physical and psychological symptoms are common among people living with HIV, but the burden of these symptoms is not highest among the older age group. While HrQoL tended to worsen with older age, physical symptom distress did not, and mental health improved. This may reflect greater resilience in older adults, or the potential for “successful ageing”: maintaining mental health despite age-related health losses.

  17. Diagnostic imaging of acute neurologic symptoms in children; Bildgebende Diagnostik neurologischer Akutsituationen im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsinn, K.M.; Gassner, I. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde, Innsbruck (Austria). Kinderradiologie; Freund, M.C.; Schocke, M.; Cihak, C. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2002-03-01

    The diagnostic imaging of children with acute, non-traumatic, neurologic symptoms enables a fast and non-invasive localization and diagnosis. A spectrum of typical disorders will be described dependent on the location of neurologic symptoms (central, spinal, or peripheral nervous system). Different non-invasive imaging modalities e.g. US with colour-coded doppler, CT, MRI are utilized dependent on age of the patient and neurologic symptoms. The purpose of this article is to describe the spectrum of diagnostic imaging for each of these common disorders. (orig.) [German] Die bildgebende Diagnostik akuter neurologischer Stoerungen nichttraumatischer Genese im Kindesalter ermoeglicht eine rasche, nichtinvasive Lokalisation und artdiagnostische Zuordnung. Typische Krankheitsbilder werden in Abhaengigkeit von der Lokalisation - zerebral, spinal, peripher-nerval - dargestellt. In Abhaengigkeit vom Patientenalter und der neurologischen Symptomatik kommen unterschiedliche nichtinvasive Untersuchungsmethoden zur Anwendung wie z.B. Ultraschall mit FKDS, CT, MRT. Ziel dieses Uebersichtsreferates ist die Darstellung des Stellenwertes der bildgebenden Diagnostik in der Abklaerung der haeufigsten akuten-neurologischen Krankheitsbilder im Kindesalter. (orig.)

  18. Initial symptoms of acute radiation syndrome in the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, M; Hirama, T; Tanosaki, S; Kuroiwa, N; Nakagawa, K; Tsuji, H; Kato, H; Yamada, S; Kamata, T; Kinugasa, T; Ariga, H; Maekawa, K; Suzuki, G; Tsujii, H

    2001-09-01

    A criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, at the uranium conversion plant in Tokai-mura (Tokai-village), Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. When the criticality occurred, three workers saw a "blue-white glow," and a radiation monitor alarm was sounded. They were severely exposed to neutron and gamma-ray irradiation, and subsequently developed acute radiation syndrome (ARS). One worker reported vomiting within minutes and loss of consciousness for 10-20 seconds. This worker also had diarrhea an hour after the exposure. The other worker started to vomit almost an hour after the exposure. The three workers, including their supervisor, who had no symptoms at the time, were brought to the National Mito Hospital by ambulance. Because of the detection of gamma-rays from their body surface by preliminary surveys and decreased numbers of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, they were transferred to the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), which has been designated as a hospital responsible for radiation emergencies. Dose estimations for the three workers were performed by prodromal symptoms, serial changes of lymphocyte numbers, chromosomal analysis, and 24Na activity. The results obtained from these methods were fairly consistent. Most of the data, such as the dose rate of radiation, its distribution, and the quality needed to evaluate the average dose, were not available when the decision for hematopoitic stem cell transplantation had to be made. Therefore, prodromal symptoms may be important in making decisions for therapeutic strategies, such as stem-cell transplantation in heavily exposed victims.

  19. Family Matters: The Role of Mental Health Stigma and Social Support on Depressive Symptoms and Subsequent Help Seeking among African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Joe, Sean; Nebbitt, Von

    2010-01-01

    African American adolescent boys underutilize mental health service due to stigma associated with depression. Gaining an increased understanding of how depressed, African American adolescent boys perceive their mental health needs and engage in help-seeking behaviors might play an essential role in efforts to improve their symptoms and access to…

  20. Turo (Qi Dance Training Attenuates Psychological Symptoms and Sympathetic Activation Induced by Mental Stress in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Jin Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vagal withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity accompany various types of stress. Qi training is reported to reduce sympathetic hyper-reactivity in a stressful situation. Turo, which is a type of dance that uses the Meridian Qi System, may reduce the psychological symptoms induced by an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. We observed whether Turo training alters psychopathological and psychological symptoms using the Symptom Checklist 90-Revision (SCL-90-R and examined whether it attenuates the stress response to mental stress in healthy adolescent females using the power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability (HRV. Twenty-one subjects received Turo training and 27 subjects were trained with mimicking movements. The SCL-90-R was measured before and after the 2-month training period. Heart rate (HR, total power (TP and the LF/HF ratio of HRV were compared between the Turo and control groups during and after mental stress. The somatization and hostility subscales of the SCL-90-R of the Turo group were significantly lower than those of the control group after 2 months. The increases in HR and the LF/HF ratio of HRV induced by the stress test were significantly lower in the Turo group than in the control group. The TP of the Turo group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The psychological symptoms and sympathetic activation induced by the artificial stress were significantly reduced by the Turo training. These findings suggest that Turo training can play a critical role in attenuating psychological symptoms and stress-induced sympathetic activation.

  1. Irritable bowel symptoms and the development of common mental disorders and functional somatic syndromes identified in secondary care - a long-term, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Chalotte Heinsvig; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Eliasen, Marie; Skovbjerg, Sine; Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Schröder, Andreas; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with mental vulnerability, and half of patients report comorbid somatic and mental symptoms. We aimed to investigate the relationship between an IBS symptom continuum and the subsequent development of common mental disorders (CMDs) and functional somatic syndromes (FSSs). A longitudinal population-based study comprising two 5-year follow-up studies, Dan-MONICA 1 (1982-1987) and Inter99 (1999-2004), recruited from the western part of Copenhagen County. The total study population (n = 7,278) was divided into symptom groups according to the degree of IBS definition fulfillment at baseline and/or follow-up and was followed until December 2013 in Danish central registries. Cox regression was used for the analyses, adjusting for age, sex, length of education and cohort membership. In a subsequent analysis, we adjusted for mental vulnerability as a risk factor for both CMDs and FSSs, including IBS. Over a 5-year period, 51% patients had no IBS symptoms, 17% patients had IBS symptoms without abdominal pain, 22% patients had IBS symptoms including abdominal pain and 10% patients fulfilled the IBS definition. IBS and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were significantly associated with the development of CMDs and other FSSs identified in secondary care. When adjusting for mental vulnerability, IBS and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were no longer associated with CMDs, but the significant relationship to other FSSs remained. In a clinical setting, the perspective should be broadened to individuals not fulfilling the symptom cluster of IBS but who report frequent abdominal pain. Additionally, it is important to combine symptom-based criteria of IBS with psychosocial markers such as mental vulnerability, because it could guide clinicians in decisions regarding prognosis and treatment.

  2. Application and implications of Mental Health Act 2007 (NSW) certificate use in acute generalist settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Sharma, Swapnil

    2016-04-01

    Objective This retrospective study aimed to explore the appropriate application and implications of Mental Health Act 2007 (NSW) (MHA) certificate use in a metropolitan generalist hospital in New South Wales. Methods A de-identified MHA certificate review was undertaken within acute generalist medical and surgical specialties between June 2012 and May 2013. To assess differences, data were separated into two categories according to whether certificates were completed by psychiatry trainees or generalist medical officers. Analysis of indications for detention was also undertaken and qualitatively matched against legislative criteria. Results A total of 43 MHA certificates were included in the review, which highlighted missing elements in most certificates. Differences were found when professional consensus by the researchers was used to match documentation to legislative criteria. The researchers disagreed with nine of the 16 indications (mental illness/mental disorder) by the generalist medical officers and only one indication by a psychiatry trainee. Six of the certificates appeared to be related to lack of capacity and need for treatment of medical conditions, thus more related to Guardianship Act 1987 (NSW) applications. Conclusion This study highlights inconsistencies in legislative knowledge and requirements between professional groups. Education and training opportunities have been identified to ensure greater consistency in application of the MHA, preservation of patient rights and avoidance of stigma. MHA use in this setting should be exercised with caution and by appropriately trained individuals. What is known about the topic? The MHA and its state and territory counterparts provide for the treatment, care and support of people who have a mental illness and the protection of a person's rights therein. Despite not being intended for application in generalist facilities, mental health legislation is widely used in generalist facilities and certificates are

  3. Irritable bowel symptoms and the development of common mental disorders and functional somatic syndromes identified in secondary care - a long-term, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Chalotte Heinsvig; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    groups according to the degree of IBS definition fulfillment at baseline and/or follow-up and was followed until December 2013 in Danish central registries. Cox regression was used for the analyses, adjusting for age, sex, length of education and cohort membership. In a subsequent analysis, we adjusted...... vulnerability, because it could guide clinicians in decisions regarding prognosis and treatment.......OBJECTIVE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with mental vulnerability, and half of patients report comorbid somatic and mental symptoms. We aimed to investigate the relationship between an IBS symptom continuum and the subsequent development of common mental disorders (CMDs...

  4. Defined symptom-change trajectories during acute-phase cognitive therapy for depression predict better longitudinal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B

    2016-12-01

    Acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT) is an efficacious treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), but responders experience varying post-acute outcomes (e.g., relapse vs. recovery). Responders' symptom-change trajectories during response to acute-phase CT may predict longer term outcomes. We studied adult outpatients (N = 220) with recurrent MDD who responded to CT but had residual symptoms. Responders with linear (steady improvement), log-linear (quicker improvement earlier and slower later), one-step (a single, relatively large, stable improvement between adjacent assessments), or undefined (not linear, log-linear, or one-step) symptom trajectories were assessed every 4 months for 32 additional months. Defined (linear, log-linear, one-step) versus undefined acute-phase trajectories predicted lower depressive symptoms (d = 0.36), lower weekly probability of being in a major depressive episode (OR = 0.46), higher weekly probabilities of remission (OR = 1.93) and recovery (OR = 2.35), less hopelessness (d = 0.41), fewer dysfunctional attitudes (d = 0.31), and better social adjustment (d = 0.32) for 32 months after acute-phase CT. Differences among defined trajectory groups were nonsignificant. Responding to acute-phase CT with a defined trajectory (orderly pattern) of symptom reduction predicts better longer term outcomes, but which defined trajectory (linear, log-linear, or one-step) appears unimportant. Frequent measurement of depressive symptoms to identify un/defined CT response trajectories may clarify need for continued clinical monitoring and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute pancreatitis as an initial symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus: A case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wang; Nian-Song Wang; Bing-Hui Zhao; Ling-Quan Tang

    2005-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis as an initial symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is rare. We present a report of a 46-year-old female patient who had fever, abdominal pain and vomiting, elevated pancreaticaenzymelevels, hypocalcemia,hypoxemia, and various other laboratory abnormalities. She was first diagnosed with acute severe pancreatitis and then with SLE after further investigations. After a 2-mo treatment with somatostatin, the patient recovered.

  6. Posterior midline activation during symptom provocation in acute stress disorder: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christopher Cwik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging studies of patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder showed wide-spread activation of mid-line cortical areas during symptom provocation i.e., exposure to trauma-related cues. The present study aimed at investigating neural activation during exposure to trauma-related pictures in patients with Acute Stress Disorder (ASD shortly after the traumatic event. Nineteen ASD patients and 19 healthy control participants were presented with individualized pictures of the traumatic event and emotionally neutral control pictures during the acquisition of whole-brain data with a 3-T fMRI scanner. Compared to the control group and to control pictures, ASD patients showed significant activation in mid-line cortical areas in response to trauma-related pictures including precuneus, cuneus, postcentral gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area. The results suggest that the trauma-related pictures evoke emotionally salient self-referential processing in ASD patients.

  7. Mental and Physical Symptoms of Female Rural Workers: Relation between Household and Rural Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos

    2015-09-07

    This study aimed to investigate the relations among mental disorders, physical discomfort, household work and farm work among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the administration of a structured questionnaire to 182 female farm workers. The data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression, where the significance level was set to 5%. Results indicated that 111 (61%) participants reported work-related mental disorders and physical discomfort was reported by 160 (87.9%). The participants with mental disorders and at least moderate levels of physical discomfort reported significantly higher levels of physical demand, time working (temporal demand), total effort and frustration with regard to farm work, in addition to significantly higher levels of frustration with regard to housework. Women with moderate or greater levels of both physical discomfort and frustration with farm work increased the chances of mental disorders. The results illustrate the complex challenge for health professionals in caring for women with mental disorders and physical discomforts related to their farm work, in the context of both the farm and domestic work demands these workers experience.

  8. Mental and Physical Symptoms of Female Rural Workers: Relation between Household and Rural Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relations among mental disorders, physical discomfort, household work and farm work among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the administration of a structured questionnaire to 182 female farm workers. The data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression, where the significance level was set to 5%. Results indicated that 111 (61% participants reported work-related mental disorders and physical discomfort was reported by 160 (87.9%. The participants with mental disorders and at least moderate levels of physical discomfort reported significantly higher levels of physical demand, time working (temporal demand, total effort and frustration with regard to farm work, in addition to significantly higher levels of frustration with regard to housework. Women with moderate or greater levels of both physical discomfort and frustration with farm work increased the chances of mental disorders. The results illustrate the complex challenge for health professionals in caring for women with mental disorders and physical discomforts related to their farm work, in the context of both the farm and domestic work demands these workers experience.

  9. Clinical features of functional somatic symptoms in children and referral patterns to child and adolescent mental health services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøt-Strate, Simone; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Gitte; Lassen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS) are common in paediatric patients who are referred to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS), but little is known about current referral practices. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate clinical features of paediatric inpatients...... with FSS referred to CAMHS and to describe why paediatricians referred them. METHODS: The study population comprised 60 children with FSS admitted to a large Danish paediatric department during 2012. We compared medical record data on the clinical characteristics and paediatric management of 16 children...... who had been referred and 44 children who had not. RESULTS: Most paediatric records lacked information on psychosocial factors and symptoms. Referred children were significantly more multisymptomatic of FSS (p

  10. [Development and clinical testing of the Russian version of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score - ACSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidjanov, J F; Abdufattaev, U A; Makhmudov, D Kh; Mirkhamidov, D Kh; Khadzhikhanov, F A; Azgamov, A V; Pilatz, A; Naber, K G; Wagenlehner, F M; Akilov, F A

    2014-01-01

    The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score - ACSS was originally developed in the Uzbek language and has demonstrated high reliability and validity. The study was aimed to develop a Russian version of the ACSS questionnaire and evaluate its psychometric properties. Translation and adaptation of the ACSS questionnaire containing 18 questions, 6 of them - for the typical symptoms of acute cystitis (AC), 4 - for the differential diagnosis; 3 - for the quality of life, and 5 - for the conditions that may affect the choice of treatment, were performed according to the recommendations developed by the Mapi Research Institute. Study involved 83 Russian-speaking women (mean age, 35.6 ±13.7 years); 38 (45.8%) patients were in the main group (patients with AC), and 45 (54.2%) - in the control group (without AC). Medical examination and appropriate treatment of the respondents were conducted in accordance with approved standards. After completing the course of therapy, 19 (50%) patients of the main group came for the control examination. There was statistically significant difference in the scores obtained in the two groups. Score profiles positively correlated with the results of laboratory tests (rho = 0.26-0.48). Cronbach's alpha for the Russian version of the questionnaire was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.81-0.91), area under the curve in the ROC analysis was 0.96. The results of testing the Russian version correspond to those of the original version. The Russian version of the ACSS questionnaire has high. reliability and validity, and can be recommended for clinical research and diagnosis of primary AC, and dynamic monitoring of the effectiveness of the treatment of the Russian-speaking population of patients.

  11. Presenting Symptoms and Dysphagia Screen Predict Outcome in Mild and Rapidly Improving Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadodia, Gaurav; Rizk, Nibal; Camp, Deborah; Bryant, Katja; Zimmerman, Susan; Brasher, Cynthia; Connelly, Kerrin; Dunn, Joshua; Frankel, Michael; Ido, Moges Seymour; Lugtu, James; Nahab, Fadi

    2016-12-01

    There are limited data on which patients not treated with intravenous (IV) tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) due to mild and rapidly improving stroke symptoms (MaRISS) have unfavorable outcomes. Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients not treated with IV tPA due to MaRISS from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013 were identified as part of the Georgia Coverdell Acute Stroke Registry. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with a lower likelihood of favorable outcome, defined as discharge to home. There were 1614 AIS patients who did not receive IV tPA due to MaRISS (median National Institutes of Health stroke scale [NIHSS] 1], of which 305 (19%) did not have a favorable outcome. Factors associated with lower likelihood of favorable outcome included Medicare insurance status (odds ratio [OR]: .53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .34-.84), arrival by emergency medical services (OR: .46, 95% CI: .29-.73), increasing NIHSS score (per unit OR: .89, 95% CI: .84-.93), weakness as the presenting symptom (OR: .50, 95% CI: .30-.84), and a failed dysphagia screen (OR: .43, 95% CI: .23-.80). During the study period, dysphagia screen identify a subgroup of patients who are more likely to have an unfavorable outcome. Whether IV tPA treatment can improve the outcome in this subgroup of patients needs to be evaluated in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Staff nurse perceptions of the impact of mentalization-based therapy skills training when working with borderline personality disorder in acute mental health: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrender, D

    2015-10-01

    People diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly prevalent in acute mental health wards, with staff nurses identifying a challenge in working with people who can be significantly distressed. This has contributed to a negative stereotype verging on stigmatization. Mentalization-based therapy (MBT) is a psychological therapy which has been shown to be of benefit to people with a diagnosis of BPD, yet it has been utilized and evaluated only in partial hospitalization and outpatient settings. Despite this, most people diagnosed with BPD will continue to be treated in generic inpatient settings such as acute mental health. Mentalization-based therapy skills training (MBT-S) is a new and cost-effective 2-day workshop aiming to provide generalist practitioners with MBT skills for use in generic settings. This study aimed to capture staff perceptions of the impact of MBT-S on their practice when working with people with a diagnosis of BPD in acute mental health. Through two focus groups, this study assessed the perceptions of nine staff nurses. An interpretive phenomenological approach was utilized in data analysis. Participants found the approach easy to grasp, improving of consistency between staff and flexible in its use in planned or 'off the cuff' discussions. MBT-S promoted empathy and humane responses to self-harm, impacted on participants ability to tolerate risk and went some way to turning the negative perception of BPD through changing the notion of patients as 'deliberately difficult'. Staff felt empowered and more confident in working with people with a diagnosis of BPD. The positive implication for practice was the ease in which the approach was adopted and participants perception of MBT-S as an empowering skill set which also contributed to attitudinal change. In acute mental health environments, which may not have the resources to provide long-term structured treatments to patients, MBT-S could be viewed as ideal as participants

  13. Livestock/animal assets buffer the impact of conflict-related traumatic events on mental health symptoms for rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy A; Kohli, Anjalee; Remy, Mitima Mpanano

    2014-01-01

    In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP), on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64) traumatic events (range 0-18). Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66 range 0-4) and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD = 0·49, range 0-3.47). The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021) and depression (p = 0·002) symptom models. The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708.

  14. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance.

  15. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Roland Teixeira

    Full Text Available The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive

  16. 'That red flag on your file': misinterpreting physical symptoms as mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Ewart, Stephanie B; Bocking, Julia; Platania-Phung, Chris; Stanton, Robert

    2016-10-01

    To ascertain the views and experiences of mental health consumers regarding the availability and quality of care and treatment received for their physical health needs. People diagnosed with mental illness have higher occurrence of physical health problems. Responsive health care services are crucial for prevention and management of physical health problems, and for reducing disparities in health between people diagnosed with mental illness and those who are not. There is limited research giving voice to consumer perspectives on their experiences with health care providers. Exploratory qualitative. Focus group interviews with mental health consumers accessed via a consumer network group in a region of Australia (n = 31). All interview audio recordings were transcribed professionally. Interviews were thematically analysed. The main themes were: symptomising; failure to act and alertness to prejudice. The first two themes were consumer perceptions of the actions and behaviours of health professionals, and the third describes consumer responses to these behaviours and actions. Consumers described increased risks of illness and death because of undiagnosed physical illness despite their physical health advice-seeking as the reason for the health consultation. Health care providers' non-recognition of physical health problems presents a clear example of a significant and potentially life threatening health inequity. The service provider responses described by participants suggest that mental health consumers' physical health needs may not be taken seriously. Clinicians need to take seriously the physical health needs and concerns of people with mental illness. Nurses can play a crucial role in the prevention of diagnostic overshadowing as part of a broader direction of balancing biomedical perspectives with other approaches to health care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Glycosylation profile of selected acute phase proteins in children with chronic tonsillitis and allergic symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieska, Magdalena; Steiner, Iwona; Pucher, Beata; Grzegorowski, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    Acute phase proteins may be regarded as laboratory markers of inflammatory processes of various origin, but they also play several important biological roles. As majority of them are glycoproteins alterations in glycosylations profiles form additional sign of disturbances in the cytokines network during inflammation and allow to distinguish between acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. A group of 25 children, aged from 6 to 13 years, admitted due to tonsillectomy was examined using skin tests towards specific allergens. Fifteen children out of the whole group showed reaction to pollens, whereas in ten children no allergen was detected despite clear allergic symptoms. In sera samples from every child concentrations of C-reactive protein, alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) were measured using rocket immunoelectrophoresis acc. to Laurell, and glycosylations profiles of AGP and ACT were determined, using crossed affino-immunoelectrophoresis acc. to Bøg-Hansen. Lower concentration of AGP and higher of ACT was shown for children allergic to pollens. Glycosylation profile of both proteins was altered towards higher reactivity with ConA for children allergic to pollens, whereas rather chronic image was observed in children allergic to unknown allergen. The latter image was similar to previously described in children with food allergies. The presence of allergic reaction may alter the cytokine network activity in children, thus affecting also the immune status, independently from chronic inflammatory process in tonsillitis.

  18. Mental health problems during puberty: Tanner stage-related differences in specific symptoms. The TRAILS study

    OpenAIRE

    Albertine J Oldehinkel; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 +/- 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 +/- 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental health was assessed by the Youth Self-Report, pubertal (Tanner) stage by parent-rated drawings of secondary sex characteristics. Overall, higher Tanner stages were related t...

  19. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Association With Physical and Mental Health Symptoms Among Older Women in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Penhale, Bridget

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a commonly acknowledged health care issue. While numerous studies established the health implications of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age, the evidence is scarce for older women and for other forms of intimate partner violence. This study, therefore, investigates the prevalence of intimate partner violence in its different forms and its association with physical and mental health symptoms of older women, using women of reproductive age as a reference group. This study is a cross-sectional study, utilizing data from a national representative survey of 10,264 German women aged 16 to 86 years. Rates of physical and sexual intimate partner violence in the last year decreased from 8% to 3% and 1% among women aged 16 to 49 years, 50 to 65 years, and 66 to 86 years, respectively. The prevalence of emotional and economic abuse and controlling behavior by partners remained nearly the same. All forms of intimate partner violence had significant associations with women's health symptoms, such as gastrointestinal, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, and pelvic problems. Controlling behavior was most consistently associated with most health symptoms. Health and care professionals who screen women for intimate partner violence should, therefore, consider incorporating questions about controlling behavior as well, because this form of violence is not only frequent but also has multiple health outcomes among women across all ages.

  20. Mental health problems during puberty : Tanner stage-related differences in specific symptoms. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 +/- 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 +/- 0.5

  1. Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors – a population-based study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Carina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. Methods The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18–84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question. The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Results About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65–74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment, economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Conclusion Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both

  2. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: Will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recove...

  3. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recover...

  4. Acute effects of urban air pollution on respiratory health of children with and without chronic respiratory symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, S; Hoek, G; Boezen, H M; Schouten, J P; van Wijnen, J H; Brunekreef, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate to what extent different components of air pollution are associated with acute respiratory health effects in children with and without chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: During three consecutive winters starting in 1992-3, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and respiratory sym

  5. Safety and efficacy of extended-release guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine hydrochloride for adjunctive symptom relief of acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikano, George

    2009-05-01

    Acute bacterial respiratory infections (ABRIs) require treatment with antibiotics. Although antibiotics may address the underlying pathogenic factors, over-the-counter (OTC) agents can play an adjuvant role in relieving mucus-related symptoms. This complimentary role contributes to the healing process and is supported by current clinical guidelines.

  6. Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers...

  7. Performance, acute health symptoms and physiological responses during exposure to high air temperature and carbon dioxide concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Zhong, Weidi; Wargocki, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    subjects to report feeling uncomfortably warm, to rate the air quality as worse, to report increased sleepiness and higher intensity of several acute health symptoms. Eardrum temperature, skin temperature, heart rate and body weight loss all increased significantly at this exposure, arterial oxygen...

  8. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  9. Assessment of acutely mentally ill patients' satisfaction of care: there is a difference among ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Robert L; Olson, Tom; Bader, Julia

    2007-03-01

    The relationship between quality of care and patient satisfaction has been documented. The specific research aim related to this study is to determine if differences exist among Caucasians, Asians, and Pacific Islanders who are hospitalized for an acute mental illness with regard to their perceived satisfaction with the care. The results of the overall study have been reported elsewhere. The sample was composed of 138 patients, of whom 34.7% were Caucasian, 31.2% Pacific Islanders, and 34.8% Asians. Within 24 hours of discharge, patients completed the Perceptions of Care instrument. Caucasians were over-represented in our sample in comparison to their percentage in the general population of Hawaii. These patients were significantly more satisfied (p = .04) with their care than the other ethnic groups. No single variable was found to specifically indicate why they were more satisfied than Pacific Islanders and Asians.

  10. School Nurse Workload: A Scoping Review of Acute Care, Community Health, and Mental Health Nursing Workload Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as…

  11. Enhanced Depression Care for Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome and Persistent Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Karina W.; Rieckmann, Nina; Clemow, Lynn; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi; Medina, Vivian; Albanese, Gabrielle; Kronish, Ian; Hegel, Mark; Burg, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms are an established predictor of mortality and major adverse cardiac events (defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction or hospitalization for unstable angina or urgent/emergency revascularizations) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study was conducted to determine the acceptability and efficacy of enhanced depression treatment in patients with ACS. Methods A 3-month observation period to identify patients with ACS and persistent depressive symptoms was followed by a 6-month randomized controlled trial. From January 1, 2005, through February 29, 2008, 237 patients with ACS from 5 hospitals were enrolled, including 157 persistently depressed patients randomized to intervention (initial patient preference for problem-solving therapy and/or pharmacotherapy, then a stepped-care approach; 80 patients) or usual care (77 patients) and 80 nondepressed patients who underwent observational evaluation. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction with depression care. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptom changes (assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory), major adverse cardiac events, and death. Results At the end of the trial, the proportion of patients who were satisfied with their depression care was higher in the intervention group (54% of 80) than in the usual care group (19% of 77) (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2–12.9 [P<.001]). The Beck Depression Inventory score decreased significantly more (t155=2.85 [P=.005]) for intervention patients (change, −5.7; 95% CI, −7.6 to −3.8; df=155) than for usual care patients (change, −1.9; 95% CI, −3.8 to −0.1; df=155); the depression effect size was 0.59 of the standard deviation. At the end of the trial, 3 intervention patients and 10 usual care patients had experienced major adverse cardiac events (4% and 13%, respectively; log-rank test, χ12=3.93 [P=.047]), as well as 5 nondepressed patients (6%) (for the intervention vs nondepressed

  12. Mental Health Problems during Puberty: Tanner Stage-Related Differences in Specific Symptoms. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 [plus or minus] 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 [plus or minus] 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental…

  13. Irritable bowel symptoms and the development of common mental disorders and functional somatic syndromes identified in secondary care – a long-term, population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen CH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,2 Lene Falgaard Eplov,2 Carsten Hjorthøj,2 Marie Eliasen,1 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Andreas Schröder,3 Torben Jørgensen1,4,5 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Copenhagen University Hospital, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Hellerup, 3Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 5The Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with mental vulnerability, and half of patients report comorbid somatic and mental symptoms. We aimed to investigate the relationship between an IBS symptom continuum and the subsequent development of common mental disorders (CMDs and functional somatic syndromes (FSSs.Methods and study design: A longitudinal population-based study comprising two 5-year follow-up studies, Dan-MONICA 1 (1982–1987 and Inter99 (1999–2004, recruited from the western part of Copenhagen County. The total study population (n = 7,278 was divided into symptom groups according to the degree of IBS definition fulfillment at baseline and/or follow-up and was followed until December 2013 in Danish central registries. Cox regression was used for the analyses, adjusting for age, sex, length of education and cohort membership. In a subsequent analysis, we adjusted for mental vulnerability as a risk factor for both CMDs and FSSs, including IBS.Results: Over a 5-year period, 51% patients had no IBS symptoms, 17% patients had IBS symptoms without abdominal pain, 22% patients had IBS symptoms including abdominal pain and 10% patients fulfilled the IBS definition. IBS and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were significantly associated with the development of CMDs and other FSSs identified in secondary care. When adjusting for mental

  14. Antenatal depressive symptoms and subjective birth experience in association with postpartum depressive symptoms and acute stress reaction in mothers and fathers: A longitudinal path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürber, Susanne; Baumeler, Luzia; Grob, Alexander; Surbek, Daniel; Stadlmayr, Werner

    2017-08-01

    Postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and acute stress reactions (ASR) after childbirth are frequently documented in mothers, but research is scarce in fathers. In a longitudinal path analysis, the interplay of depressive symptoms in pregnancy and the subjective childbirth experience of mothers and fathers are examined with regard to the development of PDS and ASR postpartum. One hundred eighty nine expectant couples were recruited between August 2006 and September 2009. They completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in the last trimester of pregnancy. In the first week postpartum, they answered the Salmon's Item List (subjective birth experience), and four weeks after birth the EPDS and the Impact of Event Scale - revised (IES-r). The data were evaluated in a longitudinal path analysis. Compared with fathers, mothers reported more depressive symptoms (pregnancy: pexperience' (p0.10), but moderately correlated four weeks after birth (r=0.387, pexperience were independently predictive of PDS and ASR after childbirth in mothers and fathers controlling for age, mode of delivery, parity, epidural anaesthesia, infant gender and birth weight. Antenatal depressive symptoms were related to subjective childbirth experience only in fathers. Parental prenatal depressive symptoms and subjective birth experience are important predictors of postnatal psychological adjustment in mothers and fathers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. School Based Post Disaster Mental Health Services: Decreased Trauma Symptoms in Youth with Multiple Traumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rebecca A.; Osofsky, Joy D.; Osofsky, Howard J.; Hansel, Tonya C.

    2017-01-01

    Children exposed to disasters are at an increased likelihood for multiple trauma exposure. The objective of our study is to understand the efficacy of post disaster school based services for reducing trauma symptoms of youth exposed to multiple traumatic events. Students (N = 112) age 8-17 that were survivors of Hurricane Katrina received…

  16. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  17. Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzanfar Mohammad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness of the impact of pollution on the population at large will make our estimates of the pertinent covert burden imposed on the society more accurate. Methods/design A cross sectional study with spatial analysis for the addresses of the participants was conducted. Data were collected via telephone interviews administered to a representative sample of civilians over age four in the city. Households were selected using random digit dialling procedures and randomization within each household was also performed to select the person to be interviewed. Levels of exposure are quantified by extrapolating the addresses of the study population over the air pollution matrix of the city at the time of the interview and also for different lag times. This information system uses the data from multiple air pollution monitoring stations in conjunction with meteorological data. General linear models are applied for statistical analysis. Discussion The important limitations of cross-sectional studies on acute effects of air pollution are personal confounders and measurement error for exposure. A wide range of confounders in this study are controlled for in the statistical analysis. Exposure error may be minimised by employing a validated geographical information system that provides accurate estimates and getting detailed information on locations of individual participants during the day. The widespread operation of open air conditioning systems in the target urban area which brings about excellent mixing of the outdoor and indoor air increases the validity of outdoor pollutants

  18. Comparison of mental distress in patients with low back pain and a population-based control group measured by Symptoms Check List--A case-referent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jan; Fisker, Annette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Olsen, Lis Raabæk; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Langberg, Henning

    2015-08-01

    Mental distress is common in persons experiencing low back pain and who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed. It is, however, not known how mental distress measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 differs between patients with low back pain and the general population. The objective of this study was to compare mental symptoms and distress as measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 in sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed patients with low back pain with a population-based control group. Mental distress was compared in a group of patients with low back pain (n=770) and a randomly selected population-based reference group (n=909). Established Danish cut-off values for mental distress were used to evaluate the mental distress status in the low back pain and control group and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the Global Severity Index and the symptom scales of the Symptoms Check List-90 while controlling for baseline demographic differences between the groups. Group mean scores showed that all symptom scales and the Global Severity Index for both sexes were statistically elevated in the low back pain group, except for interpersonal sensitivity in women. When the scores were dichotomized to cases and non-cases of mental distress, a significantly higher prevalence of cases was observed in the low back pain group compared to the reference group on all symptom check list scales, except for paranoid ideation for both sexes and interpersonal sensitivity for women. The biggest between-group difference was observed for the somatization symptom scale. Low back pain patients who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed, are more mentally distressed compared to a randomly selected sample of the general Danish population. Self-reported symptoms of somatization, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, depression and hostility are all more common among patients with low back pain compared to the general population. © 2015 the

  19. A meta-analysis of profile and time-course of symptom change in acute schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Megan; Thornton, Allen E; Honer, William G

    2006-06-01

    The profile and time-course of symptom response in acute schizophrenia is unclear. For the present study, we hypothesized that the time-course would be nonlinear. A meta-analysis was performed using randomized, controlled clinical trials of five atypical antipsychotics reported in nine electronic databases. Studies were of subjects experiencing an acute exacerbation of illness, with multiple BPRS or PANSS data-points as outcome measures. A mixed factorial repeated-measures ANOVA was used. Twenty-one published clinical trials were identified. Reduction in total symptoms from baseline to 4 wk was associated with a linear decline in symptomatology (F=23.4, d.f.=1, 7, p=0.002) without attenuation of effect. In contrast, from baseline to 6 wk the linear symptom reduction (F=76.5, d.f.=1, 12, pdata altered the results at 4 wk, but not 6 wk; completion rates had no effect on results. In conclusion, this meta-analysis confirms our hypothesis for 6-wk data. The profile of symptom change is one of linear symptom reduction until 4 wk, with a flattening of treatment effects by 6 wk. A curvilinear profile of schizophrenia symptom reduction has possible implications with respect to trial design and clinical decision-making.

  20. Factors impacting the mental health of the caregivers of children with asthma in china: effects of family socioeconomic status, symptoms control, proneness to shame, and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli; Zhang, Xuxia; Wang, Yuyin

    2014-12-01

    Caregiver mental health is widely considered to be an important factor influencing children's asthma symptoms. The present study aimed to examine key factors that contribute to caregiver mental health in pediatric asthma with a Chinese sample. Two hundred participants reported their family socioeconomic status (SES), proneness to shame, asthma symptoms control of their child, family functioning, and their depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggested that low family SES, low family functioning, and a high level of shame proneness were associated with high levels of anxiety and depression for caregivers. Family functioning mediated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver mental health and also moderated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver depression. This study highlights the importance of reducing experience of shame and enhancing family functioning in families affected by pediatric asthma. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  1. The Relationship between Symptom Relief and Psychosocial Functional Improvement during Acute Electroconvulsive Therapy for Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Yang, Wei-Cheng

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to compare the degree of symptom relief to psychosocial functional (abbreviated as "functional") improvement and explore the relationships between symptom relief and functional improvement during acute electroconvulsive therapy for patients with major depressive disorder. Major depressive disorder inpatients (n=130) requiring electroconvulsive therapy were recruited. Electroconvulsive therapy was generally performed for a maximum of 12 treatments. Symptom severity, using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and psychosocial functioning (abbreviated as "functioning"), using the Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale, were assessed before electroconvulsive therapy, after every 3 electroconvulsive therapy treatments, and after the final electroconvulsive therapy. Both 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale scores were converted to T-score units to compare the degrees of changes between depressive symptoms and functioning after electroconvulsive therapy. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships between 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale during acute electroconvulsive therapy. One hundred sixteen patients who completed at least the first 3 electroconvulsive therapy treatments entered the analysis. Reduction of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale T-scores was significantly greater than that of Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale T-scores at assessments 2, 3, 4, and 5. The model analyzed by structural equation modeling satisfied all indices of goodness-of-fit (chi-square = 32.882, P =.107, TLI = 0.92, CFI = 0.984, RMSEA = 0.057). The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale change did not predict subsequent Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale change. Functioning improved less than depressive symptoms during acute electroconvulsive therapy. Symptom reduction did not predict subsequent functional improvement

  2. Dose-Volume Effects on Patient-Reported Acute Gastrointestinal Symptoms During Chemoradiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Killoran, Joseph H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Crowley, Elizabeth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ryan, David P. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hong, Theodore S., E-mail: tshong1@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Research on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in rectal cancer is limited. We examined whether dose-volume parameters of the small bowel and large bowel were associated with patient-reported gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation treatment for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: 66 patients treated at the Brigham and Women's Hospital or Massachusetts General Hospital between 2006 and 2008 were included. Weekly during treatment, patients completed a questionnaire assessing severity of diarrhea, urgency, pain, cramping, mucus, and tenesmus. The association between dosimetric parameters and changes in overall GI symptoms from baseline through treatment was examined by using Spearman's correlation. Potential associations between these parameters and individual GI symptoms were also explored. Results: The amount of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V15) was significantly associated with acute symptoms (p = 0.01), and other dosimetric parameters ranging from V5 to V45 also trended toward association. For the large bowel, correlations between dosimetric parameters and overall GI symptoms at the higher dose levels from V25 to V45 did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.1), and a significant association was seen with rectal pain from V15 to V45 (p < 0.01). Other individual symptoms did not correlate with small bowel or large bowel dosimetric parameters. Conclusions: The results of this study using PROs are consistent with prior studies with physician-assessed acute toxicity, and they identify small bowel V15 as an important predictor of acute GI symptoms during 5-FU-based chemoradiation treatment. A better understanding of the relationship between radiation dosimetric parameters and PROs may allow physicians to improve radiation planning to optimize patient outcomes.

