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Sample records for acute mental symptoms

  1. Excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes, aseptic meningitis and acute mental symptoms, following metrizamide lumbar myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmers, H J

    1984-01-01

    A clinical constellation of excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), together with aseptic meningitis, and acutre mental symptoms occurred following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Excacerbation of SLE has not been previously described following myelography with any contrast agent. Meningeal reactions and acute mental symptoms have been reported earlier, but this clinical constellation is new.

  2. Excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes, aseptic meningitis and acute mental symptoms, following metrizamide lumbar myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelmers, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A clinical constellation of excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), together with aseptic meningitis, and acutre mental symptoms occurred following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Excacerbation of SLE has not been previously described following myelography with any contrast agent. Meningeal reactions and acute mental symptoms have been reported earlier, but this clinical constellation is new. (orig.)

  3. Procoagulant reactivity to laboratory acute mental stress in Africans and Caucasians, and its relation to depressive symptoms: the SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, R; Hamer, M; Malan, N T; Scheepers, K; Meiring, M; Malan, L

    2013-11-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease is dramatically increasing in Africans (black). The prothrombotic stress response contributes to atherothrombotic disease and is modulated by depressive symptoms. We examined coagulation reactivity to acute mental stress and its relation to psychological well-being in Africans relative to Caucasians (white). A total of 102 African and 165 Caucasian school teachers underwent the Stroop Color-Word Conflict test. Circulating levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen, fibrinogen, and D-dimer were measured before and after the Stroop. Cardiovascular reactivity measures were also obtained. All participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the General Health Questionnaire-28 for the assessment of depressive symptoms and total psychological distress, respectively. After controlling for covariates, resting levels of VWF, fibrinogen, and D-dimer were higher in Africans than in Caucasians (all p-values ≤0.006). Depressive symptoms and psychological distress were not significantly associated with resting coagulation measures. Stress reactivity in VWF (pstress when compared with Caucasians. Ethnic differences in the vascular adrenergic stress response might partially explain this finding. Depressive symptoms were associated with exaggerated VWF reactivity in Africans relative to Caucasians. The clinical implications of these findings for Africans need further study.

  4. Olanzapine and haloperidol for the treatment of acute symptoms of mental disorders induced by amphetamine-type stimulants: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaobin; Song, Yun; Yu, Xiaojie; Fan, Qiang; Tang, Jiyou; Chen, Xu

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare olanzapine and haloperidol efficacies in the treatment of acute psychiatric symptoms due to amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs). The Zelen II design method was used; 124 patients with acute mental disorders due to amphetamine were randomly divided into olanzapine group (n = 63) and haloperidol group (n = 61). Then, a 4-week open-label medical therapy was performed. Clinical Global Impression Scale Item 2 was employed to evaluate the onset time; meanwhile, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was used at baseline and at posttreatment weeks 1, 2, and 4. Moreover, adverse reactions during the treatment were recorded. Onset time in the olanzapine group was significantly earlier than in the haloperidol group; BPRS scores in the olanzapine group were significantly lower than haloperidol group values at 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. The overall effective rates had no statistically significant difference. Short-term olanzapine and haloperidol treatments had equivalent efficacies in the treatment of acute symptoms of mental disorders due to ATSs; however, olanzapine administration resulted in relatively earlier disease onset, with less adverse reactions.

  5. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acute care, treatment and rehabilitation as a 72-hour assessment unit in a .... resemble prisons, such as unnecessary bars on windows and one-way glass. ..... model to consider design solutions for other acute mental health care settings.

  6. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Gillezeau, Christina N; Liu, Bian; Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-08-24

    Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130). There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = -0.33, p Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  7. Self-Reported Mental Health Predicts Acute Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lizzie; Barrett, Bruce; Chase, Joseph; Brown, Roger; Ewers, Tola

    2015-06-01

    Poor mental health conditions, including stress and depression, have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory infection. Very few studies have considered the role of general mental health in acute respiratory infection occurrence. The aim of this analysis is to determine if overall mental health, as assessed by the mental component of the Short Form 12 Health Survey, predicts incidence, duration, or severity of acute respiratory infection. Data utilized for this analysis came from the National Institute of Health-funded Meditation or Exercise for Preventing Acute Respiratory Infection (MEPARI) and MEPARI-2 randomized controlled trials examining the effects of meditation or exercise on acute respiratory infection among adults aged > 30 years in Madison, Wisconsin. A Kendall tau rank correlation compared the Short Form 12 mental component, completed by participants at baseline, with acute respiratory infection incidence, duration, and area-under-the-curve (global) severity, as assessed by the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey. Participants were recruited from Madison, Wis, using advertisements in local media. Short Form 12 mental health scores significantly predicted incidence (P = 0.037) of acute respiratory infection, but not duration (P = 0.077) or severity (P = 0.073). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) negative emotion measure significantly predicted global severity (P = 0.036), but not incidence (P = 0.081) or duration (P = 0.125). Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores significantly predicted incidence of acute respiratory infection (P = 0.040), but not duration (P = 0.053) or severity (P = 0.70). The PHQ-9, PSS-10, and PANAS positive measures did not show significant predictive associations with any of the acute respiratory infection outcomes. Self-reported overall mental health, as measured by the mental component of Short Form 12, predicts acute respiratory infection incidence.

  8. Anchoring ADHD Symptoms to Mental Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Callie; Dunham, Mardis; Patel, Samir H.; Contreras-Bloomdahl, Susana

    2016-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)," requires that symptoms of ADHD must be "developmentally inappropriate" in order for an ADHD diagnosis to be considered. Because the DSM-5 does not specifically outline procedure for determining developmental inappropriateness of behaviors,…

  9. Reconceptualizing mental disorders: From symptoms to organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2017-06-01

    Most mental pathologies are diagnosed on the sole basis of the symptoms reported by patients, such as "I'm feeling low." The thrust of this paper is the proposal to reconceptualize mental disorders as dysfunctions of brain subsystems. This shift from symptom to organ would bring psychiatry in line with the rest of medicine, and is analogous to the change in status of venereal infections from skin pathologies, such as chancres, to bacterial infections. The proposal in question is part of the reconceptualization of mental processes as brain processes, in line with the materialist conception of the mind as neural. A practical advantage of this conceptual change is that it suggests approaching mental disorders as brain dysfunctions treatable by biological and chemical means, in addition to social measures, such as accommodating mental patients in ordinary hospitals rather than in isolated "madhouses" at the mercy of amateurs or even charlatans. An additional advantage of the "embodiment" of mental diseases is that it suggests reframing some new research projects, such as explaining why the common cold causes mental fogginess, why hypertension can cause irritability, and why nicotine dependence can be even stronger than cocaine addiction. In other words, the present proposal is to complete the so-called "mapping of the mind onto the brain" by including the abnormal mental processes, which used to be treated by shamans at a time when the mind was conceived of as an immaterial entity detachable from the body. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...

  11. [Enterobius vermicularis causing symptoms of acute appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, András; Kocsis, Béla

    2008-08-01

    The authors present a case of enterobiasis of the appendix. Enterobius infection is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible unless there is a strong clinical suspicion. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis. Careful observation of the appendix stump may lead to intraoperative diagnosis of enterobiasis. A quick diagnosis and appropriate treatment may prevent future complications.

  12. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Schwartz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130. There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = −0.33, p < 0.01 and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD scores (mean difference = −1.98, p = 0.001 between baseline and follow-up. Experiencing a combination of personal and property damage was positively associated with long-term PTSD symptoms (ORadj 1.2, 95% CI [1.1–1.4] but not with anxiety or depression. Having anxiety, depression, or PTSD at baseline was a significant predictor of persistent anxiety (ORadj 2.8 95% CI [1.1–6.8], depression (ORadj 7.4 95% CI [2.3–24.1 and PTSD (ORadj 4.1 95% CI [1.1–14.6] at follow-up. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  13. Follow up CT of the patients who developed mental symptoms after direct operation of ruptured anterior communicating aneurysma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Yoku; Abe, Hiroshi; Satoh, Masaharu; Miyasaka, Kazuo.

    1985-01-01

    The following conclusions were obtained from the analysis of CT findings of 26 cases with ruptured anterior communicating aneurysm showed postoperative mental symptoms. 1) Many cases with diffuse and symmetrical high density in subarachnoid spaces on CT in the acute stage, showed severe mental symptoms in the chronic stage. In particular, serious mental symptoms of the chronic stage were recognized in cases with high density in not only subarachnoid space but also in brain tissues and ventricles. 2) Mental symptoms of the chronic stage were severe in cases showed relatively large low density area and with low density in frontal lobe. (author)

  14. From mental-physical comorbidity to somatic symptoms - insights gained from research on symptoms of mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rodic, Donja

    2015-01-01

    Abstract in English Background: Mental health and physical health are substantially associated with each other. The early recognition of co-occurring mental-physical conditions, as well as the early recognition of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying somatic symptoms, might be of special relevance for a better understanding of early phases of disorder development and hence prevention. Aim: To examine associations between symptoms of mental disorders (depressive symptoms and gambli...

  15. Gastrointestinal symptoms in children with acute neuroinfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Markov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. In cases of severe forms of infectious di­seases, in addition to local inflammation, secondary lesions of the gastrointestinal organs may occur. We aimed to study the semiotics and epidemiology of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with acute neuroinfection. Materials and methods. This observational, retrospective, case-control study. We analyzed cases of in-patient treatment of children aged 1 month to 18 years with acute neuroinfections (meningitis, encephalitis and encephalomyelopolyneuropathy. Results. The study included 117 patients with acute central nervous system infections. Clinical symptoms of gastrointestinal infection were observed in 83 (70.9 % children. Among revealed symptoms, disorders of intestinal moti­lity, such as constipation and diarrhea, were prevalent. Manifestations of hepatobiliary system dysfunction included increased transaminase level (alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGTF and/or ultrasound changes (enlargement, diffuse structural changes and were observed in 39.1 % of patients. Among the laboratory parameters, elevated ALT level was observed in 8.3 % of patients, bilirubin was elevated in only one child, alkaline phosphatase was above the age norm in 11.8 %, an increased GGTF above the age norm was observed in 31.3 % of patients. The level of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP was elevated in 86.4 %, and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP — in all (100 % children. Clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal dysfunction (the presence of at least one of the gastrointestinal symptoms had an inverse relationship with the child’s age (rpb = –0.19, p = 0.033, correlated with staying in intensive care unit (odds ratio (OR = +5.25; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.62–16.97, artificial ventilation (OR = +4.5; 95% CI 1.00–21.69 and level of I-FABP (rpb = 0.34, p = 0.019. Conclusions. Among gastrointestinal symptoms in children with

  16. Patients and acute coronary syndrome - Prehospital delay and mental and emotional delaying responses - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Vibeke; Larsen, Birte Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    cardinal. Male participants often used expletives and expressed symptoms in concrete terms. Women expressed symptoms in vaguer terms. Both genders used linguistic metaphors. The implications for nursing emphasised the impact of prodromal symptoms, mental and emotional withdrawal, and linguistic...... to identify and discuss patient’s mental and emotional responses, including interpretations and delaying strategies concerning Acute Coronary Syndrome symptoms, with a view to elucidating patterns in the pre-hospital decision-making process of female and male persons to contact medical services...

  17. Patients and acute coronary syndrome - Prehospital delay and mental and emotional delaying responses - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Vibeke; Larsen, Birte Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    to identify and discuss patient’s mental and emotional responses, including interpretations and delaying strategies concerning Acute Coronary Syndrome symptoms, with a view to elucidating patterns in the pre-hospital decision-making process of female and male persons to contact medical services...... cardinal. Male participants often used expletives and expressed symptoms in concrete terms. Women expressed symptoms in vaguer terms. Both genders used linguistic metaphors. The implications for nursing emphasised the impact of prodromal symptoms, mental and emotional withdrawal, and linguistic...

  18. Prevalence of early warning signs and symptoms of mental illness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mental illness is a psychological, emotional and mental health problems that affects the physical, behavioral and occupational functioning of an individual. The understand of the signs and symptoms of the disorder in a typical setting and by ordinary people or even among the literate is often difficulty; talk more ...

  19. Do Undiagnosed Suicide Decedents Have Symptoms of a Mental Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Thomas E; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Chu, Carol

    2017-12-01

    Psychological autopsy studies consistently report that the rate of detected mental disorders among suicide decedents is below 100%. This implies three possibilities: (a) a subset of suicide decedents did not have a mental disorder at the time of death; (b) all suicide decedents suffered from a mental disorder, but some were undetected due to methodological limitations; and/or (c) suicide decedents with an undetected mental disorder displayed significant and perhaps subclinical features of a mental disorder. In this article, we examined these possibilities by evaluating the differences in symptoms and stressors between suicide decedents who were undiagnosed and those diagnosed with a mental disorder at the time of death. We reviewed 130 case studies of community-based suicide decedents originally described in Robins' (1981) psychological autopsy study. Without exception, suicide decedents in Robins' sample suffered either from a clearly diagnosable mental disorder or displayed features indicative of a significant, even if subclinical, presentation of a mental disorder. Undiagnosed and diagnosed suicide decedents did not significantly differ with regards to demographics, violence of suicide method, suicide attempt history, the number and intensity of stressful life events preceding death, and whether their death was a murder-suicide. Although clearly not all who suffer from mental disorders will die by suicide, these findings imply that all who die by suicide appear to exhibit, at minimum, subclinical psychiatric symptoms with the great majority showing prominent clinical symptoms. We conclude with clinical implications and recommendations for future study. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Acute traumatic and depressive symptoms in family members of hospitalized individuals with delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Robert B; Rosenthal, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized symptoms of acute stress and depression in caregivers present during the hospitalization of a loved one with delirium. This is an observational, cross-sectional analysis of caregivers of patients hospitalized with delirium. Standardized questionnaires were used in caregiver interviews to assess psychological reactions to traumatic situations and understanding of medical care. Of the 40 caregivers recruited, half had significant symptoms of acute stress and 12.5% of caregivers were highly symptomatic across all domains related to trauma. Elevated acute stress was positively correlated with both past or current depression and prior mental health treatment (p delirium as having a negative impact on their lives were also at elevated risk (p delirium are at elevated risk for experiencing severe acute traumatic and depressive symptoms, and this response might place them at risk for developing traumatic disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Prevalence of symptoms associated with mental illness in Salvadorians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gutiérrez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study arises the purpose of describing and explaining some behaviors considered abnormal, that with Salvadorans present, which in many occasions are the result of greater conflicts; for example, social violence, familiar violence, delinquency, homicides, depression and anxiety, among others. The specific objectives that were considered at the beginning of the project were to identify the incidence of symptoms of mental upheavals; to establish the difference of symptoms in relation to the sex of the population; to determine if sex affects the mental upheavals; and to establish the prevalence of symptoms of the mental upheavals in each geographic zone of the country. In the methodology of the study, the following strategies were used: It was determined that it was a descriptive study, the design of investigation was transactional descriptive; the random sampling by conglomerates was used; the technique used was the survey directed to 1.668 people distributed in the 31 more important cities of El Salvador; the instrument used was the Illustrated Questionnaire of Symptoms (designed by the PAHO/WHO that measures the presence of symptoms of ten mental upheavals and behavior. The results can be synthesized in percentages of prevalence of symptoms and some of these are the following: 50% of the interviewed people presented symptoms of compulsive obsessive upheaval, 47,7% presented anxiety symptoms and distresses, 36,8% presented somatization characteristics. Also, 29,1% presented some symptoms of depression; 33,2% of the evaluated population declared to have symptoms of the convulsive Syndrome. 35,8% demonstrated some suspicions of symptoms of an organic cerebral Syndrome. The final part of the study contains the conclusions and a set of solution strategies.

  2. Psychosocial employment characteristics and postpartum maternal mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Ramirez, Marizen; Ashida, Sato; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    For new mothers returning to work, the role of the workplace psychosocial environment on maternal mental health has not been fully described. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between psychosocial employment characteristics and mothers' postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Ninety-seven women answered survey questions regarding employment, job demand, control, and support, and postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms soon after live birth and 6 months later. Working and nonworking mothers reported similar mental health symptoms. Psychological characteristics of employment were not associated with increased odds of mental health symptoms. Increased social support provided by coworkers, supervisors, and the organization was associated with reduced odds of anxiety symptoms. Our findings identified lack of workplace social support as a modifiable risk factor for postpartum anxiety. Future evaluations of workplace social support interventions may be explored to improve postpartum mental health symptoms. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:109-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mental health symptoms following war and repression in eastern Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, Willem F.; Olff, Miranda; Ventevogel, Peter; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Jansveld, Eveline; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol A. Gotway

    2004-01-01

    Context Decades of armed conflict, suppression, and displacement resulted in a high prevalence of mental health symptoms throughout Afghanistan. Its Eastern province of Nangarhar is part of the region that originated the Taliban movement. This may have had a distinct impact on the living

  4. Mental health symptoms following war and repression in eastern Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Willem F; Olff, Miranda; Ventevogel, Peter; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Jansveld, Eveline; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol A Gotway

    2004-08-04

    Decades of armed conflict, suppression, and displacement resulted in a high prevalence of mental health symptoms throughout Afghanistan. Its Eastern province of Nangarhar is part of the region that originated the Taliban movement. This may have had a distinct impact on the living circumstances and mental health condition of the province's population. To determine the rate of exposure to traumatic events; estimate prevalence rates of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety; identify resources used for emotional support and risk factors for mental health symptoms; and assess the present coverage of basic needs in Nangarhar province, Afghanistan. A cross-sectional multicluster sample survey of 1011 respondents aged 15 years or older, conducted in Nangarhar province during January and March 2003; 362 households were represented with a mean of 2.8 respondents per household (72% participation rate). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and traumatic events using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire; depression and general anxiety symptoms using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist; and resources for emotional support through a locally informed questionnaire. During the past 10 years, 432 respondents (43.7%) experienced between 8 and 10 traumatic events; 141 respondents (14.1%) experienced 11 or more. High rates of symptoms of depression were reported by 391 respondents (38.5%); anxiety, 524 (51.8%); and PTSD, 207 (20.4%). Symptoms were more prevalent in women than in men (depression: odds ratio [OR], 7.3 [95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4-9.8]; anxiety: OR, 12.8 [95% CI, 9.0-18.1]; PTSD: OR, 5.8 [95% CI, 3.8-8.9]). Higher rates of symptoms were associated with higher numbers of traumas experienced. The main resources for emotional support were religion and family. Medical care was reported to be insufficient by 228 respondents (22.6%). In this survey of inhabitants of Nangarhar province, Afghanistan, prevalence rates of having experienced

  5. Are Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Related to Mental Health Service Use?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Andersen, Søren Bo; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Investigating the use of mental health services by combat veterans can help illuminate utilization and unmet needs of this population. The aims of this study were to estimate the use of mental health services and to examine how such use is associated with self-reported symptoms...... of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers before and after deployment to Afghanistan. METHODS: Prospectively, 703 Danish soldiers who deployed from January 2009 to August 2009 were followed up with 6 assessments from predeployment to 2.5 years postdeployment in 2012. At assessments, the soldiers...

  6. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information on mental health care outcome, to do a cost analysis and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate a cost ... clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training ... (d) describe the demographic and clinical profile of HIV positive ..... accommodate the differentiated but integrated care of.

  7. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the third of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). The study reviewed existing South African standards for mental health care facilities. Architectural principles and implications for the use of space were deducted from recent legislation. Objectives were to ...

  8. Mental symptoms and cause-specific mortality among midlife employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Lahelma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental symptoms are prevalent among populations, but their associations with premature mortality are inadequately understood. We examined whether mental symptoms contribute to cause-specific mortality among midlife employees, while considering key covariates. Methods Baseline mail survey data from 2000–02 included employees, aged 40–60, of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n = 8960, 80 % women, response rate 67 %. Mental symptoms were measured by the General Health Questionnaire 12-item version (GHQ-12 and the Short Form 36 mental component summary (MCS. Covariates included sex, marital status, social support, health behaviours, occupational social class and limiting long-standing illness. Causes of death by the end of 2013 were obtained from Statistics Finland (n = 242 and linked individually to survey data pending consent (n = 6605. Hazard ratios (HR and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI were calculated using Cox regression analysis. Results For all-cause mortality, only MCS showed a weak association before adjustments. For natural mortality, no associations were found. For unnatural mortality (n = 21, there was a sex adjusted association with GHQ (HR = 1.96, 95 % CI = 1.45–2.64 and MCS (2.30, 95 % CI = 1.72–3.08. Among unnatural causes of death suicidal mortality (n = 11 was associated with both GHQ (2.20, 95 % CI = 1.47–3.29 and MCS (2.68, 95 % CI = 1.80–3.99. Of the covariates limiting long-standing illness modestly attenuated the associations. Conclusions Two established measures of mental symptoms, i.e. GHQ-12 and SF-36 MCS, were both associated with subsequent unnatural, i.e. accidental and violent, as well as suicidal mortality. No associations were found for natural mortality due to diseases. These findings need to be corroborated in further populations. Supporting mental health through workplace measures may help counteract subsequent suicidal and other

  9. Acute symptoms following exposure to grain dust in farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, J; Holford-Strevens, V; Cheang, M; Warren, C P

    1986-01-01

    History of acute symptoms (cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, fever, stuffy nose, and skin itching/rash) following exposure to grain dust was obtained from 661 male and 535 female current and former farmers. These symptoms were relatively common: 60% of male and 25% of female farmers reported at least one such symptom on exposure to grain dust. Association of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and stuffy nose with skin reactivity and capacity to form IgE is consistent with an allergic nature of these symptoms. Barley and oats dust were perceived as dust most often producing symptoms. On the other hand, grain fever showed a different pattern, i.e., it was not associated with either skin reactivity or total IgE. Smoking might modify the susceptibility to react to grain dust with symptoms. Only those who reported wheezing on exposure to grain dust may have an increased risk to develop chronic airflow obstruction. PMID:3709486

  10. Predictors of symptom congruence among patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Wasylyshyn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The extent of congruence between one's symptom experience and preconceived ideas about the nature of myocardial infarction symptoms (ie, symptom congruence) can influence when acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients seek medical care. Lengthy delays impede timely receipt of medical interventions and result in greater morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to symptom congruence. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine how AMI patients' symptom experiences and patients' demographic and clinical characteristics contribute to symptom congruence. Secondary data analyses were performed on interview data that were collected from 135 AMI patients. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to examine how specific symptom attributes and demographic and clinical characteristics contribute to symptom congruence. Chest pain/discomfort and other symptom variables (type and location) were included in step 1 of the analysis, whereas symptom severity and demographic and clinical factors were included in step 2. In a second analysis, quality descriptors of discomfort replaced chest pain/discomfort in step 1. Although chest pain/discomfort, and quality descriptors of heaviness and cutting were significant in step 1 of their respective analyses, all became nonsignificant when the variables in step 2 were added to the analyses. Severe discomfort (β = .29, P congruence in the first analysis. Only severe discomfort (β = .23, P congruence in the second analysis. Although the location and quality of discomfort were important components of symptom congruence, symptom severity outweighed their importance. Nonsevere symptoms were less likely to meet the expectations of AMI symptoms by those experiencing this event. Those without a previous history of AMI also experienced lower levels of symptom congruence. Implications pertaining to these findings are discussed.

  11. Symptom correlates of cerebral blood flow following acute concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan W. Churchill

    Full Text Available Concussion is associated with significant symptoms within hours to days post-injury, including disturbances in physical function, cognition, sleep and emotion. However, little is known about how subjective impairments correlate with objective measures of cerebrovascular function following brain injury. This study examined the relationship between symptoms and cerebral blood flow (CBF in individuals following sport-related concussion. Seventy university level athletes had CBF measured using Arterial Spin Labelling (ASL, including 35 with acute concussion and 35 matched controls and their symptoms were assessed using the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3. For concussed athletes, greater total symptom severity was associated with elevated posterior cortical CBF, although mean CBF was not significantly different from matched controls (p=0.46. Examining symptom clusters, athletes reporting greater cognitive symptoms also had lower frontal and subcortical CBF, relative to athletes with greater somatic symptoms. The “cognitive” and “somatic” subgroups also exhibited significant differences in CBF relative to controls (p≤0.026. This study demonstrates objective CBF correlates of symptoms in recently concussed athletes and shows that specific symptom clusters may have distinct patterns of altered CBF, significantly extending our understanding of the neurobiology of concussion and traumatic brain injury. Keywords: Sport concussion, Cerebral blood flow, ASL, Symptoms

  12. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. Method: The study described ...

  13. Acute Neurological Symptoms During Hypobaric Exposure: Consider Cerebral Air Embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, Robert P.; Hollmann, Markus W.; van Hulst, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    WEENINK RP, HOLLMANN MW, VAN HULST RA. Acute neurological symptoms during hypobaric exposure: consider cerebral air embolism. Aviat Space Environ Med 2012; 83:1084-91. Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is well known as a complication of invasive medical procedures and as a risk in diving and

  14. Using the interaction of mental health symptoms and treatment status to estimate lost employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Scuffham, Paul A; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2010-02-01

    In Australia it has been estimated that mental health symptoms result in a loss of $ AU2.7 billion in employee productivity. To date, however, there has been only one study quantifying employee productivity decrements due to mental disorders when treatment-seeking behaviours are considered. The aim of the current paper was to estimate employee work productivity by mental health symptoms while considering different treatment-seeking behaviours. A total of 60 556 full-time employees responded to the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire. This questionnaire is designed to monitor the work productivity of employees for chronic and acute physical and mental health conditions. Contained within the questionnaire is the Kessler 6, a scale measuring psychological distress along with an evaluation of employee treatment-seeking behaviours for depression, anxiety and any other emotional problems. A univariate analysis of variance was performed for employee productivity using the interaction between Kessler 6 severity categories and treatment-seeking behaviours. A total of 9.6% of employees have moderate psychological distress and a further 4.5% have high psychological distress. Increasing psychological distress from low to moderate then to high levels is associated with increasing productivity decrements (6.4%, 9.4% and 20.9% decrements, respectively) for employees in current treatment. Combining the prevalence of Kessler 6 categories with treatment-seeking behaviours, mean 2009 salaries and number of Australian employees in 2009, it is estimated that psychological distress produces an $ AU5.9 billion reduction in Australian employee productivity per annum. The estimated loss of $ AU5.9 billion in employee productivity due to mental health problems is substantially higher than previous estimates. This finding is especially pertinent given the global economic crisis, when psychological distress among employees is likely to be increasing. Effective

  15. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  16. Nurses' attitudes towards the use of PRN psychotropic medications in acute and forensic mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Lesley; Wynaden, Dianne; Heslop, Karen

    2018-02-01

    Many countries now have national mental health policies and guidelines to decrease or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint yet the use of Pro Re Nata (PRN) medications has received less practice evaluation. This research aimed to identify mental health nurses' attitudes towards the use of PRN medications with mental health consumers. Participants were working in forensic mental health and non-forensic acute mental health settings. The "Attitudes towards PRN medication use survey" was used and data were collected online. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package Social Sciences, Version 22.0. Practice differences between forensic and other acute mental health settings were identified related to the use of PRN medications to manage symptoms from nicotine, alcohol and other drug withdrawal. Differences related to the useage of comfort rooms and conducting comprehensive assessments of consumers' psychiatric symptoms were also detected. Qualitative findings highlighted the need for increased accountability for the prescribing and administration of PRN medications along with more nursing education/training to use alternative first line interventions. Nurses administering PRN medications should be vigilant regarding the indications for this practice to ensure they are facilitating the consumer's recovery by reducing the use of all forms of potentially restrictive practices in the hospital setting. The reasons for using PRN medications and PRN administration rates must be continually monitored to avoid practices such as high dose antipsychotics use and antipsychotic polypharmacy to ensure the efficacy of the consumers' management plans on their health care outcomes. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may explain poor mental health in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann

    2017-05-01

    Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.

  18. Behavioral Predictors of Acute Stress Symptoms During Intense Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    the Ways of Coping Scale ( Folkman & Lazarus , 1988). During survival training, the Clinician- Administered Dissociative States Scale (Bremner et al...Published on behalf of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. Acute Stress Symptoms 217 Folkman , S., & Lazarus , R. (1988). Manual...and performance in sport (pp. 17–42). Chichester, UK: Wiley. Lazarus , R. S. (2000). Cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. In Y . Hanin

  19. Predictors of Mental Health Symptoms, Automatic Thoughts, and Self-Esteem Among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiçdurmaz, Duygu; İnci, Figen; Karahan, Sevilay

    2017-01-01

    University youth is a risk group regarding mental health, and many mental health problems are frequent in this group. Sociodemographic factors such as level of income and familial factors such as relationship with father are reported to be associated with mental health symptoms, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem. Also, there are interrelations between mental health problems, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem. The extent of predictive effect of each of these variables on automatic thoughts, self-esteem, and mental health symptoms is not known. We aimed to determine the predictive factors of mental health symptoms, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem in university students. Participants were 530 students enrolled at a university in Turkey, during 2014-2015 academic year. Data were collected using the student information form, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Mental health symptoms, self-esteem, perception of the relationship with the father, and level of income as a student significantly predicted automatic thoughts. Automatic thoughts, mental health symptoms, participation in family decisions, and age had significant predictive effects on self-esteem. Finally, automatic thoughts, self-esteem, age, and perception of the relationship with the father had significant predictive effects on mental health symptoms. The predictive factors revealed in our study provide important information to practitioners and researchers by showing the elements that need to be screened for mental health of university students and issues that need to be included in counseling activities.

  20. [German validation of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidjanov, J F; Pilatz, A; Abdufattaev, U A; Wiltink, J; Weidner, W; Naber, K G; Wagenlehner, F

    2015-09-01

    The Uzbek version of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) was developed as a simple self-reporting questionnaire to improve diagnosis and therapy of women with acute cystitis (AC). The purpose of this work was to validate the ACSS in the German language. The ACSS consists of 18 questions in four subscales: (1) typical symptoms, (2) differential diagnosis, (3) quality of life, and (4) additional circumstances. Translation of the ACSS into German was performed according to international guidelines. For the validation process 36 German-speaking women (age: 18-90 years), with and without symptoms of AC, were included in the study. Classification of participants into two groups (patients or controls) was based on the presence or absence of typical symptoms and significant bacteriuria (≥ 10(3) CFU/ml). Statistical evaluations of reliability, validity, and predictive ability were performed. ROC curve analysis was performed to assess sensitivity and specificity of ACSS and its subscales. The Mann-Whitney's U test and t-test were used to compare the scores of the groups. Of the 36 German-speaking women (age: 40 ± 19 years), 19 were diagnosed with AC (patient group), while 17 women served as controls. Cronbach's α for the German ACSS total scale was 0.87. A threshold score of ≥ 6 points in category 1 (typical symptoms) significantly predicted AC (sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 82.4%). There were no significant differences in ACSS scores in patients and controls compared to the original Uzbek version of the ACSS. The German version of the ACSS showed a high reliability and validity. Therefore, the German version of the ACSS can be reliably used in clinical practice and research for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of patients suffering from AC.

  1. Chronic Family Economic Hardship, Family Processes and Progression of Mental and Physical Health Symptoms in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health…

  2. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-01-01

    To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep

  3. The Effect of Supportive Counseling on the Symptoms of Acute Stress Disorder Following Emergency Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Mojrian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Adverse childbirth experiences can lead to the emergence of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD, in mothers in the postpartum period. Birth trauma can occur following aggressive procedures such as emergency cesarean section. This study aimed to determine the effect of supportive counseling intervention on the symptoms of ASD in women after emergency cesarean delivery. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 126 women with traumatic emergency cesarean section at Payambar-E Azam and Afzalipoor hospitals in Kerman, Iran. The participants were selected based on DSM-IV criteria. The subjects were randomly divided into the intervention and control groups. The intervention group received individual and face-to-face supportive counseling. The data collection tool was the Acute Stress Disorder Questionnaire, which was completed one and three weeks post-intervention. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS, version 13. Results: The two groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics, pregnancy complications, and midwifery history. Also, there was no significant difference between two groups regarding the depression and anxiety mean scores at the pre-intervention stage. The results revealed a statistically significant difference between the control and intervention groups in terms of all acute stress disorder symptoms after one and three weeks of the intervention (P

  4. Symptoms of common mental disorders and their correlates Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: To comply with its new mental health bill, Ghana needs to integrate mental health within other health and social services. Mental disorders represent 9% of disease burden in Ghana. Women are more affected by common mental disorders, and are underrepresented in treatment settings. This study examines ...

  5. The mental health of nurses in acute teaching hospital settings: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lin; Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Gallagher, Robyn; Duffield, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Nursing is an emotionally demanding profession and deficiencies in nurses' mental wellbeing, characterised by low vitality and common mental disorders, have been linked to low productivity, absenteeism and presenteeism. Part of a larger study of nurses' health, the aim of this paper was to describe the mental health status and related characteristics of nurses working in two acute metropolitan teaching hospitals. A cross sectional survey design was used. The Registered and Enrolled Nurse workforce, employed on any form of contract, at two teaching hospitals in Sydney Australia were invited to participate. The survey tool was compiled of validated tools and questions. Family and medical history and health risk-related characteristics, current psycho-active medications, smoking status, alcohol intake, eating disorders, self-perceived general health, mental health and vitality, demographic, social and occupational details were collected. A total of 1215 surveys were distributed with a usable response rate of 382 (31.4%). Altogether 53 nurses (14%) reported a history of mental health disorders, of which n = 49 (13%) listed diagnoses of anxiety and/or depression; 22 (6%) were currently taking psychoactive medication. Symptoms that could potentially indicate a mental health issue were more common, with 248 (65.1%) reporting they had experienced symptoms sometimes or often in the last 12 month. Nurses had better mental health if they had better general health, lived with a spouse/ partner rather than alone, had fewer symptoms, sleep problems or disordered eating behaviours, were not an informal carer and did not work nights. Nurses had greater vitality if they were male, had better general health, fewer sleep problems or symptoms generally and lived with a spouse/ partner rather than alone; less vitality if they were an informal carer or had disordered eating. Nurses and their managers should strive to create workplaces where working practices promote nurses' health

  6. Nomothetic and idiographic symptom change trajectories in acute-phase cognitive therapy for recurrent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B

    2013-08-01

    We tested nomothetic and idiographic convergence and change in 3 symptom measures during acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT) for depression and compared outcomes among patients showing different change patterns. Outpatients (N = 362; 69% women; 85% White; age M = 43 years) with recurrent major depressive disorder according to criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) completed the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1960), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961), and Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (Rush, Gullion, Basco, Jarrett, & Trivedi, 1996) on 14 occasions as well as pre/post-CT measures of social-interpersonal functioning and negative cognitive content. The 3 symptom measures marked the same severity and change constructs, and we offer improved formulas for intermeasure score conversions via their common factor. Pre/post-CT symptom reductions were large (ds = 1.71-1.92), and nomothetic symptom curves were log-linear (larger improvements earlier and smaller improvements later in CT). Nonetheless, only 30% of individual patients showed clear log-linear changes, whereas other patients showed linear (e.g., steady decreases; 20%), 1-step (e.g., a quick drop; 16%), and unclassified (34%) patterns. Log-linear, linear, and 1-step patients were generally similar to one another and superior to unclassified patients post-CT in symptom levels, response and stable remission rates, social-interpersonal functioning, and cognitive content (median d = 0.69). Reaching a low-symptom "destination" at the end of CT via any coherent "path" is more important in the short term than which path patients take. We discuss implications for theories of change, clinical monitoring of individuals' progress in CT, and the need to investigate long-term outcomes of patients with differing patterns of symptom change. PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Neurologic signs and symptoms frequently manifest in acute HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, James L.K.; Valcour, Victor; Kroon, Eugène; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Intasan, Jintana; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Narvid, Jared; Pothisri, Mantana; Allen, Isabel; Krebs, Shelly J.; Slike, Bonnie; Prueksakaew, Peeriya; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Spudich, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence, timing, and severity of neurologic findings in acute HIV infection (pre–antibody seroconversion), as well as persistence with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods: Participants identified with acute HIV were enrolled, underwent structured neurologic evaluations, immediately initiated cART, and were followed with neurologic evaluations at 4 and 12 weeks. Concurrent brain MRIs and both viral and inflammatory markers in plasma and CSF were obtained. Results: Median estimated HIV infection duration was 19 days (range 3–56) at study entry for the 139 participants evaluated. Seventy-three participants (53%) experienced one or more neurologic findings in the 12 weeks after diagnosis, with one developing a fulminant neurologic manifestation (Guillain-Barré syndrome). A total of 245 neurologic findings were noted, reflecting cognitive symptoms (33%), motor findings (34%), and neuropathy (11%). Nearly half of the neurologic findings (n = 121, 49%) occurred at diagnosis, prior to cART initiation, and most of these (n = 110, 90%) remitted concurrent with 1 month on treatment. Only 9% of neurologic findings (n = 22) persisted at 24 weeks on cART. Nearly all neurologic findings (n = 236, 96%) were categorized as mild in severity. No structural neuroimaging abnormalities were observed. Participants with neurologic findings had a higher mean plasma log10 HIV RNA at diagnosis compared to those without neurologic findings (5.9 vs 5.4; p = 0.006). Conclusions: Acute HIV infection is commonly associated with mild neurologic findings that largely remit while on treatment, and may be mediated by direct viral factors. Severe neurologic manifestations are infrequent in treated acute HIV. PMID:27287217

  8. Structured physical exercise improves neuropsychiatric symptoms in acute dementia care: a hospital-based RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiner, Tim; Dauth, Hannah; Gersie, Marleen; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Haussermann, Peter

    2017-08-29

    The primary objective of this trial is to investigate the effects of a short-term exercise program on neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms in acute hospital dementia care. Within a hospital-based randomized controlled trial, the intervention group conducted a 2-week exercise program with four 20-min exercise sessions on 3 days per week. The control group conducted a social stimulation program. Effects on neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms were measured via the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. The antipsychotic and sedative dosage was quantified by olanzapine and diazepam equivalents. Eighty-five patients were randomized via minimization to an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). Seventy patients (82%) (mean age 80 years, 33 females, mean Mini Mental State Examination score 18.3 points) completed the trial. As compared to the CG (n = 35), the IG (n = 35) showed significantly reduced neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms. Especially, agitated behavior and lability improved. There were no between-group differences concerning antipsychotic and benzodiazepine medication. This exercise program is easily applicable in hospital dementia care and significantly reduces neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms in patients suffering from predominantly moderate stages of dementia. German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00006740 . Registered 28 October 2014.

  9. Association between psychosomatic health symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents: Age and gender as potential moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the role of age and gender in the association between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined age and gender as moderators between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness using data from a school-based survey ( N = 770). Males reported higher psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness, while younger adolescents reported higher common mental illness only. Psychosomatic symptoms were positively associated with common mental illness, but age and gender did not moderate this association. Interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence rate in psychosomatic symptoms are crucial in decreasing common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents.

  10. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  11. Acute Exercise Improves Mood and Motivation in Young Men with ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Kathryn M; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about whether acute exercise affects signs or symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. This experiment sought to determine the effects of a single bout of moderate-intensity leg cycling exercise on measures of attention, hyperactivity, mood, and motivation to complete mental work in adult men reporting elevated ADHD symptoms. A repeated-measures crossover experiment was conducted with 32 adult men (18-33 yr) with symptoms consistent with adult ADHD assessed by the Adult Self-Report Scale V1.1. Measures of attention (continuous performance task and Bakan vigilance task), motivation to perform the mental work (visual analog scale), lower leg physical activity (accelerometry), and mood (Profile of Mood States and Addiction Research Center Inventory amphetamine scale) were measured before and twice after a 20-min seated rest control or exercise condition involving cycling at 65% V˙O2peak. Condition (exercise vs rest) × time (baseline, post 1, and post 2) ANOVA was used to test the hypothesized exercise-induced improvements in all outcomes. Statistically significant condition-time interactions were observed for vigor (P motivation (P = 0.027), and Profile of Mood States depression (P = 0.027), fatigue (P = 0.030), and confusion (P = 0.046) scales. No significant interaction effects were observed for leg hyperactivity, simple reaction time, or vigilance task performance (accuracy, errors, or reaction time). In young men reporting elevated symptoms of ADHD, a 20-min bout of moderate-intensity cycle exercise transiently enhances motivation for cognitive tasks, increases feelings of energy, and reduces feelings of confusion, fatigue, and depression, but this has no effect on the behavioral measures of attention or hyperactivity used.

  12. Differences in mental health among young adults with borderline personality symptoms of various severities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsin Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the differences in mental health and behavioral problems among young adults with borderline personality symptoms of various severities. Methods: 500 college students participated in this study. Borderline personality symptoms were evaluated using the Taiwanese version of the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-23. Mental health problems were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale. Suicidality and other behavioral problems were assessed using questions from the epidemiological version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and BSL-23 Supplement. According to the distribution of BSL-23 scores at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles, the participants were divided into 4 groups: No/Mild, Moderate, Severe, and Profound. Analysis of variance and the chi-square test were used to compare mental health and behavioral problems among the 4 groups. Results: All mental health problems differed significantly among the 4 groups. The severity of nearly all mental health problems increased with that of borderline personality symptoms. The proportions of most behavioral problems differed significantly among the 4 groups. The Profound group was more likely to have behavioral problems than the other 3 groups. Conclusion: Young adults who had more severe borderline personality symptoms had more severe mental health and behavioral problems. Keywords: Borderline personality, Mental health, Suicidality

  13. Intimate partner violence and mental health symptoms in African American female ED patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houry, Debra; Kemball, Robin; Rhodes, Karin V; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2006-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victims often seek care in the ED, whether for an injury from abuse or other sequelae such as mental health symptoms. The objective of the study was to assess whether depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidality were associated with physical, sexual, or emotional IPV in African American female ED patients and to determine if experiencing multiple types of abuse was associated with increased mental health symptoms. All eligible African American female patients were approached in the ED waiting room during study periods. Patients participated in the screening process via a computer kiosk. Questions regarding IPV and mental health symptoms were asked using validated tools. In this prospective cohort, 569 participated and 36% of those in a relationship in the past year (n=461) disclosed that there were victims of IPV in the past year. In the past year, 22% experienced recent physical abuse, 9% recent sexual abuse, and 32% recent emotional abuse. A Pearson correlation was conducted and showed that all mental health symptoms were positively correlated with each type of IPV and each type of mental health symptom category. Mental health symptoms increased significantly with amount of abuse: depression (odds ratio [OR], 5.9 for 3 types of abuse), PTSD (OR, 9.4 for 3), and suicidality (OR, 17.5 for 3). Emotional, sexual, and physical IPV were significantly associated with mental health symptoms. Each type of abuse was independently associated with depression, suicidality, and PTSD. Experiencing more than 1 type of abuse was also correlated with increased mental health symptoms.

  14. Association of employment and working conditions with physical and mental health symptoms for people with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovski, Carter; Zettel-Watson, Laura; Rutledge, Dana

    2012-01-01

    This study examines physical and mental health symptoms among people with fibromyalgia (FM) by employment status and working conditions. Secondary data analysis of the 2007 National Fibromyalgia Association Questionnaire study resulted in employment and symptom information for 1702 people of working age with FM. In this cross-sectional internet study, six factors of symptom clusters (physical, mental health, sleeping, concentration, musculoskeletal, support) were seen in the data. Linear regression models used employment, age, income, gender, and education to predict symptom clusters. Among those employed, working conditions were also associated with symptom severity. In the predominately female sample, 51% were working. Of these, 70% worked over 30 hours/week and half had flexible hours. Employment, higher income, and education were strongly associated with fewer symptoms. Working conditions, including level of physical and mental exertion required on the job as well as coworkers' understanding of FM, were related to symptoms, particularly physical and mental health symptoms. Many participants reported modifying their work environment (66%) or changing occupations (33%) due to FM. Work modifications could allow more people with FM to remain employed and alleviate symptoms. Persons with FM should be counseled to consider what elements of their work may lead to symptom exacerbation.

  15. Attachment insecurity, mentalization and their relation to symptoms in eating disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.S.; van Loenhout, Z.; van der Ark, L.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. Method: We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder

  16. ASTHMA AND MENTAL HEALTH SYMPTOMS AMONG ADULT ARAB AMERICANS IN THE DETROIT AREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burden of managing chronic health problems such as asthma is often compounded by psychological distress and debilitating mental health problems associated with these conditions. In this study we assessed the relationship between asthma and self-reported mental health symptom...

  17. Child Allergic Symptoms and Mental Well-Being: The Role of Maternal Anxiety and Depression ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Teyhan, Alison; Galobardes, Bruna; Henderson, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether maternal mental health mediates the relationship between eczema or asthma symptoms and mental well-being in children. Study design Analysis of 7250 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Child mental well-being at 8 years was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary outcomes were high ‘internalizing’ (anxious/depressive) and ‘externalizing’ (oppositional/hyperactive) problems (high was >90th percentile). Child ...

  18. Perceived Discrimination and Mental Health Symptoms among Black Men with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Galvan, Frank H.; Landrine, Hope; Klein, David J.; Sticklor, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV (PLWH) exhibit more severe mental health symptoms than do members of the general public (including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder/PTSD symptoms). We examined whether perceived discrimination, which has been associated with poor mental health in prior research, contributes to greater depression and PTSD symptoms among HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at high risk for discrimination from multiple stigmatized characteristics (HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation). Method A total of 181 Black MSM living with HIV completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) that included measures of mental health symptoms (depression, PTSD) and scales assessing perceived discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Results In bivariate tests, all three perceived discrimination scales were significantly associated with greater symptoms of depression and PTSD (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales) (all p-values discrimination types (p discrimination was negatively associated with depression symptoms when considered in isolation from other forms of discrimination, but positively associated when all three types of discrimination were present. In multivariate tests, only perceived HIV-related discrimination was associated with PTSD symptoms (p discrimination contribute to poor mental health among PLWH. Researchers need to take into account intersecting stigmas when developing interventions to improve mental health among PLWH. PMID:21787061

  19. Internalized stigma of mental illness and depressive and psychotic symptoms in homeless veterans over 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani

    2016-06-30

    We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Attachment insecurity, mentalization and their relation to symptoms in eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Greet S; van Loenhout, Zara; van der Ark, L Andries; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, personality disorders, psycho-neuroticism, autonomy problems and self-injurious behavior, using the Adult Attachment Interview, the SCID-I and II and several questionnaires. Compared with the controls, the eating disorder patients showed a higher prevalence of insecure attachment; eating disorder patients more often than controls received the AAI classification Unresolved for loss or abuse. They also had a lower level of mentalization and more autonomy problems. In the patient group eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, psycho-neuroticism and autonomy problems were neither related to attachment security nor to mentalization; self-injurious behavior was associated with lesser attachment security and lower mentalization; borderline personality disorder was related to lower mentalization. In the control group no relations were found between attachment, mentalization and psychopathologic variables. Eating disorder patients' low level of mentalization suggests the usefulness of Mentalization Based Treatment techniques for eating disorder treatment, especially in case of self-injurious behavior and/or co-morbid borderline personality disorder.

  1. Mental health symptoms identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders : prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoffen, Marieke F. A.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are a leading cause of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Workers at risk of mental LTSA should preferably be identified before they report sick. The objective of this study was to examine mental health symptoms as predictors of future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted

  2. Mental health care use in relation to depressive symptoms among pregnant women in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byatt, Nancy; Xiao, Rui S; Dinh, Kate H; Waring, Molly E

    2016-02-01

    We examined mental health care use in relation to depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) ≥ 10) among a nationally representative sample of pregnant women using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012. Logistic regression models estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios for mental health care use in the past year in relation to depressive symptoms. While 8.2 % (95 % CI 4.6-11.8) of pregnant women were depressed, only 12 % (95 % CI 1.8-22.1) of these women reported mental health care use in the past year.

  3. The Role of Acculturative Stress on Mental Health Symptoms for Immigrant Adolescents: A Longitudinal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Ryce, Patrice; Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant-origin adolescents represent the fastest growing segment of youth population in the United States, and in many urban schools they represent the majority of students. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of internalizing mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms). The participants included…

  4. Benefits of Walking on Menopausal Symptoms and Mental Health Outcomes among Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hu

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Walking could be recommended for post-menopausal women to manage menopausal symptoms and promote psychological well-being. Life satisfaction may be enhanced through the improvement of mental and physical parameters (e.g., menopausal symptoms, BMI and depression.

  5. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Professional Football (Soccer) Across Five European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Backx, Frank J. G.; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the prevalence of symptoms related to distress, anxiety/depression or substance abuse/dependence, - typically referred to as symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) - is lacking in European professional football (soccer). The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence

  6. Parents' Reports of Children's Internalizing Symptoms: Associations with Parents' Mental Health Symptoms and Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Hamrick, Hannah C; Braitman, Abby L; White, Tyler D; Jenkins, Jennika

    2017-06-01

    This brief report examined the unique associations between parents' ratings of child internalizing symptoms and their own depression and anxiety in families with parental substance use disorder (SUD). Further, we examined whether parental SUD (father only, mother only, both parents) was related to discrepancy in mothers' and fathers' reports of children's internalizing symptoms. Participants were 97 triads (fathers, mothers) in which one or both parents met criteria for SUD. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to examine whether father-mother reports of child internalizing symptoms had unique associations with parents' own symptoms of depression and anxiety while controlling for child gender, child age, and SUD diagnoses. Controlling for fathers' symptoms and other covariates, mothers experiencing more depression and anxiety symptoms reported more symptoms of child internalizing symptoms than did fathers. Mothers' and fathers' SUD was associated with higher anxiety symptoms among mothers after controlling for other variables. A second set of polynomial regressions examined whether father-mother reports of child internalizing symptoms had unique associations with parents' SUD diagnoses while controlling for child gender and child age. After controlling for mothers' symptoms and other covariates, parents' reports of children's internalizing symptoms were not significantly associated with either parent's SUD or parental SUD interactions (i.e., both parents have SUD diagnoses). Taken together, mothers' ratings of children's internalizing symptoms may be accounted for, in part, by her reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

  7. Symptoms Of Common Mental Disorders In Professional Rugby: An International Observational Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hopley, Phil; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Verhagen, Evert; Viljoen, Wayne; Wylleman, Paul; Lambert, Mike I

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders among professional rugby players across countries. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study was conducted. Nine national players' associations and three rugby unions distributed questionnaires based on validated scales for assessing symptoms of common mental disorders. Among the whole study sample (N=990; overall response rate of 28%), prevalence (4-week) of symptoms of common mental disorders ranged from 15% for adverse alcohol use to 30% for anxiety/depression. These findings support the prevalence rates of symptoms of common mental disorders found in previous studies among professional (i. e., elite) athletes across other sports, and suggestions can be made that the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety/depression seems slightly higher in professional rugby than in other general/occupational populations. Awareness of the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders should be improved in international rugby, and an interdisciplinary approach including psychological attention should be fostered in the medical care of professional rugby players. Adequate supportive measures to enhance awareness and psychological resilience would lead not only to improved health and quality of life among rugby players but arguably to enhanced performance in rugby. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Signs or Symptoms of Acute HIV Infection in a Cohort Undergoing Community-Based Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Green, Nella; Camacho, Martha; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R; Smith, Davey M; Little, Susan J

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed signs and symptoms in 90 patients diagnosed with acute HIV infection in a community-based program that offered universal HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification testing. Forty-seven (52%) patients reported ongoing signs or symptoms at the time of testing. Another 25 (28%) reported signs or symptoms that had occurred during the 14 days before testing.

  9. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…

  10. Tele-Interpersonal Psychotherapy Acutely Reduces Depressive Symptoms in Depressed HIV-Infected Rural Persons: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Timothy G; Heckman, Bernadette D; Anderson, Timothy; Lovejoy, Travis I; Markowitz, John C; Shen, Ye; Sutton, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive rural individuals carry a 1.3-times greater risk of a depressive diagnosis than their urban counterparts. This randomized clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered interpersonal psychotherapy (tele-IPT) acutely relieved depressive symptoms in 132 HIV-infected rural persons from 28 states diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), partially remitted MDD, or dysthymic disorder. Patients were randomized to either 9 sessions of one-on-one tele-IPT (n = 70) or standard care (SC; n = 62). A series of intent-to-treat (ITT), therapy completer, and sensitivity analyses assessed changes in depressive symptoms, interpersonal problems, and social support from pre- to postintervention. Across all analyses, tele-IPT patients reported significantly lower depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems than SC controls; 22% of tele-IPT patients were categorized as a priori "responders" who reported 50% or higher reductions in depressive symptoms compared to only 4% of SC controls in ITT analyses. Brief tele-IPT acutely decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in depressed rural people living with HIV.

  11. Mental health of Chinese primary care patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Edmond P H; Lam, Cindy L K; Chin, Weng Yee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health of Chinese primary care patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This was a cross-sectional observational study. Five hundred and nineteen subjects with LUTS completed a structured questionnaire containing the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-Short Form, the International Prostate Symptom Score, the adapted International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form and questions about socio-demographics. Overall, 17.7% of subjects reported depressive symptoms, 24.3% anxiety symptoms and 9.6% stress symptoms. In males, demographic factors associated with poorer mental health included being not married; clinical factors included higher LUTS severity, weak stream, straining and mixed urinary incontinence. In females, demographic factors associated with poorer mental health included being younger, not married and lower household income; clinical factors included higher LUTS severity, incomplete bladder emptying, urgency and weak stream. Chinese primary care patients with LUTS appear to be an at-risk group for poorer mental health with increased prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and may require routine screening to identify those who may require more tailored interventions to address both their urinary symptoms and psychological distress.

  12. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health legislation Part II. Activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse van Rensburg, A B; Jassat, W

    2011-03-01

    This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. The study described and used activity-based costing (ABC) as an approach to analyse the recurrent cost of acute in-patient care for the financial year 2007-08. Fixed (e.g. goods and services, staff salaries) and variable recurrent costs (including laboratory' 'pharmacy') were calculated. Cost per day, per user and per diagnostic group was calculated. While the unit accounted for 4.6% of the hospital's total clinical activity (patient days), the cost of R8.12 million incurred represented only 2.4% of the total hospital expenditure (R341.36 million). Fixed costs constituted 90% of the total cost. For the total number of 520 users that stayed on average 15.4 days, the average cost was R1,023.00 per day and R15748.00 per user. Users with schizophrenia accounted for the most (35%) of the cost, while the care of users with dementia was the most expensive (R23,360.68 per user). Costing of the application of World Health Organization norms for acute care staffing for the unit, projected an average increase of 103% in recurrent costs (R5.1 million), with the bulk (a 267% increase) for nursing. In the absence of other guidelines, aligning clinical activity with the proportion of the hospital's total budget may be an approach to determine what amount should be afforded to acute mental health in-patient care activities in a general regional hospital such as HJH. Despite the potential benefits of ABC, its continued application will require time, infrastructure and staff investment to establish the capacity to maintain routine annual cost analyses for different cost centres.

