This article reports the implementation and impact of a standardized systematic evidence-based predictive score for the initial assessment of acutely ill medical patients. The Simple Clinical Score (SCS) was introduced in the A&E department and the medical floor of the authors\\' hospital between June 2007 and July 2008. The SCS was well received by the staff - 67% felt it greatly improved patient assessment and was very valuable for ensuring appropriate placement of the patient after admission and improved the quality of care. This article describes the change process, the pilot evaluation and the training programme undertaken during the implementation of the SCS. It is hoped that this experience will be of value to other project teams who are undertaking similar initiatives.
This article reports the implementation and impact of a standardized systematic evidence-based predictive score for the initial assessment of acutely ill medical patients. The Simple Clinical Score (SCS) was introduced in the A&E department and the medical floor of the authors\\' hospital between June 2007 and July 2008. The SCS was well received by the staff - 67% felt it greatly improved patient assessment and was very valuable for ensuring appropriate placement of the patient after admission and improved the quality of care. This article describes the change process, the pilot evaluation and the training programme undertaken during the implementation of the SCS. It is hoped that this experience will be of value to other project teams who are undertaking similar initiatives.
A substantial proportion of South Africa (SA)'s population lives at high altitude (>1 500 m), and many travel to very high altitudes (>3 500 m) for tourism, business, recreation or religious pilgrimages every year. Despite this, knowledge of acute altitude illnesses is poor among SA doctors. At altitude, the decreasing ambient ...
Pattern of self-medication for acute febrile illness in the outpatient clinic of an urban tertiary hospital in Jos. ... cross-sectional study at the GOPD of BHUTH, Jos from October 2012 to February 2013. The participants were drawn from all patients with fever or history of fever of not more than two weeks duration at presentation.
Petrie, Joshua G; Cheng, Caroline; Malosh, Ryan E; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Flannery, Brendan; Zimmerman, Richard K; Gaglani, Manjusha; Jackson, Michael L; King, Jennifer P; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Benoit, Joyce; Robertson, Anne; Thaker, Swathi N; Monto, Arnold S; Ohmit, Suzanne E
Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality, with considerable economic costs, including lost work productivity. Influenza vaccines may reduce the economic burden through primary prevention of influenza and reduction in illness severity. We examined illness severity and work productivity loss among working adults with medically attended acute respiratory illnesses and compared outcomes for subjects with and without laboratory-confirmed influenza and by influenza vaccination status among subjects with influenza during the 2012-2013 influenza season. Illnesses laboratory-confirmed as influenza (ie, cases) were subjectively assessed as more severe than illnesses not caused by influenza (ie, noncases) based on multiple measures, including current health status at study enrollment (≤7 days from illness onset) and current activity and sleep quality status relative to usual. Influenza cases reported missing 45% more work hours (20.5 vs 15.0; P productivity as impeded to a greater degree (6.0 vs 5.4; P productivity loss were noted for vaccinated subjects. Influenza illnesses were more severe and resulted in more missed work hours and productivity loss than illnesses not confirmed as influenza. Modest reductions in illness severity for vaccinated cases were observed. These findings highlight the burden of influenza illnesses and illustrate the importance of laboratory confirmation of influenza outcomes in evaluations of vaccine effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Haas, Sylvia K; Hach-Wunderle, Viola; Mader, Frank H; Ruster, Katherine; Paar, Wilhelm D
Many risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized medical patients are also present in medical outpatients. VTE prevention represents an important challenge for physicians treating patients at home. The AT-HOME study was a prospective cross-sectional observational study designed to assess awareness of the risk of VTE in immobilized acutely ill medical outpatients among German physicians, many of whom were participating in a national Continuing Medical Education (CME) program designed to raise awareness of VTE. The study involved 1210 medical patients who were acutely confined to bed at home. Physicians performed a subjective assessment of VTE risk, which was rated on a 10-point scale (1 = very low risk; 10 = very high risk). The risk of VTE was also assessed retrospectively by using a scorecard developed for use in hospitalized medical patients. Of the 1210 patients, 198 (16%) had risk scores of 0-4, 319 (26%) had scores of 5 or 6, and 693 (57%) had scores > or =7. Overall, 966 patients (80%) received thromboprophylaxis. The proportion of patients receiving thromboprophylaxis was 0% to 47% in risk score groups 0-4, 76% to 85% in groups 5 and 6, and 90% to 100% in risk score groups 7-10. In the retrospective assessment of VTE risk, 74% of patients were at high risk, 15% were at intermediate risk, and 11% were at low risk. The proportions of patients receiving thromboprophylaxis in these groups were 87%, 61%, and 55%, respectively. The involvement of physicians in educational activities focusing on VTE awareness appeared to create awareness of the risks of VTE in acutely ill medical outpatients.