  3. Effects of acute organophosphate ingestion on cognitive function, assessed with the mini mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Jayasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Chronic damage to the central nervous system resulting in cognitive impairment has been shown with repeated, low doses of organophosphorus (OP exposure over month or years. Aim: The study aimed to find out whether there is any cognitive impairment following acute OP exposure that could be detected by a simple screening instrument, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, in clinical settings. Settings and Design: A cohort study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with matched controls. Consecutive patients admitted to the hospital with acute ingestion of OP were recruited. Cognitive function was assessed with the MMSE, digit span test, test of long-term memory function and concentration. Patients were assessed twice: at 1 and 6 weeks of exposure. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were analyzed with the paired and unpaired T-tests. Non-normally distributed data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Discrete variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Results: There were 60 patients and 61 controls. The mean age (SD of the patients and controls was 31.5 (11.6 and 31.3 (11.8 years, respectively. Forty-two patients turned up for the second assessment. Significant impairment of cognitive function was seen in the total score of MMSE (95% CI -2.5 to -0.3, orientation (95% CI -1 to -0.2 and language (95% CI -0.9 to -0.1 domains of MMSE, digit span test (95% CI 0.1-1.7 and test of long-term memory function (95% CI 0.3-2.3 in the first assessment compared with the controls. When the results of the second assessment were compared with the controls, no significant differences were seen. Conclusion: Although there was a slight transient cognitive impairment detected with the screening tests following acute OP ingestion, no long-term cognitive defects was detected.

  4. The effect of brief behavioral activation treatment on symptoms of depression, mental health and quality of life among the patients with opioid abuse

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders comorbid with with substance use disorder. This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of brief behavioral activation treatment on the symptoms of depression, mental health and quality of life among the patients with opioid use disorders. Methods: In a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design, 24 patients taking opiates were selected through convenience sampling method and randomly assigned int...

  5. [2 cases of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in normal pregnancy and as the first symptom of acute promyelocytic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardaszewicz, E; Bujak, M; Spychałowicz, W; Siudyka, A; Harbut-Gryłka, A

    Two cases of the acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) are presented. DIC in the first case was diagnosed in healthy pregnant woman without any obstetric pathology. This patient recovered completely. The acute DIC in another patient preceded the acute promyelocytic leukemia. The patient died despite a control of DIC. DIC therapy included antifibrinolytic agents and additionally corticoids in pregnant patient. Heparin was not administered because of post partum period and foreseen cytostatic therapy in the leukemic patient.

  6. Natural language processing to extract symptoms of severe mental illness from clinical text: the Clinical Record Interactive Search Comprehensive Data Extraction (CRIS-CODE) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Kolliakou, Anna; Ball, Michael; Gorrell, Genevieve; Roberts, Angus; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We sought to use natural language processing to develop a suite of language models to capture key symptoms of severe mental illness (SMI) from clinical text, to facilitate the secondary use of mental healthcare data in research. Design Development and validation of information extraction applications for ascertaining symptoms of SMI in routine mental health records using the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) data resource; description of their distribution in a corpus of discharge summaries. Setting Electronic records from a large mental healthcare provider serving a geographic catchment of 1.2 million residents in four boroughs of south London, UK. Participants The distribution of derived symptoms was described in 23 128 discharge summaries from 7962 patients who had received an SMI diagnosis, and 13 496 discharge summaries from 7575 patients who had received a non-SMI diagnosis. Outcome measures Fifty SMI symptoms were identified by a team of psychiatrists for extraction based on salience and linguistic consistency in records, broadly categorised under positive, negative, disorganisation, manic and catatonic subgroups. Text models for each symptom were generated using the TextHunter tool and the CRIS database. Results We extracted data for 46 symptoms with a median F1 score of 0.88. Four symptom models performed poorly and were excluded. From the corpus of discharge summaries, it was possible to extract symptomatology in 87% of patients with SMI and 60% of patients with non-SMI diagnosis. Conclusions This work demonstrates the possibility of automatically extracting a broad range of SMI symptoms from English text discharge summaries for patients with an SMI diagnosis. Descriptive data also indicated that most symptoms cut across diagnoses, rather than being restricted to particular groups. PMID:28096249

  7. Recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute inpatient mental health settings in Australia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Dhital, Deepa; Ireland, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Recovery-oriented care acknowledges the unique journey that consumers lead with the aim of regaining control of their lives in order to live a good life. Recovery has become a dominant policy-directed model of many mental health care organizations, but in older-adult acute mental health inpatient settings, nurses do not have a clear description of how to be recovery-oriented. The aims of this study were to determine the extent to which elements of existing nursing practice resemble the domains of recovery-oriented care and provide a baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented mental health care provision. An exploratory, qualitative research design was used to meet the research aims. A purposive sample of mental health nurses (N = 12) participated in focus groups in three older-adult inpatient settings in Australia. A general inductive approach was used to analyze the qualitative data. The mental health nurses in this study readily discussed aspects of their current practice within the recovery domains. They described pragmatic ways to promote a culture of hope, collaborative partnerships, meaningful engagement, autonomy and self-determination, and community participation and citizenship. Nurses also discussed challenges and barriers to recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute mental health settings. This study identified a reasonable baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented older-adult mental healthcare provision. A concerted drive focused on recovery education is required to effectively embed a recovery-orientated paradigm into older-adult mental health settings.

  8. Pre-hospital delay in acute myocardial infarction: judgement of symptoms and resistance to pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carneiro Mussi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To estimate the time of decision (TD to look for medical care and the time of arrival (TA at the health service for men (M and women (W suffering from acute myocardial infarction and to analyze the influence of the interpretation of pain and pain resistance behaviors during these times. Methods This is an exploratory research, performed at the university hospital in Salvador/Bahia. 43 W and 54 M were interviewed. To study the dependence among sociodemographic and gender variables, the Fisher Exact Test was used. To analyze times, a geometric mean (GM was used. In order to verify the association between the GM of TD and TA and the judgment of pain, and between the GM of TD and TA and the behavior of resistance to pain, as well as to test the time of interaction between the gender variable and other variables of interest, the robust regression model was used. The statistical significance adopted was 5%. Results The GM of the TD for M was 1.13 h; for W, 0.74 h. The GM of the TA was 1.74 h for M and 1.47 h for W. Those who did not recognize the symptoms of AMI and presented behavior of resistance to pain had higher TD and TA, being the associations significant. Gender did not change the associations of interest. Conclusion The findings demonstrate the importance of health education aiming at the benefits of early treatment.

  9. The acute symptoms of sport-related concussion: diagnosis and on-field management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putukian, Margot

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussion is a common injury that occurs in a variety of sports. In recent years, more attention has been focused on the importance of this injury as well as the long-term complications of unrecognized, repetitive, and/or severe injury. The acute presentation of concussion as well as the diagnosis of concussion is often straightforward and obvious, but it can also be subtle and difficult to discern. Most injuries are short lived with complete recovery within a couple of weeks, with a small minority taking several months to resolve. Unfortunately, it is difficult to predict which injuries will linger. This article discusses the on-field presentation, diagnosis, and management of sport-related concussion. It is important to have a concussion protocol for high-risk sports, including a preseason and postinjury assessment, and an individualized yet comprehensive approach that includes evaluating symptoms, and a neurologic examination that includes cognitive function and balance testing. A multifaceted approach to the evaluation and diagnosis of concussion is endorsed for the optimal management of this injury.

  10. Systematic unenhanced CT for acute abdominal symptoms in the elderly patients improves both emergency department diagnosis and prompt clinical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Ingrid; Pages-Bouic, Emma; Curros-Doyon, Fernanda; Taourel, Patrice [CHU Lapeyronie, Department of Medical Imaging, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Sebbane, Mustapha [Department of Emergency Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France); Molinari, Nicolas [Department of Medical Information and Statistics, CHU Montpellier (France); Riou, Bruno [GH Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP, Department of Emergency Medicine and Surgery, Paris (France)

    2017-02-15

    To assess the added-value of systematic unenhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) on emergency department (ED) diagnosis and management accuracy compared to current practice, in elderly patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal symptoms. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. This prospective study included 401 consecutive patients 75 years of age or older, admitted to the ED with acute abdominal symptoms, and investigated by early systematic unenhanced abdominal CT scan. ED diagnosis and intended management before CT, after unenhanced CT, and after contrast CT if requested, were recorded. Diagnosis and management accuracies were evaluated and compared before CT (clinical strategy) and for two conditional strategies (current practice and systematic unenhanced CT). An expert clinical panel assigned a final diagnosis and management after a 3-month follow-up. Systematic unenhanced CT significantly improved the accurate diagnosis (76.8% to 85%, p=1.1 x 10{sup -6}) and management (88.5% to 95.8%, p=2.6 x 10{sup -6}) rates compared to current practice. It allowed diagnosing 30.3% of acute unsuspected pathologies, 3.4% of which were unexpected surgical procedure requirement. Systematic unenhanced abdominal CT improves ED diagnosis accuracy and appropriate management in elderly patients presenting with acute abdominal symptoms compared to current practice. (orig.)

  11. Livestock/animal assets buffer the impact of conflict-related traumatic events on mental health symptoms for rural women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Glass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. METHODS: The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP, on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. FINDINGS: The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64 traumatic events (range 0-18. Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66 range 0-4 and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD = 0·49, range 0-3.47. The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021 and depression (p = 0·002 symptom models. INTERPRETATION: The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708.

  12. The Effect of Vitamin E-Modified Dialyzers on Acute Intra-dialytic Symptoms: A Comparative Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanimu Danlami

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a crossover study to compare the effect of vitamin E-modified dialyzers on acute intra-dialytic symptoms, with other membranes. Twenty patients on hemodialysis were studied. They were divided into two equal groups of low-flux (C15NL, E15NL and high-flux (F60, EE15NL membrane dialyzers. Within each group, a vitamin E-modified dialyzer was compared with another dialyzer in a crossover design over a two-month period. All study patients were seen during each dialysis session by a physician and the occurrence of intra-dialytic symptoms were recorded. There was a significant overall improvement in the incidence of acute intra-dialytic symptoms with the use of vitamin E-modified dialyzers as compared with the other membranes. This effect was more for cuprophane than polysulfone. The occurrence of hypotensive episodes did not differ. Our study indicates that we can achieve a reduction in the incidence of acute intra-dialytic symptoms with the use of vitamin E-modified membrane as compared to cuprophane and polysulfone.

  13. Personality Traits and Mental Symptoms are Associated with Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Patients' Daily Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Marie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    diagnosed with COPD was consecutively recruited in a secondary care outpatient clinic. All participants completed CAT, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between personality traits and CAT scores......Previous research has shown that personality traits are associated with self-reported health status in the general population. COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is increasingly used to assess health status such as the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on patients' daily life......, but knowledge about the influence of personality traits on CAT score is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Big Five personality traits on CAT score and the relation between personality traits and mental symptoms with respect to their influence on CAT score. A sample of 168 patients...

  14. Mobile Virtual Learning Object for the Assessment of Acute Pain as a Learning Tool to Assess Acute Pain in Nursing: An Analysis of the Mental Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ana Graziela; Sasso, Grace; Iyengar, Sriram

    2015-11-06

    The inclusion of new technologies in education has motivated the development of studies on mental workload. These technologies are now being used in the teaching and learning process. The analysis enables identification of factors intervening in this workload as well as planning of overload prevention for educational activities using these technologies. To analyze the mental workload of an educational intervention with the Mobile Virtual Learning Object for the Assessment of Acute Pain in adults and newborns, according to the NASA Task Load Index criteria. A methodological study with data collected from 5 nurses and 75 students, from November of 2013 to February of 2014. The highest students' and specialists' means were in the dimensions of "Mental demand" (57.20 ± 22.27; 51 ± 29.45) and "Performance" (58.47 ± 24.19; 73 ± 28.85). The specialists' mental workload index was higher (50.20 ± 7.28) when compared with students' (47.87 ± 16.85) on a scale from 0 to 100 (P=.557). The instrument allowed for the assessment of mental workload after an online educational intervention with a mobile learning virtual object. An excessive overload was not identified among participants. Assessing mental workload from the use of educational technologies at the end of a task is a key to their applicability, with the aim of providing a more effective, stimulating, and long-lasting experience of the learning process.

  15. The efficacy of smartphone‐based mental health interventions for depressive symptoms: a meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Joseph; Torous, John; Nicholas, Jennifer; Carney, Rebekah; Pratap, Abhishek; Rosenbaum, Simon; Sarris, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    The rapid advances and adoption of smartphone technology presents a novel opportunity for delivering mental health interventions on a population scale. Despite multi‐sector investment along with wide‐scale advertising and availability to the general population, the evidence supporting the use of smartphone apps in the treatment of depression has not been empirically evaluated. Thus, we conducted the first meta‐analysis of smartphone apps for depressive symptoms. An electronic database search in May 2017 identified 18 eligible randomized controlled trials of 22 smartphone apps, with outcome data from 3,414 participants. Depressive symptoms were reduced significantly more from smartphone apps than control conditions (g=0.38, 95% CI: 0.24‐0.52, pSmartphone interventions had a moderate positive effect in comparison to inactive controls (g=0.56, 95% CI: 0.38‐0.74), but only a small effect in comparison to active control conditions (g=0.22, 95% CI: 0.10‐0.33). Effects from smartphone‐only interventions were greater than from interventions which incorporated other human/computerized aspects along the smartphone component, although the difference was not statistically significant. The studies of cognitive training apps had a significantly smaller effect size on depression outcomes (p=0.004) than those of apps focusing on mental health. The use of mood monitoring softwares, or interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy, or apps incorporating aspects of mindfulness training, did not affect significantly study effect sizes. Overall, these results indicate that smartphone devices are a promising self‐management tool for depression. Future research should aim to distil which aspects of these technologies produce beneficial effects, and for which populations. PMID:28941113

  16. The acute social defeat stress and nest-building test paradigm: A potential new method to screen drugs for depressive-like symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otabi, Hikari; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Okayama, Tsuyoshi; Kohari, Daisuke; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2017-02-01

    Psychosocial stress can cause mental conditions such as depression in humans. To develop drug therapies for the treatment of depression, it is necessary to use animal models of depression to screen drug candidates that exhibit anti-depressive effects. Unfortunately, the present methods of drug screening for antidepressants, the forced-swim test and tail-suspension test, are limiting factors in drug discovery because they are not based on the constructive validity of objective phenotypes in depression. Previously, we discovered that the onset of nest building is severely delayed in mice exposed to subchronic mild social defeat stress (sCSDS). Therefore, a novel paradigm combining acute social defeat stress (ASDS) and the nest-building test (SNB) were established for the efficient screening of drugs for depressive-like symptoms. Since ASDS severely delayed the nest-building process as shown in chronically social defeated mice, we sought to rescue the delayed nest-building behavior in ASDS mice. Injecting a specific serotonin 2a receptor antagonist (SR-46349B), the nest-building deficit exhibited by ASDS mice was partially rescued. On the other hand, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) did not rescue the nest-building deficit in ASDS mice. Therefore, we conclude that the SNB paradigm is an another potential behavioral method for screening drugs for depressive-like symptoms including attention deficit, anxiety, low locomotion, and decreased motivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nurse-patient interaction in acute adult inpatient mental health units: a review and synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Horsfall, Jan; Deacon, Maureen

    2012-02-01

    Mental health nurses work with acutely unwell patients, and the busy setting is characterised by unpredictable events. This paper is a report of a review conducted to identify, analyse and synthesize research in adult acute inpatient mental health units, which focused on nurse-patient interaction. Several electronic databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify studies published from 1999-present. Qualitative studies published in English were included if they specifically investigated nurse-patient interaction in acute inpatient care in adult settings. Eighteen studies were included (23 papers). Findings were grouped into the following six categories: 1) sophisticated communication; 2) subtle discriminations; 3) managing security parameters; 4) ordinary communication; 5) reliance on colleagues; and 6) personal characteristics. These studies of acute inpatient mental health units reveal that nurse communication involves interpersonal approaches and modalities that exemplify highly developed communication and personal skills designed specifically for this challenging setting. Further quality research should focus on the conditions that enable the development of therapeutic interactional skills and the relationship of these skills to the nuanced context in which they are practiced.

  18. Quantitative EEG findings in patients with acute, brief depression combined with other fluctuating psychiatric symptoms: a controlled study from an acute psychiatric department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linaker Olav M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with brief depressive episodes and concurrent rapidly fluctuating psychiatric symptoms do not fit current diagnostic criteria and they can be difficult to diagnose and treat in an acute psychiatric setting. We wanted to study whether these patients had signs of more epileptic or organic brain dysfunction than patients with depression without additional symptomatology. Methods Sixteen acutely admitted patients diagnosed with a brief depressive episode as well as another concurrent psychiatric diagnosis were included. Sixteen patients with major depression served as controls. Three electroencephalographic studies (EEG were visually interpreted and the background activity was also analysed with quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG. Results The group with brief depression and concurrent symptoms had multiple abnormal features in their standard EEG compared to patients with major depression, but they did not show significantly more epileptiform activity. They also had significantly higher temporal QEEG delta amplitude and interhemispheric temporal delta asymmetry. Conclusion Organic brain dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of patients with brief depressive episodes mixed with rapidly fluctuating psychiatric symptoms. This subgroup of depressed patients should be investigated further in order to clarify the pathophysiology and to establish the optimal evaluation scheme and treatment in an acute psychiatric setting.

  19. Stress buffering effects of social support on depressive symptoms in middle age: reciprocity and community mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Tohru; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Sakihara, Seizou; Ariizumi, Makoto; Watanabe, Naoki; Oyama, Hirofumi

    2006-12-01

    Little is known about the association between depression and the buffering effects of social support in mid-life crisis. The aim of this study is to determine the buffering effects of social support on depression concerning middle-aged individuals, while also taking reciprocity and gender differences into careful consideration. A cross-sectional survey of all middle-aged individuals (40-69 years of age) using a large sample (n = 4558) from a community-living population, who resided in Rokunohe town, Aomori prefecture in northern Japan (response rate = 69.8%), was undertaken. This town recently had a lot of suicides. Two-way anova was used to analyze the effects of stressor and social support on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores. The authors found a stress buffering effect of social support on the depressive symptoms occurring in middle age, however, a significant difference in the stress buffer effect was only observed in male subjects. Moreover, when the authors take reciprocity into account, the effect of the buffer on depression was found not only in males receiving support but in males providing support as well. In conclusion, pertaining to males, social support reduces depressive symptoms under stressful circumstances in middle age, not only when they receive such support but also when they provide it. Therefore, these findings suggest that reciprocal social support is important for males in relation to community mental health.

  20. Asthma in adult patients presenting with symptoms of acute bronchitis in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiadens, HA; Postma, DS; de Bock, GH; Huysman, DAN; van Houwelingen, HC; Springer, MP

    Objectives - To investigate the association between asthma and acute bronchitis in adults and to ascertain criteria to help general practitioners (GPs) differentiate between acute bronchitis and asthma. Design - Descriptive study. Setting - Primary health care centre in The Netherlands. Patients -

  1. Influence of sleep disorders on somatic symptoms, mental health, and quality of life in patients with chronic constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ya; Tang, Yu-Rong; Xie, Chen; Yu, Ting; Xiong, Wen-Jie; Lin, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in CC patients, and it is positively related to greater somatic and psychiatric symptoms. Methods: The participants were 126 adult outpatients with CC. The measures were: constipation—Constipation Scoring System (CSS) and Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms (PAC-SYM); sleep—Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); anxiety—General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7); depression—Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9); and QOL—Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QOL) and SF-36. Patients were divided into sleep-disorder and normal-sleep groups by their PSQI scores. Results: The sleep-disorder group had significantly higher rates of incomplete defecation and blockage and higher CSS scores, PAC-SYM total scores, and PAC-SYM rectal-item scores than the normal-sleep group. GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher in patients with poor sleep. Furthermore, sleep disorders, depression, and anxiety were all positively correlated with constipation severity. “Worry/anxiety” score of PAC-QOL scale was significantly higher and scores for seven SF-36 subscales were significantly lower in patients with poor sleep. In addition, correlation analyses showed significant negative relations between QOL and constipation, sleep disturbance, anxiety as well as depression. However, multiple regression revealed that PAC-QOL was positively associated with severe constipation and SF-36 was negatively associated with anxiety and depression. But sleep disturbance was not the independent risk factor for QOL of CC patients. Conclusion: Sleep disorders may worsen the physical- and mental health of CC patients. Sleep disturbance may lower CC patients’ QOL indirectly through the combined effects of anxiety, depression, and constipation. PMID:28207519

  2. Profiles and Time Course of Acute Radiation Toxicity Symptoms during Conformal Radiotherapy for Cancer of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovdenak, Nils; Karlsdottir, Aasa; Soerbye, Halfdan; Dahl, Olav [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Div. of Gastroenterology

    2003-11-01

    Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity are dose-limiting for pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Existing toxicity registrations (RTOG/EORTC) are helpful in defining maximal tolerated doses, but tend to underestimate the total toxicity burden by excluding several minor complaints. We have applied a more detailed and quantitative recording of symptoms and related these scores to RT-induced endoscopic and histopathologic changes. Prevalence and severity of specific toxicity symptoms were recorded before, during (weeks 2 and 6) and 2 and 8 weeks after RT in 96 patients undergoing external beam RT for localized prostate cancer. RTOG/EORTC acute toxicity and ad hoc total toxicity scores (TTS) were recorded. TTS scores were calculated by adding scores based on visual analog scale (VAS) grading of individual symptoms. Fifty of the patients also underwent sequential proctoscopy with mucosal biopsy. Individual symptoms increased, but differed in prevalence and intensity during and after RT. TTS increased during the entire treatment course in spite of normalizing histopathologic and endoscopic changes from week 2 onwards. Twenty-seven patients had no RTOG/EORTC toxicity, four had grade 3 and none had grade 4 toxicity. All patients with grade 0 had increased TTS. Thus, TTS appeared more sensitive than RTOG/EORTC scoring. The study demonstrates that multiple toxicity symptoms contribute to total toxicity in response to pelvic RT. TTS is a feasible and sensitive method for detecting and quantifying acute toxicity and unveils morbidity which remains hidden with the RTOG/EORTC score system. The development and timing of symptoms may give clues to pathogenesis, treatment, and prophylaxis.

  3. Perfusion-CT--Can We Predict Acute Pancreatitis Outcome within the First 24 Hours from the Onset of Symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Pieńkowska

    Full Text Available Severe acute pancreatitis (AP is still a significant clinical problem which is associated with a highly mortality. The aim of this study was the evaluation of prognostic value of CT regional perfusion measurement performed on the first day of onset of symptoms of AP, in assessing the risk of developing severe form of acute pancreatitis.79 patients with clinical symptoms and biochemical criteria indicative of acute pancreatitis (acute upper abdominal pain, elevated levels of serum amylase and lipase underwent perfusion CT within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. The follow-up examinations were performed after 4-6 days to detect progression of the disease. Perfusion parameters were compared in 41 people who developed severe form of AP (pancreatic and/or peripancreatic tissue necrosis with parameters in 38 consecutive patients in whom course of AP was mild. Blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time and permeability surface area product were calculated in the three anatomic pancreatic subdivisions (head, body and tail. At the same time the patient's clinical status was assessed by APACHE II score and laboratory parameters such as CRP, serum lipase and amylase, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and bilirubin were compared.Statistical differences in the perfusion parameters between the group of patients with mild and severe AP were shown. Blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time were significantly lower and permeability surface area product was significantly higher in patients who develop severe acute pancreatitis and presence of pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis due to pancreatic ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of evaluated on admission severity of pancreatitis assessed using APACHE II score and laboratory tests.CT perfusion is a very useful indicator for prediction and selection patients in early stages of acute pancreatitis who are at risk of developing pancreatic and/or peripancreatic

  4. Diagnostic overshadowing and other challenges involved in the diagnostic process of patients with mental illness who present in emergency departments with physical symptoms--a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Shefer

    Full Text Available We conducted a qualitative study in the Emergency Departments (EDs of four hospitals in order to investigate the perceived scope and causes of 'diagnostic overshadowing'--the misattribution of physical symptoms to mental illness--and other challenges involved in the diagnostic process of people with mental illness who present in EDs with physical symptoms. Eighteen doctors and twenty-one nurses working in EDs and psychiatric liaisons teams in four general hospitals in the UK were interviewed. Interviewees were asked about cases in which mental illness interfered with diagnosis of physical problems and about other aspects of the diagnostic process. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. Interviewees reported various scenarios in which mental illness or factors related to it led to misdiagnosis or delayed treatment with various degrees of seriousness. Direct factors which may lead to misattribution in this regard are complex presentations or aspects related to poor communication or challenging behaviour of the patient. Background factors are the crowded nature of the ED environment, time pressures and targets and stigmatising attitudes held by a minority of staff. The existence of psychiatric liaison team covering the ED twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, can help reduce the risk of misdiagnosis of people with mental illness who present with physical symptoms. However, procedures used by emergency and psychiatric liaison staff require fuller operationalization to reduce disagreement over where responsibilities lie.

  5. Increased Serum PAI-1 Levels in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome and Long-Term Adverse Mental Symptoms: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Huotari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, an inhibitor of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators, are associated with MetS. To clarify the role of PAI-1 in subjects with long-term adverse mental symptomatology (LMS; including depression and MetS, we measured circulating PAI-1 levels in controls (n=111, in subjects with MetS and free of mental symptoms (n=42, and in subjects with both MetS and long-term mental symptoms (n=70. PAI-1 increased linearly across the three groups in men. In logistic regression analysis, men with PAI-1 levels above the median had a 3.4-fold increased likelihood of suffering from the comorbidity of long-term adverse mental symptoms and MetS, while no such associations were detected in women. In conclusion, our results suggest that in men high PAI-1 levels are independently associated with long-term mental symptomatology.

  6. Association between perceived social stigma against mental disorders and use of health services for psychological distress symptoms in the older adult population: validity of the STIG scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2015-01-01

    To document the reliability, construct and nomological validity of the perceived Social Stigmatisation (STIG) scale in the older adult population. Cross-sectional survey. Primary medical health services clinics. Probabilistic sample of older adults aged 65 years and over waiting for medical services in the general medical sector (n = 1765). Perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem was measured using the STIG scale composed of seven indicators. A second-order measurement model of perceived social stigma fitted adequately the observed data. The reliability of the STIG scale was 0.83. According to our results, 39.6% of older adults had a significant level of perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem. RESULTS showed that the perception of social stigma against mental health problems was not significantly associated with a respondent gender and age. RESULTS also showed that the perception of social stigma against the mental health problems was directly associated with the respondents' need for improved mental health (b = -0.10) and indirectly associated with their use of primary medical health services for psychological distress symptoms (b = -0.07). RESULTS lead us to conclude that social stigma against mental disorders perceived by older adults may limit help-seeking behaviours and warrants greater public health and public policy attention. Also, results lead us to conclude that physicians should pay greater attention to their patients' attitudes against mental disorders in order to identify possible hidden mental health problems.

  7. Screening for symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients admitted to a university hospital with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Carolina Casanova; Guidolin, Bruno Luiz; Zimmermann, Paulo Roberto; Sfoggia, Ana

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome to a university hospital and to examine associations with use of psychotropic drugs. Ninety-one patients who had had an acute coronary event were enrolled on this cross-sectional prevalence study. Characteristics of the study population and the prevalence rates of depression and anxiety in the sample were assessed using the Hospital São Lucas da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) psychiatric consultation protocol, which includes clinical and sociodemographic data, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety was 48.4% (44 patients) and the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 26.4% (24 patients). Of these, 19 patients (20.9% of the whole sample) had scores indicative of both types of symptoms concomitantly. Considering the whole sample, just 17 patients (18.7%) were receiving treatment for anxiety or depression with benzodiazepines and/or antidepressants. Anxiety and depression are disorders that are more prevalent among patients with acute coronary syndrome than in the general population, but they are generally under-diagnosed and under-treated. Patients with anxiety and depression simultaneously had higher scores on the HADS for anxiety and depression and therefore require more intensive care.

  8. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  9. Detection of Symptoms of Prevalent Mental Health Disorders of Childhood with the Parent Form of the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Erin; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Abdou, Annmary S.; Twyford, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the criterion-related validity of score inferences from the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Parent Form" (BESS Parent) for the detection of symptoms of prevalent mental health disorders of childhood. The BESS Parent was administered to 99 parents of first- through fifth-grade students, along with the…

  10. Patient communication self-efficacy, self-reported illness symptoms, physician communication style and mental health and illness in hospital outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Vincenza

    2016-07-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the associations between patient communication self-efficacy and self-reported symptoms in doctor-patient communication, as perceived by patients, and the mental health and illness of hospital outpatients. Using data from a sample of 74 outpatients (mean age = 37.58 years, standard deviation = 12.54), a structural equation model was calculated. The results showed that communication self-efficacy and respectful behaviour were associated with mental health and illness. Furthermore, self-reported symptoms were correlated with mental illness. Gender and educational differences also occurred. The findings suggest that enhancing patients' communication skills could benefit outpatients in general, but female and less educated patients in particular.

  11. Women's experiences and behaviour at onset of symptoms of ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herning, Margrethe; Hansen, Peter R; Bygbjerg, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    for medical assistance or to cope with the situation. (3) Actions and strategies taken after onset of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Three factors determined whether women showed appropriate behaviour for reduced patient delay after onset of symptoms: (1) identifying the symptoms as being of cardiac origin, (2...

  12. Leadership support for ward managers in acute mental health inpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Gwen; McLaughlin, Sue

    2014-05-01

    This article shares findings of work undertaken with a group of mental health ward managers to consider their roles through workshops using an action learning approach. The tensions between the need to balance the burden of administrative tasks and act as clinical role models, leaders and managers are considered in the context of providing recovery-focused services. The group reviewed their leadership styles, broke down the administrative elements of their roles using activity logs, reviewed their working environments and considered how recovery focused they believed their wards to be. Findings support the notion that the ward manager role in acute inpatient settings is at times unmanageable. Administration is one aspect of the role for which ward managers feel unprepared and the high number of administrative tasks take them away from front line clinical care, leading to frustration. Absence from clinical areas reduces opportunities for role modeling good clinical practice to other staff. Despite the frustrations of administrative tasks, overall the managers thought they were supportive to their staff and that their wards were recovery focused.

  13. Perceived mental stress in women associated with psychosomatic symptoms, but not mortality: observations from the Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hange D

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Hange,1 Kirsten Mehlig,2 Lauren Lissner,2 Xinxin Guo,3 Calle Bengtsson,1,† Ingmar Skoog,3 Cecilia Björkelund1 1Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, 2Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Public Health Epidemiology, 3Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Section of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden †Calle Bengtsson passed away on 23rd March 2013 Purpose: To investigate possible association between mental stress and psychosomatic symptoms, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, as well as incident mortality in a middle-aged female population followed over 37 years. Methods: A prospective observational study initiated in 1968–1969, including 1462 women aged 60, 54, 50, 46, and 38 years, with follow-ups in 1974–1975, 1980–1981, and 2000–2001, was performed. Measures included self-reported mental stress as well as psychosomatic symptoms and smoking, physical activity, total cholesterol, S-triglycerides, body mass index, waist–hip ratio, blood pressure, socioeconomic status and mortality. Results: Smoking, not being single, and not working outside home were strongly associated with reported mental stress at baseline. Women who reported high mental stress in 1968–1969 were more likely to report presence of abdominal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39–2.46, headache/migraine (OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.53–2.72, frequent infections (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.14–2.70, and musculoskeletal symptoms (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.30–2.23 than women who did not report mental stress. Women without these symptoms at baseline 1968–1969, but with perceived mental stress were more likely to subsequently report incident abdominal symptoms (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.39–3.34, headache/migraine (OR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.48–3.48 and frequent infections (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.12

  14. The association between attachment and mental health symptoms among school-going adolescents in northern Uganda: the moderating role of war-related trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Okello

    Full Text Available The association between attachment and mental health symptoms in adolescents in a post-conflict low resource setting has not been documented.We investigated the relationship between parent and peer attachment and posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 551 adolescents aged 13-21 years old. Attachment quality was assessed using the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA. Post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IESR and Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Adolescents (HSCL-37A respectively. Gender differences in attachment relationships were determined using independent t-tests. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess whether attachment relationships were independently associated with posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the moderating role of war-related trauma.Our analyses revealed gender differences in attachment to parents, with males reporting stronger attachment than females. Parental attachment was protective against depression and anxiety symptoms but not posttraumatic stress symptoms after adjusting for potential confounders. Alienation by parents was independently associated with an increase in these mental health symptoms while peer attachment was not associated with any of these symptoms. However, in situations of severe trauma, our analyses showed that peer attachment was significantly protective against post-traumatic stress symptoms.Secure parental attachment is associated with better psychosocial adjustment in adolescents affected by war. Further, adolescents with secure peer attachment relationships in situations of severe war trauma may be less likely to develop posttraumatic stress symptoms. Interventions to enhance peer support in this post conflict setting would benefit this vulnerable population.

  15. Chronic and acute exposures to the world trade center disaster and lower respiratory symptoms: area residents and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Carey B; Friedman, Stephen M; Pillai, Parul S; Reibman, Joan; Berger, Kenneth I; Goldring, Roberta; Stellman, Steven D; Farfel, Mark

    2012-06-01

    We assessed associations between new-onset (post-September 11, 2001 [9/11]) lower respiratory symptoms reported on 2 surveys, administered 3 years apart, and acute and chronic 9/11-related exposures among New York City World Trade Center-area residents and workers enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. World Trade Center-area residents and workers were categorized as case participants or control participants on the basis of lower respiratory symptoms reported in surveys administered 2 to 3 and 5 to 6 years after 9/11. We created composite exposure scales after principal components analyses of detailed exposure histories obtained during face-to-face interviews. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine associations between lower respiratory symptoms and composite exposure scales. Both acute and chronic exposures to the events of 9/11 were independently associated, often in a dose-dependent manner, with lower respiratory symptoms among individuals who lived and worked in the area of the World Trade Center. Study findings argue for detailed assessments of exposure during and after events in the future from which potentially toxic materials may be released and for rapid interventions to minimize exposures and screen for potential adverse health effects.

  16. Effect of an acute bout of soccer heading on postural control and self-reported concussion symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D M; Hertel, J; Evans, T A; Olmsted, L C; Putukian, M

    2004-07-01

    Our purpose was to determine if an acute bout of heading soccer balls adversely affected postural control and self-reported symptoms of cerebral concussion. Thirty-one college-aged soccer players were randomly placed into either a kicking group or a heading group. Subjects either kicked or headed 18 soccer balls over the course of 40 minutes. Subjects had their postural control assessed while standing on a force plate and completed a concussion symptoms checklist on three separate occasions: prior to, immediately following, and 24 hours after kicking or heading. There were no significant differences between the heading and kicking groups on the postural control measures prior to, immediately following, and 24 hours after kicking/heading. The heading group did, however, report significantly more concussion symptoms than the kicking group immediately after heading, but not 24 hours after heading. The number of previous concussions sustained by subjects did not influence the effects of heading. An acute bout of soccer heading appears to cause an increase in self-reported symptoms of cerebral concussion lasting less than 24 hours but no quantifiable deficits in postural control. Further research is needed to investigate the cumulative effects of soccer heading on postural control and other objective measures of brain function.

  17. [Clinical symptoms and circumastances of acute poisonings with fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Druzdz, Artur; Naskret, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    Mushroom poisonings in Poland are quite common, especially in summer and autumn, but fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina) are rather rare cause of these intoxications. Fly agaric is a cause of deliberate poisoning, whereas panther cap poisoning also happens accidentally. The main toxins of these two mushrooms are ibotenic acid (pantherine, agarine), muscimol, muscazone and muscaridine. The other bioactive substances are stizolobic and stizolobinic acids and aminodicarboxyethylthiopropanoic acids. All these compounds are responsible for diverse picture of intoxication. An analysis of patients with Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina poisoning hospitalized in the Poznan Departament of Toxicology revealed that symptoms occurred after 30 minutes to 2 hours with vomiting, hallucinations, restlessness, increased psychomotor drive and central nervous system depression. Other antycholinergic symptoms like tachycardia and increased blood pressure, mydriasis, dry and red skin were seen only in a few cases. Acute respiratory failure was the most dangerous symptom observed in the course of poisoning.

  18. Secondary analysis of data can inform care delivery for Indigenous women in an acute mental health inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Pat; Cunningham, Teresa; Lowell, Anne; Nagel, Tricia; Dunn, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    There is a paucity of research exploring Indigenous women's experiences in acute mental health inpatient services in Australia. Even less is known of Indigenous women's experience of seclusion events, as published data are rarely disaggregated by both indigeneity and gender. This research used secondary analysis of pre-existing datasets to identify any quantifiable difference in recorded experience between Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, and between Indigenous women and Indigenous men in an acute mental health inpatient unit. Standard separation data of age, length of stay, legal status, and discharge diagnosis were analysed, as were seclusion register data of age, seclusion grounds, and number of seclusion events. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data, and where warranted, inferential statistical methods used SPSS software to apply analysis of variance/multivariate analysis of variance testing. The results showed evidence that secondary analysis of existing datasets can provide a rich source of information to describe the experience of target groups, and to guide service planning and delivery of individualized, culturally-secure mental health care at a local level. The results are discussed, service and policy development implications are explored, and suggestions for further research are offered. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  19. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Symptoms Intensity, Quality of Life, and Mental Health in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrollah Ebrahimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with chronic abdominal pain, bowel habit variations, and lack of structural causes. Symptom intensity has a statistical relation with patients' quality of life (QOL and mental health. The first objective of the present study was to develop and provide a therapeutic plan based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT for IBS that was operated for the very first time in Iran. The second objective was to determine the effectiveness of these treatments on IBS symptoms intensity, health-related QOL, and psychological health among patients with IBS. Methods: The participants were 15 women with IBS. The participants were diagnosed on the basis of ROME-III diagnosis criteria. The data collection tools consisted of IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS, the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life (IBS-QOL questionnaire, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R used to evaluate mental health. Data were collected during the weeks of 0, 4, 12, and 24, during the treatment process. The extracted data was examined statistically via repeated measures MANOVA in SPSS software. Results: CBT has a significant effect on IBS symptoms reduction, QOL improvement, and mental health promotion of the patients. The effect of the therapeutic plan persisted until the follow-up stage. Conclusion: According to the results, applied CBT can be specifically implemented as an effective treatment for IBS. Therefore, the use of this treatment is advised.