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in family caregivers of adult patients with acute leukemia from a dyadic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mutian; Li, Jie; Chen, Chunyan; Cao, Fenglin

    2015-12-01

    Acute leukemia is a fatal disease in adults that not only affects the patients who suffer from it but also their family caregivers. No studies have investigated post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) in family caregivers of adult patients with acute leukemia using a matched sample. The current study examined PTSS in adult patients with acute leukemia and their family caregivers and investigated the factors associated with caregivers' PTSS. A total of 163 patient-caregiver dyads completed questionnaires assessing their PTSS, psychological resilience, and perceived social support. Hierarchical linear regression was used to explore the related factors of caregivers' PTSS. More caregivers than patients met caseness criteria for PTSS (36.8% vs. 18.4%, p caregivers, being more closely related to the patients (e.g., spouses and parents), having patients with higher PTSS and having lower psychological resilience were independently associated with more severe PTSS. Caregivers of acute leukemia patients had significantly more severe PTSS than did their patients. This study is the first to investigate PTSS among family caregivers of adult patients with acute leukemia and its related factors in a matched sample. More attention should be paid to the caregivers of patients with acute leukemia to minimize their PTSS and thus improve mental health of caregivers and reduce potential negative consequences for the patients themselves. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Acute general hospital admissions in people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Hayes, Richard D; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Stewart, Robert

    2018-02-28

    Serious mental illness (SMI, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder) is associated with worse general health. However, admissions to general hospitals have received little investigation. We sought to delineate frequencies of and causes for non-psychiatric hospital admissions in SMI and compare with the general population in the same area. Records of 18 380 individuals with SMI aged ⩾20 years in southeast London were linked to hospitalisation data. Age- and gender-standardised admission ratios (SARs) were calculated by primary discharge diagnoses in the 10th edition of the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes, referencing geographic catchment data. Commonest discharge diagnosis categories in the SMI cohort were urinary conditions, digestive conditions, unclassified symptoms, neoplasms, and respiratory conditions. SARs were raised for most major categories, except neoplasms for a significantly lower risk. Hospitalisation risks were specifically higher for poisoning and external causes, injury, endocrine/metabolic conditions, haematological, neurological, dermatological, infectious and non-specific ('Z-code') causes. The five commonest specific ICD-10 diagnoses at discharge were 'chronic renal failure' (N18), a non-specific code (Z04), 'dental caries' (K02), 'other disorders of the urinary system' (N39), and 'pain in throat and chest' (R07), all of which were higher than expected (SARs ranging 1.57-6.66). A range of reasons for non-psychiatric hospitalisation in SMI is apparent, with self-harm, self-neglect and/or reduced healthcare access, and medically unexplained symptoms as potential underlying explanations.

  15. Occupational Stress and Mental Health Symptoms: Examining the Moderating Effect of Work Recovery Strategies in Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Gargi; Jennings, Kristen S; Britt, Thomas W; Sliter, Michael T

    2017-06-12

    The goal of this research was to examine the moderating effect of work recovery strategies on the relationship between occupational stress experienced by firefighters and mental health symptoms. Work recovery strategies were identified through semistructured interviews with 20 firefighters and a literature search on recovery strategies. A total of 7 work recovery strategies emerged using the 2 methods: work-related talks, stress-related talks, time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise, recreational activities, relaxation, and mastery experiences. Using a prospective study design with a 1-month time interval in a sample of 268 firefighters, experienced occupational stress at Time 1 was positively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. In addition, with the exception of spending time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise and mastery experiences, recovery strategies at Time 1 were negatively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. Lastly, all work recovery strategies, except stress-related talks and relaxation, moderated the relationship between experienced occupational stress at Time 1 and mental health symptoms at Time 2. Specifically, the positive relationship between experienced occupational stress and mental health symptoms was stronger when firefighters engaged in low, rather than high, work recovery strategies. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Acute and subacute symptoms among workers in the printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Andersen, I; Mølhave, Lars

    1982-01-01

    , and headache. Furthermore, abdominal pain and flatulence occurred more often among the printers. The symptoms showed no relation to age or job seniority, but neurological and general symptoms were related to shift work. No difference in lung function was found between the two groups. The printers had......The study population comprised 52 male printers and 52 controls. Each person was interviewed about job history, general health, and work-related symptoms. Symptoms from eyes and airways, neurological symptoms, and general symptoms were recorded. A lung function test and a measurement of the sense...

  17. Recognizing the Symptoms of Mental Illness following Concussions in the Sports Community: A Need for Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Topolovec-Vranic

    Full Text Available To evaluate the awareness of concussion-related symptoms amongst members of the sports community in Canada.A cross-sectional national electronic survey was conducted. Youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals across Canada were recruited through mailing lists from sports-related opt-in marketing databases. Participants were asked to identify, from a list of options, the symptoms of a concussion. The proportion of identified symptoms (categorized as physical, cognitive, mental health-related and overall as well as participant factors associated with symptom recognition were analyzed.The survey elicited 6,937 responses. Most of the respondents (92.1% completed the English language survey, were male (57.7%, 35-54 years of age (61.7%, with post-secondary education (58.2%, or high reported yearly household income (>$80,000; 53.0%. There were respondents from all provinces and territories with the majority of respondents from Ontario (35.2% or British Columbia (19.1%. While participants identified most of the physical (mean = 84.2% of symptoms and cognitive (mean = 91.2% of symptoms, they on average only identified 53.5% of the mental health-related symptoms of concussions. Respondents who were older, with higher education and household income, or resided in the Northwest Territories or Alberta identified significantly more of the mental health-related symptoms listed.While Canadian youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals are able to identify most of the physical and cognitive symptoms associated with concussion, identification of mental health-related symptoms of concussion is still lagging.

  18. Common mental disorder symptoms among patients with malaria attending primary care in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Tesfaye

    Full Text Available Common Mental Disorders (CMDs are frequent among patients attending primary care. In Africa, CMDs are often misdiagnosed as physical illnesses because many of the patients complain of somatic symptoms of mental distress. We explored whether there was difference in the levels of CMD symptoms between patients with thick film confirmed and clinical cases of malaria with negative thick film in primary care.A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 300 adults with a clinical diagnosis of malaria in primary care centres in Jimma, Ethiopia. Patients were recruited consecutively until 100 cases of 'malaria' with a negative thick film and 200 cases of malaria with a positive thick film consented to participate. The 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 was used to measure CMD. The non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to explore the association between thick film result and CMD.Participants had a mean age of 28.2 (S.D = 10.9 years and the majority (57.3% were women. The prevalence of high CMD symptoms (six or more symptoms on the SRQ-20 was 24.5%. Suicidal ideation was reported by 13.8% of the participants. CMD symptoms were significantly higher in patients who had taken medication prior to visiting the primary care (p = 0.012 and in those whose symptoms had been present for seven days or more (p = 0.041. There was no statistically significant association between level of CMD symptoms and having a negative thick film result (OR 0.98; 95%CI 0.92, 1.04 or objective presence of fever (OR 1.04; 95%CI 0.93, 1.15.CMD symptoms among cases of malaria did not appear to be associated with a negative thick film result. The high levels of CMD symptoms, including suicidal ideation, calls for further studies to investigate the persistence and progression of these symptoms following resolution of the acute malarial episode.

  19. Smartphone Ownership and Interest in Mobile Applications to Monitor Symptoms of Mental Health Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Torous, John; Friedman, Rohn; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient retrospective recollection is a mainstay of assessing symptoms in mental health and psychiatry. However, evidence suggests that these retrospective recollections may not be as accurate as data collection though the experience sampling method (ESM), which captures patient data in “real time” and “real life.” However, the difficulties in practical implementation of ESM data collection have limited its impact in psychiatry and mental health. Smartphones with the capability to ...

  20. The Relationship between Community Violence Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms in Urban Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese R.

    2008-01-01

    Urban adolescents are exposed to a substantial amount of community violence which has the potential to influence psychological functioning. To examine the relationship between community violence exposure and mental health symptoms in urban adolescents, a literature review using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, CSA Social Services, and CSA Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Search terms included adolescent/adolescence, violence, urban, mental health, well-being, emotional distress, depres...

  1. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouttebarge Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01 were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population.

  2. Mental Strain and Chronic Stress among University Students with Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D. Gulewitsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the degree of mental strain and chronic stress in a German community sample of students with IBS-like symptoms. Methods and Materials. Following an internet-based survey about stress, this study recruited 176 German university students (23.45±2.48 years; 48.3% males with IBS-like symptoms according to Rome III and 181 students without IBS (23.55±2.82 years; 50.3% males and compared them regarding current mental strain (SCL-90-R and the extend of chronic stress. Beyond this, IBS subtypes, IBS severity, and health care utilization were assessed. Results. Students fulfilling IBS criteria showed significantly elevated values of mental strain and chronic stress. Nearly 40% of the IBS group (versus 20% of the controls reached a clinically relevant value on the SCL-90-R global severity scale. IBS subtypes did not differ in terms of mental distress or chronic stress. Somatization, anxiety, and the chronic stressors “work overload,” “social tension,” and “dissatisfaction with job” were most closely connected to IBS symptom severity. Regarding health care utilization, our results show that consulting a physician frequently was not associated significantly with elevated mental strain or chronic stress but with IBS symptom severity. Conclusion. Our data contribute additional evidence to the distinct association between psychological stress and IBS in community samples.

  3. A longitudinal study of mental health symptoms in young prisoners: exploring the influence of personal factors and the correctional climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Leonel C; Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Dirkzwager, Anja J E

    2016-04-06

    Despite the high prevalence rate of mental health problems among young prisoners, little is known about the longitudinal course and covariates of their mental health symptoms during incarceration, especially the influence of the correctional climate. The current study aimed: (1) to examine changes in young prisoners' mental health symptoms during incarceration, (2) to identify personal factors associated with their mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate, and (3) to test the incremental effect of perceptions of the correctional climate on mental health symptoms. Data were obtained from a sample of 75 youths (aged 17 to 22 years) detained in a Portuguese young offender prison. Data were gathered 1, 3, and 6 months after their admission in this facility. Socio-demographic, clinical and criminological variables were collected. Mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate were assessed through self-report assessment tools. Linear and logistic (multi-level) regressions and tests for differences between means were performed to analyze the data. Overall, mental health symptoms marginally declined by the sixth month in prison. Prisoners with a history of mental health treatment were more likely to have increased symptoms. Higher levels of mental health symptoms were associated with a history of mental health treatment, remand status, and a lower educational level. Better perceptions of the correctional climate were associated with Black race and participation in prison activities. A negative perception of the correctional climate was the strongest covariate of young prisoners' mental health symptoms and had incremental validity over that of personal variables. The results highlight that both characteristics of the prisoners and of the prison environment influence young prisoners' mental health. Prison management can try to reduce young prisoners' mental health problems by developing scientific procedures for their mental

  4. Dynamic changes in saliva after acute mental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Ella A.; Sandulescu, Tudor; Bochnig, Clemens; Khatib, Philipp Al; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

    2014-01-01

    Stress-related variations of fluoride concentration in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment, salivary cortisol, total protein and pH after acute mental stress were assessed. The hypothesis was that stress reactions have no influence on these parameters. Thirty-four male students were distributed into two groups: first received the stress exposure followed by the same protocol two weeks later but without stress exposure, second underwent the protocol without stress exposure followed by the stress exposure two weeks later. The stressor was a public speech followed by tooth brushing. Saliva was collected before, immediately after stress induction and immediately, at 10, 30 and 120 min. after tooth brushing. Cortisol concentrations, total protein, intraoral pH, and fluoride content in saliva were measured. The data were analyzed statistically. Salivary sediment was ca 4.33% by weight of whole unstimulated saliva. Fluoride bioavailability was higher in salivary sediment than in supernatant saliva. The weight and fluoride concentration was not altered during 2 hours after stress exposure. After a public speech, the salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased after 20 minutes compared to the baseline. The salivary protein concentration and pH also increased. Public speaking influences protein concentration and salivary pH but does not alter the fluoride concentration of saliva. PMID:24811301

  5. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the ...

  6. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12-14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children's externalizing symptoms. Fathers' parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children's mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  7. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Slone

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children’s externalizing symptoms. Fathers’ parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children’s mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  8. Onset of Crohn’s Disease by Symptoms of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya.I. Lomei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of current views on Crohn’s disease (CD has been carried out. A case report of the sudden onset of CD by symptoms of acute appendicitis in young patient is described. The events took place as follows: cumulative negative impact of risk factors — acute CD with primary lesion of vermiform appendix — clinical manifestations of acute appendicitis — appendectomy — recovery, possibly deceptive.

  9. Borchardt Triade: A Symptom of Acute Gastric Volvulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Bilici

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus, especially cases with an acute onset, may result in strangulation, perforation, peritonitis, shock and death. The disease is rarely seen in children, but early diagnosis and treatment is essential due to its life-threatening potential. In patients with acute gastric volvulus, the clinical Borchardt triade may be observed, which is characterized by acute severe pain and distension in the upper abdomen or lower thoracic region, retching and the inability to pass a nasogastric tube. In this article, We  aimed to emphasize the Borchardt’s triad by presenting a pediatric case who was diagnosed with Borchardt’s triad and who had acute mesenteric axial gastric volvulus which diaphragmatic hernia and mobile (wandering spleen were accompanied.

  10. Acute and Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in the Emergence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Forbes, David; McFarlane, Alexander C; Silove, Derrick; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2017-02-01

    Little is understood about how the symptoms of posttraumatic stress develop over time into the syndrome of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To use a network analysis approach to identify the nature of the association between PTSD symptoms in the acute phase after trauma and the chronic phase. A prospective cohort study enrolled 1138 patients recently admitted with traumatic injury to 1 of 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia from March 13, 2004, to February 26, 2006. Participants underwent assessment during hospital admission (n = 1388) and at 12 months after injury (n = 852). Networks of symptom associations were analyzed in the acute and chronic phases using partial correlations, relative importance estimates, and centrality measures of each symptom in terms of its association strengths, closeness to other symptoms, and importance in connecting other symptoms to each other. Data were analyzed from March 3 to September 5, 2016. Severity of PTSD was assessed at each assessment with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Of the 1138 patients undergoing assessment at admission (837 men [73.6%] and 301 women [26.4%]; mean [SD] age, 37.90 [13.62] years), strong connections were found in the acute phase. Reexperiencing symptoms were central to other symptoms in the acute phase, with intrusions and physiological reactivity among the most central symptoms in the networks in terms of the extent to which they occur between other symptoms (mean [SD], 1.2 [0.7] and 1.0 [0.9], respectively), closeness to other symptoms (mean [SD], 0.9 [0.3] and 1.1 [0.9], respectively), and strength of the associations (mean [SD], 1.6 [0.3] and 1.5 [0.3] respectively) among flashbacks, intrusions, and avoidance of thoughts, with moderately strong connections between intrusions and nightmares, being upset by reminders, and physiological reactivity. Intrusions and physiological reactivity were central in the acute phase. Among the 852 patients (73.6%) who completed the 12-month

  11. Symptoms of common mental disorders and related stressors in Danish professional football and handball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Özgür; Aoki, Haruhito; Haagensen, Rasmus; Jensen, Claus; Johnson, Urban; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was twofold, namely (i) to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) among current and retired professional football and handball players and (ii) to explore the relationship of psychosocial stressors with the outcome measures under study. A total of

  12. Associations between Positive Mental Wellbeing and Depressive Symptoms in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadow, Corinne; Houghton, Stephen; Hunter, Simon C.; Rosenberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the association and directionality of effect between mental wellbeing and depressive symptoms in Australian adolescents. Data were collected on two occasions 21 months apart. At Time 1, 1,762 10- to 14-year-old adolescents from a range of socio-economic status areas participated. At Time 2 (T2), 1,575 participated again. On…

  13. Internalizing Mental Health Disorders: Examining the Connection between Children's Symptoms and Parent Involvement and Autonomy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine the connection between parent involvement and autonomy support, as well as the combined construct of autonomy supportive parent involvement, with internalized mental health symptoms. A secondary purpose of this study is to determine how certain parent demographics relate to attitudes and behaviors…

  14. Symptoms Of Common Mental Disorders In Professional Rugby: An International Observational Descriptive Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hopley, Phil; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Verhagen, Evert; Viljoen, Wayne; Wylleman, Paul; Lambert, Mike I.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders among professional rugby players across countries. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study was conducted. Nine national players' associations and

  15. Mental Health Symptoms among Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Sandi D.; Branscum, Adam J.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if and to what extent student service members/veterans differ from civilian college students in the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of poor mental health. Participants: The Fall 2011 implementation of the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment included 27,774…

  16. Prevalence and determinants of symptoms of common mental disorders in retired professional Rugby Union players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to

  17. The influence of psychological symptoms on mental health literacy of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin E; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan

    2015-11-01

    Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report 2 studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Mental Wellbeing and Self-reported Symptoms of Reproductive Tract Infections among Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama A. Khopkar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the self-reported mental wellbeing among slum-dwelling adolescents in Western India and asked whether adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental wellbeing and self-reported symptoms suggestive of reproductive tract infections (RTIs were associated. A sub-section of a cross-sectional personal interview survey among unmarried 10–18-year-old adolescents (n= 85 in a slum in the city of Nashik was analyzed. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between sociodemographic variables, physical health indicators, and adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental wellbeing. Nearly every other postmenarcheal girl reported having experienced symptoms suggestive of RTIs during the last twelve months. Adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental health and some aspects of somatic health appear to be closely interrelated. Understanding the relationship between adolescent mental wellbeing and reproductive health in low-income countries requires further investigation. Health service development in growing informal urban agglomerations in India and beyond should provide combined mental and reproductive health services for adolescents.  

  19. Personality, Attentional Biases towards Emotional Faces and Symptoms of Mental Disorders in an Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Pihl, Robert O; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Conrod, Patricia J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of personality factors and attentional biases towards emotional faces, in establishing concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorder diagnosis in adolescence. Data were obtained as part of the IMAGEN study, conducted across 8 European sites, with a community sample of 2257 adolescents. At 14 years, participants completed an emotional variant of the dot-probe task, as well two personality measures, namely the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale and the revised NEO Personality Inventory. At 14 and 16 years, participants and their parents were interviewed to determine symptoms of mental disorders. Personality traits were general and specific risk indicators for mental disorders at 14 years. Increased specificity was obtained when investigating the likelihood of mental disorders over a 2-year period, with the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale showing incremental validity over the NEO Personality Inventory. Attentional biases to emotional faces did not characterise or predict mental disorders examined in the current sample. Personality traits can indicate concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorders in a community youth sample, and identify at-risk youth beyond the impact of baseline symptoms. This study does not support the hypothesis that attentional biases mediate the relationship between personality and psychopathology in a community sample. Task and sample characteristics that contribute to differing results among studies are discussed.

  20. Mental and somatic symptoms related to suicidal ideation in patients visiting a psychosomatic clinic in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Yoshimasu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Kouichi Yoshimasu1, Tetsuya Kondo2,4, Shoji Tokunaga3, Yoshio Kanemitsu2, Hideyo Sugahara2, Mariko Akamine2, Kanichiro Fujisawa2, Kazuhisa Miyashita1, Chiharu Kubo21Department of Hygiene, School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan; 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate school of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Medical Informatics, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 4Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Kansai University of Health Sciences, Osaka, JapanAbstract: Patients with suicidal ideation (SI have various mental or somatic symptoms. A questionnaire-based interview elicited details concerning mental and somatic symptoms in patients visiting a psychosomatic clinic in Japan. Univariate logistic regression analyses followed by multiple regression models using a stepwise method were selected for identifying the candidate symptoms. Overall, symptoms related to depression were associated with SI in both sexes. Although women showed more various somatic symptoms associated with SI than men, many of those associations were diminished once severity of the depression was controlled. The current results suggest that a variety of self-reported symptoms, mainly related to depression, might reveal suicidal risk in outpatients with an urban hospital clinical setting.Keywords: suicidal ideation, psychosomatic clinic, subjective symptoms

  1. Comorbid internet addiction in male clients of inpatient addiction rehabilitation centers: psychiatric symptoms and mental comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Koch, Andreas; Dickenhorst, Ulrike; Müller, Kai W

    2013-11-01

    Addictive Internet use has recently been proposed to be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Still, little is known about its nosological features, including comorbidity with other mental disorders and disorder-specific psychopathological symptoms. To investigate whether Internet addiction (IA) is an issue in patients in addiction treatment, 1826 clients were surveyed in 15 inpatient rehabilitation centers. Male patients meeting criteria for comorbid IA (n = 71) were compared with a matched control group of male patients treated for alcohol addiction without addictive Internet use (n = 58). The SCL-90-R, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder were used to assess associated psychiatric symptoms and further comorbid disorders. Comorbid IA was associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, especially depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity. Moreover, the patients with IA more frequently met criteria for additional mental disorders. They display higher rates of psychiatric symptoms, especially depression, and might be in need of additional therapeutic treatment. In rehabilitation centers, a regular screening for IA is recommended to identify patients with this (non-substance-related) addiction and supply them with additional disorder-specific treatment.

  2. Child Allergic Symptoms and Mental Well-Being: The Role of Maternal Anxiety and Depression☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyhan, Alison; Galobardes, Bruna; Henderson, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether maternal mental health mediates the relationship between eczema or asthma symptoms and mental well-being in children. Study design Analysis of 7250 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Child mental well-being at 8 years was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary outcomes were high ‘internalizing’ (anxious/depressive) and ‘externalizing’ (oppositional/hyperactive) problems (high was >90th percentile). Child rash and wheeze categories were ‘none’; ‘early onset transient’ (infancy/preschool only); ‘persistent’ (infancy/preschool and at school age); and ‘late onset’ (school age only). Maternal anxiety and depression were reported during pregnancy and when child was 8 years old. Results Persistent wheezing symptoms were associated with high externalizing (OR 1.74, 95% CI, 1.41-2.15) and internalizing (1.67, 1.35-2.06) problems compared with never wheeze. Maternal anxiety and depression, and disrupted child sleep, attenuated these associations. Persistent rash (externalizing: 1.74, 1.40-2.15; internalizing: 1.42, 1.16-1.74) and late onset rash (externalizing: 1.62, 1.17-2.25; internalizing: 1.46, 1.07-1.99) symptoms were associated with poorer mental well-being compared with no rash at any age. Maternal anxiety and depression, particularly when child was aged 8 years rather than during pregnancy, accounted for the association with internalizing symptoms and partly for externalizing symptoms. Sleep disruption did not mediate the association. Conclusions Maternal anxiety and depression may mediate the association between child rash and wheeze and child mental well-being. PMID:24952709

  3. Child allergic symptoms and mental well-being: the role of maternal anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyhan, Alison; Galobardes, Bruna; Henderson, John

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether maternal mental health mediates the relationship between eczema or asthma symptoms and mental well-being in children. Analysis of 7250 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Child mental well-being at 8 years was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary outcomes were high 'internalizing' (anxious/depressive) and 'externalizing' (oppositional/hyperactive) problems (high was >90th percentile). Child rash and wheeze categories were 'none'; 'early onset transient' (infancy/preschool only); 'persistent' (infancy/preschool and at school age); and 'late onset' (school age only). Maternal anxiety and depression were reported during pregnancy and when child was 8 years old. Persistent wheezing symptoms were associated with high externalizing (OR 1.74, 95% CI, 1.41-2.15) and internalizing (1.67, 1.35-2.06) problems compared with never wheeze. Maternal anxiety and depression, and disrupted child sleep, attenuated these associations. Persistent rash (externalizing: 1.74, 1.40-2.15; internalizing: 1.42, 1.16-1.74) and late onset rash (externalizing: 1.62, 1.17-2.25; internalizing: 1.46, 1.07-1.99) symptoms were associated with poorer mental well-being compared with no rash at any age. Maternal anxiety and depression, particularly when child was aged 8 years rather than during pregnancy, accounted for the association with internalizing symptoms and partly for externalizing symptoms. Sleep disruption did not mediate the association. Maternal anxiety and depression may mediate the association between child rash and wheeze and child mental well-being. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing the Obvious: Interactional characteristics of staff in acute mental health nursing and forensic psychiatric nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on and compares two separate studies of the interactional characteristics of forensic mental health staff and acute mental health staff as they interact with inpatients, respectively. Both studies were conducted using participant observation, along with informal and formal...... interviews. Findings show that both acute and forensic mental health nursing practice is characterized by two overriding themes; ‘trust and relationship-enabling care’ and ‘behavior and perception-corrective care.’ The comparison of the two studies shows no major differences in the characteristics of staff...

  5. Smartphone ownership and interest in mobile applications to monitor symptoms of mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Friedman, Rohn; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2014-01-21

    Patient retrospective recollection is a mainstay of assessing symptoms in mental health and psychiatry. However, evidence suggests that these retrospective recollections may not be as accurate as data collection though the experience sampling method (ESM), which captures patient data in "real time" and "real life." However, the difficulties in practical implementation of ESM data collection have limited its impact in psychiatry and mental health. Smartphones with the capability to run mobile applications may offer a novel method of collecting ESM data that may represent a practical and feasible tool for mental health and psychiatry. This paper aims to provide data on psychiatric patients' prevalence of smartphone ownership, patterns of use, and interest in utilizing mobile applications to monitor their mental health conditions. One hundred psychiatric outpatients at a large urban teaching hospital completed a paper-and-pencil survey regarding smartphone ownership, use, and interest in utilizing mobile applications to monitor their mental health condition. Ninety-seven percent of patients reported owning a phone and 72% reported that their phone was a smartphone. Patients in all age groups indicated greater than 50% interest in using a mobile application on a daily basis to monitor their mental health condition. Smartphone and mobile applications represent a practical opportunity to explore new modalities of monitoring, treatment, and research of psychiatric and mental health conditions.

  6. Neurosensory Symptom Complexes after Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Hoffer

    Full Text Available Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI is a prominent public health issue. To date, subjective symptom complaints primarily dictate diagnostic and treatment approaches. As such, the description and qualification of these symptoms in the mTBI patient population is of great value. This manuscript describes the symptoms of mTBI patients as compared to controls in a larger study designed to examine the use of vestibular testing to diagnose mTBI. Five symptom clusters were identified: Post-Traumatic Headache/Migraine, Nausea, Emotional/Affective, Fatigue/Malaise, and Dizziness/Mild Cognitive Impairment. Our analysis indicates that individuals with mTBI have headache, dizziness, and cognitive dysfunction far out of proportion to those without mTBI. In addition, sleep disorders and emotional issues were significantly more common amongst mTBI patients than non-injured individuals. A simple set of questions inquiring about dizziness, headache, and cognitive issues may provide diagnostic accuracy. The consideration of other symptoms may be critical for providing prognostic value and treatment for best short-term outcomes or prevention of long-term complications.

  7. Shared versus distinct genetic contributions of mental wellbeing with depression and anxiety symptoms in healthy twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Kylie M; Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Leanne M; Harris, Anthony; Schofield, Peter R; Clark, C Richard; Gatt, Justine M

    2016-10-30

    Mental wellbeing and mental illness symptoms are typically conceptualized as opposite ends of a continuum, despite only sharing about a quarter in common variance. We investigated the normative variation in measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety in 1486 twins who did not meet clinical criteria for an overt diagnosis. We quantified the shared versus distinct genetic and environmental variance between wellbeing and depression and anxiety symptoms. The majority of participants (93%) reported levels of depression and anxiety symptoms within the healthy range, yet only 23% reported a wellbeing score within the "flourishing" range: the remainder were within the ranges of "moderate" (67%) or "languishing" (10%). In twin models, measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety shared 50.09% of variance due to genetic factors and 18.27% due to environmental factors; the rest of the variance was due to unique variation impacting wellbeing or depression and anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that an absence of clinically-significant symptoms of depression and anxiety does not necessarily indicate that an individual is flourishing. Both unique and shared genetic and environmental factors may determine why some individuals flourish in the absence of symptoms while others do not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of interleukin-8 and neutrophils with nasal symptom severity during acute respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Kelsey M; Hayney, Mary S; Xie, Yaoguo; Zhang, Zhengjun; Barrett, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    Using a large data set (n = 811), the relationship between acute respiratory infection illness severity and inflammatory biomarkers was investigated to determine whether certain symptoms are correlated more closely than others with the inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and nasal neutrophils. Participants with community acquired acute respiratory infection underwent nasal lavage for IL-8 and neutrophil testing, in addition to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the detection and identification of respiratory viruses. Information about symptoms was obtained throughout the duration of the illness episode using the well-validated Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21). Global symptom severity was calculated by the area under the curve (AUC) plotting duration versus WURSS total. Of the specimens tested, 56% were positively identified for one or more of nine different respiratory viruses. During acute respiratory infection illness, both IL-8 and neutrophils positively correlate with AUC (r(s) = 0.082, P = 0.022; r(s)  = 0.080, P = 0.030). IL-8 and neutrophils correlate with nasal symptom severity: runny nose (r = 0.13, P = acute respiratory infection. Further research is necessary to determine if the concentration of these or other biomarkers can predict the overall duration and severity of acute respiratory infection illness. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The effects of mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences among at-risk adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.; Hunter, Sarah B.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Based on expectancy theory, adolescents at risk for mental health symptoms, such as those involved in the juvenile court system, may use marijuana due to the belief that use will attenuate anxiety and depressive symptoms. In a diverse sample of youth involved in the Santa Barbara Teen Court system (N = 193), we examined the association between mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences. In general, stronger positive expectancies and weaker negative exp...

  10. Stress-Related Mental Health Symptoms in Coast Guard: Incidence, Vulnerability, and Neurocognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Servatius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available U.S. Coast Guard (CG personnel face occupational stressors (e.g., search and rescue which compound daily life stressors encountered by civilians. However, the degree CG personnel express stress-related mental health symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD is understudied as a military branch, and little is known concerning the interplay of vulnerabilities and neurocognitive outcomes in CG personnel. The current study addressed this knowledge gap, recruiting 241 active duty CG personnel (22% female to assess mental health, personality, and neurocognitive function. Participants completed a battery of scales: PTSD Checklist with military and non-military prompts to screen for PTSD, Psychological Health Questionnaire 8 for MDD, and scales for behaviorally inhibited (BI temperament, and distressed (Type D personality. Neurocognitive performance was assessed with the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA battery. Cluster scoring yielded an overall rate of PTSD of 15% (95% CI: 11–20% and 8% (95% CI: 3–9% for MDD. Non-military trauma was endorsed twice that of military trauma in those meeting criteria for PTSD. Individual vulnerabilities were predictive of stress-related mental health symptoms in active duty military personnel; specifically, BI temperament predicted PTSD whereas gender and Type D personality predicted MDD. Stress-related mental health symptoms were also associated with poorer reaction time and response inhibition. These results suggest rates of PTSD and MDD are comparable among CG personnel serving Boat Stations to those of larger military services after combat deployment. Further, vulnerabilities distinguished between PTSD and MDD, which have a high degree of co-occurrence in military samples. To what degree stress-related mental healthy symptoms and attendant neurocognitive deficits affect operational effectiveness remains unknown and warrant future study.

  11. Symptoms and treatment of mental illness among prisoners: a study of Michigan state prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Brant E; Schmorrow, Angela; Lang, Sylvia W; Margolis, Philip M; Heany, Julia; Brown, Greg P; Barbaree, Howard E; Hirdes, John P

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on a representative sample of prisoners in Michigan correctional facilities to determine the prevalence of psychiatric illness and the delivery of mental health (MH) services. Mental health assessments were conducted with 618 incarcerated subjects using the interRAI Correctional Facilities (interRAI CF). Subjects were randomly sampled based on four strata: males in the general population, males in administrative segregation, males in special units, and females. The interRAI CF assessments were merged with secondary data provided by the Michigan Department of Corrections (MDOC) containing information on MH diagnoses or services that the subjects were receiving within the facilities, demographics, and sentencing. Study results show that 20.1% of men and 24.8% of women in Michigan prisons have a substantial level of MH symptoms and that 16.5% and 28.9%, respectively, are receiving MH services. However, when compared with Michigan Department of Corrections MH care records, 65.0% of prisoners who are experiencing symptoms of mental illness are not currently receiving any psychiatric services. The mis-match between symptoms and service delivery suggests the need for improved procedures for identifying and measuring psychiatric symptoms within Michigan correctional facilities to ensure that appropriate individuals receive needed care. It is recommended that a standardized assessment process be implemented and conducted at regular intervals for targeting and improving psychiatric care in the prison system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Professional Football (Soccer Across Five European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gouttebarge, Frank J.G. Backx, Haruhito Aoki, Gino M.M.J. Kerkhoffs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence on the prevalence of symptoms related to distress, anxiety/depression or substance abuse/dependence, – typically referred to as symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD – is lacking in European professional football (soccer. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of symptoms related to CMD (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, and adverse nutrition behaviour in professional footballers from five European countries, and to explore associations of the outcome measures under study with life events and career dissatisfaction. A cross-sectional design was used. Questionnaires were distributed among professional footballers by the national players’ unions in Finland, France, Norway, Spain and Sweden. The highest prevalence of symptoms related to common mental disorders were 18% for distress (Sweden, 43% for anxiety/depression (Norway, 33% for sleeping disturbance (Spain, 17% for adverse alcohol behaviour (Finland, and 74% for adverse nutrition behaviour (Norway. In Finland, France and Sweden, both life events and career dissatisfaction were associated with distress, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol behaviour, and adverse nutrition behaviour. Results suggest the need for self-awareness in professional football about common mental disorders and a multidisciplinary approach by the medical team.

  13. Maternal depressive symptoms in pediatric major depressive disorder: relationship to acute treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D; Hughes, Jennifer L; Stewart, Sunita M; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J

    2008-06-01

    In the present study, we assess maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of treatment to investigate the possible reciprocal relationship of maternal illness with the child's depressive illness and treatment. We present data on 146 children and their mothers who were participating in a pediatric acute treatment study of fluoxetine. Patients were assessed with the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised at baseline and at each treatment visit. Mothers completed the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report at baseline and end of acute treatment. Thirty percent of mothers had moderate to severe levels of depressive symptoms at the child's baseline assessment. Overall, mothers reported improvement in maternal depressive symptoms at the end of their child's acute treatment, although maternal depression was not specifically targeted for intervention. Furthermore, mother's depressive symptoms appear to be associated with the child's depression severity both at the beginning and end of treatment. Mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms had children with higher levels of depression severity at baseline and over the course of treatment. However, maternal depressive symptoms at baseline had no association with the rate of improvement of child depression severity. This study indicates a positive relationship between the depression severity of mothers and their children. These findings highlight potential areas of intervention in the acute treatment of childhood depression.

  14. Family functioning and mental health in runaway youth: association with posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J; Cochran, Gerald; Barczyk, Amanda N

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the direct effects of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, poor family communication and worries concerning family relationships, depression, anxiety, and dissociation on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Runaway youth were recruited from emergency youth shelters in New York and Texas. Interviews were completed with 350 youth who averaged 15 years of age. Structural equation modeling was used to examine family functioning, maltreatment, depression, dissociation, and anxiety in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results indicated that direct effects of family relationship worry to dissociation, β = .77, p family communication and youth dissociation, β = .42, p stress symptoms, but depression was not. Findings underscore the critical role of family relationships in mental health symptoms experienced by runaway adolescents. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  15. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust and Stress on the Acute Phase Response and Symptoms in the Chemically Intolerant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiedler, Nancy; Leumbach, Robert; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul; Zhang, Jungfeng; Lehrer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    .... The purpose of the proposed study is to test a model for chemical sensitivity in GWV in which simultaneous acute exposures to DE and psychological stress cause increased symptoms via the acute phase response (APR...

  16. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust and Stress on the Acute Phase Response and Symptoms in the Chemically Intolerant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiedler, Nancy L; Laumbach, Robert; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul; Zhang, Lunfeng

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The proposed study is designed to test a model of Gulf War Illness, in which simultaneous acute exposures to DE and psychological stress cause increased symptoms via the acute phase response (APR...

  17. Symptoms of acute stress in Jewish and Arab Israeli citizens during the Second Lebanon War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahav, Rivka; Cohen, Miri

    2007-10-01

    The "Second Lebanon War" exposed northern Israel to massive missile attacks, aimed at civilian centers, Jewish and Arab, for a period of several weeks. To assess prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and acute stress symptoms (ASS) in Jewish and Arab samples, and their correlates with demographic and exposure variables. Telephone survey conducted in the third week of the second Lebanon war with a random sample of 133 Jewish and 66 Arab adult residents of northern Israel. ASD, ASS and symptoms-related impairment were measured by the Acute Stress Disorder Interview (ASDI) questionnaire, in addition to war-related exposure and demographic data. The majority of respondents experienced at least one of four symptom groups of ASD, 5.5% of the Jewish respondents and 20.3% of the Arabs met the criteria of ASD. Higher rates of Arab respondents reported symptoms of dissociation, reexperiencing and arousal, but a similar rate of avoidance was reported by the two samples. Higher mean scores of ASS and of symptoms-related impairment were reported by the Arab respondents. According to multiple regression analyses, younger age, female gender, Arab ethnicity and experiencing the war more intensely as a stressor significantly explained ASS variance, while Arab ethnicity and proximity to missiles exploding significantly explained the variance of symptoms-related impairment. A substantial rate of participants experienced symptoms of acute stress, while for only small proportion were the symptoms consistent with ASD. Higher ASD and ASS were reported by the Arab sample, calling attention to the need to build interventions to reduce the present symptoms and to help prepare for possible similar situations in the future.

  18. School-Based Mental Health Program Evaluation: Children's School Outcomes and Acute Mental Health Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Mandell, David S.; Hadley, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of school-based mental health programs on children's school outcomes and the utilization of acute mental health services. Methods: The study sample included 468 Medicaid-enrolled children aged 6 to 17 years who were enrolled 1 of 2 school-based mental health programs (SBMHs) in a metropolitan area…

  19. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  20. Symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of acute myocardial infarction: the HUNT 2 study

    OpenAIRE

    Gustad, Lise Tuset; Laugsand, Lars Erik; Janszky, Imre; Dalen, Håvard; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2013-01-01

    Aims The nature of the association of depression and anxiety with risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. We aimed to study the prospective association of single and recurrent self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression with a risk of AMI in a large Norwegian population based cohort. Methods and results In the second wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995–97) baseline data on anxiety and depression symptoms, sociodemographic variables, health status...

  1. The effect of acute physical and mental stress on soluble cellular adhesion molecule concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, E Blake; Franco, R Lee; Caslin, Heather L; Blanks, Anson M; Bowen, Mary K; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2016-07-15

    This study investigated the impact of acute physical and mental stress on serum concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and CX3CL1/fractalkine. Male volunteers (n=20; 21.3±0.55years of age) completed a graded treadmill test to exhaustion and a 20-minute mental stress task (Stroop Color-Word Test, mental arithmetic) on separate, non-consecutive days. Heart rate (HR) was measured at baseline and throughout exercise and mental stress. Blood was collected at baseline (PRE), immediately following (POST) and 30min after (POST30) exercise and mental stress. Soluble VCAM-1 and fractalkine were quantified in participant serum via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Both treadmill exercise and the mental stress task significantly increased participant HR; although, exercise resulted in a substantially greater increase in participant HR compared to mental stress (197.82±11.99 vs. 38.67±3.10% [pstress task did not significantly alter serum VCAM-1 or fractalkine at any time point. In conclusion, maximal aerobic exercise results in a significant elevation of the soluble adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and fractalkine in the serum of adult males that does not occur following laboratory-induced mental stress. The findings of the current investigation may suggest a novel protective role for acute aerobic exercise in vascular health via exercise-induced CAM proteolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigating the efficacy of a whole team, psychologically informed, acute mental health service approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araci, David; Clarke, Isabel

    2017-08-01

    Service user demand and service changes, from hospital based, to community and hospital mix, within acute adult mental health services, focus the need for psychologically informed, holistic, approaches. (1) Describe and report feasibility of a psychologically led Intensive Support Programme (ISP) to meet this need. (2) Present results of a pilot evaluation of this programme. ISP was implemented in four acute mental health services of the Southern Health NHS Trust, available to both inpatient and outpatient acute services. Evaluation of the service one month after data collection, illustrates operation and level of uptake across different professional roles. The programme was evaluated by assessing psychological distress (CORE-10) and confidence in self-management (Mental Health Confidence Scale) of participating service users before and after intervention. The service evaluation demonstrated extensive roll out of this programme across acute services of an extensive NHS Trust. Repeated measure t-tests demonstrated significant decrease in distress (p mental health (p mental health service and results in improvement in self management skills and facilitation of recovery.

  3. Does mental health history explain gender disparities in insomnia symptoms among young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Lauren; Do, D Phuong; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Heron, Melonie; Finch, Brian K; Dubowitz, Tamara; Lurie, Nicole; Bird, Chloe E

    2009-12-01

    Insomnia is the most commonly reported sleep disorder, characterized by trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early. Previous epidemiological data reveal that women are more likely than men to suffer from insomnia symptoms. We investigate the role that mental health history plays in explaining the gender disparity in insomnia symptoms. Using logistic regression, we analyze National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III interview and laboratory data, merged with data on sociodemographic characteristics of the residential census tract of respondents. Our sample includes 5469 young adults (ages 20-39) from 1429 census tracts. Consistent with previous research, we find that women are more likely to report insomnia symptoms compared to men (16.7% vs. 9.2%). However, in contrast to previous work, we show that the difference between women's and men's odds of insomnia becomes statistically insignificant after adjusting for history of mental health conditions (OR=1.08, p>.05). The gender disparity in insomnia symptoms may be driven by higher prevalence of affective disorders among women. This finding has implications for clinical treatment of both insomnia and depression, especially among women.

  4. High rates of respiratory symptoms and airway disease in mental health inpatients in a tertiary centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Andrew J; Hay, Karen; Chadwick, Alex; Siskind, Dan; Sheridan, Judith

    2018-04-01

    People with severe mental illness (SMI) have a lower life expectancy due in part to a higher prevalence of cardiac and metabolic disease. Less is known of the prevalence of respiratory disease in this group. This cross-sectional, observational study aimed to assess the prevalence of symptoms associated with respiratory disease in patients admitted to an inpatient mental health unit. A convenience sample of 82 inpatients had a structured interview and questionnaire completed. The questionnaire included self-reported diagnoses of common diseases and screening questions designed to detect respiratory disease and sleep disordered breathing. Targeted spirometry was performed on the basis of symptoms and smoking status. Patients reported high rates of respiratory symptoms, including wheezing (38%) and dyspnoea (44%); 52% of patients reported daily tobacco use. Productive cough was significantly associated with tobacco use (P disease (COPD) of whom six did not have a formal diagnosis of COPD previously. People with SMI have high rates of respiratory symptoms with a high prevalence of COPD on spirometry. Half of the COPD cases were not previously diagnosed, suggesting a hidden burden of respiratory disease in patients with SMI. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Mental disorders in patients with acute necrotic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The prognosis of patients with acute pancreatitis is still uncertain regardless of modern therapeutic procedures. It is even more emphasized if the acute pancreatitis is followed by psychic disorders. Objective The aim of the study was to provide an overview of the incidence of certain psychosomatic disorders in patients with acute pancreatitis and evaluate priority therapeutic procedures. Method In this study, we analyzed 16 patients with psychosomatic disorders followed by the episode of acute pancreatitis among 202 patients that were hospitalized in the period from 1993 until 2000. The diagnosis was based on anamnesis, clinical and laboratory findings and diagnostic procedures such as X-ray, US, CT and MRI. Results Among 16 patients with psychosomatic disorders followed by acute pancreatitis, 13 (81.25% patients were operated on and 3 (18.75% patients were medically treated. 6 patients experienced hallucinations, 5 memory deficiency, 16 disorientation and 14 confabulation. Conclusion Psychosomatic disorders in patients with acute pancreatitis require complex medical treatment. Due to the already mentioned complications, the management of these conditions is very difficult and with uncertain.

  6. Symptoms of common mental disorders and related stressors in Danish professional football and handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Özgür; Aoki, Haruhito; Haagensen, Rasmus; Jensen, Claus; Johnson, Urban; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was twofold, namely (i) to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) among current and retired professional football and handball players and (ii) to explore the relationship of psychosocial stressors with the outcome measures under study. A total of 1155 players were enrolled in an observational study based on a cross-sectional design. Questionnaires based on validated scales were set up and distributed among current and retired professional football and handball players by the Danish football and handball players' union. In professional football, the highest prevalence (4 weeks) of symptoms of CMDs was 18% and 19% for anxiety/depression among current and retired players, respectively. In professional handball, the highest prevalence (4 weeks) of symptoms of CMDs was 26% and 16% for anxiety/depression among current and retired players, respectively. For both the current and retired professional football and handball players, a higher number of severe injuries and recent adverse life events (LE) were related to the presence of symptoms of CMD. Players exposed to severe injuries and/or recent adverse LE were 20-50% times more likely to report symptoms of CMD. The results suggest that it is possible to recognize the population of professional athletes that are more likely to develop symptoms of CMD. This could create the opportunity to intervene preventively on athletes that suffered from severe injury and/or recent adverse LE that could lead to a faster and safer recovery and psychological readiness to return to play.

  7. Symptom Differences in Acute and Chronic Presentation of Childhood Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four child abuse victims, age 5-13, were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Children with the acute form of PTSD exhibited such symptoms as difficulty falling asleep, hypervigilance, nightmares, and generalized anxiety. Children exhibiting chronic PTSD exhibited increased detachment, restricted range of affect,…

  8. The Effect of Aromatherapy on Insomnia and Other Common Symptoms Among Patients With Acute Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Lisa; Achor, Sara; Allen, Betty; Bauchmire, Nicole; Dunnington, Danielle; Klisovic, Rebecca; Naber, Steven; Roblee, Kirsten; Samczak, Angela; Tomlinson-Pinkham, Kelly; Chipps, Esther

    2017-07-01

    To determine if the use of aromatherapy improves insomnia and other common symptoms in hospitalized patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia. A randomized, crossover, washout trial. An inpatient acute leukemia unit at the Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard L. Solove Research Institute of the Wexner Medical Center at Ohio State University in Columbus. 50 patients who were newly diagnosed with acute leukemia and hospitalized to receive their initial four weeks of intensive induction chemotherapy. Patients were offered a choice of three scents to be used during the trial: lavender, peppermint, or chamomile. Each patient was randomized to receive either the chosen aromatherapy intervention or a placebo intervention during alternate weeks, with a washout period in between. Sleep quality and other common symptoms were measured. Aromatherapy, sleep, insomnia, pain, tiredness, drowsiness, nausea, lack of appetite, shortness of breath, depression, anxiety, and well-being. Most patients reported poor quality sleep at baseline, but aromatherapy had a statistically significant positive impact. Improvements were noted in tiredness, drowsiness, lack of appetite, depression, anxiety, and well-being because of aromatherapy. Aromatherapy is a viable intervention for improving insomnia and other symptoms commonly experienced by patients with acute leukemia. Oncology nurses can employ aromatherapy safely and inexpensively, and with minimal training, as an effective tool in decreasing many symptoms that plague patients with leukemia. Patients can exercise a greater sense of control over their treatment environments through the use of aromatherapy.

  9. Women's experiences and behaviour at onset of symptoms of ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herning, Margrethe; Hansen, Peter R; Bygbjerg, B

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimizing time from onset of symptoms to treatment (treatment delay) is crucial for patients with ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), and one of the great challenges is to reduce the delay relating to the prehospital behaviour of the patient (patient delay...

  10. The structure of acute posttraumatic stress symptoms: 'Reexperiencing', 'Active avoidance', 'Dysphoria', and 'Hyperarousal'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda; Sijbrandij, Marit; Opmeer, Brent C.; Carlier, Ingrid V. E.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical data have challenged chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consisting of three dimensions. In the present Study we aimed to determine the factor structure of acute posttraumatic symptoms in two recently traumatized samples. In sample 1, 203 civilian trauma survivors were

  11. Ethnographic research into nursing in acute adult mental health units: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Horsfall, Jan; Deacon, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Acute inpatient mental health units are busy and sometimes chaotic settings, with high bed occupancy rates. These settings include acutely unwell patients, busy staff, and a milieu characterised by unpredictable interactions and events. This paper is a report of a literature review conducted to identify, analyse, and synthesize ethnographic research in adult acute inpatient mental health units. Several electronic databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify studies published from 1990-present. Additional searches were conducted using reference lists. Ethnographic studies published in English were included if they investigated acute inpatient care in adult settings. Papers were excluded if the unit under study was not exclusively for patients in the acute phase of their mental illness, or where the original study was not fully ethnographic. Ten research studies meeting our criteria were found (21 papers). Findings were grouped into the following overarching categories: (1) Micro-skills; (2) Collectivity; (3) Pragmatism; and (4) Reframing of nursing activities. The results of this ethnographic review reveal the complexity, patient-orientation, and productivity of some nursing interventions that may not have been observed or understood without the use of this research method. Additional quality research should focus on redefining clinical priorities and philosophies to ensure everyday care is aligned constructively with the expectations of stakeholders and is consistent with policy and the realities of the organisational setting. We have more to learn from each other with regard to the effective nursing care of inpatients who are acutely disturbed.

  12. Acute neurological symptoms during hypobaric exposure: consider cerebral air embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weenink, Robert P; Hollmann, Markus W; van Hulst, Robert A

    2012-11-01

    Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is well known as a complication of invasive medical procedures and as a risk in diving and submarine escape. In the underwater environment, CAGE is caused by trapped air, which expands and leads to lung vessel rupture when ambient pressure decreases during ascent. Pressure decrease also occurs during hypobaric activities such as flying and, therefore, CAGE may theoretically be a risk in hypobaric exposure. We reviewed the available literature on this subject. Identified were 12 cases of CAGE due to hypobaric exposure. Based on these cases, we discuss pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CAGE due to hypobaric exposure. The low and slow pressure decrease during most hypobaric activities (as opposed to diving) account for the low incidence of CAGE during these exposures and suggest that severe air trapping must be present to cause barotrauma. This is also suggested by the large prevalence of air filled cysts in the case reports reviewed. We recommend considering CAGE in all patients presenting with acute central neurological injury during or shortly after pressure decrease such as flying. A CT scan of head and chest should be performed in these patients. Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be initiated as soon as possible in cases of proven or probable CAGE.

  13. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National

  14. Psychotropic drug use among persons with mental distress symptoms: a population-based study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Anne M; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Rosvold, Elin O; Bramness, Jørgen G; Furu, Kari

    2007-01-01

    To explore psychotropic drug use in the general population and in particular among non-institutionalized persons with mental distress symptoms. A total of 14,139 women and 11,665 men participating in the Oslo Health Study or the Oppland/Hedmark Study 2000-2001 submitted a self-administered questionnaire on health status and drug use, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Respondents using antidepressants, hypnotics, and/or anxiolytics during the last four weeks were defined as users. A high Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-10 score indicated mental distress. The 15% with the highest score in each gender and age group (adults: 30/40/45 years; elderly: 60 years) were studied. The prevalence of antidepressant use among those with mental distress was, for women: adults 21%; elderly 30%; and for men, adults 15%; elderly 15%. These figures were nearly four times higher than in the general population. Not participating in the labour market was the main factor associated with use of antidepressants for subjects with mental distress: adult women (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-5.0); elderly women (OR 5.2; CI 2.7-10.2); adult men (OR 4.7; CI 3.0-7.3); and elderly men (OR 2.9; CI 1.4-6.0). Use of analgesics was the main factor associated with use of anxiolytics/hypnotics: adult women (OR 2.4; CI 1.7-3.4); elderly women (OR 2.3; CI 1.4-3.8); adult men (OR 2.1; CI 1.3-3.3); and elderly men (OR 3.4; CI 1.9-6.0). Among individuals with mental distress, not participating in the labour market and regular use of analgesics were the main factors associated with use of psychotropics in both genders regardless of age.

  15. Health Correlates of Insomnia Symptoms and Comorbid Mental Disorders in a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Madeleine; Zhang, Jihui; Lamers, Femke; Taylor, Adrienne D.; Hickie, Ian B.; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and health correlates of insomnia symptoms and their association with comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. Design: National representative cross-sectional study. Setting: Population-based sample from the US adolescents. Measurements and Results: A total of 6,483 individuals aged between 13–18 y in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) with both individual and parental reports of mental health were included in this study. Participants were classified with insomnia symptoms if they reported difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and/or early morning awakening, nearly every day for at least 2 w in the past year. Nearly one-third of adolescents reported insomnia symptoms for at least 2 w during the previous year. Hispanic and black youth were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms (42.0% and 41.3%, respectively) than non-Hispanic white youth (30.4%). Adolescents with insomnia symptoms were at a higher risk for all classes of mental disorders {odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4 (2.9–4.0)} including mood, anxiety, behavioral, substance use, and eating disorders, suicidality [OR (95% CI): 2.63 (1.34–5.16)], poor perceived mental health [OR (95% CI): 2.01 (1.02–3.96)], chronic medical conditions [OR (95% CI): 1.94 (1.55–2.43)], smoking [OR (95% CI: 2.60 (1.00–6.72)], and obesity [OR (95% CI: 1.46 (1.10–1.93)] than those without insomnia symptoms. Adolescents with insomnia symptoms and comorbid mental disorders manifested even greater rates of these indicators of negative health behaviors and disorders than those with mental disorders alone (P Insomnia symptoms are reported by one-third of adolescents in the general population. Insomnia symptoms, even in the absence of concomitant depression or other mental disorders, are associated with serious health conditions, risk factors

  16. Effects of Sleep Quality on the Association between Problematic Mobile Phone Use and Mental Health Symptoms in Chinese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shuman; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yukun; Zhang, Shichen; Tong, Shilu; Tao, Fangbiao

    2017-02-14

    Problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) is a risk factor for both adolescents' sleep quality and mental health. It is important to examine the potential negative health effects of PMPU exposure. This study aims to evaluate PMPU and its association with mental health in Chinese college students. Furthermore, we investigated how sleep quality influences this association. In 2013, we collected data regarding participants' PMPU, sleep quality, and mental health (psychopathological symptoms, anxiety, and depressive symptoms) by standardized questionnaires in 4747 college students. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to assess independent effects and interactions of PMPU and sleep quality with mental health. PMPU and poor sleep quality were observed in 28.2% and 9.8% of participants, respectively. Adjusted logistic regression models suggested independent associations of PMPU and sleep quality with mental health ( p mental health problems in students with PMPU than in those without PMPU.

  17. Reporting Mental Health Symptoms: Breaking Down Barriers to Care with Virtual Human Interviewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale M. Lucas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A common barrier to healthcare for psychiatric conditions is the stigma associated with these disorders. Perceived stigma prevents many from reporting their symptoms. Stigma is a particularly pervasive problem among military service members, preventing them from reporting symptoms of combat-related conditions like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, research shows (increased reporting by service members when anonymous assessments are used. For example, service members report more symptoms of PTSD when they anonymously answer the Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA symptom checklist compared to the official PDHA, which is identifiable and linked to their military records. To investigate the factors that influence reporting of psychological symptoms by service members, we used a transformative technology: automated virtual humans that interview people about their symptoms. Such virtual human interviewers allow simultaneous use of two techniques for eliciting disclosure that would otherwise be incompatible; they afford anonymity while also building rapport. We examined whether virtual human interviewers could increase disclosure of mental health symptoms among active-duty service members that just returned from a year-long deployment in Afghanistan. Service members reported more symptoms during a conversation with a virtual human interviewer than on the official PDHA. They also reported more to a virtual human interviewer than on an anonymized PDHA. A second, larger sample of active-duty and former service members found a similar effect that approached statistical significance. Because respondents in both studies shared more with virtual human interviewers than an anonymized PDHA—even though both conditions control for stigma and ramifications for service members’ military records—virtual human interviewers that build rapport may provide a superior option to encourage reporting.

  18. Impaired mental rotation in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and acute vestibular neuritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eCandidi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular processing is fundamental to our sense of orientation in space which is a core aspect of the representation of the self. Vestibular information is processed in a large subcortical-cortical neural network. Tasks requiring mental rotations of human bodies in space are known to activate neural regions within this network suggesting that vestibular processing is involved in the control of mental rotation. We studied whether mental rotation is impaired in patients suffering from two different forms of unilateral vestibular disorders (Vestibular Neuritis – VN- and Benign Paroxysmal positional Vertigo – BPPV with respect to healthy matched controls (C. We used two mental rotation tasks in which participants were required to: i mentally rotate their own body in space (egocentric rotation thus using vestibular processing to a large extent and ii mentally rotate human figures (allocentric rotation thus using own body representations to a smaller degree. Reaction times and accuracy of responses showed that VN and BPPV patients were impaired in both tasks with respect to C. Significantly, the pattern of results was similar in the three groups suggesting that patients were actually performing the mental rotation without using a different strategy from the control individuals. These results show that dysfunctional vestibular inflow impairs mental rotation of both own body and human figures suggesting that unilateral acute disorders of the peripheral vestibular input massively affect the cerebral processes underlying mental rotations.