Luk, James Ka Hay; Chiu, Patrick Ka Chun; Chu, Leung Wing
Older patients with medical illnesses are at risk of institutionalization. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors leading to institutionalization in older patients after recovery from medical illnesses. We studied 535 older patients in two convalescence hospitals in Hong Kong. Of them, 116 patients (21.7%) needed to move to nursing homes upon discharge. Univariate analysis showed that age, single/divorced/widowed status, longer length of stay, pressure sores, urinary incontinence, urinary catheterization, falls, dementia, diabetes mellitus, Barthel index (100), Elderly Mobility Score (EMS), Chinese version of the mini-mental state examination (C-MMSE) and albumin levels were significant factors associated with institutionalization. Multivariate analysis showed that being single/divorced/widowed (odds ratio=OR=2.74, 95% confidence interval=CI=1.36-5.53, p=0.0048), having urinary incontinence on discharge (OR=5.13, CI=2.66-10.6, p<0.001) and admission due to falls (OR=2.4, CI=1.03-5.57, p=0.04) were independent risk factors for nursing home admission. Higher admission EMS (OR=0.91, CI=0.84-0.97, p=0.009), admission C-MMSE (OR=0.93, CI=0.87-0.98, p=0.019), and discharge albumin levels (OR=0.93, CI=0.88-0.99, p=0.02) were independent protecting factors against nursing home admission. Knowledge of these factors can allow us to predict accommodation outcome and develop intervention strategy to reduce institutionalization in the older patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing home residents are at high risk for developing acute illnesses. Compared with community dwelling adults, nursing home residents are often more frail, prone to multiple medical problems and symptoms, and are at higher risk for adverse outcomes from acute illnesses. In addition, because of polypharmacy and the high burden of chronic disease, nursing home residents are particularly vulnerable to disruptions in transitions of care such as medication interruptions in the setting of acute illness. In order to better estimate the effect of acute illness on nursing home residents, we have initiated a prospective cohort which will allow us to observe patterns of acute illnesses and the consequence of acute illnesses, including symptoms and function, among nursing home residents. We also aim to examine the patterns of medication interruption, and identify patient, provider and environmental factors that influence continuity of medication prescribing at different points of care transition. Methods This is a prospective cohort of nursing home residents residing in two nursing homes in a metropolitan area. Baseline characteristics including age, gender, race, and comorbid conditions are recorded. Participants are followed longitudinally for a planned period of 3 years. We record acute illness incidence and characteristics, and measure symptoms including depression, pain, withdrawal symptoms, and function using standardized scales. Results 76 nursing home residents have been followed for a median of 666 days to date. At baseline, mean age of residents was 74.4 (± 11.9; 32% were female; 59% were white. The most common chronic conditions were dementia (41%, depression (38%, congestive heart failure (25% and chronic obstructive lung disease (27%. Mean pain score was 4.7 (± 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10; Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 score was 5.2 (± 4.4. During follow up, 138 acute illness episodes were identified, for an
Biggs, Holly M; McNeal, Monica; Nix, W Allan; Kercsmar, Carolyn; Curns, Aaron T; Connelly, Beverly; Rice, Marilyn; Chern, Shur-Wern Wang; Prill, Mila M; Back, Nancy; Oberste, M Steven; Gerber, Susan I; Staat, Mary A
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) caused a widespread outbreak of respiratory illness in the United States in 2014, predominantly affecting children. We describe EV-D68 rates, spectrum of illness, and risk factors from prospective, population-based acute respiratory illness (ARI) surveillance at a large US pediatric hospital. Children infection was detected in 51 of 207 (25%) inpatients and 58 of 505 (11%) ED patients. Rates of EV-D68 hospitalization and ED visit were 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.6) and 8.4 per 1000 children infection (adjusted odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.0-5.1). Compared with other ARI, children with EV-D68 were more likely to be admitted from the ED (P ≤ .001), receive supplemental oxygen (P = .001), and require intensive care unit admission (P = .04); however, mechanical ventilation was uncommon (2/51 inpatients; P = .64), and no deaths occurred. During the 2014 EV-D68 epidemic, high rates of pediatric hospitalizations and ED visits were observed. Children with asthma were at increased risk for medically attended EV-D68 illness. Preparedness planning for a high-activity EV-D68 season in the United States should take into account increased healthcare utilization, particularly among children with asthma, during the late summer and early fall. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Hosang, Georgina M; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick
Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Hensel, Jennifer M; Taylor, Valerie H; Fung, Kinwah; Yang, Rebecca; Vigod, Simone N