  20. Measuring symptoms and diagnosing mental disorders in the elderly community: the test-retest reliability of the CIDI65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Strehle, Jens; Gerschler, Anja; Volkert, Jana; Dehoust, Maria Christina; Sehner, Susanne; Wegscheider, Karl; Ausìn, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Crawford, Mike; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Munoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh; Weber, Kerstin; Schulz, Holger; Härter, Martin; Andreas, Sylke

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence findings for the elderly are artificially low, most likely due to insufficient consideration of age-related cognitive abilities in diagnostic interviews. (1) To describe the rationale for the development of an age-adapted Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI65+) for use in a European project (MentDis_ICF65+). (2) To examine its test-retest reliability. Based on substantive pilot work the CIDI standard questions were shortened, broken down into shorter subsets and combined with sensitization questions and dimensional measures. Test-retest was determined in N = 68 subjects aged 60-79 years via two independent examinations by clinical interviewers using kappa (sensitivity, specificity) for categorical and intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients for dimensional measures. Test-retest reliability was good for any mental disorder (κ = 0.63), major depression (κ = 0.55), anxiety (κ = 0.62, range = 0.30-0.78), substance (κ = 0.77, range = 0.71-0.82), obsessive-compulsive disorder (κ = 1.00) and most core symptoms/syndromes (κ range = 0.48-1.00). Agreement for some disorders (i.e. somatoform/pain) attenuated, partly due to time lapse effects. ICC for age of onset, recency, quantity, frequency and duration questions ranged between κ = 0.60-0.90. Dimensional agreement measures were not consistently higher. The age-adapted CIDI65+ is reliable for assessing most mental disorders, distress, impairment and time-related information in the elderly, prompting the need to examine validity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Mental and physical symptoms associated with lower social support for patients with hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julie A Blasiole; Laura Shinkunas; Douglas R LaBrecque; Robert M Arnold; Susan L Zickmund

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To systematically examine the impact of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) diagnosis on patients' level of social support in a large-scale study.METHODS: Patients evaluated and treated for HCV in a tertiary referral center were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Demographic data, functional and emotional status as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) and the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), severity of liver disease, mode of acquisition, and physical and psychiatric comorbidities were collected from patients or abstracted from the medical record. All participants completed a semi-structured interview, addressing questions of social support.RESULTS: A total of 342 patients (mean age 45.2 years;37% women) were enrolled. Ninety-two (27%) patients described lower levels of support by family and friends.Nearly half of the participants (45%) noted the loss of at least one relationship due to the disease. Fears related to transmitting the disease (25%) were common and often associated with ignorance or even discrimination by others (19%). Nearly one fifth of the patients did not share information about their disease with others to avoid being stigmatized. Lower levels of social support were significantly associated with living alone, being unemployed, being excluded from antiviral therapy, having psychiatric comorbidities, contracting HCV through intravenous drug use, having high levels of anxiety and depression as measured by the HAD and negative mood state as measured by the SIP. Patients reporting lower levels of social support also noted more physical symptoms as measured by the SIP.CONCLUSION: Patients with hepatitis C often face significant social problems, ranging from social isolation to familial stress. The most common concerns reflect a limited insight of patients and their relatives and friends about the disease, the risk factors for its spread, and about potential consequences. Our data suggest that educational interventions targeting

  2. Factors associated with presenting >12 hours after symptom onset of acute myocardial infarction among Veteran men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Kelly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 2/3 of Veterans admitting to Veterans Health Administration (VHA facilities present >12 hours after symptom onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI (“late presenters”. Veterans admitted to VHA facilities with AMI may delay hospital presentation for different reasons compared to their general population counter parts. Despite the large descriptive literature on factors associated with delayed presentation in the general population, the literature describing these factors among the Veteran AMI population is limited. The purpose of this analysis is to identify predictors of late presentation in the Veteran population presenting with AMI to VHA facilities. Identifying predictors will help inform and target interventions for Veterans at a high risk of late presentation. Methods In our cross-sectional study, we analyzed a cohort of 335 male Veterans from nine VHA facilities with physician diagnosed AMI between April 2005 and December 2006. We compared demographics, presentation characteristics, medical history, perceptions of health, and access to health care between early and late presenting Veterans. We used standard descriptive statistics for bivariate comparisons and multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors of late presentation. Results Our cohort was an average of 64 ± 10 years old and was 88% white. Sixty-eight percent of our cohort were late presenters. Bivariate comparisons found that fewer late presenters had attended at least some college or vocational school (late 53% vs. early 66%, p = 0.02. Multivariate analysis showed that presentation with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI was associated with early presentation (OR = 0.4 95%CI [0.2, 0.9] and ≥2 angina episodes in the prior 24 hours (versus 0-1 episode was associated with late presentation (OR = 7.5 95%CI [3.6,15.6]. Conclusions A significant majority of Veterans presenting to VHA

  3. The relationship between depressive symptoms, health service consumption, and prognosis after acute myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnam William H

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of cardiovascular health services is greater among patients with depressive symptoms than among patients without. However, the extent to which such associations between depressive symptoms and health service utilization are attributable to variations in comorbidity and prognostic disease severity is unknown. This paper explores the relationship between depressive symptoms, health service cardiovascular consumption, and prognosis following acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods The study design was a prospective cohort study with follow-up telephone interviews of 1,941 patients 30 days following AMI discharged from 53 hospitals across Ontario, Canada between December 1999 and February, 2003. Outcome measures were post discharge use of cardiac and non-cardiac health care services. The service utilization outcomes were adjusted for age, sex, income, comorbidity, two validated measures of prognosis (cardiac functional capacity and risk adjustment severity index, cardiac procedures (CABG or PTCA and drugs prescribed at discharge. Results Depressive symptoms were associated with a 24% (Adjusted RR:1.24; 95% CI:1.19–1.30, P Conclusion Depressive symptoms are associated with significantly higher cardiac and non-cardiac health service consumption following AMI despite adjustments for comorbidity and prognostic severity. The disproportionately higher cardiac health service consumption among lower-risk AMI depressive patients may suggest that health seeking behaviors are mediated by psychosocial factors more so than by objective measures of cardiovascular risk or necessity.

  4. Mental symptoms and comorbid behaviours among Inuit in Greenland: the role of household crowding and household social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    on 3108 Inuit aged 18 years and older are from the Inuit Health in Transition Survey. Dependent variables considered were: feelings of depression and of anxiety; binge drinking; harmful drinking; and use of marijuana. Household crowding was measured by the number of people in the house, and the social...... with higher risk of reporting feeling anxious (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.00-1.09) or depressed (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.02-1.09), but with lower risks of heavy drinking (OR: 0.89; 95%CI: 0.82-0.98), use of marijuana (OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.77-0.94), and marginally (p... marijuana (OR: 1.34; 95%CI: 0.98-1.81), but not of harmful drinking, were significantly higher in households composed only of adults. Although similar patterns of associations are observed, household crowding and the social structure of the household appear to influence women’s mental symptoms and comorbid...

  5. Mental symptoms and comorbid behaviours among Inuit in Greenland: the role of household crowding and household social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    on 3108 Inuit aged 18 years and older are from the Inuit Health in Transition Survey. Dependent variables considered were: feelings of depression and of anxiety; binge drinking; harmful drinking; and use of marijuana. Household crowding was measured by the number of people in the house, and the social...... with higher risk of reporting feeling anxious (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.00-1.09) or depressed (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.02-1.09), but with lower risks of heavy drinking (OR: 0.89; 95%CI: 0.82-0.98), use of marijuana (OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.77-0.94), and marginally (p... marijuana (OR: 1.34; 95%CI: 0.98-1.81), but not of harmful drinking, were significantly higher in households composed only of adults. Although similar patterns of associations are observed, household crowding and the social structure of the household appear to influence women’s mental symptoms and comorbid...

  6. [A description of children and adolescents with somatic unexplained physical symptoms in a Dutch mental health care institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, M E J; Loman, F; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M

    2013-01-01

    Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) occur frequently in children and adolescents. Treatment of MUS in children and adolescents takes place mainly in mental health care (MHC) institutions, as does the treatment of adults with MUS. However, there is hardly any literature about the prevalence of MUS in children and adolescents in MHC. To study the prevalence of MUS in children and adolescents in Dutch MHC. Comparisons were drawn between children and adolescents with MUS and those without MUS who had been referred to a Dutch MHC institution. Children and adolescents with MUS had more anxiety and depression and more introvert personality characteristics than children and adolescents without MUS. However, the quality of life of children and adolescents with MUS was similar to that of children and adolescents without MUS. One in five children and adolescents in Dutch MHC had MUS. These children and adolescents had introverted personality characteristics and showed anxious and depressed behavior, withdrawn-depressed behavior, and thought problems. The quality of life of children and adolescents with MUS and those without MUS was below average.

  7. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Klith Jensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88% had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02–1.28. The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22–0.91. These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

  8. Focused sonography of the heart, lungs, and deep veins identifies missed life-threatening conditions in admitted patients with acute respiratory symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Christian B; Sloth, Erik; Lambrechtsen, Jess;

    2014-01-01

    Patients with acute respiratory symptoms still remain a diagnostic challenge. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether focused sonography could potentially diagnose life-threatening conditions missed at the primary assessment in a patient population consisting of admitted patients with acute...

  9. A Test of the Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation on General and Specific Self-Reported Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms: An Experimental Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Babson, Kimberly A; Trainor, Casey D.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2010-01-01

    Evidence indicates acute sleep deprivation affects negative mood states. The present study experimentally tested the effects of acute sleep deprivation on self-reported symptoms of state anxiety and depression as well as general distress among 88 physically and psychologically healthy adults. As hypothesized, the effects of acute sleep deprivation increased state anxiety and depression, as well as general distress, relative to a normal night of sleep control condition. Based on the tripartite...

  10. Acute symptoms during non-inhalation exposure to combinations of toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    To study the acute effect of exposure to a mixture of three commonly used solvents in humans using a route of exposure not involving the nose and lungs, in this case a gastrointestinal application....

  11. Persistent Serious Mental Illness Among Former Applicants for VA PTSD Disability Benefits and Long-Term Outcomes: Symptoms, Functioning, and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Maureen; Spoont, Michele Roxanne; Kehle-Forbes, Shannon Marie; Harwood, Eileen Mae; Sayer, Nina Aileen; Clothier, Barbara Ann; Bangerter, Ann Kay

    2017-02-01

    Millions of U.S. veterans have returned from military service with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for which a substantial number receive U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits. Although PTSD is treatable, comorbid serious mental illness (defined here as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar spectrum disorders) could complicate these veterans' recovery. Using VA administrative data, we examined the burden of persistent serious mental illness in a nationally representative cohort of 1,067 men and 1,513 women who applied for VA PTSD disability benefits between 1994 and 1998 and served during or after the Vietnam conflict. Self-reported outcomes were restricted to the 713 men and 1,015 women who returned surveys at each of 3 collection points. More than 10.0% of men and 20.0% of women had persistent serious mental illness; of these, more than 80.0% also had persistent PTSD. On repeated measures modeling, those with persistent serious mental illness consistently reported more severe PTSD symptoms and poorer functioning in comparison to other participants (ps mental illness and PTSD were significant only for employment (p = .002). Persistent serious mental illness in this population was almost 2 to 19 times higher than in the general U.S. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  12. Acute and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a prospective gene x environment study of a university campus shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristina B; Orcutt, Holly K; Quinn, Jeffrey F; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Conneely, Karen N; Barfield, Richard T; Gillespie, Charles F; Ressler, Kerry J

    2012-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) has been associated with several stress-related syndromes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The ability to detect meaningful associations is largely dependent on reliable measures of preexisting trauma. To study the association of genetic variants within SLC6A4 with acute and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a civilian cohort with known levels of preexisting trauma and PTSD symptoms collected prior to a shared index traumatic event. Ongoing longitudinal study. On February 14, 2008, a lone gunman shot multiple people on the campus of Northern Illinois University in DeKalb, Illinois, killing 5 and wounding 21. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study on that campus, a cohort of female undergraduate students, interviewed prior to the shooting, completed follow-up trauma-related measures including PTSD symptom severity (follow-up survey was launched 17 days postshooting; n = 691). To obtain DNA, salivary samples were collected from a subset of the original study population based on willingness to participate (n = 276). Two hundred four undergraduate women. SLC6A4 polymorphisms STin2, 5-HTTLPR, and rs25531 were genotyped in 235 individuals. We found that although the STin2 variant and 5-HTTLPR alone did not associate with increased PTSD symptoms, rs25531 and the 5-HTTLPR multimarker genotype (combined 5-HTTLPR and rs25531) were associated with significantly increased acute stress disorder symptoms at 2 to 4 weeks postshooting (n = 161; P < .05). This association remained significant when controlling for race and for level of shooting exposure (n = 123; P < .007). The association was most robust with the 5-HTTLPR multimarker genotype and avoidance symptoms (P = .003). These data suggest that differential function of the serotonin transporter may mediate differential response to a severe trauma. When examined in a relatively homogenous sample with shared trauma and known prior levels of child and adult trauma

  13. The Role of Posttraumatic Stress in Acute Postconcussive Symptoms following Blast Injury in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-21

    Hovda DA, Giza CC: The molecular pathophysiology of concussive brain injury . Clin Sports Med 2011; 30: 33–48. 7 World Health Organisation, ICD-10...following blast injury in combat 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Richard Bryant /Monty Baker, Jim...personnel are managed in the acute aftermath of a blast injury . Management of PCS needs to recognize the role of acute posttraumatic stress responses in

  14. The prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms and role of protective measures among Malaysian hajj pilgrims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deris, Zakuan Zainy; Hasan, Habsah; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi Ab; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms including cough, runny nose, sore throat, and fever are the most common clinical manifestations faced by hajj pilgrims in Mecca. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among Malaysian hajj pilgrims and the effect of a few protective measures taken by hajj pilgrims to reduce respiratory symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing survey forms to Malaysian hajj pilgrims at transit center before flying back to Malaysia. The recruitment of respondents to the survey was on a voluntary basis. A total of 387 survey forms were available for analysis. The mean age was 50.4 +/- 11.0 years. The common respiratory symptoms among Malaysian hajj pilgrims were: cough 91.5%, runny nose 79.3%, fever 59.2%, and sore throat 57.1%. The prevalence of hajj pilgrims with triad of cough, subjective fever, and sore throat were 40.1%. The symptoms lasted less than 2 weeks in the majority of cases. Only 3.6% did not suffer from any of these symptoms. Seventy-two percent of hajj pilgrims received influenza vaccination before departure and 72.9% wore facemasks. Influenza vaccination was not associated with any of respiratory symptoms but it was significantly associated with longer duration of sore throat. Wearing masks was significantly associated with sore throat and longer duration of sore throat and fever. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was high among Malaysian hajj pilgrims and the current protective measures seemed inadequate to reduce it. Beside standardization of the term used in hajj studies, more collaborative effort should be taken to reduce respiratory symptoms. The hajj authority should prepare for the challenge of pandemic influenza by providing more healthcare facilities and implementation of more strict measures to reduce the transmission of pandemic influenza strain among hajj pilgrims.

  15. Effect of Taking Soybean Supplement and Regular Aerobic Exercise in Water on Mental and Physical Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome among Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masume Nazemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of taking soybean supplement and regular aerobic exercise in water on mental and physical symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS among female students. Methods: This study was a single blind quasi-experimental trial that was conducted on female students living in dormitories of Shahroud University. In this study of 67 female students suffering from severe PMS that were eligible for inclusion, 40 persons voluntarily by completing a consent form were willing to work with us until the end of the study. After performing the pre-test and completing the questionnaire (PMS, subjects were divided into 4 groups: Aerobic training, taking soybean supplement, soybean supplement along with aerobic exercise and placebo. Aerobic exercises include activities in water for 8 weeks, with three sessions per week, and intensity of 55 to 65 percent of maximum heart rate. The supplement contains a capsule of 500 mg of soybean, taken once daily and the placebo contains starch, flour and oleaster powder that was similar to soybean capsule, taken once daily. At the end of eight weeks in the post-test stage, participants again completed the PMS questionnaire accurately. Given the normality of data, two-way ANOVA was performed to analyze the data using SPSS18 software. Results: The results showed that aerobic training in water for eight weeks had a significantly effect on general, physical and mental PMS symptoms in training group. Moreover, taking soybean for eight weeks had a significant effect on general and mental symptoms in supplement group, but no significant effect was observed in physical symptoms. In addition, 8 weeks of taking soybean supplement along with aerobic exercise in the water reduce the symptoms, but this difference was not significant. Conclusion: According to the results of this research, Soybean supplement or aerobic exercise in water can be used to treat or reduce PMS symptoms.

  16. Recovery from Dysphagia Symptoms after Oral Endotracheal Intubation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Survivors. A 5-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Martin B; Huang, Minxuan; Shanholtz, Carl; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Needham, Dale M

    2017-03-01

    Nearly 60% of patients who are intubated in intensive care units (ICUs) experience dysphagia after extubation, and approximately 50% of them aspirate. Little is known about dysphagia recovery time after patients are discharged from the hospital. To determine factors associated with recovery from dysphagia symptoms after hospital discharge for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) survivors who received oral intubation with mechanical ventilation. This is a prospective, 5-year longitudinal cohort study involving 13 ICUs at four teaching hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland. The Sydney Swallowing Questionnaire (SSQ), a 17-item visual analog scale (range, 0-1,700), was used to quantify patient-perceived dysphagia symptoms at hospital discharge, and at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after ARDS. An SSQ score greater than or equal to 200 was used to indicate clinically important dysphagia symptoms at the time of hospital discharge. Recovery was defined as an SSQ score less than 200, with a decrease from hospital discharge greater than or equal to 119, the reliable change index for SSQ score. Fine and Gray proportional subdistribution hazards regression analysis was used to evaluate patient and ICU variables associated with time to recovery accounting for the competing risk of death. Thirty-seven (32%) of 115 patients had an SSQ score greater than or equal to 200 at hospital discharge; 3 died before recovery. All 34 remaining survivors recovered from dysphagia symptoms by 5-year follow-up, 7 (23%) after 6 months. ICU length of stay was independently associated with time to recovery, with a hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.96 (0.93-1.00) per day. One-third of orally intubated ARDS survivors have dysphagia symptoms that persist beyond hospital discharge. Patients with a longer ICU length of stay have slower recovery from dysphagia symptoms and should be carefully considered for swallowing assessment to help prevent complications related to dysphagia.

  17. Cultural Stressors and Mental Health Symptoms among Mexican Americans: A Prospective Study Examining the Moderating Roles of the Family and Neighborhood Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Rajni L; White, Rebecca M. B.; Zeiders, Katherine. H.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of stress consistently have linked individuals’ experiences of stress to maladjustment, but limited attention has been given to cultural stressors commonly experienced by minority individuals. To address this, the current study examined the links between cultural stressors and prospective changes in mental health symptoms in a sample of 710 (49% female) Mexican American youth. In addition, the moderating role of both family and neighborhood cohesion was examined. In-home interviews we...

  18. Inflammation and vascular responses to acute mental stress : implications for the triggering of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paine, N.J.; Bosch, J.A.; Veldhuijzen Van Zanten, J.J.C.S.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that mental stress can trigger myocardial infarction. Even though the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined, both inflammation and vascular responses to mental stress have been implicated as contributing factors. This review explores the effects of inflammation on the

  19. Substance use, firearm availability, depressive symptoms, and mental health service utilization among white and African American suicide decedents aged 15 to 64 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsiang-Ching; Pearson, Jane L; Wei, Rong

    2005-09-01

    We investigated whether the substance use problems of excessive alcohol consumption and marijuana use, firearm availability, depressive symptoms, and mental health service utilization, differed among white and African American suicide decedents compared with natural cause-of-death decedents. The subjects were a representative sample of 22,957 deceased individuals aged 15 years or older from the 1993 US National Mortality Followback Survey (NMFS). A matched case-control study was constructed for suicide decedents aged 15 to 64 years, with natural death controls frequency matched to cases by age and gender. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations of risk factors with suicide by race. When compared with natural causes of death, suicide deaths among white decedents were associated with use of mental health services, heavy drinking, marijuana use, depression symptoms, and firearm availability. Suicides by African American decedents were associated only with use of mental health services, marijuana, and firearm availability. The interaction of mental health service use and marijuana use was significant only for white suicide decedents. This study contributes to the limited understanding of how risk factors unique to suicide differ, and possibly interact, among African American and white decedents. Similarities and differences in risk factors should be considered in suicide prevention planning efforts.

  20. Psychotic symptoms are associated with physical health problems independently of a mental disorder diagnosis: results from the WHO World Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Carmen; Nuevo, Roberto; Chatterji, Somnath; Verdes, Emese; Arango, Celso; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2013-10-01

    This study explored whether physical health problems are related to psychotic symptoms independently of a mental disorder diagnosis. A total of 224,254 subjects recruited for the World Health Organization World Health Survey were subdivided into those with both a lifetime diagnosis of psychosis and at least one psychotic symptom in the 12 months prior to the evaluation, those with at least one psychotic symptom in the past 12 months but no lifetime diagnosis of psychosis, and those without psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months and without a lifetime diagnosis of psychosis. The three groups were compared for the presence of medical conditions, health problems, and access to health care. Medical conditions and health problems (angina, asthma, arthritis, tuberculosis, vision or hearing problems, mouth/teeth problems, alcohol consumption, smoking, and accidents), medication consumption, and hospital admissions (but not regular health care visits) were more frequent in individuals with psychotic symptoms but no psychosis diagnosis, compared to those with no symptoms and no diagnosis. The number of medical conditions increased with the number of psychotic symptoms. Given the sample analyzed, this trend seems to be independent from the socio-economic development of the country or the specific health care system.

  1. The effect of brief behavioral activation treatment on symptoms of depression, mental health and quality of life among the patients with opioid abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hasani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders comorbid with with substance use disorder. This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of brief behavioral activation treatment on the symptoms of depression, mental health and quality of life among the patients with opioid use disorders. Methods: In a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design, 24 patients taking opiates were selected through convenience sampling method and randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was treated for two months. BDI-II, GHQ-28, WHOQOL-BREF were given to both groups before and after treatment and in the 2-month followup period. The results were analyzed using mixed analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that brief behavioral activation treatment significantly reduced the symptoms of depression (P0.05. Conclusion: brief behavioral activation treatment is capable of reducing the severity of symptoms of depression and improving the mental health of patients with substance use disorders.

  2. Limited evidence for effects of intranasal corticosteroids on symptom relief for recurrent acute rhinosinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, J.W.L.; van Harn, R.P.; Venekamp, R.P.; Kaper, N.M.; Sachs, A.P.E.; van der Heijden, G.J.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the evidence base on the effectiveness of intranasal corticosteroids in adult patients with recurrent acute rhinosinusitis. Data Sources Pubmed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Review Methods A comprehensive search was performed up to March 20, 2013. Two reviewer

  3. Eicosanoid and amino acid metabolism in transient acute psychoses with psychedelic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fekkes (Durk); W.T. Bode (Willem); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek); L. Pepplinkhuizen (Lolke)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIt has been hypothesized that a disturbance of glutathione (GSH) metabolism might be a common factor in many psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in transient acute psychotic patients with distorted perceptions. Since the metabolism of GSH is

  4. The Impact of Demographic, Clinical, Symptom and Psychological Characteristics on the Trajectories of Acute Postoperative Pain After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaskowski, Christine; Rustøen, Tone; Rosseland, Leiv Arne; Paul, Steven M.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Lerdal, Anners

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Total knee arthroplasty is a painful procedure. No studies have evaluated modifiable predictors of acute postoperative pain trajectories during hospitalization. Methods. Consecutive patients (N = 188) were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study and completed a demographic questionnaire, as well as the Brief Pain Inventory, Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale, Lee Fatigue Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, and Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire on the day before surgery. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. Setting and Patients. Each patient completed a pain diary that assessed pain at rest and with activity, and hours per day in pain every evening from day of surgery until postoperative day 3. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we investigated which demographic, clinical, symptom, and psychological characteristics predicted initial levels as well as the trajectories of acute pain at rest and with activity, and hours per day in pain. Results. Higher levels of all three acute pain characteristics on the day of surgery resulted in worse trajectories. Higher pain scores with rest and with activity on the day of surgery were associated with more days with femoral block, higher average dose of opioids, and higher emotional response to osteoarthritis. Higher number of comorbidities, higher average dose of opioids, and lower perceived control predicted more hours per day in pain on the day of surgery. Conclusions. This study identified several potentially modifiable predictors of worsening pain trajectories following total knee arthroplasty. Optimal pain management warrants identification of these high-risk patients and treatment of modifiable risk factors. PMID:27165969

  5. The Usefulness of the TOAST Classification and Prognostic Significance of Pyramidal Symptoms During the Acute Phase of Cerebellar Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadkowiak, Edyta; Chojdak-Łukasiewicz, Justyna; Guziński, Maciej; Noga, Leszek; Paradowski, Bogusław

    2016-04-01

    Cerebellar stroke is a rare condition with very nonspecific clinical features. The symptoms in the acute phase could imitate acute peripheral vestibular disorders or a brainstem lesion. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification in cerebellar stroke and the impact of clinical features on the prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed 107 patients with diagnosed ischemic cerebellar infarction. We studied the clinical features and compared them based on the location of the ischemic lesion and its distribution in the posterior interior cerebellar artery (PICA), superior cerebellar artery (SCA), and anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territories. According to the TOAST classification, stroke was more prevalent in atrial fibrillation (26/107) and when the lesion was in the PICA territory (39/107). Pyramidal signs occurred in 29/107 of patients and were more prevalent when the lesion was distributed in more than two vascular regions (p = 0.00640). Mortality was higher among patients with ischemic lesion caused by cardiac sources (p = 0.00094) and with pyramidal signs (p = 0.00640). The TOAST classification is less useful in assessing supratentorial ischemic infarcts. Cardioembolic etiology, location of the ischemic lesion, and pyramidal signs support a negative prognosis.

  6. Sex-Based Differences in Cognitive Deficits and Symptom Reporting Among Acutely Concussed Adolescent Lacrosse and Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Natalie K; Schatz, Philip; Goldberg, Kenneth B; Lazar, Mary

    2017-03-01

    Research on the acute effects of a concussion among lacrosse players is limited, and postconcussion patterns between male and female athletes have yet to be clearly established. Differences in the style of play and protective gear worn among male and female lacrosse players potentially confound a direct comparison of sex-based differences in this population. To explore sex-based differences in postconcussive neurocognitive functioning and symptom reporting outcomes in concussed adolescent male and female lacrosse players compared with a group of soccer players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 224 adolescent lacrosse players (112 male, 112 female) aged 13 to 17 years (mean [±SD] age, 15.43 ± 1.09 years) were included in this study. A comparison group of soccer players was added and matched to lacrosse players based on age and sex to address confounding sport differences in male and female versions of lacrosse. All athletes underwent baseline and postinjury testing within 3 days of an injury using the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) tool. Data were analyzed at baseline using a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with sport and sex as between-participant factors. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed-factorial MANOVA was also conducted for sex and sport comparisons at baseline versus after a concussion. Ancillary analyses evaluated sex-based differences in exceeded reliable change indices (RCIs) using an independent-samples t test and established postinjury cutoff scores reflective of a protracted recovery using chi-square tests. All athletes had a significantly worse cognitive profile and greater endorsement of symptoms after an injury ( F5,216 = 30.30, P .05) across all neurocognitive and symptom outcome variables. Likewise, there were no significant interaction effects for sport × time ( F5,216 = 1.46, P = .21, ηρ(2) = .03) or sport × sex × time ( F5,216 = 2.09, P = .07, ηρ(2) = .05), indicating that lacrosse and

  7. Depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness in adolescence: Impact of two decades of war and political violence on adolescent mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences in Serbia in the last two decades have caused significant psychological consequences in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness among high school and elementary school students in Belgrade, Serbia. The participants were 899 students (51.8% were female with no prior treatment for psychological problems, with a mean age of 16.70±1.95. All used instruments were taken from the modified Social and Health Assessment (SAHA. Our findings show that delinquent behavior or exposure to delinquency was significantly related to depressive symptoms. The strongest predictors of depression were variables concerning legal consequences, affiliation with delinquent peers, victimization by community violence and peer victimization. This study confirmed a strong correlation between depression and exposure to violence. Identifying adolescents with depressive symptoms is important for prevention of serious mental health consequences.

  8. Acute onset of generalised pruritus as presenting symptom of Klatskin tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobbia, Patrick; Norris, Leslie A; Karimova, Nodira

    2012-08-08

    A 60-year-old Korean woman presented with generalised pruritus and abdominal pain. She was initially treated with oral antihistamine therapy, but upon progression of symptoms and jaundice involvement, she was found to have a Klatskin tumour. The patient was not a candidate for surgical resection and is currently undergoing palliative care.

  9. Quantitative t2 values predict time from symptom onset in acute stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemonsen, Susanne; Mouridsen, Kim; Holst, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesize that in comparison to diffusion-weighted imaging, quantitative T2 values (qT2) are more directly related to water uptake in ischemic tissue, depending on time from symptom onset. We measured the increase of qT2 in the infarct core to quantify the correlation...

  10. Can kinesiophobia predict the duration of neck symptoms in acute whiplash?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, J; Jaspers, JPC; Fidler, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: In low back pain, clinical studies suggest that kinesiophobia (fear of movement/(re)injury) is important in the etiology of chronic symptoms. In this prospective cohort study, the predictive role of kinesiophobia in the development of late whiplash syndrome was examined. Methods: Victims

  11. HowNutsAreTheDutch (HoeGekIsNL) : A crowdsourcing study of mental symptoms and strengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Krieke, Lian; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Blaauw, Frank; Wanders, Rob; Emerencia, Armando Celino; Schenk, Hendrika; de Vos, Stijn; Snippe, Evelien; Wichers, Maria; Wigman, Johanna; Bos, Elisabeth; Wardenaar, Klaas; de Jonge, Peter

    HowNutsAreTheDutch (Dutch: HoeGekIsNL) is a national crowdsourcing study designed to investigate multiple continuous mental health dimensions in a sample from the general population (n=12,503). Its main objective is to create an empirically based representation of mental strengths and

  12. Preventive use of Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and inulin to relieve symptoms of acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijová, Emília; Šoltésová, Alena; Salaj, Rastislav; Kuzma, Jozef; Strojný, Ladislav; Bomba, Alojz; Gregová, Kristína

    2015-01-01

    The aim of presented study was to investigate the influence of Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and inulin on the activity of β-glucuronidase enzyme, and counts of coliform and lactobacilli in fresh caecal digesta, cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8), and trancription nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB) activities in colon tissue and blood samples of rats with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) induced acute colitis. The rats were randomly divided into four groups - CG, AC, AC+PRE and AC+PRO. Colitis was induced using of 5% DSS in drinking water for 7d. DSS application increased activity of β-glucuronidase (P LS/07 decreased β-glucuronidase activity (P LS/07 and inulin suppressed expression observed markers, which play an important role in the inflammatory process, which predisposes their use in prevention or treatment of acute colitis.

  13. Risk of hospitalization for acute cardiovascular events among subjects with lower urinary tract symptoms: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Juan Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS have been reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome and may predispose subjects to cardiovascular disease. The magnitude of the impact on the medical care remains to be elucidated. Based on a population-based claims dataset in Taiwan, we explored the association between LUTS and the risk of subsequent hospitalization for acute cardiovascular events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among a representative sample of one million subjects from nationwide health insurance enrollees, subjects with codes of LUTS in service claims and without previous cardiovascular diseases including stroke were compared with age- and sex-matched non-LUTS subjects in subsequent hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome or stroke from the recruited date (between 2001-2004 to 2009. The risk of outcomes was assessed with Kaplan-Meier curves and the impact of LUTS was estimated with Poison regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: We included 4,553 LUTS subjects and 22,765 matched non-LUTS subjects, with a mean age of 47 years and 43% of men. Hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia were more prevalent in the LUTS group. The incidence rate of the composite endpoint was significantly higher in the LUTS group than in the non-LUTS group (5.4/1000 vs. 4.0/1000 person-years. The difference mainly derived from stroke rather than acute coronary syndrome. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in multivariable analysis, LUTS remained a significant predictor (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence incidence, 1.06-1.50. CONCLUSION: Subjects free of cardiovascular disease and presenting with LUTS are at risk of subsequent hospitalization for acute cardiovascular events, mainly stroke. The information might prompt practitioners encountering such patients to undergo appropriate diagnostic and preventive measures.

  14. Association between desloratadine and prednisolone in the treatment of children with acute symptoms of allergic rhinitis: a double-blind, randomized and controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Miranda, Carolina; Ensina, Luis Felipe; Sano, Flavio; Amazonas, Roberto Bleul; Silva, Joyce Macedo da; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-09-13

    A combination of antihistamines and oral corticosteroids is often used to treat acute symptoms of allergic rhinitis. To evaluate safety and efficacy of desloratadine plus prednisolone in the treatment of acute symptoms of children (2-12 years) with allergic rhinitis, and to compare it to dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone. Children with moderate/severe persistent allergic rhinitis and symptomatic (nasal symptoms score [0-12]≥6) were allocated in a double-blind, randomized fashion to receive dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone (n=105; three daily doses) or desloratadine plus prednisolone (n=105; single dose followed by two of placebo) for 7 days. At the beginning and end of the evaluation, the following were obtained: nasal symptoms score, extra nasal symptoms score, peak nasal inspiratory flow, blood biochemistry, and electrocardiogram. Ninety-six children of the dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone group and 98 of the desloratadine plus prednisolone group completed the protocol. The two groups were similar regarding initial and final nasal symptoms scores, extra nasal symptoms scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow. A drop of 76.4% and 79.1% for nasal symptoms score, 86.0% and 79.2% for extra nasal symptoms score, as well as an increase of 25.2% and 24.3% for peak nasal inspiratory flow occurred for those treated with desloratadine plus prednisolone and dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone, respectively. There were no significant changes in blood chemistry. Sinus tachycardia was the most frequent electrocardiogram change, but with no clinical significance. Drowsiness was reported significantly more often among those of dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone group (17.14%×8.57%, respectively). The desloratadine plus prednisolone combination was able to effectively control acute symptoms of rhinitis in children, improving symptoms and nasal function. Compared to the dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone combination, it showed similar clinical action

  15. Parent-Child Diagnostic Agreement on Anxiety Symptoms with a Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Lukka; Neuschwander, Murielle; Mannstadt, Sandra; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In clinical structured diagnostic interviews, diagnoses based on parent and child reports have low to moderate agreement. The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related predictors for diagnostic agreement. Method: The sample consisted of 166 parent-child dyads interviewed with the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children (Kinder-DIPS, Schneider et al., 2009). The children (51.8% girls) were between the ages of 7 and 18 years (M = 10.94; SD = 2.22). Results: Overall, parent-child agreement on the diagnostic category of anxiety disorder (k = 0.21; k = 0.22) and the specific anxiety diagnoses (base rate > 10%) of social phobia, specific phobia and separation anxiety disorder (k = 0.24–0.52; k = 0.19–0.43) and corresponding diagnostic criteria (k = 0.22–0.67; k = 0.24–0.41) were low to moderate with the highest agreement on separation anxiety disorder (k > 0.43). Lower maternal depression, and higher social support reported by mother and father were associated with higher parent-child agreement. Maternal depression was indicated as the strongest predictor. Parental sense of competence, parental anxiety, the amount of parent-child interaction and the child's age and gender had no predictive value. Conclusions: Parent-child agreement can be expected to be higher on the level of anxiety criteria compared to specific anxiety diagnoses and diagnostic anxiety category. Psychological strains in the family—especially maternal depression and low social support—lower the parent-child agreement on anxiety symptoms. Child- and relation-related variables (age, gender, amount of time parent(s) and children interact) play no role in the prediction of low parent-child agreement.

  16. Somatic/affective symptoms, but not cognitive/affective symptoms, of depression after acute coronary syndrome are associated with 12-month all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Annelieke M.; Thombs, Brett D.; Grace, Sherry L.; Stewart, Donna E.; Abbey, Susan E.; de Jonge, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Symptom dimensions of post myocardial infarction (MI) depression may be differently related to prognosis. Somatic/affective symptoms appear to be associated with a worse cardiac outcome than cognitive/affective symptoms. We examined the relationship between depressive symptom dimensions

  17. Resistance to changing practice from pro re nata prescriptions to patient group directions in acute mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, O; Baker, J A

    2013-09-01

    Poor practice associated with pro re nata (PRN) prescriptions in mental health is known to be common and can increase the risk of serious and potentially fatal side effects. A contributing factor to poor practice is the lack of a clear chain of accountability between the decision to prescribe and administer PRN prescriptions. To address this problem, a patient group direction (PGD) for acute behavioural disturbance (lorazepam 0.5-2 mg) and staff training materials were developed. The intention was to replace PRN prescriptions with the PGD in two mental health trusts. One of the potential benefits of this would be the removal of the contribution of PRN to high and combined dose antipsychotic prescriptions. This proposal, however, was met with significant resistance in both trusts and did not replace PRN as a result. A series of interviews and focus groups were conducted with 16 RMNs working in the two trusts, to explore the reasons why the PGD was met with resistance. Senior nurses perceived resistance to be associated with anxieties over increased responsibility for decision making. Junior nurses reported concerns regarding the medicalization of the nursing role, the paperwork associated with the PGD and the training approach used. Future efforts to implement PGDs in mental health settings must carefully consider the methods for engaging effectively with participating organizations, in terms of managing change and completing the necessary groundwork for successful implementation.

  18. Acute Hemiparesis in a Child as a Presenting Symptom of Hemispheric Cerebral Proliferative Angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Gold

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 9-year-old girl with a several-month history of unilateral intermittent headaches presented to the hospital with worsening headaches and unsteadiness. Neurologic exam was positive for a mild right hemiparesis and right homonymous hemianopsia. Noncontrast computed tomography revealed an engorged sagittal and straight sinus with prominent cortical veins concerning an arteriovenous malformation and the patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Computed tomography angiogram demonstrated a left hemispheric vascular malformation, without evidence of dural arteriovenous fistula on conventional angiogram consistent with a diagnosis of cerebral proliferative angiopathy. There was no evidence of infarct on magnetic resonance imaging, and the patient’s symptoms were completely resolved within 24 hours. Cerebral proliferative angiopathy is a rare but important vascular malformation distinct from classic arteriovenous malformations that may present with stroke-like symptoms in childhood.