  19. Perceived norms moderate the association between mental health symptoms and drinking outcomes among at-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Miles, Jeremy N V; Hunter, Sarah B; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2013-09-01

    There has been limited research examining the association between mental health symptoms, perceived peer alcohol norms, and alcohol use and consequences among samples of adolescents. The current study used a sample of 193 at-risk youths with a first-time alcohol and/or other drug offense in the California Teen Court system to explore the moderating role of perceived peer alcohol norms on the association between mental health symptoms and drinking outcomes. Measures of drinking, consequences, mental health symptoms, and perceived peer alcohol norms were taken at baseline, with measures of drinking and consequences assessed again 6 months later. Regression analyses examined the association of perceived norms and mental health symptoms with concurrent and future drinking and consequences. We found that higher perceived drinking peer norms were associated with heavy drinking behavior at baseline and with negative alcohol consequences both at baseline and 6 months later. Also, perceived drinking norms moderated the association between mental health symptoms and alcohol-related consequences such that better mental health was related to increased risk for alcohol-related consequences both concurrently and 6 months later among those with higher baseline perceptions of peer drinking norms. Findings demonstrate the value of norms-based interventions, especially among adolescents with few mental health problems who are at risk for heavy drinking.

  20. The effect of acculturation and discrimination on mental health symptoms and risk behaviors among adolescent migrants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Shoshani, Anat; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the role of acculturation, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem in predicting the mental health symptoms and risk behaviors among 1.5 and second generation non-Jewish adolescents born to migrant families compared with native-born Jewish Israeli adolescents in Israel. Participants included n = 65 1.5 migrant adolescents, n = 60 second generation migrant adolescents, and n = 146 age, gender, and socioeconomic matched sample of native-born Jewish Israelis. Participants completed measures of acculturation pattern, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem as well as measures of mental health symptoms and risk behaviors. Results show that migrant adolescents across generations reported worse mental health symptoms compared with native-born Jewish Israelis. However, only the 1.5 generation migrants reported higher engagement in risk behaviors compared with second generation migrants and native-born Jewish Israelis. Our findings further showed that acculturation plays an important role in predicting the mental health status of migrant youth, with those characterized with integrated acculturative pattern reporting lower mental health symptoms compared with assimilated acculturation pattern. Importantly, contextual factors, such as higher perception of discrimination in the receiving culture as well as individual factors such as lower self-esteem and female gender were strongly associated with worse mental health symptoms. The findings manifest the complex relationship between contextual factors and individual level variables in the acculturative process of migrants as well as the importance of examining the effect of migration generation on mental health outcomes.

  1. Relations of Personality to Substance Use Problems and Mental Health Disorder Symptoms in Two Clinical Samples of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Susan R.; Pencer, Alissa; McGonnell, Melissa; Durdle, Heather; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2013-01-01

    There is a high overlap between substance misuse and mental health disorders in adolescents. Certain personality traits (i.e., sensation seeking, impulsivity, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) may be related to increased risk for mental health symptoms and/or substance misuse. The current study examined the relationships between personality…

  2. Sex and Race Differences in Mental Health Symptoms in Juvenile Justice: The MAYSI-2 National Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Gina M.; Grisso, Thomas; Terry, Anna; Banks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The study uses the MAYSI-2 gathered data from multiple US juvenile justice systems to examine whether mental health symptoms were connected to consistent sex and ethnicity/race-related differences. Results concluded a greater proportion of girls having serious mental health problems and though whites had problems with alcohol and drugs, they were…

  3. Paternal Postnatal and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms and Child Socio-Emotional and Behavioural Problems at School Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hannah R.; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Barnes, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Research on the effect of paternal mental health problems, particularly on young children, is based predominantly on clinical levels of depression. Furthermore, potential mediators such as marital discord have often been overlooked. This longitudinal community study assessed the association between paternal mental health symptoms in a community…

  4. Does Mother–Child Interaction Mediate the Relation Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children’s Mental Health Problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, Marleen M. E. M.; Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Lichtwarck-aschoff, Anna; Bodden, Denise; Jansen, Mélou; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    The relation between maternal depressive symptoms and children’s mental health problems has been well established. However, prior studies have predominantly focused on maternal reports of children’s mental health problems and on parenting behavior, as a broad and unilateral concept. This

  5. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Verhagen, Evert; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental

  6. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    OpenAIRE

    Gouttebarge; Aoki; Verhagen; Kerkhoffs

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional beh...

  7. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. The Preservation of Cued Recall in the Acute Mentally Fatigued State: A Randomised Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flindall, Ian Richard; Leff, Daniel Richard; Pucks, Neysan; Sugden, Colin; Darzi, Ara

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of acute mental fatigue on the recall of clinical information in the non-sleep-deprived state. Acute mental fatigue in the non-sleep-deprived subject is rarely studied in the medical workforce. Patient handover has been highlighted as an area of high risk especially in fatigued subjects. This study evaluates the deterioration in recall of clinical information over 2 h with cognitively demanding work in non-sleep-deprived subjects. A randomised crossover study involving twenty medical students assessed free (presentation) and cued (MCQ) recall of clinical case histories at 0 and 2 h under low and high cognitive load using the N-Back task. Acute mental fatigue was assessed through the Visual Analogue Scale, Stanford Scale and NASA-TLX Mental Workload Rating Scale. Free recall is significantly impaired by increased cognitive load (p cued recall under high and low cognitive load conditions (p = 1). This study demonstrates the loss of clinical information over a short time period involving a mentally fatiguing, high cognitive load task. Free recall for the handover of clinical information is unreliable. Memory cues maintain recall of clinical information. This study provides evidence towards the requirement for standardisation of a structured patient handover. The use of memory cues (involving recognition memory and cued recall methodology) would be beneficial in a handover checklist to aid recall of clinical information and supports evidence for their adoption into clinical practice.

  9. Predictors of mental health-related acute service utilisation and treatment costs in the 12 months following an acute psychiatric admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskind, Dan; Harris, Meredith; Diminic, Sandra; Carstensen, Georgia; Robinson, Gail; Whiteford, Harvey

    2014-11-01

    A key step in informing mental health resource allocation is to identify the predictors of service utilisation and costs. This project aims to identify the predictors of mental health-related acute service utilisation and treatment costs in the year following an acute public psychiatric hospital admission. A dataset containing administrative and routinely measured outcome data for 1 year before and after an acute psychiatric admission for 1757 public mental health patients was analysed. Multivariate regression models were developed to identify patient- and treatment-related predictors of four measures of service utilisation or cost: (a) duration of index admission; and, in the year after discharge from the index admission (b) acute psychiatric inpatient bed-days; (c) emergency department (ED) presentations; and (d) total acute mental health service costs. Split-sample cross-validation was used. A diagnosis of psychosis, problems with living conditions and prior acute psychiatric inpatient bed-days predicted a longer duration of index admission, while prior ED presentations and self-harm predicted a shorter duration. A greater number of acute psychiatric inpatient bed-days in the year post-discharge were predicted by psychosis diagnosis, problems with living conditions and prior acute psychiatric inpatient admissions. The number of future ED presentations was predicted by past ED presentations. For total acute care costs, diagnosis of psychosis was the strongest predictor. Illness acuity and prior acute psychiatric inpatient admission also predicted higher costs, while self-harm predicted lower costs. The development of effective models for predicting acute mental health treatment costs using existing administrative data is an essential step towards a workable activity-based funding model for mental health. Future studies would benefit from the inclusion of a wider range of variables, including ethnicity, clinical complexity, cognition, mental health legal status

  10. Personality Traits and Mental Symptoms are Associated with Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Patients' Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Marie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that personality traits are associated with self-reported health status in the general population. COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is increasingly used to assess health status such as the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on patients' daily life, but knowledge about the influence of personality traits on CAT score is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Big Five personality traits on CAT score and the relation between personality traits and mental symptoms with respect to their influence on CAT score. A sample of 168 patients diagnosed with COPD was consecutively recruited in a secondary care outpatient clinic. All participants completed CAT, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between personality traits and CAT scores and how this association was influenced by mental symptoms. The personality traits neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness; and the mental symptoms depression and anxiety showed significant influence on CAT score when analysed in separate regression models. Identical R-square (R = 0.24) was found for personality traits and mental symptoms, but combining personality traits and mental symptoms in one regression model showed substantially reduced effect estimates of neuroticism, conscientiousness and anxiety, reflecting the strong correlations between personality traits and mental symptoms. We found that the impact of COPD on daily life measured by CAT was related to personality and mental symptoms, which illustrates the necessity of taking individual differences in personality and mental status into account in the management of COPD.

  11. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Affect and Arousal in Inpatient Mental Health Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Reaburn, Peter; Happell, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Acute exercise performed at a self-selected intensity improves affect and may improve long-term adherence. Similarly, in people with severe depression, acute aerobic exercise performed at self-selected intensity improves affect and arousal. However, the relationship between changes in affect and arousal and perceived exercise intensity in people with mental illness has not been evaluated. Affect and arousal were assessed immediately prior to, and immediately following, a group exercise program performed at a self-selected intensity in 40 inpatient mental health consumers who received a diagnosis of anxiety or bipolar or depressive disorders. Exercise intensity was assessed immediately after exercise. Postexercise affect was significantly improved for people with bipolar and depressive disorders but not for people with anxiety disorders. For the group as a whole, results showed a significant curvilinear relationship between ratings of perceived exertion and postexercise affect. These data will inform the development and delivery of future exercise interventions for inpatient mental health consumers.

  12. Relationships between interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and other mental health problems in girls in compulsory residential care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationships (using structural equation modeling) between exposure to early-onset interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), symptoms of complex PTSD, and other mental health problems. The participants were 92 girls recruited from

  13. Mutual Partner Violence: Mental Health Symptoms among Female and Male Victims in Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Moises; Kim, Miseong

    2009-01-01

    This study examines racial/ethnic and sex differences in the prevalence of mutual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health symptoms. The authors asked 676 university students in heterosexual relationships if they had experienced IPV, coercive victimization, and/or perpetration as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, hostility, and…

  14. Mental health nurses' perceptions of good work in an acute setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Jackson, Debra; Hunt, Glenn E

    2012-10-01

    Frequently, research and conference papers explore difficult or problematic areas of practice that can inadvertently render daily nursing accomplishments invisible and create the perception of a discipline in crisis. In this qualitative study, we explore the views of registered nurses about achievements in the workplace and good nursing work in an acute inpatient mental health setting in Sydney, Australia. Mental health nurses were asked a series of questions about their experiences and understanding of what constitutes good nursing work as well as their sense of optimism about their work. A total of 40 structured face-to-face interviews were completed. Among the responses to questions about achievements and good nursing practice, five broad themes were identified: i) teamwork; (ii) interpersonal interactions with patients; (iii) providing practical and holistic support to patients; (iv) patients' mental health improvements; and (v) optimism-pessimism continuum. Findings contribute to a discussion of good nursing work in acute mental health settings, as well as self-perceptions of optimism and hopefulness, which are important contributors to positive, supportive health-care settings and patient recovery. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. Mental Symptoms in Huntington's Disease and a Possible Primary Aminergic Neuron Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J. John; Stanley, Michael; Gershon, Samuel; Rossor, M.

    1980-12-01

    Monoamine oxidase activity was higher in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia of patients dying from Huntington's disease than in controls. Enzyme kinetics and multiple substrate studies indicated that the increased activity was due to elevated concentrations of monoamine oxidase type B. Concentrations of homovanillic acid were increased in the cerebral cortex but not in the basal ganglia of brains of patients with Huntington's disease. These changes may represent a primary aminergic lesion that could underlie some of the mental symptoms of this disease.

  16. El Salvador earthquakes: relationships among acute stress disorder symptoms, depression, traumatic event exposure, and resource loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; de Alvarado, Ana Maria Glower; de Castro, Norma Blandon; Male, Robert Van; Zetino, A M; Vega, Raphael

    2006-12-01

    Four and seven weeks after powerful earthquakes in El Salvador, the authors examined the relationships among demographics, traumatic event exposure, social support, resource loss, acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, depression, and posttraumatic growth. Participants were 253 college students (Study 1) and 83 people in the community (Study 2). In Study 1, female gender, traumatic event exposure, low social support, and loss of personal characteristic, condition, and energy resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. In Study 2, damage to home and loss of personal characteristic and object resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. Posttraumatic growth was not associated with ASD symptoms or depression. Findings support the conservation of resources stress theory (Hobfoll, 1998). Resource loss spirals, excessive demands on coping, and exposure to multiple disasters are discussed.

  17. Health correlates of insomnia symptoms and comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Madeleine; Zhang, Jihui; Lamers, Femke; Taylor, Adrienne D; Hickie, Ian B; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and health correlates of insomnia symptoms and their association with comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. National representative cross-sectional study. Population-based sample from the US adolescents. A total of 6,483 individuals aged between 13–18 y in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) with both individual and parental reports of mental health were included in this study. Participants were classified with insomnia symptoms if they reported difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and/or early morning awakening, nearly every day for at least 2 w in the past year. Nearly one-third of adolescents reported insomnia symptoms for at least 2 w during the previous year. Hispanic and black youth were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms (42.0% and 41.3%, respectively) than non-Hispanic white youth (30.4%). Adolescents with insomnia symptoms were at a higher risk for all classes of mental disorders {odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4 (2.9–4.0)} including mood, anxiety, behavioral, substance use, and eating disorders, suicidality [OR (95% CI): 2.63 (1.34–5.16)], poor perceived mental health [OR (95% CI): 2.01 (1.02–3.96)], chronic medical conditions [OR (95% CI): 1.94 (1.55–2.43)], smoking [OR (95% CI: 2.60 (1.00–6.72)], and obesity [OR (95% CI: 1.46 (1.10–1.93)] than those without insomnia symptoms. Adolescents with insomnia symptoms and comorbid mental disorders manifested even greater rates of these indicators of negative health behaviors and disorders than those with mental disorders alone (P Insomnia symptoms are reported by one-third of adolescents in the general population. Insomnia symptoms, even in the absence of concomitant depression or other mental disorders, are associated with serious health conditions, risk factors, and suicidality. Comorbid mental disorders potentiate the

  18. Clinical features of functional somatic symptoms in children and referral patterns to child and adolescent mental health services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøt-Strate, Simone; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Gitte; Lassen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS) are common in paediatric patients who are referred to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS), but little is known about current referral practices. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate clinical features of paediatric inpatients...... who had been referred and 44 children who had not. RESULTS: Most paediatric records lacked information on psychosocial factors and symptoms. Referred children were significantly more multisymptomatic of FSS (p controls, had longer symptom duration, underwent more clinical...... reasons were generally vague and psychosocial information was frequently missing. Clinical guidelines are needed to improve and systematise mental health referrals for children with FSS....

  19. Maternal mental health and social support: effect on childhood atopic and non-atopic asthma symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques dos Santos, Letícia; Neves dos Santos, Darci; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2012-11-01

    Atopic and non-atopic asthma have distinct risk factors and immunological mechanisms, and few studies differentiate between the impacts of psychosocial factors on the prevalence of these disease phenotypes. The authors aimed to identify whether the effect of maternal mental health on prevalence of asthma symptoms differs between atopic and non-atopic children, taking into account family social support. This is a cross-sectional study of 1013 children participating in the Social Change Allergy and Asthma in Latin America project. Psychosocial data were collected through a household survey utilising Self-Reporting Questionnaire and Medical Outcome Study Social Support Scale. Socioeconomic and wheezing information was obtained through the questionnaire of the International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood, and level of allergen-specific IgE was measured to identify atopy. Polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate the association between maternal mental health, social support and atopic and non-atopic wheezing. Effect modification was evaluated through stratified polytomous regression according to social support level. Maternal mental disorder had the same impact on atopic and non-atopic wheezing, even after adjusting for confounding variables. Affective, material and informational supports had protective effects on non-atopic asthma, and there is some evidence that social supports may act as a buffer for the impact of maternal mental disorder on non-atopic wheezing. Poor maternal mental health is positively associated with wheezing, independent of whether asthma is atopic or non-atopic, but perception of high levels of social support appears to buffer this relationship in non-atopic wheezers only.

  20. Effect Of Oligomeric Enteral Nutrition On Symptoms Of Acute Radiation Enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinsky, P.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy of abdominal and pelvic tumours is frequently associated with acute radiation enteritis. Predominant symptoms include diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. There are very few effective interventions available for this condition. Enteral oligomeric nutrition has been used in bowel diseases with functional failure similar to radiation enteritis. The aim of presented work was to observe occurrence of symptoms of radiation enteritis in patients undergoing abdominal or pelvic radiotherapy. Apart from diet and pharmacological therapy, oral oligomeric enteral nutrition (Peptisorb Powder Nutricia) at the dose of 1000 - 2000 ml per day was administered for minimum of 4 days. Planned period of administration was 14 days and longer. Symptoms of radiation enteritis were evaluated at the beginning and in the end of administration. Prevalence of all evaluated symptoms of radiation enteritis was decreased and difference was statistically significant for diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The use of evaluated oligomeric nutritional support might, in conjunction with pharmacotherapy and diet, alleviate symptoms of acute radiation enteritis and maintain nutritional status of patients. (author)

  1. Six-month longitudinal patterns of mental health treatment utilization by older adults with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Amber M; Iser, Lindsay; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L; Petkus, Andrew; DeMuth, Anne; Schonfeld, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    Aims of the study were to describe behavioral health treatment utilization patterns of community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms over a six-month period and to identify factors associated with treatment use, guided by a theoretical model emphasizing the dynamic nature of treatment use patterns over time and social context. A total of 144 participants ≥65 years old with depressive symptoms completed an in-person baseline interview and six monthly telephone follow-up interviews. Outcomes at each follow-up included the use of antidepressants or counseling. Covariates included personal and social context variables. Approximately half of the participants (N=70, 48%) received no formal treatment (antidepressant prescription or counseling). Treatment use or nonuse did not change for most participants. More participants with severe symptoms received antidepressants (25%-37%) than did those with milder symptoms (10%-14%), although more participants in the latter group started (milder, 62%,versus severe, 49%) and stopped (milder, 77%, versus severe, 26%) antidepressant treatment at least once. Fewer individuals received counseling overall, with no clear patterns by symptom severity. In multivariate longitudinal analyses, treatment use at follow-up was independently associated with younger age, current major depressive episode, baseline use of antidepressant, intention to begin a new treatment at baseline, and receipt of advice to seek treatment. Over a six-month period, most older adults with depressive symptoms in this study continued their use or nonuse of mental health treatment. Demographic, need, attitudinal, and social variables were related to treatment use over time. Addressing intentions and providing advice may facilitate treatment seeking.

  2. Relationship of screen-based symptoms for mild traumatic brain injury and mental health problems in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans: Distinct or overlapping symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Lau, Karen M; Madden, Erin; Seal, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This study used factor analytic techniques to differentiate distinct from overlapping screen-based symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. These symptoms were derived from screen results of 1,549 veterans undergoing Department of Veterans Affairs postdeployment screening between April 2007 and January 2010. Veterans with positive TBI screens were approximately twice as likely to also screen positive for depression and PTSD (adjusted relative risks = 1.9 and 2.1, respectively). Irritability was a shared symptom between TBI and PTSD, and emotional numbing was a shared symptom between PTSD and depression. Symptoms unique to TBI included dizziness, headaches, memory problems, and light sensitivity. Four separate constructs emerged: TBI, PTSD, depression, and a fourth construct consisting of hypervigilance and sleep problems. These findings illuminate areas of overlap between TBI and common postdeployment mental health problems. Discriminating symptoms of TBI from mental health problems may facilitate diagnosis, triage to specialty care, and targeted symptom management. The emergence of a fourth factor consisting of sleep problems and hypervigilance highlights the need to attend to specific symptoms in the postdeployment screening process.

  3. Psychological therapy for inpatients receiving acute mental health care: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Charlotte; Karatzias, Thanos; Dickson, Adele; Harper, Sean; Dougall, Nadine; Hutton, Paul

    2018-04-16

    The effectiveness of psychological therapies for those receiving acute adult mental health inpatient care remains unclear, partly because of the difficulty in conducting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this setting. The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize evidence from all controlled trials of psychological therapy carried out with this group, to estimate its effects on a number of important outcomes and examine whether the presence of randomization and rater blinding moderated these estimates. A systematic review and meta-analysis of all controlled trials of psychological therapy delivered in acute inpatient settings was conducted, with a focus on psychotic symptoms, readmissions or emotional distress (anxiety and depression). Studies were identified through ASSIA, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO using a combination of the key terms 'inpatient', 'psychological therapy', and 'acute'. No restriction was placed on diagnosis. The moderating effect of the use of assessor-blind RCT methodology was examined via subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Overall, psychological therapy was associated with small-to-moderate improvements in psychotic symptoms at end of therapy but the effect was smaller and not significant at follow-up. Psychological therapy was also associated with reduced readmissions, depression, and anxiety. The use of single-blind randomized controlled trial methodology was associated with significantly reduced benefits on psychotic symptoms and was also associated with reduced benefits on readmission and depression; however, these reductions were not statistically significant. The provision of psychological therapy to acute psychiatric inpatients is associated with improvements; however, the use of single-blind RCT methodology was associated with reduced therapy-attributable improvements. Whether this is a consequence of increased internal validity or reduced external validity is unclear. Trials with both high internal and

  4. Acute exercise effects on smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke are not related to expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, James Z; Cropley, Mark; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2007-11-01

    Recent research has shown that 10 min of moderate intensity exercise reduce smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke in acutely abstinent smokers. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the reductions are related to participant expectation of these effects. Forty-five sedentary participants who had smoked ten or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years reported their expectation of the effects of exercise on smoking withdrawal symptoms. Approximately 1 month later, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups after 11-15 h of overnight smoking abstinence. Each group read either a positive, negative or neutral statement concerning exercise effects on smoking withdrawal symptoms. They rated their expectation again and then completed 10 min of moderate intensity exercise on a stationary bicycle ergometer. Using standardised scales, participants rated smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke at 10, 5 and 0 min before exercise, then at 5 and 10 min during exercise and 15 and 20 min post-exercise. Expectation of exercise effects on withdrawal were manipulated in the predicted directions. No significant group main effects were found for any symptom. Significant reductions in symptoms and desire to smoke occurred during and after exercise regardless of participant expectation. Ten minutes of moderate intensity exercise can lead to reductions in desire to smoke and smoking withdrawal symptoms, which are not due to the participant's expectation of exercise effects. These findings support the use of short periods of exercise as an aid to smoking cessation.

  5. Self-esteem stability and depressive symptoms in acute stroke rehabilitation: methodological and conceptual expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Chad D; Evans, Clea C; Sepehri, Arash; Jabeen, Linsa N; Gayden, Monee

    2009-08-01

    Explore the relationship of self-esteem level, self-esteem stability, and other moderating variables with depressive symptoms in acute stroke rehabilitation. One hundred twenty participants completed measures of state self-esteem, perceived recovery, hospitalization-based hassles, impairment-related distress, and tendency to overgeneralize negative self-connotations of bad events. Self-report of depressive symptoms was collected at admission and on discharge. Four regression analyses explored the relationship of self-esteem level and stability and each of 4 moderating variables (perceived recovery, hassles, impairment-related distress, and overgeneralization) with depressive symptoms at discharge. Analyses indicated significant 3-way interactions in the 4 regression models. In general, individuals with unstable high self-esteem endorsed greater depressive symptoms under conditions of vulnerability (e.g., lower perceived recovery) than did individuals with stable high self-esteem. Under conditions of vulnerability, participants with stable low self-esteem indicated the highest levels of depressive symptoms. Self-esteem level and stability interact with psychological, environmental, and stroke-specific variables to predict depressive symptoms at discharge from stroke rehabilitation. This suggests the viability of self-esteem stability in exploring depressive symptoms in this setting and the complexity of emotional adjustment early after stroke. (c) 2009 APA

  6. Associations of child insomnia, sleep movement, and their persistence with mental health symptoms in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Ruttle, Paula L; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J; Benca, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    To examine the patterns of insomnia and sleep-related movement from ages 4.5 to 9 years, their concurrent associations with mental health symptoms in childhood, and the longitudinal associations of sleep-problem persistence with mental health symptoms at ages 9 and 18 years. A 14-year prospective follow-up study. Assessments included maternal report on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire at ages 4.5 and 9, and child mental health symptoms via maternal report at age 4.5, multi-informant (child, teacher, mother) report at age 9, and adolescent report at age 18. Community. A total of 396 children (51% female). N/A. Sleep problems were more common at age 4.5 than 9; symptoms of insomnia and abnormal sleep movement both had persistence rates of 9-10%. At age 4.5, insomnia was associated with hostile-aggressive and hyperactive-distractible behavior, but there were no significant associations for sleep movement. At age 9, both insomnia and sleep movement were associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Insomnia persistence was associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and ADHD at age 9 and anxiety and externalizing at age 18; sleep- movement persistence was associated with externalizing and ADHD at age 9, and ADHD at age 18. The age 18 persistence effects for insomnia and anxiety and for sleep movement and ADHD were significant when controlling for earlier mental health. Childhood insomnia and sleep movement are common and associated with mental health symptoms. Their persistence from middle to late childhood predicts associations with specific types of mental health symptoms at age 18.

  7. Is somatic comorbidity associated with more somatic symptoms, mental distress, or unhealthy lifestyle in elderly cancer survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Ellen Karine; Fosså, Sophie D; Dahl, Alv A

    2009-06-01

    The associations of lifestyle factors, somatic symptoms, mental distress, and somatic comorbidity in elderly cancer survivors have not been well studied. This study examines these associations among elderly cancer survivors (age >or=65 years) in a population-based sample. A cross-sectional comparative study of Norwegian elderly cancer survivors. Combining information from The Norwegian Cancer Registry, and by self-reporting, 972 elderly cancer survivors were identified, of whom 632 (65%) had somatic comorbidity and 340 did not. Elderly cancer survivors with somatic comorbidity had significantly higher BMI, more performed minimal physical activity, had more somatic symptoms, used more medication, and had more frequently seen a medical doctor than survivors without somatic comorbidity. In multivariable analyses, unhealthy lifestyle and higher somatic symptoms scores were significantly associated with cancer cases with somatic comorbidity. In univariate analyses those with somatic comorbidity were significantly older, had lower levels of education, higher proportions of BMI >or= 30, less physical activity, poorer self-rated health, higher somatic symptoms score, more mental distress, had more frequently seen a medical doctor last year, and more frequently used daily medication. Our outcome measures of lifestyle, somatic symptoms and mental distress were all significantly associated with somatic comorbidity in elderly cancer survivors, however only lifestyle and somatic symptoms were significant in multivariable analyses. In elderly cancer survivors not only cancer, but also somatic comorbidity, deserve attention. Such comorbidity is associated with unhealthy lifestyles, more somatic symptoms and mental distress which should be evaluated and eventually treated.

  8. Principles and practical procedures for acute psychological first aid training for personnel without mental health experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Flynn, Brian W

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities agree that mass disasters leave in their wake a need for some form of acute mental health services. However, a review of current literature on crisis intervention and disaster mental health reveals differing points of view on the methods that should be employed (Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002). Nevertheless, there appears to be virtual universal endorsement, by relevant authorities, of the value of acute "psychological first aid" (American Psychiatric Association, 1954; USDHHS, 2004; Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002; Institute of Medicine, 2003; WHO, 2003; DoD/VAPTSD, 2004; Ritchie, et al., 2004; Friedman, Hamblin, Foa, & Charney, 2004). Psychological first aid (PFA), as an acute mental health intervention, seems uniquely applicable to public health settings, the workplace, the military, mass disaster venues, and even the demands of more well circumscribed critical incidents, e.g., dealing with the psychological aftermath of accidents, robberies, suicide, homicide, or community violence. In this document, we shall introduce the notion of psychological first aid (PFA) as one aspect of a psychological continuum of care, offer a rudimentary definition of PFA, and provide the reader with a practicalframework for its implementation utilizing the individual psychological first aid (iPFA)format. The goal of this paper is to better prepare public health, public safety, and other disaster response personnel who do not possess formal clinical mental health degrees or specialized training to provide iPFA services to primary and secondary disaster victims.

  9. Acute stress symptoms during the second Lebanon war in a random sample of Israeli citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri; Yahav, Rivka

    2008-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and acute stress symptoms (ASS) in Israel during the second Lebanon war. A telephone survey was conducted in July 2006 of a random sample of 235 residents of northern Israel, who were subjected to missile attacks, and of central Israel, who were not subjected to missile attacks. Results indicate that ASS scores were higher in the northern respondents; 6.8% of the northern sample and 3.9% of the central sample met ASD criteria. Appearance of each symptom ranged from 15.4% for dissociative to 88.4% for reexperiencing, with significant differences between northern and central respondents only for reexperiencing and arousal. A low ASD rate and a moderate difference between areas subjected and not subjected to attack were found.

  10. The human coronary vasodilatory response to acute mental stress is mediated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sitara G; Melikian, Narbeh; Shabeeh, Husain; Cabaco, Ana R; Martin, Katherine; Khan, Faisal; O'Gallagher, Kevin; Chowienczyk, Philip J; Shah, Ajay M

    2017-09-01

    Mental stress-induced ischemia approximately doubles the risk of cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease, yet the mechanisms underlying changes in coronary blood flow in response to mental stress are poorly characterized. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) regulates basal coronary blood flow in healthy humans and mediates mental stress-induced vasodilation in the forearm. However, its possible role in mental stress-induced increases in coronary blood flow is unknown. We studied 11 patients (6 men and 5 women, mean age: 58 ± 14 yr) undergoing elective diagnostic cardiac catheterization and assessed the vasodilator response to mental stress elicited by the Stroop color-word test. Intracoronary substance P (20 pmol/min) and isosorbide dinitrate (1 mg) were used to assess endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation, respectively. Coronary blood flow was estimated using intracoronary Doppler recordings and quantitative coronary angiography to measure coronary artery diameter. Mental stress increased coronary flow by 34 ± 7.0% over the preceding baseline during saline infusion ( P stress increased coronary artery diameter by 6.9 ± 3.7% ( P = 0.02) and 0.5 ± 2.8% ( P = 0.51) in the presence of S -methyl-l-thiocitrulline. The response to substance P did not predict the response to mental stress ( r 2 = -0.22, P = 0.83). nNOS mediates the human coronary vasodilator response to mental stress, predominantly through actions at the level of coronary resistance vessels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Acute mental stress induces vasodilation of the coronary microvasculature. Here, we show that this response involves neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the human coronary circulation.Listen to this article's corresponding podcast at http://ajpheart.podbean.com/e/nnos-and-coronary-flow-during-mental-stress/. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. The human coronary vasodilatory response to acute mental stress is mediated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sitara G.; Melikian, Narbeh; Shabeeh, Husain; Cabaco, Ana R.; Martin, Katherine; Khan, Faisal; O’Gallagher, Kevin; Chowienczyk, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Mental stress-induced ischemia approximately doubles the risk of cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease, yet the mechanisms underlying changes in coronary blood flow in response to mental stress are poorly characterized. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) regulates basal coronary blood flow in healthy humans and mediates mental stress-induced vasodilation in the forearm. However, its possible role in mental stress-induced increases in coronary blood flow is unknown. We studied 11 patients (6 men and 5 women, mean age: 58 ± 14 yr) undergoing elective diagnostic cardiac catheterization and assessed the vasodilator response to mental stress elicited by the Stroop color-word test. Intracoronary substance P (20 pmol/min) and isosorbide dinitrate (1 mg) were used to assess endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation, respectively. Coronary blood flow was estimated using intracoronary Doppler recordings and quantitative coronary angiography to measure coronary artery diameter. Mental stress increased coronary flow by 34 ± 7.0% over the preceding baseline during saline infusion (P coronary artery diameter by 6.9 ± 3.7% (P = 0.02) and 0.5 ± 2.8% (P = 0.51) in the presence of S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline. The response to substance P did not predict the response to mental stress (r2 = −0.22, P = 0.83). nNOS mediates the human coronary vasodilator response to mental stress, predominantly through actions at the level of coronary resistance vessels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Acute mental stress induces vasodilation of the coronary microvasculature. Here, we show that this response involves neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the human coronary circulation. Listen to this article’s corresponding podcast at http://ajpheart.podbean.com/e/nnos-and-coronary-flow-during-mental-stress/. PMID:28646032

  12. 'Living a life in shades of grey': experiencing depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Siren E; Kirkevold, Marit; Engedal, Knut; Kim, Hesook S

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the lived experience of stroke survivors suffering from depressive symptoms in the acute phase; addressing the following questions: (a) what is the nature of depression as experienced by post-stroke patients in the acute phase? (b) what is it like to live with depression within the first weeks following stroke? Post-stroke depression occurs in at least one quarter of stroke survivors and is linked to poorer outcomes. This qualitative study is methodologically grounded in hermeneutic phenomenology, influenced by van Manen and Ricoeur. A descriptive, qualitative design was used applying in-depth interviews as the method of data collection with nine participants. The data collection took place in 2008. The material revealed two main themes that generate the feeling and description of 'living a life in shades of grey': (a) being trapped and (b) losing oneself. 'Shades of grey' could be understood as being confined in a new life-world and losing oneself as the person one knew. The participants confirmed suffering from depressive symptoms, but depression was not seen as meaningful on its own. They related their experiences of post-stroke depression in the acute phase to the losses they experienced. Nurses ought to take into account the depth of the life changes that stroke survivors may experience. There is a need for continued empirical research on how nurses may help and support stroke survivors dealing with depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke and how depressive symptoms develop over time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Approach to the notice of insanity. Symptom - mental health and clinical structures. Psychology and psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Chacón-Afanador

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work of reflection proposes the approach of the concepts of clinical structures and mental health, starting from the position of psychoanalysis and the question is asked if it is possible to think the madness within them. To do this, it starts from an approach to training and symptom in psychoanalysis and psychology, pointing out the importance of differentiating the psychic from the organic, as well as the psychic from the mental. In this sense, the concept of mental health proposed by WHO is addressed and the place of psychology and psychoanalysis in this concept is questioned. In the same way a reflection is made around the questions: Is it possible to speak of madness in the XXI century, when psychiatry has tried to eradicate this term? To talk about crazy again is to return to a debate that has somehow been left out of the scientific debate? Is it possible to think nowadays the importance of elaborating a nosography that includes Insanity?

  14. Assessing a dysphoric arousal model of acute stress disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of rape and bank robbery victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) into the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) research has focused on the ability of ASD to predict PTSD rather than focusing on addressing ASD's underlying latent structure. The few existing confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) studies of ASD have failed to reach a clear consensus regarding ASD's underlying dimensionality. Although, the discrepancy in the results may be due to varying ASD prevalence rates, it remains possible that the model capturing the latent structure of ASD has not yet been put forward. One such model may be a replication of a new five-factor model of PTSD, which separates the arousal symptom cluster into Dysphoric and Anxious Arousal. Given the pending DSM-5, uncovering ASD's latent structure is more pertinent than ever. USING CFA, FOUR DIFFERENT MODELS OF THE LATENT STRUCTURE OF ASD WERE SPECIFIED AND TESTED: the proposed DSM-5 model, the DSM-IV model, a three factor model, and a five factor model separating the arousal symptom cluster. The analyses were based on a combined sample of rape and bank robbery victims, who all met the diagnostic criteria for ASD (N = 404) using the Acute Stress Disorder Scale. The results showed that the five factor model provided the best fit to the data. The results of the present study suggest that the dimensionality of ASD may be best characterized as a five factor structure which separates dysphoric and anxious arousal items into two separate factors, akin to recent research on PTSD's latent structure. Thus, the current study adds to the debate about how ASD should be conceptualized in the pending DSM-5.

  15. Assessing a dysphoric arousal model of acute stress disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of rape and bank robbery victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Hansen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the introduction of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD into the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV research has focused on the ability of ASD to predict PTSD rather than focusing on addressing ASD's underlying latent structure. The few existing confirmatory factor analytic (CFA studies of ASD have failed to reach a clear consensus regarding ASD's underlying dimensionality. Although, the discrepancy in the results may be due to varying ASD prevalence rates, it remains possible that the model capturing the latent structure of ASD has not yet been put forward. One such model may be a replication of a new five-factor model of PTSD, which separates the arousal symptom cluster into Dysphoric and Anxious Arousal. Given the pending DSM-5, uncovering ASD's latent structure is more pertinent than ever. Objective:Using CFA, four different models of the latent structure of ASD were specified and tested: the proposed DSM-5 model, the DSM-IV model, a three factor model, and a five factor model separating the arousal symptom cluster. Method:The analyses were based on a combined sample of rape and bank robbery victims, who all met the diagnostic criteria for ASD (N = 404 using the Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Results:The results showed that the five factor model provided the best fit to the data. Conclusions:The results of the present study suggest that the dimensionality of ASD may be best characterized as a five factor structure which separates dysphoric and anxious arousal items into two separate factors, akin to recent research on PTSD's latent structure. Thus, the current study adds to the debate about how ASD should be conceptualized in the pending DSM-5.

  16. Assessing a dysphoric arousal model of acute stress disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of rape and bank robbery victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) into the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) research has focused on the ability of ASD to predict PTSD rather than focusing on addressing ASD's underlying latent structure. The few existing confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) studies of ASD have failed to reach a clear consensus regarding ASD's underlying dimensionality. Although, the discrepancy in the results may be due to varying ASD prevalence rates, it remains possible that the model capturing the latent structure of ASD has not yet been put forward. One such model may be a replication of a new five-factor model of PTSD, which separates the arousal symptom cluster into Dysphoric and Anxious Arousal. Given the pending DSM-5, uncovering ASD's latent structure is more pertinent than ever. Objective Using CFA, four different models of the latent structure of ASD were specified and tested: the proposed DSM-5 model, the DSM-IV model, a three factor model, and a five factor model separating the arousal symptom cluster. Method The analyses were based on a combined sample of rape and bank robbery victims, who all met the diagnostic criteria for ASD (N = 404) using the Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Results The results showed that the five factor model provided the best fit to the data. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that the dimensionality of ASD may be best characterized as a five factor structure which separates dysphoric and anxious arousal items into two separate factors, akin to recent research on PTSD's latent structure. Thus, the current study adds to the debate about how ASD should be conceptualized in the pending DSM-5. PMID:22893845

  17. A pilot RCT of psychodynamic group art therapy for patients in acute psychotic episodes: feasibility, impact on symptoms and mentalising capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christiane; Haase, Laura; Seidel, Dorothea; Bayerl, Martin; Gallinat, Jürgen; Herrmann, Uwe; Dannecker, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning. Secondary outcomes were mentalising function, estimated with the Reading the mind in the eyes test and the Levels of emotional awareness scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, quality of life and satisfaction with care. Assessments were made at baseline, at post-treatment and at 12 weeks' follow-up. At 12 weeks, 55% of patients randomised to art therapy, and 66% of patients receiving treatment as usual were examined. In the per-protocol sample, art therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction of positive symptoms and improved psychosocial functioning at post-treatment and follow-up, and with a greater mean reduction of negative symptoms at follow-up compared to standard treatment. The significant reduction of positive symptoms at post-treatment was maintained in an attempted intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences regarding depressive symptoms. Of secondary outcome parameters, patients in the art therapy group showed a significant improvement in levels of emotional awareness, and particularly in their ability to reflect about others' emotional mental states. This is one of the first randomised controlled trials on psychodynamic group art therapy for patients with acute psychotic episodes receiving hospital treatment. Results prove the feasibility of trials on art therapy during acute psychotic episodes and justify

  18. A pilot RCT of psychodynamic group art therapy for patients in acute psychotic episodes: feasibility, impact on symptoms and mentalising capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Montag

    Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning. Secondary outcomes were mentalising function, estimated with the Reading the mind in the eyes test and the Levels of emotional awareness scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, quality of life and satisfaction with care. Assessments were made at baseline, at post-treatment and at 12 weeks' follow-up. At 12 weeks, 55% of patients randomised to art therapy, and 66% of patients receiving treatment as usual were examined. In the per-protocol sample, art therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction of positive symptoms and improved psychosocial functioning at post-treatment and follow-up, and with a greater mean reduction of negative symptoms at follow-up compared to standard treatment. The significant reduction of positive symptoms at post-treatment was maintained in an attempted intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences regarding depressive symptoms. Of secondary outcome parameters, patients in the art therapy group showed a significant improvement in levels of emotional awareness, and particularly in their ability to reflect about others' emotional mental states. This is one of the first randomised controlled trials on psychodynamic group art therapy for patients with acute psychotic episodes receiving hospital treatment. Results prove the feasibility of trials on art therapy during acute psychotic

  19. The relation of appraisal, coping efforts, and acuteness of trauma to PTS symptoms among former political prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanninen, Katri; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir

    2002-06-01

    We examined how trauma-specific appraisals and coping efforts mediate between traumatic experiences, acuteness of trauma, and length of imprisonment and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) among 103 Palestinian former political prisoners. The findings provide support for both direct and mediated models of trauma. The acuteness of trauma (time since release), appraisal of prison experience as harmful and involving loss, and use of both emotion- and problem-focused coping efforts were associated with high levels of PTS symptoms. Torture and ill-treatment had a direct association with intrusion, and recent release from prison with avoidance symptoms. Acuteness of trauma turned out to be important in the coping and symptom association: emotion-focused coping was associated with a low level of PTS symptoms in the long run, whereas problem-focused coping was associated with a low level of PTS symptoms in the short run.

  20. Acute air pollution-related symptoms among residents in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwatanadate, Phongtape

    2014-01-01

    Open burnings (forest fires, agricultural, and garbage burnings) are the major sources of air pollution in Chiang Mai, Thailand. A time series prospective study was conducted in which 3025 participants were interviewed for 19 acute symptoms with the daily records of ambient air pollutants: particulate matter less than 10 microm in size (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3). PM10 was positively associated with blurred vision with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.009. CO was positively associated with lower lung and heart symptoms with adjusted ORs of 1.137 and 1.117. NO2 was positively associated with nosebleed, larynx symptoms, dry cough, lower lung symptoms, heart symptoms, and eye irritation with the range of adjusted ORs (ROAORs) of 1.024 to 1.229. SO2 was positively associated with swelling feet, skin symptoms, eye irritation, red eyes, and blurred vision with ROAORs of 1.205 to 2.948. Conversely, O3 was negatively related to running nose, burning nose, dry cough, body rash, red eyes, and blurred vision with ROAORs of 0.891 to 0.979.

  1. Informative content of clinical symptoms of acute appendicitis in different terms of pregnancy

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    Kutovoy A.B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to evaluate diagnostic efficacy of some clinical symptoms of acute appendicitis 75 women in different terms of pregnancy were examined. Informative content of such symptoms as Kocher- Volkovich, Rovsing, Bartomje - Michelson, Sitkovsky, Gabay, Brendo, Michelson, Ivanov was studied. Pain syndrome was fixed in all examined women. Pain localization was various and depended on the pregnancy term. During the I trimester of pregnancy the most often pain was manifestated in epigastrium and right lower quadrant, rarely in other abdomen regions. In the II trimester in majority of cases pain occurred in right lower quadrant. During III trimester pain prevailed in right upper quadrant of abdomen. Analyzing informative component of researching symptoms there was noted significant decrease (р<0,05; р<0,01; р<0,001 of their diagnostic value with growth of pregnancy term. Therefore Kocher – Volkovich and Rovsing symptoms were the most informative in the I trimester of pregnancy. Diagnostic efficacy of Brendo(67,3%, Michelson(55,7%, Ivanov(59,6% symptoms was higher than that of Kocher – Volkovich (36,5%, Rovsing (28,8%, Sitkovsky (51,9%, Bartomje – Michelson (55,7% symptoms, their value was diminishing together with increase of pregnancy terms.

  2. Gender differences in reasons patients delay in seeking treatment for acute myocardial infarction symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Debra K; McKinley, Sharon; Dracup, Kathleen; Chung, Misook L

    2005-01-01

    Patients (n = 194) with confirmed acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were interviewed to determine sociodemographic, clinical, social, behavioral, cognitive and emotional factors that contribute to delay in seeking treatment for their symptoms. Initial symptom experience was similar for men and women: both were most commonly at home when symptoms began; both were most commonly in the presence of their spouse or other family member; few patients (trouble others, and prior knowledge of thrombolytics. There was no difference in delay between men and women (median 3.08 versus 3.10 h), but there are important gender differences in the reasons patients delay and in their patterns of decision-making that may assist clinicians trying to tailor interventions.

  3. Subthreshold psychotic symptom distress, self-stigma, and peer social support among college students with mental health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denenny, Danielle; Thompson, Elizabeth; Pitts, Steven C; Dixon, Lisa B; Schiffman, Jason

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore the potential moderating effect of social support on the relation between distress caused by psychosis risk symptoms and self-stigma among college students with mental health diagnoses. Participants were young adult college students who endorsed having a past or present mental health diagnosis (n = 63). Self-report data were examined from the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief, a measure of subthreshold psychosis risk symptoms; the Self-Concurrence/Application subscale of the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, a measure of self-stigma; and the Friendships subscale of the Lubben Social Network Scale-Revised, a measure of social support from peers. There was a modest direct relation between distress associated with psychosis risk symptoms and self-stigma. There was a larger relation between distress from risk symptoms and self-stigma for those with low social support compared to those with mean and high social support. Although causality cannot be determined based on this study, a strong relation between symptom distress and stigma was found among those reporting low peer social support. Interventions that target both self-stigma and social support might be relevant for young adults with a history of mental health concerns who currently endorse subthreshold psychotic symptoms. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomée, Sara; Dellve, Lotta; Härenstam, Annika; Hagberg, Mats

    2010-02-12

    Prospective associations have been found between high use of information and communication technology (ICT) and reported mental symptoms among young adult university students, but the causal mechanisms are unclear. Our aim was to explore possible explanations for associations between high ICT use and symptoms of depression, sleep disorders, and stress among young adults in order to propose a model of possible pathways to mental health effects that can be tested epidemiologically. We conducted a qualitative interview study with 16 women and 16 men (21-28 years), recruited from a cohort of university students on the basis of reporting high computer (n = 28) or mobile phone (n = 20) use at baseline and reporting mental symptoms at the one-year follow-up. Semi-structured interviews were performed, with open-ended questions about possible connections between the use of computers and mobile phones, and stress, depression, and sleep disturbances. The interview data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and summarized in a model. Central factors appearing to explain high quantitative ICT use were personal dependency, and demands for achievement and availability originating from the domains of work, study, social life, and individual aspirations. Consequences included mental overload, neglect of other activities and personal needs, time pressure, role conflicts, guilt feelings, social isolation, physical symptoms, worry about electromagnetic radiation, and economic problems. Qualitative aspects (destructive communication and information) were also reported, with consequences including vulnerability, misunderstandings, altered values, and feelings of inadequacy. User problems were a source of frustration. Altered ICT use as an effect of mental symptoms was reported, as well as possible positive effects of ICT on mental health. The concepts and ideas of the young adults with high ICT use and mental symptoms generated a model of possible paths for associations

  5. Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagberg Mats

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective associations have been found between high use of information and communication technology (ICT and reported mental symptoms among young adult university students, but the causal mechanisms are unclear. Our aim was to explore possible explanations for associations between high ICT use and symptoms of depression, sleep disorders, and stress among young adults in order to propose a model of possible pathways to mental health effects that can be tested epidemiologically. Methods We conducted a qualitative interview study with 16 women and 16 men (21-28 years, recruited from a cohort of university students on the basis of reporting high computer (n = 28 or mobile phone (n = 20 use at baseline and reporting mental symptoms at the one-year follow-up. Semi-structured interviews were performed, with open-ended questions about possible connections between the use of computers and mobile phones, and stress, depression, and sleep disturbances. The interview data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and summarized in a model. Results Central factors appearing to explain high quantitative ICT use were personal dependency, and demands for achievement and availability originating from the domains of work, study, social life, and individual aspirations. Consequences included mental overload, neglect of other activities and personal needs, time pressure, role conflicts, guilt feelings, social isolation, physical symptoms, worry about electromagnetic radiation, and economic problems. Qualitative aspects (destructive communication and information were also reported, with consequences including vulnerability, misunderstandings, altered values, and feelings of inadequacy. User problems were a source of frustration. Altered ICT use as an effect of mental symptoms was reported, as well as possible positive effects of ICT on mental health. Conclusions The concepts and ideas of the young adults with high ICT use and mental

  6. Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms and Heart Diseases: Can Health Care and Mental Health Care Professionals Collaboratively Improve the Assessment and Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and…

  7. Accuracy of the initial diagnosis among patients with an acutely altered mental status

    OpenAIRE

    Sporer, KA; Solares, M; Edward, JD; Wang, W; Alan, HBW; Robert, MR

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this prospective observational study were to: (1) determine the accuracy of physician diagnosis in patients with an acutely altered mental status (AMS) within the first 20 min of emergency department (ED) presentation; and (2) access if physician confidence in early diagnosis correlates with accuracy of diagnosis. Methods: A prospective observational convenience study was conducted of 112 adult patients who presented to an urban county ED with AMS (Glasgow Coma S...

  8. Mentalization deficit in bipolar patients during an acute depressive and manic episode: association with cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Anna; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2017-12-06

    A number of studies in bipolar patients have shown a deficit in mentalization (theory of mind), one of the main aspects of social cognition. The aim of current study was to assess both cognitive and affective mentalization in well-defined groups of depressed and manic bipolar patients, compared to healthy control subjects, using a battery of tests measuring mentalization processes. The second aim was to investigate a possible relationship between cognitive and affective mentalization and cognitive functions in bipolar patients during a depressive and manic episode. The study involved 25 bipolar disorder type I patients (10 male, 15 female) during a depressive episode (mean 24 ± 2 points in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) and 25 patients (10 male, 15 female) during a manic episode (mean 27 ± 4 points in the Young Mania Rating Scale). The control group consisted of 25 healthy subjects (10 male, 15 female) without psychiatric disorders. To measure mentalization, a revised version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (R-MET), the Strange Stories (SS), the Faux Pas Recognition (FPR), and the Moving Shapes Paradigm (MSP) tests were used. Assessment of cognitive functioning was made using the Digit Span, Trail Making, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Tests. In bipolar patients significant deficits in both cognitive and affective mentalization were demonstrated during both acute depressive and manic episodes. The impairment in FPR in manic patients was more severe than that in the depressive ones. On the other hand, in MSP, manic patients showed significantly increased intentionality for non-mentalization animations, compared with depressive patients and for "cause and effect" animations compared with control subjects. A significant relationship was found between the decrease in cognitive and affective mentalization and deficits of cognitive functions during both the depressive and manic episodes. The results obtained confirm the deficits of mentalization in

  9. Online interventions for problem gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    John A. Cunningham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity between problem gambling and depression or anxiety is common. Further, the treatment needs of people with co-occurring gambling and mental health symptoms may be different from those of problem gamblers who do not have a co-occurring mental health concern. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT will evaluate whether there is a benefit to providing access to mental health Internet interventions (G + MH intervention in addition to an Internet intervention for problem gambling (G-only intervention in participants with gambling problems who do or do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms. Methods Potential participants will be screened using an online survey to identify participants meeting criteria for problem gambling. As part of the baseline screening process, measures of current depression and anxiety will be assessed. Eligible participants agreeing (N = 280 to take part in the study will be randomized to one of two versions of an online intervention for gamblers – an intervention that just targets gambling issues (G-only versus a website that contains interventions for depression and anxiety in addition to an intervention for gamblers (G + MH. It is predicted that problem gamblers who do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms will display no significant difference between intervention conditions at a six-month follow-up. However, for those with co-occurring mental health symptoms, it is predicted that participants receiving access to the G + MH website will display significantly reduced gambling outcomes at six-month follow-up as compared to those provided with G-only website. Discussion The trial will produce information on the best means of providing online help to gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02800096 ; Registration date: June 14, 2016.

  10. Risk of acute kidney injury associated with neuroimaging obtained during triage and treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Shelby L; Munich, Stephan A; Cress, Marshall C; Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Levy, Elad I; Snyder, Kenneth V; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2016-02-04

    Combining non-contrast CT (NCCT), CT angiography (CTA), and CT perfusion (CTP) imaging (referred to as a CT stroke study, CTSS) provides a rapid evaluation of the cerebrovascular axis during acute ischemic stroke. Iodinated contrast-enhanced CT imaging is not without risk, which includes renal injury. If a patient's CTSS identifies vascular pathology, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is often performed within 24-48 h. Such patients may receive multiple administrations of iodinated contrast material over a short time period. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients who underwent a CTSS and DSA for evaluation of acute ischemic symptoms or for stroke intervention within a 48 h period between August 2012 and December 2014. We identified 84 patients for inclusion in the analysis. Patients fell into one of two cohorts: AKI, defined as a rise in the serum creatinine level of ≥0.5 mg/dL from baseline, or non-AKI. Clinical parameters included pre- and post-imaging serum creatinine level, time between CTSS and DSA, and type of angiographic procedure (diagnostic vs intervention) performed. Four patients (4.7%) experienced AKI, one of whom had baseline renal dysfunction (defined as baseline serum creatinine level ≥1.5 mg/dL). The mean difference between baseline and peak creatinine values was found to be significantly greater in patients with AKI than in non-AKI patients (1.65 vs -0.09, respectively; p=0.0008). This study provides preliminary evidence of the safety and feasibility of obtaining CTSS with additional DSA imaging, whether for diagnosis or intervention, to identify possible acute ischemic stroke. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Effects of stress and mental toughness on burnout and depressive symptoms: A prospective study with young elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Best, Simon; Meerstetter, Fabienne; Walter, Marco; Ludyga, Sebastian; Brand, Serge; Bianchi, Renzo; Madigan, Daniel J; Isoard-Gautheur, Sandrine; Gustafsson, Henrik

    2018-05-18

    To examine in a sample of young elite athletes (a) the presence of clinically relevant symptoms of burnout and depression, and (b) a possible interaction of perceived stress and mental toughness in the prediction of burnout and depressive symptoms. 6-month prospective study. A representative sample of 257 young elite athletes (M=16.82years, SD=1.44, 36% females) was recruited in North-Western Switzerland. 197 athletes were followed-up across a 6-month period. Burnout was assessed with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM), and depression with the 9-item depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Values of ≥4.40 (SMBM) and >14 (PHQ-9) were considered indicative of clinically relevant burnout or depression. Stress perceptions were assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and mental toughness with the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test stress-buffering effects. The percentage of athletes with clinically relevant levels of burnout and depressive symptoms was 12% and 9%, respectively. Both cross-sectional and prospective analyses showed that compared to participants with low mental toughness, those with higher mental toughness scores reported significantly fewer mental health issues, when exposed to high stress. By contrast, when stress levels were low, mental toughness was unrelated to psychological health complaints. About every tenth young elite athlete reported burnout or depressive symptoms of potential clinical relevance. While high perceived stress was associated with increased psychological health complaints, mental toughness was able to off-set some of the negative consequences resulting from high stress exposure. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mental health care use in medically unexplained and explained physical symptoms: findings from a general population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Eck van der Sluijs JF

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jonna F van Eck van der Sluijs,1,2 Margreet ten Have,3 Cees A Rijnders,4 Harm WJ van Marwijk,5,6 Ron de Graaf,3 Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis1,2 1Clinical Centre of Excellence for Body, Mind and Health, GGz Breburg, 2Tranzo Department, Tilburg University, Tilburg, 3Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, 4Department of Residency training, GGz Breburg, Tilburg, the Netherlands; 5Centre for Primary Care, Institute of Population Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 6Department of General Practice and Elderly Care Medicine, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Objective: The aim of this study was to explore mental health care utilization patterns in primary and specialized mental health care of people with unexplained or explained physical symptoms. Methods: Data were derived from the first wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2, a nationally representative face-to-face cohort study among the general population aged 18–64 years. We selected subjects with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS only (MUSonly; n=177, explained physical symptoms only (PHYonly, n=1,952, combined MUS and explained physical symptoms (MUS + PHY, n=209, and controls without physical symptoms (NONE, n=4,168. We studied entry into mental health care and the number of treatment contacts for mental problems, in both primary care and specialized mental health care. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and presence of any 12-month mental disorder assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Results: At the primary care level, all three groups of subjects with physical symptoms showed entry into care for mental health problems significantly more often than controls. The adjusted odds ratios were 2.29 (1.33, 3.95 for MUSonly, 1.55 (1.13, 2.12 for PHYonly, and 2.25 (1.41, 3.57 for MUS + PHY. At the

  13. The Afghan symptom checklist: a culturally grounded approach to mental health assessment in a conflict zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth E; Omidian, Patricia; Quraishy, Abdul Samad; Quraishy, Naseema; Nasiry, Mohammed Nader; Nasiry, Seema; Karyar, Nazar Mohammed; Yaqubi, Abdul Aziz

    2006-10-01

    This article describes a methodology for developing culturally grounded assessment measures in conflict and postconflict situations. A mixed-method design was used in Kabul, Afghanistan, to identify local indicators of distress and develop the 22-item Afghan Symptom Checklist (ASCL). The ASCL contains several indigenous items and items familiar to Western mental health professionals. The ASCL was pilot tested and subsequently administered to 324 adults in 8 districts of Kabul. It demonstrated excellent reliability (alpha=.93) and good construct validity, correlating strongly with a measure of exposure to war-related violence and loss (r=.70). Results of the survey indicate moderate levels of distress among Afghan men and markedly higher levels of distress and impaired functioning among women (and widows in particular). (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents as a possible symptom of different mental disorders

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    Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes of aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents are manifold with exogenous and endogenous factors such as personality traits, temperament, family, socio-cultural, economic and financial factors closely intertwined. Aggressive behaviour, however, can also be associated with mental disorders and this is the topic discussed by the present article. Isolated and occasional outbursts of anger, aggressiveness and rage in children and adolescents can often be confused with conduct disorder. However, conduct disorder is characterised by a stable aggressive behavioural pattern, recurrently violating either the basic rights of the others or of the generally accepted social norms. Aggressive behaviour can also be present in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD, Attention Deficit Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD, affective and psychotic disorders, autistic spectrum disorders and in some other developmental neurological disorders including intellectual disability ‒ but only as a possible and not a typical symptom. Child and adolescent psychiatrist can mainly help with aggressive behaviour associated with mental disorders. In all other possible causes of aggressive behaviour, child and adolescent psychiatry has neither the possibility/capacity nor the authority to intervene.  