  19. Decreased Vision as Initial Presenting Symptom of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Palme

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This case illustrates that hematologic disorders must be considered as a potentially life-threatening cause for vision loss. Proper laboratory workup and timely interdisciplinary approach are essential to ensure the best possible care for ophthalmic patients. Historically, before the use of bone marrow biopsy, the ophthalmologist was often asked to assist in the diagnosis of leukemia. Since ophthalmological symptoms may be the initial presenting signs of leukemia as highlighted in this case, the ophthalmogist is still of crucial importance.

  20. A COMPARISON MENTAL HEALTH, PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS, ANXIETY AND SLEEPING DISORDERS AND DISORDERS IN SOCIAL FUNCTION AMONG MALE AND FEMALE ATHLETES AND NONATHLETES STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nili Ahmadabady

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to comparison mental health, Physical symptoms, Anxiety and sleeping disorders and Disorders in social function among male and female athletes and non-athletes students. Methods: The target population consisted entirely male of female athletes and non-athletes students in University of Guilan. After translate of standard General Health Questionnaires (GHQ, and adjust of some question, questionnaires were evaluated by professors of faculty of physical education and sport sciences. The reliability guided Cronbach Alpha value of (0.83. Among them 90 male athlete and 90 male non-athlete with mean. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA. Result: There were significant difference mean scores between in four mental health scales, physical symptoms, anxiety and sleep disorders and impaired social functioning athlete and non-athlete in both groups. Conclusion: Therefore, with fewer psychological problems in an athlete, physical activity can be purpose strategies as appropriate, easy and inexpensive to improve mental health among male and female non- athlete students.

  1. Determinants of delay between symptoms and hospital admission in 5978 patients with acute myocardial infarction. The TRACE Study Group. Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, M M; Køber, L; Jørgensen, S

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of patient characteristics on delay between onset of symptoms and hospital admission (patient delay) in acute myocardial infarction, and especially to assess the impact of risk factors for acute myocardial infarction on patient delay. A group...... of 6676 consecutive patients with enzyme-confirmed acute myocardial infarction, admitted alive to 27 Danish hospitals over a 26 month period from 1990 to 1992, were studied. Due to missing information on delay or in-hospital acute myocardial infarction 698 patients were excluded, leaving 5978 patients...... for analysis. Mean patient delay was 9.1 h, median delay 3.25 h (5 to 95 percentiles: 0.67-40.0 h). Thirty-four percent were admitted within the first 2 h, 68% within 6 h and 81% within 12 h of onset of symptoms. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a greater than 2 h patient delay was independently...

  2. Dispositional optimism and self-esteem as competing predictors of acute symptoms of generalized anxiety disorders and dissociative experiences among civilians exposed to war trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Michael; Besser, Avi; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Neria, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have rarely examined predictors of acute emotional responses to war trauma, this "natural laboratory" study aimed to examine the role that individual differences in dispositional optimism and self-esteem play in the development of acute symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and dissociative experiences. A sample of 140 female adults exposed to missile and rocket fire during an eruption of violence in the Middle East in November 2012 was assessed during real-time exposure. The results demonstrate inverse associations between dispositional optimism and acute symptoms of GAD and dissociation. The associations were accounted for by individual differences in self-esteem. In addition, individuals with low levels of dispositional optimism demonstrated a higher risk for acute GAD and dissociative experiences, in part because of their low levels of self-esteem. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Combined intervention with education and progressive muscle relaxation on quality of life, functional disability, and positive symptoms in patients with acute schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Zhi; Luo, Dan; Kanb, We; Wang, Yun

    2015-03-01

    To explore the effects of combined intervention with education and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on quality of life (QoL), functional disability, and positive symptoms of patients with acute schizophrenia. This randomized controlled study took place in an acute schizophrenia ward in Changsha, China. Sixty-four patients with acute schizophrenia were randomly assigned to four groups: control, education, PMR, and education plus PMR. QoL was assessed with the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Functional disability was assessed with the Sheehan Disability Scale. Severity of positive schizophrenia symptoms was assessed with the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms. All patients were evaluated at baseline (within 72 hours before the interventions) and at the end of weeks 5 (when the interventions ended) and week 15 (a 10-week follow-up after the interventions). The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of all four study groups were similar at baseline. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed significant differences among the interventions in improving QoL, functional disability, and positive symptoms over time in the patients. Education and PMR alone resulted in sustained improvement of QoL during the intervention period and a 10-week follow-up but had no significant effects on functional disability or positive schizophrenia symptoms. In contrast, combined intervention with education and PMR showed better effects on improving QoL than did education or PMR alone throughout the 15-week study. It also statistically significantly improved functional disability and positive schizophrenia symptoms during the intervention period and led to sustained improvement of functional disability during the 10-week follow-up. A combined intervention with education and PMR is effective in improving QoL, functional disability, and positive symptoms in patients with acute schizophrenia. The combined intervention model could be a

  4. Self-reported wrist and finger symptoms associated with other physical/mental symptoms and use of computers/mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2017-03-01

    Recently, computer, mobile phone and Internet use has increased. This study aimed to determine the possible relation between self-reported wrist and finger symptoms (aches, pain or numbness) and using computers/mobile phones, and to analyze how the symptoms are specifically associated with utilizing desktop computers, portable computers or mini-computers and mobile phones. A questionnaire was sent to 15,000 working-age Finns (age 18-65). Via a questionnaire, 723 persons reported wrist and finger symptoms often or more with use. Over 80% use mobile phones daily and less than 30% use desktop computers or the Internet daily at leisure, e.g., over 89.8% quite often or often experienced pain, numbness or aches in the neck, and 61.3% had aches in the hips and the lower back. Only 33.7% connected their symptoms to computer use. In the future, the development of new devices and Internet services should incorporate the ergonomics of the hands and wrists.

  5. Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates acute inflammatory and nociceptive symptoms in gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shi Hyoung; Park, Jae Gwang; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yang, Sungjae; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jun Ho; Ha, Van Thai; Kim, Han Gyung; Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Ji Hye; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Sung, Nak Yoon; Lee, Mi-nam; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol (KF) is the most abundant polyphenol in tea, fruits, vegetables, and beans. However, little is known about its in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy and mechanisms of action. To study these, several acute mouse inflammatory and nociceptive models, including gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain were employed. Kaempferol was shown to attenuate the expansion of inflammatory lesions seen in ethanol (EtOH)/HCl- and aspirin-induced gastritis, LPS/caerulein (CA) triggered pancreatitis, and acetic acid-induced writhing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Disentangling the directions of associations between structural social capital and mental health: Longitudinal analyses of gender, civic engagement and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Almquist, Ylva B; Eriksson, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-08-01

    The present paper analysed the directions of associations between individual-level structural social capital, in the form of civic engagement, and depressive symptoms across time from age 16-42 years in Swedish men and women. More specifically, we asked whether civic engagement was related to changes in depressive symptoms, if it was the other way around, or whether the association was bi-directional. This longitudinal study used data from a 26-year prospective cohort material of 1001 individuals in Northern Sweden (482 women and 519 men). Civic engagement was measured by a single-item question reflecting the level of engagement in clubs/organisations. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a composite index. Directions of associations were analysed by means of gender-separate cross-lagged structural equation models. Models were adjusted for parental social class, parental unemployment, parental health, and family type at baseline (age 16). Levels of both civic engagement and depressive symptoms were relatively stable across time. The model with the best fit to data showed that, in men, youth civic engagement was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in adulthood, thus supporting the hypothesis that involvement in social networks promotes health, most likely through provision of social and psychological support, perceived influence, and sense of belonging. Accordingly, interventions to promote civic engagement in young men could be a way to prevent poor mental health for men later on in life. No cross-lagged effects were found among women. We discuss this gender difference in terms of gendered experiences of civic engagement which in turn generate different meanings and consequences for men and women, such as civic engagement not being as positive for women's mental health as for that of men. We conclude that theories on structural social capital and interventions to facilitate civic engagement for health promoting purposes need to acknowledge gendered life

  7. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY OF NON-PSYCHOTIC MENTAL DISORDERS IN FEMALE PATIENTS OF CLIMACTERIC AGE WITH HYSTERICAL SYMPTOM COMPLEX (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Lukiyanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, problematic questions of diagnostics and therapy of non-psychotic mental disorders (NPMD in female patients of climacteric age with hysterical symptom complex are considered. Efficacy of psychotherapy (PT in NPMD, hypnopsychotherapy in hysterical states: hysterical neurosis, neurasthenia and obsessive-compulsive neurosis is indicated. In treatment of NPMD, PT by creative selfexpression is successfully used. It is highlighted that PT forms conscious-critical attitude of patients toward themselves. Combination of PT with physiotherapy in hysterical conversional symptoms has been described. In hysterical manifestations neuroleptics are recommended, in neurotic depressions – antidepressants of mild action. In severe hysterical state, psychopharmacotherapy (PPhT with tranquilizers and neuroleptics is applied on long-term basis. Stable recovery in dissociative and hysterical disorders has been shown. In vegetovascular disorders in structure of climacteric syndrome (CS vinpocetine, in psychoemotional manifestations phenibut was administered. In therapy of hysterical neurosis, “minor neuroleptics”, hypnosuggestive therapy, social rehabilitation were applied. Effective group PT of psychogenically conditioned disorders in asthenicand anxiety-depressive symptoms is effective. Complex therapy of NPMD in hysterical and asthenic neurosis, obsessive-compulsive neurosis has been suggested. Organization of specialized preventive examinations for early revealing of persons with personality pathology is based. Efficacy of a number of medications in periand post-menopause – SSRIs and gabapentin, during menopause paroxetine, in depressions of non-psychotic level – pyrazidol, coaxil, in neurotic hypochondriasis sulpiride and quetiapine, diazepam, in climacteric vegetative and mental disorders hormone replacement therapy (HRT, hormonal therapy, PPhT and PT, in neurovegetative symptoms of CS – antidepressants, in psychovegetative syndromes

  8. Low socio-economic status, smoking, mental stress and obesity predict obstructive symptoms in women, but only smoking also predicts subsequent experience of poor health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted among female subjects to assess the possible association between selected risk factors and lung function as well as airway symptoms in a 32-year perspective. The Prospective Population Study of Women was initiated in 1968-1969 in Göteborg, Sweden (population about 450 000 with follow-ups in 1974-1975, 1980-1981, 1992-1993 and 2000-2001. Women born in 1930, representative of women of the same age in the general population in 1968, were selected. Initially, 372 participants were included in the cohort. In 2000-2001, 231 of these women (73%, now 70 years old, underwent lung function tests. The main outcome measures were lung function values, airway symptoms and health outcome in 2000-2001 in relation to self-reported exposures in 1968-1969 including smoking status. Smoking in 1968-1969 was associated with self-reported chronic bronchitis, obstructive symptoms and poor health 32 years later as well as lower lung function values, compared to non-smokers. Obesity, low socio-economic status and self-reported mental stress in 1968-1969 were associated with obstructive symptoms 32 years later. There are only a few longitudinal studies concerning women's health problems in this field and epidemiological studies of lung function impairment in women and risk factors in a long-term perspective are scarce. The results of the study suggest that life-style factors such as mental stress, obesity and smoking among women are related to airway symptoms and also quality of life many years later.

  9. A prospective study of symptoms, function, and medication use during acute illness in nursing home residents: design, rationale and cohort description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Sophia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing home residents are at high risk for developing acute illnesses. Compared with community dwelling adults, nursing home residents are often more frail, prone to multiple medical problems and symptoms, and are at higher risk for adverse outcomes from acute illnesses. In addition, because of polypharmacy and the high burden of chronic disease, nursing home residents are particularly vulnerable to disruptions in transitions of care such as medication interruptions in the setting of acute illness. In order to better estimate the effect of acute illness on nursing home residents, we have initiated a prospective cohort which will allow us to observe patterns of acute illnesses and the consequence of acute illnesses, including symptoms and function, among nursing home residents. We also aim to examine the patterns of medication interruption, and identify patient, provider and environmental factors that influence continuity of medication prescribing at different points of care transition. Methods This is a prospective cohort of nursing home residents residing in two nursing homes in a metropolitan area. Baseline characteristics including age, gender, race, and comorbid conditions are recorded. Participants are followed longitudinally for a planned period of 3 years. We record acute illness incidence and characteristics, and measure symptoms including depression, pain, withdrawal symptoms, and function using standardized scales. Results 76 nursing home residents have been followed for a median of 666 days to date. At baseline, mean age of residents was 74.4 (± 11.9; 32% were female; 59% were white. The most common chronic conditions were dementia (41%, depression (38%, congestive heart failure (25% and chronic obstructive lung disease (27%. Mean pain score was 4.7 (± 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10; Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 score was 5.2 (± 4.4. During follow up, 138 acute illness episodes were identified, for an

  10. A history of concussions is associated with symptoms of common mental disorders in former male professional athletes across a range of sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Lambert, Michael; Stewart, William; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2017-09-05

    Recent reports suggest that exposure to repetitive concussions in sports is associated with an increased risk of symptoms of distress, anxiety and depression, sleep disturbance or substance abuse/dependence (typically referred as symptoms of common mental disorders[CMD]) and of later development of neurodegenerative disease, in particular chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The primary aim of this study was to explore the relationship between sports career-related concussions and the subsequent occurrence of symptoms of CMD among former male professional athletes retired from football (soccer), ice hockey and rugby (union). Cross-sectional analyses performed on baseline electronic questionnaires from three prospective cohort studies among former male professional athletes retired from football (soccer), ice hockey and rugby (union). The number of confirmed concussions was examined through a single question, while symptoms of distress, anxiety and depression, sleep disturbance and adverse alcohol use were assessed using validated questionnaires. From 1,957 former professional athletes contacted, a total of 576 (29%) completed the questionnaire. Of these, 23% had not incurred a concussion during their career, 34% had two or three, 18% four or five, and 11% six or more concussions. The number of sports career-related concussions was a predictor for all outcome measures (β=0.072-0.109; P≤0.040). Specifically, former professional athletes who reported a history of four or five concussions were approximately 1.5 times more likely to report symptoms of CMD, rising to a two- to five-fold increase in those reporting a history of six or more sports career-related concussions. These data demonstrate an association between exposure to sports concussion and subsequent risk of symptoms of CMD in former professional athletes across a range of contact sports. Further work to explore the association between sports concussion and symptoms of CMD is required; in the meanwhile

  11. The effect of acute mental stress on limb vasodilation is unrelated to total peripheral resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Paine; C. Ring; J.A. Bosch; D. McIntyre; J.J.C.S. Veldhuijzen van Zanten

    2013-01-01

    Mental stress can trigger myocardial infarction, with poor vascular responses to stress implicated as a pathway. Vascular stress reactivity can be assessed by different methods, such as total peripheral resistance (TPR) and forearm blood flow (FBF). Little is known about how these vascular assessmen

  12. Differential effects of mental concentration and acute psychosocial stress on cervical muscle activity and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Bahar; Haight, Ashley; Maluf, Katrina

    2013-10-01

    Physical and psychosocial stressors in the workplace have been independently associated with the development of neck pain, yet interactions among these risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of mentally challenging computer work performed with and without exposure to a psychosocial stressor on cervical muscle activity and posture. Changes in cervical posture and electromyography of upper trapezius, cervical extensor, and sternocleidomastoid muscles were compared between a resting seated posture at baseline, a low stress condition with mental concentration, and a high stress condition with mental concentration and psychosocial stress in sixty healthy office workers. Forward head posture significantly increased with mental concentration compared to baseline, but did not change with further introduction of the stressor. Muscle activity significantly increased from the low stress to high stress condition for both the dominant and non-dominant upper trapezius, with no corresponding change in activity of the cervical extensors or flexors between stress conditions. These findings suggest that upper trapezius muscles are selectively activated by psychosocial stress independent of changes in concentration or posture, which may have implications for the prevention of stress-related trapezius myalgia in the workplace.

  13. "Symptoms of something all around us": Mental health, Inuit culture, and criminal justice in Arctic communities in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Rehabilitation-oriented criminal court mental health initiatives to reduce the number of people with mental illness caught in the criminal justice system exist in many North American cities and elsewhere but not in the mainly Inuit Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut. This study explores whether the therapeutic aims of these resource-intensive, mainly urban initiatives can be achieved in criminal courts in Nunavut's resource constrained, culturally distinct and geographically remote communities. A qualitative multiple-case study in the communities of Iqaluit, Arviat and Qikiqtarjuaq involved 55 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups with participants representing four sectors essential to these initiatives: justice, health, community organizations and community members. These interviews explored whether the therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) principles that guide criminal court mental health initiatives and the component objectives of these principles could be used to improve the criminal court response to people with mental illness in Nunavut. Interviews revealed 13 themes reflecting perceptions of Inuit culture's influence on the identification of people with mental illness, treatment, and collaboration between the court and others. These themes include cultural differences in defining mental illness, differences in traditional and contemporary treatment models, and the importance of mutual cultural respect. The findings suggest Inuit culture, including its recent history of cultural disruption and change, affects the vulnerability of Nunavut communities to the potential moral and legal pitfalls associated with TJ and criminal court mental health initiatives. These pitfalls include the dominance of biomedical approaches when identifying a target population, the medicalization of behaviour and culture, the risk of "paternalism" in therapeutic interventions, and shortcomings in interdisciplinary collaboration that limit considerations of Inuit culture. The

  14. Comparing Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms of Depression in Myocardial Infarction Patients and Depressed Patients in Primary and Mental Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Nynke A.; Doornbos, Bennard; Zuidersma, Marij; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Aleman, Andre; de Jonge, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Depression in myocardial infarction patients is often a first episode with a late age of onset. Two studies that compared depressed myocardial infarction patients to psychiatric patients found similar levels of somatic symptoms, and one study reported lower levels of cognitive/affective symptoms in

  15. Food and mental health: relationship between food and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among university students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Adetunji, Hamed; Oskrochi, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The current study assessed, by university and sex, the association between nutritional behaviour (twelve independent variables), and stress and depressive symptoms (dependent variables) in a sample from three UK countries. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among undergraduates enrolled across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (N = 3,706). Self-administered questionnaires included a 12-item food frequency questionnaire, Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and modified Beck Depression Inventory. Sex and university comparisons were undertaken. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were computed for each of the two outcomes--perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The frequencies of consuming of the various food groups differed by university and sex, as did depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Multivariable regression analyses indicated that consuming 'unhealthy' foods (e.g. sweets, cookies, snacks, fast food) was significantly positively associated with perceived stress (females only) and depressive symptoms (both males and females). Conversely, consuming 'healthy' foods (e.g. fresh fruits, salads, cooked vegetables) was significantly negatively associated with perceived stress and depressive symptoms scores for both sexes. There was significant negative association between consuming fish/sea food and depressive symptoms among males only. For males and for females, consuming lemonade/soft drinks, meat/sausage products, dairy/dairy products, and cereal/cereal products were not associated with either perceived stress or depressive symptoms. The associations between consuming 'unhealthy' foods and higher depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students as well as the associations between consuming 'healthy' foods and lower depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students in three UK countries suggest that interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and stress among students could

  16. Clinical signs and symptoms of acute reflex sympathetic dystrophy in one hindlimb of the rat, induced by infusion of a free-radical donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, L; Kapitein, P; Verhofstad, A; Hendriks, T; Goris, R J

    1998-06-01

    The acute phase of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is characterized by the classical signs and symptoms of inflammation (rubor, calor, dolor, tumor and impaired function). As free radicals are involved in acute inflammation, we studied the effects of free radicals in an animal model, especially as to signs and symptoms found in acute RSD. Awake rats were given continuous intra-arterial infusion (1 ml/h) in the left hindlimb, with saline (n = 6) or the free-radical donor tert-butylhydroperoxide (tert-BuOOH, 25 mM, n = 6). During a 24-h infusion period the skin temperature, volume, skin color, function and pain reactions of the paws were observed. After 24 h the rats were killed and both gastrocnemius muscles were histologically analyzed. Infusion with tert-BuOOH induced in the left paw an increased skin temperature, increased volume, redness of the plantar skin, impaired function and increased pain sensation, while these acute RSD signs and symptoms were absent in the saline infused animals. The alterations in pain sensation (spontaneous, mechanical and thermal pain) were similar to findings in the neuropathic animal model. The gastrocnemius muscles of the saline infused rats and the contralateral gastrocnemius muscle of the tert-BuOOH infused rats showed no histological tissue damage. In the left gastrocnemius muscle free-radical-related damage was visible. Induction of free-radical formation in one hindlimb of awake rats mimics the acute signs and symptoms of acute RSD, with alterations in pain sensation as found in the classical neuropathic animal model of RSD, as well as in acute RSD patients.

  17. Evaluation of a Medical and Mental Health Unit compared with standard care for older people whose emergency admission to an acute general hospital is complicated by concurrent 'confusion': a controlled clinical trial. Acronym: TEAM: Trial of an Elderly Acute care Medical and mental health unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Rowan H; Goldberg, Sarah E; Whittamore, Kathy H; Russell, Catherine; Gladman, John Rf; Jones, Rob G; Porock, Davina; Lewis, Sarah A; Bradshaw, Lucy E; Elliot, Rachel A

    2011-05-13

    Patients with delirium and dementia admitted to general hospitals have poor outcomes, and their carers report poor experiences. We developed an acute geriatric medical ward into a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit over an eighteen month period. Additional specialist mental health staff were employed, other staff were trained in the 'person-centred' dementia care approach, a programme of meaningful activity was devised, the environment adapted to the needs of people with cognitive impairment, and attention given to communication with family carers. We hypothesise that patients managed on this ward will have better outcomes than those receiving standard care, and that such care will be cost-effective. We will perform a controlled clinical trial comparing in-patient management on a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit with standard care. Study participants are patients over the age of 65, admitted as an emergency to a single general hospital, and identified on the Acute Medical Admissions Unit as being 'confused'. Sample size is 300 per group. The evaluation design has been adapted to accommodate pressures on bed management and patient flows. If beds are available on the specialist Unit, the clinical service allocates patients at random between the Unit and standard care on general or geriatric medical wards. Once admitted, randomised patients and their carers are invited to take part in a follow up study, and baseline data are collected. Quality of care and patient experience are assessed in a non-participant observer study. Outcomes are ascertained at a follow up home visit 90 days after randomisation, by a researcher blind to allocation. The primary outcome is days spent at home (for those admitted from home), or days spent in the same care home (if admitted from a care home). Secondary outcomes include mortality, institutionalisation, resource use, and scaled outcome measures, including quality of life, cognitive function, disability, behavioural and

  18. Evaluation of a Medical and Mental Health Unit compared with standard care for older people whose emergency admission to an acute general hospital is complicated by concurrent 'confusion': a controlled clinical trial. Acronym: TEAM: Trial of an Elderly Acute care Medical and mental health unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladman John RF

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with delirium and dementia admitted to general hospitals have poor outcomes, and their carers report poor experiences. We developed an acute geriatric medical ward into a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit over an eighteen month period. Additional specialist mental health staff were employed, other staff were trained in the 'person-centred' dementia care approach, a programme of meaningful activity was devised, the environment adapted to the needs of people with cognitive impairment, and attention given to communication with family carers. We hypothesise that patients managed on this ward will have better outcomes than those receiving standard care, and that such care will be cost-effective. Methods/design We will perform a controlled clinical trial comparing in-patient management on a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit with standard care. Study participants are patients over the age of 65, admitted as an emergency to a single general hospital, and identified on the Acute Medical Admissions Unit as being 'confused'. Sample size is 300 per group. The evaluation design has been adapted to accommodate pressures on bed management and patient flows. If beds are available on the specialist Unit, the clinical service allocates patients at random between the Unit and standard care on general or geriatric medical wards. Once admitted, randomised patients and their carers are invited to take part in a follow up study, and baseline data are collected. Quality of care and patient experience are assessed in a non-participant observer study. Outcomes are ascertained at a follow up home visit 90 days after randomisation, by a researcher blind to allocation. The primary outcome is days spent at home (for those admitted from home, or days spent in the same care home (if admitted from a care home. Secondary outcomes include mortality, institutionalisation, resource use, and scaled outcome measures, including quality of

  19. The Correlation between Personality and Mental Symptoms in Neurotic Disorders%神经症患者人格与心理症状相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永新

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation between personality and mental symptoms in neurosis. Methods: Eighty Patients with neurotic disorder were assessed with the Symptom Check List 90(SCL-90) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Results: By stepwise regression analysis, the N score of EPQ was positively correlated with the mean score and factor scores on SCL-90, and their standard regression coefficients were 0.277~0.508. The P score of EPQ was positively correlated with the mean score and the scores of depression, hostility, paranoid idea on SCL-90, and their standard regression coefficients were 0.245~0.362. The E score of EPQ was negatively correlated with the scores of interpersonal sensitivity , depression on SCL-90 and their standard regression coefficients were-0.209 and -0.229. Conclusion: Personality played significant role in neurotic disorders.

  20. Symptom-Adapted Physical Activity Intervention in Minimizing Physical Function Decline in Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  1. The use of Animal-Assisted Therapy in adolescents with acute mental disorders: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, M C; Martino, A; Allori, P; Galeotti, F; Tani, F

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) with a standard treatment protocol in children and adolescents admitted to the psychiatry hospital for acute mental disorders. We used a methodology involving high quality standards for AAT research. A pre-post experimental design with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 34 hospitalized patients (17 treatment, 17 control) was carried out. The study focused on improvement in clinical status including, global functioning measured by the Children Global Assessment Scale (C GAS), format of care and ordinary school attendance measured by a rating scale. Our results indicate a statistically significant improvement in global functioning, reduction in format of care and increased ordinary school attendance in the treatment group, but not in the control group. Our results verify that AAT can have significant positive effects on therapeutic progress and the recovery process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Negative psychotic symptoms and impaired role functioning predict transition outcomes in the at-risk mental state: a latent class cluster analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmaggia, L R; Stahl, D; Yung, A R; Nelson, B; Fusar-Poli, P; McGorry, P D; McGuire, P K

    2013-11-01

    Many research groups have attempted to predict which individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis will later develop a psychotic disorder. However, it is difficult to predict the course and outcome based on individual symptoms scores. Data from 318 ARMS individuals from two specialized services for ARMS subjects were analysed using latent class cluster analysis (LCCA). The score on the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) was used to explore the number, size and symptom profiles of latent classes. LCCA produced four high-risk classes, censored after 2 years of follow-up: class 1 (mild) had the lowest transition risk (4.9%). Subjects in this group had the lowest scores on all the CAARMS items, they were younger, more likely to be students and had the highest Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score. Subjects in class 2 (moderate) had a transition risk of 10.9%, scored moderately on all CAARMS items and were more likely to be in employment. Those in class 3 (moderate-severe) had a transition risk of 11.4% and scored moderately severe on the CAARMS. Subjects in class 4 (severe) had the highest transition risk (41.2%), they scored highest on the CAARMS, had the lowest GAF score and were more likely to be unemployed. Overall, class 4 was best distinguished from the other classes on the alogia, avolition/apathy, anhedonia, social isolation and impaired role functioning. The different classes of symptoms were associated with significant differences in the risk of transition at 2 years of follow-up. Symptomatic clustering predicts prognosis better than individual symptoms.

  3. No evidence for distinguishing bacterial from viral acute rhinosinusitis using symptom duration and purulent rhinorrhea: a systematic review of the evidence base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, M.F.M.; Gudden, C.; Kluijfhout, W.P.; Stam-Slob, M.C.; Aarts, M.C.J.; Kaper, N.M.; van der Heijden, G.J.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of symptom duration and purulent rhinorrhea in adults suspected of having acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. REVIEW METHODS: We performed a comprehensive systematic search on March 28, 2013. We included

  4. Urgent carotid endarterectomy in patients with acute neurological ischemic events within six hours after symptoms onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajin, P; Radak, Dj; Tanaskovic, S; Babic, S; Nenezic, D

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the outcome of urgent carotid endarterectomy (CEA) performed within less than six hours in patients with crescendo transient ischemic attack (TIA) and stroke in progression. From January 1998 to December 2008, 58 urgent CEAs were done for acute neurological ischemic events--46 patients with crescendo TIA and 12 patients with stroke in progression. Brain computed tomography (CT) was done prior and after the surgery. Disability level was assessed prior to and after urgent CEA using modified Rankin scale. Median follow-up was 42.1 ± 16.6 months. In the early postoperative period stroke rate was 0% for the patients in crescendo TIA group while in patients with stroke in progression group 3 patients (25%) had positive postoperative brain CT, yet neurological status significantly improved. Mid-term stroke rate was 2.2% in crescendo TIA group and 8.3% in stroke in progression group. In the early postoperative period there were no lethal outcomes, mid-term mortality was 8.3% in stroke in progression while in crescendo TIA group lethal outcomes were not observed. In conclusion, based on our results urgent CEA is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with crescendo TIA and stroke in progression with acceptable rate of postoperative complications.

  5. Nurses experiences of delivering care in acute inpatient mental health settings: A narrative synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyder, Marianne; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Crompton, David; McArthur, Leianne; Delaforce, Caroline; Dziopa, Fiona; Ramon, Shulamit; Powell, Elizabeth

    2017-03-14

    Inpatient psychiatric care requires a balance between working with consumers' priorities and goals, managing expectations of the community, legal, professional and service responsibilities. In order to improve service delivery within acute mental health units, it is important to understand the constraints and facilitating factors for good care. We conducted a systematic narrative synthesis, where findings of qualitative studies are synthesised to generate new insights. 21 articles were identified. Our results show that personal qualities, professional skills as well as environmental factors all influence the ability to provide recovery focused care. Three overarching themes which either facilitated or hindered were identified. These included: (i) Complexity of the nursing role (clinical care; practical and emotional support: advocacy and education; enforcing aspects of the Mental Health Act. and, maintaining ward safety); (ii) Constraining factors (operational barriers; change in patient characteristic; and competing understandings of care); and (iii) Facilitating factors (ward factors; nursing tools; nurse characteristics; approach to people; approach to work and ability to self-care). We suggest that the therapeutic use of self is central to the provision of recovery oriented care. However person-centred practice can be fragile and fluid and a compassionate system of support is needed to enable an understanding of context and self. It is critical to have a work environment which fosters hope and optimism and is supportive of autonomy, ensures workload balance, and is safe.

  6. Attention-Affect Check List: A self-report measure of acute mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, YUKIHIRO; Tanaka, GOHICHI

    2004-05-01

    Given a hint from Lang, Bradley, and Cutbert's (1997) defense cascade, two cognitive processes, instead of passive versus active behavioral coping, which seem to have differential effects on the provocation of vascular- versus cardiac-dominant reaction pattern during mental stress were advocated: attention (Attent) versus unpleasant affect (UnplAff). Based on this notion the Attention-Affect Check List (AACL) was developed as a self-report measure. In addition, items on uncontrollability (Uncontr) were prepared for the purpose of checking whether heightened Attent and UnplAff are accompanied by alterations in Uncontr. Two hundred and eighty-four students underwent two kinds of mental stress, which seemed to specifically heighten Attent and UnplAff. Four factors with four items each were extracted from the AACL item pool: concentrated and allocated Attent, UnplAff, and pleasant affect. Also, one factor with four items was extracted from the Uncontr item pool. For both the mental stresses, each scale, although very brief, had quite reasonable alpha reliability. Accountability of each scale for the total variance was reasonably high. Some problems are discussed in relation to the validity of AACL.

  7. Enhanced depression care for patients with acute coronary syndrome and persistent depressive symptoms: coronary psychosocial evaluation studies randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Karina W; Rieckmann, Nina; Clemow, Lynn; Schwartz, Joseph E; Shimbo, Daichi; Medina, Vivian; Albanese, Gabrielle; Kronish, Ian; Hegel, Mark; Burg, Matthew M

    2010-04-12

    Depressive symptoms are an established predictor of mortality and major adverse cardiac events (defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction or hospitalization for unstable angina or urgent/emergency revascularizations) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study was conducted to determine the acceptability and efficacy of enhanced depression treatment in patients with ACS. A 3-month observation period to identify patients with ACS and persistent depressive symptoms was followed by a 6-month randomized controlled trial. From January 1, 2005, through February 29, 2008, 237 patients with ACS from 5 hospitals were enrolled, including 157 persistently depressed patients randomized to intervention (initial patient preference for problem-solving therapy and/or pharmacotherapy, then a stepped-care approach; 80 patients) or usual care (77 patients) and 80 nondepressed patients who underwent observational evaluation. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction with depression care. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptom changes (assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory), major adverse cardiac events, and death. At the end of the trial, the proportion of patients who were satisfied with their depression care was higher in the intervention group (54% of 80) than in the usual care group (19% of 77) (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-12.9 [P < .001]). The Beck Depression Inventory score decreased significantly more (t(155) = 2.85 [P = .005]) for intervention patients (change, -5.7; 95% CI, -7.6 to -3.8; df = 155) than for usual care patients (change, -1.9; 95% CI, -3.8 to -0.1; df = 155); the depression effect size was 0.59 of the standard deviation. At the end of the trial, 3 intervention patients and 10 usual care patients had experienced major adverse cardiac events (4% and 13%, respectively; log-rank test, chi(2)(1) = 3.93 [P = .047]), as well as 5 nondepressed patients (6%) (for the intervention vs nondepressed cohort, chi(2)(1) = 0

  8. Acute effects of nicotine and mecamylamine on tobacco withdrawal symptoms, cigarette reward and ad lib smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J E; Behm, F M; Westman, E C

    2001-02-01

    Separate and combined effects of nicotine and the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine were studied in 32 healthy volunteer smokers after overnight abstinence from smoking. Subjects participated in three sessions (3 h each), during which they wore skin patches delivering either 0 mg/24 h, 21 mg/24 h or 42 mg/24 h nicotine. Thirty-two subjects were randomly assigned to two groups receiving oral mecamylamine hydrochloride (10 mg) vs. placebo capsules. Two and one-half hours after drug administration, subjects were allowed to smoke ad lib, rating the cigarettes for rewarding and aversive effects. Transdermal nicotine produced a dose-related reduction in the subjective rewarding qualities of smoking. Nicotine also reduced craving for cigarettes and this effect was attenuated, but not eliminated, by mecamylamine. Mecamylamine blocked the discriminability of high vs. low nicotine puffs of smoke, and increased nicotine intake substantially during the ad lib smoking period. Some of the psychophysiological effects of each drug (elevation in blood pressure from nicotine, sedation and decreased blood pressure from mecamylamine) were offset by the other drug. The results supported the hypothesis that nicotine replacement can alleviate tobacco withdrawal symptoms even in the presence of an antagonist such as mecamylamine. Mecamylamine did not precipitate withdrawal beyond the level associated with overnight cigarette deprivation, suggesting its effects were primarily due to offsetting the action of concurrently administered nicotine as opposed to blocking endogenous cholinergic transmission.

  9. A test of the effects of acute sleep deprivation on general and specific self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms: an experimental extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babson, Kimberly A; Trainor, Casey D; Feldner, Matthew T; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2010-09-01

    Evidence indicates acute sleep deprivation affects negative mood states. The present study experimentally tested the effects of acute sleep deprivation on self-reported symptoms of state anxiety and depression as well as general distress among 88 physically and psychologically healthy adults. As hypothesized, the effects of acute sleep deprivation increased state anxiety and depression, as well as general distress, relative to a normal night of sleep control condition. Based on the tripartite model of anxiety and depression, these findings replicate and extend prior research by suggesting sleep deprivation among individuals without current Axis I disorders increases both state symptoms of anxiety and depression specifically, and general distress more broadly. Extending this work to clinical samples and prospectively testing mechanisms underlying these effects are important future directions in this area of research.

  10. Acute renal failure secondary to drug-related crystalluria and/or drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom syndrome in a patient with metastatic lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Paydas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS or drug-induced hypersensitivity is a severe adverse drug-induced reaction. Aromatic anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine, and some drugs, can induce DRESS. Atypical crystalluria can be seen in patients treated with amoxycillin or some drugs and can cause acute renal failure. We describe a 66-year-old man who presented fever and rash and acute renal failure three days after starting amoxycillin. He was also using phenytoin because of cerebral metastatic lung cancer. Investigation revealed eosinophilia and atypical crystalluria. The diagnosis of DRESS syndrome was made, amoxicillin was stopped, and dose of phenytoin was reduced. No systemic corticosteroid therapy was prescribed. Symptoms began to resolve within three to four days. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of microscopic examination of urine in a case with acute renal failure and skin lesions to suspect DRESS syndrome.

  11. Deployment, PTSD Symptoms, and Co-morbid Mental Health Conditions in the Active Force and Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    servists face, including uncertainty associated with workload, environments, and timelines,2 exacerbate mental well-being issues. For exam - ple...4 drug abuse as well as a high intake of nicotine and caffeine among veterans with PTSD. Veterans with PTSD showed a higher prevalence of alcohol

  12. Symptoms, the nature of fibromyalgia, and diagnostic and statistical manual 5 (DSM-5 defined mental illness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Wolfe

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate somatic symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and fibromyalgia, determine the relation between somatization syndromes and fibromyalgia, and evaluate symptom data in light of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5 criteria for somatic symptom disorder. METHODS: We administered the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15, a measure of somatic symptom severity to 6,233 persons with fibromyalgia, RA, and osteoarthritis. PHQ-15 scores of 5, 10, and 15 represent low, medium, and high somatic symptom severity cut-points. A likely somatization syndrome was diagnosed when PHQ-15 score was ≥10. The intensity of fibromyalgia diagnostic symptoms was measured by the polysymptomatic distress (PSD scale. RESULTS: 26.4% of RA patients and 88.9% with fibromyalgia had PHQ-15 scores ≥10 compared with 9.3% in the general population. With each step-wise increase in PHQ-15 category, more abnormal mental and physical health status scores were observed. RA patients satisfying fibromyalgia criteria increased from 1.2% in the PHQ-15 low category to 88.9% in the high category. The sensitivity and specificity of PHQ-15≥10 for fibromyalgia diagnosis was 80.9% and 80.0% (correctly classified = 80.3% compared with 84.3% and 93.7% (correctly classified = 91.7% for the PSD scale. 51.4% of fibromyalgia patients and 14.8% with RA had fatigue, sleep or cognitive problems that were severe, continuous, and life-disturbing; and almost all fibromyalgia patients had severe impairments of function and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: All patients with fibromyalgia will satisfy the DSM-5 "A" criterion for distressing somatic symptoms, and most would seem to satisfy DSM-5 "B" criterion because symptom impact is life-disturbing or associated with substantial impairment of function and quality of life. But the "B" designation requires special knowledge that symptoms are "disproportionate" or "excessive," something that is

  13. Who experiences seclusion? An examination of demographics and duration in a public acute inpatient mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavulak, Jacinta; Petrakis, Melissa

    2017-07-01

    Restrictive interventions such as seclusion may occur during an acute mental health crisis. Such interventions are experienced by people as traumatic and counter to recovery. The current study aimed to investigate the use of seclusion and who was secluded amongst patients presenting with psychotic symptomology. All acute inpatient admissions were examined across a 12-month period January-December 2013. Electronic and paper records were accessed and audited for all 655 admissions. There were 91 admissions that included a seclusion and 200 seclusion events. There were 79 unique patients who experienced seclusion. For those experiencing seclusion: two-thirds were male, 49% were either homeless or had no fixed abode, 32% received case management in the community prior to their inpatient stay, and 56% were unemployed or not in the workforce. The median and mode duration of seclusion was 4 h. By understanding seclusion interventions better, changes can be made to enhance practice. This descriptive research into seclusion has clarified the demographics of who is most likely to experience seclusion, for how long, and the implications for reducing restrictive interventions. How the social work role could contribute to reforms to protect and enhance the rights and well-being of marginalized members of our communities, at their most vulnerable, is considered.

  14. Intrinsic functional connectivity of insular cortex and symptoms of sickness during acute experimental inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekander, Mats; Karshikoff, Bianka; Johansson, Emilia; Soop, Anne; Fransson, Peter; Lundström, Johan N; Andreasson, Anna; Ingvar, Martin; Petrovic, Predrag; Axelsson, John; Nilsonne, Gustav

    2016-08-01

    Task-based fMRI has been used to study the effects of experimental inflammation on the human brain, but it remains unknown whether intrinsic connectivity in the brain at rest changes during a sickness response. Here, we investigated the effect of experimental inflammation on connectivity between areas relevant for monitoring of bodily states, motivation, and subjective symptoms of sickness. In a double-blind randomized controlled experiment, 52 healthy volunteers were injected with 0.6ng/kg LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or placebo, and participated in a resting state fMRI experiment after approximately 2h 45min. Resting state fMRI data were available from 48 participants, of which 28 received LPS and 20 received placebo. Bilateral anterior and bilateral posterior insula sections were used as seed regions and connectivity with bilateral orbitofrontal and cingulate (anterior and middle) cortices was investigated. Back pain, headache and global sickness increased significantly after as compared to before LPS, while a non-significant trend was shown for increased nausea. Compared to placebo, LPS was followed by increased connectivity between left anterior insula and left midcingulate cortex. This connectivity was significantly correlated to increase in back pain after LPS and tended to be related to increased global sickness, but was not related to increased headache or nausea. LPS did not affect the connectivity from other insular seeds. In conclusion, the finding of increased functional connectivity between left anterior insula and middle cingulate cortex suggests a potential neurophysiological mechanism that can be further tested to understand the subjective feeling of malaise and discomfort during a sickness response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Giesen, Leonie GM

    2010-10-24

    Abstract Background Acute urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common bacterial infections among women presenting to primary care. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the optimal reference standard threshold for diagnosing UTI. The objective of this systematic review is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs in women presenting with suspected UTI, across three different reference standards (102 or 103 or 105 CFU\\/ml). We also examine the diagnostic value of individual symptoms and signs combined with dipstick test results in terms of clinical decision making. Methods Searches were performed through PubMed (1966 to April 2010), EMBASE (1973 to April 2010), Cochrane library (1973 to April 2010), Google scholar and reference checking. Studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs of an uncomplicated UTI using a urine culture from a clean-catch or catherised urine specimen as the reference standard, with a reference standard of at least ≥ 102 CFU\\/ml were included. Synthesised data from a high quality systematic review were used regarding dipstick results. Studies were combined using a bivariate random effects model. Results Sixteen studies incorporating 3,711 patients are included. The weighted prior probability of UTI varies across diagnostic threshold, 65.1% at ≥ 102 CFU\\/ml; 55.4% at ≥ 103 CFU\\/ml and 44.8% at ≥ 102 CFU\\/ml ≥ 105 CFU\\/ml. Six symptoms are identified as useful diagnostic symptoms when a threshold of ≥ 102 CFU\\/ml is the reference standard. Presence of dysuria (+LR 1.30 95% CI 1.20-1.41), frequency (+LR 1.10 95% CI 1.04-1.16), hematuria (+LR 1.72 95%CI 1.30-2.27), nocturia (+LR 1.30 95% CI 1.08-1.56) and urgency (+LR 1.22 95% CI 1.11-1.34) all increase the probability of UTI. The presence of vaginal discharge (+LR 0.65 95% CI 0.51-0.83) decreases the probability of UTI. Presence of hematuria has the highest diagnostic utility, raising the post-test probability of

  16. Increased seizure susceptibility and other toxicity symptoms following acute sulforaphane treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Kowalczuk-Vasilev, Edyta; Wyska, Elżbieta; Wlaź, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    Activation of Nrf2 with sulforaphane has recently gained attention as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of many diseases, including epilepsy. As a plant-derived compound, sulforaphane is considered to be safe and well-tolerated. It is widely consumed, also by patients suffering from seizure and taking antiepileptic drugs, but no toxicity profile of sulforaphane exists. Since many natural remedies and dietary supplements may increase seizure risk and potentially interact with antiepileptic drugs, the aim of our study was to investigate the acute effects of sulforaphane on seizure thresholds and activity of some first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in mice. In addition, some preliminary toxicity profile of sulforaphane in mice after intraperitoneal injection was evaluated. The LD50 value of sulforaphane in mice was estimated at 212.67mg/kg, while the TD50 value - at 191.58mg/kg. In seizure tests, sulforaphane at the highest dose tested (200mg/kg) significantly decreased the thresholds for the onset of the first myoclonic twitch and generalized clonic seizure in the iv PTZ test as well as the threshold for the 6Hz-induced psychomotor seizure. At doses of 10-200mg/kg, sulforaphane did not affect the threshold for the iv PTZ-induced forelimb tonus or the threshold for maximal electroshock-induced hindlimb tonus. Interestingly, sulforaphane (at 100mg/kg) potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of carbamazepine in the maximal electroshock seizure test. This interaction could have been pharmacokinetic in nature, as sulforaphane increased concentrations of carbamazepine in both serum and brain tissue. The toxicity study showed that high doses of sulforaphane produced marked sedation (at 150-300mg/kg), hypothermia (at 150-300mg/kg), impairment of motor coordination (at 200-300mg/kg), decrease in skeletal muscle strength (at 250-300mg/kg), and deaths (at 200-300mg/kg). Moreover, blood analysis showed leucopenia in mice injected with sulforaphane at 200mg

  17. Acute Liver Failure/Injury Related to Drug Reaction With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms: Outcomes and Prognostic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichai, Philippe; Laurent-Bellue, Astrid; Saliba, Faouzi; Moreau, David; Besch, Camille; Francoz, Claire; Valeyrie-Allanore, Laurence; Bretagne, Sylvie Roussin; Boudon, Marc; Antonini, Teresa Maria; Artru, Florent; Pittau, Gabriella; Roux, Olivier; Azoulay, Daniel; Levesque, Eric; Durand, François; Guettier, Catherine; Samuel, Didier

    2017-08-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a rare severe adverse drug-induced reaction with multiorgan involvement. The outcome and prediction of those patients who develop severe acute liver injury (sALI) or acute liver failure (ALF) remain little known. A multicenter retrospective study of patients admitted with a diagnosis of DRESS-related sALI or ALF. Histological review was performed on liver core biopsies from native livers. Sixteen patients (11 women, 5 men; mean age, 39±17.2 years) were classified as having definite (n=13) or probable (n=3) DRESS. At admission, 3 patients had hepatic encephalopathy; median levels of prothrombin time, INR, and total bilirubin were, respectively, 33% (Q1-Q3, 21-41), 2.74 (1.98-4.50), and 94 μmol/L (Q1-Q3, 39.5-243.5). Nine patients received corticosteroid therapy. Overall, 9 patients improved spontaneously and 7 worsened (liver transplantation [LT] (n=5), deceased (n=2)). Transplantation-free and post-LT survival was 56% and 60%, respectively. After LT, DRESS recurrence was observed in 3 of 5 patients. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was not significantly associated with a clinical improvement. In the multivariate analysis, factor V level less than 40% at day 0 and factor V levels of 40% or greater at admission but decreasing at day 2 were associated with worse outcome. Pathological findings (n=7) revealed atypical lymphoid infiltrates, Kupffer cell hyperplasia with erythrophagocytosis, and an inconstant presence of eosinophils. The spontaneous prognosis of patients with sALI/ALF due to DRESS is poor and was not improved by corticosteroid therapy. Histology is helpful to establish diagnosis. Dynamic variables regarding factor V values are predictive of a poor outcome.

  18. Latino adolescents' mental health: exploring the interrelations among discrimination, ethnic identity, cultural orientation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2007-08-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study used cross-sectional data to examine the degree to which Latino adolescents' (N=274; M age=16.3; 47.1% female) self-esteem, ethnic identity, and cultural orientations mediated or moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a multiple group comparison approach, path analyses indicated that higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and resolution significantly predicted higher levels of self-esteem for both boys and girls. Furthermore, self-esteem partially mediated the relation between perceived discrimination and adolescents' depressive symptoms. Additional analyses revealed that boys' cultural orientations moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and both self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Taken together, findings indicated that various aspects of the self (i.e. self-esteem, ethnic identity, cultural orientations) can protect and/or enhance the risks associated with discrimination.

  19. Common stressful life events and difficulties are associated with mental health symptoms and substance use in young adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Low Nancy CP; Dugas Erika; O’Loughlin Erin; Rodriguez Daniel; Contreras Gisele; Chaiton Michael; O’Loughlin Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Stressful life events are associated with mood disorders in adults in clinical settings. Less described in the literature is the association between common life stressors and a wide range of psychopathology in young adolescents. This study uses a large non-clinical sample of young adolescents to describe the associations among worry or stress about common life events/difficulties, mental health and substance use. Methods Data on lifetime stress or worry about common life e...

  20. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Wietse A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i purpose of instrument, (ii construct measured, (iii contents of construct, (iv local idioms employed, (v structure of response sets, and (vi comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64 aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old. The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14; CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20. The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7, "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10, and

  1. Perceived mental health related stigma, gender, and depressive symptom severity in a psychiatric facility in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Raguram, R; Rao, Deepa

    2014-06-01

    Few studies exist on the topic of gender associated with depression and mental health-related stigma coming out of non-Western countries such as India. We aimed to add to the literature by assessing these relationships among adults seeking psychiatric services in India. Participants were 60 individuals seeking care at a psychiatric clinic in Bangalore, India. The majority of participants were female with a mean age of 36 years (SD=9.75). Contrary to our prediction, there were no significant differences between men (M=28.96; SD=9.85) and women (M=33.03; SD=12.08) on depression severity, t(58)=1.42, p=.16. Yet, women (M=10.09, SD=8.23) reported significantly more perceived stigma than men (M=5.79, SD=5.86), t(58)=2.30, p=.02. While men and women seeking psychiatric services at the psychiatric clinic in India report similar levels of depression severity, women reported more perceived mental illness stigma. Having experienced regular forms of discrimination associated with female status in India, it may be the case that women are more attuned to other forms of stigma, such as mental health stigma investigated in the present study. Given the detrimental impact of stigma on treatment adherence and engagement in care, additional research is needed support this work, including research on interventions to reduce stigma and improve engagement in care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of acute mental stress on limb vasodilation is unrelated to total peripheral resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Nicola J; Ring, Christopher; Bosch, Jos A; McIntyre, David; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S

    2013-07-01

    Mental stress can trigger myocardial infarction, with poor vascular responses to stress implicated as a pathway. Vascular stress reactivity can be assessed by different methods, such as total peripheral resistance (TPR) and forearm blood flow (FBF). Little is known about how these vascular assessments are linked. This was examined in two separate studies. Healthy men (Study 1: N = 29, Study 2: N = 23) completed rest and mental arithmetic (Study 1: 8 min, Study 2: 16 min). In both studies, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and FBF increased in response to stress. In Study 1, no changes in TPR were seen, but Study 2 found stress-induced increases in TPR. FBF was not linked to TPR at any time (all ps > .05). It appears that limb vasculature and TPR responses to stress do not give the same information about impairments of the vasculature. These findings are relevant to the interpretation of prior research findings and the design of future studies on stress and vascular responses.

  3. Practical compassions: repertoires of practice and compassion talk in acute mental healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brian; Crawford, Paul; Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Jean; Gale, Corinne

    2014-03-01

    This article reports an exploratory study of the concept of compassion in the work of 20 mental health practitioners in a UK Midlands facility. Using notions of practice derived from phenomenology and Bourdieusian sociology and notions of emotional labour we identify two contrasting interpretive repertoires in discussions of compassion. The first, the practical compassion repertoire, evokes the practical, physical and bodily aspects of compassion. It involves organising being with patients, playing games, anticipating disruption and taking them outside for cigarettes. Practitioners described being aware that these practical, bodily activities could lead to patients 'opening up', disclosing their interior concerns and enabling practical, compassionate mental health work to take place. In contrast, the second, organisational repertoire, concerns organisational constraints on compassionate practice. The shortage of staff, the record-keeping and internal processes of quality control were seen as time-greedy and apt to detract from contact with patients. The findings are discussed in relation to Bourdieu and Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological accounts of practice and habit and set in context in the growing interest in placing compassion centrally in healthcare. We also explore how the exercise of compassion in the way our participants describe it can afford the more effective exercise of medical power.

  4. Refocusing acute psychiatry, performance management, standards and accountability, a new context for mental health nursing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harnett, P J

    2009-06-01

    The term \\'performance management\\' has an aversive \\'managerial\\' aspect, is unappealing to many public sector staff and has an \\'image problem\\'. Perhaps as a consequence, it has failed to make a significant impact on Irish public sector workers, notably mental health nurses. In this paper, performance management is introduced and examined within an Irish healthcare context and with reference to its use in other countries. Some of the challenges faced by Irish mental health nurses and the potential benefits of working within a performance managed workplace are discussed. The paper concludes that performance management is likely to increasingly affect nurses, either as active agents or as passive recipients of a change that is thrust on them. The authors anticipate that the performance management \\'image problem\\' will give way to recognition that this is a fundamental change which has the potential to enable health services to change. This change will bring high standards of transparency, worker involvement in decision making, an explicit value base for health services and individual teams. It provides the potential for clear practice standards and high standards of transparency as well as worker welfare in all aspects, including supporting employment and career progression.

  5. Transcriptional profile of muscle following acute induction of symptoms in a mouse model of Kennedy's disease/spinobulbar muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Halievski

    Full Text Available Kennedy's disease/Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (KD/SBMA is a degenerative neuromuscular disease affecting males. This disease is caused by polyglutamine expansion mutations of the androgen receptor (AR gene. Although KD/SBMA has been traditionally considered a motor neuron disease, emerging evidence points to a central etiological role of muscle. We previously reported a microarray study of genes differentially expressed in muscle of three genetically unique mouse models of KD/SBMA but were unable to detect those which are androgen-dependent or are associated with onset of symptoms.In the current study we examined the time course and androgen-dependence of transcriptional changes in the HSA-AR transgenic (Tg mouse model, in which females have a severe phenotype after acute testosterone treatment. Using microarray analysis we identified differentially expressed genes at the onset and peak of muscle weakness in testosterone-treated Tg females. We found both transient and persistent groups of differentially expressed genes and analysis of gene function indicated functional groups such as mitochondrion, ion and nucleotide binding, muscle development, and sarcomere maintenance.By comparing the current results with those from the three previously reported models we were able to identify KD/SBMA candidate genes that are androgen dependent, and occur early in the disease process, properties which are promising for targeted therapeutics.

  6. Gender differences in quality of life and functional disability for depression outpatients with or without residual symptoms after acute phase treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Wang, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Hu, Yongdong; Niu, Yajuan; Wang, Xueyi; Gao, Chengge; Zhang, Ning; Fang, Yiru; Huang, Jizhong; Liu, Tiebang; Jia, Fujun; Zhu, Xuequan; Hu, Jian; Wang, Gang

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with substantial personal suffering and reduced quality of life and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences on quality of life and functional impairment of outpatients with depression after acute phase treatment. 1503 depression outpatients were recruited from eleven hospitals in China. Subjects were evaluated with sociodemographic characteristics, history and self-report instruments, related to severity of symptoms, function and quality of life. All data were analyzed to determine the gender differences. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education compared to women in total patients and with or without residual symptoms group. Using regression analysis, it was found that gender was significantly statistically related to severity scores of SDS and had no correlation with Q-LES-Q-SF total scores. In the residual symptoms group, greater functional impairment was noted by men in the area of work and social life. Significant gender differences of mood, work and sexual life in quality of life were observed. This is a cross-sectional study of depressed outpatients and duration of acute phase treatment may not an adequate time to measure changes. Depression appears to affect men more seriously than women after acute phase treatment. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education, more functional impairment and lower satisfaction of quality of life in mood, work and sexual life. Gender differences affect acute treatment, remission and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progovac, Ana M.; Chen, Pei; Mullin, Brian; Hou, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12). Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being) and responses to one unstructured question, “how do you feel today?” We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4) were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible. PMID:27752278

  8. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Cook

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural language processing (NLP and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12. Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being and responses to one unstructured question, “how do you feel today?” We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4 were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible.

  9. Latino Adolescents' Mental Health: Exploring the Interrelations among Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, Cultural Orientation, Self-Esteem, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2007-01-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study used cross-sectional data to examine the degree to which Latino adolescents' (N=274; M age=16.3; 47.1% female) self-esteem, ethnic identity, and cultural orientations mediated or moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a multiple group…

  10. Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Dempfle, Astrid; Konrad, Kerstin; Klasen, Fionna; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the outcomes of childhood and adolescent eating-disordered behaviour on the development of body mass index (BMI) and psychological functioning in young adulthood in a population-based sample in Germany (the BELLA study). Information at baseline and follow-up was obtained through a telephone interview and mailed self-report questionnaires. At both measurement points, BMI, eating disorder symptoms (SCOFF questionnaire), and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in the same cohort of 771 participants (n = 420 females, n = 351 males). The age range at baseline was 11-17 years, and the age range at follow-up was 17-23 years. High scores for eating-disordered behaviour in childhood or adolescence significantly predicted eating-disordered behaviour in young adulthood (multiplicative effect estimate: 1.31; 95 % CI: 1.2-1.42, p < 0.0001), although there was a decline in prevalence (from 19.3 to 13.8 %, p = 0.002) and severity (mean decrease in SCOFF 0.07, 95 % CI: -0.01-0.14, p = 0.06). After accounting for potentially confounding variables at baseline (SES, probands' BMI, parental BMI, depressive symptoms), participants with more eating disorder symptoms at baseline had a higher risk of developing overweight (odds ratio (OR): 1.58; 95 % CI: 1.19-2.09, p = 0.001), obesity (OR = 1.67; 95 % CI: 1.03-2.66, p = 0.03), and depressive symptoms at follow-up (additive effect estimate: 0.45; 95 %CI: 0.19-0.7, p = 0.0006). Early symptoms of depression showed a significant relationship with extreme underweight in young adulthood (OR = 1.13; 95 %CI: 1.01-1.25, p = 0.02). The high stability of eating disorder symptoms and the significant association with overweight and worse mental health in adulthood underscore the need for early detection and intervention during childhood and adolescence. Youth with depression should be monitored for the development of restrictive eating disorders.

  11. Predeployment Sleep Duration and Insomnia Symptoms as Risk Factors for New-Onset Mental Health Disorders Following Military Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    SLEEP, Vol. 36, No. 7, 2013 1011 Effects of Predeployment Sleep on Mental Health—Gehrman et al ployed, and the physical abuse item has the most...1998;155: 929 -33. 49. Chen MC, Burley HW, Gotlib IH. Reduced sleep quality in healthy girls at risk for depression. J Sleep Res 2012;21:68-72. 50. Gangwisch...Insomnia with ob- jective short sleep duration and incident hypertension: The Penn State Cohort. Hypertension 2012;60: 929 -35. 53. Vgontzas AN, Liao D

  12. Acute manic and psychotic symptoms following subcutaneous leuprolide acetate in a male patient without prior psychiatric history: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hung Pong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Leuprolide acetate is usually used in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. The adverse events associated with administration of leuprolide acetate include fatigue, hot flashes, loss of libido, impotence, and depression. These side effects can be treated conservatively. Acute manic and psychiatric symptoms following leuprolide acetate injection are very rare. Few case reports have been published documenting these symptoms. Here, we describe the case of a 62-year-old male with metastatic prostate cancer, who developed acute manic and psychiatric symptoms 2 months after subcutaneous leuprolide acetate injection. These symptoms were relieved after administration of neuroleptic drugs, such as risperidone. Administration of leuprolide acetate was eventually stopped. The exact mechanism causing the manic and psychiatric adverse events is unclear. Some experts have theorized that estrogen withdrawal following leuprolide acetate therapy may induce psychiatric symptoms. Manic episodes may arise from a deficit in central serotonergic neurotransmission. Based on these hypotheses, risperidone, lithium, and some anticonvulsants, such as divalproex sodium and carbamazepine, have been used effectively in the treatment and prophylaxis of manic episodes. Although psychiatric adverse events are rare following administration of leuprolide acetate, clinicians should be aware of the possibility.

  13. Problem behaviours, caregiver mental health symptoms and health service use in Australian children with cystic fibrosis: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited, recessive condition, primarily affecting the respiratory and digestive systems. The current median life expectancy for adults with CF is approximately 37 years. Children with CF endure an intensive daily treatment regimen including dietary requirements, pancreatic enzyme replacements, vitamin supplementation, regular antibiotics, and airway clearance, in order to maintain their health status and reduce CF symptoms. The treatment regimen is ...

  14. Impact of brain tumour location on emotion and personality: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study on mentalization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Fabio; Shallice, Tim; Ius, Tamara; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2014-09-01

    Patients affected by brain tumours may show behavioural and emotional regulation deficits, sometimes showing flattened affect and sometimes experiencing a true 'change' in personality. However, little evidence is available to the surgeon as to what changes are likely to occur with damage at specific sites, as previous studies have either relied on single cases or provided only limited anatomical specificity, mostly reporting associations rather than dissociations of symptoms. We investigated these aspects in patients undergoing surgery for the removal of cerebral tumours. We argued that many of the problems described can be ascribed to the onset of difficulties in one or more of the different levels of the process of mentalizing (i.e. abstracting and reflecting upon) emotion and intentions, which impacts on everyday behaviour. These were investigated in terms of (i) emotion recognition; (ii) Theory of Mind; (iii) alexithymia; and (iv) self-maturity (personality disorder). We hypothesized that temporo/limbic areas would be critical for processing emotion and intentions at a more perceptual level, while frontal lobe structures would be more critical when higher levels of mentalization/abstraction are required. We administered four different tasks, Task 1: emotion recognition of Ekman faces; Task 2: the Eyes Test (Theory of Mind); Task 3: Toronto Alexithymia Scale; and Task 4: Temperament and Character Inventory (a personality inventory), both immediately before and few days after the operation for the removal of brain tumours in a series of 71 patients (age range: 18-75 years; 33 female) with lesions located in the left or right frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. Lobe-based and voxel-based analysis confirmed that tasks requiring interpretation of emotions and intentions at more basic (less mentalized) levels (Tasks 1 and 2) were more affected by temporo/insular lesions, with emotion recognition (Task 1) being maximally impaired by anterior temporal and amygdala

  15. Cardiovascular Reactivity in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder With High- or Low-Level Depressive Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Cardiovascular Reactivity to Laboratory-Induced Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Yeh; Chiu, Chen-Huan; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Su, Chien-Tien; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2016-03-01

    Depression increases the risk of adverse cardiac events. Cardiovascular reactivity is defined as the pattern of cardiovascular responses to mental stress. An altered pattern of cardiovascular reactivity is an indicator of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Because depression and adverse cardiac events may have a dose-dependent association, this study examined the differences in cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with high depression levels and those with low depression levels. Moreover, autonomic nervous system regulation is a highly plausible biological mechanism for the pattern of cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress. The association between cardiovascular reactivity and parameters of heart rate variability (HRV), an index for quantifying autonomic nervous system activity modulation, was thus examined. This study included 88 patients with MDD. HRV was measured before stress induction. The Stroop Color and Word Test and mirror star-tracing task were used to induce mental stress. We observed no significant association between depressive symptom level and any of the cardiovascular reactivity parameters. Cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress was comparable between patients with MDD with high-level depressive symptoms and those with low-level depressive symptoms. After adjusting for confounding variables, the high-frequency domain of HRV was found to be an independent predictor of the magnitude of heart rate reactivity (β = -.33, p = .002). In conclusion, the magnitude of cardiovascular reactivity may be independent of depression severity in patients with MDD. The autonomic regulation of cardiovascular responses to mental stress primarily influences heart rate reactivity in patients with MDD.

  16. Analysis of the clinical symptoms of patients complicated with acute intestinal obstr uction after the surger y of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jun Ye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the content of serum inflammatory medium of the patients complicated with acute intestinal obstruction after the surgery of colon cancer. Methods: A total of 150 patients with colon cancer received limited surgery treatment during the period of May 2012 to October 2015 were selected as the study objects. They were divided into postoperative ileus (POI group and non-postoperative ileus (non-POI group according to the presence or absence of intestinal obstruction. Then, the contents of serum procalcitonin (PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were detected at the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th days after the surgery. Results: The levels of serum PCT, CRP, TNF-a and IL-6 of two groups at the 1st day had no differences after the surgery. The level of serum PCT of POI group tended to increase and its levels of serum CRP, TNF-a and IL-6 tended to decrease at the 3rd, 5th and 7th days after the surgery, while the levels of serum PCT, CRP, TNF-a and IL-6 of non-POI group were decreased. The content of serum PCT of POI group and non-POI group at the 3rd day after the surgery had no differences (P > 0.05, and the level of serum PCT of POI group was higher than that of non-POI group at the 5th and 7th days after the surgery (P 0.05. Conclusions: The raising of the content of serum PCT after the surgery can be used as the laboratory index to predict the incidence of acute intestinal obstruction after the surgery of colon cancer. 1. Introduction Postoperative ileus (POI mainly happens after major abdominal surgeries causing the clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain, abdominal distension, no flatus and defecation, etc. Colorectal cancer is a common malignant tumor in the digestive system, and the incidence and death rates of the disease were all tending to in

  17. Acute hyponatremia with seizure and mental change after oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate bowel preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Sun; Nam, Kyung Min; Park, Jang Ho; Byun, Sang Hwan; Ryu, Jin Suck; Kim, Hyun Ju

    2014-12-01

    Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (Picolight Powder), which is used as a bowel preparation for the colon and the rectum, can cause a severe electrolyte imbalance like hyponatremia. When hyponatremia gets severe or occurs rapidly, it can lead to death due to associated complications. We have experienced a case of hyponatremia associated with seizure and loss of consciousness in a 76-year-old woman, who took sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate as a bowel preparation for colonoscopy. She was taking thiazide and synthroid for the treatment of hypertension and hypothyroidism, respectively, and she had other underlying medical conditions such as a history of seizure and dementia. Following the diagnosis of hyponatremia, we used an intravenous injection of 3% NaCl to normalize the sodium level in her serum, and her associated symptoms soon disappeared.

  18. Type D personality is associated with low cardiovascular reactivity to acute mental stress in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan; Widdershoven, Jos; Kop, Willem J

    2013-10-01

    The distressed (Type D) personality is associated with adverse coronary heart disease outcomes, but the mechanisms accounting for this association remain to be elucidated. We examined whether myocardial and hemodynamic responses to mental stress are disrupted in Type D patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Ninety-nine HF patients (mean age 65±12years; 75% men) underwent a public speech task, during which heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Type D personality and its components negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) were assessed with the DS14. General linear models with repeated measures and logistic regression were used to assess differences in stress response and recovery. Type D personality was associated with a reduced HR response (F1,93=4.31, ppersonality with respect to the BP response. Examining continuous NA and SI scores and their interaction (NA∗SI), revealed a significant association of NA∗SI with the SBP response (F1,93=4.11, ppersonality may show an inadequate response to acute social stress, characterized by a blunted HR response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute Radiation-Induced Nocturia in Prostate Cancer Patients Is Associated With Pretreatment Symptoms, Radical Prostatectomy, and Genetic Markers in the TGF{beta}1 Gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Langhe, Sofie, E-mail: Sofie.DeLanghe@UGent.be [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium); De Ruyck, Kim [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium); Ost, Piet; Fonteyne, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Werbrouck, Joke [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium); De Meerleer, Gert; De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Thierens, Hubert [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: After radiation therapy for prostate cancer, approximately 50% of the patients experience acute genitourinary symptoms, mostly nocturia. This may be highly bothersome with a major impact on the patient's quality of life. In the past, nocturia is seldom reported as a single, physiologically distinct endpoint, and little is known about its etiology. It is assumed that in addition to dose-volume parameters and patient- and therapy-related factors, a genetic component contributes to the development of radiation-induced damage. In this study, we investigated the association among dosimetric, clinical, and TGF{beta}1 polymorphisms and the development of acute radiation-induced nocturia in prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Data were available for 322 prostate cancer patients treated with primary or postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Five genetic markers in the TGF{beta}1 gene (-800 G>A, -509 C>T, codon 10 T>C, codon 25 G>C, g.10780 T>G), and a high number of clinical and dosimetric parameters were considered. Toxicity was scored using an symptom scale developed in-house. Results: Radical prostatectomy (P<.001) and the presence of pretreatment nocturia (P<.001) are significantly associated with the occurrence of radiation-induced acute toxicity. The -509 CT/TT (P=.010) and codon 10 TC/CC (P=.005) genotypes are significantly associated with an increased risk for radiation-induced acute nocturia. Conclusions: Radical prostatectomy, the presence of pretreatment nocturia symptoms, and the variant alleles of TGF{beta}1 -509 C>T and codon 10 T>C are identified as factors involved in the development of acute radiation-induced nocturia. These findings may contribute to the research on prediction of late nocturia after IMRT for prostate cancer.

  20. Influence of Combat Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Acute Symptoms on Mental Health and Service Discharge Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    is a stronger predictor of outcome in blast related TBI compared with blunt trauma. Further, sports concussions may not be a good model for blast...the multi variate model. Although a history of previous concussions was not predictive of any outcomes, undiagnosed concussions may have oc curred...during these blast events. The cumulative effect of brain in juries has been well documented in repeat concussions occurring in sports related injuries

  1. Symptom specificity in the acute treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: a re-analysis of the treatment of depression collaborative research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeremy G; Harkness, Kate L

    2012-03-01

    Antidepressant medications, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) are equally efficacious in the acute treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, remission rates remain unacceptably low. Examining the differential time course of remission of specific symptom clusters across treatments may provide a basis for assigning patients to treatments that have the highest chance of being effective. This study re-analyzed data from the NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Project (TDCRP), which included 250 adult outpatients with MDD randomized to 16 weeks of CBT, IPT, imipramine+clinical management (IMI-CM), or pill placebo (PLA-CM). We derived four symptom factors from the 23-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and three symptom factors from the Beck Depression Inventory. Within-subject hierarchical regression models were specified to examine the linear and quadratic patterns of symptom remission over five assessment points. IMI-CM produced a more rapid rate of remission than CBT or IPT for both the somatic/vegetative and cognitive-affective symptoms of MDD. There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of improvement of any of the symptom factors between the IMI-CM and PLA-CM groups. Some core symptoms of depression were excluded due to low factor loadings. Past research has argued that the CBT arm in the TDCRP may have been weak. We failed to find evidence that treatments act preferentially on specific symptom clusters. Therefore, the symptoms of MDD may be inter-dependent when it comes to their courses of remission in treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Attitudes of undergraduate health science students towards patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Malcolm J; Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Molloy, Andrew; McKenna, Lisa; Molloy, Elizabeth; Lewis, Belinda

    2010-10-21

    There is a long history of certain medical conditions being associated with stigma, stereotypes, and negative attitudes. Research has shown that such attitudes can have a detrimental effect on patients presenting with stigmatised medical conditions and can even flow on to impact their family. The objective of this study was to measure the attitudes of undergraduate students enrolled in six different health-related courses at Monash University toward patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness. A convenience sample of undergraduate students enrolled in six health-related courses in first, second and third years at Monash University were surveyed. The Medical Condition Regard Scale--a valid and reliable, self-report measure of attitudes--was administered to students along with a brief demographic form. Mean scores, t-tests, and ANOVA were used to analyse student attitudes. Ethics approval was granted. 548 students participated. Statistically significant differences were found between the courses (p = 0.05), year of the course (p = 0.09), and gender (p = 0.04) for the medical condition of intellectual disability. There was no statistically significant difference between the courses, year of the course, gender, and age group for substance abuse or acute mental illness conditions. The findings suggest that students in undergraduate health-related courses, as a group, have a strong regard for patients with intellectual disability and some regard for patients with acute mental illness, but not for patients presenting with substance abuse problems.

  3. Attitudes of undergraduate health science students towards patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenna Lisa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a long history of certain medical conditions being associated with stigma, stereotypes, and negative attitudes. Research has shown that such attitudes can have a detrimental effect on patients presenting with stigmatised medical conditions and can even flow on to impact their family. The objective of this study was to measure the attitudes of undergraduate students enrolled in six different health-related courses at Monash University toward patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness. Methods A convenience sample of undergraduate students enrolled in six health-related courses in first, second and third years at Monash University were surveyed. The Medical Condition Regard Scale - a valid and reliable, self-report measure of attitudes - was administered to students along with a brief demographic form. Mean scores, t-tests, and ANOVA were used to analyse student attitudes. Ethics approval was granted. Results 548 students participated. Statistically significant differences were found between the courses (p = 0.05, year of the course (p = 0.09, and gender (p = 0.04 for the medical condition of intellectual disability. There was no statistically significant difference between the courses, year of the course, gender, and age group for substance abuse or acute mental illness conditions. Conclusion The findings suggest that students in undergraduate health-related courses, as a group, have a strong regard for patients with intellectual disability and some regard for patients with acute mental illness, but not for patients presenting with substance abuse problems.

  4. Adiposity is associated with blunted cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and cognitive responses to acute mental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jones

    Full Text Available Obesity and mental stress are potent risk factors for cardiovascular disease but their relationship with each other is unclear. Resilience to stress may differ according to adiposity. Early studies that addressed this are difficult to interpret due to conflicting findings and limited methods. Recent advances in assessment of cardiovascular stress responses and of fat distribution allow accurate assessment of associations between adiposity and stress responsiveness. We measured responses to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task in healthy men (N = 43 and women (N = 45 with a wide range of BMIs. Heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP measures were used with novel magnetic resonance measures of stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, total peripheral resistance (TPR and arterial compliance to assess cardiovascular responses. Salivary cortisol and the number and speed of answers to mathematics problems in the task were used to assess neuroendocrine and cognitive responses, respectively. Visceral and subcutaneous fat was measured using T(2 (*-IDEAL. Greater BMI was associated with generalised blunting of cardiovascular (HR:β = -0.50 bpm x unit(-1, P = 0.009; SV:β = -0.33 mL x unit(-1, P = 0.01; CO:β = -61 mL x min(-1 x unit(-1, P = 0.002; systolic BP:β = -0.41 mmHg x unit(-1, P = 0.01; TPR:β = 0.11 WU x unit(-1, P = 0.02, cognitive (correct answers: r = -0.28, P = 0.01; time to answer: r = 0.26, P = 0.02 and endocrine responses (cortisol: r = -0.25, P = 0.04 to stress. These associations were largely determined by visceral adiposity except for those related to cognitive performance, which were determined by both visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Our findings suggest that adiposity is associated with centrally reduced stress responsiveness. Although this may mitigate some long-term health risks of stress responsiveness, reduced performance under stress may be a more immediate

  5. 老年患者关节置换术后发生急性精神障碍的原因分析%Analysis of postoperative acute mental disorders after arthroplasty in elderlies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁喆如; 符培亮; 吴宇黎; 吴海山; 钱齐荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the causes and treatment of postoperative acute mental disorders after total hip or knee arthroplasty in the elderly .Methods From January 2006 to December 2011, 1650 patients over 70 years old were admitted , among which 67 cases were postoperative acute mental disorders , the incidence was 4.1%.The onset time of acute mental disorder , duration, anesthesia method , anesthetic drugs, surgical method, electrolyte imbalance and basic diseases of the 67 cases were all analysed.Results The acute mental disorders occured in the postoperative 6 h to 5 d, and the main symptoms were delirium , disorientation, agitation, irritability, confusion, drowsiness, nonsense, and day-and-night inversion. 3.77% of the patients using spinal anesthesia and 4.10% of the patients using general anesthesia developed postoperative acute mental disorders , but the difference was not statistically significant between the two groups .5.09%of the patients in the hip arthroplasty group developed postoperative acute mental disorders, which was significantly higher than that in the knee arthroplasty group (2.39%).Among the 67 patients with acute mental disorders , 42 patients ( 62.7%) had high blood pressure , 39 patients (58.2%) had diabetes mellitus, 18 patients ( 26.9%) were alcoholism abuse.The postoperative electrolyte examinations showed hypokalemia in 50 cases (74.7%), hyponatremia in 42 cases(62.7%), hypocalcemia in 37 cases(55.2%), and hypoxemia in 52 cases (77.6%).Conclusions Pain, old age, basic diseases , electrolyte imbalance , hypovolemia and hypoxemia are the risk factors of postoperative acute mental disorders after total hip or knee arthroplasty .Attentions should be paid to various pathological states of elderly patients before the operation .The management of respiratory and circulation system should be improved to prevent hypotension , hypoxemia , cerebral edema , and good analgesia and humane care should be given to eliminate the risk factors .%目的:

  6. The importance of childhood and adulthood aspects of gendered life for adult mental ill-health symptoms--a 27-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Nordenmark, Mikael; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-07-02

    The increasing gender equality during the 20th century, mainly in the Nordic countries, represents a major social change. A well-established theory is that this may affect the mental health patterns of women and men. This study aimed at examining associations between childhood and adulthood gendered life on mental ill-health symptoms. A follow-up study of a cohort of all school leavers in a medium-sized industrial town in northern Sweden was performed from age 16 to age 42. Of those still alive of the original cohort, 94% (n = 1007) participated during the whole period. Gendered life was divided into three stages according to whether they were traditional or non-traditional (the latter includes equal): childhood (mother's paid work position), adulthood at age 30 (ideology and childcare), and adulthood at age 42 (partnership and childcare). Mental ill-health was measured by self-reported anxious symptoms ("frequent nervousness") and depressive symptoms ("frequent sadness") at age 42. The statistical method was logistic regression analysis, finally adjusted for earlier mental ill-health symptoms and social confounding factors. Generally, parents' gendered life was not decisive for a person's own gendered life, and adulthood gender position ruled out the impact of childhood gender experience on self-reported mental ill-health. For women, non-traditional gender ideology at age 30 was associated with decreased risk of anxious symptoms (76% for traditional childhood, 78% for non-traditional childhood). For men, non-traditional childcare at age 42 was associated with decreased risk of depressive symptoms (84% for traditional childhood, 78% for non-traditional childhood). A contradictory indication was that non-traditional women in childcare at age 30 had a threefold increased risk of anxious symptoms at age 42, but only when having experienced a traditional childhood. Adulthood gender equality is generally good for self-reported mental health regardless of whether one

  7. The importance of childhood and adulthood aspects of gendered life for adult mental ill-health symptoms – a 27-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Månsdotter Anna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing gender equality during the 20th century, mainly in the Nordic countries, represents a major social change. A well-established theory is that this may affect the mental health patterns of women and men. This study aimed at examining associations between childhood and adulthood gendered life on mental ill-health symptoms. Methods A follow-up study of a cohort of all school leavers in a medium-sized industrial town in northern Sweden was performed from age 16 to age 42. Of those still alive of the original cohort, 94% (n = 1007 participated during the whole period. Gendered life was divided into three stages according to whether they were traditional or non-traditional (the latter includes equal: childhood (mother’s paid work position, adulthood at age 30 (ideology and childcare, and adulthood at age 42 (partnership and childcare. Mental ill-health was measured by self-reported anxious symptoms (“frequent nervousness” and depressive symptoms (“frequent sadness” at age 42. The statistical method was logistic regression analysis, finally adjusted for earlier mental ill-health symptoms and social confounding factors. Results Generally, parents’ gendered life was not decisive for a person’s own gendered life, and adulthood gender position ruled out the impact of childhood gender experience on self-reported mental ill-health. For women, non-traditional gender ideology at age 30 was associated with decreased risk of anxious symptoms (76% for traditional childhood, 78% for non-traditional childhood. For men, non-traditional childcare at age 42 was associated with decreased risk of depressive symptoms (84% for traditional childhood, 78% for non-traditional childhood. A contradictory indication was that non-traditional women in childcare at age 30 had a threefold increased risk of anxious symptoms at age 42, but only when having experienced a traditional childhood. Conclusion Adulthood gender equality is

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea in severe mental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szaulińska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is estimated to be 3–7.5% in men and 2–3% in women. In mentally ill population it is even higher, as these patients are a high risk OSA group. The aim of the paper was a review of literature about the prevalence of sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder.The available data show that OSA is present in 15–48% of patients with schizophrenia, 21–43% of patients with bipolar disorder and 11–18% of patients with recurrent depressive disorder. The lack of diagnosis of OSA in people with mental illnesses has multiple negative consequences. The symptoms of sleep apnoea might imitate the symptoms of mental illnesses such as negative symptoms of schizophrenia and symptoms of depression, they might as well aggravate the cognitive impairment. A number of the drugs used in mental disorders may aggravate the symptoms of OSA. OSA is as well the risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases which are a serious clinical problem in mentally ill people and contribute to shortening of their expected lifespan. From the point of view of the physicians treating OSA it is important to pay attention to the fact that co-existing depression is the most common reason for resistant daytime sleepiness in OSA patients treated effectively with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP. CPAP therapy leads to significant improvement of mood. However, in schizophrenia and bipolar patients it may rarely lead to acute worsening of mental state, exacerbation of psychotic symptoms or phase shift from depression to mania.