  15. Increased Symptom Expression among Patients with Delirium Admitted to an Acute Palliative Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Maxine; Yennu, Sriram; Liu, Diane; Wu, Jimin; Reddy, Akhila; Bruera, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric condition in very ill patients and those at the end of life. Previous case reports found that delirium-induced disinhibition may lead to overexpression of symptoms. It negatively affects communication between patients, family members, and the medical team and can sometimes lead to inappropriate interventions. Better understanding would result in improved care. Our aim was to determine the effect of delirium on the reporting of symptom severity in patients with advanced cancer. We reviewed 329 consecutive patients admitted to the acute palliative care unit (APCU) without a diagnosis of delirium from January to December 2011. Demographics, Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance status, and Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) on two time points were collected. The first time point was on admission and the second time point for group A was day one (+two days) of delirium. For group B, the second time point was within two to four days before discharge from the APCU. Patients who developed delirium and those who did not develop delirium during the entire course of admission were compared using chi-squared test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Paired t-test was used to assess if the change of ESAS from baseline to follow-up was associated with delirium. Ninety-six of 329 (29%) patients developed delirium during their admission to the APCU. The median time to delirium was two days. There was no difference in the length of stay in the APCU for both groups. Patients who did not have delirium expressed improvement in all their symptoms, while those who developed delirium during hospitalization showed no improvement in physical symptoms and worsening in depression, anxiety, appetite, and well-being. Patients with delirium reported no improvement or worsening symptoms compared to patients without delirium. Screening for delirium is important in patients who continue to report

  16. The impact of antecedent trauma exposure and mental health symptoms on the post-deployment mental health of Afghanistan-deployed Australian troops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Amelia K; Van Hooff, Miranda; Lawrence-Wood, Ellie R; Grace, Blair S; Saccone, Elizabeth J; Davy, Carol P; Lorimer, Michelle; McFarlane, Alexander C

    2017-10-01

    Both traumatic deployment experiences and antecedent traumas increase personnel's risk of developing PTSD and depression. However, only cross-sectional studies have assessed whether antecedent trauma moderates stress reactions to deployment experiences. This study prospectively examines whether antecedent trauma moderates the association between deployment trauma and post-deployment PTSD and depressive symptoms after accounting for antecedent mental health problems, in a large Australian Defence Force (ADF) sample. In the ADF Middle East Area of Operations Prospective Study, currently-serving military personnel deployed to Afghanistan across 2010-2012 (n = 1122) completed self-reported measures at pre-deployment and post-deployment. Within multivariable regressions, associations between deployment trauma and PTSD and depressive symptoms at post-deployment were stronger for personnel with greater antecedent trauma. However, once adjusting for antecedent mental health problems, these significant interaction effects disappeared. Instead, deployment-related trauma and antecedent mental health problems showed direct associations with post-deployment mental health problems. Antecedent trauma was also indirectly associated with post-deployment mental health problems through antecedent mental health problems. Similar associations were seen with prior combat exposure as a moderator. Antecedent and deployment trauma were reported retrospectively. Self-reports may also suffer from social desirability bias, especially at pre-deployment. Our main effects results support the pervasive and cumulative negative effect of trauma on military personnel, regardless of its source. While antecedent trauma does not amplify personnel's psychological response to deployment trauma, it is indirectly associated with increased post-deployment mental health problems. Antecedent mental health should be considered within pre-deployment prevention programs, and deployment-trauma within post

  17. The effects of optimism and gratitude on adherence, functioning and mental health following an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Celano, Christopher M; Beale, Eleanor E; Beach, Scott R; Suarez, Laura; Belcher, Arianna M; Januzzi, James L; Huffman, Jeff C

    This study examined the effects of optimism and gratitude on self-reported health behavior adherence, physical functioning and emotional well-being after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Among 156 patients, we examined associations between optimism and gratitude measured 2 weeks post-ACS and 6-month outcomes: adherence to medical recommendations, mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical functioning, depressive symptoms and anxiety. Multivariable linear regression models were used, controlling for increasing levels of adjustment. Optimism [β=.11, standard error (S.E.)=.05, P=.038] and gratitude (β=.10, S.E.=.05, P=.027) at 2 weeks were associated with subsequent self-reported adherence to medical recommendations (diet, exercise, medication adherence, stress reduction) at 6 months in fully adjusted models. Two-week optimism and gratitude were associated with improvements in mental HRQoL (optimism: β=.44, S.E.=.13, P=.001; gratitude: β=.33, S.E.=.12, P=.005) and reductions in symptoms of depression (optimism: β=-.11, S.E.=.05, P=.039; gratitude: β=-.10, S.E.=.05, P=.028) and anxiety (optimism: β=-.15, S.E.=.05, P=.004; gratitude: β=-.10, S.E.=.05, P=.034) at 6 months. Optimism and gratitude at 2 weeks post-ACS were associated with higher self-reported adherence and improved emotional well-being 6 months later, independent of negative emotional states. Optimism and gratitude may help recovery from an ACS. Interventions promoting these positive constructs could help improve adherence and well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Course of mental symptoms in patients with stress-related exhaustion: does sex or age make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glise Kristina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term sick leave due to mental health problems, especially among women, is a substantial problem in many countries, and a major reason for this is thought to be psychosocial stress. The recovery period of different patient groups with stress-related mental health problems can differ considerably. We have studied the course of mental health symptoms during 18 months of multimodal treatment in relation to sex and age in a group of patients with stress-related exhaustion. Methods The study group includes 232 patients (68% women referred to a stress clinic and who fulfilled the criteria for Exhaustion Disorder (ED. The majority also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for depression and/or anxiety; this was similar among women and men. Symptoms were assessed at baseline, three, six, 12 and 18 months by the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD. A total SMBQ mean score of ≥ 4 was used to indicate clinical burnout, which correlates well with the clinical diagnosis of ED. Results There were no statistically significant differences between women and men or between young and old patients in the self-reported symptoms at baseline. The proportion that had high burnout scores decreased over time, but one-third still had symptoms of clinical burnout after 18 months. Symptoms indicating probable depression or anxiety (present in 34% and 65% of the patients at baseline, respectively declined more rapidly, in most cases within the first three months, and were present only in one out of 10 after 18 months. The course of illness was not related to sex or age. The duration of symptoms before seeking health care, but not the level of education or co-morbid depression, was a predictor of recovery from symptoms of burnout after 18 months. Conclusions The course of mental illness in patients seeking specialist care for stress-related exhaustion was not related to sex or age. The burden of

  19. Why involve families in acute mental healthcare? A collaborative conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirik, Aysegul; Sandhu, Sima; Giacco, Domenico; Barrett, Katherine; Bennison, Gerry; Collinson, Sue; Priebe, Stefan

    2017-09-27

    Family involvement is strongly recommended in clinical guidelines but suffers from poor implementation. To explore this topic at a conceptual level, a multidisciplinary review team including academics, clinicians and individuals with lived experience undertook a review to explore the theoretical background of family involvement models in acute mental health treatment and how this relates to their delivery. A conceptual review was undertaken, including a systematic search and narrative synthesis. Included family models were mapped onto the most commonly referenced underlying theories: the diathesis-stress model, systems theories and postmodern theories of mental health. Common components of the models were summarised and compared. Lastly, a thematic analysis was undertaken to explore the role of patients and families in the delivery of the approaches. General adult acute mental health treatment. Six distinct family involvement models were identified: Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models, ERIC (Equipe Rapide d'Intervention de Crise), Family Psychoeducation Models, Family Systems Approach, Open Dialogue and the Somerset Model. Findings indicated that despite wide variation in the theoretical models underlying family involvement models, there were many commonalities in their components, such as a focus on communication, language use and joint decision-making. Thematic analysis of the role of patients and families identified several issues for implementation. This included potential harms that could emerge during delivery of the models, such as imposing linear 'patient-carer' relationships and the risk of perceived coercion. We conclude that future staff training may benefit from discussing the chosen family involvement model within the context of other theories of mental health. This may help to clarify the underlying purpose of family involvement and address the diverse needs and world views of patients, families and professionals in acute settings.

  20. Family functioning is associated with depressive symptoms in caregivers of acute stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein-Lubow, Gary P; Beevers, Christopher G; Bishop, Duane S; Miller, Ivan W

    2009-06-01

    To determine whether family functioning is uniquely associated with caregiver depressive symptoms in the immediate aftermath of stroke. Cross-sectional data from the baseline assessment of an intervention study for stroke survivors and their families. Neurology inpatient service of a large urban hospital. Stroke survivors (n=192), each with a primary caregiver. The mean age of stroke survivors was 66 years, and most, 57%, were men (n=110). The mean age of caregivers was 57 years, and 73% (n=140) of the caregivers were women. Eighty-five percent of caregivers were white. Not applicable. Measures were chosen to assess caregivers' depressive symptoms (Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), family functioning (Family Assessment Device), and additional factors such as health status (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey) and stroke survivors' cognitive abilities (modified Mini-Mental State Examination) and functional impairments (FIM and Frenchay Activities Index). Depressive symptoms were mild to moderate in 14% and severe in 27% of caregivers. Family functioning was assessed as unhealthy in 34% of caregiver-patient dyads. In statistical regression models, caregiver depression was associated with patients' sex, caregivers' general health, and family functioning. Forty-one percent of caregivers experienced prominent depressive symptoms after their family member's stroke. Higher depression severity in caregivers was associated with caring for a man, and having worse health and poor family functioning. After stroke, the assessment of caregivers' health and family functioning may help determine which caregivers are most at risk for a depressive syndrome.

  1. Monitoring somatic symptoms in patients with mental disorders: Sensitivity to change and minimal clinically important difference of the Somatic Symptom Scale - 8 (SSS-8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierk, Benjamin; Kohlmann, Sebastian; Hagemann-Goebel, Marion; Löwe, Bernd; Nestoriuc, Yvonne

    2017-09-01

    The SSS-8 is a brief questionnaire for the assessment of somatic symptom burden. This study examines its sensitivity to change and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in patients with mental disorders. 55 outpatients with mental disorders completed the SSS-8 and measures of anxiety, depression, and disability before and after receiving treatment. Effect sizes and correlations between the change scores were calculated. The MCID was estimated using a one standard error of measurement threshold and the change in disability as an external criterion. There was a medium decline in somatic symptom burden for the complete sample (n=55, d z =0.53) and a large decline in a subgroup with very high somatic symptom burden at baseline (n=11, d z =0.94). Decreases in somatic symptom burden were associated with decreases in anxiety (r=0.68, pSSS-8 is sensitive to change. A 3-point decrease reflects a clinically important improvement. Due to its brevity and sound psychometric properties, the SSS-8 is useful for monitoring somatic symptom burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring DSM-5 criterion A in Acute Stress Disorder symptoms following natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenda, Osnat; Grossman, Ephraim S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Hoffman, Yaakov

    2017-10-01

    The present study examines the DSM-5 Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) diagnostic criteria of exposure, in the context of a natural disaster. The study is based on the reports of 1001 Filipinos following the aftermath of super typhoon Haiyan in 2013. Participants reported exposure to injury, psychological distress and ASD symptoms. Findings indicated the association of criterion A with the prevalence of meeting all other ASD diagnostic criteria and high psychological distress. The diagnostic properties of Criterion A are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Affective symptoms and cognitive functions in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Elberling, Tina V; Hørding, Merete

    2007-01-01

    of cognitive deficits) had decreased significantly, with further normalisation 1-year after treatment initiation. In conclusion, patients had subjective reports of cognitive deficits in the toxic phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis but comprehensive neuropsychological testing revealed no cognitive impairment......In the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis patients often have subjective cognitive complaints. Continuing controversy exists about the nature of these symptoms and whether they persist after treatment. This prospective study included 31 consecutively referred, newly diagnosed, and untreated....... No significant differences between the patient and the control group on neuropsychological test performances were found. Thyroid levels did not correlate with the neuropsychological test performances or psychiatric ratings. After reaching euthyroidism the level of affective symptoms (including reports...

  4. Post-traumatic stress symptom clusters in acute whiplash associated disorder and their prediction of chronic pain-related disability

    OpenAIRE

    Annick Maujean; Matthew J. Gullo; Tonny Elmose Andersen; Sophie Lykkegaard Ravn; Michele Sterling

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Introduction:. The presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has been found to be associated with an increased risk of persisting neck pain and disability in motor vehicle crash (MVC) survivors with whiplash injuries. The findings are mixed as to which PTSD symptom(s) best predicts recovery in this population. Objectives:. The aims were (1) to explore the factor structure of the Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) in a sample of acute whiplash-injured in...

  5. Trained lay health workers reduce common mental disorder symptoms of adults with suicidal ideation in Zimbabwe: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munetsi, Epiphany; Simms, Victoria; Dzapasi, Lloyd; Chapoterera, Georgina; Goba, Nyaradzo; Gumunyu, Tichaona; Weiss, Helen A; Verhey, Ruth; Abas, Melanie; Araya, Ricardo; Chibanda, Dixon

    2018-02-08

    Suicidal ideation may lead to deliberate self-harm which increases the risk of death by suicide. Globally, the main cause of deliberate self-harm is depression. The aim of this study was to explore prevalence of, and risk factors for, suicidal ideation among men and women with common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms attending public clinics in Zimbabwe, and to determine whether problem solving therapy delivered by lay health workers can reduce common mental disorder symptoms among people with suicidal ideation, using secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. At trial enrolment, the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) was used to screen for CMD symptoms. In the intervention arm, participants received six problem-solving therapy sessions conducted by trained and supervised lay health workers, while those in the control arm received enhanced usual care. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify risk factors for suicidal ideation at enrolment, and cluster-level logistic regression to compare SSQ scores at endline (6 months follow-up) between trial arms, stratified by suicidal ideation at enrolment. There were 573 participants who screened positive for CMD symptoms and 75 (13.1%) reported suicidal ideation at baseline. At baseline, after adjusting for confounders, suicidal ideation was independently associated with being aged over 24, lack of household income (household income yes/no; adjusted odds ratio 0.52 (95% CI 0.29, 0.95); p = 0.03) and with having recently skipped a meal due to lack of food (adjusted odds ratio 3.06 (95% CI 1.81, 5.18); p mental disorder symptoms but no suicidal ideation (adjusted mean difference - 4.86, 95% CI -5.68, - 4.04; p mental disorder symptoms among participants with suicidal thoughts who attended primary care facilities in Zimbabwe. pactr.org ldentifier: PACTR201410000876178.

  6. Impact of health literacy on depressive symptoms and mental health-related: quality of life among adults with addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Alisa; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Cheng, Debbie M; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Caruso, Christine; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2006-08-01

    Health literacy has been linked to health status in a variety of chronic diseases. However, evidence for a relationship between health literacy and mental health outcomes is sparse. We hypothesized that low literacy would be associated with higher addiction severity, higher levels of depressive symptoms, and worse mental health functioning compared with those with higher literacy in adults with alcohol and drug dependence. The association of literacy with multiple mental health outcomes was assessed using multivariable analyses. Measurement instruments included the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, the Mental Component Summary scale of the Short Form Health Survey, and the Addiction Severity Index for drug and alcohol addiction. Subjects included 380 adults recruited during detoxification treatment and followed prospectively at 6-month intervals for 2 years. Based on the REALM, subjects were classified as having either low ( or = 9th grade) literacy levels. In longitudinal analyses, low literacy was associated with more depressive symptoms. The adjusted mean difference in CES-D scores between low and high literacy levels was 4 (Pmental health-related quality of life or addiction severity. In people with alcohol and drug dependence, low literacy is associated with worse depressive symptoms. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between literacy and mental health outcomes should be explored to inform future intervention efforts.

  7. The prevalence and risk indicators of symptoms of common mental disorders among current and former Dutch elite athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Jonkers, Ruud; Moen, Maarten; Verhagen, Evert; Wylleman, Paul; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and comorbidity of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, eating disorders, adverse alcohol use) among current and former Dutch elite athletes, and to explore the inference between potential risk

  8. Associations of social support and stress with postpartum maternal mental health symptoms: Main effects, moderation, and mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Schafer, Ellen J; Ashida, Sato

    2017-07-01

    Poor maternal mental health during the postpartum period can have significant effects on the health of mothers, infants, and families. The findings from cross-sectional studies suggest that stress and social support are related to maternal mental health. This study contributes to the literature through the use of longitudinal data, and examines moderation and mediation among these factors. In 2012-2013, mothers completed surveys assessing stress, social support, and depressive and anxiety symptoms following birth (n = 125), and 3 months (n = 110) and 6 months (n = 99) after birth. The authors examined temporal associations, moderation, and mediation of social support on the relationship between stress and postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms using modified Poisson regression models and the counterfactual approach to mediation. Current levels of stress and social support were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, both independently and when considered together at multiple time points. Social support did not strongly moderate or mediate the relationships between stress and maternal mental health. Interventions to reduce current perceptions of stress and increase social support for mothers during the postpartum period may help improve maternal mental health symptoms. Efforts are needed to assess the current needs of mothers continuously.

  9. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation between Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…

  10. Cumulative Risk Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms among Maltreated Youth Placed in Out-of-Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Tali; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Garrido, Edward F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Maltreated children placed in out-of-home care are at high risk for exhibiting symptoms of psychopathology by virtue of their exposure to numerous risk factors. Research examining cumulative risk has consistently found that the accumulation of risk factors increases the likelihood of mental health problems. The goal of the current study…

  11. Health Correlates of Insomnia Symptoms and Comorbid Mental Disorders in a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, M.; Zhang, J.H.; Lamers, F.; Taylor, A.D.; Hickie, I.B.; Merikangas, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and health correlates of insomnia symptoms and their association with comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. Design: National representative cross-sectional study. Setting: Population-based

  12. Student and Nonstudent National Guard Service Members/Veterans and their Use of Services for Mental Health Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E.; Bohnert, Kipling M.; Walters, Heather M.; Ganoczy, Dara; Valenstein, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare mental health symptoms and service utilization among returning student and nonstudent Service Members/Veterans (SM/Vs). Participants SM/Vs (N=1439) were predominately white (83%) men (92%); half were over age 30 (48%) and 24% were students. Methods SM/Vs completed surveys six months post-deployment (October 2011–July 2013). Results Students and nonstudent SM/Vs did not differ in positive screens for depression, anxiety, hazardous drinking, or Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Students (n=81) and nonstudents (n=265) with mental health symptoms had low levels of mental health service use (e.g., VA, civilian, or military facilities), at 47% and 57% respectively. Fewer students used VA mental health services. Common barriers to treatment-seeking included not wanting treatment on military records and embarrassment. Conclusions Like other returning SM/Vs, student SM/Vs have unmet mental health needs. The discrepancy between potential need and treatment-seeking suggests that colleges might be helpful in further facilitating mental health service use for student SM/Vs. PMID:25337770

  13. Disentangling the Sleep-Pain Relationship in Pediatric Chronic Pain: The Mediating Role of Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pavlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pediatric chronic pain often emerges in adolescence and cooccurs with internalizing mental health issues and sleep impairments. Emerging evidence suggests that sleep problems may precede the onset of chronic pain as well as anxiety and depression. Studies conducted in pediatric populations with pain-related chronic illnesses suggest that internalizing mental health symptoms may mediate the sleep-pain relationship; however, this has not been examined in youth with primary pain disorders. Objective. To examine whether anxiety and depressive symptoms mediated relationships between sleep quality and pain outcomes among youth with chronic pain. Methods. Participants included 147 youth (66.7% female aged 8–18 years who were referred to a tertiary-level chronic pain program. At intake, the youth completed psychometrically sound measures of sleep quality, pain intensity, pain interference, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results. As hypothesized, poor sleep quality was associated with increased pain intensity and pain interference, and anxiety and depressive symptoms mediated these sleep-pain relationships. Discussion. For youth with chronic pain, poor sleep quality may worsen pain through alterations in mood and anxiety; however, prospective research using objective measures is needed. Future research should examine whether targeting sleep and internalizing mental health symptoms in treatments improve pain outcomes in these youth.

  14. Symptoms of reproductive tract infections and mental distress among women in low-income urban neighborhoods of Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Marwan; Kaddour, Afamia; Zurayk, Huda; Choueiry, Nathalie; El-Kak, Faysal

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between symptoms of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and mental distress among women residing in three low-income urban neighborhoods in Greater Beirut. A cross-sectional survey of currently married women aged 15-49 years (n = 1506) from the 2003 Urban Health Study was undertaken. The dependent variables were complaining of vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, and pain during intercourse. The main independent variable was mental distress, measured using the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ). Other variables included decision-making power, "comfort" with husband, age, education, income, household wealth, employment, community of residence, displacement by war, presence of chronic disease, reported reproductive health problem, membership in any group, receipt of favor last month, and smoking. Analysis was conducted using logistic regression models on the complaint of any symptom of RTIs and on individual complaints. Forty-two percent of the interviewed women reported at least one symptom of RTIs. Vaginal discharge was the most commonly reported symptom, with 33% of currently married women complaining from it. Mental distress was significantly associated with any reported RTI symptom (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-1.83), pelvic pain (OR = 2.38; CI = 1.71-3.30), vaginal discharge (OR = 1.35; CI = 1.03-1.77), and pain during intercourse (OR = 2.37; CI = 1.66-3.40) after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and health risk factors. A significant association between mental distress and reported RTI symptoms was established by this study. A new approach to gynecological morbidity is needed, one that integrates biomedical and psychosocial factors into a unified framework.

  15. Common stressful life events and difficulties are associated with mental health symptoms and substance use in young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nancy CP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stressful life events are associated with mood disorders in adults in clinical settings. Less described in the literature is the association between common life stressors and a wide range of psychopathology in young adolescents. This study uses a large non-clinical sample of young adolescents to describe the associations among worry or stress about common life events/difficulties, mental health and substance use. Methods Data on lifetime stress or worry about common life events/difficulties (i.e., romantic breakups, family disruption, interpersonal difficulties, and personal stress (health, weight, school work, symptoms of depression, conduct disorder symptoms, and substance use were collected from 1025 grade 7 students (mean age 12.9 years; 45% male. The association between each source of stress and each mental health and substance use indicator was modeled in separate logistic regression analyses. Results The proportion of adolescents reporting worry or stress ranged from 7% for new family to 53% for schoolwork. Romantic breakup stress was statistically significantly associated with all the mental health and substance use indicators except illicit drug use. Family disruption was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms, marijuana use, and cigarette use. Interpersonal difficulties stress was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms. All sources of personal stress were statistically significantly related to depression symptoms. In addition, health-related stress was inversely related to binge drinking. Conclusion Young adolescents may benefit from learning positive coping skills to manage worry or stress about common stressors and in particular, worry or stress related to romantic breakups. Appropriate management of mental health symptoms and substance use related to common stressful life events and difficulties may help reduce emerging psychopathology.

  16. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infestation in a child presenting with symptoms of acute appendicitis: a wriggly tale!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Louise; Clark, Zoe; Raja, Mazhar H

    2017-10-06

    Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency worldwide. However, it can still present a challenging diagnosis especially in the young, elderly and those individuals of reproductive age, thus encompassing a wide spectrum of varied clinical presentations. Parasitic infections of the appendix are a rare cause of acute appendicitis. However, they must be considered in children presenting with abdominal pain. We report a case of Enterobius vermicularis infestation mimicking the features of acute appendicitis in a 10-year-old girl. This case is a cautionary reminder of the importance of considering E. vermicularis infestation in children presenting with abdominal pain, but who do not have a significantly raised white cell count or high Alvarado scores. A history of anal pruritus is the most characteristic symptom, but the parasites can cause severe abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis. Prompt recognition and a high clinical index of suspicion are required to prevent an unnecessary appendicectomy. Caution is advised when performing a laparoscopic appendectomy, as in our case, to prevent contamination of the peritoneum. This infestation is easily treatable with mebendazole. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Harm reduction-a systematic review on effects of alcohol reduction on physical and mental symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Based on the knowledge that alcohol misuse causes a multitude of diseases and increased mortality, this systematic review examines whether a reduction of the individual alcohol consumption can contribute to a minimization of health risks within a harm reduction approach. In fact, the reviewed 63 studies indicate that interventions aiming at alcohol reduction (including total abstinence as one possible therapeutic aim) indeed resulted in or were associated with positive effects in harmful, hazardous or alcohol-dependent drinkers. Major benefits were observed for reducing alcohol-associated injuries, recovery of ventricular heart function in alcoholic cardiomyopathy, blood pressure lowering, normalization of biochemical parameter, body weight reduction, histological improvement in pre-cirrhotic alcohol-related liver disease and slowed progression of an already existing alcohol-attributable liver fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced withdrawal symptoms, prevalence of psychiatric episodes and duration of in-patient hospital days, improvement of anxiety and depression symptoms, self-confidence, physical and mental quality of life, fewer alcohol-related adverse consequences as well as lower psychosocial stress levels and better social functioning can result from reduced alcohol intake. The reviewed literature demonstrated remarkable socioeconomic cost benefits in areas such as the medical health-care system or workforce productivity. Individuals with heightened vulnerability further benefit significantly from alcohol reduction (e.g. hypertension, hepatitis C, psychiatric co-morbidities, pregnancy, but also among adolescents and young adults). Concluding, the reviewed studies strongly support and emphasize the importance and benefits of early initial screening for problematic alcohol use followed by brief and other interventions in first contact medical health-care facilities to reduce alcohol intake. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Presenting as Focal Neurologic Findings and Deteriorating Mental Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Matthew; Ngaruiya, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare but particularly malignant form of acute leukemia that is characterized by a rapid progression to fatal hemorrhage. Survival rates of patients with APL have increased with the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), but early deaths caused by hemorrhage still persist. A man with undiagnosed APL presenting with focal neurologic findings and deteriorating altered mental status caused by an intracranial hemorrhage is discussed. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: It is important to consider APL when diagnosing etiologies for intracranial hemorrhage. In addition to standard care, early administration of ATRA is recommended upon clinical suspicion of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Externalizing symptoms moderate associations among interpersonal skills, parenting, and depressive symptoms in adolescents seeking mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents' interpersonal skills are associated with fewer teen depressive symptoms and more positive parenting, but little is known about how teens' externalizing problems moderate these relationships. This study examines links among teens' interpersonal skills, parenting, and withdrawn-depressed symptoms in adolescents seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment with elevated or non-elevated externalizing problems. Adolescents (N = 346; 42 % female; 61 % African-American) ages 12-19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and parents completed assessments at baseline and 6 months. At baseline parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed and externalizing symptoms, and were observed interacting to assess teen interpersonal skills. At 6 months adolescents reported on parenting, and parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed symptoms. Structural equation modeling tested two models (one with teen reported symptoms and one with parent reported symptoms). Model fit was better for youth with elevated externalizing problems regardless of reporter. For youth with elevated externalizing problems, baseline teen positive interpersonal skills were not directly associated with 6-month withdrawn-depressed symptoms, but more positive parenting was associated with fewer withdrawn-depressed symptoms. In the teen report model, more positive teen interpersonal skills were associated with more positive parenting, and there was a trend for parenting to indirectly account for the relationship between interpersonal skills and withdrawn-depressed symptoms. The findings extend research on the role of externalizing problems in teens' depression risk. Interventions for depression that target interpersonal skills may be particularly effective in youth with elevated externalizing problems.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of symptoms of common mental disorders in retired professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to explore the associations between stressors (life events, Rugby Union career dissatisfaction) and the health conditions under study. Therefore, cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study of retired professional Rugby Union players. An electronic questionnaire was established using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of CMD and stressors. The electronic questionnaire was subsequently distributed to retired players by the national Rugby Union players' associations in France, Ireland and South Africa. Among 295 retired professional Rugby Union players (mean age of 38 years), prevalence rates were 25% for distress, 28% for anxiety/depression, 29% for sleeping disturbance, 62% for adverse nutrition behaviour, 15% for smoking and 24% for adverse alcohol behaviour. A higher number of life events were associated with distress (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4), anxiety/depression (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1), sleeping disturbance (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.5). A higher level of dissatisfaction of the player's Rugby Union career was associated with distress (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-1.0), sleeping disturbance (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0), smoking (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-0.9). In conclusion, our study suggests that prevalence of symptoms of CMD is high among retired professional Rugby Union players, being associated with both a higher number of life events and a higher level of Rugby Union career dissatisfaction.

  1. Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors ? a population-based study in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Molarius, Anu; Berglund, Kenneth; Eriksson, Charli; Eriksson, Hans G; Lind?n-Bostr?m, Margareta; Nordstr?m, Eva; Persson, Carina; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Starrin, Bengt; Ydreborg, Berit

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. Methods The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18–84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area ...

  2. So, you want to design an acute mental health inpatient unit: physical issues for consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Dinesh

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore important considerations when planning an acute mental health inpatient unit. Planning a mental health acute inpatient facility should be about more than just building a beautiful, fabulous facility. A novel architectural design, fancy gadgets, safe tapware, new lounge suites, good light and air circulation are all incredibly important and good architects and designers can inform us about new developments in architecture and design that we must incorporate in our design plans. However, to design a facility that is right for tomorrow, it is also important to spend time trying to understand what happens in the facility and how the new facility is going to make things different and better. Planning of a health facility should be about creating an environment that is not only pleasant, comfortable and safe but also one that would enable and facilitate better care. It is important to map processes before rather than after building a facility, so that this process mapping can inform design and we do not keep falling into the trap of building a beautiful new facility but losing the opportunity to make care better.

  3. Posterior midline activation during symptom provocation in acute stress disorder: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christopher Cwik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging studies of patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder showed wide-spread activation of mid-line cortical areas during symptom provocation i.e., exposure to trauma-related cues. The present study aimed at investigating neural activation during exposure to trauma-related pictures in patients with Acute Stress Disorder (ASD shortly after the traumatic event. Nineteen ASD patients and 19 healthy control participants were presented with individualized pictures of the traumatic event and emotionally neutral control pictures during the acquisition of whole-brain data with a 3-T fMRI scanner. Compared to the control group and to control pictures, ASD patients showed significant activation in mid-line cortical areas in response to trauma-related pictures including precuneus, cuneus, postcentral gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area. The results suggest that the trauma-related pictures evoke emotionally salient self-referential processing in ASD patients.

  4. Comparison of mental distress in patients with low back pain and a population-based control group measured by Symptoms Check List

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Fisker, Annette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to compare mental symptoms and distress as measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 in sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed patients with low back pain with a population-based control group. METHODS: Mental distress was compared in a group of patients with low back pain (n......=770) and a randomly selected population-based reference group (n=909). Established Danish cut-off values for mental distress were used to evaluate the mental distress status in the low back pain and control group and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the Global Severity Index......PURPOSE: Mental distress is common in persons experiencing low back pain and who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed. It is, however, not known how mental distress measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 differs between patients with low back pain and the general population...

  5. Acute symptoms during the course of head and neck radiotherapy or chemoradiation are strong predictors of late dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Hans Paul van der; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M.; Schaaf, Arjen van der; Chouvalova, Olga; Vemer-van den Hoek, Johanna G.M.; Gawryszuk, Agata; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. van der; Oosting, Sjoukje F.; Roodenburg, Jan L.N.; Wopken, Kim; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if acute symptoms during definitive radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiation (CHRT) are prognostic factors for late dysphagia in head and neck cancer (HNC). Material and methods: This prospective cohort study consisted of 260 HNC patients who received definitive RT or CHRT. The primary endpoint was grade 2–4 swallowing dysfunction at 6 months after completing RT (SWALM6). During treatment, acute symptoms, including oral mucositis, xerostomia and dysphagia, were scored, and the scores were accumulated weekly and entered into an existing reference model for SWALM6 that consisted of dose–volume variables only. Results: Both acute xerostomia and dysphagia were strong prognostic factors for SWALM6. When acute scores were added as variables to the reference model, model performance increased as the course of treatment progressed: the AUC rose from 0.78 at the baseline to 0.85 in week 6. New models built for weeks 3–6 were significantly better able to identify patients with and without late dysphagia. Conclusion: Acute xerostomia and dysphagia during the course of RT are strong prognostic factors for late dysphagia. Including accumulated acute symptom scores on a weekly basis in prediction models for late dysphagia significantly improves the identification of high-risk and low-risk patients at an early stage during treatment and might facilitate individualized treatment adaptation

  6. Presenting Symptoms and Dysphagia Screen Predict Outcome in Mild and Rapidly Improving Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadodia, Gaurav; Rizk, Nibal; Camp, Deborah; Bryant, Katja; Zimmerman, Susan; Brasher, Cynthia; Connelly, Kerrin; Dunn, Joshua; Frankel, Michael; Ido, Moges Seymour; Lugtu, James; Nahab, Fadi

    2016-12-01

    There are limited data on which patients not treated with intravenous (IV) tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) due to mild and rapidly improving stroke symptoms (MaRISS) have unfavorable outcomes. Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients not treated with IV tPA due to MaRISS from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013 were identified as part of the Georgia Coverdell Acute Stroke Registry. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with a lower likelihood of favorable outcome, defined as discharge to home. There were 1614 AIS patients who did not receive IV tPA due to MaRISS (median National Institutes of Health stroke scale [NIHSS] 1], of which 305 (19%) did not have a favorable outcome. Factors associated with lower likelihood of favorable outcome included Medicare insurance status (odds ratio [OR]: .53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .34-.84), arrival by emergency medical services (OR: .46, 95% CI: .29-.73), increasing NIHSS score (per unit OR: .89, 95% CI: .84-.93), weakness as the presenting symptom (OR: .50, 95% CI: .30-.84), and a failed dysphagia screen (OR: .43, 95% CI: .23-.80). During the study period, dysphagia screen identify a subgroup of patients who are more likely to have an unfavorable outcome. Whether IV tPA treatment can improve the outcome in this subgroup of patients needs to be evaluated in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute Bouts of Exercising Improved Mood, Rumination and Social Interaction in Inpatients With Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Brand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies at the macro level (such as longer-term interventions showed that physical activity impacts positively on cognitive-emotional processes of patients with mental disorders. However, research focusing on the immediate impact of acute bouts of exercise (micro level are missing. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether and to what extent single bouts of moderately intense exercise can influence dimensions of psychological functioning in inpatients with mental disorders.Method: 129 inpatients (mean age: 38.16 years; 50.4% females took part and completed a questionnaire both immediately before and immediately after exercising. Thirty inpatients completed the questionnaires a second time in the same week. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic and illness-related information. Further, the questionnaire asked about current psychological states such as mood, rumination, social interactions, and attention, tiredness, and physical strengths as a proxy of physiological states.Results: Psychological states improved from pre- to post-session. Improvements were observed for mood, social interactions, attention, and physical strengths. Likewise, rumination and tiredness decreased. Mood, rumination, and tiredness further improved, when patients completed the questionnaires the second time in the same week.Conclusion: At micro level, single bouts of exercise impacted positively on cognitive-emotional processes such as mood, rumination, attention and social interactions, and physiological states of tiredness and physical strengths among inpatients with mental disorders. In addition, further improvements were observed, if patients participated in physical activities a second time.

  8. Acute Bouts of Exercising Improved Mood, Rumination and Social Interaction in Inpatients With Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Colledge, Flora; Ludyga, Sebastian; Emmenegger, Raphael; Kalak, Nadeem; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Background: Studies at the macro level (such as longer-term interventions) showed that physical activity impacts positively on cognitive-emotional processes of patients with mental disorders. However, research focusing on the immediate impact of acute bouts of exercise (micro level) are missing. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether and to what extent single bouts of moderately intense exercise can influence dimensions of psychological functioning in inpatients with mental disorders. Method: 129 inpatients (mean age: 38.16 years; 50.4% females) took part and completed a questionnaire both immediately before and immediately after exercising. Thirty inpatients completed the questionnaires a second time in the same week. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic and illness-related information. Further, the questionnaire asked about current psychological states such as mood, rumination, social interactions, and attention, tiredness, and physical strengths as a proxy of physiological states. Results: Psychological states improved from pre- to post-session. Improvements were observed for mood, social interactions, attention, and physical strengths. Likewise, rumination and tiredness decreased. Mood, rumination, and tiredness further improved, when patients completed the questionnaires the second time in the same week. Conclusion: At micro level, single bouts of exercise impacted positively on cognitive-emotional processes such as mood, rumination, attention and social interactions, and physiological states of tiredness and physical strengths among inpatients with mental disorders. In addition, further improvements were observed, if patients participated in physical activities a second time.

  9. A critical narrative analysis of shared decision-making in acute inpatient mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Gemma; Felton, Anne; Morgan, Alastair; Stickley, Theo; Willis, Martin; Diamond, Bob; Houghton, Philip; Johnson, Beverley; Dumenya, John

    2016-01-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM) is a high priority in healthcare policy and is complementary to the recovery philosophy in mental health care. This agenda has been operationalised within the Values-Based Practice (VBP) framework, which offers a theoretical and practical model to promote democratic interprofessional approaches to decision-making. However, these are limited by a lack of recognition of the implications of power implicit within the mental health system. This study considers issues of power within the context of decision-making and examines to what extent decisions about patients' care on acute in-patient wards are perceived to be shared. Focus groups were conducted with 46 mental health professionals, service users, and carers. The data were analysed using the framework of critical narrative analysis (CNA). The findings of the study suggested each group constructed different identity positions, which placed them as inside or outside of the decision-making process. This reflected their view of themselves as best placed to influence a decision on behalf of the service user. In conclusion, the discourse of VBP and SDM needs to take account of how differentials of power and the positioning of speakers affect the context in which decisions take place.

  10. Acute Bouts of Exercising Improved Mood, Rumination and Social Interaction in Inpatients With Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Colledge, Flora; Ludyga, Sebastian; Emmenegger, Raphael; Kalak, Nadeem; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Background: Studies at the macro level (such as longer-term interventions) showed that physical activity impacts positively on cognitive-emotional processes of patients with mental disorders. However, research focusing on the immediate impact of acute bouts of exercise (micro level) are missing. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether and to what extent single bouts of moderately intense exercise can influence dimensions of psychological functioning in inpatients with mental disorders. Method: 129 inpatients (mean age: 38.16 years; 50.4% females) took part and completed a questionnaire both immediately before and immediately after exercising. Thirty inpatients completed the questionnaires a second time in the same week. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic and illness-related information. Further, the questionnaire asked about current psychological states such as mood, rumination, social interactions, and attention, tiredness, and physical strengths as a proxy of physiological states. Results: Psychological states improved from pre- to post-session. Improvements were observed for mood, social interactions, attention, and physical strengths. Likewise, rumination and tiredness decreased. Mood, rumination, and tiredness further improved, when patients completed the questionnaires the second time in the same week. Conclusion: At micro level, single bouts of exercise impacted positively on cognitive-emotional processes such as mood, rumination, attention and social interactions, and physiological states of tiredness and physical strengths among inpatients with mental disorders. In addition, further improvements were observed, if patients participated in physical activities a second time. PMID:29593592

  11. Pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among men and women attending an outpatient mental health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, David; Tsai, Michelle; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relationship between types of pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among psychiatric outpatients. Patients (N = 95) completed measures of somatic symptoms, narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability, and psychiatric symptoms. Relationships among variables were analysed using t-tests and correlations, controlling for psychiatric distress. Somatic symptoms were positively associated with two types of narcissistic dysfunction. Among women there was a positive association between somatic symptoms and narcissistic vulnerability, but not grandiosity. Among men, somatic symptoms were positively associated with narcissistic grandiosity, but not vulnerability. The connection between narcissistic pathology and somatic symptom severity appears to differ based on gender. Further research is needed to confirm and extend this preliminary finding.

  12. Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors--a population-based study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molarius, Anu; Berglund, Kenneth; Eriksson, Charli; Eriksson, Hans G; Lindén-Boström, Margareta; Nordström, Eva; Persson, Carina; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Starrin, Bengt; Ydreborg, Berit

    2009-08-20

    Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990 s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18-84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question). The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65-74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment), economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both among men and women. In addition, physical inactivity, underweight

  13. Impact of Sleeping Altitude on Symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness on Mt. Fuji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Uno, Tadashi; Endo, Junko; Handa, Yoko; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2018-05-09

    Horiuchi, Masahiro, Tadashi Uno, Junko Endo, Yoko Handa, and Tatsuya Hasegawa. Impact of sleeping altitude on symptoms of acute mountain sickness on Mt. Fuji. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. We sought to investigate the factors influencing acute mountain sickness (AMS) on Mt. Fuji in Japan, in particular, to assess the effects of sleeping altitude, by means of a questionnaire survey. This study involved 1932 participants who climbed Mt. Fuji, and obtained information regarding sex, age, and whether participants stayed at the mountain lodges. The AMS survey excluded the perceived sleep difficulties assessed with the Lake Louise Scoring (LLS) system for all climbers. The overall prevalence of AMS was 31.6% for all participants (LLS score ≥3 with headache, excluding sleep difficulties). A univariate analysis revealed that overnight stay at Mt. Fuji was associated with an increased prevalence of AMS, but that sex and age were not. For overnight lodgers, the mean sleeping altitude in participants with AMS was slightly higher than that in participants without AMS (p lodge, especially one above 2870 m, may be associated with an increased prevalence of AMS on Mt. Fuji.

  14. Neurogenetics of acute and chronic opiate/opioid abstinence: treating symptoms and the cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Gold, Mark S; Jacobs, William; McCall, William Vaughn; Febo, Marcelo; Baron, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D

    2017-03-01

    This review begins with a comprehensive history of opioid dependence and treatment in the United States. The focus is an evidence-based treatment model for opioid/opiate dependent individuals. The role of reward genetic polymorphisms and the epigenetic modifications that lead to vulnerability to use and misuse of opiates/opioid to treat pain are reviewed. The neurochemical mechanisms of acute opiate withdrawal and opiate/opioid reward mechanisms are explored with a goal of identifying specific treatment targets. Alterations in functional brain connectivity based on neurobiological mechanisms in heroin dependence and abstinence are also reviewed. A new clinical model an alternative to merely blocking acute withdrawal symptoms as identified in the DSM -5 is proposed. Genetic diagnosis at the onset of detoxification, to determine risk stratification, and identify polymorphic gene targets for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical interventions, followed by the simultaneous initiation of Medication Assisted Therapy (MAT), to enable psychological extinction, and steady pro-dopaminergic therapy with the goal of developing "dopamine homeostasis" is recommended. The objective of these interventions is to prevent future relapse by treating all "Reward Deficiency Syndrome" (RDS) behaviors and eventually make an addiction-free life possible .

  15. Experiences of mental health nursing staff working with voice hearers in an acute setting: An interpretive phenomenological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, E; Gupta, A; Collins, S C

    2018-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Community mental health staff and their service users have reported mixed views on the importance of talking about the content of voices. Community staff have reported feeling that they do not have the skills to explore voice content and worry about making things worse. Voice hearers experiencing extreme distress due to the content of their voices can access support through acute inpatient mental health services. No previous studies have focused on the experiences of staff who nurse voice hearers at a time of acute distress. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: MHNs and HSWs working with voice hearers in acute distress report feeling powerless and helpless, as they feel that they cannot lessen the distress experienced by the voice hearer. Despite these difficult feelings, staff report finding ways of coping, including using structured tools to help make sense of their service users' voice-hearing experiences and accessing reflective practice forums. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Due to the current context of increased acuity and limited resources in acute services, there may be a need to further protect time for staff to access reflective practice groups and supervision forums to help them manage the difficult feelings arising from their work with voice hearers. Introduction Mental health nursing (MHN) staff in acute settings work with voice hearers at times of crises when they experience high levels of distress. Previous research has focused on community mental health staff's experiences and their service users views on exploring the content of voices. No studies have explored this from an acute mental health service perspective. Aim This study therefore sought to explore the experiences of staff working with voice hearers in an acute mental health service. Method Due to the exploratory nature of the research, a qualitative design was chosen. Three MHNs and five healthcare support workers (HSWs) were

  16. Investigating the Relationships among Stressors, Stress Level, and Mental Symptoms for Infertile Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Patients with infertility are a high risk group in depression and anxiety. However, an existing theoretically and empirically validated model of stressors, stress, and mental symptoms specific for infertile patients is still a void. This study aimed to determine the related factors and their relational structures that affect the level of depressive and anxiety symptoms among infertile patients.A cross-sectional sample of 400 infertility outpatients seeking reproduction treatments in three teaching hospitals across Taiwan participated in the structured questionnaire survey in 2011. The hypothesized model comprising 10 latent variables was tested by Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 17.Goodness-of-fit indexes, including χ2/DF = 1.871, PGFI = 0.746, PNFI = 0.764, and others, confirmed the modified model fit the data well. Marital stressor, importance of children, guilt-and-blame, and social stressor showed a direct effect on perceived stress. Instead of being a factor of stress, social support was directly and positively related to self-esteem. Perceived stress and self-esteem were the two major mediators for the relationships between stressors and mental symptoms. Increase in social support and self-esteem led to decrease in mental symptoms among the infertile patients.The relational structures were identified and named as the Stressors Stress Symptoms Model, clinically applied to predict anxiety and depression from various stressors. Assessing sources and level of infertility-related stress and implementing culturally-sensitive counseling with an emphasis on positive personal value may assist in preventing the severity of depression and anxiety.

  17. Investigating the Relationships among Stressors, Stress Level, and Mental Symptoms for Infertile Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong-Yi; Li, Yi-Shan; Chen, Jen-De; Liang, Wen-Miin; Yang, Tung-Chuan; Lee, Young-Chang; Wang, Chia-Woei

    2015-01-01

    Patients with infertility are a high risk group in depression and anxiety. However, an existing theoretically and empirically validated model of stressors, stress, and mental symptoms specific for infertile patients is still a void. This study aimed to determine the related factors and their relational structures that affect the level of depressive and anxiety symptoms among infertile patients. A cross-sectional sample of 400 infertility outpatients seeking reproduction treatments in three teaching hospitals across Taiwan participated in the structured questionnaire survey in 2011. The hypothesized model comprising 10 latent variables was tested by Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 17. Goodness-of-fit indexes, including χ2/DF = 1.871, PGFI = 0.746, PNFI = 0.764, and others, confirmed the modified model fit the data well. Marital stressor, importance of children, guilt-and-blame, and social stressor showed a direct effect on perceived stress. Instead of being a factor of stress, social support was directly and positively related to self-esteem. Perceived stress and self-esteem were the two major mediators for the relationships between stressors and mental symptoms. Increase in social support and self-esteem led to decrease in mental symptoms among the infertile patients. The relational structures were identified and named as the Stressors Stress Symptoms Model, clinically applied to predict anxiety and depression from various stressors. Assessing sources and level of infertility-related stress and implementing culturally-sensitive counseling with an emphasis on positive personal value may assist in preventing the severity of depression and anxiety.

  18. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Roland Teixeira

    Full Text Available The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive

  19. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance.

  20. A-MUPS score to differentiate patients with somatic symptom disorder from those with medical disease for complaints of non-acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shingo; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Noda, Kazutaka; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2017-01-01

    To develop a clinical score to discriminate patients with somatic symptom disorder (SSD) from those with medical disease (MD) for complaints of non-acute pain. We retrospectively examined the clinical records of consecutive patients with pain for a duration of ≥1 month in our department from April 2003 to March 2015. We divided the subjects according to the diagnoses of definite SSD (as diagnosed and tracked by psychiatrists in our hospital), probable SSD (without evaluation by psychiatrists in our hospital), matched MD (randomly matched two patients by age, sex, and pain location for each definite SSD patient), unmatched MD, other mental disease, or functional somatic syndrome (FSS). We investigated eight clinical factors for definite SSD and matched MD, and developed a diagnostic score to identify SSD. We subsequently validated the model with cases of probable SSD and unmatched MD. The number of patients with definite SSD, probable SSD, matched MD, unmatched MD, other mental disease, and FSS was 104 (3.5%), 214 (7.3%), 197 (6.7%), 742 (25%), 708 (24%), and 978 (33%), respectively. In a conditional logistic regression analysis, the following five factors were included as independent predictors of SSD: Analgesics ineffective, Mental disorder history, Unclear provocative/palliative factors, Persistence without cessation, and Stress feelings/episodes (A-MUPS). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the model was 0.900 (95% CI: 0.864-0.937, p <0.001), and the McFadden's pseudo- R -squared was 0.709. For internal validation, the AUC between probable SSD and unmatched MD was 0.930 (95% CI: 0.910-0.950, p <0.001). The prevalence and the likelihood ratio of SSD increased as the score increased. The A-MUPS score was useful for discriminating patients with SSD from those with MD for complaints of non-acute pain, although external validation and refinement should be needed.

  1. The effect of MElatonin on Depressive symptoms, Anxiety, CIrcadian and Sleep disturbances in patients after acute coronary syndrome (MEDACIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Isbrand, Anders; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard

    2017-01-01

    , Anxiety, CIrcadian and Sleep disturbances in patients after acute coronary syndrome" trial (MEDACIS) is a multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. A total of 240 patients with ACS and no depressive symptoms will be included in the trial for treatment with either 25 mg...... melatonin or placebo for a 12-week period. Development and severity of depressive symptoms will be evaluated using Major Depression Inventory every 2 weeks with the purpose of investigating the potential preventive effect of melatonin on depressive symptoms. DISCUSSION: Previously, only selective serotonin...

  2. A follow-up study on the association of working conditions and lifestyles with the development of (perceived) mental symptoms in workers of a telecommunication enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwazono, Y; Okubo, Y; Kobayashi, E; Kido, T; Nogawa, K

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the association of working conditions and lifestyle with mental health in Japanese workers. A follow-up study was carried out in the Kanto district of Japan of workers in a telecommunications enterprise who received their first annual health check-up between 1992 and 1996 and were between 20 and 54 years old. Workers who reported mental symptoms, had a past history of disease, or current illness at their first check-up were excluded from the analysis. In total, the study included 23 837 workers. The association between working conditions and lifestyle and the development of mental symptoms was investigated by pooled logistic regression analyses. Working long hours and part-time work, as opposed to normal daytime hours of work, were factors associated with the development of mental symptoms in males, as were smoking, short sleeping hours, little physical exercise, rarely taking three meals a day, frequently eating within 1 h before sleep, much preference for salty meals and little preference for vegetables. Consumption of alcohol was negatively associated with the development of mental symptoms in males. Overall, the results suggested that the lower the Healthy Work and Lifestyle Score, the higher the risk of developing mental symptoms. Working conditions and lifestyle, especially food preferences, have an apparent influence on the mental health of Japanese workers. Moreover, the Healthy Work and Lifestyle Score indicates that working conditions and lifestyle appear to have a cumulative influence upon the mental health of Japanese workers.

  3. Staff nurse perceptions of the impact of mentalization-based therapy skills training when working with borderline personality disorder in acute mental health: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrender, D

    2015-10-01

    People diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly prevalent in acute mental health wards, with staff nurses identifying a challenge in working with people who can be significantly distressed. This has contributed to a negative stereotype verging on stigmatization. Mentalization-based therapy (MBT) is a psychological therapy which has been shown to be of benefit to people with a diagnosis of BPD, yet it has been utilized and evaluated only in partial hospitalization and outpatient settings. Despite this, most people diagnosed with BPD will continue to be treated in generic inpatient settings such as acute mental health. Mentalization-based therapy skills training (MBT-S) is a new and cost-effective 2-day workshop aiming to provide generalist practitioners with MBT skills for use in generic settings. This study aimed to capture staff perceptions of the impact of MBT-S on their practice when working with people with a diagnosis of BPD in acute mental health. Through two focus groups, this study assessed the perceptions of nine staff nurses. An interpretive phenomenological approach was utilized in data analysis. Participants found the approach easy to grasp, improving of consistency between staff and flexible in its use in planned or 'off the cuff' discussions. MBT-S promoted empathy and humane responses to self-harm, impacted on participants ability to tolerate risk and went some way to turning the negative perception of BPD through changing the notion of patients as 'deliberately difficult'. Staff felt empowered and more confident in working with people with a diagnosis of BPD. The positive implication for practice was the ease in which the approach was adopted and participants perception of MBT-S as an empowering skill set which also contributed to attitudinal change. In acute mental health environments, which may not have the resources to provide long-term structured treatments to patients, MBT-S could be viewed as ideal as participants

  4. A Systematic Review of Land-Based Self-Exclusion Programs: Demographics, Gambling Behavior, Gambling Problems, Mental Symptoms, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Roxana; Kräplin, Anja; Pittig, Andre; Bühringer, Gerhard

    2018-05-02

    Systematic and quantitative reviews on the effects of land-based self-exclusion are scarce. Therefore, the current review aimed to provide a comprehensive summary of (1) the demographic characteristics of land-based self-excluders and changes after exclusion, including (2) gambling behavior, (3) gambling problems, (4) mental symptoms, and (5) mental health. A systematic database and literature search was performed following PRISMA guidelines. Nineteen naturalistic studies met the eligibility criteria. The quality of all included records was rated via adaption of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results from higher-quality records were more heavily weighted. Self-excluders were predominantly men in their early or middle forties. Changes after exclusion revealed wide ranges in the rates of abstinence (13-81%), rates of gambling reduction (29-92%), and rates of exclusion breaches (8-59%). The records consistently demonstrated significant changes in pathological gambling from before exclusion (61-95%) to after exclusion (13-26%). Up to 73% of self-excluders exhibited symptoms of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders at program enrollment. Several aspects of mental health improved after exclusion, e.g., quality of life. Problem and pathological gambling are most prevalent in young men, but self-exclusion was most prominent in middle-aged men. The magnitude of effects widely differed between studies despite overall benefits of self-exclusion, and many individuals continued gambling after exclusion. This shortcoming could be minimized using improved access controls and the extension of exclusion to other gambling segments. High rates of pathological gambling and other mental disorders in self-excluders highlight the need for improved early detection and treatment accessibility.

  5. Do Local Social Hierarchies Matter for Mental Health? A Study of Neighborhood Social Status and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagney, Kathleen A.; Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Despite a well-established association between relative social position and health, stratification at smaller levels of social organization has received scant attention. Neighborhood is a localized context that has increasing relevance for adults as they age, thus one’s relative position within this type of mesolevel group may have an effect on mental health, independent of absolute level of social and economic resources. We examine the relationship between an older adult’s relative rank within their neighborhoods on two criteria and depressive symptoms. Method. Using data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, neighborhood relative social position was ascertained for two social domains: income and social reputation (number of neighbors one knows well enough to visit). Using multilevel models, we estimated the effect of relative position within the neighborhood on depressive symptoms, net of absolute level for each domain and average neighborhood level. Results. Higher neighborhood relative rankings on both income and visiting neighbors were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Although both were modest in effect, the gradient in depressive symptoms was three times steeper for the relative rank of visiting neighbors than for income. Men had steeper gradients than women in both domains, but no race differences were observed. Discussion. These findings suggest that an older adult’s relative position in a local social hierarchy is associated with his/her mental health, net of absolute position. PMID:26333821

  6. Do Local Social Hierarchies Matter for Mental Health? A Study of Neighborhood Social Status and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley-Moore, Jessica A; Cagney, Kathleen A; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F

    2016-03-01

    Despite a well-established association between relative social position and health, stratification at smaller levels of social organization has received scant attention. Neighborhood is a localized context that has increasing relevance for adults as they age, thus one's relative position within this type of mesolevel group may have an effect on mental health, independent of absolute level of social and economic resources. We examine the relationship between an older adult's relative rank within their neighborhoods on two criteria and depressive symptoms. Using data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, neighborhood relative social position was ascertained for two social domains: income and social reputation (number of neighbors one knows well enough to visit). Using multilevel models, we estimated the effect of relative position within the neighborhood on depressive symptoms, net of absolute level for each domain and average neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood relative rankings on both income and visiting neighbors were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Although both were modest in effect, the gradient in depressive symptoms was three times steeper for the relative rank of visiting neighbors than for income. Men had steeper gradients than women in both domains, but no race differences were observed. These findings suggest that an older adult's relative position in a local social hierarchy is associated with his/her mental health, net of absolute position. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Verhagen, Evert; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-06-01

    Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional behaviour) among current and retired professional footballers. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among current and retired professional footballers. Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players' unions in 11 countries across three continents. A total of 607 current professional footballers (mean age of 27 years) and 219 retired professional footballers (mean age of 35 years) were involved in the study. Among retired professional footballers, statistically significant negative correlations were found between employment status and symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression (P working hours and symptoms of anxiety/depression (P working hours was weakly correlated to symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression. Combining a football career with sustainable attention for educational and career planning might be important and of high priority.

  8. Patient-Driven Innovation for Mobile Mental Health Technology: Case Report of Symptom Tracking in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Roux, Spencer

    2017-07-06

    This patient perspective piece presents an important case at the intersection of mobile health technology, mental health, and innovation. The potential of digital technologies to advance mental health is well known, although the challenges are being increasingly recognized. Making mobile health work for mental health will require broad collaborations. We already know that those who experience mental illness are excited by the potential technology, with many actively engaged in research, fundraising, advocacy, and entrepreneurial ventures. But we don't always hear their voice as often as others. There is a clear advantage for their voice to be heard: so we can all learn from their experiences at the direct intersection of mental health and technology innovation. The case is cowritten with an individual with schizophrenia, who openly shares his name and personal experience with mental health technology in order to educate and inspire others. This paper is the first in JMIR Mental Health's patient perspective series, and we welcome future contributions from those with lived experience. ©John Torous, Spencer Roux. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 06.07.2017.

  9. Acute posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression after exposure to the 2005 Saskatchewan Centennial Air Show disaster: prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Carleton, R Nicholas; Brundin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of acute distress-that is, clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression-and to identify predictors of each in a sample of people who witnessed a fatal aircraft collision at the 2005 Saskatchewan Centennial Air Show. Air Show attendees (N = 157) were recruited by advertisements in the local media and completed an Internet-administered battery of questionnaires. Based on previously established cut-offs, 22 percent respondents had clinically significant PTSS and 24 percent had clinically significant depressive symptoms. Clinically significant symptoms were associated with posttrauma impairment in social and occupational functioning. Acute distress was associated with several variables, including aspects of Air Show trauma exposure, severity of prior trauma exposure, low posttrauma social support (ie, negative responses by others), indices of poor coping (eg, intolerance of uncertainty, rumination about the trauma), and elevated scores on anxiety sensitivity, the personality trait of absorption, and dissociative tendencies. Results suggest that clinically significant acute distress is common in the aftermath of witnessed trauma. The statistical predictors (correlates) of acute distress were generally consistent with the results of studies of other forms of trauma. People with elevated scores on theoretical vulnerability factors (eg, elevated anxiety sensitivity) were particularly likely to develop acute distress.

  10. HowNutsAreTheDutch (HoeGekIsNL): A crowdsourcing study of mental symptoms and strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieke, Lian Van Der; Jeronimus, Bertus F; Blaauw, Frank J; Wanders, Rob B K; Emerencia, Ando C; Schenk, Hendrika M; Vos, Stijn De; Snippe, Evelien; Wichers, Marieke; Wigman, Johanna T W; Bos, Elisabeth H; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Jonge, Peter De

    2016-06-01

    HowNutsAreTheDutch (Dutch: HoeGekIsNL) is a national crowdsourcing study designed to investigate multiple continuous mental health dimensions in a sample from the general population (n = 12,503). Its main objective is to create an empirically based representation of mental strengths and vulnerabilities, accounting for (i) dimensionality and heterogeneity, (ii) interactivity between symptoms and strengths, and (iii) intra-individual variability. To do so, HowNutsAreTheDutch (HND) makes use of an internet platform that allows participants to (a) compare themselves to other participants via cross-sectional questionnaires and (b) to monitor themselves three times a day for 30 days with an intensive longitudinal diary study via their smartphone. These data enable for personalized feedback to participants, a study of profiles of mental strengths and weaknesses, and zooming into the fine-grained level of dynamic relationships between variables over time. Measuring both psychiatric symptomatology and mental strengths and resources enables for an investigation of their interactions, which may underlie the wide variety of observed mental states in the population. The present paper describes the applied methods and technology, and presents the sample characteristics. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. On the mental life and spatial symptoms of the digital self. Interview with Angeliki Malakasioti by Chris H. Gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Malakasioti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available From the celestial to the cyberspatial sphere and from imaginary beings to self-constructed online personas, symptom constellations are representing our ‘way of being’. Using this as a vaulting point, Angeliki Malakasioti is taking symptom representation a step further, towards the reasons of manifestation, towards observation and refection on the phenomena of digital experience. Her research is a diagnostic experiment and at the same time a theoretical as well as an artistic body of work that comments on the mental qualities of the cyborg when inhabiting cyberspace. Aspects of the digital self are discussed and its symptoms are interpreted into spatial qualities; into imaginary semi-living beings and intimate non-spaces. 

  12. Mental Health Literacy in Emerging Adults in a University Setting: Distinctions between Symptom Awareness and Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Michelle M.; Gelinas, Bethany L.; Friesen, Lindsay N.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns in university populations, students are unlikely to seek formal help. The current study examined help-seeking behaviors among emerging adults in a university setting using a mental health literacy framework. Responses from 122 university undergraduates were examined. Students ranged in age from…

  13. School Nurse Workload: A Scoping Review of Acute Care, Community Health, and Mental Health Nursing Workload Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as…

  14. Effects of dance on motor functions, cognitive functions, and mental symptoms of Parkinson's disease: a quasi-randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hiroko; Takabatake, Shinichi; Miyaguchi, Hideki; Nakanishi, Hajime; Naitou, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effectiveness of dance on motor functions, cognitive functions, and mental symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study employed a quasi-randomised, between-group design. Dance, PD exercise, and all assessments were performed in community halls in different regions of Japan. Forty-six mild-moderate PD patients participated. Six PD patient associations that agreed to participate in the study were randomly assigned to a dance group, PD exercise group, or non-intervention group. The dance and PD exercise groups performed one 60-min session per week for 12 weeks. Control group patients continued with their normal lives. All groups were assessed before and after the intervention. We used the Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUG) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) to assess motor function, the Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside (FAB) and Mental Rotation Task (MRT) to assess cognitive function, and the Apathy Scale (AS) and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) to assess mental symptoms of PD. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was used for general assessment of PD. When comparing results before and after intervention, the dance group showed a large effect in TUG time (ES=0.65, p=0.006), TUG step number (ES=0.66, p=0.005), BBS (ES=0.75, p=0.001), FAB (ES=0.77, p=0.001), MRT response time (ES=0.79, pmental symptoms in PD patients. General symptoms in PD also improved. Dance is an effective method for rehabilitation in PD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  16. Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzanfar Mohammad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness of the impact of pollution on the population at large will make our estimates of the pertinent covert burden imposed on the society more accurate. Methods/design A cross sectional study with spatial analysis for the addresses of the participants was conducted. Data were collected via telephone interviews administered to a representative sample of civilians over age four in the city. Households were selected using random digit dialling procedures and randomization within each household was also performed to select the person to be interviewed. Levels of exposure are quantified by extrapolating the addresses of the study population over the air pollution matrix of the city at the time of the interview and also for different lag times. This information system uses the data from multiple air pollution monitoring stations in conjunction with meteorological data. General linear models are applied for statistical analysis. Discussion The important limitations of cross-sectional studies on acute effects of air pollution are personal confounders and measurement error for exposure. A wide range of confounders in this study are controlled for in the statistical analysis. Exposure error may be minimised by employing a validated geographical information system that provides accurate estimates and getting detailed information on locations of individual participants during the day. The widespread operation of open air conditioning systems in the target urban area which brings about excellent mixing of the outdoor and indoor air increases the validity of outdoor pollutants

  17. Differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences in the development of mental health symptoms in post-war adolescents in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, James; De Schryver, Maarten; Musisi, Seggane; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-09-09

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between stressful war experiences and mental health symptoms in children and adolescents. To date, no comprehensive studies on the role of childhood adversities have been conducted with war-exposed adolescents living in post-war, low-resource settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study of 551 school-going adolescents aged 13-21 years old was undertaken four years post-war in northern Uganda. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing demographics, stressful war experiences, childhood adversities, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms. Our analyses revealed a main effect of gender on all mental health outcomes except avoidance symptoms, with girls reporting higher scores than boys. Stressful war experiences were associated with all mental health symptoms, after adjusting for potential confounders. Childhood adversity was independently associated with depression symptoms but not PTSD, anxiety, and PTSD cluster symptoms. However, in situations of high childhood adversity, our analyses showed that stressful war experiences were less associated with vulnerability to avoidance symptoms than in situations of low childhood adversity. Both stressful war experiences and childhood adversities are risk factors for mental health symptoms among war-affected adolescents. Adolescents with histories of high childhood adversities may be less likely to develop avoidance symptoms in situations of high stressful war experiences. Further exploration of the differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences is needed.

  18. [The effects of physical activity intervention on symptoms in schizophrenia, mental well-being and body composition in young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturludóttir, Kristjana; Gestsdóttir, Sunna; Rafnsson, Rafn Haraldur; Jóhannsson, Erlingur

    2015-11-01

    Due to an unhealthy lifestyle, individuals with schizophrenia are at higher risk of morbidity compared to the general population. Studies have shown that physical activity can have positive effects on physical and mental health in these patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a physical activity intervention on symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as on a number of physical and mental health variables. The aim was also to gain more understanding of the participants´ experience of the intervention with interviews. Seventeen individuals between the ages of 21-31, diagnosed with schizophrenia participated in the study. They exercised under professional supervision for a minimum of two sessions per week for 20 weeks and attended weekly lectures on a healthy lifestyle. The participants answered standardized questionnaires (PANSS, DASS, Rosenberg, CORE-OM, BHS, QOLS), and physical measurements (weight, height, body mass index, resting blood pressure, waist circumference and resting heart rate) were taken before and after the intervention. Six participants were interviewed after the intervention and asked about their experience. Negative and general psychiatric symptoms, depression, anxiety and stress scores decreased significantly whereas well-being, quality of life and physical activity increased (pphysical measurements remained unchanged at the end of the intervention. The participants´ physical activity increased, their mental well-being improved, and they did not gain weight during the intervention period. Regular exercise under supervision and education about a healthy lifestyle are a beneficial adjunct to the primary treatment of people with schizophrenia.

  19. The Network Structure of Symptoms of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschloo, Lynn; van Borkulo, Claudia D; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Keyes, Katherine M; Borsboom, Denny; Schoevers, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Although current classification systems have greatly contributed to the reliability of psychiatric diagnoses, they ignore the unique role of individual symptoms and, consequently, potentially important information is lost. The network approach, in contrast, assumes that psychopathology results from the causal interplay between psychiatric symptoms and focuses specifically on these symptoms and their complex associations. By using a sophisticated network analysis technique, this study constructed an empirically based network structure of 120 psychiatric symptoms of twelve major DSM-IV diagnoses using cross-sectional data of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, second wave; N = 34,653). The resulting network demonstrated that symptoms within the same diagnosis showed differential associations and indicated that the strategy of summing symptoms, as in current classification systems, leads to loss of information. In addition, some symptoms showed strong connections with symptoms of other diagnoses, and these specific symptom pairs, which both concerned overlapping and non-overlapping symptoms, may help to explain the comorbidity across diagnoses. Taken together, our findings indicated that psychopathology is very complex and can be more adequately captured by sophisticated network models than current classification systems. The network approach is, therefore, promising in improving our understanding of psychopathology and moving our field forward.

  20. Issues in casemix funding for acute inpatient psychiatric services and their relevance to mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanker, S

    1996-09-01

    With increased recognition by government, health administrators, and clinicians of the need to simultaneously contain health expenditure, improve the productivity and efficiency of health services and maintain quality of patient care, applications of casemix funding have been advocated as an alternative means of financing acute hospital care. Currently in Australia, the Commonwealth's casemix development program is encouraging the States and Territories to participate in certain casemix initiatives. Acute psychiatric hospital care and treatment have been excluded from the initial stages of the implementation of casemix in recognition of a number of inherent obstacles or challenges affecting the utility and accuracy of casemix in funding the psychiatric sector. Despite anecdotal claims that the reduced length of stay that often occurs under casemix payment systems may negatively impact upon the quality of care and patient outcomes, to date little empirical research has been directed towards measuring the potential impact of psychiatric casemix on the quality of patient care. Psychiatry cannot afford to ignore the casemix debate on account of its current exclusion from the early phases of implementation. To do so is to run the risk of having casemix imposed at some later stage in the absence of consultation. In the meantime it is vital that mental health professionals, including nurses, participate in the development and implementation of casemix, and contribute to research aimed at increasing or maximizing the relevance of casemix to the funding of psychiatric services.

  1. Patient Smartphone Ownership and Interest in Mobile Apps to Monitor Symptoms of Mental Health Conditions: A Survey in Four Geographically Distinct Psychiatric Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Torous, John; Chan, Steven Richard; Yee-Marie Tan, Shih; Behrens, Jacob; Mathew, Ian; Conrad, Erich J; Hinton, Ladson; Yellowlees, Peter; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite growing interest in mobile mental health and utilization of smartphone technology to monitor psychiatric symptoms, there remains a lack of knowledge both regarding patient ownership of smartphones and their interest in using such to monitor their mental health. Objective: To provide data on psychiatric outpatients’ prevalence of smartphone ownership and interest in using their smartphones to run applications to monitor their mental health. Methods: We surveyed 320 psychiat...

  2. Dose–Volume Effects on Patient-Reported Acute Gastrointestinal Symptoms During Chemoradiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ronald C.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Killoran, Joseph H.; Crowley, Elizabeth M.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Wo, Jennifer Y.; Ryan, David P.; Hong, Theodore S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Research on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in rectal cancer is limited. We examined whether dose–volume parameters of the small bowel and large bowel were associated with patient-reported gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)–based chemoradiation treatment for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: 66 patients treated at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital or Massachusetts General Hospital between 2006 and 2008 were included. Weekly during treatment, patients completed a questionnaire assessing severity of diarrhea, urgency, pain, cramping, mucus, and tenesmus. The association between dosimetric parameters and changes in overall GI symptoms from baseline through treatment was examined by using Spearman’s correlation. Potential associations between these parameters and individual GI symptoms were also explored. Results: The amount of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V15) was significantly associated with acute symptoms (p = 0.01), and other dosimetric parameters ranging from V5 to V45 also trended toward association. For the large bowel, correlations between dosimetric parameters and overall GI symptoms at the higher dose levels from V25 to V45 did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.1), and a significant association was seen with rectal pain from V15 to V45 (p < 0.01). Other individual symptoms did not correlate with small bowel or large bowel dosimetric parameters. Conclusions: The results of this study using PROs are consistent with prior studies with physician-assessed acute toxicity, and they identify small bowel V15 as an important predictor of acute GI symptoms during 5-FU–based chemoradiation treatment. A better understanding of the relationship between radiation dosimetric parameters and PROs may allow physicians to improve radiation planning to optimize patient outcomes.

  3. The Relationship between Symptom Relief and Psychosocial Functional Improvement during Acute Electroconvulsive Therapy for Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Yang, Wei-Cheng

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to compare the degree of symptom relief to psychosocial functional (abbreviated as "functional") improvement and explore the relationships between symptom relief and functional improvement during acute electroconvulsive therapy for patients with major depressive disorder. Major depressive disorder inpatients (n=130) requiring electroconvulsive therapy were recruited. Electroconvulsive therapy was generally performed for a maximum of 12 treatments. Symptom severity, using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and psychosocial functioning (abbreviated as "functioning"), using the Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale, were assessed before electroconvulsive therapy, after every 3 electroconvulsive therapy treatments, and after the final electroconvulsive therapy. Both 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale scores were converted to T-score units to compare the degrees of changes between depressive symptoms and functioning after electroconvulsive therapy. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships between 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale during acute electroconvulsive therapy. One hundred sixteen patients who completed at least the first 3 electroconvulsive therapy treatments entered the analysis. Reduction of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale T-scores was significantly greater than that of Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale T-scores at assessments 2, 3, 4, and 5. The model analyzed by structural equation modeling satisfied all indices of goodness-of-fit (chi-square = 32.882, P =.107, TLI = 0.92, CFI = 0.984, RMSEA = 0.057). The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale change did not predict subsequent Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale change. Functioning improved less than depressive symptoms during acute electroconvulsive therapy. Symptom reduction did not predict subsequent functional improvement

  4. Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes: Impact on Weight, Quality of Life, and Psychiatric Symptoms in Veterans With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Jillian M; Erickson, Zachary D; Meyer, Hilary B; Baker, Matthew R; Gelberg, Hollie A; Arnold, Irina Y; Kwan, Crystal; Chamberlin, Valery; Rosen, Jennifer A; Shah, Chandresh; Hellemann, Gerhard; Lewis, Melissa M; Nguyen, Charles; Sachinvala, Neena; Amrami, Binyamin; Pierre, Joseph M; Ames, Donna

    2017-09-01

    Veterans with mental illness tend to have shorter life spans and suboptimal physical health because of a variety of factors. These factors include poor nutrition, being overweight, and smoking cigarettes. Nonphysical contributors that may affect quality of life are the stigma associated with mental illness, social difficulties, and spiritual crises. Current mental health treatment focuses primarily on the delivery of medication and evidence-based psychotherapies, which may not affect all the above areas of a Veteran's life as they focus primarily on improving psychological symptoms. Clinicians may find greater success using integrative, comprehensive, multifaceted programs to treat these problems spanning the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual domains. These pilot studies test an adjunctive, holistic, behavioral approach to treat mental illness. This pilot work explores the hypotheses that engagement in a greater number of therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) leads to improvement in quality of life, reduction of psychiatric symptoms, and weight loss. Institutional Review Boards for human subjects at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Greater Los Angeles and Long Beach Healthcare Systems approved pilot study activities at their sites. Pilot Study 1 was a prospective survey study of Veterans with mental illness, who gained weight on an atypical antipsychotic medication regimen, participating in a weight management study. At each session of the 1-year study, researchers asked a convenience sample of 55 Veterans in the treatment arm whether they engaged in each of the eight TLCs: exercise, nutrition/diet, stress management and relaxation, time in nature, relationships, service to others, religious or spiritual involvement, and recreation. Pilot Study 2 applied the TLC behavioral intervention and examined 19 Veterans with mental illness, who attended four classes about TLCs, received individual counseling over 9 weeks, and maintained journals to track TLC practice

  5. Effects of acute organophosphate ingestion on cognitive function, assessed with the mini mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Jayasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Chronic damage to the central nervous system resulting in cognitive impairment has been shown with repeated, low doses of organophosphorus (OP exposure over month or years. Aim: The study aimed to find out whether there is any cognitive impairment following acute OP exposure that could be detected by a simple screening instrument, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, in clinical settings. Settings and Design: A cohort study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with matched controls. Consecutive patients admitted to the hospital with acute ingestion of OP were recruited. Cognitive function was assessed with the MMSE, digit span test, test of long-term memory function and concentration. Patients were assessed twice: at 1 and 6 weeks of exposure. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were analyzed with the paired and unpaired T-tests. Non-normally distributed data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Discrete variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Results: There were 60 patients and 61 controls. The mean age (SD of the patients and controls was 31.5 (11.6 and 31.3 (11.8 years, respectively. Forty-two patients turned up for the second assessment. Significant impairment of cognitive function was seen in the total score of MMSE (95% CI -2.5 to -0.3, orientation (95% CI -1 to -0.2 and language (95% CI -0.9 to -0.1 domains of MMSE, digit span test (95% CI 0.1-1.7 and test of long-term memory function (95% CI 0.3-2.3 in the first assessment compared with the controls. When the results of the second assessment were compared with the controls, no significant differences were seen. Conclusion: Although there was a slight transient cognitive impairment detected with the screening tests following acute OP ingestion, no long-term cognitive defects was detected.

  6. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Correlates of Mental Health Services Use among Pregnant Women with Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen Jen; Tabet, Maya; Elder, Keith; Kiel, Deborah W; Flick, Louise H

    2016-09-01

    Objectives To examine correlates of lifetime mental health services (MHS) use among pregnant women reporting prenatal depressive symptoms by race/ethnicity. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study included 81,910 pregnant women with prenatal depressive symptoms using data from the Florida Healthy Start prenatal screening program (2008-2012). Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to ascertain adjusted odds ratios and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals for racial/ethnic differences in the correlates of lifetime MHS use. Results Findings of this study revealed racial/ethnic differences in MHS use among women with prenatal depressive symptoms, the highest rates being among non-Hispanic Whites and the lowest rates among Mexicans and other Hispanics. Most need for care factors, including illness, tobacco use, and physical or emotional abuse, consistently predicted MHS use across racial/ethnic groups after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted associations between predisposing and enabling/restricting factors and MHS use were different for different racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Racial/ethnic differences in MHS use were found, with pregnant Hispanic women reporting prenatal depressive symptoms being the least likely to use MHS. Our study findings have significant public health implications for targeted intervention for pregnant women with prenatal depressive symptoms.

  7. Persistent reflux symptoms cause anxiety, depression, and mental health and sleep disorders in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yoshihide; Kamiya, Takeshi; Senoo, Kyouji; Tsuchida, Kenji; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Kojima, Hisayo; Yamashita, Hiroaki; Yamakawa, Yoshihiro; Nishigaki, Nobuhiro; Ozeki, Tomonori; Endo, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhisa; Sando, Motoki; Inagaki, Yusuke; Shikano, Michiko; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Kubota, Eiji; Tanida, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Katsumi, Kohei; Joh, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Some patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease experience persistent reflux symptoms despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. These symptoms reduce their health-related quality of life. Our aims were to evaluate the relationship between proton pump inhibitor efficacy and health-related quality of life and to evaluate predictive factors affecting treatment response in Japanese patients. Using the gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire, 145 gastroesophageal reflux disease patients undergoing proton pump inhibitor therapy were evaluated and classified as responders or partial-responders. Their health-related quality of life was then evaluated using the 8-item Short Form Health Survey, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires. Sixty-nine patients (47.6%) were partial responders. These patients had significantly lower scores than responders in 5/8 subscales and in the mental health component summary of the 8-item Short Form Health Survey. Partial responders had significantly higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, including anxiety and depression scores, than those of responders. Non-erosive reflux disease and double proton pump inhibitor doses were predictive factors of partial responders. Persistent reflux symptoms, despite proton pump inhibitor therapy, caused mental health disorders, sleep disorders, and psychological distress in Japanese gastroesophageal reflux disease patients.

  8. How life stressors influence modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, and physical and mental health among Vietnamese older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao-Tran, Tiet-Hanh; Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte

    2017-06-29

    Research has demonstrated that exposure to life stressors can influence health through a number of pathways. However, knowledge about the patterns of life stressors and their contributions to health in different populations is limited. Vietnamese older women have attracted little research to date in this area. This cross-sectional study used an interview-administered-questionnaire to collect data from 440 Vietnamese older women. Descriptive analysis was used to describe life stressors among Vietnamese older women. Binary analysis and Structural Equation Modelling statistical analysis were used to examine the influences of life stressors on modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, physical and mental health among Vietnamese older women. Vietnamese older women in this study commonly reported the experience of losing a close person, including a baby/child, serious health or money problems, violence and disaster. Among the study participants, (1) exposure to more life stressors increased their depressive symptoms, and decreased their physical and mental health; (2) exposure to more life stressors also increased their physical health by increasing their physical activity levels. Life stressors influenced health among Vietnamese older women through different pathways. Interventions to manage stress and depressive symptoms are required for Vietnamese older women in the future.

  9. Systematic unenhanced CT for acute abdominal symptoms in the elderly patients improves both emergency department diagnosis and prompt clinical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millet, Ingrid; Pages-Bouic, Emma; Curros-Doyon, Fernanda; Taourel, Patrice; Sebbane, Mustapha; Molinari, Nicolas; Riou, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    To assess the added-value of systematic unenhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) on emergency department (ED) diagnosis and management accuracy compared to current practice, in elderly patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal symptoms. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. This prospective study included 401 consecutive patients 75 years of age or older, admitted to the ED with acute abdominal symptoms, and investigated by early systematic unenhanced abdominal CT scan. ED diagnosis and intended management before CT, after unenhanced CT, and after contrast CT if requested, were recorded. Diagnosis and management accuracies were evaluated and compared before CT (clinical strategy) and for two conditional strategies (current practice and systematic unenhanced CT). An expert clinical panel assigned a final diagnosis and management after a 3-month follow-up. Systematic unenhanced CT significantly improved the accurate diagnosis (76.8% to 85%, p=1.1 x 10 -6 ) and management (88.5% to 95.8%, p=2.6 x 10 -6 ) rates compared to current practice. It allowed diagnosing 30.3% of acute unsuspected pathologies, 3.4% of which were unexpected surgical procedure requirement. Systematic unenhanced abdominal CT improves ED diagnosis accuracy and appropriate management in elderly patients presenting with acute abdominal symptoms compared to current practice. (orig.)

  10. Systematic unenhanced CT for acute abdominal symptoms in the elderly patients improves both emergency department diagnosis and prompt clinical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Ingrid; Pages-Bouic, Emma; Curros-Doyon, Fernanda; Taourel, Patrice [CHU Lapeyronie, Department of Medical Imaging, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Sebbane, Mustapha [Department of Emergency Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France); Molinari, Nicolas [Department of Medical Information and Statistics, CHU Montpellier (France); Riou, Bruno [GH Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP, Department of Emergency Medicine and Surgery, Paris (France)

    2017-02-15

    To assess the added-value of systematic unenhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) on emergency department (ED) diagnosis and management accuracy compared to current practice, in elderly patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal symptoms. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. This prospective study included 401 consecutive patients 75 years of age or older, admitted to the ED with acute abdominal symptoms, and investigated by early systematic unenhanced abdominal CT scan. ED diagnosis and intended management before CT, after unenhanced CT, and after contrast CT if requested, were recorded. Diagnosis and management accuracies were evaluated and compared before CT (clinical strategy) and for two conditional strategies (current practice and systematic unenhanced CT). An expert clinical panel assigned a final diagnosis and management after a 3-month follow-up. Systematic unenhanced CT significantly improved the accurate diagnosis (76.8% to 85%, p=1.1 x 10{sup -6}) and management (88.5% to 95.8%, p=2.6 x 10{sup -6}) rates compared to current practice. It allowed diagnosing 30.3% of acute unsuspected pathologies, 3.4% of which were unexpected surgical procedure requirement. Systematic unenhanced abdominal CT improves ED diagnosis accuracy and appropriate management in elderly patients presenting with acute abdominal symptoms compared to current practice. (orig.)

  11. I. Symptoms of acute waste gas effects on needles and leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wentzel, K F

    1963-01-01

    This series of photographs shows leaves and needles of various tree species heavily damaged by a wave-like action of high SO/sub 2/ waste gas concentrations (in the 1 ppm range and higher). Such distinct discoloration symptoms occur only relatively close to smoke sources. They are not typical of so-called chronic smoke damage, which is particularly widespread in spruce and pine stands, and is characterized less by necrosis than by premature loss of the older annual needle growths (shedding tendency), withering of branch sections which had been exposed to smoke (dead branches), the gradual loss of susceptible trees in the stand (open stand), and retarded growth habits (increment decrease). The material shown in this paper was not obtained from fumigation tests in the laboratory, but rather from an investigation of actual cases found in the open air. Proof of acute SO/sub 2/ reaction with respect to smoke damage diagnosis was obtained with air and leaf analyses. 4 figures.

  12. An interprofessional nurse-led mental health promotion intervention for older home care clients with depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms in older home care clients are common but poorly recognized and treated, resulting in adverse health outcomes, premature institutionalization, and costly use of health services. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new six-month interprofessional (IP) nurse-led mental health promotion intervention, and to explore its effects on reducing depressive symptoms in older home care clients (≥ 70 years) using personal support services. Methods A prospective one-group pre-test/post-test study design was used. The intervention was a six-month evidence-based depression care management strategy led by a registered nurse that used an IP approach. Of 142 eligible consenting participants, 98 (69%) completed the six-month and 87 (61%) completed the one-year follow-up. Outcomes included depressive symptoms, anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the costs of use of all types of health services at baseline and six-month and one-year follow-up. An interpretive descriptive design was used to explore clients’, nurses’, and personal support workers’ perceptions about the intervention’s appropriateness, benefits, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Results Of the 142 participants, 56% had clinically significant depressive symptoms, with 38% having moderate to severe symptoms. The intervention was feasible and acceptable to older home care clients with depressive symptoms. It was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and improving HRQoL at six-month follow-up, with small additional improvements six months after the intervention. The intervention also reduced anxiety at one year follow-up. Significant reductions were observed in the use of hospitalization, ambulance services, and emergency room visits over the study period. Conclusions Our findings provide initial evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and sustained effects of the nurse-led mental health promotion

  13. Mental and Physical Symptoms of Female Rural Workers: Relation between Household and Rural Work

    OpenAIRE

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relations among mental disorders, physical discomfort, household work and farm work among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the administration of a structured questionnaire to 182 female farm workers. The data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression, where the significance level was set to 5%. Results indicated that 111 (61%) participants reported work-related mental disorders and physical discomfort was reported by 160 (87.9%). ...

  14. Post-traumatic stress symptom clusters in acute whiplash associated disorder and their prediction of chronic pain-related disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maujean, Annick; Gullo, Matthew J; Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Ravn, Sophie Lykkegaard; Sterling, Michele

    2017-11-01

    The presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has been found to be associated with an increased risk of persisting neck pain and disability in motor vehicle crash (MVC) survivors with whiplash injuries. The findings are mixed as to which PTSD symptom(s) best predicts recovery in this population. The aims were (1) to explore the factor structure of the Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) in a sample of acute whiplash-injured individuals following a MVC and (2) to identify the PTSD-symptom clusters that best predict long-term neck pain-related disability in this population as measured by the Neck Pain Disability Index (NDI). A sample (N = 146) of whiplash-injured individuals completed the NDI and the PDS at baseline (whiplash-injured individuals following a MVC.

  15. Mobile Virtual Learning Object for the Assessment of Acute Pain as a Learning Tool to Assess Acute Pain in Nursing: An Analysis of the Mental Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ana Graziela; Sasso, Grace; Iyengar, Sriram

    2015-11-06

    The inclusion of new technologies in education has motivated the development of studies on mental workload. These technologies are now being used in the teaching and learning process. The analysis enables identification of factors intervening in this workload as well as planning of overload prevention for educational activities using these technologies. To analyze the mental workload of an educational intervention with the Mobile Virtual Learning Object for the Assessment of Acute Pain in adults and newborns, according to the NASA Task Load Index criteria. A methodological study with data collected from 5 nurses and 75 students, from November of 2013 to February of 2014. The highest students' and specialists' means were in the dimensions of "Mental demand" (57.20 ± 22.27; 51 ± 29.45) and "Performance" (58.47 ± 24.19; 73 ± 28.85). The specialists' mental workload index was higher (50.20 ± 7.28) when compared with students' (47.87 ± 16.85) on a scale from 0 to 100 (P=.557). The instrument allowed for the assessment of mental workload after an online educational intervention with a mobile learning virtual object. An excessive overload was not identified among participants. Assessing mental workload from the use of educational technologies at the end of a task is a key to their applicability, with the aim of providing a more effective, stimulating, and long-lasting experience of the learning process.

  16. Acute versus primary care: the health care decision making process for individuals with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoux, Michelle

    2005-11-01

    This study's purpose was to determine factors influencing treatment choices of individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The sample was drawn from admissions to residential crisis programs in San Francisco. Inclusion criteria were an Axis I and Axis III disorder. This qualitative study utilized grounded theory method. Interviews and field notes were coded for recurring themes. Descriptive data were also collected. Participants revealed that the most important influences on treatment decisions were immediate need for care, the belief that their subacute complaints will not be taken seriously by providers, positive reinforcement for emergency service use, and enabling factors such as insurance coverage. Other remarkable findings included: numerous reports of substance induced medical crises, lack of support from family, and unawareness of client's medical conditions in psychiatric facilities. Health care seeking behaviors are learned and learning that will promote the use of outpatient services in SMI must include positive experiences in the delivery of care in the primary care setting. Participants were knowledgeable regarding their illnesses and able to articulate symptoms of illness well. Failure to communicate symptoms appeared to reflect the participant's perception of a lack of response to their reports.

  17. A history of concussions is associated with symptoms of common mental disorders in former male professional athletes across a range of sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Lambert, Michael; Stewart, William; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Recent reports suggest that exposure to repetitive concussions in sports is associated with an increased risk of symptoms of distress, anxiety and depression, sleep disturbance or substance abuse/dependence (typically referred as symptoms of common mental disorders[CMD]) and of later

  18. Is reduction of symptoms in eating disorder patients after 1 year of treatment related to attachment security and mentalization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Greet S.; Van Loenhout, Zara; Van Der Ark, L. Andries; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2018-01-01

    In a sample of 38 eating disorder (ED) patients who received psychotherapeutic treatment, changes in attachment security, and mentalization in relation to symptoms reduction were investigated. Attachment security improved in 1 year but was unrelated to improvement of ED or comorbid symptoms.

  19. Views and experiences of mental health nurses working with undergraduate assistants in nursing in an acute mental health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Mannix, Judy; Jackson, Debra; Hunt, Glenn E

    2012-04-01

    Undergraduate nurses are employed as assistants in nursing (AIN) in inpatient mental health settings; however, there is a paucity of published research exploring registered nurses' (RN) views about the AIN role in these settings. This qualitative study documents the views and experiences of RN working with undergraduate AIN. Fifty structured face-to-face interviews were analysed, and the results are discussed in three sections. The first section outlines RN perceptions of qualities and skills required of AIN in mental health, and the responses primarily focus on communication skills, initiative, and willingness to learn. The second section targets factors in the workplace that might enhance the interest of AIN in a mental health nursing career; the responses emphasize their need to work with experienced staff. The last section outlines RN expectations of AIN, most of which are met and involve physical observations and technical tasks; less fulfilled activities primarily cluster around interactions with patients. Findings highlight the advantages and disadvantages of drawing on undergraduate nursing students as AIN in mental health settings. Communication skills, personal initiative, safety training to prevent violence, and education to increase knowledge and awareness about mental illness, diagnosis, and mental status-related skills were all important concerns articulated by RN. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  20. Irritable bowel symptoms and the development of common mental disorders and functional somatic syndromes identified in secondary care - a long-term, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Chalotte Heinsvig; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    ) and functional somatic syndromes (FSSs). Methods and study design: A longitudinal population-based study comprising two 5-year follow-up studies, Dan-MONICA 1 (1982-1987) and Inter99 (1999-2004), recruited from the western part of Copenhagen County. The total study population (n = 7,278) was divided into symptom...... for mental vulnerability as a risk factor for both CMDs and FSSs, including IBS. Results: Over a 5-year period, 51% patients had no IBS symptoms, 17% patients had IBS symptoms without abdominal pain, 22% patients had IBS symptoms including abdominal pain and 10% patients fulfilled the IBS definition. IBS...... and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were significantly associated with the development of CMDs and other FSSs identified in secondary care. When adjusting for mental vulnerability, IBS and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were no longer associated with CMDs, but the significant relationship...

  1. Acute high-intensity interval running increases markers of gastrointestinal damage and permeability but not gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie N; Impey, Samuel G; Doran, Dominic A; Fleming, Simon C; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval running on markers of gastrointestinal (GI) damage and permeability alongside subjective symptoms of GI discomfort. Eleven male runners completed an acute bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (eighteen 400-m runs at 120% maximal oxygen uptake) where markers of GI permeability, intestinal damage, and GI discomfort symptoms were assessed and compared with resting conditions. Compared with rest, HIIT significantly increased serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (0.051 ± 0.016 vs. 0.031 ± 0.021, p = 0.0047; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.006 to 0.036) and sucrose concentrations (0.388 ± 0.217 vs. 0.137 ± 0.148 mg·L -1 ; p HIIT and resting conditions. Plasma intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was significantly increased (p HIIT whereas no changes were observed during rest. Mild symptoms of GI discomfort were reported immediately and at 24 h post-HIIT, although these symptoms did not correlate to GI permeability or I-FABP. In conclusion, acute HIIT increased GI permeability and intestinal I-FABP release, although these do not correlate with symptoms of GI discomfort. Furthermore, by using serum sampling, we provide data showing that it is possible to detect changes in intestinal permeability that is not observed using urinary sampling over a shorter time-period.

  2. Self-esteem level and stability, admission functional status, and depressive symptoms in acute inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Chad D; Sepehri, Arash; Evans, Clea C; Jabeen, Linsa N

    2009-11-01

    Explore the relationship of self-esteem level, self-esteem stability, and admission functional status on discharge depressive symptoms in acute stroke rehabilitation. One hundred twenty stroke survivors serially completed a measure of state self-esteem during inpatient rehabilitation and completed a measure of depressive symptoms at discharge. Functional status was rated at admission using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Regressions explored main effects and interactions of self-esteem level and stability and admission FIM self-care, mobility, and cognitive functioning on discharge depressive symptoms. After controlling for potential moderating variables, self-esteem level interacted with FIM self-care and cognitive functioning to predict discharge depressive symptoms, such that survivors with lower self-rated self-esteem and poorer functional status indicated higher levels of depressive symptoms. Self-esteem stability interacted with FIM mobility functioning, such that self-esteem instability in the presence of lower mobility functioning at admission was related to higher depressive symptoms at discharge. These results suggest that self-esteem variables may moderate the relationship between functional status and depressive symptoms. Self-esteem level and stability may differentially moderate functional domains, although this conclusion requires further empirical support.

  3. Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers...... in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly...... associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide...

  4. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Association With Physical and Mental Health Symptoms Among Older Women in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Penhale, Bridget

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a commonly acknowledged health care issue. While numerous studies established the health implications of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age, the evidence is scarce for older women and for other forms of intimate partner violence. This study, therefore, investigates the prevalence of intimate partner violence in its different forms and its association with physical and mental health symptoms of older women, using women of reproductive age as a reference group. This study is a cross-sectional study, utilizing data from a national representative survey of 10,264 German women aged 16 to 86 years. Rates of physical and sexual intimate partner violence in the last year decreased from 8% to 3% and 1% among women aged 16 to 49 years, 50 to 65 years, and 66 to 86 years, respectively. The prevalence of emotional and economic abuse and controlling behavior by partners remained nearly the same. All forms of intimate partner violence had significant associations with women's health symptoms, such as gastrointestinal, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, and pelvic problems. Controlling behavior was most consistently associated with most health symptoms. Health and care professionals who screen women for intimate partner violence should, therefore, consider incorporating questions about controlling behavior as well, because this form of violence is not only frequent but also has multiple health outcomes among women across all ages. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. 'That red flag on your file': misinterpreting physical symptoms as mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Ewart, Stephanie B; Bocking, Julia; Platania-Phung, Chris; Stanton, Robert

    2016-10-01

    To ascertain the views and experiences of mental health consumers regarding the availability and quality of care and treatment received for their physical health needs. People diagnosed with mental illness have higher occurrence of physical health problems. Responsive health care services are crucial for prevention and management of physical health problems, and for reducing disparities in health between people diagnosed with mental illness and those who are not. There is limited research giving voice to consumer perspectives on their experiences with health care providers. Exploratory qualitative. Focus group interviews with mental health consumers accessed via a consumer network group in a region of Australia (n = 31). All interview audio recordings were transcribed professionally. Interviews were thematically analysed. The main themes were: symptomising; failure to act and alertness to prejudice. The first two themes were consumer perceptions of the actions and behaviours of health professionals, and the third describes consumer responses to these behaviours and actions. Consumers described increased risks of illness and death because of undiagnosed physical illness despite their physical health advice-seeking as the reason for the health consultation. Health care providers' non-recognition of physical health problems presents a clear example of a significant and potentially life threatening health inequity. The service provider responses described by participants suggest that mental health consumers' physical health needs may not be taken seriously. Clinicians need to take seriously the physical health needs and concerns of people with mental illness. Nurses can play a crucial role in the prevention of diagnostic overshadowing as part of a broader direction of balancing biomedical perspectives with other approaches to health care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Network Structure of Symptoms of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; van Borkulo, Claudia D.; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Keyes, Katherine M.; Borsboom, Denny; Schoevers, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Although current classification systems have greatly contributed to the reliability of psychiatric diagnoses, they ignore the unique role of individual symptoms and, consequently, potentially important information is lost. The network approach, in contrast, assumes that psychopathology results from

  7. The network structure of symptoms of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, L.; van Borkulo, C.D.; Rhemtulla, M.; Keyes, K.M.; Borsboom, D.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Although current classification systems have greatly contributed to the reliability of psychiatric diagnoses, they ignore the unique role of individual symptoms and, consequently, potentially important information is lost. The network approach, in contrast, assumes that psychopathology results from

  8. Benefits of Walking on Menopausal Symptoms and Mental Health Outcomes among Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Hu; Li Zhu; Jiaying Lyu; Wenjun Zhu; Yaping Xu; Lin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Menopausal transition is often associated with impaired satisfaction with life (SL). Exercise is promising in both managing menopausal symptoms and improving subjective well-being of women after menopause. Purpose: This study examined the effects of a 4-month randomized controlled walking trial on menopausal symptoms and SL in 80 community-dwelling postmenopausal Chinese women (M age = 53.38, SD = 3.41), and identified predictors of changes in SL across the intervention. Met...

  9. Child anxiety symptoms related to longitudinal cortisol trajectories and acute stress responses: evidence of developmental stress sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Wright, Dorianne B; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children's (n = 107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9-10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress-reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure-may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux in severely mentally retarded people: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, A.J.E. de; Bos, J.; Niezen-de Boer, M.C.; Böhmer, C.J.M.; Francke, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when stomach acid frequently backs up (or refluxes) into the gullet (or esophagus), and it has serious consequences for the quality of life. Usually this is felt as heartburn. Because severely mentally retarded people usually do not utter

  11. Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors – a population-based study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Carina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. Methods The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18–84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question. The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Results About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65–74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment, economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Conclusion Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both

  12. Mental health of Japanese psychiatrists: the relationship among level of occupational stress, satisfaction and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreki, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Abe, Akiko; Ikeuchi, Hidetsugu; Okubo, Jo; Oguri, Atsushi; Orimo, Keisuke; Katayama, Nariko; Sato, Hiroyo; Shikimoto, Ryo; Nishiyama, Go; Nogami, Waka; Haki, Kazuma; Hayashi, Tetsuro; Fukagawa, Yuko; Funaki, Kei; Matsuzawa, Mia; Matsumoto, Ayako; Mimura, Masaru

    2015-03-26

    Psychiatrists in clinical practice face a number of stressors related to patient care, such as overwork. On the other hand, they gain satisfaction from their work. We quantified and assessed the potential relationship between levels of occupational stress, satisfaction, and depressive symptoms among Japanese clinical psychiatrists. We surveyed 206 psychiatrists with up to 15 years of clinical experience who primarily worked in patient care. Levels of occupational stress and occupational satisfaction were measured using the Visual Analogue Scale and the level of depressive symptoms was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Workplace stressors and satisfiers were also evaluated. Out of 206 psychiatrists, 154 (74.8%) responded to the survey. The respondents' mean (SD) age was 34.3 (5.2) years. The estimated prevalence of significant depressive symptoms was 34.4% (n = 53), and the experienced frequent violence was 14.9% (n = 23). The level of depressive symptoms was inversely correlated with the level of occupational satisfaction. In respondents who reported a moderate level of occupational stress, having fewer depressive symptoms was associated with higher occupational satisfaction, but this association was not significant in those who reported a high level of stress. In addition, high occupational satisfaction was associated with interest towards work content, ability to work at one's discretion, opportunities for growth and career development, and ease of communication with supervisors and colleagues. Nearly one-third of the psychiatrists screened positive for significant depressive symptoms. Having fewer depressive symptoms was associated with higher occupational satisfaction in those who reported a moderate level of stress. Implications from the present findings may be to enhance occupational satisfaction by discussing work interests with a supervisor, as well as increased opportunities for career development, which may

  13. Acute Stress Symptoms in Seriously Injured Patients: Precipitating Versus Cumulative Trauma and the Contribution of Peritraumatic Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; Dias, Colin P; Semple, Randye J; Scott, Catherine; Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between type of trauma exposure, cumulative trauma, peritraumatic distress, and subsequent acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms was examined prospectively in 96 individuals presenting with acute medical injuries to a Level 1 emergency/trauma department. Common precipitating traumas included motor vehicle-related events, stabbings, shootings, and physical assaults. At 2 to 3 weeks follow-up, 22.9% of participants had developed ASD. Univariate analysis revealed no relationship between type of precipitating trauma and ASD symptoms, whereas robust path analysis indicated direct effects of gender, lifetime cumulative trauma exposure, and peritraumatic distress. Peritraumatic distress did not mediate the association between cumulative trauma and symptoms, but did mediate the association between gender and symptomatology. These results, which account for 23.1% of the variance in ASD symptoms, suggest that ASD may be more due to cumulative trauma exposure than the nature of the precipitating trauma, but that cumulative trauma does not exert its primary effect by increasing peritraumatic distress to the most recent trauma. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. Healing Touch as a Supportive Intervention for Adult Acute Leukemia Patients: A Pilot Investigation of Effects on Distress and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Tooze, Janet A.; Holder, Paige; Miller, Christina; Jesse, Michelle T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Goals were to determine the feasibility of conducting a study of Healing Touch (HT) for acute leukemia patients and to obtain preliminary data on its effectiveness. Methods Forty hospitalized leukemia patients completed a brief survey of HT knowledge/experience. A prospective cohort (N=12) was invited to participate in an HT intervention (9 30-minute sessions over 3 weeks); they completed measures of distress, symptoms, and sleep (at weeks 1 and 5), and completed single item ratings of fatigue, nausea, distress, and pain immediately pre-post selected HT sessions. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to analyze change in pre-post session ratings and distress, symptom, and sleep measures. Results Among survey respondents, 8% had used HT in the past, and 71% were interested in using HT. In the prospective cohort, there were significant pre-post session improvements in fatigue and nausea (but not in distress and pain). There were no significant changes between weeks 1 and 5 in distress, symptoms, or sleep. Ratings and qualitative feedback on HT were positive, focused mainly on feeling relaxed following HT sessions. Conclusions It is feasible to recruit patients hospitalized for acute leukemia to a study of HT. Preliminary data on short-term improvements in symptoms indicate these are promising outcomes for future study. PMID:19087765

  15. Long-term prognosis of acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprains: high incidence of recurrences and residual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemler, Ellen; Thijs, Karin M; Badenbroek, Ilse; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Hoes, Arno W; Backx, Frank J G

    2016-12-01

    Acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprains (ALALS) are common injuries. This injury does not always have a favourable long-term outcome. Studies reporting the prognosis of ALALS after functional treatment are scarce. To determine the prognosis of functionally treated ALALS, in terms of recurrent ALALS and residual symptoms. Retrospective cohort study. Patients were recruited from 20 family practices, nine physical therapy practices, the emergency departments of a regional hospital and a university hospital. Adult patients with an ALALS caused by an inversion trauma were invited to participate in this study 2.5-5 years after their initial injury. Functional treatment of the initial ALALS. Acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain recurrences and residual symptoms. A total of 44 patients were included, with an average follow-up period after the initial ankle sprain of 204 weeks (range 150-274 weeks). Eight patients (18.1%) had reinjured their ankle. Explicit pain around the ankle joint at physical examination was experienced by 45.5%. Clinical symptoms of anterior ankle impingement were present in 25% (all athletes), with radiologically confirmed tibiotalar osteophyte bone formation in 82% of them. A large proportion of patients with ALALS experience recurrences and persistent symptoms after their initial ankle injury. The high percentage of patients with anterior ankle impingement syndromes illustrates the need for early assessment of this impairment in patients with persistent complaints. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Chronic and acute exposures to the world trade center disaster and lower respiratory symptoms: area residents and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Carey B; Friedman, Stephen M; Pillai, Parul S; Reibman, Joan; Berger, Kenneth I; Goldring, Roberta; Stellman, Steven D; Farfel, Mark

    2012-06-01

    We assessed associations between new-onset (post-September 11, 2001 [9/11]) lower respiratory symptoms reported on 2 surveys, administered 3 years apart, and acute and chronic 9/11-related exposures among New York City World Trade Center-area residents and workers enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. World Trade Center-area residents and workers were categorized as case participants or control participants on the basis of lower respiratory symptoms reported in surveys administered 2 to 3 and 5 to 6 years after 9/11. We created composite exposure scales after principal components analyses of detailed exposure histories obtained during face-to-face interviews. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine associations between lower respiratory symptoms and composite exposure scales. Both acute and chronic exposures to the events of 9/11 were independently associated, often in a dose-dependent manner, with lower respiratory symptoms among individuals who lived and worked in the area of the World Trade Center. Study findings argue for detailed assessments of exposure during and after events in the future from which potentially toxic materials may be released and for rapid interventions to minimize exposures and screen for potential adverse health effects.

  17. Piloting violence and incident reporting measures on one acute mental health inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phil; Ashley, Carolyn; Kayto, Denise; Heusdens, Carol

    2008-05-01

    During May, 2006, on one acute mental health inpatient unit, nursing staff evaluated each patient three times a day (i.e., once each nursing shift) using the Broset Violence Checklist (BVC). Associated data were collected using the Staff Observation and Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R) if an adverse incident occurred. At the end of the data collection period, the nursing staff were asked to complete a short questionnaire anonymously to evaluate how useful they had found the instruments. N = 93 patients were admitted to the unit during the month of study. Seven incidents were reported using the SOAS-R. A slight trend was noted for higher BVC score in aggressive patients. A potential high occurrence of underreporting on incidents was observed. There was limited feedback data from nursing staff at the end of the study, but the responses received were encouraging for continued use of the instruments in practice. The pilot study fulfilled its purpose in two ways. First, it allowed staff on the unit to experience using structured instruments to support their practice. Second, it allowed an opportunity to raise awareness of potential underreporting and tolerance of aggression on the unit.

  18. Leadership support for ward managers in acute mental health inpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Gwen; McLaughlin, Sue

    2014-05-01

    This article shares findings of work undertaken with a group of mental health ward managers to consider their roles through workshops using an action learning approach. The tensions between the need to balance the burden of administrative tasks and act as clinical role models, leaders and managers are considered in the context of providing recovery-focused services. The group reviewed their leadership styles, broke down the administrative elements of their roles using activity logs, reviewed their working environments and considered how recovery focused they believed their wards to be. Findings support the notion that the ward manager role in acute inpatient settings is at times unmanageable. Administration is one aspect of the role for which ward managers feel unprepared and the high number of administrative tasks take them away from front line clinical care, leading to frustration. Absence from clinical areas reduces opportunities for role modeling good clinical practice to other staff. Despite the frustrations of administrative tasks, overall the managers thought they were supportive to their staff and that their wards were recovery focused.

  19. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Margot C W; Brouwers, Evelien P M; van Beurden, Karlijn M; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J L; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-05-01

    We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guidelines International Network Library and PubMed. Members of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH), were also consulted. Guidelines recommendations were compared and reporting quality was assessed using the AGREE II instrument. Of 2126 titles retrieved, 14 guidelines were included: 1 Japanese, 2 Finnish, 2 Korean, 2 British and 7 Dutch. Four guidelines were of high-reporting quality. Best described was the Scope and Purpose, and the poorest described were competing interests (Editorial independence) and barriers and facilitators for implementation (Applicability). Key recommendations were often difficult to identify. Most guidelines recommend employing an inventory of symptoms, diagnostic classification, performance problems and workplace factors. All guidelines recommend specific return-to-work interventions, and most agreed on psychological treatment and communication between involved stakeholders. Practice guidelines to address work disability due to mental disorders and stress-related symptoms are available in various countries around the world, however, these guidelines are difficult to find. To promote sharing, national guidelines should be accessible via established international databases. The quality of the guideline's developmental process varied considerably. To increase quality and applicability, guideline developers should adopt a common structure for the development and reporting of their guidelines, for example Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) criteria. Owing to differences in social systems, developers can learn from each other through reviews of this kind. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  20. Associations of Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones and Other Sexual Minority Stressors with Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minorities (mostly heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) are more likely than heterosexuals to have adverse mental health, which may be related to minority stress. We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority women and men, aged 22-30 years, from Wave 2010 of the Growing Up Today Study, to examine associations between sexual minority stressors and mental health. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors (earlier timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones categorized into early adolescence, middle adolescence, late adolescence/young adulthood; greater sexual orientation mobility; more bullying victimization) would be positively associated with mental health outcomes (depressive and anxious symptoms). Linear regression models stratified by gender and sexual orientation were fit via generalized estimating equations and controlled for age and race/ethnicity. Models were fit for each stressor predicting each mental health outcome. Reaching sexual minority milestones in early versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive and anxious symptoms among lesbians and gay men. Reaching sexual minority milestones in late adolescence/young adulthood versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive symptoms among lesbians, but fewer depressive and anxious symptoms among gay men. Greater sexual orientation mobility was associated with greater depressive symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. More bullying victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms among bisexual women and with greater anxious symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. Sexual minority stressors are associated with adverse mental health among some sexual minority young adults. More research is needed to understand what may be protecting some subgroups from the mental health effects of sexual minority stressors.