  9. Duplication of the MECP2 region is a frequent cause of severe mental retardation and progressive neurological symptoms in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Esch, Hilde; Bauters, Marijke; Ignatius, Jaakko; Jansen, Mieke; Raynaud, Martine; Hollanders, Karen; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Bienvenu, Thierry; Jensen, Lars Riff; Gecz, Jozef; Moraine, Claude; Marynen, Peter; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Froyen, Guy

    2005-09-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the MECP2 gene at Xq28 are associated with Rett syndrome in females and with syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of mental retardation (MR) in males. By array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH), we identified a small duplication at Xq28 in a large family with a severe form of MR associated with progressive spasticity. Screening by real-time quantitation of 17 additional patients with MR who have similar phenotypes revealed three more duplications. The duplications in the four patients vary in size from 0.4 to 0.8 Mb and harbor several genes, which, for each duplication, include the MR-related L1CAM and MECP2 genes. The proximal breakpoints are located within a 250-kb region centromeric of L1CAM, whereas the distal breakpoints are located in a 300-kb interval telomeric of MECP2. The precise size and location of each duplication is different in the four patients. The duplications segregate with the disease in the families, and asymptomatic carrier females show complete skewing of X inactivation. Comparison of the clinical features in these patients and in a previously reported patient enables refinement of the genotype-phenotype correlation and strongly suggests that increased dosage of MECP2 results in the MR phenotype. Our findings demonstrate that, in humans, not only impaired or abolished gene function but also increased MeCP2 dosage causes a distinct phenotype. Moreover, duplication of the MECP2 region occurs frequently in male patients with a severe form of MR, which justifies quantitative screening of MECP2 in this group of patients.

  10. The Brief Symptom Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire-45 in the Assessment of the Outcome Quality of Mental Health Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Christopher; Andreae, Andreas; Koemeda, Margit; Schulthess, Peter; Tschuschke, Volker; von Wyl, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires are economical instruments for routine outcome assessment. In this study, the performance of the German version of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was evaluated when applied in analysis of the outcome quality of psychiatric and psychotherapeutic interventions. Pre-post data from two inpatient samples (N = 5711) and one outpatient sample (N = 239) were analyzed. Critical differences (reliable change index) and cut-off points between functional and dysfunctional populations were calculated using the Jacobson and Truax method of calculating clinical significance. Overall, the results indicated that the BSI was more accurate than the OQ-45 in correctly classifying patients as clinical subjects. Nonetheless, even with the BSI, about 25% of inpatients with schizophrenia attained a score at admission below the clinical cut-off. Both questionnaires exhibited the highest sensitivity to psychopathology with patients with personality disorders. When considering the differences in the prescores, both questionnaires showed the same sensitivity to change. The advantage of using these self-report measures is observed primarily in assessing outpatient psychotherapy outcome. In an inpatient setting two main problems—namely, the low response rate and the scarce sensitivity to psychopathology with severely ill patients—limit the usability of self-report questionnaires. PMID:27699166

  11. The Brief Symptom Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire-45 in the Assessment of the Outcome Quality of Mental Health Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano Crameri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-report questionnaires are economical instruments for routine outcome assessment. In this study, the performance of the German version of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45 and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI was evaluated when applied in analysis of the outcome quality of psychiatric and psychotherapeutic interventions. Pre-post data from two inpatient samples (N=5711 and one outpatient sample (N=239 were analyzed. Critical differences (reliable change index and cut-off points between functional and dysfunctional populations were calculated using the Jacobson and Truax method of calculating clinical significance. Overall, the results indicated that the BSI was more accurate than the OQ-45 in correctly classifying patients as clinical subjects. Nonetheless, even with the BSI, about 25% of inpatients with schizophrenia attained a score at admission below the clinical cut-off. Both questionnaires exhibited the highest sensitivity to psychopathology with patients with personality disorders. When considering the differences in the prescores, both questionnaires showed the same sensitivity to change. The advantage of using these self-report measures is observed primarily in assessing outpatient psychotherapy outcome. In an inpatient setting two main problems—namely, the low response rate and the scarce sensitivity to psychopathology with severely ill patients—limit the usability of self-report questionnaires.

  12. [Mental health care systems and provisions in the immediate and acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake: situational and support activities in Miyagi Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, which measured 9.0 on the Richter scale, was followed by a huge tsunami that caused catastrophic damage to the area extending from the Tohoku to Kanto regions. It was also accompanied by the meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Mental health service provisions were hit equally hard by the disaster, with a wide range of support and relief activities being implemented. This article reviews damage that was inflicted and support activities that were carried out in the mental health field in Miyagi Prefecture in the immediate aftermath and acute phase of the disaster, and also examines future challenges. Almost all mental health institutions in Miyagi Prefecture were affected by the disaster, and experienced difficulties such as feeding inpatients and securing necessary medication. Mental health institutions in the coastal area, in particular, were severely hit. Three hospitals-were seriously damaged by the tsunami, which forced them to make arrangements for the transfer of 300 inpatients. In the aftermath of the earthquake, it became difficult to access medical institutions, and confusion ensued regarding the provision of mental health services. Many municipalities in Miyagi Prefecture were seriously affected by the disaster, and information-gathering was crippled due to the disruption of communication and transport networks. Consequently, the administrative function regarding mental health service provisions was significantly impaired. Through official, private, and academic channels, volunteers in the field of mental health were sent to the affected areas in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. It was very difficult to coordinate these volunteers because of the confusion in gathering-information and in the chain of command for support activities. The number of support teams working in the affected areas peaked one to two months after the earthquake, but it became clear that continuous and long

  13. Efficacy of synbiotics to reduce acute radiation proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Mariana; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10(8) colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis-23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Mariana, E-mail: mari1980hemato@yahoo.com.br [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira [Department of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10{sup 8} colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  15. Psychiatric symptoms as pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders are typically seen as the causes of their symptoms. This makes sense in many fields of medicine, but not in psychiatry where symptoms constitute disorders: the notion that mental disorders cause symptoms is a tautology. Biological psychiatry tries to circumvent this logical fallacy by tryi

  16. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Silverman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: Will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions?Method: Participants (N = 169 were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusions: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  17. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusion: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  18. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusion: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:27774084

  19. Duration of Untreated Psychosis Is Associated with More Negative Schizophrenia Symptoms after Acute Treatment for First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grano, Niklas; Lindsberg, Jenni; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Gronroos, Peter; Blomberg, Ari-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Evidence of association between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients is inconsistent in the recent literature. In the present study, DUP, schizophrenia symptoms, duration of medication, and diagnosis were obtained from hospital archives in a sample of FEP patients.…

  20. Children’s mental representations with respect to caregivers and post-traumatic symptomatology in Somatic Symptom Disorders and Disruptive Behaviour Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola eBizzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In line with literature, the quality of adult-infant interactions and mental representations of the caregivers play an essential role in influencing the children’s well-being. Many studies focused the attention on the role of attachment for a better evaluation of child psychopathological outcomes. The flexibility of the child’s attachment model gives the opportunity to parents to be helped in modifying their own caregiving quality, encouraging the reflection on the children’s state of mind with respect to attachment. The aims of this study were to evaluate: 1 the attachment models in young patients diagnosed with Disruptive Behaviour Disorders (DBD and Somatic Symptoms Disorders (SSD; 2 the levels of post-traumatic symptomatology; 3 the association between the attachment models and post-traumatic symptomatology. Methods. 40 Italian patients, aged from 8 to 15, recruited at Gaslini Paediatric Hospital of Genoa, previously diagnosed with SSD (N=20 and DBD (N=20 were assessed using the Child Attachment Interview (CAI, the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT, the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC-A. Socio-demographic data were collected. Results. In both the clinical samples, the findings on the distribution of attachment models showed a significant presence of insecure attachment with respect to both parents in more than a half of the patients and high levels of disorganized attachment. No significant differences between DBD and SSD samples were found on post-traumatic symptomatology (Post-Traumatic Stress and Dissociation. Significant differences were found on Depression, Anxiety and Fantasy subscales. Discussion. This study can provide a detection of dysfunctional aspects in clinical populations. The findings suggest that the quality of the attachment to parents may be a fundamental element to better assess SSD and DBD in children and adolescents. Clinical implications of this study aimed at improving parental caregiving

  1. Acute respiratory symptoms and general illness during the first year of life: a population-based birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Larsen, Karina

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms are common in infancy. Most illnesses occurring among children are dealt with by parents and do not require medical attention. Nevertheless, few studies have prospectively and on a community-basis assessed the amount of respiratory symptoms and general illness in normal infants....... In this population-based birth cohort study, 228 healthy infants from Copenhagen, Denmark were followed from birth to 1 year of age during 2004-2006. Symptoms were registered using daily diaries and monthly home visits. Interviews were performed at inclusion and every second month. Risk factor analysis was carried...... out by multiple logistic regression analysis. On average, children had general symptoms for 3.5 months during their first year of life, nasal discharge being most frequent followed by cough. Frequency of all symptoms increased steeply after 6 months of age. Each child had on average 6.3 episodes...

  2. The General Public’s Awareness of Early Symptoms of and Emergency Responses to Acute Myocardial Infarction and Related Factors in South Korea: A National Public Telephone Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sook Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prompt treatment affects prognosis and survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI onset. This study evaluated the awareness of early symptoms of AMI and knowledge of appropriate responses on symptom occurrence, along with related factors. Methods: Participants’ knowledge of the early symptoms of and responses to AMI onset were investigated using a random digit dialing survey. We included 9600 residents of 16 metropolitan cities and provinces in Korea. Results: The proportions of respondents who were aware of early symptoms of AMI ranged from 32.9% (arm or shoulder pain to 79.1% (chest pain and discomfort. Of the respondents, 67.0% would call an ambulance if someone showed signs of AMI, 88.7% knew ≥1 symptom, 10.9% knew all five symptoms, and 3.1% had excellent knowledge (correct identification of all five AMI symptoms, not answering “Yes” to the trap question, and correctly identifying calling an ambulance as the appropriate response when someone is exhibiting AMI symptoms. The odds ratio (OR for having excellent knowledge was significantly higher for those who graduated college or higher (OR 3.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–10.76 than for those with less than a primary school education, as well as for subjects with AMI advertisement exposure (OR 1.49; 95% CI, 1.10–2.02 and with knowledge of AMI (OR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.16–2.27. The 60- to 79-year-old group had significantly lower OR for excellent knowledge than the 20- to 39-year-old group (OR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.28–0.99. Conclusions: Awareness of AMI symptoms and the appropriate action to take after symptom onset in South Korea was poor. Therefore, educational and promotional strategies to increase the overall awareness in the general public, especially in the elderly and those with low education levels, are needed.

  3. Evaluation of acute ischemia in pre-procedure ECG predicts myocardial salvage after primary PCI in STEMI patients with symptoms >12hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakhri, Yama; Busk, Martin; Schoos, Mikkel Malby

    2016-01-01

    -presenters). The Anderson-Wilkin's score (AW-score) estimates the acuteness of myocardial ischemia from the electrocardiogram (ECG) in STEMI patients. We hypothesized that the AW-score is superior to symptom duration in identifying substantial salvage potential in late-presenters. METHODS: The AW-score (range 1......-4) was obtained from the pre-pPCI ECG in 55 late-presenters and symptoms 12-72 hours. Myocardial perfusion imaging was performed to assess area at risk before pPCI and after 30days to assess myocardial salvage index (MSI). We correlated both the AW-score and pain-to-balloon with MSI and determined the salvage...

  4. 孤独症患儿父母的精神症状与应付方式%Mental symptoms and coping styles of autistic children's parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张轶杰; 杨丽; 雷杰鹏; 马润娟

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨孤独症患儿父母的精神症状与应对方式的相关性.方法:研究对象是72例符合国际疾病和相关健康问题分类第十版诊断标准的孤独症儿童的父母和72名与孤独症儿童同年龄、同性别正常儿童的父母(对照组).采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)评估精神症状,应付方式问卷(WCSQ)评估应对方式.结果:孤独症儿童的父母组SCL-90总分及各因子分,SAS评分,SDS评分和WCSQ的求助、合理化、解决问题因子分均高于对照组[如,SCL-90总分(150.6±14.2)vs.(124.4±13.0),均P<0.05];而WCSQ的退避、自责因子分低于对照组[(0.3±0.1) vs.(0.4±0.1),(0.1±0.1)vs.(0.2±0.1),均P<0.05].孤独症儿童的父母组WCSQ的退避、幻想、求助、合理化因子分与SCL-90各因子分均呈正相关(r=0.65 ~0.92,均P<0.05),而WCSQ的自责与SCL-90各因子呈负相关(r=-0.67~-0.89,均P<0.05);WCSQ的解决问题与躯体化、强迫症状、焦虑、恐怖呈负相关(r=-0.26、-0.26、-0.24,均P<0.05).结论:孤独症儿童父母有较明显的焦虑和抑郁症状,但孤独症患儿父母多采用积极的应付方式,这可能有助于减轻精神症状的影响.%Objective: To explore the relevance between mental symptoms and coping styles of autistic children's parents. Method: Totally 72 parents whose children with autism met the diagnostic criteria of the 10th Edition of International Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) 72 normal children's parents were recruited in this study. The symptoms were assessed with the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and coping styles with the Ways of Coping Styles Questionnaire (WCSQ). Result: In autism children' s parents, the total scores and factor scores of SCL-90, SAS score, SDS score, and WCSQ factor scores of seeking help, rationalization, problem

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TASK SPECIFIC MOTOR IMAGERY WITH MENTAL PRACTICE VERSUS TASK SPECIFIC MIRROR THERAPY ON UPPER LIMB FUNCTIONS FOR SUB ACUTE HEMIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thara. N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Task specific training of upper limb may result in learning of new motor task through transfer after repeated practice. Mirror therapy and motor imagery are effective emerging techniques used as an adjunct in rehabilitation of upper limb function in hemiplegia. The purpose of the study is to find comparative effects of task specific motor imagery with mental practice over task specific mirror therapy on upper limb functional activities for subjects with sub acute hemiplegia. Method: An experimental study design with two groups conducted on 30 subjects with sub-acute hemiplegic. Thirty subjects randomised, 15 subjects into group A and 15 into group B. Group A subjects received task specific motor imagery with mental practice thrice a week for 10 weeks and Group B received task specific mirror therapy thrice a week for 10 weeks. In both groups, each session consisted of 60 minutes. The outcome measure such as Action Research Arm Test (ARAT was measured before and after 10 weeks of intervention. Results: Comparison of post intervention means of ARAT using Independent t test and Mann-Whitney Test showed that there is no statistically significant difference in grasp and gross movement between the groups and there is a statistically significant difference in grip, pinch and total score between the groups. Conclusion: The present study concludes that 10 weeks of task specific motor imagery with mental practice and task specific mirror therapy both shown significant effect on improvement of upper extremity function. However, greater percentage of improvement was found using task specific motor imagery with mental practice in hand function when compared to task specific mirror therapy.

  6. Symptom,sign and syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950416 A clinicopathological study on mental andnervous symptoms in uremia.CUI Xiaoying(崔晓英),et al.Dept Intern Med,202nd Hosp,PLA,Shenyang110003.Chin J Neurol & Psychiat 1995;28(1):26-28.Mental and nervous symptoms,brainstem auditoryevoked potential(BAEP),brain computed tomography(CT) scans and pathological changes were studied in34 uremic patients.It was shown that mental depres-sion was the most common symptom.The latency of

  7. Facilitators of recovery for step-up and step-down clients of a sub-acute residential mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kerry A; Rickwood, Debra J

    2016-08-01

    Sub-acute residential mental health services provide care for people who are not acutely unwell but require more support than generally available when living in the community. Little is known about how these services facilitate recovery and whether these facilitators differ for clients entering from the community (step-up) or from inpatient settings (step-down). To identify features of a sub-acute residential service that have assisted step-up and step-down clients in their recovery. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 step-up and 21 step-down clients. Interview transcripts were examined using an inductive, semantic content analysis approach. Themes identified included the community context, personal support, the formal program offered and assistance in personal recovery processes, with the level of support for these themes differing for step-up and step-down clients. Step-up and step-down clients have differing needs to be addressed in a sub-acute service. These services can better meet the needs of clients if they are aware of the setting the client has come from and tailor their services accordingly. Step-up clients prefer support in developing social skills and illness management techniques; step-down clients prefer a less structured environment with assistance in living skills and personal processes of recovery.

  8. Successful outcome after endovascular thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke with basis on perfusion-diffusion mismatch after 24 h of symptoms onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Tobias A.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Goulart, Carlos R.; Sória, Marília G.; Rizelio, Vanessa; Meneses, Murilo S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although intravenous thrombolysis is the Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within 3 h, combined intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis with endovascular techniques may be able to extend this traditional time window. Case Description: We present the clinical evolution of a 45-year-old male presenting with acute left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small diffusion restriction at the right basal ganglia with perfusion compromise in the entire right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Angiography revealed a complete occlusion of MCA at its M1 segment. The patient underwent endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with additional intra-arterial thrombolysis more than 24 hours after the onset of the initial symptoms and experienced complete vessel recanalization. At 1 year, the patient had global independence with minor residual motor impairment in the left arm. Conclusions: We report the case of a successful thrombolytic therapy following AIS performed more than 24 h after the initial symptoms based on the presence of a perfusion-diffusion mismatch. This report is expected to stimulate the development of future prospective studies with special focus on the role of perfusion-diffusion mismatch in patient selection for treatment of AIS, especially in those presenting outside the traditional time window. PMID:27313971

  9. Chronic and Acute Stress, Gender, and Serotonin Transporter Gene-Environment Interactions Predicting Depression Symptoms in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many recent studies of serotonin transporter gene by environment effects predicting depression have used stress assessments with undefined or poor psychometric methods, possibly contributing to wide variation in findings. The present study attempted to distinguish between effects of acute and chronic stress to predict depressive…

  10. Asthma and pneumonia among children less than five years with acute respiratory symptoms in Mulago Hospital, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K; Ndeezi, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia is considered the major cause of mortality among children with acute respiratory disease in low-income countries but may be over-diagnosed at the cost of under-diagnosing asthma. We report the magnitude of asthma and pneumonia among "under-fives" with cough and difficulty breathing, based...

  11. Acute and maintenance electroconvulsive therapy for treatment of severely disabling obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a patient with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Björn M; Ekselius, Lisa

    2009-09-01

    We report successful treatment with electroconvulsive therapy of a comorbid condition including severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms and hypochondriacal delusions in a 38-year-old man with Asperger syndrome. His condition deteriorated into a severely disabled chronic state that was refractory to different pharmacological and psychological treatments but was completely reversed after electroconvulsive therapy. Although typical obsessive-compulsive symptoms were predominant, the case also exhibits differences compared with regular obsessive-compulsive disorder regarding onset and course that are discussed in the report.

  12. Brucellosis with Mental Disorder as Initial Symptom:A Clinical Analysis of 2 cases%以精神异常为首发症状的布氏杆菌病两例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜彩霞; 刘杰; 张东威

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨以精神异常为首发症状的布氏杆菌病的临床特点,减少误诊,提高临床医生的诊疗水平.方法 对本院过去两年中收治的2例以精神异常为首发症状的布氏杆菌病患者的临床资料及治疗方法、预后等加以分析.结果 2例患者均以精神症状为首发表现,血清凝集试验均为阳性,经过系统治疗后预后好.结论 布氏杆菌病临床表现以精神症状为首发者少见,极易误诊,在临床上早期发现,及时正规治疗对本病预后有重大意义.%Objective To evaluate the clinical characteristic that brucellosis patients with mental disorders as the primary symptom, to reduce the misdiagnosis and improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. Methods The clinical data and treatment methods and prognosis of the 2 brucellosis patients with mental disorder as initial symptom treated in our hospital in the past 2 years were analyzed. Results The two patients presented with mental disorder as initial symptom, and the brucella serum agglutinin test was positive for both patients. And they both have a better prognosis through comprehensive treatment. Conclusion Brucellosis with mental disorder as initial symptom is rare and it is easy to be misdiagnosed. Clinically, an early diagnosis and timely and regular treatment is of great significance in prognosis.

  13. Clinical implications of sulcal enhancement on postcontrast fluid attenuated inversion recovery images in patients with acute stroke symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyuk Joon; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byoung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) without diffusion abnormalities is occasionally found in patients with an acute stroke. This study was to determine the prevalence and clinical implications of HARM without diffusion abnormalities. There was a retrospective review of magnetic resonance images 578 patients with acute strokes and identified those who did not have acute infarction lesions, as mapped by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). These patients were classified into an imaging-negative stroke and HARM without diffusion abnormalities groups, based on the DWI findings and postcontrast fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission, 1 day, and 7 days after the event, as well as clinical data and risk factors, were compared between the imaging-negative stroke and HARM without diffusion abnormalities groups. Seventy-seven acute stroke patients without any DWI abnormalities were found. There were 63 patients with an imaging-negative stroke (accounting for 10.9% of 578) and 13 patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities (accounting for 2.4% of 578). The NIHSS scores at admission were higher in HARM without diffusion abnormalities group than in the imaging-negative stroke group (median, 4.5 vs. 1.0; p < 0.001), but the scores at 7 days after the event were not significantly different between the two groups (median, 0 vs. 0; p = 1). The patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities were significantly older, compared with patients with an imaging-negative stroke (mean, 73.1 years vs. 55.9 years; p < 0.001). Patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities are older and have similarly favorable short-term neurological outcomes, compared with the patients with imaging-negative stroke.

  14. Are radiographs needed when MR imaging is performed for non-acute knee symptoms in patients younger than 45 years of age?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braak, Bert P.M. ter; Vincken, Patrice W.J.; Erkel, Arian R. van; Bloem, Johan L. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Bloem, Rolf M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden (Netherlands); Napoleon, L.J.; Coene, M.N. [HAGA Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Hague (Netherlands); Luijt, Peter A. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Traumatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Lange, Sam de [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    The objective was to determine the value of radiographs in young adults with non-acute knee symptoms who are scheduled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Nine hundred and sixty-one consecutive patients aged between 16 and 45 years with knee symptoms of at least 4 weeks' duration were prospectively included in three participating hospitals. After applying exclusion criteria, 798 patients remained. Exclusion criteria were previous knee surgery (including arthroscopy) or MRI, history of rheumatoid arthritis, clinical diagnosis of retropatellar chondromalacia, contra-indication for MRI and recent trauma. We identified two groups: group A with no history of trauma (n = 332), and group B with an old (>4 weeks) history of trauma (n = 466). Patients had a standardized history taken, and underwent a physical exam, antero-posterior (AP) and lateral radiographs and MRI. We evaluated the radiographs and MRI for osseous lesions, articular surface lesions, fractures, osteoarthritis, loose bodies, bone marrow edema and incidental findings. Subsequently, patients with osseous abnormalities (Kellgren grade 1 and 2 excluded) on radiographs and a matched control group was evaluated again using MRI without radiographs. Median duration of symptoms was 20 weeks. In group A, radiographs showed 36 osseous abnormalities in 332 patients (10.8%). Only 13 of these, all Kellgren grade 1 osteoarthritis, were not confirmed on MRI. MRI showed 72 (21.7%) additional abnormalities not confirmed on radiographs. In group B, radiographs showed 40 osseous abnormalities (8.6%) in 466 patients. Only 15 of these, all Kellgren grade 1 osteoarthritis, were not confirmed on MRI. MRI showed 194 (41.6%) additional abnormalities not confirmed on radiographs. The second evaluation of MRI without radiographs in 34 patients was identical to the first MRI evaluation. Common lesions were significantly more often diagnosed with MRI than with radiographs. Radiographs should not be obtained routinely when MRI is

  15. A Preliminary Path Analysis: Effect of Psychopathological Symptoms, Mental and Physical Dysfunctions Related to Quality of Life and Body Mass Index on Fatigue Severity of Iranian Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Salehpoor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disease with fatigue as most prevalent symptom. Psychopathological symptoms, physical and mental dysfunctions and body mass abnormalities potentially could deteriorate fatigue. Thus, in this study, we aimed at evaluating the effect of these factors on fatigue severity of MS patients.Methods: In this cross‐sectional study, 162 patients with mean age of 34.1 ± 9.4 (16-58 years were recruited by consecutive sampling. All the patients, after completing demographic information were evaluated using Persian versions of Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21, and short form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36.Results: Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between fatigue severity and depression, anxiety, stress, physical component summary (PCS and mental component summary (MCS (P < 0.01. Findings of path analysis demonstrated that PCS is the only variable which has a direct effect on fatigue severity(β = -0.278, P < 0.05. Moreover, the strongest standard coefficient (β belonged to cause and effect relationship between MCS and depression (β = -0.691, P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Present study made the role of psychopathological symptoms and physical and mental dysfunctions prominent in exacerbation of fatigue severity. Moreover, we can refer to more sensible effect of physical dysfunction related to life on fatigue

  16. Patients' knowledge about symptoms and adequate behaviour during acute myocardial infarction and its impact on delay time: Findings from the multicentre MEDEA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarqouni, L; Smenes, K; Meinertz, Th; Schunkert, H; Fang, X; Ronel, J; Ladwig, K-H

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to assess whether patients' knowledge about acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has an impact on the prehospital delay-time. This investigation was based on 486 AMI patients who participated in the cross-sectional Munich-Examination-of-Delay-in-Patients-Experiencing-Acute-Myocardial-Infarction (MEDEA) study. A modified German-version of the ACS-Response-Index Questionnaire was used. Multivariate logistic-regression models were used to identify factors associated with knowledge-level as well as the impact of knowledge-level on delay-time. High AMI-knowledge shortened median delay-time in men (168[92-509] vs. 276[117-1519] mins, p=0.0069), and in women (189[101-601] vs. 262[107-951]mins, p=0.34). Almost half-of-patients (n=284,58%) demonstrated high AMI-knowledge. High-knowledge were independently associated with male-gender (OR=1.47[1.17-1.85]) and General-Practitioner as a knowledge-source (OR=1.42[1.14-1.77]). Old-age (OR=0.87[0.86-0.89]) and previous AMI-history/stent-placement (OR=0.65[0.46-0.93]) were significantly associated with lower-knowledge. Although the majority (476,98%) correctly recognized at least one AMI-symptom, 69(14.2%) patients correctly identified all AMI-symptoms. Additionally, one-in-three believed that heart-attack is always accompanied with severe chest-pain. Elderly-patients and women were more likely to be less-knowledgeable about atypical-symptoms (p=0.006), present with atypical AMI-presentation (p<0.001) and subsequently experience protracted delay-times (p<0.001). Knowledge of AMI-symptoms remains to be substandard, especially knowledge of atypical-symptoms. Knowledge is essential to reduce delay-times, but it is not a panacea, since it is not sufficient alone to optimize prehospital delay-times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Disability and functional burden of disease because of mental in comparison to somatic disorders in general practice patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Linden, U; Schwantes, U

    2015-09-01

    Severity of illness is not only depending on the symptom load, but also on the burden in life. Mental disorders are among those illnesses, which in particular cause suffering to the individual and society. To study burden of disease for mental in comparison to somatic disorders, 2099 patients from 40 general practitioners filled in (a) the Burvill scale which measures acute and chronic illnesses in ten different body systems and (b) the IMET scale which measures impairment in ten different areas of life. Patients were suffering on average from acute and/or chronic illness in 3.5 (SD: 2.0) body systems and 56.6% of patients complained about acute and/or chronic mental disorders. The most significant negative impact on the IMET total score have acute and chronic mental disorders, followed by chronic neurological and musculoskeletal and acute respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders, while cardiovascular, metabolic, urogenital, haematological and ear/eye disorders have no greater impact. Acute as well as chronic mental disorders cause impairment across all areas of life and most burden of disease (functional burden of disease 1.69), followed by musculoskeletal disorders (1.62). Mental disorders are among the most frequent health problems with high negative impact across all areas of life. When combining frequency and impairment mental disorders cause most burden of disease in comparison to other illnesses. This should be reflected in the organization of medical care including family medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The mental health of preschoolers in a Norwegian population-based study when their parents have symptoms of borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders: at the mercy of unpredictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg-Nielsen Turid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical studies have shown that children of parents with mental health problems are most likely to develop psychiatric problems themselves when their parents have a Personality Disorder characterized by hostility. The Personality Disorders that appear most associated with hostility, with the potential to affect children, are Borderline Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. The question addressed in this study is whether the risk to children’s mental health extends to the normal population of parents who have subclinical symptomlevels of these disorders. Methods This inquiry used data from a Trondheim, Norway community sample of 922 preschoolers and one parent for each child. The mean age of the children was 53 months (SD 2.1. Parents reported symptoms of Borderline, Antisocial and Narcissistic Personality Disorders on the DSM-IV ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire, and the children’s symptoms of DSM-IV behavioral and emotional diagnoses were measured with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment, a comprehensive interview. Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the effect of parents’ symptoms on their preschoolers’ behavioral and emotional problems. Results The analyses yielded strongly significant values for the effect of parents’ Personality Disorder symptoms on child problems, explaining 13.2% of the variance of the children’s behavioral symptoms and 2.9% of the variance of internalizing symptoms. Biological parents’ cohabitation status, i.e., whether they were living together, emerged as a strong moderator on the associations between parental variables and child emotional symptoms; when parents were not cohabiting, the variance of the children’s emotional problems explained by the parents’ Personality Disorder symptoms increased from 2.9% to 19.1%. Conclusions For the first time, it is documented that parents’ self

  19. Outcomes of emergent carotid artery stenting within 6 hours of symptom onset in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Won Gi; Yoon, Woong; Yim, Nam Yeol; Jung, Min Young; Jung, Se Hee; Kang, Heoung Keun [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To investigate clinical outcomes following the emergent carotid artery stenting for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Twenty-eight consecutive patients with acute stroke due to atherosclerotic steno-occlusive diseases of extracranial internal carotid artery underwent emergent carotid artery stenting. Of these, 23 patients had tandem intracranial arterial occlusions. Extracranial carotid stenting was successful in all patients. From the 13 patients who underwent intracranial recanalization procedures, successful recanalization occurred in 84.6% (11/13). 57% of patients (16/28) had a good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) after 3 months. Patients with successful intracranial/extracranial recanalization had a significantly higher rate of good outcome than those without recanalization after 3 months (75% vs. 33%, p = 0.027). Patients without intracranial tandem occlusions had a more favorable clinical outcome than those with intracranial tandem occlusions (100% vs. 48%, p = 0.033). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in one patient (3.6%). Mortality rate was 0% (0/28) after 3 months. Emergent carotid artery stenting in setting of acute stroke was a safe and effective treatment modality. Successful recanalization (extracranial and intracranial) and absence of intracranial tandem occlusion are significantly associated with a good outcome for our cohort of patients whom undergone emergent carotid artery stenting.

  20. Somatic symptoms in patients with acute stroke: clinical features and influencing factors%急性卒中患者的躯体化症状:临床特征和影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈奕雄; 王冬梅; 刘晓加; 刘帅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features and influencing factors of somatic symptoms in patients with acute stroke.Methods Patients with acute stroke were enrolled in the study.Using the scores of symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90)-somatization factor part,the patients were divided into either a somatic symptom group (≥24) or a control group (<24).Their age,gender,economic level,education level,underlying diseases,Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA),Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD),NEO Five-Factor Inventory scores,Social Support Rating Scale scores-simplified Chinese version,Mini-Mental StateExamination (MMSE) scores,National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were documented and analyzed.Results A total of 70 patients with acute stroke were enrolled,and 33 (47.1%) of them had somatic symptoms.There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics,education level,family income,occupation,marital status,living alone,residence,medical expenses payment methods and social support scores between the somatic symptom group and the control group.There were also no significant differences in the types of stroke,lesion side,baseline NIHSS score,MMSE score,and NEO Five-Factor Inventory score between the 2 groups.There was significant difference in lesion side between the somatic symptom group and the control group (x2 =0.161,P=0.006).The comparison of neuropsychological test results showed that the proportion of patients with an anxiety state of the somatic symptom group was significantly higher than that of the control group (24.2% vs.5.4%;x2 =5.055,P =0.025),but there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with depression status;after excluding the cases who met the anxiety and depression criteria,HAMA (8.08 ± 3.12 vs.5.58 ± 3.06;t =-3.059,P =0.003) and HAMD (10.80 ± 4.81 vs.7.73 ± 3.88;t =-2.694,P =0.009) scores of the somatic symptom group (n =25) were significantly higher than those of the control group (n =33).The

  1. Mental vulnerability as a risk factor for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ditte; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold;

    2012-01-01

    Mental vulnerability (i.e. a tendency to experience psychosomatic symptoms, mental symptoms or interpersonal problems) is associated with various diseases. This study investigated whether mental vulnerability is associated with hospitalization for depression.......Mental vulnerability (i.e. a tendency to experience psychosomatic symptoms, mental symptoms or interpersonal problems) is associated with various diseases. This study investigated whether mental vulnerability is associated with hospitalization for depression....

  2. Depressive symptoms and access to mental health care in women screened for postpartum depression who lose health insurance coverage after delivery: findings from the Translating Research into Practice for Postpartum Depression (TRIPPD) effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, William V; Wollan, Peter; Lewis, Greg; Bertram, Susan; Kurland, Margary J; Vore, Kimberle; Yawn, Barbara P

    2014-09-01

    To determine the impact of losing health insurance coverage on perceived need for and access to mental health care in women screened for postpartum depression (PPD) in primary care settings. The study sample included 2343 women enrolled in a 12-month, multisite, randomized trial that compared clinical outcomes of a comprehensive PPD screening and management program with usual care (March 1, 2006, through August 31, 2010). Screening for PPD occurred at the first postpartum visit (5-12 weeks) using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale followed by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Insurance status during the prenatal period, at delivery, and during the first postpartum year and perceived need for and access to mental health care during the first postpartum year were assessed via questionnaires completed by individual patients and participating practices. Rates of uninsured increased from 3.8% during pregnancy and delivery (n=87 of 2317) to 10.8% at the first postpartum visit (n=253 of 2343) and 13.7% at any subsequent visit to the practice after 2 months post partum (n=226 of 1646) (P<.001, both comparisons vs baseline). For patients with data on insurance type during follow-up, insurance loss occurred primarily in Medicaid beneficiaries. Nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire scores and self-reported need for mental health care did not differ significantly between patients who remained insured and those who lost insurance during the first postpartum year. However, of patients who reported the need for mental health care, 61.1% of the uninsured (n=66 of 108) vs 27.1% of the insured (n=49 of 181) reported an inability to obtain mental health care (P<.001). Loss of insurance during the first postpartum year did not significantly affect depressive symptoms or perceived need for mental health care but did adversely affect self-reported ability to obtain mental health care. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by

  3. Symptoms, the Nature of Fibromyalgia, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5 (DSM-5) Defined Mental Illness in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate somatic symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and fibromyalgia, determine the relation between somatization syndromes and fibromyalgia, and evaluate symptom data in light of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) criteria for somatic symptom disorder. METHODS: We administered the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), a measure of somatic symptom severity to 6,233 persons with fibromyalgia, RA, and osteoarthritis. PHQ-15 scores of 5,...