  1. Irritable bowel symptoms and the development of common mental disorders and functional somatic syndromes identified in secondary care – a long-term, population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen CH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,2 Lene Falgaard Eplov,2 Carsten Hjorthøj,2 Marie Eliasen,1 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Andreas Schröder,3 Torben Jørgensen1,4,5 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Copenhagen University Hospital, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Hellerup, 3Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 5The Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with mental vulnerability, and half of patients report comorbid somatic and mental symptoms. We aimed to investigate the relationship between an IBS symptom continuum and the subsequent development of common mental disorders (CMDs and functional somatic syndromes (FSSs.Methods and study design: A longitudinal population-based study comprising two 5-year follow-up studies, Dan-MONICA 1 (1982–1987 and Inter99 (1999–2004, recruited from the western part of Copenhagen County. The total study population (n = 7,278 was divided into symptom groups according to the degree of IBS definition fulfillment at baseline and/or follow-up and was followed until December 2013 in Danish central registries. Cox regression was used for the analyses, adjusting for age, sex, length of education and cohort membership. In a subsequent analysis, we adjusted for mental vulnerability as a risk factor for both CMDs and FSSs, including IBS.Results: Over a 5-year period, 51% patients had no IBS symptoms, 17% patients had IBS symptoms without abdominal pain, 22% patients had IBS symptoms including abdominal pain and 10% patients fulfilled the IBS definition. IBS and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were significantly associated with the development of CMDs and other FSSs identified in secondary care. When adjusting for mental

  2. Analogies between Heavy Metal Music and the Symptoms of Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Angeler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds a link between isolated domains within the arts and sciences, specifically between music and psychiatry. An analogous model is presented that associates heavy metal music with bipolar disorder, a form of mental illness. Metal music consists of a variety of subgenres with distinct manifestations of song, rhythm, instrumentation, and vocal structure. These manifestations are analogous to the symptomatology of bipolar disorder, specifically the recurrent episodes of (hypomania and depression. Examples of songs are given which show these analogies. Besides creating a subjective link between apparently unconnected knowledge domains, these analogies could play a heuristic role in clinical applications and education about the disorder and mental illnesses at large.

  3. Symptoms of Mental Illness and Their Impact on Managing Type 2 Diabetes in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimo, Adriana; Dewa, Carolyn S

    2017-11-08

    People with mental illnesses are more likely to experience diabetes-related complications that can reduce life expectancy by 10 to 15 years. Diabetes management and outcomes can be improved when lifestyle interventions addressing healthful eating habits and physical activity use content tailored to the learning needs of individuals or groups. Understanding the challenges that prevent adherence to diabetes recommendations can start to inform the design of tailored diabetes education care. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the perspectives of clients with mental illnesses and type 2 diabetes with regard to challenges faced when engaging in diabetes self-care behaviours. Focus groups were held with 17 people who had type 2 diabetes and mental illnesses, including depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. In the groups, participants were asked to share their experiences with diabetes self-care and access to diabetes-education services. Data were transcribed verbatim, assessed for quality and saturation and coded to identify relationships and meanings among identified themes. Participants identified many challenges and unmet needs that created multidimensional and interrelated barriers to care, ultimately resulting in poor diabetes self-care behaviours. Some challenges were psychological in nature and related to emotional states, lifestyles and food habits, perceptions of affordability, health literacy and value of health information. Other challenges included the physical states of health and social environments. Multidimensional diabetes education programs that consider psychological, physical and social challenges are needed to address the needs of people with mental illnesses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Mental Health Problems during Puberty: Tanner Stage-Related Differences in Specific Symptoms. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 [plus or minus] 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 [plus or minus] 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental…

  5. Aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents as a possible symptom of different mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak

    2015-01-01

    Causes of aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents are manifold with exogenous and endogenous factors such as personality traits, temperament, family, socio-cultural, economic and financial factors closely intertwined. Aggressive behaviour, however, can also be associated with mental disorders and this is the topic discussed by the present article. Isolated and occasional outbursts of anger, aggressiveness and rage in children and adolescents can often be confused with conduct disorde...

  6. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Bussing, Regina; Meyer, Johanna; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Gary, Faye A.; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescent...

  7. Misidentification of mental health symptoms in presence of organic diseases and delirium during psychiatric liaison consulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Victor Henrique Oyamada; Otani, Thaís Zélia Dos Santos; Freirias, Andrea; Calfat, Elie Leal de Barros; Aoki, Patricia Satiko; Cordeiro, Quirino; Kanaan, Richard A A; Cross, Sean; Liersch-Sumskis, Susan; Uchida, Ricardo Riyoiti

    2017-09-01

    To identify predictors of misidentification of organic mental disorders and delirium in patients undergoing psychiatric liaison consultation. Data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo between July of 2009 and March of 2013. We included in our analysis all inpatients for whom the requesting service judged that a psychiatric consultation was required for a possible mental health condition. Outcomes of interest were the instances of misidentification where a condition was initially deemed to be of a psychiatric nature, whereas the final diagnosis by the liaison psychiatric team was of an organic disease or delirium. Our predictors were the clinical specialty of the requesting service, requester and patient characteristics. A series of generalised linear models were used to evaluate misidentification risks. A total of 947 subjects met our inclusion criteria, 14.6% having a final liaison diagnosis of organic mental disorder and 8.1% of delirium. Older patients were significantly associated with increased risk of misidentification for both organic conditions (OR 3.01 - 95% CI 2.01, 4.5) and delirium (OR 3.92 - 2.4, 6.39). Educational interventions in general hospitals focused on preventing psychiatric misdiagnosis should target in-hospital services where patients tend to be older.

  8. Secondary analysis of data can inform care delivery for Indigenous women in an acute mental health inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Pat; Cunningham, Teresa; Lowell, Anne; Nagel, Tricia; Dunn, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    There is a paucity of research exploring Indigenous women's experiences in acute mental health inpatient services in Australia. Even less is known of Indigenous women's experience of seclusion events, as published data are rarely disaggregated by both indigeneity and gender. This research used secondary analysis of pre-existing datasets to identify any quantifiable difference in recorded experience between Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, and between Indigenous women and Indigenous men in an acute mental health inpatient unit. Standard separation data of age, length of stay, legal status, and discharge diagnosis were analysed, as were seclusion register data of age, seclusion grounds, and number of seclusion events. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data, and where warranted, inferential statistical methods used SPSS software to apply analysis of variance/multivariate analysis of variance testing. The results showed evidence that secondary analysis of existing datasets can provide a rich source of information to describe the experience of target groups, and to guide service planning and delivery of individualized, culturally-secure mental health care at a local level. The results are discussed, service and policy development implications are explored, and suggestions for further research are offered. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  9. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  10. Six-month longitudinal patterns of mental health treatment utilization by older adults with depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gum, Amber M.; Iser, Lindsay; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L.; Petkus, Andrew; DeMuth, Anne; Schonfeld, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Aims of the study were to describe behavioral health treatment utilization patterns of community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms over a six-month period and to identify factors associated with treatment use, guided by a theoretical model emphasizing the dynamic nature of treatment use

  11. Acute Zika Virus Infection in an Endemic Area Shows Modest Proinflammatory Systemic Immunoactivation and Cytokine-Symptom Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Barletto de Sousa Barros

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An early immune response to Zika virus (ZIKV infection may determine its clinical manifestation and outcome, including neurological effects. However, low-grade and transient viremia limits the prompt diagnosis of acute ZIKV infection. We have investigated the plasma cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor profiles of 36 individuals from an endemic area displaying different symptoms such as exanthema, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, fever, hyperemia, swelling, itching, and nausea during early-phase infection. These profiles were then associated with symptoms, revealing important aspects of the immunopathophysiology of ZIKV infection. The levels of some cytokines/chemokines were significantly higher in acute ZIKV-infected individuals compared to healthy donors, including interferon (IFN gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-9, IL-7, IL-5, and IL-1ra, including some with predominantly immunoregulatory activity. Of note, we found that higher levels of IP-10 and IL-5 in ZIKV-infected individuals were strongly associated with exanthema and headache, respectively. Also, higher levels of IL-1ra were associated with subjects with arthralgia, whereas those with fever showed lower levels of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF. No correlation was observed between the number of symptoms and ZIKV viral load. Interestingly, only IP-10 showed significantly decreased levels in the recovery phase. In conclusion, our results indicate that acute ZIKV infection in a larger cohort resident to an endemic area displays a modest systemic immune activation profile, involving both proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines and chemokines that could participate of virus control. In addition, we showed that differential cytokine/chemokine levels are related to specific clinical symptoms, suggesting their participation in underlying mechanisms.

  12. The efficacy of exercise referral as an intervention for Irish male prisoners presenting with mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Shay; Maguire, Jim; Murphy, Pearse

    2018-06-11

    Purpose The use of exercise as an intervention to improve health in the general population is well documented. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether an exercise referral scheme can be an effective health promotion tool for male prisoners in Ireland, presenting with mental health symptoms. Design/methodology/approach This mixed methods study with a pre- and post-intervention design was conducted in Mountjoy Prison, Dublin, which has a capacity for approximately 790 prisoners. Reliable and validated symptom assessment scales were used to assess levels of depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem and anger amongst a sample of 40 prisoners pre- and post-intervention. The scales used were the Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale or DASS-42 (Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995), the Novaco Anger Scale (Novaco, 1994), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale ( Rosenberg, 1965 ) and the Zung Self-Rated Anxiety Scale (Zung, 1971). Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with a subset of the participants post-intervention to further test and contextualise the symptom ratings. The data gathered from the self-rating scales were imported into SPSS 22 for statistical testing for significance. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was then used to measure significance of changes. Thematic analysis was performed on the qualitative data. Findings In the post-intervention, significant levels of improvement were achieved in the levels of depression, anxiety (DASS), anxiety (Zung), stress, anger, and self-esteem for 29 of the 30 prisoners who completed the study. The incidence of normal mood scores rose from 33 to 90 per cent after the intervention; the incidence of extremely severe scores for anxiety changed from 40 to 7 per cent, severe stress scores changed from 27 to 3 per cent, normal stress levels rose from 17 to 73 per cent, marked anger ratings reduced from 40 to 3 per cent and low self-esteem levels reduced from 20 per cent of participants pre-intervention to 7 per cent post

  13. A-MUPS score to differentiate patients with somatic symptom disorder from those with medical disease for complaints of non-acute pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shingo Suzuki, Yoshiyuki Ohira, Kazutaka Noda, Masatomi Ikusaka Department of General Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan Purpose: To develop a clinical score to discriminate patients with somatic symptom disorder (SSD from those with medical disease (MD for complaints of non-acute pain.Methods: We retrospectively examined the clinical records of consecutive patients with pain for a duration of ≥1 month in our department from April 2003 to March 2015. We divided the subjects according to the diagnoses of definite SSD (as diagnosed and tracked by psychiatrists in our hospital, probable SSD (without evaluation by psychiatrists in our hospital, matched MD (randomly matched two patients by age, sex, and pain location for each definite SSD patient, unmatched MD, other mental disease, or functional somatic syndrome (FSS. We investigated eight clinical factors for definite SSD and matched MD, and developed a diagnostic score to ­identify SSD. We subsequently validated the model with cases of probable SSD and unmatched MD.Results: The number of patients with definite SSD, probable SSD, matched MD, unmatched MD, other mental disease, and FSS was 104 (3.5%, 214 (7.3%, 197 (6.7%, 742 (25%, 708 (24%, and 978 (33%, respectively. In a conditional logistic regression analysis, the following five factors were included as independent predictors of SSD: Analgesics ineffective, Mental disorder history, Unclear provocative/palliative factors, Persistence without cessation, and Stress feelings/episodes (A-MUPS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of the model was 0.900 (95% CI: 0.864–0.937, p<0.001, and the McFadden’s pseudo-R-squared was 0.709. For internal validation, the AUC between probable SSD and unmatched MD was 0.930 (95% CI: 0.910–0.950, p<0.001. The prevalence and the likelihood ratio of SSD increased as the score increased.Conclusion: The A-MUPS score was useful for discriminating patients with SSD from

  14. Factors impacting the mental health of the caregivers of children with asthma in china: effects of family socioeconomic status, symptoms control, proneness to shame, and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli; Zhang, Xuxia; Wang, Yuyin

    2014-12-01

    Caregiver mental health is widely considered to be an important factor influencing children's asthma symptoms. The present study aimed to examine key factors that contribute to caregiver mental health in pediatric asthma with a Chinese sample. Two hundred participants reported their family socioeconomic status (SES), proneness to shame, asthma symptoms control of their child, family functioning, and their depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggested that low family SES, low family functioning, and a high level of shame proneness were associated with high levels of anxiety and depression for caregivers. Family functioning mediated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver mental health and also moderated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver depression. This study highlights the importance of reducing experience of shame and enhancing family functioning in families affected by pediatric asthma. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  15. Experiences of mental health professionals and patients in the use of pro re nata medication in acute adult mental healthcare settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkunas, Bernadette; Porritt, Kylie; Stephenson, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    The use of pro re nata (PRN) medication, a medication that is given when needed, as opposed to medication that is given at a regular time, is surrounded by claims of misuse and poor accountability within the mental health setting. Gaining insight into and understanding of the experiences of health professionals' and patients' use of PRN medication will assist in contributing to improving education and safety around this common intervention. To analyze and synthesize the best available evidence on the perspectives of patients and mental health professionals (MHPs) with their experiences of PRN medication in mental health settings. Participants considered for inclusion in this review include MHPs working in, and adult patients admitted to, an acute adult mental healthcare setting. This review will consider studies that investigated the experience of MHPs' and patients' use of PRN medication in acute adult mental healthcare settings. The current review will consider studies that focused on qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research. The context of the review is acute adult mental healthcare settings with no restriction on geographical location. The search strategy aims to find both published and unpublished studies. The databases searched include CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO and Embase. A gray literature search included ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Mednar and Google Scholar. Papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity before inclusion in the review using the standardized critical appraisal instrument from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI). The standardized data extraction tool from the JBI-QARI was used to extract data from the papers. Qualitative research findings were pooled using the JBI-QARI. This involved the aggregation of findings to generate a

  16. Brief Symptom Inventory symptom profiles of outpatients with borderline intellectual functioning and major depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder: Comparison with patients from regular mental health care and patients with Mild Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Jannelien; Zitman, Frans G

    2016-01-01

    In most countries, people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) are not considered a separate group in mental health care. There is little to no research on the impact of BIF on the presentation, nature and severity of mental health problems. The aim of the present exploratory study was to compare, in a naturalistic setting of patients referred to secondary care, symptom profiles of patients with BIF diagnosed with either major depressive disorder (MDD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to patients from regular mental health care (RMHC) and patients with Mild ID diagnosed with the same disorders. We used a cohort of adolescent and adult outpatients (aged 16-88) with or without BIF diagnosed with a primary diagnosis MDD or PTSD. Primary outcome was the nature and severity of psychopathological symptoms assessed at baseline using the Brief Symptom Inventory. All outcomes were adjusted for gender and age. Results showed that BIF patients with a primary diagnosis MDD reported less severe symptoms on BSI Total and the subscales Depression, Obsession-Compulsion and Psychoticism than patients from regular mental health care (RMHC). There were no statistically significant differences in reported symptom severity on BSI Total and the different BSI subscales between BIF patients with PTSD and either patients from RMHC or patients with Mild ID. Patients Mild ID, did report significantly less severe symptoms on the subscale Depression and on the subscale Psychoticism than patients from RMHC. Since there were no other published studies into symptom profiles in patients with BIF compared to either patients with higher or lower levels of cognitive functioning, the study was mainly exploratory in nature, providing direction for future research. Results indicate that symptom profiles did not widely differ, but that there might be some characteristics unique to patients BIF separating them as a group from both patients from RMHC and patients with Mild ID. Copyright

  17. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Klith Jensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88% had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02–1.28. The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22–0.91. These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

  18. Effects of Single Bouts of Walking Exercise and Yoga on Acute Mood Symptoms in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensari, Ipek; Sandroff, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the acute or immediate effects of walking exercise and yoga on mood in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Such an examination is important for identifying an exercise modality for inclusion in exercise-training interventions that yields mood benefits in MS. We examined the effects of single bouts of treadmill walking and yoga compared with a quiet, seated-rest control condition on acute mood symptoms in MS. Methods: Twenty-four participants with MS completed 20 minutes of treadmill walking, yoga, or quiet rest in a randomized, counterbalanced order with 1 week between sessions. Participants completed the Profile of Mood States questionnaire before and immediately after each condition. Total mood disturbance (TMD) and the six subscales of the Profile of Mood States were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired-samples t tests. Results: There was a significant condition × time interaction on TMD scores (ηp2 = 0.13). Walking and yoga conditions yielded comparable reductions in TMD scores. There was a significant condition × time interaction on vigor (ηp2 = 0.23) whereby walking but not yoga yielded an improvement in vigor. There was a significant main effect of time on anger, confusion, depression, and tension (P improvements in overall acute mood symptoms, and walking improved feelings of vigor. These effects should be further investigated in long-term exercise-training studies. PMID:26917992

  19. The deepwater horizon oil spill coast guard cohort study: A cross-sectional study of acute respiratory health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Melannie; Engel, Lawrence S; Olaiya, Nathan; Wang, Li; Barrett, John; Weems, Laura; Schwartz, Erica G; Rusiecki, Jennifer A

    2018-04-01

    Over 8500 United States Coast Guard (USCG) personnel were deployed in response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill; however, human respiratory effects as a result of spill-related exposures are relatively unknown. USCG personnel who responded to the DWH oil spill were queried via survey on exposures to crude oil and oil dispersant, and acute respiratory symptoms experienced during deployment. Adjusted log binomial regressions were used to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), investigating the associations between oil spill exposures and respiratory symptoms. 4855 USCG personnel completed the survey. More than half (54.6%) and almost one-fourth (22.0%) of responders were exposed to crude oil and oil dispersants, respectively. Coughing was the most prevalent symptom (19.4%), followed by shortness of breath (5.5%), and wheezing (3.6%). Adjusted analyses showed an exposure-response relationship between increasing deployment duration and likelihood of coughing, shortness of breath, and wheezing in the pre-capping period. A similar pattern was observed in the post-capping period for coughing and wheezing. Adjusted analyses revealed increased PRs for coughing (PR=1.92), shortness of breath (PR=2.60), and wheezing (PR=2.68) for any oil exposure. Increasing frequency of inhalation of oil was associated with increased likelihood of all three respiratory symptoms. A similar pattern was observed for contact with oil dispersants for coughing and shortness of breath. The combination of both oil and oil dispersants presented associations that were much greater in magnitude than oil alone for coughing (PR=2.72), shortness of breath (PR=4.65), and wheezing (PR=5.06). Results from the present study suggested strong relationships between oil and oil dispersant exposures and acute respiratory symptoms among disaster responders. Future prospective studies will be needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A pilot study of yogic meditation for family dementia caregivers with depressive symptoms: effects on mental health, cognition, and telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavretsky, H; Epel, E S; Siddarth, P; Nazarian, N; Cyr, N St; Khalsa, D S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Irwin, M R

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of brief daily yogic meditation on mental health, cognitive functioning, and immune cell telomerase activity in family dementia caregivers with mild depressive symptoms. Thirty-nine family dementia caregivers (mean age 60.3 years old (SD = 10.2)) were randomized to practicing Kirtan Kriya or listening to relaxation music for 12 min per day for 8 weeks. The severity of depressive symptoms, mental and cognitive functioning were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) was examined in peripheral PBMC pre-intervention and post-intervention. The meditation group showed significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms and greater improvement in mental health and cognitive functioning compared with the relaxation group. In the meditation group, 65.2% showed 50% improvement on the Hamilton Depression Rating scale and 52% of the participants showed 50% improvement on the Mental Health Composite Summary score of the Short Form-36 scale compared with 31.2% and 19%, respectively, in the relaxation group (p dementia caregivers can lead to improved mental and cognitive functioning and lower levels of depressive symptoms. This improvement is accompanied by an increase in telomerase activity suggesting improvement in stress-induced cellular aging. These results need to be confirmed in a larger sample. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Livestock/animal assets buffer the impact of conflict-related traumatic events on mental health symptoms for rural women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Glass

    Full Text Available In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health.The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP, on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms.The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64 traumatic events (range 0-18. Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66 range 0-4 and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD = 0·49, range 0-3.47. The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021 and depression (p = 0·002 symptom models.The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708.

  2. Personality Traits and Mental Symptoms are Associated with Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Patients' Daily Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Marie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that personality traits are associated with self-reported health status in the general population. COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is increasingly used to assess health status such as the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on patients' daily life......, but knowledge about the influence of personality traits on CAT score is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Big Five personality traits on CAT score and the relation between personality traits and mental symptoms with respect to their influence on CAT score. A sample of 168 patients...... diagnosed with COPD was consecutively recruited in a secondary care outpatient clinic. All participants completed CAT, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between personality traits and CAT scores...

  3. Using the McSweeney Acute and Prodromal Myocardial Infarction Symptom Survey to Predict the Occurrence of Short-Term Coronary Heart Disease Events in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Jean C; Cleves, Mario A; Fischer, Ellen P; Pettey, Christina M; Beasley, Brittany

    Few instruments capture symptoms that predict cardiac events in the short-term. This study examines the ability of the McSweeney Acute and Prodromal Myocardial Infarction Symptom Survey to predict acute cardiac events within 3 months of administration and to identify the prodromal symptoms most associated with short-term risk in women without known coronary heart disease. The McSweeney Acute and Prodromal Myocardial Infarction Symptom Survey was administered to 1,097 women referred to a cardiologist for initial coronary heart disease evaluation. Logistic regression models were used to examine prodromal symptoms individually and in combination to identify the subset of symptoms most predictive of an event within 3 months. Fifty-one women had an early cardiac event. In bivariate analyses, 4 of 30 prodromal symptoms were significantly associated with event occurrence within 90 days. In adjusted analyses, women reporting arm pain or discomfort and unusual fatigue were more likely (OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 2.08-10.48) to have a cardiac event than women reporting neither. The McSweeney Acute and Prodromal Myocardial Infarction Symptom Survey may assist in predicting short-term coronary heart disease events in women without known coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  4. Healing by Gentle Touch Ameliorates Stress and Other Symptoms in People Suffering with Mental Health Disorders or Psychological Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Weze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on healing by gentle touch in clients with various illnesses indicated substantial improvements in psychological well-being, suggesting that this form of treatment might be helpful for people with impaired quality of mental health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of healing by gentle touch in subjects with self-reported impairments in their psychological well-being or mental health. One hundred and forty-seven clients who identified themselves as having psychological problems received four treatment sessions. Pre- to post-treatment changes in psychological and physical functioning were assessed by self-completed questionnaires which included visual analogue scales (VAS and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D. Participants recorded reductions in stress, anxiety and depression scores and increases in relaxation and ability to cope scores (all P < 0.0004. Improvements were greatest in those with the most severe symptoms initially. This open study provides strong circumstantial evidence that healing by gentle touch is safe and effective in improving psychological well-being in participants with self-reported psychological problems, and also that it safely complements standard medical treatment. Controlled trials are warranted.

  5. Investigating structure and function in the healthy human brain: validity of acute versus chronic lesion-symptom mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Hans-Otto; Rennig, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    Modern voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analyses techniques provide powerful tools to examine the relationship between structure and function of the healthy human brain. However, there is still uncertainty on the type of and the appropriate time point of imaging and of behavioral testing for such analyses. Here we tested the validity of the three most common combinations of structural imaging data and behavioral scores used in VLSM analyses. Given the established knowledge about the neural substrate of the primary motor system in humans, we asked the mundane question of where the motor system is represented in the normal human brain, analyzing individual arm motor function of 60 unselected stroke patients. Only the combination of acute behavioral scores and acute structural imaging precisely identified the principal brain area for the emergence of hemiparesis after stroke, i.e., the corticospinal tract (CST). In contrast, VLSM analyses based on chronic behavior-in combination with either chronic or acute imaging-required the exclusion of patients who had recovered from an initial paresis to reveal valid anatomical results. Thus, if the primary research aim of a VLSM lesion analysis is to uncover the neural substrates of a certain function in the healthy human brain and if no longitudinal designs with repeated evaluations are planned, the combination of acute imaging and behavior represents the ideal dataset.

  6. FEVER AS KEY SYMPTOM OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS AND MODERN METHODS OF THERAPY FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Solntseva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is the key symptom of acute respiratory infections (ARI. An increase in the body temperature is accompanied with phagocytosis activation, increased interferon synthesis, antibody genesis stimulation, lymphocytes activation and differentiation. Nevertheless, significant hyperthermia may result in my unfavourable consequences. It may particularly cause an exacerbation of chronic diseases. Modern therapy for hyperthermia is, therefore, an important aspect of treating children with ARI. The article outlines the modern approach to treating fever in children, identifies key criteria for selecting a medication. It also contains a case study of applying ibuprofen and data from various trials which verify the rationale for applying ibuprofen in children with hyperthermia that developed in conjunction with ARI.Key words: children, acute respiratory infections, hyperthermia, ibuprofen.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(5:80-84

  7. Acute symptoms during non-inhalation exposure to combinations of toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    To study the acute effect of exposure to a mixture of three commonly used solvents in humans using a route of exposure not involving the nose and lungs, in this case a gastrointestinal application....

  8. Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient with Profound Hyponatremia and Acute Neurological Symptoms: An Effective Treatment with Fludrocortisone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jaal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is a frequent electrolyte abnormality in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC. Being usually asymptomatic, hyponatremia may cause symptoms like nausea, fatigue, disorientation, headache, muscle cramps, or even seizures, particularly if severe and rapid decrease of serum sodium levels occurs. Here we report a case of SCLC patient with severe hyponatremia and acute neurological symptoms that developed 2 days after the first course of second-line chemotherapy, most probably due to the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as arginine vasopressin during lysis of the tumour cells. Initial treatment consisted of continuous administration of hypertonic saline that resulted in improvement of patient’s neurological status. However, to obtain a persistent increase in serum sodium level, pharmacological intervention with oral fludrocortisone 0.1 mg twice daily was needed. We can therefore conclude that mineralocorticoids may be used to correct hyponatremia in SCLC patients when appropriate.

  9. Posterior and prefrontal contributions to the development posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity: an fMRI study of symptom provocation in acute stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Jan C; Sartory, Gudrun; Nuyken, Malte; Schürholt, Benjamin; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2017-09-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is predictive of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In response to symptom provocation, the exposure to trauma-related pictures, ASD patients showed increased activation of the medial posterior areas of precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex as well as of superior prefrontal cortex in a previous study. The current study aimed at investigating which activated areas are predictive of the development of PTSD. Nineteen ASD patients took part in an fMRI study in which they were shown personalized trauma-related and neutral pictures within 4 weeks of the traumatic event. They were assessed for severity of PTSD 4 weeks later. Activation contrasts between trauma-related and neutral pictures were correlated with subsequent PTSD symptom severity. Greater activation in, among others, right medial precuneus, left retrosplenial cortex, precentral and right superior temporal gyrus as well as less activation in lateral, superior prefrontal and left fusiform gyrus was related to subsequently increased PTSD severity. The results are broadly in line with neural areas related to etiological models of PTSD, namely multisensory associative learning recruiting posterior regions on the one hand and failure to reappraise maladaptive cognitions, thought to involve prefrontal areas, on the other.

  10. Comparison of the Mini Mental State Examination and depressive symptoms between high cardiovascular risk and healthy community elderly groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Amanda Lucas; Varela, Juliana Santos; Mazetti, Osmar; Restelatto, Luciane; Costa, Andry Fitterman; Godinho, Claudia; Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Picon, Paulo D.; Chaves, Márcia L.

    2008-01-01

    The aging of the population is a universal phenomenon with direct consequences upon the public health system. One of the main repercussions of the growth in this sector of the population is the increased prevalence of disorders such as dementia and depression which are very frequent among the elderly. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors, dementia and depression have been addressed in many recent investigations. Objectives To evaluate the relationship of cognitive performance and depressive symptoms with cardiovascular risk in the elderly. Methods 94 high cardiovascular risk elderly patients and 160 healthy community elderly were evaluated cross-sectionally. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) were used as the main measures. The cutoff for presence of depression was 6 on the GDS. Results The high cardiovascular risk elderly group showed significantly lower scores on the MMSE (p<0.001) and was significantly associated to depression (p<0.001), independently of education. The logistic regression analysis for depression as the dependent variable, age and group (healthy community or high cardiovascular risk elderly) were kept in the final equation. Higher age (Odds Ratio=0.92; 95% CI 0.86–0.98) and high cardiovascular risk elderly (OR=2.99; 95% CI 1.36–6.59) were associated to depression. Conclusions The present findings corroborate the different cognitive performance of elderly with high cardiovascular risk factors and the association of depressive symptoms with this group. PMID:29213588

  11. Recovery from Dysphagia Symptoms after Oral Endotracheal Intubation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Survivors. A 5-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Martin B; Huang, Minxuan; Shanholtz, Carl; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Needham, Dale M

    2017-03-01

    Nearly 60% of patients who are intubated in intensive care units (ICUs) experience dysphagia after extubation, and approximately 50% of them aspirate. Little is known about dysphagia recovery time after patients are discharged from the hospital. To determine factors associated with recovery from dysphagia symptoms after hospital discharge for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) survivors who received oral intubation with mechanical ventilation. This is a prospective, 5-year longitudinal cohort study involving 13 ICUs at four teaching hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland. The Sydney Swallowing Questionnaire (SSQ), a 17-item visual analog scale (range, 0-1,700), was used to quantify patient-perceived dysphagia symptoms at hospital discharge, and at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after ARDS. An SSQ score greater than or equal to 200 was used to indicate clinically important dysphagia symptoms at the time of hospital discharge. Recovery was defined as an SSQ score less than 200, with a decrease from hospital discharge greater than or equal to 119, the reliable change index for SSQ score. Fine and Gray proportional subdistribution hazards regression analysis was used to evaluate patient and ICU variables associated with time to recovery accounting for the competing risk of death. Thirty-seven (32%) of 115 patients had an SSQ score greater than or equal to 200 at hospital discharge; 3 died before recovery. All 34 remaining survivors recovered from dysphagia symptoms by 5-year follow-up, 7 (23%) after 6 months. ICU length of stay was independently associated with time to recovery, with a hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.96 (0.93-1.00) per day. One-third of orally intubated ARDS survivors have dysphagia symptoms that persist beyond hospital discharge. Patients with a longer ICU length of stay have slower recovery from dysphagia symptoms and should be carefully considered for swallowing assessment to help prevent complications related to dysphagia.

  12. Child symptoms, parent behaviors, and family strain in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Chan; Brinkman, Tara M; Mullins, Larry; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Krull, Kevin R

    2018-05-17

    How family environment and parental factors affect health status and symptoms in childhood cancer survivors is understudied. We examined the influence of family cohesion, parent distress, and overprotection on child symptom burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and family strain in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Parents of 213 children treated with chemotherapy-only completed a survey when survivors were at least five-years post-diagnosis. Family Environment Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory-18, Parent Protection Scale, PedsQL, and Impact on Family were used to assess family cohesion, parental distress, overprotection, child symptom burden and HRQOL, and family strain, respectively. Path analysis was conducted to quantify effects of family cohesion on family strain through parental distress, overprotection, child symptoms, and HRQOL. Lower family cohesion (β=0.06, 95% CI=0.01 to 0.13), higher parental distress (β=0.35, 95% CI=0.20 to 0.45), and overprotection (β=0.17, 95% CI=0.01 to 0.32) were associated with more child symptom burden. More symptom burden were associated with poorer child HRQOL (β=0.66, 95% CI=0.57 to 0.75), which in turn was associated with more family strain (β=0.11, 95% CI=0.01 to 0.22). Lower maternal education was associated with overprotection (β=-0.23, 95% CI=-0.33 to -0.12), more child symptoms (β=-0.30, 95% CI=-0.41 to -0.16), poorer child HRQOL (β=-0.36, 95% CI=-0.46 to -0.21), and more family strain (β=-0.15, 95% CI=-0.23 to -0.08). Family and parental factors contributed to health outcomes of childhood ALL survivors. Interventions to enhance family cohesion, decrease parental distress and overprotection, and ameliorate child symptoms may improve family functioning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Amygdala Reactivity and Anterior Cingulate Habituation Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Maintenance After Acute Civilian Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer S; Kim, Ye Ji; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Reddy, Renuka; Ely, Timothy D; Nemeroff, Charles B; Hudak, Lauren A; Jovanovic, Tanja; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Ressler, Kerry J

    2017-06-15

    Studies suggest that exaggerated amygdala reactivity is a vulnerability factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, our understanding is limited by a paucity of prospective, longitudinal studies. Recent studies in healthy samples indicate that, relative to reactivity, habituation is a more reliable biomarker of individual differences in amygdala function. We investigated reactivity of the amygdala and cortical areas to repeated threat presentations in a prospective study of PTSD. Participants were recruited from the emergency department of a large level I trauma center within 24 hours of trauma. PTSD symptoms were assessed at baseline and approximately 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after trauma. Growth curve modeling was used to estimate symptom recovery trajectories. Thirty-one individuals participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging around the 1-month assessment, passively viewing fearful and neutral face stimuli. Reactivity (fearful > neutral) and habituation to fearful faces was examined. Amygdala reactivity, but not habituation, 5 to 12 weeks after trauma was positively associated with the PTSD symptom intercept and predicted symptoms at 12 months after trauma. Habituation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex was positively associated with the slope of PTSD symptoms, such that decreases in ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation over repeated presentations of fearful stimuli predicted increasing symptoms. Findings point to neural signatures of risk for maintaining PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure. Specifically, chronic symptoms were predicted by amygdala hyperreactivity, and poor recovery was predicted by a failure to maintain ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to fearful stimuli. The importance of identifying patients at risk after trauma exposure is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnostic overshadowing and other challenges involved in the diagnostic process of patients with mental illness who present in emergency departments with physical symptoms--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Guy; Henderson, Claire; Howard, Louise M; Murray, Joanna; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study in the Emergency Departments (EDs) of four hospitals in order to investigate the perceived scope and causes of 'diagnostic overshadowing'--the misattribution of physical symptoms to mental illness--and other challenges involved in the diagnostic process of people with mental illness who present in EDs with physical symptoms. Eighteen doctors and twenty-one nurses working in EDs and psychiatric liaisons teams in four general hospitals in the UK were interviewed. Interviewees were asked about cases in which mental illness interfered with diagnosis of physical problems and about other aspects of the diagnostic process. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. Interviewees reported various scenarios in which mental illness or factors related to it led to misdiagnosis or delayed treatment with various degrees of seriousness. Direct factors which may lead to misattribution in this regard are complex presentations or aspects related to poor communication or challenging behaviour of the patient. Background factors are the crowded nature of the ED environment, time pressures and targets and stigmatising attitudes held by a minority of staff. The existence of psychiatric liaison team covering the ED twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, can help reduce the risk of misdiagnosis of people with mental illness who present with physical symptoms. However, procedures used by emergency and psychiatric liaison staff require fuller operationalization to reduce disagreement over where responsibilities lie.

  15. Severe musculoskeletal time-loss injuries and symptoms of common mental disorders in professional soccer: a longitudinal analysis of 12-month follow-up data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiliç, Ö; Aoki, H.; Goedhart, E.; Hägglund, M.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.; Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; Waldén, M.; Gouttebarge, V.

    2018-01-01

    Psychological factors have shown to be predictors of injury in professional football. However, it seems that this is a two-way relationship, as severe musculoskeletal time-loss injuries have shown to be associated with the onset of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD). There is no longitudinal

  16. Coping Strategies as Moderators of the Relation between Individual Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine coping strategies as moderators of the relationship between individual race-related stress and mental health symptoms among a sample of 128 African American women. Coping strategies refer to efforts used to resolve problems and those used to manage, endure, or alleviate distress. Culture-specific…

  17. Complexity assessed by the intermed in patients with somatic symptom disorder visiting a specialized outpatient mental health care setting: : A cross sectional study complexity of patients with ssd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck van der Sluijs, J.F.; de Vroege, L.; van Manen, A.S.; Rijnders, C.A.Th.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Somatic symptom disorders (SSD), a new classification in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition is associated with problematic diagnostic procedures and treatment that lead to complex care. In somatic health care, the INTERMED has been used to assess

  18. Pre-event trajectories of mental health and health-related disabilities, and post-event traumatic stress symptoms and health : A 7-wave population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Peter; Bosmans, Mark; van der Meulen, Erik; Vermunt, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown to what extent classes of trajectories of pre-event mental health problems (MHP) and health-related disabilities (HRD), predict post-event traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), MHP and HRD. Aim of the present 7-wave study was to assess the predictive values using a representative sample of

  19. The association between attachment and mental health symptoms among school-going adolescents in northern Uganda: the moderating role of war-related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, James; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda; Musisi, Seggane; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    The association between attachment and mental health symptoms in adolescents in a post-conflict low resource setting has not been documented. We investigated the relationship between parent and peer attachment and posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 551 adolescents aged 13-21 years old. Attachment quality was assessed using the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA). Post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IESR) and Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Adolescents (HSCL-37A) respectively. Gender differences in attachment relationships were determined using independent t-tests. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess whether attachment relationships were independently associated with posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the moderating role of war-related trauma. Our analyses revealed gender differences in attachment to parents, with males reporting stronger attachment than females. Parental attachment was protective against depression and anxiety symptoms but not posttraumatic stress symptoms after adjusting for potential confounders. Alienation by parents was independently associated with an increase in these mental health symptoms while peer attachment was not associated with any of these symptoms. However, in situations of severe trauma, our analyses showed that peer attachment was significantly protective against post-traumatic stress symptoms. Secure parental attachment is associated with better psychosocial adjustment in adolescents affected by war. Further, adolescents with secure peer attachment relationships in situations of severe war trauma may be less likely to develop posttraumatic stress symptoms. Interventions to enhance peer support in this post conflict setting would benefit this vulnerable population.

  20. The association between attachment and mental health symptoms among school-going adolescents in northern Uganda: the moderating role of war-related trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Okello

    Full Text Available The association between attachment and mental health symptoms in adolescents in a post-conflict low resource setting has not been documented.We investigated the relationship between parent and peer attachment and posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 551 adolescents aged 13-21 years old. Attachment quality was assessed using the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA. Post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IESR and Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Adolescents (HSCL-37A respectively. Gender differences in attachment relationships were determined using independent t-tests. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess whether attachment relationships were independently associated with posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the moderating role of war-related trauma.Our analyses revealed gender differences in attachment to parents, with males reporting stronger attachment than females. Parental attachment was protective against depression and anxiety symptoms but not posttraumatic stress symptoms after adjusting for potential confounders. Alienation by parents was independently associated with an increase in these mental health symptoms while peer attachment was not associated with any of these symptoms. However, in situations of severe trauma, our analyses showed that peer attachment was significantly protective against post-traumatic stress symptoms.Secure parental attachment is associated with better psychosocial adjustment in adolescents affected by war. Further, adolescents with secure peer attachment relationships in situations of severe war trauma may be less likely to develop posttraumatic stress symptoms. Interventions to enhance peer support in this post conflict setting would benefit this vulnerable population.

  1. Association between perceived social stigma against mental disorders and use of health services for psychological distress symptoms in the older adult population: validity of the STIG scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2015-01-01

    To document the reliability, construct and nomological validity of the perceived Social Stigmatisation (STIG) scale in the older adult population. Cross-sectional survey. Primary medical health services clinics. Probabilistic sample of older adults aged 65 years and over waiting for medical services in the general medical sector (n = 1765). Perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem was measured using the STIG scale composed of seven indicators. A second-order measurement model of perceived social stigma fitted adequately the observed data. The reliability of the STIG scale was 0.83. According to our results, 39.6% of older adults had a significant level of perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem. RESULTS showed that the perception of social stigma against mental health problems was not significantly associated with a respondent gender and age. RESULTS also showed that the perception of social stigma against the mental health problems was directly associated with the respondents' need for improved mental health (b = -0.10) and indirectly associated with their use of primary medical health services for psychological distress symptoms (b = -0.07). RESULTS lead us to conclude that social stigma against mental disorders perceived by older adults may limit help-seeking behaviours and warrants greater public health and public policy attention. Also, results lead us to conclude that physicians should pay greater attention to their patients' attitudes against mental disorders in order to identify possible hidden mental health problems.

  2. Perceived mental stress in women associated with psychosomatic symptoms, but not mortality: observations from the Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hange D

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Hange,1 Kirsten Mehlig,2 Lauren Lissner,2 Xinxin Guo,3 Calle Bengtsson,1,† Ingmar Skoog,3 Cecilia Björkelund1 1Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, 2Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Public Health Epidemiology, 3Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Section of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden †Calle Bengtsson passed away on 23rd March 2013 Purpose: To investigate possible association between mental stress and psychosomatic symptoms, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, as well as incident mortality in a middle-aged female population followed over 37 years. Methods: A prospective observational study initiated in 1968–1969, including 1462 women aged 60, 54, 50, 46, and 38 years, with follow-ups in 1974–1975, 1980–1981, and 2000–2001, was performed. Measures included self-reported mental stress as well as psychosomatic symptoms and smoking, physical activity, total cholesterol, S-triglycerides, body mass index, waist–hip ratio, blood pressure, socioeconomic status and mortality. Results: Smoking, not being single, and not working outside home were strongly associated with reported mental stress at baseline. Women who reported high mental stress in 1968–1969 were more likely to report presence of abdominal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39–2.46, headache/migraine (OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.53–2.72, frequent infections (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.14–2.70, and musculoskeletal symptoms (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.30–2.23 than women who did not report mental stress. Women without these symptoms at baseline 1968–1969, but with perceived mental stress were more likely to subsequently report incident abdominal symptoms (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.39–3.34, headache/migraine (OR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.48–3.48 and frequent infections (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.12

  3. Ecological momentary assessment of acute alcohol use disorder symptoms: associations with mood, motives, and use on planned drinking days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Pearson, Matthew R; Day, Anne M

    2014-08-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one's mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes within subjects. The current study used EMA with 74 moderate drinkers who responded to fixed and random mood, motive, alcohol use, and AUD criteria prompts over a 21-day assessment period. A temporal pattern of daytime mood, evening drinking motivation, and nighttime alcohol use and acute AUD symptoms on planned drinking days was modeled to examine how these associations unfold throughout the day. The results suggest considerable heterogeneity in drinking motivation across drinking days. Additionally, an affect regulation model of drinking to cope with negative mood was observed. Specifically, on planned drinking days, the temporal association between daytime negative mood and the experience of acute AUD symptoms was mediated via coping motives and alcohol use. The current study found that motives are dynamic, and that changes in motives may predict differential drinking patterns across days. Further, the study provides evidence that emotion-regulation-driven alcohol involvement may need to be examined at the event level to fully capture the ebb and flow of negative affect motivated drinking.

  4. Patient Smartphone Ownership and Interest in Mobile Apps to Monitor Symptoms of Mental Health Conditions: A Survey in Four Geographically Distinct Psychiatric Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Chan, Steven Richard; Yee-Marie Tan, Shih; Behrens, Jacob; Mathew, Ian; Conrad, Erich J; Hinton, Ladson; Yellowlees, Peter; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing interest in mobile mental health and utilization of smartphone technology to monitor psychiatric symptoms, there remains a lack of knowledge both regarding patient ownership of smartphones and their interest in using such to monitor their mental health. To provide data on psychiatric outpatients' prevalence of smartphone ownership and interest in using their smartphones to run applications to monitor their mental health. We surveyed 320 psychiatric outpatients from four clinics around the United States in order to capture a geographically and socioeconomically diverse patient population. These comprised a state clinic in Massachusetts (n=108), a county clinic in California (n=56), a hybrid public and private clinic in Louisiana (n=50), and a private/university clinic in Wisconsin (n=106). Smartphone ownership and interest in utilizing such to monitor mental health varied by both clinic type and age with overall ownership of 62.5% (200/320), which is slightly higher than the average United States' rate of ownership of 58% in January 2014. Overall patient interest in utilizing smartphones to monitor symptoms was 70.6% (226/320). These results suggest that psychiatric outpatients are interested in using their smartphones to monitor their mental health and own the smartphones capable of running mental healthcare related mobile applications.

  5. Association between N-terminal proB-type Natriuretic Peptide and Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ren; Jiao Jia; Jian Sa; Li-Xia Qiu; Yue-Hua Cui; Yue-An Zhang; Hong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background:While depression and certain cardiac biomarkers are associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI),the relationship between them remains largely unexplored.We examined the association between depressive symptoms and biomarkers in patients with AMI.Methods:We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 103 patients with AMI between March 2013 and September 2014.The levels of depression,N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP),and troponin I (TnI) were measured at baseline.The patients were divided into two groups:those with depressive symptoms and those without depressive symptoms according to Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) score.Baseline comparisons between two groups were made using Student's t-test for continuous variables,Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables,and Wilcoxon test for variables in skewed distribution.Binomial logistic regression and multivariate linear regression were performed to assess the association between depressive symptoms and biomarkers while adjusting for demographic and clinical variables.Results:Patients with depressive symptoms had significantly higher NT-proBNP levels as compared to patients without depressive symptoms (1135.0 [131.5,2474.0] vs.384.0 [133.0,990.0],Z =-2.470,P =0.013).Depressive symptoms were associated with higher NT-proBNP levels (odds ratio [OR] =2.348,95% CI:1.344 to 4.103,P =0.003) and higher body mass index (OR =1.169,95% confidence interval [CI]:1.016 to 1.345,P =0.029).The total SDS score was associated with the NT-proBNP level (β =0.327,95% CI:1.674 to 6.119,P =0.001) after multivariable adjustment.In particular,NT-proBNP was associated with three of the depressive dimensions,including core depression (β =0.299,95% CI:0.551 to 2.428,P =0.002),cognitive depression (β =0.320,95% CI:0.476 to 1.811,P=0.001),and somatic depression (β =0.333,95% CI:0.240 to 0.847,P =0.001).Neither the overall depressive symptomatology nor the individual

  6. Acute abdominal pain as the only symptom of a thoracic demyelinating lesion in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shohei; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Tanabe, Takuya; Fukui, Miho; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a syndrome characterized by complex neurological symptoms resulting from demyelinating lesions in the central nervous system. We report a child with a relapse of MS whose only presenting symptom was severe abdominal pain. Dysfunctional intestinal mobility was assessed by abdominal computed tomography. Findings resembled paralytic ileus resulting from peritonitis. However, the patient demonstrated no other symptoms of peritonitis. A T2-weighted magnetic resonance image revealed a new demyelinating lesion localized to thoracic segments T4-T12. The lesion presumably affected autonomic efferents involved in intestinal mobility. Treatment with a pulse of methylprednisolone reduced both abdominal pain and lesion size. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a pediatric MS patient with a demyelinating lesion associated with an autonomic symptom of altered intestinal mobility in the absence of neurological symptoms. This atypical presentation of MS highlights the need for physicians' vigilance when treating this patient population. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Symptoms Intensity, Quality of Life, and Mental Health in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrollah Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with chronic abdominal pain, bowel habit variations, and lack of structural causes. Symptom intensity has a statistical relation with patients' quality of life (QOL and mental health. The first objective of the present study was to develop and provide a therapeutic plan based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT for IBS that was operated for the very first time in Iran. The second objective was to determine the effectiveness of these treatments on IBS symptoms intensity, health-related QOL, and psychological health among patients with IBS.Methods: The participants were 15 women with IBS. The participants were diagnosed on the basis of ROME-III diagnosis criteria. The data collection tools consisted of IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS, the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life (IBS-QOL questionnaire, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R used to evaluate mental health. Data were collected during the weeks of 0, 4, 12, and 24, during the treatment process. The extracted data was examined statistically via repeated measures MANOVA in SPSS software.Results: CBT has a significant effect on IBS symptoms reduction, QOL improvement, and mental health promotion of the patients. The effect of the therapeutic plan persisted until the follow-up stage.Conclusion: According to the results, applied CBT can be specifically implemented as an effective treatment for IBS. Therefore, the use of this treatment is advised.

  8. Inflammation and vascular responses to acute mental stress : implications for the triggering of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paine, N.J.; Bosch, J.A.; Veldhuijzen Van Zanten, J.J.C.S.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that mental stress can trigger myocardial infarction. Even though the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined, both inflammation and vascular responses to mental stress have been implicated as contributing factors. This review explores the effects of inflammation on the

  9. The therapeutic impact of abdominal ultrasound in patients with acute abdominal symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, S.; Halligan, S.; Goh, V.; Matravers, P.; Chambers, A.; Remedios, D.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The technical performance of abdominal ultrasound in the investigation of acute abdominal pain has been thoroughly investigated but its therapeutic effects are less well understood. We aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of abdominal ultrasound in the investigation of acute abdominal pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A pre- and post-intervention observational study design was used to determine the diagnostic and therapeutic effects of abdominal ultrasound for acute abdominal pain. Referring clinicians completed a pre-ultrasound questionnaire that detailed their leading diagnosis, confidence in this and intended management in 100 consecutive adult patients. Following ultrasound a second questionnaire was completed. This again detailed the leading diagnosis, confidence in this and their intended management. Clinicians quantified the management contribution of ultrasound both for the individual case in question and in their clinical experience generally. RESULTS: The leading diagnosis was either confirmed or rejected in 72 patients and a new diagnosis provided where no prior differential diagnosis existed in 10. Diagnostic confidence increased significantly following ultrasound (mean score 6·5 pre-ultrasound vs 7·6 post-ultrasound, P < 0·001). Intended management changed following ultrasound in 22 patients; 15 intended laparotomies were halted and a further seven patients underwent surgery where this was not originally intended. Ultrasound was rated either 'very' or 'moderately' helpful in 87% of patients, with 99% of clinicians finding it either 'very' or 'moderately' helpful generally. CONCLUSION: Abdominal ultrasound has considerable diagnostic and therapeutic effect in the setting of acute abdominal pain. Dhillon, S. et al. (2002)

  10. Depressive symptoms in younger women and men with acute myocardial infarction : Insights from the VIRGO Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolderen, Kim G.; Strait, Kelly M.; Dreyer, Rachel P.; D'Onofrio, Gail; Zhou, Shengfan; Lichtman, Judith H.; Geda, Mary; Bueno, Hector; Beltrame, John; Safdar, Basmah; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Spertus, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression was recently recognized as a risk factor for adverse medical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The degree to which depression is present among younger patients with an AMI, the patient profile associated with being a young AMI patient with depressive

  11. Right flank pain as the only symptom for acute pancreatitis in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    The initial abdominal ultrasonogram was normal and the patient was misdiagnosed as possible renal associated pain. The CECT scan done the following day showed acute pancreatitis with peripancreatic fat stranding, fluid upto the right perinephric space and thickening of pararenal fascia. Urinalysis and renal function.

  12. Adiposity moderates links from early adversity and depressive symptoms to inflammatory reactivity to acute stress during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Taylor, Shelley E; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2017-11-01

    Both early adversity and depression are associated with heightened inflammation. However, few studies have focused on inflammatory reactivity to psychosocial stress and examined adiposity as a potential moderator. Yet, repeated heightened inflammatory reactivity over time is thought to contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and adipose tissue is a key source of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether early adversity and depressive symptoms were related to stress-induced inflammation and whether these associations varied by total body and abdominal adiposity as measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in a sample of late adolescents. Participants reported on their early family environment and current depressive symptoms, had their height, weight, and WC assessed for adiposity markers, and provided blood samples for IL-6 assessment before and after a standardized laboratory stress task. No main effect of early adversity on IL-6 reactivity to acute stress was observed. However, significant interactions between early adversity and BMI and WC emerged. Greater exposure to early adversity was associated with greater IL-6 responses only among adolescents with higher BMI or WC. The same pattern of findings was observed for depressive symptoms. Additionally, moderated mediation analyses indicated that among adolescents with greater adiposity, early adversity indirectly influenced IL-6 reactivity via current depressive symptoms. These findings contribute to our understanding of vulnerability factors that may amplify the associations between early adversity and depressive symptoms and inflammation during relatively early stages of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A multilevel analysis of lifestyle variations in symptoms of acute respiratory infection among young children under five in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafunmilade A. Adesanya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria has the second highest estimated number of deaths due to acute respiratory infection (ARI among children under five in the world. A common hypothesis is that the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic resources shapes individual lifestyles and health behaviors, which leads to poorer health, including symptoms of ARI. This study examined whether lifestyle factors are associated with ARI risk among Nigerian children aged less than 5 years, taking individual-level and contextual-level risk factors into consideration. Methods Data were obtained from the nationally representative 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. A total of 28,596 surviving children aged 5 years or younger living in 896 communities were analyzed. We employed two-level multilevel logistic regressions to model the relationship between lifestyle factors and ARI symptoms. Results The multivariate results from multilevel regressions indicated that the odds of having ARI symptoms were increased by a number of lifestyle factors such as in-house biomass cooking (OR = 2.30; p < 0.01 and no hand-washing (OR = 1.66; p < 0.001. An increased risk of ARI symptoms was also significantly associated with living in the North West region and the community with a high proportion of orphaned/vulnerable children (OR = 1.74; p < 0.001. Conclusions Our findings underscore the importance of Nigerian children’s lifestyle within the neighborhoods where they reside above their individual characteristics. Program-based strategies that are aimed at reducing ARI symptoms should consider policies that embrace making available basic housing standards, providing improved cooking stoves and enhancing healthy behaviors.

  14. Placing symptoms in context: the role of contextual criteria in reducing false positives in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Jerome C; First, Michael B

    2012-02-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) definition of mental disorder requires that symptoms be caused by a dysfunction in the individual; when dysfunction is absent, symptoms represent normal-range distress or eccentricity and, if diagnosed as a mental disorder, are false positives. We hypothesized that because of psychiatry's lack of direct laboratory tests to distinguish dysfunction from normal-range distress, the context in which symptoms occur (eg, lack of imminent danger in a panic attack) is often essential to determining whether symptoms are caused by a dysfunction. If this is right, then the DSM diagnostic criteria should include many contextual criteria added to symptom syndromes to prevent dysfunction false positives. Despite their potential importance, such contextual criteria have not been previously reviewed. We, thus, systematically reviewed DSM categories to establish the extent of such uses of contextual criteria and created a typology of such uses. Of 111 sampled categories, 68 (61%) used context to prevent dysfunction false positives. Contextual criteria fell into 7 types: (1) exclusion of specific false-positive scenarios; (2) requiring that patients experience preconditions for normal responses (eg, requiring that individuals experience adequate sexual stimulation before being diagnosed with sexual dysfunctions); (3) requiring that symptoms be disproportionate relative to circumstances; (4) for childhood disorders, requiring that symptoms be developmentally inappropriate; (5) requiring that symptoms occur in multiple contexts; (6) requiring a substantial discrepancy between beliefs and reality; and (7) a residual category. Most DSM categories include contextual criteria to eliminate false-positive diagnoses and increase validity of descriptive criteria. Future revisions should systematically evaluate each category's need for contextual criteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical outcomes according to symptom presentation in patients with acute myocardial infarction: Results from the FAST-MI 2010 registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puymirat, Etienne; Aissaoui, Nadia; Bonello, Laurent; Cayla, Guillaume; Labèque, Jean-Noel; Nallet, Olivier; Motreff, Pascal; Varenne, Olivier; Schiele, François; Ferrières, Jean; Simon, Tabassome; Danchin, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    Atypical clinical presentation in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients is not uncommon; most studies suggest that it is associated with unfavorable prognosis. Long-term clinical impact differs according to predominant symptom presentation (typical chest pain, atypical chest pain, syncope, cardiac arrest, or dyspnea) in AMI patients. FAST-MI 2010, a nationwide French registry, included 4169 patients with AMI in 213 centers at the end of 2010 (76% of active centers). Demographics, medical history, hospital management, and outcomes were compared according to predominant symptom presentation. Typical chest pain with no other symptom was reported in 3020 patients (68% in STEMI patients, 76% in NSTEMI patients). Atypical chest pain, dyspnea, syncope, and cardiac arrest were reported in 11%, 11%, 5%, and 1%, respectively. Patients with atypical clinical presentation had a higher cardiovascular risk profile and received fewer medications and a less invasive strategy. Using Cox multivariate analysis, atypical chest pain was not associated with higher death rate at 3 years (HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.69-1.33, P = 0.78), whereas cardiac arrest (HR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.00-5.97, P = 0.05), syncope (HR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.18-2.46, P = 0.005), and dyspnea (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.31-2.10, P clinical presentation is observed in about 20% of AMI patients. Cardiac arrest, dyspnea, and syncope represent independent predictors of long-term mortality in STEMI and NSTEMI populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Quantitative t2 values predict time from symptom onset in acute stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemonsen, Susanne; Mouridsen, Kim; Holst, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesize that in comparison to diffusion-weighted imaging, quantitative T2 values (qT2) are more directly related to water uptake in ischemic tissue, depending on time from symptom onset. We measured the increase of qT2 in the infarct core to quantify the correlation...

  17. Can kinesiophobia predict the duration of neck symptoms in acute whiplash?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, J; Jaspers, JPC; Fidler, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: In low back pain, clinical studies suggest that kinesiophobia (fear of movement/(re)injury) is important in the etiology of chronic symptoms. In this prospective cohort study, the predictive role of kinesiophobia in the development of late whiplash syndrome was examined. Methods: Victims

  18. Symptoms of anxiety and depression are frequent in patients with acute hepatitis C and are not associated with disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deterding, Katja; Grüner, Norbert; Buggisch, Peter; Galle, Peter R; Spengler, Ulrich; Hinrichsen, Holger; Berg, Thomas; Potthoff, Andrej; Grohennig, Anika; Koch, Armin; Diepolder, Helmut; Lüth, Stefan; Feyerabend, Sandra; Jung, Maria C; Rogalska-Taranta, Magdalena; Schlaphoff, Verena; Cornberg, Markus; Manns, Michael P; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Wiegand, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and during peginterferon α therapy have been investigated in the chronic stage of the infection, but have not been described during the acute phase of the disease so far. We therefore evaluated anxiety and depression in patients with acute hepatitis C by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) within a clinical trial. Data were analysed from the German Hep-Net Acute HCV-III study. Anxiety and depression were characterized by an anxiety (HADS-A) and a depression subscale (HADS-D). More than eight points in each subscale were considered clinically relevant. Data were prospectively collected at baseline, end of treatment and at the end of the study. At baseline, a HADS-A above eight points was observed significantly more frequently than a HADS-D above eight points [n=23/103 (22%) vs. n=12/103 (12%); P=0.041].A pathological HADS-A or HADS-D score did not correlate with age, sex, IL28B genotype, the probable mode of infection, HCV genotype or severity of disease as investigated by alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin levels.Antiviral therapy did not influence anxiety as 12/50 (24%) of patients had HADS-A above 8 at the end of therapy. The proportion of patients with HADS-D above eight points increased from 12% at baseline to 24% (n=12/50) at the end of therapy (P=0.06). HADS results were not associated with lost to follow-up or sustained virological response rates. HADS data in acute HCV infection indicate that anxiety and depression do not correlate with severity of the disease, mode of acquisition, lost to follow-up and sustained virological response rates.

  19. Correlation of symptom depression levels with mean platelet volume rate on patients of acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasugian, L.; Hanum, H.; Hanida, W.; Safri, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Patients with Depression and the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is rarely detected, although in some studies say that depression can worsen cardiovascularly and increase mortality. From research, Canan F et al found that increasing levels of Mean platelet volume (MPV) as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and MPV was higher in patients with depression compared with patients without depression. In this study used observational methods of measurement of cross-sectional data. Research began in November 2015 - May 2016 against General Hospital inpatients H. Adam Malik Medan. There are 64 patients with a diagnosis of ACS were given quieter Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), then calculated a score of BDI patients and MPV levels were seen when they first entered the hospital before being given treatment. Patients answered quieter on days 3-7 after diagnosis ACS. ACS Patients were divided into 3 groups: acute myocardial infarction with ST elevation, acute myocardial infarction with non-ST elevation and unstable angina pectoris. The level of depression is grouped into not depression, mild depression, moderate depression and severe depression. Statistically significant with p-value<0.05Based on the linear correlation analysis, it was found a positive correlation with r=0.542. And the relationship is statistically significant with p-value 0.000003.

  20. Association between desloratadine and prednisolone in the treatment of children with acute symptoms of allergic rhinitis: a double-blind, randomized and controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Wandalsen

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: A combination of antihistamines and oral corticosteroids is often used to treat acute symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Objective: To evaluate safety and efficacy of desloratadine plus prednisolone in the treatment of acute symptoms of children (2-12 years with allergic rhinitis, and to compare it to dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone. Methods: Children with moderate/severe persistent allergic rhinitis and symptomatic (nasal symptoms score [0-12] ≥ 6 were allocated in a double-blind, randomized fashion to receive dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone (n = 105; three daily doses or desloratadine plus prednisolone (n = 105; single dose followed by two of placebo for 7 days. At the beginning and end of the evaluation, the following were obtained: nasal symptoms score, extra nasal symptoms score, peak nasal inspiratory flow, blood biochemistry, and electrocardiogram. Ninety-six children of the dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone group and 98 of the desloratadine plus prednisolone group completed the protocol. Results: The two groups were similar regarding initial and final nasal symptoms scores, extra nasal symptoms scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow. A drop of 76.4% and 79.1% for nasal symptoms score, 86.0% and 79.2% for extra nasal symptoms score, as well as an increase of 25.2% and 24.3% for peak nasal inspiratory flow occurred for those treated with desloratadine plus prednisolone and dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone, respectively. There were no significant changes in blood chemistry. Sinus tachycardia was the most frequent electrocardiogram change, but with no clinical significance. Drowsiness was reported significantly more often among those of dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone group (17.14% × 8.57%, respectively. Conclusion: The desloratadine plus prednisolone combination was able to effectively control acute symptoms of rhinitis in children, improving symptoms and nasal function. Compared to the

  1. Sociodemographic, psychosocial and physical health correlates of common mental disorder symptoms among mothers in Trinidad and Tobago: Examining ethnic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L; Logie, Carol

    2016-08-22

    Historical and cultural experiences have shaped the life experiences of cultural communities in Trinidad and Tobago. Using a cultural focus, the goal of this investigation was to examine ethnic variations both in the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms as well as in the associations between sociodemographic, psychosocial, physical health correlates and CMDs among mothers in Trinidad and Tobago. Participants included 1002 mothers (359 African-, 353 Indo- and 290 Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian). Mean comparisons indicated similarities in the levels of depression, somatisation and anxiety across ethnic groups. The associations between physical ill health, experiences of pain and depression and between physical ill health and somatisation were stronger for Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian than Indo-Trinidadian mothers. The relationship between early experiences of domestic violence and depression was stronger for Indo-Trinidadian than Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian mothers. The associations between early experiences of domestic violence and depression and between experiences of pain and somatisation were stronger for African Trinidadian than Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian mothers. Thus beyond the direct effects, mothers belonging to specific ethnic groups indicated greater or lesser vulnerabilities to CMDs depending on their exposure to specific correlates. Results have applicability for the development of culturally sensitive interventions for mothers experiencing CMDs. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Mental symptoms and comorbid behaviours among Inuit in Greenland: the role of household crowding and household social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    on 3108 Inuit aged 18 years and older are from the Inuit Health in Transition Survey. Dependent variables considered were: feelings of depression and of anxiety; binge drinking; harmful drinking; and use of marijuana. Household crowding was measured by the number of people in the house, and the social...... with higher risk of reporting feeling anxious (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.00-1.09) or depressed (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.02-1.09), but with lower risks of heavy drinking (OR: 0.89; 95%CI: 0.82-0.98), use of marijuana (OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.77-0.94), and marginally (p... marijuana (OR: 1.34; 95%CI: 0.98-1.81), but not of harmful drinking, were significantly higher in households composed only of adults. Although similar patterns of associations are observed, household crowding and the social structure of the household appear to influence women’s mental symptoms and comorbid...

  3. [A description of children and adolescents with somatic unexplained physical symptoms in a Dutch mental health care institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, M E J; Loman, F; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M

    2013-01-01

    Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) occur frequently in children and adolescents. Treatment of MUS in children and adolescents takes place mainly in mental health care (MHC) institutions, as does the treatment of adults with MUS. However, there is hardly any literature about the prevalence of MUS in children and adolescents in MHC. To study the prevalence of MUS in children and adolescents in Dutch MHC. Comparisons were drawn between children and adolescents with MUS and those without MUS who had been referred to a Dutch MHC institution. Children and adolescents with MUS had more anxiety and depression and more introvert personality characteristics than children and adolescents without MUS. However, the quality of life of children and adolescents with MUS was similar to that of children and adolescents without MUS. One in five children and adolescents in Dutch MHC had MUS. These children and adolescents had introverted personality characteristics and showed anxious and depressed behavior, withdrawn-depressed behavior, and thought problems. The quality of life of children and adolescents with MUS and those without MUS was below average.

  4. Psychological and physical intimate partner violence and young children's mental health: The role of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms and parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Carolyn A; Chan, Grace; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2018-03-01

    Young children are at significant risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and vulnerable to exposure-related psychopathology, yet few studies investigate the effects of exposure to IPV on children under the age of 5 years. The current study investigated the role of maternal PTSD symptoms and parenting strategies in the relationship between mothers' IPV experiences and psychopathology in their young children, ages 3-6 years in a community-based cohort of 308 mother-child dyads at high risk for family violence. Data were collected from 2011 to 2014. IPV history and maternal PTSD symptoms were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Children's symptoms were assessed with a developmentally-sensitive psychiatric interview administered to mothers. Punitive/restrictive parenting was independently-coded from in-depth interviews with mothers about their disciplinary practices. Hypothesized direct and indirect pathways between physical and psychological IPV, maternal PTSD, maternal parenting style, and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms were examined with mediation models. Results indicated that neither physical nor psychological IPV experienced by mothers was directly associated with children's symptoms. However, both types of victimization were associated with maternal PTSD symptoms. Examination of indirect pathways suggested that maternal PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological and physical IPV experiences and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mothers' restrictive/punitive parenting mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological IPV and children's externalizing symptoms. In addition, there was a path from maternal physical IPV to child externalizing symptoms through both maternal PTSD symptoms and restrictive/punitive parenting. Findings highlight the importance of supporting parents in recovering from the sequelae of their own traumatic experiences, as their ensuing mental health

  5. Less screen time and more frequent vigorous physical activity is associated with lower risk of reporting negative mental health symptoms among Icelandic adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soffia M Hrafnkelsdottir

    Full Text Available Few studies have explored the potential interrelated associations of screen time and physical activity with mental health in youth, particularly using objective methods. We examined cross-sectional associations of these variables among Icelandic adolescents, using objective and subjective measurements of physical activity.Data were collected in the spring of 2015 from 315 tenth grade students (mean age 15.8 years in six elementary schools in metropolitan Reykjavík, Iceland. Participants reported, via questionnaire, on demographics, weekly frequency of vigorous physical activity, daily hours of screen time and mental health status (symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatic complaints, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Total physical activity was measured over one week with wrist-worn accelerometers. Body composition was determined by DXA-scanning. Poisson regression analysis was used to explore independent and interactive associations of screen time and physical activity with mental health variables, adjusting for gender, body fat percentage and maternal education.Less screen time (below the group median of 5.3 h/day and more frequent vigorous physical activity (≥4x/week were each associated with reporting fewer symptoms of depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and life dissatisfaction. No significant associations were observed between objectively measured physical activity and mental health outcomes. Interactive regression analysis showed that the group reporting both less screen time and more frequent vigorous physical activity had the lowest risk of reporting symptoms of depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and life dissatisfaction.Reports of less screen time and more frequent vigorous physical activity were associated with lower risk of reporting mental health problems among Icelandic adolescents. Those who reported a combination of engaging in less screen time and more frequent vigorous physical activity had the lowest risk

  6. Acute deviations from long-term trait depressive symptoms predict systemic inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleder, Nicolas; Miller, Gregory E

    2008-07-01

    Depressive symptoms increase morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease and systemic inflammation has been proposed as the underlying mechanism. While higher levels of inflammatory mediators have been found in dysphoric individuals, it is not known whether long-term or short-term mood changes are responsible for this phenomenon. A sample of 65 young women provided weekly web-based self-ratings of depressive mood over a period of 20 weeks using the CES-D, and systemic inflammation was assessed by measuring plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) before and after the observation period. CES-D ratings were used to develop state and trait indicators of depressed mood and evaluate their relationship with inflammatory mediators. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for baseline inflammation, age, and BMI revealed that trait levels of depressive symptoms were not associated with IL-6 (beta=0.09; n.s.) and CRP (beta=0.01; n.s.) concentrations after the observation period. In contrast, state levels of depressive symptoms were associated with changes in IL-6, but not CRP, particularly when they were indexed as the disparity between a person's trait level of symptoms and her CES-D score just prior to IL-6 assessment (beta=0.35; p=0.03). These results lead us to conclude that in young women, state, rather than trait depressed mood stimulates peripheral inflammation as measured by IL-6. This pattern suggests that in this age group, fast-reacting inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 probably respond to short-term changes, for example, in stress hormones or stress hormone sensitivity, rather than long-term dysregulations of allostatic mechanisms.

  7. Nurses experiences of delivering care in acute inpatient mental health settings: A narrative synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyder, Marianne; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Crompton, David; McArthur, Leianne; Delaforce, Caroline; Dziopa, Fiona; Ramon, Shulamit; Powell, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Inpatient psychiatric care requires a balance between working with consumers' priorities and goals, managing expectations of the community, legal, professional and service responsibilities. In order to improve service delivery within acute mental health units, it is important to understand the constraints and facilitating factors for good care. We conducted a systematic narrative synthesis, where findings of qualitative studies are synthesised to generate new insights. 21 articles were identified. Our results show that personal qualities, professional skills as well as environmental factors all influence the ability to provide recovery focused care. Three overarching themes which either facilitated or hindered were identified. These included: (i) Complexity of the nursing role (clinical care; practical and emotional support: advocacy and education; enforcing aspects of the Mental Health Act. and, maintaining ward safety); (ii) Constraining factors (operational barriers; change in patient characteristic; and competing understandings of care); and (iii) Facilitating factors (ward factors; nursing tools; nurse characteristics; approach to people; approach to work and ability to self-care). We suggest that the therapeutic use of self is central to the provision of recovery oriented care. However person-centred practice can be fragile and fluid and a compassionate system of support is needed to enable an understanding of context and self. It is critical to have a work environment which fosters hope and optimism and is supportive of autonomy, ensures workload balance, and is safe. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  8. Resistance to changing practice from pro re nata prescriptions to patient group directions in acute mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, O; Baker, J A

    2013-09-01

    Poor practice associated with pro re nata (PRN) prescriptions in mental health is known to be common and can increase the risk of serious and potentially fatal side effects. A contributing factor to poor practice is the lack of a clear chain of accountability between the decision to prescribe and administer PRN prescriptions. To address this problem, a patient group direction (PGD) for acute behavioural disturbance (lorazepam 0.5-2 mg) and staff training materials were developed. The intention was to replace PRN prescriptions with the PGD in two mental health trusts. One of the potential benefits of this would be the removal of the contribution of PRN to high and combined dose antipsychotic prescriptions. This proposal, however, was met with significant resistance in both trusts and did not replace PRN as a result. A series of interviews and focus groups were conducted with 16 RMNs working in the two trusts, to explore the reasons why the PGD was met with resistance. Senior nurses perceived resistance to be associated with anxieties over increased responsibility for decision making. Junior nurses reported concerns regarding the medicalization of the nursing role, the paperwork associated with the PGD and the training approach used. Future efforts to implement PGDs in mental health settings must carefully consider the methods for engaging effectively with participating organizations, in terms of managing change and completing the necessary groundwork for successful implementation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A tool for sexual minority mental health research: The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a depressive symptom severity measure for sexual minority women in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Bass, Judith K; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Nam Thi Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    In a context with limited attention to mental health and prevalent sexual prejudice, valid measurements are a key first step to understanding the psychological suffering of sexual minority populations. We adapted the Patient Health Questionnaire as a depressive symptom severity measure for Vietnamese sexual minority women, ensuring its cultural relevance and suitability for internet-based research. Psychometric evaluation found that the scale is mostly unidimensional and has good convergent validity, good external construct validity, and excellent reliability. The sample's high endorsement of scale items emphasizes the need to study minority stress and mental health in this population.

  10. Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates acute inflammatory and nociceptive symptoms in gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shi Hyoung; Park, Jae Gwang; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yang, Sungjae; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jun Ho; Ha, Van Thai; Kim, Han Gyung; Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Ji Hye; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Sung, Nak Yoon; Lee, Mi-nam; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol (KF) is the most abundant polyphenol in tea, fruits, vegetables, and beans. However, little is known about its in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy and mechanisms of action. To study these, several acute mouse inflammatory and nociceptive models, including gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain were employed. Kaempferol was shown to attenuate the expansion of inflammatory lesions seen in ethanol (EtOH)/HCl- and aspirin-induced gastritis, LPS/caerulein (CA) triggered pancreatitis, and acetic acid-induced writhing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cooccurrence of and remission from general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after acute lung injury: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, O Joseph; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Shanholtz, Carl; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl R; Pronovost, Peter J; Needham, Dale M

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the cooccurrence, and predictors of remission, of general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during 2-year follow-up in survivors of acute lung injury treated in an ICU. Prospective cohort study, with follow-up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post-acute lung injury. Thirteen medical and surgical ICUs in four hospitals. Survivors among 520 patients with acute lung injury. The outcomes of interest were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety and depression subscales (scores ≥ 8 indicating substantial symptoms) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (scores ≥ 1.6 indicating substantial posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms). Of the 520 enrolled patients, 274 died before 3-month follow-up; 186 of 196 consenting survivors (95%) completed at least one Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessment during 2-year follow-up, and most completed multiple assessments. Across follow-up time points, the prevalence of suprathreshold general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms ranged from 38% to 44%, 26% to 33%, and 22% to 24%, respectively; more than half of the patients had suprathreshold symptoms in at least one domain during 2-year follow-up. The majority of survivors (59%) with any suprathreshold symptoms were above threshold for two or more types of symptoms (i.e., general anxiety, depression, and/or posttraumatic stress disorder). In fact, the most common pattern involved simultaneous general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Most patients with general anxiety, depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during 2-year follow-up had suprathreshold symptoms at 24-month (last) follow-up. Higher Short-Form-36 physical functioning domain scores at the prior visit were associated with a greater likelihood of remission from general anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during follow-up. The majority

  12. A prospective study of symptoms, function, and medication use during acute illness in nursing home residents: design, rationale and cohort description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Sophia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing home residents are at high risk for developing acute illnesses. Compared with community dwelling adults, nursing home residents are often more frail, prone to multiple medical problems and symptoms, and are at higher risk for adverse outcomes from acute illnesses. In addition, because of polypharmacy and the high burden of chronic disease, nursing home residents are particularly vulnerable to disruptions in transitions of care such as medication interruptions in the setting of acute illness. In order to better estimate the effect of acute illness on nursing home residents, we have initiated a prospective cohort which will allow us to observe patterns of acute illnesses and the consequence of acute illnesses, including symptoms and function, among nursing home residents. We also aim to examine the patterns of medication interruption, and identify patient, provider and environmental factors that influence continuity of medication prescribing at different points of care transition. Methods This is a prospective cohort of nursing home residents residing in two nursing homes in a metropolitan area. Baseline characteristics including age, gender, race, and comorbid conditions are recorded. Participants are followed longitudinally for a planned period of 3 years. We record acute illness incidence and characteristics, and measure symptoms including depression, pain, withdrawal symptoms, and function using standardized scales. Results 76 nursing home residents have been followed for a median of 666 days to date. At baseline, mean age of residents was 74.4 (± 11.9; 32% were female; 59% were white. The most common chronic conditions were dementia (41%, depression (38%, congestive heart failure (25% and chronic obstructive lung disease (27%. Mean pain score was 4.7 (± 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10; Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 score was 5.2 (± 4.4. During follow up, 138 acute illness episodes were identified, for an

  13. The effect of school meals with fatty fish on adolescents' self-reported symptoms for mental health: FINS-TEENS - a randomized controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Siv; Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Øyen, Jannike; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Baste, Valborg; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence linking fish consumption and n-3 LCPUFAs to mental health. Still, the results from randomized trials with n-3 LCPUFAs show conflicting results, and it is possible that the combined effect of several nutrients in fish may explain the observed associations. To aim of the present study was to investigate if school meals with fatty fish three times per week for 12 weeks could alter mental health in a sample of typically developing adolescents. In the Fish Intervention Studies-TEENS (FINS-TEENS), adolescents from eight secondary schools (n=425) in Norway, were randomized to receive school meals with fatty fish, meat or n-3 LCPUFA supplements. Mental health was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the differences between the groups were assessed with linear mixed effect models, unadjusted and adjusted for baseline and dietary compliance. The results showed no effects of school meals with fatty fish compared to similar meals with meat or n-3 LCPUFAs on the adolescents' self-reported symptom scores for mental health. Among adolescents scoring above the SDQ cut-offs (high-scorers), the fish- improved less than the meat group in the self-reported symptom scores for total difficulties- and emotional problems. However, the findings should be regarded as preliminary, as the analyses for the high-scorer group were underpowered. In conclusion, serving school meals with fatty fish did not alter mental health in a typically developing sample of adolescents. It is possible that serving healthy school meals with meat is more beneficial than similar meals with fatty fish in adolescents scoring high on mental health problems. However, the results should be seen as preliminary, as the dietary compliance in the fish group was low and the analyses in the high score group underpowered. Thus, further studies should investigate the associations between fish consumption and adolescents' mental health.

  14. CT Angiography and Presentation NIH stroke Scale in Predicting TIA in Patients Presenting with Acute Stroke Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Bedriye; Selph, James; Burdine, Joselyn; Graham, Cole Blease; Sen, Souvik

    2013-11-08

    Patient candidacy for acute stroke intervention, is currently assessed using brain computed tomography angiography (CTA) evidence of significant stenosis/occlusion (SSO) with a high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (>6). This study examined the association between CTA without significant stenosis/occlusion (NSSO) and lower NIHSS (≤ 6) with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and other good clinical outcomes at discharge. Patients presenting TIA, modified Rankin Score [mRS] ≤ 1, and home as the discharge disposition. Eighty-five patients received both an NIHSS at presentation and a CTA at 4.2 ± 2.2 hours from stroke symptom onset. Patients with NSSO on CTA as well as those with NIHSS≤6 had better outcomes at discharge (pTIA (pTIA. Addition of NIHSS ≤ 6 to NSSO on CTA proved to be a stronger independent predictor of TIA (Adjusted OR 18.7 95% CI: 3.5-98.9, p=0.001).

  15. A qualitative study on coping behaviors and influencing factors among mothers in Japan raising children under three years old while experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaso, Misato; Miyazaki, Kikuko; Nakayama, Takeo

    2018-01-10

    No studies illustrating the coping behaviors of mothers experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms, or the factors that contribute to these behaviors, have been investigated. Therefore, the present study sought to develop a conceptual framework on the coping behaviors and contributing factors of mothers experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms. This qualitative study involved theoretical sampling and semi-structured interviews of mothers who were raising children under 3 years of age in Japan and had experienced physical and mental subjective symptoms since giving birth. Women who were pregnant, required regular medical exams, or had difficulty communicating in Japanese were excluded. All mothers were recruited via personal contacts, snowball sampling, and posters at a community center and nursery schools. Analysis was conducted using the constant comparative method. The interview data were extracted in contextual units based on analytical themes, and concepts were generated. Relationships between concepts were investigated and categorized. To confirm theoretical saturation and ensure the validity of the data, a study supervisor was appointed, four qualitative researchers examined the results, and the interview respondents underwent member checking. There were a total of 21 participants. Thirteen categories were created from 29 concepts identified from the analytical theme "What do mothers do when raising children under 3 years of age while experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms?" While experiencing subjective symptoms, mothers raising children under 3 years of age tended to lead a child-centric lifestyle and were hesitant to visit the doctor, not only because of typical reasons such as time and costs, but also because of factors related to their child. Some circumstances occurring while experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms led mothers to put their own needs first and attempt to cope on their own as much as

  16. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in chronic alcoholism with acute psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Ryo; Yanagida, Makoto; Kugo, Aki; Taguchi, Satoki; Matsunaga, Hidenori

    2010-01-01

    To highlight the association between posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and chronic alcoholism. We present a case report, a review of the literature and a discussion. We report on the case of a 51-year-old man with chronic alcoholism, who suddenly developed visual disturbance and confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on admission demonstrated abnormal findings. However, clinical symptoms and imaging promptly improved, indicating the diagnosis of PRES. PRES should be considered when making a diagnosis for disturbed consciousness in alcoholic patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. When self-reliance is not safe: associations between reduced help-seeking and subsequent mental health symptoms in suicidal adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouliere, Christa D; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S

    2015-04-01

    The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths' perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time), help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.

  18. When Self-Reliance Is Not Safe: Associations between Reduced Help-Seeking and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms in Suicidal Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa D. Labouliere

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths’ perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time, help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.

  19. The validity of the Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Symptom Screener (SAMISS) in people living with HIV/AIDS in primary HIV care in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Erica; Stoloff, Kevin; Myer, Landon; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J; Joska, John A

    2014-06-01

    Given the high prevalence of HIV in South Africa and co-morbid mental disorders in people living with HIV/AIDs (PLWHA) we sought to validate a brief screening tool in primary HIV care. 366 PLWHA were recruited prior to combination anti-retroviral treatment (CART) initiation from two primary health HIV clinics. A mental health nurse administered a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and a lay counsellor administered the Substance and Mental Illness Symptom Screener (SAMISS). Using the MINI, 17 % of participants were identified with either depression, anxiety disorders or adjustment disorder and 18 % with substance or alcohol abuse/dependence. The sensitivity and specificity of the SAMISS was 94 % (95 % CI: 88-98 %) and 58 % (95 % CI: 52-65 %) respectively, with the alcohol component (sensitivity: 94 %; specificity: 85 %) performing better than the mental illness component of the SAMISS (sensitivity: 97 %; specificity: 60 %). The specificity of the tool improved when the cut-off for the mental illness component was increased. The SAMISS may provide a useful first tier screening tool for common mental disorders in primary care for PLWHA.

  20. Air conditioning systems as non-infectious health hazards inducing acute respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Alexander; Fischer, Axel; Willig, Karl-Heinz; Groneberg, David A

    2006-04-01

    Chronic and acute exposure to toxic aerosols belongs to frequent causes of airway diseases. However, asthma attacks due to long-distance inhalative exposure to organic solvents, transmitted via an air condition system, have not been reported so far. The present case illustrates the possibility of air conditioning systems as non-infectious health hazards in occupational medicine. So far, only infectious diseases such as legionella pneumophila pneumonia have commonly been associated to air-conditioning exposures but physicians should be alert to the potential of transmission of toxic volatile substances via air conditioning systems. In view of the events of the 11th of September 2001 with a growing danger of large building terrorism which may even use air conditioning systems to transmit toxins, facility management security staff should be alerted to possible non-infectious toxic health hazards arising from air-conditioning systems.

  1. The ties that bind: Ingroup ties are linked with diminished inflammatory immune responses and fewer mental health symptoms through less rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysseldyk, Renate; McQuaid, Robyn J; McInnis, Opal A; Anisman, Hymie; Matheson, Kimberly

    2018-01-01

    The present research explored whether components of social identity, namely ingroup ties, affect, and centrality, were differentially linked to mental health and inflammatory immune responses, and whether rumination mediated those relations. Study 1 (N = 138) indicated that stronger ingroup ties were associated with fewer mental health (depressive and post-traumatic stress) symptoms; those relations were mediated by the tendency for individuals with strong ties to rely less on ruminative coping to deal with a stressful life event. Study 2 (N = 54) demonstrated that ingroup ties were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, dispositional rumination, as well as stress-linked inflammatory elements at the physiological level. Consistent associations for centrality and ingroup affect were absent, suggesting that ingroup ties may have unique health benefits.

  2. Exposure to physical and psychosocial stressors in relation to symptoms of common mental disorders among European professional football referees: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Özgür; Johnson, Urban; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Rosier, Philippe; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    The study aim was to explore the association of physical and psychosocial stressors (severe injuries, surgeries, recent life events, social support) with one-season onset of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) among European professional football referees. An observational prospective cohort study over a follow-up period of one season (2015-2016) was conducted among professional football referees from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Scotland and Sweden. Based on physical and psychosocial stressors as well as symptoms of CMD, an electronic questionnaire in English and French was set up and distributed by eight football federations involved. The prevalence of symptoms of CMD ranged from 5.9% for distress to 19.2% for eating disorders. A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree of satisfaction about social support were significantly related to the occurrence of symptoms of CMD with an OR of 2.63 and an OR of 1.10, respectively. A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree on satisfaction about social support were found to be significantly associated with the onset of symptoms of CMD among European professional football referees. Referees suffering from severe injuries were nearly three times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Referees who reported a low satisfaction of social support were significantly more likely to report symptoms of eating disorder.

  3. Exposure to physical and psychosocial stressors in relation to symptoms of common mental disorders among European professional football referees: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Urban; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Rosier, Philippe; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The study aim was to explore the association of physical and psychosocial stressors (severe injuries, surgeries, recent life events, social support) with one-season onset of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) among European professional football referees. Methods An observational prospective cohort study over a follow-up period of one season (2015–2016) was conducted among professional football referees from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Scotland and Sweden. Based on physical and psychosocial stressors as well as symptoms of CMD, an electronic questionnaire in English and French was set up and distributed by eight football federations involved. Results The prevalence of symptoms of CMD ranged from 5.9% for distress to 19.2% for eating disorders. A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree of satisfaction about social support were significantly related to the occurrence of symptoms of CMD with an OR of 2.63 and an OR of 1.10, respectively. Conclusion A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree on satisfaction about social support were found to be significantly associated with the onset of symptoms of CMD among European professional football referees. Referees suffering from severe injuries were nearly three times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Referees who reported a low satisfaction of social support were significantly more likely to report symptoms of eating disorder. PMID:29629180

  4. Protocol for a systematic review of psychological treatment for methamphetamine use: an analysis of methamphetamine use and mental health symptom outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Alexandra; Baker, Amanda L; Bowman, Jenny; McCarter, Kristen; Denham, Alexandra Mary Janice; Lee, Nicole; Colyvas, Kim; Dunlop, Adrian

    2017-09-07

    People who use methamphetamine (MA) regularly, often experience symptoms of mental ill health associated with the use of the drug. These include symptoms of psychosis, depression, anxiety and also cognitive deficits. Accordingly, psychological treatments aim to reduce MA use and related problems, including symptoms of mental ill health. Although there has been a substantial body of research reporting on the evidence of effectiveness of psychological treatments for MA use, there is a paucity of research addressing the effectiveness of these treatments for coexisting symptoms of mental ill health. We aim to address this gap by providing a comprehensive overview of the evidence for psychological treatments for MA use and associated symptoms of mental ill health in experimental/controlled clinical studies. In addition, a critical evaluation of study methods and the outcomes of psychological interventions on MA use and symptoms of mental ill health will be conducted. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement will be used to inform the methods of this review. Eight electronic peer-reviewed databases will be searched. Pilot searches have been conducted for MA literature considering controlled clinical trials only. Eligible articles will be independently assessed against inclusion criteria. Before final analyses are completed, searches will be rerun and if eligible, additional studies will be retrieved for inclusion. A quantitative synthesis of the findings will be reported where possible, and 'summary of findings' tables will be generated for each comparison. Risk ratios and 95% CI (dichotomous outcomes) will be calculated and/or effect size according to Cohen's formula (continuous outcomes) for the primary outcome of each trial. No ethical issues are foreseen. Findings will be disseminated widely to clinicians and researchers via journal publication and conference

  5. School, peer and family relationships and adolescent substance use, subjective wellbeing and mental health symptoms in Wales: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Graham; Cox, Rebecca; Evans, Rhiannon; Hallingberg, Britt; Hawkins, Jemma; Littlecott, Hannah; Long, Sara; Murphy, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Positive relationships with family, friends and school staff are consistently linked with health and wellbeing during adolescence, though fewer studies explore how these micro-systems interact to influence adolescent health. This study tests the independent and interacting roles of family, peer and school relationships in predicting substance use, subjective wellbeing and mental health symptoms among 11–16 year olds in Wales. It presents cross-sectional analyses of the 2013 Health Behaviour i...

  6. Parent-Child Diagnostic Agreement on Anxiety Symptoms with a Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Lukka; Neuschwander, Murielle; Mannstadt, Sandra; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In clinical structured diagnostic interviews, diagnoses based on parent and child reports have low to moderate agreement. The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related predictors for diagnostic agreement. Method: The sample consisted of 166 parent-child dyads interviewed with the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children (Kinder-DIPS, Schneider et al., 2009). The children (51.8% girls) were between the ages of 7 and 18 years ( M = 10.94; SD = 2.22). Results: Overall, parent-child agreement on the diagnostic category of anxiety disorder ( k = 0.21; k = 0.22) and the specific anxiety diagnoses (base rate > 10%) of social phobia, specific phobia and separation anxiety disorder ( k = 0.24-0.52; k = 0.19-0.43) and corresponding diagnostic criteria ( k = 0.22-0.67; k = 0.24-0.41) were low to moderate with the highest agreement on separation anxiety disorder ( k > 0.43). Lower maternal depression, and higher social support reported by mother and father were associated with higher parent-child agreement. Maternal depression was indicated as the strongest predictor. Parental sense of competence, parental anxiety, the amount of parent-child interaction and the child's age and gender had no predictive value. Conclusions: Parent-child agreement can be expected to be higher on the level of anxiety criteria compared to specific anxiety diagnoses and diagnostic anxiety category. Psychological strains in the family-especially maternal depression and low social support-lower the parent-child agreement on anxiety symptoms. Child- and relation-related variables (age, gender, amount of time parent(s) and children interact) play no role in the prediction of low parent-child agreement.

  7. Association between illness perceptions and return-to-work expectations in workers with common mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvvik, Camilla; Øverland, Simon; Hysing, Mari; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Reme, Silje E

    2014-03-01

    Mental health symptoms (MHSs) may affect people's work capacity and lead to sickness absence and disability. Expectations and perceptions of illness have been shown to influence return to work (RTW) across health conditions, but we know little about illness perceptions and RTW-expectations in MHSs. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between illness perceptions and RTW-expectations in a group struggling with work participation due to MHSs. Cross-sectional associations between illness perceptions and return to work expectations at baseline were analyzed for 1,193 participants who reported that MHSs affected their work participation. The study was part of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of job focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) combined with supported employment (IPS). Participants were from a working age population with diverse job status. There was a strong and salient relationship between illness perceptions and RTW-expectations. When adjusting for demographic and clinical variables, the components consequences, personal control, identity and illness concern remained significantly associated with uncertain and negative RTW-expectations. Less illness understanding remained significantly associated with uncertain RTW-expectations, while timeline and emotional representations remained significantly associated with negative RTW-expectations. In the fully adjusted model only the consequences component (believing that illness has more severe consequences) remained significantly associated with RTW-expectations. Openly asked, participants reported work, personal relationships and stress as main causes of their illness. In people with MHSs who struggle with work participation, perceptions and beliefs about their problems are strongly associated with their expectations to return to work.

  8. The use of Animal-Assisted Therapy in adolescents with acute mental disorders: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, M C; Martino, A; Allori, P; Galeotti, F; Tani, F

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) with a standard treatment protocol in children and adolescents admitted to the psychiatry hospital for acute mental disorders. We used a methodology involving high quality standards for AAT research. A pre-post experimental design with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 34 hospitalized patients (17 treatment, 17 control) was carried out. The study focused on improvement in clinical status including, global functioning measured by the Children Global Assessment Scale (C GAS), format of care and ordinary school attendance measured by a rating scale. Our results indicate a statistically significant improvement in global functioning, reduction in format of care and increased ordinary school attendance in the treatment group, but not in the control group. Our results verify that AAT can have significant positive effects on therapeutic progress and the recovery process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of a Medical and Mental Health Unit compared with standard care for older people whose emergency admission to an acute general hospital is complicated by concurrent 'confusion': a controlled clinical trial. Acronym: TEAM: Trial of an Elderly Acute care Medical and mental health unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladman John RF

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with delirium and dementia admitted to general hospitals have poor outcomes, and their carers report poor experiences. We developed an acute geriatric medical ward into a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit over an eighteen month period. Additional specialist mental health staff were employed, other staff were trained in the 'person-centred' dementia care approach, a programme of meaningful activity was devised, the environment adapted to the needs of people with cognitive impairment, and attention given to communication with family carers. We hypothesise that patients managed on this ward will have better outcomes than those receiving standard care, and that such care will be cost-effective. Methods/design We will perform a controlled clinical trial comparing in-patient management on a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit with standard care. Study participants are patients over the age of 65, admitted as an emergency to a single general hospital, and identified on the Acute Medical Admissions Unit as being 'confused'. Sample size is 300 per group. The evaluation design has been adapted to accommodate pressures on bed management and patient flows. If beds are available on the specialist Unit, the clinical service allocates patients at random between the Unit and standard care on general or geriatric medical wards. Once admitted, randomised patients and their carers are invited to take part in a follow up study, and baseline data are collected. Quality of care and patient experience are assessed in a non-participant observer study. Outcomes are ascertained at a follow up home visit 90 days after randomisation, by a researcher blind to allocation. The primary outcome is days spent at home (for those admitted from home, or days spent in the same care home (if admitted from a care home. Secondary outcomes include mortality, institutionalisation, resource use, and scaled outcome measures, including quality of

  10. Acute renal failure secondary to drug-related crystalluria and/or drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom syndrome in a patient with metastatic lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Paydas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS or drug-induced hypersensitivity is a severe adverse drug-induced reaction. Aromatic anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine, and some drugs, can induce DRESS. Atypical crystalluria can be seen in patients treated with amoxycillin or some drugs and can cause acute renal failure. We describe a 66-year-old man who presented fever and rash and acute renal failure three days after starting amoxycillin. He was also using phenytoin because of cerebral metastatic lung cancer. Investigation revealed eosinophilia and atypical crystalluria. The diagnosis of DRESS syndrome was made, amoxicillin was stopped, and dose of phenytoin was reduced. No systemic corticosteroid therapy was prescribed. Symptoms began to resolve within three to four days. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of microscopic examination of urine in a case with acute renal failure and skin lesions to suspect DRESS syndrome.

  11. Effect of Oral Prednisolone on Symptom Duration and Severity in Nonasthmatic Adults With Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Alastair D; Little, Paul; Harnden, Anthony; Thompson, Matthew; Wang, Kay; Kendrick, Denise; Orton, Elizabeth; Brookes, Sara T; Young, Grace J; May, Margaret; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Carroll, Fran E; Downing, Harriet; Timmins, David; Lafond, Natasher; El-Gohary, Magdy; Moore, Michael

    2017-08-22

    Acute lower respiratory tract infection is common and often treated inappropriately in primary care with antibiotics. Corticosteroids are increasingly used but without sufficient evidence. To assess the effects of oral corticosteroids for acute lower respiratory tract infection in adults without asthma. Multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized trial (July 2013 to final follow-up October 2014) conducted in 54 family practices in England among 401 adults with acute cough and at least 1 lower respiratory tract symptom not requiring immediate antibiotic treatment and with no history of chronic pulmonary disease or use of asthma medication in the past 5 years. Two 20-mg prednisolone tablets (n = 199) or matched placebo (n = 202) once daily for 5 days. The primary outcomes were duration of moderately bad or worse cough (0 to 28 days; minimal clinically important difference, 3.79 days) and mean severity of symptoms on days 2 to 4 (scored from 0 [not affected] to 6 [as bad as it could be]; minimal clinically important difference, 1.66 units). Secondary outcomes were duration and severity of acute lower respiratory tract infection symptoms, duration of abnormal peak flow, antibiotic use, and adverse events. Among 401 randomized patients, 2 withdrew immediately after randomization, and 1 duplicate patient was identified. Among the 398 patients with baseline data (mean age, 47 [SD, 16.0] years; 63% women; 17% smokers; 77% phlegm; 70% shortness of breath; 47% wheezing; 46% chest pain; 42% abnormal peak flow), 334 (84%) provided cough duration and 369 (93%) symptom severity data. Median cough duration was 5 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3-8 days) in the prednisolone group and 5 days (IQR, 3-10 days) in the placebo group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.89-1.39; P = .36 at an α = .05). Mean symptom severity was 1.99 points in the prednisolone group and 2.16 points in the placebo group (adjusted difference, -0.20; 95% CI, -0.40 to 0.00; P = .05

  12. Developing Partnerships in the Provision of Youth Mental Health Services and Clinical Education: A School-Based Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Targeting Anxiety Symptoms in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Groth, Trisha A; Sanders, Mary; O'Brien, Rosanne; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2015-11-01

    Clinical scientists are calling for strong partnerships in the provision of evidence-based treatments for child mental health problems in real-world contexts. In the present study, we describe the implementation of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) to address grade 5 children's anxiety symptoms. The CBI arose from a long-standing partnership between University and Education Department stakeholders. The partnership integrates school-based, evidence-informed treatment delivery with clinical education, and also supports a school-based psychology clinic to provide assessment and treatment services to children attending schools within the catchment area and clinical training for university graduate students. Children in the active condition (N=74) completed the CBI during regular class time, while children in the control condition (N=77) received the standard classroom curriculum. Children's anxiety and depressive symptoms, threat interpretation biases (perceived danger and coping ability), and perceptions of their social skills were assessed before and after condition. Children in the active condition reported significant improvements in self-reported anxiety symptoms, and perceptions of their social skills and coping ability, whereas no significant differences were observed for children in the control condition from pre- to post-assessment. For a subset of children assessed 12 months after the CBI (n=76), symptom improvement remained stable over time and estimates of danger and coping ability showed even greater improvement. Results demonstrate the value of strong stakeholder partnerships in innovative youth mental health services, positive child outcomes, and clinical education. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. How Mental Health Interviews Conducted Alone, in the Presence of an Adult, a Child or Both Affects Adolescents' Reporting of Psychological Symptoms and Risky Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Aubrey V; Benjet, Corina; Méndez, Enrique; Casanova, Leticia; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2017-02-01

    The normative process of autonomy development in adolescence involves changes in adolescents' information management typically characterized by decreasing disclosure and increasing concealment. These changes may have an important impact on the early detection and timely treatment of mental health conditions and risky behavior. Therefore, the objective was to extend our understanding of how these developmental changes in adolescent disclosure might impact adolescent mental health interviews. Specifically, we estimated the effects of third party presence and type of third party presence (adult, child, or both) on adolescents' reports of psychiatric symptoms, substance use, suicidal behavior, and childhood adversity. In this representative sample of 3005 adolescents from Mexico City (52.1 % female), administered the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-A), adult presence influenced reporting the most; in their presence, adolescents reported more ADHD, parental mental illness and economic adversity, but less panic disorder, PTSD, drug use and disorder, and suicidal behavior. The presence of children was associated with increased odds of reporting conduct disorder, opportunity for drug use, parental criminal behavior, neglect, and the death of a parent. While adolescent information management strategies are normative and even desirable as a means of gaining emotional autonomy, they may also interfere with timely detection and treatment or intervention for mental health conditions and risky behaviors. Research and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness in adolescence: Impact of two decades of war and political violence on adolescent mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences in Serbia in the last two decades have caused significant psychological consequences in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness among high school and elementary school students in Belgrade, Serbia. The participants were 899 students (51.8% were female with no prior treatment for psychological problems, with a mean age of 16.70±1.95. All used instruments were taken from the modified Social and Health Assessment (SAHA. Our findings show that delinquent behavior or exposure to delinquency was significantly related to depressive symptoms. The strongest predictors of depression were variables concerning legal consequences, affiliation with delinquent peers, victimization by community violence and peer victimization. This study confirmed a strong correlation between depression and exposure to violence. Identifying adolescents with depressive symptoms is important for prevention of serious mental health consequences.

  15. Treating symptoms or assisting human development: Can different environmental conditions affect personal development for patients with severe mental illness? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauveng, Arnhild; Tveiten, Sidsel; Ekeland, Tor-Johan; Torleif, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that a basic anomaly in self-experience may be a core factor in patients with severe mental illnesses. Given the importance of sense of self, the traditional treatment of symptoms might not be the most effective for these groups of patients. This qualitative study examines how differences in social environmental conditions, organized as education or treatment, might affect personal development in patients with severe mental illness. A qualitative hermeneutical design was used. Data were collected through qualitative interviews. Informants included 14 patients in psychiatric treatment and 15 students at schools for adults with mental illness. Most informants were interviewed on two occasions, 6-8 months apart, totaling 47 interviews. All participants had been diagnosed with severe mental illness with pronounced impact on daily functioning (most often psychoses or personality disorders) for a minimum of 2 years. Findings and interpretations showed that the students experienced a supportive environment focused mostly on education. They described personal and enduring development in areas such as capacity for relationships, regulation of symptoms, subjective well-being, and integration in society. The patients experienced an environment focused more on treatment of their illness and less on personal development and interests. They described little development, much loneliness, a poor quality of life, an objectifying attitude of themselves and others, and hopelessness. Even if more research is needed, findings indicate that for this group of patients, problems may be closely related to identity development. Therefore, instead of solemnly focusing on specific symptoms, it might be more effective to support patients' personal and social development by offering intensive and lasting social environmental conditions. This includes stable and mutual relationships, intrinsically motivated activities, and an environment that supports personal choices

  16. Increased seizure susceptibility and other toxicity symptoms following acute sulforaphane treatment in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socała, Katarzyna, E-mail: ksocala@op.pl [Department of Animal Physiology, Institute of Biology and Biochemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Nieoczym, Dorota [Department of Animal Physiology, Institute of Biology and Biochemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Kowalczuk-Vasilev, Edyta [Institute of Animal Nutrition and Bromatology, University of Life Sciences, Lublin (Poland); Wyska, Elżbieta [Department of Pharmacokinetics and Physical Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków (Poland); Wlaź, Piotr [Department of Animal Physiology, Institute of Biology and Biochemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin (Poland)

    2017-07-01

    Activation of Nrf2 with sulforaphane has recently gained attention as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of many diseases, including epilepsy. As a plant-derived compound, sulforaphane is considered to be safe and well-tolerated. It is widely consumed, also by patients suffering from seizure and taking antiepileptic drugs, but no toxicity profile of sulforaphane exists. Since many natural remedies and dietary supplements may increase seizure risk and potentially interact with antiepileptic drugs, the aim of our study was to investigate the acute effects of sulforaphane on seizure thresholds and activity of some first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in mice. In addition, some preliminary toxicity profile of sulforaphane in mice after intraperitoneal injection was evaluated. The LD{sub 50} value of sulforaphane in mice was estimated at 212.67 mg/kg, while the TD{sub 50} value – at 191.58 mg/kg. In seizure tests, sulforaphane at the highest dose tested (200 mg/kg) significantly decreased the thresholds for the onset of the first myoclonic twitch and generalized clonic seizure in the iv PTZ test as well as the threshold for the 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizure. At doses of 10–200 mg/kg, sulforaphane did not affect the threshold for the iv PTZ-induced forelimb tonus or the threshold for maximal electroshock-induced hindlimb tonus. Interestingly, sulforaphane (at 100 mg/kg) potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of carbamazepine in the maximal electroshock seizure test. This interaction could have been pharmacokinetic in nature, as sulforaphane increased concentrations of carbamazepine in both serum and brain tissue. The toxicity study showed that high doses of sulforaphane produced marked sedation (at 150–300 mg/kg), hypothermia (at 150–300 mg/kg), impairment of motor coordination (at 200–300 mg/kg), decrease in skeletal muscle strength (at 250–300 mg/kg), and deaths (at 200–300 mg/kg). Moreover, blood analysis showed leucopenia in

  17. Increased seizure susceptibility and other toxicity symptoms following acute sulforaphane treatment in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Kowalczuk-Vasilev, Edyta; Wyska, Elżbieta; Wlaź, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Activation of Nrf2 with sulforaphane has recently gained attention as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of many diseases, including epilepsy. As a plant-derived compound, sulforaphane is considered to be safe and well-tolerated. It is widely consumed, also by patients suffering from seizure and taking antiepileptic drugs, but no toxicity profile of sulforaphane exists. Since many natural remedies and dietary supplements may increase seizure risk and potentially interact with antiepileptic drugs, the aim of our study was to investigate the acute effects of sulforaphane on seizure thresholds and activity of some first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in mice. In addition, some preliminary toxicity profile of sulforaphane in mice after intraperitoneal injection was evaluated. The LD 50 value of sulforaphane in mice was estimated at 212.67 mg/kg, while the TD 50 value – at 191.58 mg/kg. In seizure tests, sulforaphane at the highest dose tested (200 mg/kg) significantly decreased the thresholds for the onset of the first myoclonic twitch and generalized clonic seizure in the iv PTZ test as well as the threshold for the 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizure. At doses of 10–200 mg/kg, sulforaphane did not affect the threshold for the iv PTZ-induced forelimb tonus or the threshold for maximal electroshock-induced hindlimb tonus. Interestingly, sulforaphane (at 100 mg/kg) potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of carbamazepine in the maximal electroshock seizure test. This interaction could have been pharmacokinetic in nature, as sulforaphane increased concentrations of carbamazepine in both serum and brain tissue. The toxicity study showed that high doses of sulforaphane produced marked sedation (at 150–300 mg/kg), hypothermia (at 150–300 mg/kg), impairment of motor coordination (at 200–300 mg/kg), decrease in skeletal muscle strength (at 250–300 mg/kg), and deaths (at 200–300 mg/kg). Moreover, blood analysis showed leucopenia in mice injected

  18. Predicting acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Giesen, Leonie GM

    2010-10-24

    Abstract Background Acute urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common bacterial infections among women presenting to primary care. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the optimal reference standard threshold for diagnosing UTI. The objective of this systematic review is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs in women presenting with suspected UTI, across three different reference standards (102 or 103 or 105 CFU\\/ml). We also examine the diagnostic value of individual symptoms and signs combined with dipstick test results in terms of clinical decision making. Methods Searches were performed through PubMed (1966 to April 2010), EMBASE (1973 to April 2010), Cochrane library (1973 to April 2010), Google scholar and reference checking. Studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs of an uncomplicated UTI using a urine culture from a clean-catch or catherised urine specimen as the reference standard, with a reference standard of at least ≥ 102 CFU\\/ml were included. Synthesised data from a high quality systematic review were used regarding dipstick results. Studies were combined using a bivariate random effects model. Results Sixteen studies incorporating 3,711 patients are included. The weighted prior probability of UTI varies across diagnostic threshold, 65.1% at ≥ 102 CFU\\/ml; 55.4% at ≥ 103 CFU\\/ml and 44.8% at ≥ 102 CFU\\/ml ≥ 105 CFU\\/ml. Six symptoms are identified as useful diagnostic symptoms when a threshold of ≥ 102 CFU\\/ml is the reference standard. Presence of dysuria (+LR 1.30 95% CI 1.20-1.41), frequency (+LR 1.10 95% CI 1.04-1.16), hematuria (+LR 1.72 95%CI 1.30-2.27), nocturia (+LR 1.30 95% CI 1.08-1.56) and urgency (+LR 1.22 95% CI 1.11-1.34) all increase the probability of UTI. The presence of vaginal discharge (+LR 0.65 95% CI 0.51-0.83) decreases the probability of UTI. Presence of hematuria has the highest diagnostic utility, raising the post-test probability of

  19. Concurrent and Subsequent Associations between Daily Digital Technology Use and High-Risk Adolescents' Mental Health Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Madeleine J.; Russell, Michael A.; Piontak, Joy R.; Odgers, Candice L.

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents are spending an unprecedented amount of time using digital technologies (especially mobile technologies), and there are concerns that adolescents' constant connectivity is associated with poor mental health, particularly among at-risk adolescents. Participants included 151 adolescents at risk for mental health problems (M[subscript…

  20. Parent-Child Diagnostic Agreement on Anxiety Symptoms with a Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Lukka; Neuschwander, Murielle; Mannstadt, Sandra; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In clinical structured diagnostic interviews, diagnoses based on parent and child reports have low to moderate agreement. The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related predictors for diagnostic agreement. Method: The sample consisted of 166 parent-child dyads interviewed with the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children (Kinder-DIPS, Schneider et al., 2009). The children (51.8% girls) were between the ages of 7 and 18 years (M = 10.94; SD = 2.22). Results: Overall, parent-child agreement on the diagnostic category of anxiety disorder (k = 0.21; k = 0.22) and the specific anxiety diagnoses (base rate > 10%) of social phobia, specific phobia and separation anxiety disorder (k = 0.24–0.52; k = 0.19–0.43) and corresponding diagnostic criteria (k = 0.22–0.67; k = 0.24–0.41) were low to moderate with the highest agreement on separation anxiety disorder (k > 0.43). Lower maternal depression, and higher social support reported by mother and father were associated with higher parent-child agreement. Maternal depression was indicated as the strongest predictor. Parental sense of competence, parental anxiety, the amount of parent-child interaction and the child's age and gender had no predictive value. Conclusions: Parent-child agreement can be expected to be higher on the level of anxiety criteria compared to specific anxiety diagnoses and diagnostic anxiety category. Psychological strains in the family—especially maternal depression and low social support—lower the parent-child agreement on anxiety symptoms. Child- and relation-related variables (age, gender, amount of time parent(s) and children interact) play no role in the prediction of low parent-child agreement. PMID:28396644

  1. Gender differences in quality of life and functional disability for depression outpatients with or without residual symptoms after acute phase treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Wang, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Hu, Yongdong; Niu, Yajuan; Wang, Xueyi; Gao, Chengge; Zhang, Ning; Fang, Yiru; Huang, Jizhong; Liu, Tiebang; Jia, Fujun; Zhu, Xuequan; Hu, Jian; Wang, Gang

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with substantial personal suffering and reduced quality of life and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences on quality of life and functional impairment of outpatients with depression after acute phase treatment. 1503 depression outpatients were recruited from eleven hospitals in China. Subjects were evaluated with sociodemographic characteristics, history and self-report instruments, related to severity of symptoms, function and quality of life. All data were analyzed to determine the gender differences. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education compared to women in total patients and with or without residual symptoms group. Using regression analysis, it was found that gender was significantly statistically related to severity scores of SDS and had no correlation with Q-LES-Q-SF total scores. In the residual symptoms group, greater functional impairment was noted by men in the area of work and social life. Significant gender differences of mood, work and sexual life in quality of life were observed. This is a cross-sectional study of depressed outpatients and duration of acute phase treatment may not an adequate time to measure changes. Depression appears to affect men more seriously than women after acute phase treatment. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education, more functional impairment and lower satisfaction of quality of life in mood, work and sexual life. Gender differences affect acute treatment, remission and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The duplex-Doppler colour echography of the scrotum and testicles in adults and boys. II. the contribution of the urgent study of acute scrotum symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel-Villalobos, E.; Jimenez-Castellanos, R.; Bustos, C.; Linares, A.; Gonzalez-Prada, F.

    1999-01-01

    To analyse the findings, contributions and limitations of the Doppler echography for the urgent study of acute scrotum symptoms, both in adults and in boys. 60 patients (22 adults and 38 boys) with acute scrotal symptomatology were examined using B mode echography, followed by a colour duplex-Doppler (CDD) echography with a lineal 7.5 MHz transducer. We compared the findings obtained with those of the healthy contralateral testicle and with surgery or clinical-echographical evolution. The most common pathology was inflammation (27%) followed by ischemic (24%) and traumatic (17%). 12% of the patients had miscellaneous conditions. To conclude, in 20% of the cases the B mode and the Doppler examination was normal, the symptoms were resolved spontaneously. After carrying out the CDD only 14 (23%) of the cases needed immediate surgery and 3 (5%) delayed surgery, the remaining 43 (72%) patients responded to the traditional treatment. The CDD allows for a safe, quick and harmless diagnosis in practically all the acute scrotum cases, for both adults and boys. Its limitations in pre-puberty patients or in cases that were atypical are overcome when put in the hands of an expert radiologist, as they need a longer exploration time and suitable Doppler equipment. The main contribution to the urgent diagnosis of acute scrotum symptoms is that it accurately establishes which patients should be chosen for immediate surgery. (Author) 33 refs

  3. A COMPARISON MENTAL HEALTH, PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS, ANXIETY AND SLEEPING DISORDERS AND DISORDERS IN SOCIAL FUNCTION AMONG MALE AND FEMALE ATHLETES AND NONATHLETES STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nili Ahmadabady Zahra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to comparison mental health, Physical symptoms, Anxiety and sleeping disorders and Disorders in social function among male and female athletes and non-athletes students. Methods: The target population consisted entirely male of female athletes and non-athletes students in University of Guilan. After translate of standard General Health Questionnaires (GHQ, and adjust of some question, questionnaires were evaluated by professors of faculty of physical education and sport sciences. The reliability guided Cronbach Alpha value of (0.83. Among them 90 male athlete and 90 male non-athlete with mean. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA. Result: There were significant difference mean scores between in four mental health scales, physical symptoms, anxiety and sleep disorders and impaired social functioning athlete and non-athlete in both groups. Conclusion: Therefore, with fewer psychological problems in an athlete, physical activity can be purpose strategies as appropriate, easy and inexpensive to improve mental health among male and female non- athlete students.