  4. Mass media interventions to reduce help-seeking delay in people with symptoms of acute myocardial infarction: time for a new approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Mary A; Miaskowski, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Minimizing patient delay in seeking care for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is important in the reduction of morbidity and mortality. However, mass media interventions to reduce these delays have had limited success. This paper critiques delay reducing intervention studies and draws on other public health campaigns to identify new directions. A Medline search for the years 1985 through 2000 yielded eight intervention studies meeting inclusion criteria. Three of eight studies reported successful interventions although two of three were only marginally successful. Most studies used similar messages. Campaign lengths, type of media, and sample sizes varied. High risk populations and those with confirmed MI responded more quickly. To reduce patient delay, media messages need to do more than create awareness. Future interventions should target high risk audiences, promote dialogue between previous AMI patients and high risk patients, address problems of denial, provide gender specific education, and emphasize symptom evaluation, problem solving, and decision-making skills.

  5. The significance of patient's age and sex in the interpretation of signs and symptoms in clinically suspected acute deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, A

    1982-01-01

    876 consecutive patients with clinically suspected acute deep vein thrombosis (DVR) in the leg were studied with an ascending phlebography, and the patient's age and sex were correlated to the phlebographic diagnosis. In unoperated patients a thrombus was demonstrated significantly more often in males and in older patients than in females and in younger patients. In operated patients no correlation could be noted between the phlebographic diagnosis and patients's age and sex, but a thrombus was demonstrated significantly more often in operated than in unoperated patients. The results suggest that signs and symptoms of thrombosis are less reliable in females and younger patients than in males and older patients, when a DVT is suspected clinically in unoperated patients.

  6. Neurological Findings & Symptoms Associated with Acute Combat-Related Concussion: Impact of Migraine and Other Co-morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Features Unilateral: 26 (68%)              Aura:  2  (5%) Throbbing: 32 (84%)              Dizziness / Vertigo : 10 (26%) Photophobia:  28 (74%)       Nausea...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Causes of Concussion Concussion ‐ 4 Symptom Categories • Physical (10) – Headache – Fatigue  – Dizziness

  7. [Acute renal failure in neuroleptic malignant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G; Rónai, L

    1995-10-01

    The neuroleptic malignant syndrome is characterized by hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, extrapyramidal motion disorder, vegetative symptoms and mental disorientation. This group of symptoms develops abruptly and may lead to serious complications. One of these complications is the acute renal failure. Permanent muscle rigidity causes the damage of muscle cells which result in myoglobinaemia, myoglobinuria and elevations in muscle related creatine phosphokinase. The authors report the case of a young man who underwent neuroleptic medication because of hebephrenia. During the medication the following symptoms were developed: extrapyramidal symptoms, restlessness, muscle rigidity, high fever. These symptoms eventually lead to acute renal failure caused by rhabdomyolysis (characteristic urine finding, significant elevations in serum creatine phosphokinase). With regards to the neuroleptic malignant syndrome dantrolenum and bromocriptin treatment were applied with the discontinuation of neuroleptic medication. As a part of the complex therapy a massive volumen-supplementing and alkalizing treatment was used but haemodialysis had also become necessary. During the above mentioned treatment symptoms referring to the neuroleptic malignant syndrome resolved and the acute renal failure was cured. The case report calls attention to a specific group of symptoms and the possibilities for prevention and treatment. The above case report is the first observation in Hungary.

  8. Long-lasting recovery of psychotic-like symptoms in isolation-reared rats after chronic but not acute treatment with the cannabinoid antagonist AM251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberletti, Erica; Viganò, Daniela; Guidali, Cinzia; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela

    2012-03-01

    In this work we investigated the ability of AM251 to reverse schizophrenia-like symptoms produced by a neurodevelopmental animal model based on a social isolation procedure. First, we assessed the validity of our isolation-rearing protocol and, as expected, isolation-reared rats showed hyperlocomotion in a novel environment, cognitive impairment in the novel object recognition (NOR) test and a significant increase in the number of aggressive behaviours in the social interaction test compared to group-housed controls. This behavioural picture was associated with a reduction in CB₁ receptor/G protein coupling in specific brain areas as well as reduced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the prefrontal cortex and caudate putamen. In this model, chronic but not acute treatment with the CB₁ receptor antagonist AM251 counteracted isolation-induced cognitive impairment in the NOR test and aggressive behaviours in the social interaction test. This behavioural recovery was accompanied by the rescue of CB₁ receptor functionality and c-Fos levels in all brain regions altered in isolation-reared rats. Moreover, chronic AM251 also increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens, as previously demonstrated for antipsychotic drugs. Interestingly, the behavioural recovery due to chronic AM251 administration persisted until 10 d after discontinuing the treatment, indicating a long-lasting effect of the cannabinoid antagonist on psychotic-like symptoms.

  9. Analysis of the clinical symptoms of patients complicated with acute intestinal obstruction after the surgery of colon cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Jun Ye

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the content of serum inflammatory medium of the patients complicated with acute intestinal obstruction after the surgery of colon cancer. Methods: A total of 150 patients with colon cancer received limited surgery treatment during the period of May 2012 to October 2015 were selected as the study objects. They were divided into postoperative ileus (POI) group and non-postoperative ileus (non-POI) group according to the presence or absence of intestinal obstruction. Then, the contents of serum procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected at the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th days after the surgery. Results: The levels of serum PCT, CRP, TNF-a and IL-6 of two groups at the 1st day had no differences after the surgery. The level of serum PCT of POI group tended to increase and its levels of serum CRP, TNF-a and IL-6 tended to decrease at the 3rd, 5th and 7th days after the surgery, while the levels of serum PCT, CRP, TNF-a and IL-6 of non-POI group were decreased. The content of serum PCT of POI group and non-POI group at the 3rd day after the surgery had no differences (P > 0.05), and the level of serum PCT of POI group was higher than that of non-POI group at the 5th and 7th days after the surgery (P0.05). Conclusions: The raising of the content of serum PCT after the surgery can be used as the laboratory index to predict the incidence of acute intestinal obstruction after the surgery of colon cancer.

  10. Norovirus in feces and nasopharyngeal swab of children with and without acute gastroenteritis symptoms: First report of GI.5 in Brazil and GI.3 in nasopharyngeal swab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dábilla, Nathânia; Nunes Vieira Almeida, Tâmera; Carvalho Rebouças Oliveira, Anniely; Kipnis, André; Neres Silva, Thairiny; Souza Fiaccadori, Fabíola; Teixeira de Sousa, Teresinha; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dôres; Souza, Menira

    2017-02-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE), worldwide. To evaluate the frequency, viral load and molecular profile of NoV in fecal and nasopharyngeal swab samples from hospitalized children, and to determine children's secretor status. From May 2014 to May 2015, 219 children were included in the study, 96 with gastroenteric symptoms and 123 without gastroenteric symptoms. All fecal and nasopharyngeal swab samples were screened by TaqMan RT-qPCR duplex (GI/GII NoV) and quality samples were characterized by genomic sequencing. Norovirus positivity rate in feces was 15.4% in asymptomatic and 18.8% in the symptomatic group. The median viral loads in feces were 2.69×10(8)GC/g and 4.32×10(7)GC/g from children with or without AGE symptoms, respectively. In nasopharyngeal swab samples, the NoV positivity was 11.4% in symptomatic children, with a median viral load of 2.20×10(7)GC/mL and 6.5% in asymptomatic children, with an average viral load of 1.73×10(6)GC/mL. In only two cases NoV was detected in both samples. A considerable genomic variability was observed in feces, with six genotypes being detected, as follows: GII.4, GII.6, GI.3 and GII.3, GI.2 and GI.5. Two GI.3 was detected in nasopharyngeal swab. Our data reveal considerable NoV frequencies in both nasopharyngeal and fecal samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic children. Higher viral loads were detected in samples from AGE symptomatic children, when compared to asymptomatic children. High genomic variability was observed, with this being the first report of GI.5 NoV in Brazil and of GI.3 in nasopharyngeal swab samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Asthma and pneumonia among children less than five years with acute respiratory symptoms in Mulago Hospital, Uganda: evidence of under-diagnosis of asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Nantanda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is considered the major cause of mortality among children with acute respiratory disease in low-income countries but may be over-diagnosed at the cost of under-diagnosing asthma. We report the magnitude of asthma and pneumonia among "under-fives" with cough and difficulty breathing, based on stringent clinical criteria. We also describe the treatment for children with acute respiratory symptoms in Mulago Hospital. METHODS: We enrolled 614 children aged 2-59 months with cough and difficulty breathing. Interviews, physical examination, blood and radiological investigations were done. We defined asthma according to Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. Pneumonia was defined according to World Health Organization guidelines, which were modified by including fever and white cell count, C-reactive protein, blood culture and chest x-ray. Children with asthma or bronchiolitis were collectively referred to as "asthma syndrome" due to challenges of differentiating the two conditions in young children. Three pediatricians reviewed each participant's case report post hoc and made a diagnosis according to the study criteria. RESULTS: Of the 614 children, 41.2% (95% CI: 37.3-45.2 had asthma syndrome, 27.2% (95% CI: 23.7-30.9 had bacterial pneumonia, 26.5% (95% CI: 23.1-30.2 had viral pneumonia, while 5.1% (95% CI: 3.5-7.1 had other diagnoses including tuberculosis. Only 9.5% of the children with asthma syndrome had been previously diagnosed as asthma. Of the 253 children with asthma syndrome, 95.3% (95% CI: 91.9-97.5 had a prescription for antibiotics, 87.7% (95% CI: 83.1-91.5 for bronchodilators and 43.1% (95% CI: 36.9-49.4 for steroids. CONCLUSION: Although reports indicate that acute respiratory symptoms in children are predominantly due to pneumonia, asthma syndrome contributes a significant proportion. Antibiotics are used irrationally due to misdiagnosis of asthma as pneumonia. There is need for better diagnostic tools for

  12. Asthma and pneumonia among children less than five years with acute respiratory symptoms in Mulago Hospital, Uganda: evidence of under-diagnosis of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K; Ndeezi, Grace; Ostergaard, Marianne S

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia is considered the major cause of mortality among children with acute respiratory disease in low-income countries but may be over-diagnosed at the cost of under-diagnosing asthma. We report the magnitude of asthma and pneumonia among "under-fives" with cough and difficulty breathing, based on stringent clinical criteria. We also describe the treatment for children with acute respiratory symptoms in Mulago Hospital. We enrolled 614 children aged 2-59 months with cough and difficulty breathing. Interviews, physical examination, blood and radiological investigations were done. We defined asthma according to Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. Pneumonia was defined according to World Health Organization guidelines, which were modified by including fever and white cell count, C-reactive protein, blood culture and chest x-ray. Children with asthma or bronchiolitis were collectively referred to as "asthma syndrome" due to challenges of differentiating the two conditions in young children. Three pediatricians reviewed each participant's case report post hoc and made a diagnosis according to the study criteria. Of the 614 children, 41.2% (95% CI: 37.3-45.2) had asthma syndrome, 27.2% (95% CI: 23.7-30.9) had bacterial pneumonia, 26.5% (95% CI: 23.1-30.2) had viral pneumonia, while 5.1% (95% CI: 3.5-7.1) had other diagnoses including tuberculosis. Only 9.5% of the children with asthma syndrome had been previously diagnosed as asthma. Of the 253 children with asthma syndrome, 95.3% (95% CI: 91.9-97.5) had a prescription for antibiotics, 87.7% (95% CI: 83.1-91.5) for bronchodilators and 43.1% (95% CI: 36.9-49.4) for steroids. Although reports indicate that acute respiratory symptoms in children are predominantly due to pneumonia, asthma syndrome contributes a significant proportion. Antibiotics are used irrationally due to misdiagnosis of asthma as pneumonia. There is need for better diagnostic tools for childhood asthma and pneumonia in Uganda.

  13. Freshman year mental health symptoms and level of adaptation as predictors of Internet addiction: a retrospective nested case-control study of male Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bin; Han, Wei; Zeng, Lingxia; Guo, Xiong

    2013-12-15

    A retrospective nested case-control study was designed to explore whether freshman year mental health status and level of adaptation are predictors of Internet addiction. The study cohort was 977 college students at a university in northwest China. In the first college year, the students' mental health status and adaptation level were assessed using the Chinese College Student Mental Health Scale (CCSMHS) and the Chinese College Student Adjustment Scale (CCSAS). In the following 1-3 years, 62 Internet-addicted subjects were identified using Young's 8-item diagnostic questionnaire. Controls were matched for demographic characteristics. Using logistic regression analysis, freshman year mental health status, including factors such as somatization, anxiety, depression and self-contempt, and freshman year adaptive problems were found to be causal factors and predictors of Internet addiction. Freshman with features of depression, learning maladaptation and dissatisfaction could be an important target-intervention population for reducing Internet addiction.

  14. SYMPTOM PRESENTATIONS AND CLASSIFICATION OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: APPLICATION TO THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD (DC:0-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Timothy; Giserman Kiss, Ivy; Carter, Alice S

    2016-09-01

    Over the past 5 years, a great deal of information about the early course of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has emerged from longitudinal prospective studies of infants at high risk for developing ASD based on a previously diagnosed older sibling. The current article describes early ASD symptom presentations and outlines the rationale for defining a new disorder, Early Atypical Autism Spectrum Disorder (EA-ASD) to accompany ASD in the new revision of the ZERO TO THREE Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-5) (in press) alternative diagnostic classification manual. EA-ASD is designed to identify children who are 9 to 36 months of age presenting with a minimum of (a) two social-communication symptoms and (b) one repetitive and restricted behavior symptom as well as (c) evidence of impairment, with the intention of providing these children with appropriately tailored services and improving the likelihood of optimizing their development. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Pesticide use, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase level and self-reported acute intoxication symptoms among vegetable farmers in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; Jors, E.; Brandt, L.

    2014-01-01

    intoxication and Erythrocyte Acetylcholinesterase(AChE) levels among vegetable farmers with a control group of blood donors in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 90 pesticide-exposed farmers and a control group of 90 blood donors. Participants were randomly selected and data were...... gathered through questionnaires, observation and blood test. Chi-square test, logistic regression and Student's t-test were used for data analysis to describe pesticide use and compare symptoms and AChE levels between the two groups. This study was approved by Nepal Health Research Council. Results......E level among farmers. Education and information of farmers should be undertaken to remediate these problems....

  16. Emergency Mental Health Services for Children After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A; Kim, Yonsu; Lubens, Pauline; Singh, Amrita; Snowden, Lonnie; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Much literature documents elevated psychiatric symptoms among adults after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). We, however, know of no research in children that examines emergency mental health services following 9/11. We test whether children's emergency services for crisis mental health care rose above expected values in September 2001. We applied time-series methods to California Medicaid claims (1999-2003; N = 127,200 visits). Findings in California indicate an 8.7% increase of children's emergency mental health visits statistically attributable to 9/11. Non-Hispanic white more than African American children account for this acute rise in emergency services.

  17. Mastery and coping moderate the negative effect of acute and chronic stressors on mental health-related quality of life in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Katherine; Rueda, Sergio; Rourke, Sean B; Bekele, Tsegaye; Gardner, Sandra; Fenta, Haile; Hart, Trevor A

    2011-06-01

    Acute and chronic life stressors have a detrimental effect on the health of people living with HIV. Psychosocial resources such as mastery, coping, and social support may play a critical role in moderating the negative effects of stressors on health-related quality of life. A total of 758 participants provided baseline enrolment data on demographics (age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, education, employment, income), clinical variables (CD4 counts, viral load, AIDS-defining condition, time since HIV diagnosis), psychosocial resources (mastery, coping, social support), life stressors (National Population Health Survey [NPHS] Stress Questionnaire), and health-related quality of life (SF-36). We performed hierarchical multivariate regression analyses to evaluate the potential moderating effects of psychosocial resources on the relationship between stressors and health-related quality of life. The top three stressors reported by participants were trying to take on too many things at once (51%), not having enough money to buy the things they needed (51%), and having something happen during childhood that scared them so much that they thought about it years later (42%). Life stressors were significantly and inversely associated with both physical and mental health-related quality of life. Mastery and maladaptive coping had significant moderating effects on mental health but not on physical health. These results suggest that developing interventions that improve mastery and reduce maladaptive coping may minimize the negative impact of life stressors on the mental health of people with HIV. They also highlight that it is important for clinicians to be mindful of the impact of life stressors on the health of patients living with HIV.

  18. [The lesion predilection and the phenomenology of the basic forms of the mental pathology in acute viral neuroinfections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksutova, E L

    1993-01-01

    Verified material on 246 cases of acute viral encephalitis and meningoencephalitis was studied prospectively. The clinical and psychopathological analysis shown predilection to cerebral affection in formation of a number of psychopathological syndromes reflecting focal insufficiency and related to etiotopic characteristics of the underlying pathological process.

  19. Acute effects of short term use of e-cigarettes on airways physiology and respiratory symptoms in smokers with and without airways obstructive diseases and in healthy non smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Palamidas

    2017-03-01

    Short term use of e-cigarette has acute effects on airways physiology and respiratory symptoms in COPD smokers, asthmatic smokers, “healthy” smokers and healthy never smokers. E-cigarette use is associated with health effects in healthy never smokers irrespectively of nicotine concentration. More studies are needed to investigate both short and long term effects of e-cig.

  20. Lactic Acidosis Induced by Linezolid Mimics Symptoms of an Acute Intracranial Bleed: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarini, Nichole Suzzanne; Yousuf, Tariq; Wozniczka, Daniel; Rauf, Anis Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is common and most often associated with disturbed acid-base balance. Rarely, it can be a life-threatening medication side effect. Hence, determining the etiology of lactic acidosis early in patients is paramount in choosing the correct therapeutic intervention. Although lactic acidosis as an adverse drug reaction of linezolid is a well-recognized and documented clinical entity, the occurrence of such mimicking an acute intracranial bleed has not been reported to our knowledge. The following case is presented as an example of such an occurrence. A 67-year-old woman presented to the emergency department for lethargy, nausea and syncope. The head CT did not demonstrate any bleeding or mass effect, but lab results were significant for elevated lactic acid. The patient recently underwent left total hip replacement surgery, which was complicated by a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. She received 6 weeks of oral linezolid therapy. And upon learning that key part of her history, the linezolid was discontinued. Her lactic acid rapidly normalized and she was discharged home. Several publications demonstrate that linezolid induces lactic acidosis by disrupting crucial mitochondrial functions. It is essential that clinicians are aware that linezolid can cause lactic acidosis. And, the important reminder is that adverse drug reactions can often mimic common diseases. If it is not recognized early, ominous clinical consequences may occur. In conclusion, linezolid should be suspected and included in the differential diagnosis if lactic acidosis exists with an uncommon clinical picture. PMID:27635182

  1. A Case of Almost Painless Herpes Zoster Presenting with Symptoms of Cystitis, Penile Numbness, and Acute Vestibular Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Al-Sardar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster (shingles is an acute, painful, vesicular, and cutaneous eruption caused by varicella zoster virus, the same virus which causes chicken pox. It is due to the reactivation of the virus which remains dormant in sensory ganglions following chicken pox. It is usually confined to a single dermatome but may involve 2-3 dermatomes. Typically, it is a unilateral lesion which can affect both cranial and peripheral nerves. It is usually a self-limiting disease; however, it may cause significant morbidity especially in the elderly. It is more common in older people and individuals with immunocompromised conditions. Antiviral drugs can shorten the duration and the severity of the illness and need to be started as soon as possible after the appearance of the rash. Gabapentin and tricyclic antidepressant are effective in postherpetic neuralgia. Vaccine can reduce the risk of infection and its associated pain. Typically, it occurs once in a lifetime, but some individuals may have more than one episode.

  2. Cognitive improvement after treatment of depressive symptoms in the acute phase of stroke Melhora cognitiva com tratamento antidepressivo na fase aguda do acidente vascular cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Simis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of antidepressant treatment for depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment at the acute phase of stroke is controversial. We investigated 93 patients, treating with citalopram 36 with severe depressive symptoms (HAM-D: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale >18, whilst 19 patients with mild depressive symptoms, and 38 non-depressed patients, remained untreated. At baseline (two weeks after stroke, patients with severe depressive symptoms had lower scores in total Dementia Rating Scale (DRS and in the attention and memory DRS subscales, than the non-depressed patients (pOs resultados do tratamento com antidepressivo para os sintomas depressivos e comprometimento cognitivo da fase aguda do acidente vascular cerebral não estão estabelecidos. Investigamos 93 pacientes, 36 com sintomas depressivos graves (HAM-D: Escala de Depressão de Hamilton >18 foram tratados com citalopram, enquanto 19 pacientes com sintomas depressivos leves e 38 não-deprimidos não foram tratados. Ao início do tratamento (duas semanas depois do icto, pacientes com sintomas depressivos graves tinham escores mais baixos na Escala de Avaliação de Demência (DRS total e nas subescalas de atenção e de memória da DRS do que os pacientes não-deprimidos (p<0,001. Ao fim de três meses de acompanhamento essas diferenças tinham desaparecido, mas pacientes que inicialmente tinham sintomas depressivos leves passaram a ter escores mais altos no HAM-D do que os não-deprimidos (p=0,015, e escores mais baixos nas subescalas de atenção e memória da DRS (p<0,01 do que os pacientes tratados com citalopram. O tratamento associou-se a melhora de humor, memória e atenção, e demonstra que é necessário um estudo controlado com placebo para o tratamento de sintomas depressivos leves.

  3. Yoga for improving health-related quality of life, mental health and cancer-related symptoms in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Klose, Petra; Lange, Silke; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav J

    2017-01-03

    Breast cancer is the cancer most frequently diagnosed in women worldwide. Even though survival rates are continually increasing, breast cancer is often associated with long-term psychological distress, chronic pain, fatigue and impaired quality of life. Yoga comprises advice for an ethical lifestyle, spiritual practice, physical activity, breathing exercises and meditation. It is a complementary therapy that is commonly recommended for breast cancer-related impairments and has been shown to improve physical and mental health in people with different cancer types. To assess effects of yoga on health-related quality of life, mental health and cancer-related symptoms among women with a diagnosis of breast cancer who are receiving active treatment or have completed treatment. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Specialised Register, MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1), Indexing of Indian Medical Journals (IndMED), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal and Clinicaltrials.gov on 29 January 2016. We also searched reference lists of identified relevant trials or reviews, as well as conference proceedings of the International Congress on Complementary Medicine Research (ICCMR), the European Congress for Integrative Medicine (ECIM) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). We applied no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials were eligible when they (1) compared yoga interventions versus no therapy or versus any other active therapy in women with a diagnosis of non-metastatic or metastatic breast cancer, and (2) assessed at least one of the primary outcomes on patient-reported instruments, including health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, fatigue or sleep disturbances. Two review authors independently collected data on methods and results. We expressed outcomes as standardised mean differences (SMDs

  4. Aging potentiates the acute and chronic neurological symptoms of pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency in the rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkin, S R; Savage, L M

    2001-03-15

    The present study aimed to assess the role of advanced age in the development and manifestation of thiamine deficiency using an animal model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Interactions between pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) and age were examined relative to working memory impairment and neuropathology in Fischer 344 rats. Young (2-3 months) and aged (22-23 months) F344 rats were assigned to one of two treatment conditions: PTD or pair-fed control (PF). Rats in the former group were further divided into three groups according to duration of PTD treatment. Working memory was assessed with an operant matching-to-position (MTP) task; after testing, animals were sacrificed and both gross and immunocytochemical measures of brain pathology were obtained. Aged rats exhibited acute neurological disturbances during the PTD treatment regime earlier than did young rats, and also developed more extensive neuropathology with a shorter duration of PTD. Aged rats displayed increased brain shrinkage (smaller frontal cortical and callosal thickness) as well as enhanced astrocytic activity in the thalamus and a decrease in ChAT-positive cell numbers in the medial septum; the latter two measures of neuropathology were potentiated by PTD. In both young and aged rats, and to a greater degree in the latter group, PTD reduced thalamic volume. Behaviorally, aged rats displayed impaired choice accuracy on the delayed MTP task. Regardless of age, rats with lesions centered on the internal medullary lamina of the thalamus also displayed impaired choice accuracy. Moreover, increased PTD treatment duration led to increased response times on the delayed MTP task. These results suggest that aging does indeed potentiate the neuropathology associated with experimental thiamine deficiency, supporting an age coupling hypothesis of alcohol-related neurological disorders.

  5. Gender Differences in Symptoms, Health-Related Quality of Life, Sleep Quality, Mental Health, Cognitive Performance, Pain-Cognition, and Positive Health in Spanish Fibromyalgia Individuals: The Al-Ándalus Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Estévez-López, Fernando; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To test the gender differences in tenderness, impact of fibromyalgia, health-related quality of life, fatigue, sleep quality, mental health, cognitive performance, pain-cognition, and positive health in Spanish fibromyalgia patients and in age-matched nonfibromyalgia individuals from the same region. To test the optimal cut-off score of the different tender points for women and men. Methods. A total of 405 (384 women) fibromyalgia versus 247 (195 women) nonfibromyalgia control participants from southern Spain (Andalusia) took part in this cross-sectional study. The outcomes studied were assessed by means of several tests. Results. In the fibromyalgia group, men showed better working memory than women (all, P fibromyalgia-related symptoms. However, it seems that detriment of some symptoms (especially pain) in fibromyalgia men compared with their nonfibromyalgia counterparts is greater than those of fibromyalgia women compared with their nonfibromyalgia peers.

  6. Assessing the connection between organophosphate pesticide poisoning and mental health: A comparison of neuropsychological symptoms from clinical observations, animal models and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann; Beseler, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatry and psychology are beginning to recognize the importance of lead, mercury and heavy metals as causal partners in the development of mental disorders. Further, mental health researchers and clinicians are embracing the idea that the combined effects of genetics and environmental exposures can result in perturbations in brain neurochemistry leading to psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review is to examine the biological foundations for the epidemiological observations previously identified by reviewing the toxicology literature and relating it to epidemiological studies addressing the role of poisoning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in neurobehavioral and neuropsychological disorders. The goal of this review is to raise awareness in the mental health community about the possibility that affective disorders might be the result of contributions from environmental and occupational pesticide poisoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 酸枣仁汤加减治疗脑出血急性期狂躁型意识障碍32例临床观察%Clinical Observation on 32 Cases of Jiajiansuanzaoren Treated With Hemorrhage Mania Brain Combined With Acute Manic Mental Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永晨

    2016-01-01

    Objective Discussion on efficacy of Jiajiansuanzaoren soup for the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage combined with acute manic mental disorders.Methods From January 2013 to December 2015, 32 cases of patients with cerebral hemorrhage manic mental disorders in our hospital were selected as the study object by a method of treatment. Observation group treated with Jiajiansuanzaoren, control group was treated with diazepam, to compare the treatment effect of two groups of patients.Results Improvement of symptoms in observation group was better than that of control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).ConclusionJiajiansuanzaoren soup can signiifcantly improve brain hemorrhage manic symptoms of mental disorders and poor prognosis of patients with good clinical results.%目的:探讨酸枣仁汤加减治疗脑出血急性期狂躁型意识障碍患者的联创疗效。方法选取我院脑病科2013年1月~2015年12月收治的脑出血急性期狂躁型意识障碍患者64例作为本次研究对象,按照所采取的治疗方法不同分为酸枣仁汤加减治疗的观察组与地西泮治疗的对照组,比较两组患者治疗效果。结果观察组症状改善情况优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论酸枣仁汤加减能显著改善脑出血急性期狂躁型意识障碍患者的不良症状及预后结果,临床治疗效果好。

  8. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of extended-release guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine hydrochloride for symptom relief as an adjunctive therapy to antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForce, Craig; Gentile, Deborah A; Skoner, David P

    2008-07-01

    This study assessed the efficacy and safety of guaifenesin 600 mg and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride 60 mg extended-release bilayer tablets in providing relief of acute respiratory symptoms when used as an adjunct to antibiotics in patients with an acute respiratory infection (ARI). Adult patients experiencing symptoms of ARI and meeting the physician's usual diagnostic criteria for oral antibiotic treatment were prescribed an antibiotic and randomized to adjunctive guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine hydrochloride or matching placebo twice daily for 7 days. Patients completed symptom diaries and treatment assessments twice daily and attended office visits on Days 4 and 8. The safety/intent-to-treat (ITT) population analysis included 601 patients (guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine, n = 303; placebo, n = 298). Mean symptom scores were lower with guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine from Day 3 for every symptom assessed, with statistically significant improvements in total symptom score from Day 3 (P = 0.026). The greatest effects of treatment with guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine were observed for nasal congestion and sinus headache. Time to overall relief was shorter with guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine (P = 0.038). Significantly more patients reported "the medication was helping during the day" on Day 2 with guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine (P = 0.002). Patient assessments of symptom relief showed a significant preference for guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine versus placebo (P = 0.021). Treatment with guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine was well tolerated. Insomnia (2.6%), nausea (2.3%), and headache (1.3%) were the most common treatment-related adverse effects. As adjunctive therapy for symptom relief for patients taking antibiotics for ARIs, guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine shortened time to relief and improved bothersome respiratory symptoms better than placebo, with greatest effects seen for nasal congestion and sinus headache.

  9. Symptoms and Causes of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of sugars or bile acids may cause symptoms. Mental Health Problems Psychological, or mental health, problems such ... Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la salud en español Health Statistics Healthy Moments Radio Broadcast ...

  10. Analysis of 73 cases of acute ischemic minor stroke symptoms%急性缺血性小卒中73例治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓祥

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the treatment for Acute ischemic minor stroke .Methods Diagnosis and treatment data of 73 patients in our hospital were retrospectively mild symptoms of acute ischemic stroke ,combined with an analysis of the lit-erature .Results In 73 patients ,both the application of antiplatelet drugs ,neural protection agents ,dehydration drug and tradi-tional Chinese medicine treatment ,13 cases in which the onset time is short and a progressive in patients taking anticoagulant therapy on hemiplegia occurred ,accompanied by senior intelligence impairment or mixed with aphasia ,5 patients in thrombolytic therapy within the time window of the thrombolytic therapy .Conclusion For acute ischemic minor stroke treatment ,patients with the overall assessment ,adopt different treatments according to the situation of each patient ,when necessary ,can consider the anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy ,the treatment guidelines for reference .%目的:探讨急性缺血性小卒中的治疗方案。方法回顾总结我院73例急性缺血性小卒中的诊治资料,结合文献资料进行分析。结果73例患者中,均应用抗血小板聚集药物、神经保护制剂、脱水药物及中成药等治疗,其中对发病时间短且呈进展性的患者采取抗凝治疗的有13例,对肢体轻偏瘫伴有高级智能减退或混合性失语的患者,在溶栓时间窗内的患者采取溶栓的有5例。结论对于急性缺血性小卒中的治疗,应对患者整体评估后,根据每位患者情况采取不同的治疗方案,必要时可以考虑抗凝或溶栓治疗,灵活掌握治疗指南的参考意见。

  11. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectants in a public administration: Impact on health and work performance related to acute respiratory symptoms and diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hübner Nils-Olaf

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economical impact of absenteeism and reduced productivity due to acute infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal disease is normally not in the focus of surveillance systems and may therefore be underestimated. However, large community studies in Europe and USA have shown that communicable diseases have a great impact on morbidity and lead to millions of lost days at work, school and university each year. Hand disinfection is acknowledged as key element for infection control, but its effect in open, work place settings is unclear. Methods Our study involved a prospective, controlled, intervention-control group design to assess the epidemiological and economical impact of alcohol-based hand disinfectants use at work place. Volunteers in public administrations in the municipality of the city of Greifswald were randomized in two groups. Participants in the intervention group were provided with alcoholic hand disinfection, the control group was unchanged. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and days of work were recorded based on a monthly questionnaire over one year. On the whole, 1230 person months were evaluated. Results Hand disinfection reduced the number of episodes of illness for the majority of the registered symptoms. This effect became statistically significant for common cold (OR = 0.35 [0.17 - 0.71], p = 0.003, fever (OR = 0.38 [0.14-0.99], p = 0.035 and coughing (OR = 0.45 [0.22 - 0.91], p = 0.02. Participants in the intervention group reported less days ill for most symptoms assessed, e.g. colds (2.07 vs. 2.78%, p = 0.008, fever (0.25 vs. 0.31%, p = 0.037 and cough (1.85 vs. 2.00%, p = 0.024. For diarrhoea, the odds ratio for being absent became statistically significant too (0.11 (CI 0.01 - 0.93. Conclusion Hand disinfection can easily be introduced and maintained outside clinical settings as part of the daily hand hygiene. Therefore it appears as an interesting, cost-efficient method within the scope

  12. Place orientation and visual construction subdomains of the Mini Mental State Examination test as predictors of rehabilitation outcome of post-acute hip-fractured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Avital; Kornyukov, Natalia; Brill, Shai

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed at assessing the relationship between various Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) subdomains and rehabilitation achievements in post-acute hip-fractured patients. Six hundred and five hip-fractured patients admitted during 2010-2013 to a post-acute geriatric rehabilitation center were included in the study. Main outcome measures were the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument, the motor FIM (mFIM), the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS) on the mFIM and length of stay (LOS). A logistic regression analysis tested the predictive value of MMSE subdomains for achieving a satisfactory functional gain (mFIM MRFS >30%) on operated patients admitted from community. Of all the six MMSE subdomains, place orientation and visual construction demonstrated significant predictive values for rehabilitation outcome. Patients who did not err on place orientation and visual construction MMSE domains had better probabilities [(OR 1.28, 95%CI, 1.05-1.58; p = 0.017); (OR 2.15, 95%CI, 1.28-3.59; p = 0.004), respectively] of achieving better rehabilitation achievements. Similar results were obtained for cognitively impaired patient groups [(OR 1.40 95%CI, 1.11-1.77; p = 0.005); (OR 2.47, 95%CI, 1.15-5.30; p = 0.021), respectively]. For the cognitively intact patient group, the variables with significant predictive value were time orientation and visual construction MMSE subdomains [(OR 2.26, 95%CI, 1.18-4.33; p = 0.014); (OR 2.87, 95%CI, 1.16-7.09; p = 0.022), respectively]. Post-acute hip-fractured patients scoring normally on place orientation and visual construction MMSE subdomains have a better chance of achieving favorable rehabilitation outcome. Implications for Rehabilitation Post-acute hip-fractured patients have a better chance to achieve a favorable rehabilitation outcome when scoring normally on place orientation and visual construction MMSE subdomains. Patients having difficulties in orientation and visual

  13. Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on symptoms of acute mountain sickness and basic physiological responses in a group of male adolescents during ascent to Mount Everest Base Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennis, Philip J; Mitchell, Kay; Gilbert-Kawai, Edward; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Wade, Angie; Feelisch, Martin; Grocott, Michael P; Martin, Daniel S

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, on acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms and physiological responses, in a group of young males trekking to Mount Everest Base Camp (EBC). Forty healthy male students (mean age (SD): 16 (1) yrs) trekked to EBC over 11 days. Following an overnight fast, each morning participants completed the Lake Louise AMS questionnaire and underwent a series of physiological tests: resting blood pressure as well as resting and exercising heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation. The exercise test consisted of a standardised 2-min stepping protocol and measurements were taken in the last 10 s. Participants in the intervention arm of the study consumed 140 ml of concentrated beetroot juice daily, containing approximately 10 mmol of nitrate, while those in the control arm consumed 140 ml of concentrated blackcurrant cordial with negligible nitrate content. Drinks were taken for the first seven days at high altitude (days 2-8), in two equal doses; one with breakfast, and one with the evening meal. Mixed modelling revealed no significant between-groups difference in the incidence of AMS (Odds Ratio - nitrate vs.

  14. Cannabis use and mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental he

  15. 不同精神残疾程度的精神分裂症患者精神症状比较分析%Comparison of Psychiatric Symptoms of Schizophrenia Patients at Different Levels of Mental Disability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郗玲燕; 黄秀芹; 朱凤英; 高兴; 贾海玲; 崔利军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia patients at different levels of mental disability and to investigate the relationship between the level of mental disability and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Methods We enrolled 119 schizophrenia outpatients from Hengshui Mental Hospital in January to April 2012. The scale of WHO-DASⅡ was administered to assess the level of mental disability and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale ( PANSS ) was used to assess the severity of psychiatric symptoms. Psychiatric symptoms scores were compared among schizophrenia patents with different levels of mental disability. Results The total scores of PANSS were ( 82. 28 ± 8. 87 ), (78. 54 ±9. 24)and(76. 32 ±9. 08)for severe,moderate,and mild mental disability,with the differences significant(F=7. 148,P=0. 000). Significant difference existed among three levels in the total scores of positive syndrome scale and negative syndrome scale(P﹤0. 05). Patients at different levels of mental disability were significantly different in score of delusions, grandiosity,suspiciousness/persecution,hostility in positive syndrome scale,difficulty in abstract thinking in negative syndrome scale,and anxiety, guilt feelings and poor impulse control in general psychopathology scale ( P ﹤0. 05 ) . Conclusion Schizophrenia patients at different levels of mental disability have different scores in psychiatric symptoms. Positive and negative symptoms of patients with schizophrenia are associated with the mental disability level, especially delusions, grandiosity, suspiciousness/persecution,hostility,difficulty in abstract thinking,anxiety,guilt feelings and poor impulse control.%目的:比较不同精神残疾程度的精神分裂症患者的精神症状,探讨精神分裂症患者精神残疾水平与精神症状的关系。方法选取2012年1—4月在衡水市精神病医院门诊就诊的精神分裂症患者119例为研究对象。采用世界卫

  16. 地震灾害后不同受灾人群身心应激症状影响度分析%The Physical and Mental Stress Symptoms Effect of Population with Different Affect After the Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵来军; 程晶晶; 陈誉承

    2011-01-01

    found that the biggest impact is on the earthquake victims of female, the middle-and-old age, and people in worst-hit region. Facing with the same disaster, the same type of people exhibits different physical symptoms, cognitive symptoms, emotional symptoms, and behavioral symptoms. The catastrophe progression method for the physical and psychological stress symptoms model is adopted to analyze the physical and mental stress symptoms of earthquake victims, its results are in consistent with previous related research conclusion. It is indicated that the model is reliable and effective for such problems, thus the model provides a new method for the post-disaster relief work.