  4. Refocusing acute psychiatry, performance management, standards and accountability, a new context for mental health nursing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harnett, P J

    2009-06-01

    The term \\'performance management\\' has an aversive \\'managerial\\' aspect, is unappealing to many public sector staff and has an \\'image problem\\'. Perhaps as a consequence, it has failed to make a significant impact on Irish public sector workers, notably mental health nurses. In this paper, performance management is introduced and examined within an Irish healthcare context and with reference to its use in other countries. Some of the challenges faced by Irish mental health nurses and the potential benefits of working within a performance managed workplace are discussed. The paper concludes that performance management is likely to increasingly affect nurses, either as active agents or as passive recipients of a change that is thrust on them. The authors anticipate that the performance management \\'image problem\\' will give way to recognition that this is a fundamental change which has the potential to enable health services to change. This change will bring high standards of transparency, worker involvement in decision making, an explicit value base for health services and individual teams. It provides the potential for clear practice standards and high standards of transparency as well as worker welfare in all aspects, including supporting employment and career progression.

  5. Practical compassions: repertoires of practice and compassion talk in acute mental healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brian; Crawford, Paul; Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Jean; Gale, Corinne

    2014-03-01

    This article reports an exploratory study of the concept of compassion in the work of 20 mental health practitioners in a UK Midlands facility. Using notions of practice derived from phenomenology and Bourdieusian sociology and notions of emotional labour we identify two contrasting interpretive repertoires in discussions of compassion. The first, the practical compassion repertoire, evokes the practical, physical and bodily aspects of compassion. It involves organising being with patients, playing games, anticipating disruption and taking them outside for cigarettes. Practitioners described being aware that these practical, bodily activities could lead to patients 'opening up', disclosing their interior concerns and enabling practical, compassionate mental health work to take place. In contrast, the second, organisational repertoire, concerns organisational constraints on compassionate practice. The shortage of staff, the record-keeping and internal processes of quality control were seen as time-greedy and apt to detract from contact with patients. The findings are discussed in relation to Bourdieu and Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological accounts of practice and habit and set in context in the growing interest in placing compassion centrally in healthcare. We also explore how the exercise of compassion in the way our participants describe it can afford the more effective exercise of medical power. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Beliefs about causes, symptoms, and stigma associated with severe mental illness among 'highly acculturated' Chinese-American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Susan Y

    2013-12-01

    Literature about experiences of mental illness among ethnic minority has tended to focus on first-generation migrants. This study fills that gap by exploring experiences among highly acculturated Chinese-American patients with mental illness. Twenty-nine participants completed semi-structured interviews based on Kleinman's explanatory model, which were audio-taped, transcribed and coded for qualitative analysis. Beliefs about the causes of mental illness included biological factors, head trauma and personal losses. Issues relating to stigma and shame were also discussed. Highly acculturated ethnic minority patients may ascribe to a biomedical model at the same time as ascribing to culture-specific beliefs.

  7. Self-reported wrist and finger symptoms associated with other physical/mental symptoms and use of computers/mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2018-03-01

    Recently, computer, mobile phone and Internet use has increased. This study aimed to determine the possible relation between self-reported wrist and finger symptoms (aches, pain or numbness) and using computers/mobile phones, and to analyze how the symptoms are specifically associated with utilizing desktop computers, portable computers or mini-computers and mobile phones. A questionnaire was sent to 15,000 working-age Finns (age 18-65). Via a questionnaire, 723 persons reported wrist and finger symptoms often or more with use. Over 80% use mobile phones daily and less than 30% use desktop computers or the Internet daily at leisure, e.g., over 89.8% quite often or often experienced pain, numbness or aches in the neck, and 61.3% had aches in the hips and the lower back. Only 33.7% connected their symptoms to computer use. In the future, the development of new devices and Internet services should incorporate the ergonomics of the hands and wrists.

  8. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY OF NON-PSYCHOTIC MENTAL DISORDERS IN FEMALE PATIENTS OF CLIMACTERIC AGE WITH HYSTERICAL SYMPTOM COMPLEX (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Lukiyanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, problematic questions of diagnostics and therapy of non-psychotic mental disorders (NPMD in female patients of climacteric age with hysterical symptom complex are considered. Efficacy of psychotherapy (PT in NPMD, hypnopsychotherapy in hysterical states: hysterical neurosis, neurasthenia and obsessive-compulsive neurosis is indicated. In treatment of NPMD, PT by creative selfexpression is successfully used. It is highlighted that PT forms conscious-critical attitude of patients toward themselves. Combination of PT with physiotherapy in hysterical conversional symptoms has been described. In hysterical manifestations neuroleptics are recommended, in neurotic depressions – antidepressants of mild action. In severe hysterical state, psychopharmacotherapy (PPhT with tranquilizers and neuroleptics is applied on long-term basis. Stable recovery in dissociative and hysterical disorders has been shown. In vegetovascular disorders in structure of climacteric syndrome (CS vinpocetine, in psychoemotional manifestations phenibut was administered. In therapy of hysterical neurosis, “minor neuroleptics”, hypnosuggestive therapy, social rehabilitation were applied. Effective group PT of psychogenically conditioned disorders in asthenicand anxiety-depressive symptoms is effective. Complex therapy of NPMD in hysterical and asthenic neurosis, obsessive-compulsive neurosis has been suggested. Organization of specialized preventive examinations for early revealing of persons with personality pathology is based. Efficacy of a number of medications in periand post-menopause – SSRIs and gabapentin, during menopause paroxetine, in depressions of non-psychotic level – pyrazidol, coaxil, in neurotic hypochondriasis sulpiride and quetiapine, diazepam, in climacteric vegetative and mental disorders hormone replacement therapy (HRT, hormonal therapy, PPhT and PT, in neurovegetative symptoms of CS – antidepressants, in psychovegetative syndromes

  9. Are Improvements in Cognitive Content and Depressive Symptoms Correlates or Mediators during Acute-Phase Cognitive Therapy for Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B

    2014-01-09

    The cognitive model of depression posits that cognitive therapy's (CT) effect on depressive symptoms is mediated by changes in cognitive content (e.g., automatic negative thoughts dysfunctional attitudes, failure attributions). We tested improvement and normalization of cognitive content among outpatients ( N = 523) with recurrent major depressive disorder treated with acute-phase CT (Jarrett & Thase, 2010; Jarrett et al., 2013). We also tested whether improvement in cognitive content accounted for subsequent changes in depressive symptoms and vice versa. Five measures of content improved substantively from pre- to post-CT (median d = 0.96), and the proportions of patients scoring in "healthy" ranges increased (median 45% to 82%). Evidence for cognitive mediation of symptom reduction was limited (median r = .06), as was evidence for symptom mediation of cognitive content improvement (median r = .07). We discuss measurement and design issues relevant to detection of mediators and consider alternative theories of change.

  10. Extent of alcohol use and mental health (depressive and post- traumatic stress disorder symptoms in undergraduate university students from 26 low-, middle- and high-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate if there is a non-linear association between varying levels of alcohol use and poor mental health (depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms in university students from low-, middle- and high-income countries.  Methods. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 19 238 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8; standard deviation (SD 2.8 from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Alcohol use was assessed in terms of number of drinks in the past 2 weeks and number of drinks per episode, and measures of depression and PTSD symptoms were administered.  Results. The proportion of students with elevated depression scores was 12.3%, 16.9%, and 11.5% for non-drinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, respectively, while the proportion of students with high PTSD symptoms was 20.6%, 20.4% and 23.1% for non-drinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, respectively. Logistic regression found that non-drinkers and heavy drinkers had a lower odds than moderate drinkers to have severe depression, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, social support and subjective health status. Further, heavy, more frequent drinkers and more frequent binge drinkers had a higher odds to have elevated PTSD symptoms than moderate and non-drinkers, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, social support and subjective health status.  Conclusion. The results suggest a reverse U-shaped association between recent alcohol use volume and frequency and depressive symptoms (unlike that previously identified, and a J-shaped association between binge drinking frequency and depressive symptoms and alcohol use and PTSD symptoms.

  11. The association between symptoms of mental disorders and health risk behaviours in Vietnamese HIV positive outpatients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Truc T; Jones, Mairwen K; Harris, Lynne M; Heard, Robert C

    2017-03-14

    A high prevalence of symptoms of mental disorders (SOMD) has been found among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Additionally, SOMD may impact on the prevalence of high-risk health behaviours (HRB). This study investigates the relationship between SOMD and HRB in a large sample of Vietnamese HIV positive outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 400 outpatients at two HIV/AIDS clinics in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, selected using a systematic sampling technique. Validated scales were used to measure SOMD, specifically symptoms of depression, anxiety, alcohol use disorder (AUD), substance use disorder (SUD) and HIV associated dementia (HAD). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing HRB during the preceding 12 months including unsafe sexual practices and illicit drug use. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between SOMD and HRB. The majority of participants (63.5%) were male and the median age was 34.0 years. Unsafe sexual practices and illicit drug use were reported by 13.8 and 5.5% of participants. The prevalences of HAD, depression, AUD, anxiety and SUD symptoms were 39.8, 36.5, 13.3 10.5, 3.3% respectively. There was no association between SOMD and HRB either with or without adjusting for correlates of HRB, except between symptoms of SUD and illicit drug use. PLHIV who had symptoms of SUD were more likely to use illicit drugs (adjusted Odds Ratio 81.14, 95% CI 12.55-524.47). While the prevalence of SOMD among HIV positive outpatients was high, most SOMD were not associated with increased HRB. Only illicit drug use was predicted by symptoms of SUD. Screening PLHIV for symptoms of SUD may be useful for detecting people likely to be engaging in illicit drug use to reduce the risk of secondary disease transmission.

  12. Self-esteem as a mediator of the relationship between role functioning and symptoms for individuals with severe mental illness: a prospective analysis of Modified Labeling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lisa; Kurzban, Seth; Brekke, John

    2012-05-01

    Despite a growing body of evidence supporting the efficacy of psychosocial rehabilitation for individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), a large proportion of these individuals remain unable to maintain basic social roles such as employee, parent, or spouse. This study investigated whether changes in role functioning over time impact symptom severity indirectly through the mechanism of changes in self-esteem as posited by Modified Labeling theory. The study sample was composed of 148 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, and major depression with psychotic features who elected to participate in community-based psychosocial rehabilitation services. Measures of role functioning, self-esteem, and psychiatric symptoms were gathered at baseline and six months through a combination of structured clinical interviews and self-report surveys. SEM results at baseline provided support for a model in which self-esteem fully mediated the relationship between role functioning and psychiatric symptoms. The final model explained 20% of the variance in psychiatric symptoms. Analyses at six months post-baseline (time 2) indicate that changes in self-esteem fully mediated the relationship between changes in role functioning and changes in psychiatric symptoms. The final change model explained 23% of the variance in changes in psychiatric symptoms. Results provide empirical support for the principles underlying Modified Labeling theory. Implications include the need for interventions that focus on social participation as a means of improving self-esteem, thereby decreasing symptom exacerbation and future relapse for people with SMI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A history of concussions is associated with symptoms of common mental disorders in former male professional athletes across a range of sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Lambert, Michael; Stewart, William; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2017-11-01

    Recent reports suggest that exposure to repetitive concussions in sports is associated with an increased risk of symptoms of distress, anxiety and depression, sleep disturbance or substance abuse/dependence (typically referred as symptoms of common mental disorders[CMD]) and of later development of neurodegenerative disease, in particular chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The primary aim of this study was to explore the relationship between sports career-related concussions and the subsequent occurrence of symptoms of CMD among former male professional athletes retired from football (soccer), ice hockey and rugby (union). Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline electronic questionnaires from three prospective cohort studies among former male professional athletes retired from football (soccer), ice hockey and rugby (union). The number of confirmed concussions was examined through a single question, while symptoms of distress, anxiety and depression, sleep disturbance and adverse alcohol use were assessed using validated questionnaires. From 1,957 former professional athletes contacted, a total of 576 (29%) completed the questionnaire. Of these, 23% had not incurred a concussion during their career, 34% had two or three, 18% four or five, and 11% six or more concussions. The number of sports career-related concussions was a predictor for all outcome measures (β = 0.072-0.109; P ≤ 0.040). Specifically, former professional athletes who reported a history of four or five concussions were approximately 1.5 times more likely to report symptoms of CMD, rising to a two- to five-fold increase in those reporting a history of six or more sports career-related concussions. These data demonstrate an association between exposure to sports concussion and subsequent risk of symptoms of CMD in former professional athletes across a range of contact sports. Further work to explore the association between sports concussion and symptoms of CMD is required; in

  14. The association between symptoms of mental disorders and health risk behaviours in Vietnamese HIV positive outpatients: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truc T. Thai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of symptoms of mental disorders (SOMD has been found among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV. Additionally, SOMD may impact on the prevalence of high-risk health behaviours (HRB. This study investigates the relationship between SOMD and HRB in a large sample of Vietnamese HIV positive outpatients. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 400 outpatients at two HIV/AIDS clinics in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, selected using a systematic sampling technique. Validated scales were used to measure SOMD, specifically symptoms of depression, anxiety, alcohol use disorder (AUD, substance use disorder (SUD and HIV associated dementia (HAD. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing HRB during the preceding 12 months including unsafe sexual practices and illicit drug use. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between SOMD and HRB. Results The majority of participants (63.5% were male and the median age was 34.0 years. Unsafe sexual practices and illicit drug use were reported by 13.8 and 5.5% of participants. The prevalences of HAD, depression, AUD, anxiety and SUD symptoms were 39.8, 36.5, 13.3 10.5, 3.3% respectively. There was no association between SOMD and HRB either with or without adjusting for correlates of HRB, except between symptoms of SUD and illicit drug use. PLHIV who had symptoms of SUD were more likely to use illicit drugs (adjusted Odds Ratio 81.14, 95% CI 12.55–524.47. Conclusions While the prevalence of SOMD among HIV positive outpatients was high, most SOMD were not associated with increased HRB. Only illicit drug use was predicted by symptoms of SUD. Screening PLHIV for symptoms of SUD may be useful for detecting people likely to be engaging in illicit drug use to reduce the risk of secondary disease transmission.

  15. Maternal mental health symptoms are positively related to emotional and restrained eating attitudes in a statewide sample of mothers participating in a supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Jillian A; Hurley, Kristen M; Caulfield, Laura E; Black, Maureen M

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum, low-income mothers are at risk for mental health symptoms and obesity, and disordered eating attitudes may be associated with both mental health and obesity in this vulnerable population. The study objective is to determine whether higher levels of mental health symptoms are associated with increased odds of emotional and restrained eating attitudes in this sample of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Data on 711 mothers of infants Maternal mental health symptoms were measured on continuous scales for depression (PRIME-MD), stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Emotional and restrained eating attitudes were measured with questions adapted from the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] was explored as a moderating variable. Mothers reporting higher levels of depression symptoms [odds ratio (OR) = 3.93, 95%CI: 2.71-5.69], anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.47-2.65), stress symptoms (OR = 2.09, 95%CI: 1.67-2.61) and high overall mental health symptomatology (OR = 3.51, 95%CI: 2.43-5.3) had increased odds of emotional eating attitudes. There were significant associations between symptoms of depression (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.12-2.25) and increased odds of restrained eating attitudes. Obesity did not moderate the association. Mothers with mental health symptoms are at risk for disordered eating attitudes, which may increase risk of poor diet. These findings underscore the need for greater focus on addressing maternal mental health status and eating attitudes in the postpartum period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of Guided Written Disclosure Protocol on mood states and psychological symptoms among parents of off-therapy acute lymphoblastic leukemia children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Luisa; Freda, Maria Francesca; Camera, Flavia

    2013-06-01

    This study assesses the effects of Guided Written Disclosure Protocol on psychological distress in mothers and fathers of off-therapy acute lymphoblastic leukemia children. An experimental group participated in the writing intervention with a control group subject only to test-taking standards. The Symptom Questionnaire and Profile of Mood States were administered at baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up. Guided Written Disclosure Protocol had significant effects on the progressive reduction of anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, hostility, tension-anxiety, and fatigue-inertia within the experimental group. However, the control group distress levels tended to worsen over time. The mediating role of emotional processing was highlighted.

  17. A 12-month exercise intervention decreased stress symptoms and increased mental resources among working adults – Results perceived after a 12-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oili Kettunen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the effect of a 12-month physical exercise intervention accompanied by a 12-month followup evaluating stress symptoms (SS, mental resources (MR and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF in healthy, working adults. We hypothesized that the stress symptoms would decrease and mental resources would increase during the intervention and that these results are associated with changes in CRF. Material and methods The study group included healthy adults (N = 371. Three hundred thirty eight participants (212 women, 126 men were allocated in the exercise group and 33 in the control group (17 women and 16 men. For the analysis, the exercise group was divided into subgroups according to the baseline SS and MR. Stress symptoms and MR were measured using the Occupational Stress Questionnaire. Results During the 12-month exercise intervention, SS decreased by 16% (p < 0.0001, MR increased by 8% (p < 0.0001 and CRF increased by 7% (p < 0.0001 in the exercise group, while no changes occurred in the control group (ANCOVA, p < 0.01. In the exercise group, the results (SS, MR, and CRF remained improved during the follow-up. There was a positive correlation between the change in SS and the change in CRF (r = 0.19, p < 0.01. In the subgroup having the highest SS at baseline, SS during the intervention decreased most (26% (ANCOVA, p < 0.0001. Conclusions One year physical exercise intervention improved mental well-being among working adults and this was associated with an improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. The positive changes remained after the 12-month follow-up.

  18. Comparing Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms of Depression in Myocardial Infarction Patients and Depressed Patients in Primary and Mental Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Nynke A.; Doornbos, Bennard; Zuidersma, Marij; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Aleman, Andre; de Jonge, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Depression in myocardial infarction patients is often a first episode with a late age of onset. Two studies that compared depressed myocardial infarction patients to psychiatric patients found similar levels of somatic symptoms, and one study reported lower levels of cognitive/affective symptoms in

  19. Food and mental health: relationship between food and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among university students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Adetunji, Hamed; Oskrochi, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The current study assessed, by university and sex, the association between nutritional behaviour (twelve independent variables), and stress and depressive symptoms (dependent variables) in a sample from three UK countries. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among undergraduates enrolled across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (N = 3,706). Self-administered questionnaires included a 12-item food frequency questionnaire, Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and modified Beck Depression Inventory. Sex and university comparisons were undertaken. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were computed for each of the two outcomes--perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The frequencies of consuming of the various food groups differed by university and sex, as did depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Multivariable regression analyses indicated that consuming 'unhealthy' foods (e.g. sweets, cookies, snacks, fast food) was significantly positively associated with perceived stress (females only) and depressive symptoms (both males and females). Conversely, consuming 'healthy' foods (e.g. fresh fruits, salads, cooked vegetables) was significantly negatively associated with perceived stress and depressive symptoms scores for both sexes. There was significant negative association between consuming fish/sea food and depressive symptoms among males only. For males and for females, consuming lemonade/soft drinks, meat/sausage products, dairy/dairy products, and cereal/cereal products were not associated with either perceived stress or depressive symptoms. The associations between consuming 'unhealthy' foods and higher depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students as well as the associations between consuming 'healthy' foods and lower depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students in three UK countries suggest that interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and stress among students could

  20. "Symptoms of something all around us": Mental health, Inuit culture, and criminal justice in Arctic communities in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Rehabilitation-oriented criminal court mental health initiatives to reduce the number of people with mental illness caught in the criminal justice system exist in many North American cities and elsewhere but not in the mainly Inuit Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut. This study explores whether the therapeutic aims of these resource-intensive, mainly urban initiatives can be achieved in criminal courts in Nunavut's resource constrained, culturally distinct and geographically remote communities. A qualitative multiple-case study in the communities of Iqaluit, Arviat and Qikiqtarjuaq involved 55 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups with participants representing four sectors essential to these initiatives: justice, health, community organizations and community members. These interviews explored whether the therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) principles that guide criminal court mental health initiatives and the component objectives of these principles could be used to improve the criminal court response to people with mental illness in Nunavut. Interviews revealed 13 themes reflecting perceptions of Inuit culture's influence on the identification of people with mental illness, treatment, and collaboration between the court and others. These themes include cultural differences in defining mental illness, differences in traditional and contemporary treatment models, and the importance of mutual cultural respect. The findings suggest Inuit culture, including its recent history of cultural disruption and change, affects the vulnerability of Nunavut communities to the potential moral and legal pitfalls associated with TJ and criminal court mental health initiatives. These pitfalls include the dominance of biomedical approaches when identifying a target population, the medicalization of behaviour and culture, the risk of "paternalism" in therapeutic interventions, and shortcomings in interdisciplinary collaboration that limit considerations of Inuit culture. The

  1. The Correlation between Personality and Mental Symptoms in Neurotic Disorders%神经症患者人格与心理症状相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永新

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation between personality and mental symptoms in neurosis. Methods: Eighty Patients with neurotic disorder were assessed with the Symptom Check List 90(SCL-90) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Results: By stepwise regression analysis, the N score of EPQ was positively correlated with the mean score and factor scores on SCL-90, and their standard regression coefficients were 0.277~0.508. The P score of EPQ was positively correlated with the mean score and the scores of depression, hostility, paranoid idea on SCL-90, and their standard regression coefficients were 0.245~0.362. The E score of EPQ was negatively correlated with the scores of interpersonal sensitivity , depression on SCL-90 and their standard regression coefficients were-0.209 and -0.229. Conclusion: Personality played significant role in neurotic disorders.

  2. Identification of biomarkers for radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms (RIAISs) in cervical cancer patients by serum protein profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Yanlan; Wang Juan; Gao Ying

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms (RIAISs) are the most frequent complication of radiotherapy that causes great pain and limits the treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to identify serum biomarkers of RIAISs in cervical cancer patients by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). Serum samples were collected from 66 cervical cancer patients prior to pelvic radiotherapy. In our study, RIAISs occurred in 11 patients. An additional 11 patients without RIAISs were selected as controls, whose age, stage, histological type and treatment methods were matched to RIAISs patients. The 22 sera were subsequently analyzed by SELDI-TOF MS, and the resulting protein profiles were evaluated to identify biomarkers using appropriate bioinformatics tools. Comparing the protein profiles of serum samples from the RIAIS group and the control group, it was found that 22 protein peaks were significantly different (P < 0.05), and six of these peaks with mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios of 7514.9, 4603.94, 6887.41, 2769.21, 3839.72 and 4215.7 were successfully identified. A decision tree model of biomarkers was constructed based on three biomarkers (m/z 1270.88, 1503.23 and 7514.90), which separated RIAIS-affected patients from the control group with an accuracy of 81%. This study suggests that serum proteomic analysis by SELDI-TOF MS can identify cervical cancer patients that are susceptible to RIAISs prior to pelvic radiotherapy. (author)

  3. Effects of Slow-Stroke Back Massage on Symptom Cluster in Adult Patients With Acute Leukemia: Supportive Care in Cancer Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinia, Mojtaba; Baraz, Shahram; Shariati, Abdolali; Malehi, Amal Saki

    Patients with acute leukemia usually experience pain, fatigue, and sleep disorders, which affect their quality of life. Massage therapy, as a nondrug approach, can be useful in controlling such problems. However, very few studies have been conducted on the effects of massage therapy on the complications of leukemia. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of slow-stroke back massage (SSBM) on the symptom cluster in acute leukemia adult patients undergoing chemotherapy. In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients with acute leukemia were allocated randomly to either the intervention or control group. The intervention group received SSBM 3 times a week (every other day for 10 minutes) for 4 weeks. The pain, fatigue, and sleep disorder intensities were measured using the numeric rating scale. The sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Statistical tests of χ, t test, and the repeated-measure analysis of variance were used for data analysis. Results showed that the SSBM intervention significantly reduced the progressive sleep disorder, pain, fatigue, and improved sleep quality over time. Slow-stroke back massage, as a simple, noninvasive, and cost-effective approach, along with routine nursing care, can be used to improve the symptom cluster of pain, fatigue, and sleep disorders in leukemia patients. Oncology nurses can increase their knowledge regarding this symptom cluster and work to diminish the cluster components by using SSBM in adult leukemia patients.

  4. Co-occurrence of and remission from general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after acute lung injury: a 2-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Shanholtz, Carl; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl R.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the co-occurrence, and predictors of remission, of general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during 2-year follow-up in survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) treated in an intensive care unit (ICU). Design, Setting, and Patients This prospective cohort study enrolled 520 patients from 13 medical and surgical ICUs in 4 hospitals, with follow-up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post-ALI. Measurements and Main Results The outcomes of interest were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) anxiety and depression subscales (scores ≥8 indicating substantial symptoms) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IESR, scores ≥1.6 indicating substantial PTSD symptoms). Of the 520 enrolled patients, 274 died before 3-month follow-up; 186/196 consenting survivors (95%) completed at least one HADS and IESR assessment during 2-year follow-up, and most completed multiple assessments. Across follow-up time points, the prevalence of supra-threshold general anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms ranged from 38–44%, 26–33%, and 22–24%, respectively; more than half of the patients had supra-threshold symptoms in at least one domain during 2-year follow-up. The majority (59%) of survivors with any supra-threshold symptoms were above threshold for 2 or more types of symptoms (i.e., of general anxiety, depression, and/or PTSD). In fact, the most common pattern involved simultaneous general anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms. Most patients with general anxiety, depression, or PTSD symptoms during 2-year follow-up had supra-threshold symptoms at 24-month (last) follow-up. Higher SF-36 physical functioning domain scores at the prior visit were associated with a greater likelihood of remission from general anxiety and PTSD symptoms during follow-up. Conclusions The majority of ALI survivors had clinically significant general anxiety, depressive, or PTSD symptoms, and these symptoms tended to co-occur across

  5. Mental illness and legal fitness (competence) to stand trial in New York State: expert opinion and criminal defendants' psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eugene; Rosner, Richard; Harmon, Ronnie

    2014-07-01

    Fitness to Stand Trial is a critical concept in the adjudication of justice-involved persons. A retrospective study was conducted to examine criminal defendants' specific psychiatric symptoms and those symptoms' associations with expert opinions on Competence to Stand Trial. One hundred charts were reviewed: 50 Cases (opined as Not Fit) were compared against 50 Controls (opined as Fit) with respect to ratings on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). A significance level of 0.001 was selected a priori. Statistically significant differences were found in seven of the eighteen BPRS symptom constructs (with the highest differences in Conceptual Disorganization and Unusual Thought Content) and two of the four BPRS higher-order syndrome factors (Thinking Disorder and Hostile-Suspiciousness). Consistent with previous reports, psychotic symptoms are found in this study to be inversely associated with Fitness. Validity, reliability, and limitations of this study, as well as directions for future research, are discussed herein. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Symptoms, the Nature of Fibromyalgia, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5 (DSM-5) Defined Mental Illness in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Frederick; Walitt, Brian T.; Katz, Robert S.; Häuser, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe and evaluate somatic symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and fibromyalgia, determine the relation between somatization syndromes and fibromyalgia, and evaluate symptom data in light of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) criteria for somatic symptom disorder. Methods We administered the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), a measure of somatic symptom severity to 6,233 persons with fibromyalgia, RA, and osteoarthritis. PHQ-15 scores of 5, 10, and 15 represent low, medium, and high somatic symptom severity cut-points. A likely somatization syndrome was diagnosed when PHQ-15 score was ≥10. The intensity of fibromyalgia diagnostic symptoms was measured by the polysymptomatic distress (PSD) scale. Results 26.4% of RA patients and 88.9% with fibromyalgia had PHQ-15 scores ≥10 compared with 9.3% in the general population. With each step-wise increase in PHQ-15 category, more abnormal mental and physical health status scores were observed. RA patients satisfying fibromyalgia criteria increased from 1.2% in the PHQ-15 low category to 88.9% in the high category. The sensitivity and specificity of PHQ-15≥10 for fibromyalgia diagnosis was 80.9% and 80.0% (correctly classified = 80.3%) compared with 84.3% and 93.7% (correctly classified = 91.7%) for the PSD scale. 51.4% of fibromyalgia patients and 14.8% with RA had fatigue, sleep or cognitive problems that were severe, continuous, and life-disturbing; and almost all fibromyalgia patients had severe impairments of function and quality of life. Conclusions All patients with fibromyalgia will satisfy the DSM-5 “A” criterion for distressing somatic symptoms, and most would seem to satisfy DSM-5 “B” criterion because symptom impact is life-disturbing or associated with substantial impairment of function and quality of life. But the “B” designation requires special knowledge that symptoms are “disproportionate” or “excessive,” something that is

  7. Symptoms, the nature of fibromyalgia, and diagnostic and statistical manual 5 (DSM-5) defined mental illness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Frederick; Walitt, Brian T; Katz, Robert S; Häuser, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    To describe and evaluate somatic symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and fibromyalgia, determine the relation between somatization syndromes and fibromyalgia, and evaluate symptom data in light of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) criteria for somatic symptom disorder. We administered the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), a measure of somatic symptom severity to 6,233 persons with fibromyalgia, RA, and osteoarthritis. PHQ-15 scores of 5, 10, and 15 represent low, medium, and high somatic symptom severity cut-points. A likely somatization syndrome was diagnosed when PHQ-15 score was ≥10. The intensity of fibromyalgia diagnostic symptoms was measured by the polysymptomatic distress (PSD) scale. 26.4% of RA patients and 88.9% with fibromyalgia had PHQ-15 scores ≥10 compared with 9.3% in the general population. With each step-wise increase in PHQ-15 category, more abnormal mental and physical health status scores were observed. RA patients satisfying fibromyalgia criteria increased from 1.2% in the PHQ-15 low category to 88.9% in the high category. The sensitivity and specificity of PHQ-15≥10 for fibromyalgia diagnosis was 80.9% and 80.0% (correctly classified = 80.3%) compared with 84.3% and 93.7% (correctly classified = 91.7%) for the PSD scale. 51.4% of fibromyalgia patients and 14.8% with RA had fatigue, sleep or cognitive problems that were severe, continuous, and life-disturbing; and almost all fibromyalgia patients had severe impairments of function and quality of life. All patients with fibromyalgia will satisfy the DSM-5 "A" criterion for distressing somatic symptoms, and most would seem to satisfy DSM-5 "B" criterion because symptom impact is life-disturbing or associated with substantial impairment of function and quality of life. But the "B" designation requires special knowledge that symptoms are "disproportionate" or "excessive," something that is uncertain and controversial. The reliability and validity

  8. Symptoms, the nature of fibromyalgia, and diagnostic and statistical manual 5 (DSM-5 defined mental illness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Wolfe

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate somatic symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and fibromyalgia, determine the relation between somatization syndromes and fibromyalgia, and evaluate symptom data in light of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5 criteria for somatic symptom disorder. METHODS: We administered the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15, a measure of somatic symptom severity to 6,233 persons with fibromyalgia, RA, and osteoarthritis. PHQ-15 scores of 5, 10, and 15 represent low, medium, and high somatic symptom severity cut-points. A likely somatization syndrome was diagnosed when PHQ-15 score was ≥10. The intensity of fibromyalgia diagnostic symptoms was measured by the polysymptomatic distress (PSD scale. RESULTS: 26.4% of RA patients and 88.9% with fibromyalgia had PHQ-15 scores ≥10 compared with 9.3% in the general population. With each step-wise increase in PHQ-15 category, more abnormal mental and physical health status scores were observed. RA patients satisfying fibromyalgia criteria increased from 1.2% in the PHQ-15 low category to 88.9% in the high category. The sensitivity and specificity of PHQ-15≥10 for fibromyalgia diagnosis was 80.9% and 80.0% (correctly classified = 80.3% compared with 84.3% and 93.7% (correctly classified = 91.7% for the PSD scale. 51.4% of fibromyalgia patients and 14.8% with RA had fatigue, sleep or cognitive problems that were severe, continuous, and life-disturbing; and almost all fibromyalgia patients had severe impairments of function and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: All patients with fibromyalgia will satisfy the DSM-5 "A" criterion for distressing somatic symptoms, and most would seem to satisfy DSM-5 "B" criterion because symptom impact is life-disturbing or associated with substantial impairment of function and quality of life. But the "B" designation requires special knowledge that symptoms are "disproportionate" or "excessive," something that is

  9. Symptom specificity in the acute treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: a re-analysis of the treatment of depression collaborative research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeremy G; Harkness, Kate L

    2012-03-01

    Antidepressant medications, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) are equally efficacious in the acute treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, remission rates remain unacceptably low. Examining the differential time course of remission of specific symptom clusters across treatments may provide a basis for assigning patients to treatments that have the highest chance of being effective. This study re-analyzed data from the NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Project (TDCRP), which included 250 adult outpatients with MDD randomized to 16 weeks of CBT, IPT, imipramine+clinical management (IMI-CM), or pill placebo (PLA-CM). We derived four symptom factors from the 23-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and three symptom factors from the Beck Depression Inventory. Within-subject hierarchical regression models were specified to examine the linear and quadratic patterns of symptom remission over five assessment points. IMI-CM produced a more rapid rate of remission than CBT or IPT for both the somatic/vegetative and cognitive-affective symptoms of MDD. There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of improvement of any of the symptom factors between the IMI-CM and PLA-CM groups. Some core symptoms of depression were excluded due to low factor loadings. Past research has argued that the CBT arm in the TDCRP may have been weak. We failed to find evidence that treatments act preferentially on specific symptom clusters. Therefore, the symptoms of MDD may be inter-dependent when it comes to their courses of remission in treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. SHARPSports mental Health Awareness Research Project: Prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms and life stress in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beable, Sarah; Fulcher, Mark; Lee, Arier C; Hamilton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Our study aims to estimate the prevalence of symptoms of depression and daily life hassles in elite athletes. A cross-sectional prospective epidemiological study design. An online anonymous survey was administered during a 2-month period from May to July 2015. Athletes 18 years of age (or older) who were members of the High Performance Sport New Zealand programme were invited to participate. Of 370 potential participants, 187 completed responses were received (51%). Symptoms of depression were measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CESD-R). Life stress was measured by the Daily Hassles Questionnaire. Overall 21% (n=39) of participants reported symptoms consistent with depression. Only 2 of the 39 athletes were currently taking an anti-depressant medication. Those contemplating retirement, partaking in individual sport, and who were less than 25 years old had significantly increased odds of experiencing depression. Reported life stressors were higher in females, in those who play an individual sport and those in a centralised programme. There was a significant correlation between higher levels of life stress and experiencing depressive symptoms. This study highlights that depressive symptoms are prevalent in elite athletes with multiple potential risk factors identified including high life stress. These variables warrant further exploration to enable the early identification of athletes with depressive symptoms, screening and support for elite athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of a good practice manual on professional practice associated with psychotropic PRN in acute mental health wards: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J A; Lovell, K; Harris, N

    2008-10-01

    As required or pro re nata (PRN) psychotropic medicines are frequently used in acute mental health wards. PRN is known to contribute to polypharmacy and high doses of antipsychotic medication. Few studies have attempted to improve clinician's use of these potentially harmful drugs. The objectives of the study were to determine the impact and acceptability of a good practice manual on prescribing and administration practices of PRN psychotropic medication in acute mental health wards. The study used a pre-post exploratory design with two acute mental health wards in the NW of England. Over the total trial period of 10 weeks, 28 of 35 patients received 484 doses of PRN. Patients had a mean of 3.6 prescriptions of 14 different PRN medications in 34 different dose combinations prescribed. Medication errors beyond poor quality of prescribing occurred in 23 of the 35 patients (65.7%). Prescription quality improved following the introduction of the intervention but quality of nursing notes reduced. Acceptability of the manual to both nursing and medical staff was high. The introduction of the manual appeared to influence some of the practices associated with the prescribing and administration of PRN psychotropic medications. Further, larger, more robust studies are required in this area. In particular research is required to identify the reasons why professionals continue to rely so heavily on using PRN medication.

  12. On the road to recovery : Addressing negative symptoms, cognitive deficits and environmental factors in residential patients with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiekema, Anna Petronella Maria

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with severe mental illness experience difficulties with adapting to the impact of their illness and with developing new meaning and purpose in life. This process of adapting to the consequences of the illness is called recovery. Patients in residential facilities often have stagnated

  13. Acute CT perfusion changes in seizure patients presenting to the emergency department with stroke-like symptoms: correlation with clinical and electroencephalography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payabvash, S.; Oswood, M.C.; Truwit, C.L.; McKinney, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine acute computed tomography perfusion (CTP) changes in seizure patients presenting with stroke-like symptoms and to correlate those changes with clinical presentation and electroencephalography (EEG). Materials and methods: The medical records of all patients who presented to the emergency department with acute stroke-like symptoms and underwent CTP (n=1085) over a 5.5-year period were reviewed. Patients were included who had primary seizure as the final diagnosis, and underwent CTP within 3 hours of symptom onset. A subset of patients had a follow-up EEG within 7 days. The perfusion changes and EEG findings were compared between different clinical presentations. Results: Eighteen of 1085 patients (1.7%) who underwent CTP following an acute stroke-like presentation were included. The abnormality on CTP was usually focal, unilateral hyperperfusion — increased relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and volume (rCBV) (n=14/18), which most often affected the temporal lobe. Those patients who presented with a motor or speech deficit (n=12) had a higher temporal lobe rCBV, and rCBF, and lower relative mean transit time (rMTT) compared to those with non-focal neurological deficit at presentation. Early EEG was available in 13 patients; a sharp-spike epileptiform EEG discharge pattern (n=5) was associated with higher temporal lobe ipsilateral rCBF and rCBV, and lower rMTT on admission CTP examination. Conclusion: Seizure patients who present with a unilateral motor or speech deficit most commonly have contralateral hyperperfusion in the corresponding eloquent brain regions on the acute-stage CTP examination. In such patients, epileptiform discharges on the early follow-up EEG are associated with ipsilateral hyperperfusion on the admission CTP. -- Highlights: •Seizure patients with stroke-mimic symptoms show contralateral hyperperfusion on acute phase CTP (<3 hours of onset). •Seizure patients with unilateral paralysis/aphasia showed asymmetric perfusion

  14. Somatic symptom disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Somatic symptom disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . ...

  15. A pilot study on the Chinese Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders: Simulators classified by using the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Ting; Tam, Wai-Cheong C; Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chiang, Shih-Kuang

    2017-09-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is often used in forensic psychological/psychiatric assessment. This was a pilot study on the utility of the Chinese MMPI-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders. The sample consisted of 194 university students who were either simulators (informed or uninformed) or controls. All the participants were administered the Chinese MMPI-2 and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms-2 (SIRS-2). The results of the SIRS-2 were utilized to classify the participants into the feigning or control groups. The effectiveness of eight detection indices was investigated by using item analysis, multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results indicated that informed-simulating participants with prior knowledge of mental disorders did not perform better in avoiding feigning detection than uninformed-simulating participants. In addition, the eight detection indices of the Chinese MMPI-2 were effective in discriminating participants in the feigning and control groups, and the best cut-off scores of three of the indices were higher than those obtained from the studies using the English MMPI-2. Thus, in this sample of university students, the utility of the Chinese MMPI-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders was tentatively supported, and the Chinese Infrequency Scale (ICH), a scale developed specifically for the Chinese MMPI-2, was also supported as a valid scale for validity checking. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Agreement between clients with schizophrenia and mental health workers on clients' social quality of life: The role of social cognition and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofir-Eyal, Shani; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Kravetz, Shlomo; Lysaker, Paul H

    2017-06-01

    Studies have showed that therapists and mental health workers of persons with schizophrenia tend to estimate their patients' social quality of life (SQoL) as poorer than the clients' own estimation. This study explores the hypothesis that this discrepancy is related to clients' social cognition and symptomatology. Cross-sectional assessment of both clients and their mental health workers. Ninety persons with schizophrenia and 12 persons who were formal care providers participated in the study. All responded to a parallel version (client and clinician) of social quality-of-life scales. Clients' emotion identification, theory of mind and symptoms were also assessed. Low social cognitive abilities of persons with schizophrenia, as well as negative symptomatology and having children, may be related to the negative bias of mental health workers, with regard to their client's SQoL. While more severe levels of negative symptoms and more deficits of social cognition were related to reduced levels of agreement, paradoxically, a relatively normative family life that includes parenting was also related to lower levels of agreement. Attention should be given to low agreement between clients with schizophrenia and clinicians with regard to the client's quality of life, as it is central to alliance and outcome. Clinicians tend to estimate clients' social quality of life as poorer than the clients' own estimation when those clients have low social cognition, high negative symptomatology and children. There is a need to identify additional factors that contribute to agreement and alliance in therapy. Longitudinal assessment during therapy can trace the process of construction of agreement. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Acute Care Use for Ambulatory Care-Sensitive Conditions in High-Cost Users of Medical Care with Mental Illness and Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Jennifer M; Taylor, Valerie H; Fung, Kinwah; Yang, Rebecca; Vigod, Simone N

    2018-01-01

    The role of mental illness and addiction in acute care use for chronic medical conditions that are sensitive to ambulatory care management requires focussed attention. This study examines how mental illness or addiction affects risk for repeat hospitalization and/or emergency department use for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) among high-cost users of medical care. A retrospective, population-based cohort study using data from Ontario, Canada. Among the top 10% of medical care users ranked by cost, we determined rates of any and repeat care use (hospitalizations and emergency department [ED] visits) between April 1, 2011, and March 31, 2012, for 14 consensus established ACSCs and compared them between those with and without diagnosed mental illness or addiction during the 2 years prior. Risk ratios were adjusted (aRR) for age, sex, residence, and income quintile. Among 314,936 high-cost users, 35.9% had a mental illness or addiction. Compared to those without, individuals with mental illness or addiction were more likely to have an ED visit or hospitalization for any ACSC (22.8% vs. 19.6%; aRR, 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.23). They were also more likely to have repeat ED visits or hospitalizations for the same ACSC (6.2% vs. 4.4% of those without; aRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.44-1.53). These associations were stronger in stratifications by mental illness diagnostic subgroup, particularly for those with a major mental illness. The presence of mental illness and addiction among high-cost users of medical services may represent an unmet need for quality ambulatory and primary care.

  18. Acute and Chronic Risk Preceding Suicidal Crises Among Middle-Aged Men Without Known Mental Health and/or Substance Abuse Problems: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Lara B; Holland, Kristin M; Stone, Deborah M; Logan, J; Marshall, Khiya J; Martell, Brandi; Bartholow, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Suicides among men aged 35-64 years increased by 27% between 1999 and 2013, yet little research exists to examine the nature of the suicide risk within this population. Many men do not seek help if they have mental health problems and suicides may occur in reaction to stressful circumstances. We examined the precipitating circumstances of 600 suicides without known mental health or substance abuse (MH/SA) problems and with a recent crisis. Whether these suicides occurred within the context of an acute crisis only or in the context of chronic circumstances was observed. Using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System and employing mixed-methods analysis, we examined the circumstances and context of a census of middle-aged male suicides (n = 600) in seven states between 2005 and 2010. Precipitating circumstances among this group involved intimate partner problems (IPP; 58.3%), criminal/legal problems (50.7%), job/financial problems (22.5%), and health problems (13.5%). Men with IPP and criminal/legal issues were more likely than men with health and/or job/financial issues to experience suicide in the context of an acute crisis only. Suicides occurring in reaction to an acute crisis only or in the context of acute and chronic circumstances lend themselves to opportunities for intervention. Further implications are discussed.

  19. Acute CT perfusion changes in seizure patients presenting to the emergency department with stroke-like symptoms: correlation with clinical and electroencephalography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payabvash, S; Oswood, M C; Truwit, C L; McKinney, A M

    2015-10-01

    To determine acute computed tomography perfusion (CTP) changes in seizure patients presenting with stroke-like symptoms and to correlate those changes with clinical presentation and electroencephalography (EEG). The medical records of all patients who presented to the emergency department with acute stroke-like symptoms and underwent CTP (n=1085) over a 5.5-year period were reviewed. Patients were included who had primary seizure as the final diagnosis, and underwent CTP within 3 hours of symptom onset. A subset of patients had a follow-up EEG within 7 days. The perfusion changes and EEG findings were compared between different clinical presentations. Eighteen of 1085 patients (1.7%) who underwent CTP following an acute stroke-like presentation were included. The abnormality on CTP was usually focal, unilateral hyperperfusion - increased relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and volume (rCBV) (n=14/18), which most often affected the temporal lobe. Those patients who presented with a motor or speech deficit (n=12) had a higher temporal lobe rCBV, and rCBF, and lower relative mean transit time (rMTT) compared to those with non-focal neurological deficit at presentation. Early EEG was available in 13 patients; a sharp-spike epileptiform EEG discharge pattern (n=5) was associated with higher temporal lobe ipsilateral rCBF and rCBV, and lower rMTT on admission CTP examination. Seizure patients who present with a unilateral motor or speech deficit most commonly have contralateral hyperperfusion in the corresponding eloquent brain regions on the acute-stage CTP examination. In such patients, epileptiform discharges on the early follow-up EEG are associated with ipsilateral hyperperfusion on the admission CTP. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Combat Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Acute Symptoms on Mental Health and Service Discharge Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Mild traumatic brain injury in an insured population: Subjective complaints and return to employment. Brain Inj. 6, 161 166. 15. Kraus, J., Schaffer, K...B., Haddon, W., Jr., and Long, W.B. (1974). The Injury Severity Score: A method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating...consciousness predict neuropsychological decrements after concussion? Clin. J. Sport Med. 9, 193 198. 26. Gil, S., Caspi, Y., Ben Ari, I.Z., Koren, D., and

  1. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i) purpose of instrument, (ii) construct measured, (iii) contents of construct, (iv) local idioms employed, (v) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64) aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old). The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14); CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20). The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7), "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10), and "feeling

  2. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Wietse A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i purpose of instrument, (ii construct measured, (iii contents of construct, (iv local idioms employed, (v structure of response sets, and (vi comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64 aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old. The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14; CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20. The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7, "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10, and

  3. Perceived mental health related stigma, gender, and depressive symptom severity in a psychiatric facility in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Raguram, R; Rao, Deepa

    2014-06-01

    Few studies exist on the topic of gender associated with depression and mental health-related stigma coming out of non-Western countries such as India. We aimed to add to the literature by assessing these relationships among adults seeking psychiatric services in India. Participants were 60 individuals seeking care at a psychiatric clinic in Bangalore, India. The majority of participants were female with a mean age of 36 years (SD=9.75). Contrary to our prediction, there were no significant differences between men (M=28.96; SD=9.85) and women (M=33.03; SD=12.08) on depression severity, t(58)=1.42, p=.16. Yet, women (M=10.09, SD=8.23) reported significantly more perceived stigma than men (M=5.79, SD=5.86), t(58)=2.30, p=.02. While men and women seeking psychiatric services at the psychiatric clinic in India report similar levels of depression severity, women reported more perceived mental illness stigma. Having experienced regular forms of discrimination associated with female status in India, it may be the case that women are more attuned to other forms of stigma, such as mental health stigma investigated in the present study. Given the detrimental impact of stigma on treatment adherence and engagement in care, additional research is needed support this work, including research on interventions to reduce stigma and improve engagement in care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Cook

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural language processing (NLP and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12. Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being and responses to one unstructured question, “how do you feel today?” We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4 were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible.

  5. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin L; Progovac, Ana M; Chen, Pei; Mullin, Brian; Hou, Sherry; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12). Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being) and responses to one unstructured question, "how do you feel today?" We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4) were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible.

  6. Cultural stressors and mental health symptoms among Mexican Americans: a prospective study examining the impact of the family and neighborhood context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rajni L; White, Rebecca M B; Roosa, Mark W; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2013-10-01

    Studies of stress consistently have linked individuals' experiences of stress to maladjustment, but limited attention has been given to cultural stressors commonly experienced by minority individuals. To address this, the current study examined the links between cultural stressors and prospective changes in mental health symptoms in a sample of 710 (49 % female) Mexican American youth. In addition, the moderating role of both family and neighborhood cohesion was examined. In-home interviews were completed with youth, mothers (required) and fathers (optional) to collect data on youth's experiences of cultural stressors (discrimination and language hassles) and internalizing/externalizing behavior, and mothers' report of family cohesion and mothers' and fathers' report of neighborhood cohesion. Analyses revealed that youth's experiences of discrimination and language hassles at 5th grade were related positively to increases in internalizing symptoms at 7th grade. Additionally, youths who reported higher levels of language hassles in 5th grade experienced increases in externalizing symptoms across the 2-year span. Both family and neighborhood cohesion emerged as significant moderating factors but their impact was conditional on youth's gender and nativity. Limitations and future implications are discussed.

  7. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.

  8. Latino Adolescents' Mental Health: Exploring the Interrelations among Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, Cultural Orientation, Self-Esteem, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2007-01-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study used cross-sectional data to examine the degree to which Latino adolescents' (N=274; M age=16.3; 47.1% female) self-esteem, ethnic identity, and cultural orientations mediated or moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a multiple group…

  9. Acute respiratory symptoms and general illness during the first year of life: a population-based birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Larsen, Karina

    2008-01-01

    . Determinants for respiratory symptoms were increasing age, winter season, household size, size of residence, day-care attendance, and having siblings aged 1-3 years attending a day nursery. In conclusion, the present study provides detailed data on the occurrence of disease symptoms during the first year......Respiratory symptoms are common in infancy. Most illnesses occurring among children are dealt with by parents and do not require medical attention. Nevertheless, few studies have prospectively and on a community-basis assessed the amount of respiratory symptoms and general illness in normal infants...... out by multiple logistic regression analysis. On average, children had general symptoms for 3.5 months during their first year of life, nasal discharge being most frequent followed by cough. Frequency of all symptoms increased steeply after 6 months of age. Each child had on average 6.3 episodes...

  10. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Mariana; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10 8  colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer

  11. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Mariana, E-mail: mari1980hemato@yahoo.com.br [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira [Department of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10{sup 8} colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  12. Clinical and virological factors associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with acute respiratory infection: a two-year prospective study in general practice medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, Laetitia; Masse, Shirley; Capai, Lisandru; Blanchon, Thierry; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; van der Werf, Sylvie; Hanslik, Thomas; Charrel, Remi; Falchi, Alessandra

    2017-11-22

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, such as diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain and nausea are not an uncommon manifestation of an acute respiratory infection (ARI). We therefore evaluated clinical and microbiological factors associated with the presence of GI symptoms in patients consulting a general practitioner (GP) for ARI. Nasopharyngeal swabs, stool specimens and clinical data from patients presenting to GPs with an ARI were prospectively collected during two winter seasons (2014-2016). Samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR for 12 respiratory pathogen groups and for 12 enteric pathogens. Two hundred and four of 331 included patients (61.6%) were positive for at least one respiratory pathogen. Sixty-nine stools (20.8%) were positive for at least one pathogen (respiratory and/or enteric). GI symptoms were more likely declared in case of laboratory confirmed-enteric infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.2-9.9]; p = 0.02) or human coronavirus (HCoV) infection (aOR = 2.7; [1.2-6.8]; p = 0.02). Consumption of antipyretic medication before the consultation seemed to reduce the risk of developing GI symptoms for patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza (aOR = 0.3; [0.1-0.6]; p = 0.002). The presence of GI symptoms in ARI patients could not be explained by the detection of respiratory pathogens in stools. However, the detection of enteric pathogens in stool samples could explained by the presence of GI symptoms in some of ARI cases. The biological mechanisms explaining the association between the presence of HCoVs in nasopharynx and GI symptoms need to be explored.

  13. Anxiety and depressive symptoms in primary caregivers of patients with severe depression. A snapshot from a military mental health care facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.; Ayaz, S.B.; Ullah, A.; Matee, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the frequency and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in primary caregivers of severely depressed patients and evaluate the impact of demographic factors. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in the out-patient as well as the in-patient setting of Armed Forces institute of Mental Health, Rawalpindi, from September 2009 to May 2012. Through non-probability purposive sampling, primary caregivers of patients diagnosed with severe depression by consultant psychiatrists were included and scored by resident psychiatrists on Revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results: Of 316 caregivers (mean age: 37.75 ± 12.26 years), majority (52.8%) were females, married (70.6%), employed (58.5%), earned < Rs. 5,000 per month (40.5%) and literate from grade 1-5 (21.8%). Most of them were mothers (25.3%) of the patients and were the caregivers for less than one year (43.4%). The mean total BDI-II score was 17.29 ± 13.94.It was significantly high in subjects belonging to age group of < 44 years. The mean total BAI score was 14.44 ± 11.56 and it was not significantly related to any demographic factor. Conclusion: Caregivers of severely depressed patients suffered considerable levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Younger caregivers were at higher risk of developing depressive symptoms but the age did not significantly affect development of anxiety. Gender, marital status, employment status, monthly income, relationship with the patient, ethnicity based on provinces, educational level and duration of care giving did not appear to be significantly related to the development of anxiety or depressive symptoms in our sample. (author)

  14. The mental health characteristics of pregnant women with depressive symptoms identified by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydsdottir, Linda B; Howard, Louise M; Olafsdottir, Halldora; Thome, Marga; Tyrfingsson, Petur; Sigurdsson, Jon F

    2014-04-01

    Few studies are available on the effectiveness of screening tools such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in pregnancy or the extent to which such tools may identify women with mental disorders other than depression. We therefore aimed to investigate the mental health characteristics of pregnant women who screen positive on the EPDS. Consecutive women receiving antenatal care in primary care clinics (from November 2006 to July 2011) were invited to complete the EPDS in week 16 of pregnancy. All women who scored above 11 (screen positive) on the EPDS and randomly selected women who scored below 12 (screen negative) were invited to participate in a psychiatric diagnostic interview. 2,411 women completed the EPDS. Two hundred thirty-three women (9.7%) were screened positive in week 16, of whom 153 (66%) agreed to a psychiatric diagnostic interview. Forty-eight women (31.4%) were diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria, 20 (13.1%) with bipolar disorder, 93 (60.8%) with anxiety disorders (including 27 [17.6%] with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]), 8 (5.2%) with dysthymia, 18 (11.8%) with somatoform disorder, 3 (2%) with an eating disorder, and 7 (4.6%) with current substance abuse. Women who screened positive were significantly more likely to have psychosocial risk factors, including being unemployed (χ(2)(1) = 23.37, P ≤.001), lower educational status (χ(2)(1)= 31.68, P ≤ .001), and a history of partner violence (χ(2)(1) = 10.30, P ≤ 001), compared with the women who screened negative. Use of the EPDS early in the second trimester of pregnancy identifies a substantial number of women with potentially serious mental disorders other than depression, including bipolar disorder, OCD, and eating disorders. A comprehensive clinical assessment is therefore necessary following use of the EPDS during pregnancy to ensure that women who screen positive receive appropriate mental health management. © Copyright 2014

  15. MENTAL HEALTH: ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Muzdalifah M. Rahman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explain the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, describes the mental health of an Islamic perspective and describes how mental health recovery. The theory used is the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, and the concept of mental health perspective Islamic Psychology Writing is writing method using qualitative research methods. Mental health is avoiding an Islamic perspective of all symptoms, complaints and...

  16. Duration of Untreated Psychosis Is Associated with More Negative Schizophrenia Symptoms after Acute Treatment for First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grano, Niklas; Lindsberg, Jenni; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Gronroos, Peter; Blomberg, Ari-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Evidence of association between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients is inconsistent in the recent literature. In the present study, DUP, schizophrenia symptoms, duration of medication, and diagnosis were obtained from hospital archives in a sample of FEP patients.…

  17. Factors predicting perioperative delirium and