  17. Acute electroconvulsive therapy followed by maintenance electroconvulsive therapy decreases hospital re-admission rates of older patients with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Assaf; Mazeh, Doron; Berger, Uri; Baruch, Yehuda; Barak, Yoram

    2015-06-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for patients with severe mental illness (SMI). Maintenance ECT (M-ECT) is required for many elderly patients experiencing severe recurrent forms of mood disorders, whereas M-ECT for schizophrenia patients is a poorly studied treatment. We report on the outcomes in aged patients with SMI: schizophrenia and severe affective disorders treated by M-ECT of varying duration to prevent relapse after a successful course of acute ECT. The study measured the effectiveness of M-ECT in preventing hospital readmissions and reducing admission days. A retrospective chart review of 42 consecutive patients comparing the number and length of psychiatric admissions before and after the start of M-ECT was used. We analyzed diagnoses, previous ECT treatments, number of ECT treatments, and number and length of psychiatric admissions before and after M-ECT. Mean age in our sample was 71.5 (6.9) years. Twenty-two (52%) patients experienced severe affective disorders and 20 (48%) experienced schizophrenia. Patients were administered 92.8 (85.9) M-ECT treatments. Average duration of the M-ECT course was 34 (29.8) months. There were on average 1.88 admissions before M-ECT and only 0.38 admissions in the M-ECT period (P < 0.001). Duration of mean hospitalization stay decreased from 215.9 to 12.4 days during the M-ECT (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that acute ECT followed by M-ECT is highly effective in selected elderly patients with SMIs.

  18. Lessons learned from a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study with a iota-carrageenan nasal spray as medical device in children with acute symptoms of common cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazekas Tamas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common cold is caused by a variety of respiratory viruses. The prevalence in children is high, and it potentially contributes to significant morbidity. Iota-carragenan, a polymer derived from red seaweed, has reduced viral load in nasal secretions and alleviated symptoms in adults with common cold. Methods We have assessed the antiviral and therapeutic activity of a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in children with acute symptoms of common cold. A cohort of 153 children between 1–18 years (mean age 5 years, displaying acute symptoms of common cold were randomly assigned to treatment with a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan (0.12% as verum or 0.9% sodium chloride solution as placebo for seven days. Symptoms of common cold were recorded and the viral load of respiratory viruses in nasal secretions was determined at two consecutive visits. Results The results of the present study showed no significant difference between the iota carrageenan and the placebo group on the mean of TSS between study days 2–7. Secondary endpoints, such as reduced time to clearance of disease (7.6 vs 9.4 days; p = 0.038, reduction of viral load (p = 0.026, and lower incidence of secondary infections with other respiratory viruses (p = 0.046 indicated beneficial effects of iota-carrageenan in this population. The treatment was safe and well tolerated, with less side effects observed in the verum group compared to placebo. Conclusion In this study iota-carrageenan did not alleviate symptoms in children with acute symptoms of common cold, but significantly reduced viral load in nasal secretions that may have important implications for future studies. Trial registration ISRCTN52519535, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN52519535/

  19. Extended-Release Guaifenesin/Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride for Symptom Relief in Support of a Wait-and-See Approach for the Treatment of Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Septimus, MD, FIDSA, FACP, FSHEA

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The study found that a wait and see approach was associated with decreased antibiotic use. In addition, the use of a guaifenesin pseudoephedrine combination product provided an effective symptom control compared to a placebo and a well-tolerated first-line strategy for the management of URTIs. This study was not designed to assess the effects of guaifenesin or pseudoephedrine individually. Other limitations include the need for better clinical methods to assess the effectiveness of treatments for acute symptoms of patients with URTIs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01202279.

  20. Prospective study on the mismatch concept in acute stroke patients within the first 24 h after symptom onset - 1000Plus study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endres Matthias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mismatch between diffusion weighted imaging (DWI lesion and perfusion imaging (PI deficit volumes has been used as a surrogate of ischemic penumbra. This pathophysiology-orientated patient selection criterion for acute stroke treatment may have the potential to replace a fixed time window. Two recent trials - DEFUSE and EPITHET - investigated the mismatch concept in a multicenter prospective approach. Both studies randomized highly selected patients (n = 74/n = 100 and therefore confirmation in a large consecutive cohort is desirable. We here present a single-center approach with a 3T MR tomograph next door to the stroke unit, serving as a bridge from the ER to the stroke unit to screen all TIA and stroke patients. Our primary hypothesis is that the prognostic value of the mismatch concept is depending on the vessel status. Primary endpoint of the study is infarct growth determined by imaging, secondary endpoints are neurological deficit on day 5-7 and functional outcome after 3 months. Methods and design 1000Plus is a prospective, single centre observational study with 1200 patients to be recruited. All patients admitted to the ER with the clinical diagnosis of an acute cerebrovascular event within 24 hours after symptom onset are screened. Examinations are performed on day 1, 2 and 5-7 with neurological examination including National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scoring and stroke MRI including T2*, DWI, TOF-MRA, FLAIR and PI. PI is conducted as dynamic susceptibility-enhanced contrast imaging with a fixed dosage of 5 ml 1 M Gadobutrol. For post-processing of PI, mean transit time (MTT parametric images are determined by deconvolution of the arterial input function (AIF which is automatically identified. Lesion volumes and mismatch are measured and calculated by using the perfusion mismatch analyzer (PMA software from ASIST-Japan. Primary endpoint is the change of infarct size between baseline examination and

  1. Diversity and Evolutionary Histories of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E Associated with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khannaq, Maryam Nabiel; Ng, Kim Tien; Oong, Xiang Yong; Pang, Yong Kek; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-05-04

    The human alphacoronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E are commonly associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Information on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical region of southeast Asia however is limited. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic, temporal distribution, population history, and clinical manifestations among patients infected with HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 2,060 consenting adults presented with acute URTI symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2012 and 2013. The presence of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E was detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The spike glycoprotein, nucleocapsid, and 1a genes were sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction and Bayesian coalescent inference. A total of 68/2,060 (3.3%) subjects were positive for human alphacoronavirus; HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E were detected in 45 (2.2%) and 23 (1.1%) patients, respectively. A peak in the number of HCoV-NL63 infections was recorded between June and October 2012. Phylogenetic inference revealed that 62.8% of HCoV-NL63 infections belonged to genotype B, 37.2% was genotype C, while all HCoV-229E sequences were clustered within group 4. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the origin of HCoV-NL63 was dated to 1921, before it diverged into genotype A (1975), genotype B (1996), and genotype C (2003). The root of the HCoV-229E tree was dated to 1955, before it diverged into groups 1-4 between the 1970s and 1990s. The study described the seasonality, molecular diversity, and evolutionary dynamics of human alphacoronavirus infections in a tropical region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. 压力管理训练对新上岗护士心理症状的影响%Influence of Stress Management Training on Mental Symptoms of New Nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪小香; 陈秀云; 林玉霜; 郑爱君

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the influence of stress management training on mental symptoms of new nurses. Methods A test was conducted among 112 new nurses by Symptom Checklist-90 and nurses with an average positive symptom score more than 1.5 in the test, were randomly divided into observation group (n = 19) and control group (n=19). Stress management training was carried out in observation group and three months after training, SCL-90 was applied again. RGSultS The total score of SCL-90, average positive symptom score and scores oi all factors except hostility were lower and numbers of positive symptoms decreased as well after training in observation group (P<0.01). The scores of obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation were significant lower after training in control group (P<0.05). The difference in total score, average positive symptom score, the number of positive symptoms and the scores of eight factors (except hostility and phobic anxiety) indicated statistic significance between two groups (P< 0.05). Conclusion Stress management training is effective for the improvement of mental symptoms of new nurses and eventually benefits their improvement of psychological health.%目的 探讨压力管理训练对新上岗护士心理症状的影响.方法 采用症状自评量表,对112名新上岗护士进行测评,将阳性项目均分>1.5分的护士,随机分为观察组和对照组各19名.对观察组实施压力管理训练,干预3个月后再次采用症状自评量表测评,并进行比较分析.结果 干预后,观察组的症状自评量表总分、阳性项目均分、阳性项目数,除敌对因子外其余9个因子得分比干预前明显改善(P<0.01).对照组干预后的强迫症状、人际关系及偏执因子得分也比干预前明显改善(P<0.05);干预后两组间的总分、阳性项目均分、阳性项目数及8个因子(除外敌对、恐怖)得分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),观

  3. 以精神障碍就诊的甲亢危象1例%In 1 Patients with Mental Disorder Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism Crisis Patients Reported

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚云飞

    2015-01-01

    精神科临床面临很多风险如用药的风险,管理风险,合并躯体疾病的风险,和少见的躯体疾病所致精神障碍误诊的风险。本病例通过1例夜急诊个案,提醒我们夜急诊相关情况不明时进行处理的医疗风险,警惕内分泌疾病所致的精神障碍,在做精神科检查时要注意体格方面的检查,注意医疗安全,规避医疗风险。%The psychiatric clinical faces many risks, such as drug risk, management risk, combined body disease risk, and rare body disease, mental disorders caused by the risk of misdiagnosis. Through one night emergency case in this case reminds us that night emergency related to the unknown when the processing of medical risks, alert to mental disorders caused by endocrine disease, should pay at ention to when doing psychiatric examination, physical examination, pay at ention to the medical safety, avoid medical risk.

  4. Correlative analysis of the personality and psycho symptoms in undergraduates with mental disorder%心理障碍大学生人格特征与心理症状的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄万琪; 吴汉荣; 周敦金

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personality and psycho symptoms of patiens with mental disorder are closely related. There were reports about this type of researches. However, there is very few report applying statistical methods of partial correlation analysis and typical correlation analysis into the correlative analysis between these two factors.OBJECTIVE: To provide a scientific gist for the intervention in undergraduate with mental disorder through the comprehension of the relationship between personality and psycho symptoms of undergraduates with mental disorder.DESIGN: A stratified randomised cluister-sampling investigation.SETTING: Children Health Institute of Tongji Medical College of HuazhongUniversity of Science and Technology.PARTICIPANTS: A stratified randomised cluster-sampling method was used to investigate part of the undergraduates of Wuhan Industry College with Symptoms Checklist-90(SCL-90) . Totally 138 undergraduates scored 2.3 point in more than three items were selected as subjects with mental disorder (obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, phobia, and neurasthenia).INTERVENTIONS: SCL-90 and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)tests were conducted in the undergraduates with mental disorder. The questionnaires were completed by the testees independently and taken back on the spot.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: EPQ scores of extraversion and introversion, nervousness, psychosis and conceal, SCL-90 total average score, and the partial and typical correlation analysis of the scores in 9 items of somatization disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, sensitive haman interrelationship, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia, crankiness and lunacy.RESULTS: The total average score of SCL-90 and score of each factor were positively correlated with the score of nervousness( r =0. 225-0. 417, P < 0.05 ) . Scores of hostility, crankiness and lunacy were positively correlated with score of nervousness( r = 0. 213 - 0. 223, P < 0.05). The total average score of SCL-90 and the

  5. Síntomas, percepción y demanda de atención en salud mental en niños y adolescentes de la Ciudad de México Mental symptoms perceptions of healthcare needs, and health care seeking behaviors, among children and adolescents in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Javier Caraveo-Anduaga

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de síntomas emocionales y conductuales en niños y adolescentes. Identificar las manifestaciones que son percibidas por los padres como necesidades potenciales de atención para sus hijos, y estimar la búsqueda de servicios de salud mental. Material y métodos. Los datos proceden de una encuesta efectuada de julio a noviembre de 1995 en hogares y fue representativa de las personas entre 18 y 65 años de edad del Distrito Federal, México. Se investigó la presencia de 27 síntomas en todos y cada uno de los hijos de entre 4 a 16 años de edad que vivían con el adulto entrevistado, así como de la percepción y búsqueda de ayuda para los menores sintomáticos. En el análisis se utilizó la regresión logística. Resultados. Se obtuvo información acerca de 1 685 menores. La mitad de la población resultó sintomática. La necesidad de atención fue solamente considerada para 25%, y la búsqueda de atención para 13%. Los síntomas de internalización fueron percibidos más frecuentemente y llevados a la consulta por los padres. Conclusiones. Los resultados sugieren un retraso en la atención. Los datos del estudio serán de utilidad para los clínicos y para la planeación de las políticas y programas de salud mental en los servicios de atención primaria.Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of behavioral and emotional symptoms in children and adolescents; to identify parents' perception of their children's healthcare needs; and to estimate the frequency of seeking mental healthcare services. Material and Methods. A household survey was carried out between July and November 1995 in Mexico City. The survey was representative of persons aged 18 to 65 years. Study subjects were 1685 children 4 to 16 years of age and living in the same household as their parents. Informant parents provided data on their children regarding the presence of 27 symptoms, their perceptions of healthcare needs of symptomatic

  6. Follow-up study on mental symptoms of SARS patients%严重急性呼吸道综合征患者心理症状追踪研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇; 张克让; 杨红; 刘中国; 崔晓红; 任燕; 李忻蓉

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate mental symptoms of SARS patients and its related factors for three period-admission, discharge and three months after SARS crisis and to carry out mental intervention and effect evaluation.Methods The mental problems of SARS patients in three periods of admission, discharger and three months after discharger were continuously investigated.114 SARS patients came from seven designated hospitals in Taiyuan of Shanxi. The participants were assessed by self- compiled stressor Questionnaire, PSSS, SCSQ, SES, SCL-90 and EPQ.Results 1.Change tendency of factor score: The SCL-90 total and factors scores including obsessive-compulsion, phobic anxiety went up during discharge compared with admission. After that,these factors scores went down. The factors scores of somatization and depression descended continuously for three period. 2.Change tendency of the incidence:The incidence on factors of obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, phobic anxiety ascended during discharge compared with admission. Then,these factors scores descended. The other factors went down continually for three periods.3. The self-esteem was influencing factor on mental symptoms of SARS patients for three periods.Conscientious condition severity was influencing factor in admission and discharge.Negative coping was influencing factor in discharge and three months after SARS crisis. Education was influencing factor in three months after SARS crisis.4.After intervention ,the most mental symptoms of 35 SARS patients had mental problems were improved. Dissimilarly, a part of mental symptoms got severity.Conclusions 1.SARS patients exist severe mood disorders and have different influencing factors for three periods. They should be evaluated continuously and be intervened in time.2.The effect of mental intervention by telephone is not uncertainty.%目的追踪研究严重急性呼吸道综合征(SARS)患者入院、出院及出院后3个月三个阶段心理状况及影响因

  7. Rational management of acute keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Slonimskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute keratoconus is a common and severe complication of advanced progressive keratoconus that occurs in more than 30 % of cases. Acute corneal edema in advanced progressive keratectasia is reffered to as acute corneal hydrops (hydrops corneae. It has been also reported in other ectatic disorders such as pellucid marginal degeneration. The most common misdiagnosis in hydrops is HSV disciform keratitis or acute bacterial keratitis. 126 corneal hydrops patients (79 men, 47 women aged 16‑63 (129 eyes were observed and treated over the last five years. 124 patients were diagnosed with acute keratoconus and 2 patients were diagnosed with pellucid marginal degeneration. Acute kereatoconus patientsrepresented a special and compromised cohort with systemic allergic diseases (neurodermatitis and various atopic disorders, n = 48, Down’s syndrome (n = 16 or mental disorders (n = 19. In many of these patients who vigorously rubbed their eyes, keratectasia progressed more rapidly. In 7 cases, acute keratoconus developed during pregnancy. 3 cases of recurrent keratoconus were reported — in a woman with Down’s syndrome (recurrence in 3 years, in a man with severe neurodermatitis (recurrence in 5 years, and in a man with anamnestic acute keratoconus (recurrence in 20 years. 3 patients experienced bilateral acute keratoconus. Acute keratoconus can be subdivided by the area of corneal edema into three categories, i.e., partial (6 mm or less, 52 eyes, subtotal (7‑10 mm, 56 eyes, and total (more than 10 mm, 21 eyes. Corneal edema ultimately disappeared, however, acute keratoconus resulted in a deep local scarring through the corneal layers. Slit lamp exam revealed Descemet’s membrane ruptures (so-called fish mouth. 73 eyes were referred to refractive penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. Corneal perforation was unusual even in severe corneal thinning (4 cases. In one case, descemetocele with a high risk of perforation was observed. 4 eyes

  8. Effectiveness of a Mobile Outreach and Crisis Services unit in reducing psychiatric symptoms in a population of homeless persons with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D W; Warnock, J K

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a time-lag design to evaluate the effectiveness of a Mobile Outreach and Crisis Services unit in remitting psychiatric symptomatology, improving global functioning, and decreasing homelessness in a population of homeless, severely mentally ill residing in a mid-sized urban center. Using a time-lag study design, two groups of subjects--25 individuals before receiving services (control group) and 25 individuals after receiving services (experimental group)--were contrasted across outcome measures. The results indicate that a MOCS unit utilizing a Program for Assertive Community Treatment mode was effective in significantly decreasing psychiatric symptomatology, reducing homelessness, and increasing global functioning. If carefully implemented and interpreted, a time-lag design may be a means of providing valuable feedback and information in a timely manner.

  9. Development and implementation of a participative intervention to improve the psychosocial work environment and mental health in an acute care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, R; Brisson, C; Vinet, A; Vézina, M; Lower, A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the development and implementation phases of a participative intervention aimed at reducing four theory grounded and empirically supported adverse psychosocial work factors (high psychological demands, low decision latitude, low social support, and low reward), and their mental health effects. Methods The intervention was realised among 500 care providers in an acute care hospital. A prior risk evaluation was performed, using a quantitative approach, to determine the prevalence of adverse psychosocial work factors and of psychological distress in the hospital compared to an appropriate reference population. In addition, a qualitative approach included observation in the care units, interviews with key informants, and collaborative work with an intervention team (IT) including all stakeholders. Results The prior risk evaluation showed a high prevalence of adverse psychosocial factors and psychological distress among care providers compared to a representative sample of workers from the general population. Psychosocial variables at work associated with psychological distress in the prior risk evaluation were high psychological demands (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.27), low social support from supervisors and co‐workers (PR = 1.35), low reward (PR = 2.92), and effort‐reward imbalance (PR = 2.65). These results showed the empirical relevance of an intervention on the four selected adverse psychosocial factors among care providers. Qualitative methods permitted the identification of 56 adverse conditions and of their solutions. Targets of intervention were related to team work and team spirit, staffing processes, work organisation, training, communication, and ergonomy. Conclusion This study adds to the scarce literature describing the development and implementation of preventive intervention aimed at reducing psychosocial factors at work and their health effects. Even if adverse conditions in the psychosocial environment and

  10. 120例急性期布鲁杆菌病肝脾肿大患者的治疗观察%The treatment observation of 120 acute brucellosis patients with hepatosplenomegaly symptom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连海; 张志刚; 李铁锋

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨具有肝脾肿大体征的急性期布鲁杆菌病患者的治疗方法.方法 对2009~2010年就诊的急性期布鲁杆菌病患者进行肝脾B超检查,对肝脾肿大体征患者采用中西医结合的办法进行治疗.结果 上述急性期布鲁杆菌病患者中有120例具有肝脾肿大体征,经中西医结合治疗后疗效显著.结论 采用中西医结合治疗的方法,治疗具有肝脾肿大体征的急性期布鲁杆菌病患者取得了满意疗效,可以临床应用.%Objective The objective of this work is to develop a method to cure acute brucellosis with hepatosplenomegaly symptom. Methods To detect acute brucellosis patients by B - ultrasomotonography from 2009 to 2010,and cure brucellosis patients with hepatosplenomegaly symptom by combination of chinese traditional and western medicine. Results 120 brucellosis patients with hepatosplenomegaly symptom have evident effect by combination of chinese traditional and western medicine . Conclusions The results show that the method is evident effect for acute brucellosis with hepatosplenomegaly symptom by combination of Chinese traditional and western medicine.

  11. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Bronchitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Bronchitis? Acute Bronchitis Acute bronchitis caused by an infection usually develops ... shortness of breath, especially with physical activity. Chronic Bronchitis The signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis include ...

  12. Acute psychological stress as a precipitant of acute coronary syndromes in patients with undiagnosed ischemic heart disease: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Melanie L

    2009-01-01

    Acute psychological stress causes a number of physiologic responses that can trigger acute coronary syndromes in individuals with silent coronary artery disease. The mechanisms behind this phenomena have been the subject of much speculation. The following is a case report and brief review of the literature. A PubMed search was undertaken using the key words stress and myocardial infarction, stress and ischemia, mental stress and coronary artery disease, psychological stress and acute coronary syndrome, and mental stress and plaque destabilization. Articles were restricted to the English language and those dating through December 2007. Acute coronary syndrome is thought to be the end result of a complex mechanism involving platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. Several studies have shown that acute mental stress leads to enhanced platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. The mechanism behind this involves both the autonomic nervous system and the neuroendocrine response. Acute psychological stress may lead to acute coronary syndromes in patients with previously silent disease. Physicians should inquire about cardiac symptoms in patients with cardiac risk factors who are experiencing psychological distress. Further research will hopefully lead to an improved understanding of the mechanism behind this process to improve therapeutic interventions.

  13. Recognizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bowel habits. Learn More About Pain in IBS Symptoms Won’t Stop Everyone suffers from bowel changes ... They can be constant or keep coming back. Symptoms Change Some or all of IBS symptoms can ...

  14. [Perioperative disorders of mental functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonković, Dinko; Adam, Visnja Nesek; Kovacević, Marko; Bogović, Tajana Zah; Drvar, Zeljko; Baronica, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Mental disorders are characterized by disturbances of thought, perception, affect and behavior, which occur as a result of brain damage. Recognizing and treating these conditions is necessary not only for psychiatrists but for all physicians. Disorder of mental function is one of the most common associated conditions in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, disturbances of mental function often remain unrecognized. In ICU patients, different types of mental function disorders may develop. They range from sleep disorders, severe depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to cognitive disorders including delirium. The causes of mental dysfunction in ICU patients can be divided into environmental and medical. Cognitive disorders are related to mental processes such as learning ability, memory, perception and problem solving. Cognitive disorders are usually not prominent in the early postoperative period and in many cases are discovered after hospital discharge because of difficulties in performing everyday activities at home or at work. The etiology of postoperative cognitive impairment is unclear. Older age, previous presence of cognitive dysfunction, severity of disease, and polypharmacy with more than four drugs are some of the risk factors identified. Delirium is a multifactorial disorder. It is an acute confusional state characterized by alteration of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention. It is considered as the most common form of mental distress in ICU patients. Nearly 30% of all hospitalized patients pass through deliriant phase during their hospital stay. Delirium can last for several days to several weeks. Almost always it ends with complete withdrawal of psychopathological symptoms. Sometimes it can evolve into a chronic brain syndrome (dementia). The causes are often multifactorial and require a number of measures to ease the symptoms. Delirious patient is at risk of complications of immobility and

  15. Diagnostic Analysis of Rare Mental and Neurological Symptoms Caused by Pathoglycemia%血糖异常出现神经精神系少见症状的诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游红; 卢伟; 张金囡; 雷强

    2013-01-01

    目的 提高以少见精神、神经症状为主要表现的血糖异常的诊治水平.方法 对我院收治的以少见精神、神经症状为主要表现的血糖异常9例的临床资料进行回顾性分析,并结合文献探讨发病机制、治疗及预后.结果 本组3例为低血糖所致精神、神经症状,表现为精神行为异常2例,局限性肢体抽搐1例;6例为高血糖所致精神、神经症状,表现为局限性肢体抽搐及一侧肢体不自主运动各2例,步态不稳伴排尿障碍及双小腿疼痛伴肌肉萎缩各1例.本组确诊为2型糖尿病7例(伴偏侧舞蹈症和抽搐各2例、伴脊髓损害和骨骼肌病变各1例)、原发性肝癌和胰岛素瘤各1例.经严格控制血糖及对症支持治疗后,7例预后良好,2例因原发疾病为肿瘤预后较差.结论 血糖异常所致少见精神、神经症状易误诊为神经科疾病,临床上对于血糖异常患者需仔细查明病因,以排除其他潜在疾病.%Objective To improve diagnosis and treatment of glucose abnormalities expressed as rare mental and neurological symptoms. Methods Clinical data of 9 patients with neurological and psychological symptoms as main manifestations of abnormal glucose level in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed, and the pathogenesis, treatment and prognosis were explored with related literatures. Results Among the 9 patients, neurological and psychiatric symptoms in 3 patients caused by hypoglycemia, and 2 patients suffered mental behavior disorder, 1 patient had localized limbs tics; neurological and psychiatric symptoms in 6 patients were caused by high blood glucose, 2 patients with partial limbs tics, 2 patients with one side limb involuntary movement, one with instability of gait and urination disorders, and one with pains in both legs and muscle atrophy. The diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was confirmed in 7 patients (2 patients with hemichorea, 2 with tics, 1 with spinal cord lesion, 1 with skeletal muscle

  16. National Guard Families After Combat: Mental Health, Use of Mental Health Services, and Perceived Treatment Barriers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorman, Lisa A; Blow, Adrian J; Ames, Barbara D; Reed, Philip L

    2011-01-01

    .... The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess mental health symptoms, utilization of mental health services, and perceived barriers to service use among National Guard members and their significant others...

  17. Impact of cognitive emotion regulation on mental symptom level of medical students%医学生认知情绪调节对心理症状水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋文; 傅文青

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of cognitive emotion regulation on mental symptom level of medical students. Methods Medical students of Soochow university were asked to complete Symptom Checklist 90( SCL-90 )and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionaire- Chinese Version( CERQ-C). Results ①The medical students who scored greater than 160 on SCL-90 adopted more self-blame,rumination,and catastrophizing,while less putting-into-perspective.②Maladaptive strategy showed significant positive correlation with each factor marks and total mean marks of SCL-90(P﹤0. 01),meanwhile,rumination and catastrophizing positively re-lated to each factor marks and total mean marks remarkably,while the positive correlation of self-blame with obsessive-compulsive , interpersonal sensitivity,depression,anxiety,psychoticism and total mean marks was very significant,with somati-zation and hostility was significant(P﹤0. 05). ③The combination of Catastrophizing,self-blame and Rumination was able to predict 15. 9% of the variation of mental health. Conclusion When facing negative events,the more maladap-tive regulation strategies medical students adopt,the higher mental symptom level they have.%目的:研究医学生认知情绪调节策略对心理症状水平的影响。方法运用症状自评量表( SCL-90)与认知情绪调节问卷中文版( CERQ-C)对江苏某大学医学部586名本科生进行调查,按SCL-90界值分组后进行认知情绪调节策略比较,并对两个工具各因子间的相关性进行分析。结果医学生阳性组( SCL-90总评分﹥160分)较多运用责难自己、沉思、灾难化策略,而较少运用理性分析策略;②不适应性调节策略与SCL-90各因子分及总均分呈正相关(P﹤0.01),其中,沉思和灾难化与各因子分及总均分正相关;责难自己与强迫症状、人际关系敏感、抑郁、焦虑、精神病性及总均分正相关(P﹤0.01),与躯体

  18. The Association between Mental Health and Acute Infectious Illness among a National Sample of 18- To 24-Year-Old College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Troy B.; Wharton, Christopher M.; Quilter, Lyndsay; Hirsch, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Poor mental health is associated with physical illness, but this association is poorly characterized among college students. Objective and Participants: Using American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment data, the authors characterized poor mental health (depression, anxiety, negative affect) and examined the relationship…

  19. Children with Moderate Acute Malnutrition Have Inflammation Not Explained by Maternal Reports of Illness and Clinical Symptoms: a Cross-Sectional Study in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Cichon, B; Fabiansen, C.; Yameogo, C; Rytter, MJH; Ritz, C.; Briend, A.; Christensen, VB; Michaelsen, Kf; Oummani, R; Filteau, S; Ashorn, P.; Shepherd, S.; Friis, H.

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity plays an important role in the development of and recovery from malnutrition. Morbidity in children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) has not been described in detail and it is unclear how morbidity compares to serum levels of acute phase proteins (APPs) which indicate systemic inflammation and which can impede response to therapeutic nutritional interventions. The objective of this study was to describe morbidity in children with MAM and to assess to what extent maternally rep...

  20. Association Between Metacognition and Mood Symptoms Poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Claire; Al Banna, M; Redha, N; Al Sharoqi, I; Al-Jishi, A; Bakhiet, M; Taha, S; Abdulla, F

    2016-07-01

    The link between metacognition and mood has been well established, particularly in other conditions with psychological comorbidity, however, there is no evidence regarding this association in the area of stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the association between metacognition, based on the Self-Regulatory Executive Function model, and mood symptoms in the acute phase after stroke. One hundred thirty patients were recruited to a prospective stroke study in Bahrain, and n = 64 were assessed for mood and cognition. A neuropsychological battery of cognitive assessments included the following measures: the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Trail Making Test (A+B), and the Metacognition Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30) for metacognition. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale assessed mood symptoms, and stroke severity was measured using the National Institute of Health Stroke Severity Scale. Total MCQ-30 scores were significantly associated with both anxiety (r = .47, P = .001) and depression (r = .54, P Metacognition remained a statistically significant correlate with depression (β = .42, P Metacognition is a better determinant of mood symptoms after stroke, especially in regions where illiteracy levels are high in older populations, in comparison to executive function and global cognition. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. 首发、复发和双相抑郁患者精神症状的比较%Comparison of the mental symptoms in patients with first episode depression, recurrent depression and bipolar depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任志斌; 马永春; 金卫东; 王鹤秋; 王乃信

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨首发、复发及双相抑郁患者精神症状的差异. 方法:对首次抑郁发作患者(首发组,24例)、复发性抑郁症患者(复发组,57例)及双相抑郁患者(双相组,25例)进行汉密尔顿抑郁评定量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑评定量表(HAMA)、杨氏躁狂评定量表(YMRS)以及阳性和阴性症状评定量表(PANSS)评定和比较. 结果:HAMD、HAMA评分在3组间差异无统计学意义;YMRS评分3组间差异有统计学意义(F=5.2,P=0.007);双相组(6.6±9.0)显著高于首发组(2.8±3.4)和复发组(2.2±3.2)(q =3.86,g =4.40;P均<0.05).双相组HAMD中的躯体焦虑因子分、体重因子分均显著低于复发组(P<0.05或P<0.01);双相组精神病理学症状评分如意志活动、愤怒、幻觉、易激惹、激越、思维联想加快、破坏或攻击行为、活动增加显著高于首发组及复发组(P<0.05或P<0.01). 结论:双相障碍患者抑郁发作时可出现与躁狂相关精神症状.%Objective:To explore the difference in mental symptoms among depressive patients with first episode,recurrent and bipolar episode.Method:The evaluations of Hamilton depression scale (HAMD),Hamilton anxiety scale(HAMA),Young mania rating scale (YMRS) and positive and negative symptoms rating scale (PANSS) were preformed in 24 patients with first episode (first episode group),57 patients with recurrence depression (recurrence group) and 24 patients with bipolar depression (bipolar group).The results were compared among the three groups.Results:The scores of HAMD,HAMA among the three groups were no significant difference,but score of YMRS among the three groups were significantly different (F =5.2,P =0.007).The score of YMRS in bipolar group (6.6 ± 9.0) was significantly higher than first episode group (2.8 ± 3.4) and recurrence group (2.2 ± 3.2) (q =3.86,q =4.40 ; all P < 0.05).The scors of somatic anxiety factor and weight factor of HAMD in bipolar group were significantly lower than those in

  2. Menopausal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    In the UK, the median age for onset of menopausal symptoms is 45.5 to 47.5 years. Symptoms associated with the menopause include vasomotor symptoms, sleeplessness, mood changes, reduced energy levels, loss of libido, vaginal dryness, and urinary symptoms.Many symptoms, such as hot flushes, are temporary, but those resulting from reduced hormone levels, such as genital atrophy, may be permanent.

  3. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Kawasaki Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Kawasaki Disease? Major Signs and Symptoms One of the main symptoms during the early part of Kawasaki disease, called the acute phase, is fever. The ...

  4. Acute Abdomen as the First Symptom of Diabetes:Misdiagnosis Analysis%以急腹症为首发表现的糖尿病误诊分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静霞; 任巧华; 王欣; 苏白玉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features, reasons for misdiagnosis and precautionary measures in pa-tients with acute abdomen as the first symptom of diabetes. Methods Clinical data of 9 patients with acute abdomen as the first symptom of diabetes in our hospital was retrospectively analyzed. Results The misdiagnosis rate in the group was 22.5% and the misdiagnosis time was from 3 hours to 2 days. 3 cases with bellyache and vomiting up, whose upright abdomi-nal X-ray showed liquid-air interface in intestinal canal were misdiagnosed as acute intestinal obstruction;3 patients had diar-rhea and white blood cell in stool routine test, and were misdiagnosed as acute enteritis;2 cases had hypogastralgia, leukocy-tosis and a fever, and were misdiagnosed as acute appendicitis;1 case had hematuria increased amylase and unclear head of pancreas showed in abdominal color Doppler ultrasound, and was misdiagnosed as acute pancreatitis. It was ineffective for all the 9 patients treated as misdiagnosis disease. After being asked about medical history carefully, checked with blood glucose, urine glucose, urine ketone and blood gas analysis, they were diagnosed as diabetic ketoacidosis. After treated accordingly, 9 cases were all discharged with symptoms improvement. Conclusion The diabetes patients with acute abdomen as the first symptom and indeterminate medical history may be misdiagnosed easily. It can avoid misdiagnosis and missed treatments, if we reinforce the knowledge of diabetes and complications, ask medical history carefully and have the relevant laboratory tests in time.%目的:探讨以急腹症为首发表现的糖尿病的临床特点、误诊原因及防范措施。方法回顾性分析我院收治的以急腹症为首发表现误诊的糖尿病9例的临床资料。结果本组误诊率22.5%,误诊时间3 h~2 d。3例因腹痛、呕吐行腹部立位X线检查示肠管内有气液平误诊为急性肠梗阻;3例因腹泻、便常规有白

  5. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  6. Patient-reported outcomes to assess the efficacy of extended-release guaifenesin for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Helmut; Vernon, Margaret; Solomon, Gail

    2012-12-27

    Guaifenesin is a component of medicines used to improve symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections. Patient-reported outcome instruments are valuable for evaluating symptom improvements; however, a validated tool to assess efficacy of mucoactive drugs does not exist. We compared the efficacy of extended-release guaifenesin with placebo for treatment of symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection using subjective efficacy assessments in a pilot study and confirmed precision of assessments in a validation study. The pilot study was a randomized, double-blind study where patients were dosed with either 1200 mg extended-release guaifenesin (n = 188) or placebo (n = 190), every 12 hours for 7 days. Efficacy was assessed using subjective measures including the Daily Cough and Phlegm Diary, the Spontaneous Symptom Severity Assessment and the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey. End-of-study assessments were completed by patients and investigator. The validation study consisted of two phases. In Phase I, subjects completed interviews to gather evidence to support the content validity of the Daily Cough and Phlegm Diary, the Spontaneous Symptom Severity Assessment and Patient's End-of-Treatment Assessment. Phase II examined the psychometric properties of assessments evaluated in Phase I of the validation study using data from the pilot study. Subjective measures of efficacy at Day 4 showed the most prominent difference between treatment groups, in favor of guaifenesin. The 8-symptom related questions (SUM8) in the Daily Cough and Phlegm Diary, analyzed as a composite score appeared to be the strongest candidate endpoint for further evaluation. Results from the interviews in Phase I supported the content of the assessments which were validated during Phase II. Treatments were well tolerated. Results from the clinical pilot and validation studies showed that the SUM8 diary scores were robust and reliable for use as efficacy endpoints in studies of

  7. Anger management style moderates effects of attention strategy during acute pain induction on physiological responses to subsequent mental stress and recovery: a comparison of chronic pain patients and healthy nonpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John W; Quartana, Phillip J; Bruehl, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    To examine whether high trait anger-out chronic low back (CLBP) patients would show exceptionally large symptom-specific lower paraspinal (LP) responses, compared with healthy nonpatients, during pain induction, a subsequent mental stressor, and recovery when they were urged to suppress awareness of pain and suffering. CLBP patients (n = 93) and nonpatients (n = 105) were assigned randomly to one of four attention strategy conditions for use during pain induction: sensory-focus, distraction, suppression, or control. All participants underwent a cold pressor, and then performed mental arithmetic. They completed the anger-out (AOS) and anger-in (AIS) subscales of the Anger Expression Inventory. General Linear Model procedures were used to test Attention Strategy Condition x Patient/Nonpatient Status x AOS (or AIS) x Period interactions for physiological indices. Significant interactions were found such that: a) high trait anger-out patients in the Suppression condition seemed to show the greatest LP reactivity during the mental arithmetic followed by the slowest recovery compared with other conditions; b) high trait anger-out patients and nonpatients in the Suppression condition seemed to show the slowest systolic blood pressure recoveries compared with other conditions. Results extend previous work by suggesting that an anger-out style moderates effects of how attention is allocated during pain on responses to and recovery from a subsequent mental stressor. Results provide further evidence that trait anger-out and trait anger-in among CLBP patients are associated with increased LP muscle tension during and after pain and mental stress.

  8. Mental Symptoms and Coping Styles of Cerebral Palsy Children’s Parents%脑瘫患儿父母的心理状况与应付方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴文献; 张建; 施学文; 吴雪红; 陈向前; 曹青; 邵雷

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨脑瘫患儿父母的心理状况与应付方式的相关性。方法:采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)和应付方式问卷(WCSQ ),对60例脑瘫患儿父母和60名与脑瘫患儿同年龄、同性别正常儿童父母(对照组)心理状况和应付方式进行评估。结果:脑瘫患儿父母组SCL-90总分152±13.5及各因子分均高于对照组122±13.1,P均<0.01;脑瘫患儿父母组WCSQ中的求助、合理化、解决问题因子分为0.7±0.1、0.6±0