The role of mental illness and addiction in acute care use for chronic medical conditions that are sensitive to ambulatory care management requires focussed attention. This study examines how mental illness or addiction affects risk for repeat hospitalization and/or emergency department use for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) among high-cost users of medical care. A retrospective, population-based cohort study using data from Ontario, Canada. Among the top 10% of medical care users ranked by cost, we determined rates of any and repeat care use (hospitalizations and emergency department [ED] visits) between April 1, 2011, and March 31, 2012, for 14 consensus established ACSCs and compared them between those with and without diagnosed mental illness or addiction during the 2 years prior. Risk ratios were adjusted (aRR) for age, sex, residence, and income quintile. Among 314,936 high-cost users, 35.9% had a mental illness or addiction. Compared to those without, individuals with mental illness or addiction were more likely to have an ED visit or hospitalization for any ACSC (22.8% vs. 19.6%; aRR, 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.23). They were also more likely to have repeat ED visits or hospitalizations for the same ACSC (6.2% vs. 4.4% of those without; aRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.44-1.53). These associations were stronger in stratifications by mental illness diagnostic subgroup, particularly for those with a major mental illness. The presence of mental illness and addiction among high-cost users of medical services may represent an unmet need for quality ambulatory and primary care.
Schmickl, Christopher N; Shahjehan, Khurram; Li, Guangxi; Dhokarh, Rajanigandha; Kashyap, Rahul; Janish, Christopher; Alsara, Anas; Jaffe, Allan S; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Gajic, Ognjen
At the onset of acute hypoxic respiratory failure, critically ill patients with acute lung injury (ALI) may be difficult to distinguish from those with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE). No single clinical parameter provides satisfying prediction. We hypothesized that a combination of those will facilitate early differential diagnosis. In a population-based retrospective development cohort, validated electronic surveillance identified critically ill adult patients with acute pulmonary edema. Recursive partitioning and logistic regression were used to develop a decision support tool based on routine clinical information to differentiate ALI from CPE. Performance of the score was validated in an independent cohort of referral patients. Blinded post hoc expert review served as gold standard. Of 332 patients in a development cohort, expert reviewers (κ, 0.86) classified 156 as having ALI and 176 as having CPE. The validation cohort had 161 patients (ALI = 113, CPE = 48). The score was based on risk factors for ALI and CPE, age, alcohol abuse, chemotherapy, and peripheral oxygen saturation/Fio(2) ratio. It demonstrated good discrimination (area under curve [AUC] = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow [HL] P = .16). Similar performance was obtained in the validation cohort (AUC = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72-0.88; HL P = .13). A simple decision support tool accurately classifies acute pulmonary edema, reserving advanced testing for a subset of patients in whom satisfying prediction cannot be made. This novel tool may facilitate early inclusion of patients with ALI and CPE into research studies as well as improve and rationalize clinical management and resource use.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To measure energy expenditure of acutely ill elderly patients in hospital and following discharge in the community. Design Sixty-three consecutive hospitalised acutely ill elderly patients were recruited. Eight patients were studied to assess the reliability of the Delta Tract Machine as a measure of energy expenditure; 35 patients had their energy expenditure studied in hospital on two occasions and 20 patients had their energy expenditure measured in hospital and at 6 weeks in the community Results Men had higher basal energy expenditure (BMR values compared to women however the difference was not statistically significant [Men, mean (SD 1405 (321 Kcal, women 1238 (322 kcal; mean difference (95% CI 166 kcal (-17 to 531, p = 0.075]. After adjusting for age, gender and body mass index both medication and C-reactive protein (CRP, concentrations showed significant correlation with measured energy expenditure in hospital, (r = -0.36, "p Conclusion Tissue inflammation and medications were associated with change in measured energy expenditure in acutely ill patients.
Full Text Available The majority of acutely ill medical patients are elderly with some degree of renal impairment. In this setting, venous thromboembolism (VTE is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and, to reduce this risk, a correct thromboprophylaxis is needed. The aim of this single center retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of fondaparinux in elderly acutely ill medical patients with renal impairment. All patients aged 60 years or over, bedridden for at least four days, with a creatinine clearance (CrCl of 50 mL/min or under, and who had received fondaparinux during hospitalization were evaluated and followed for up to 90 days after discharge. A total of 125 patients were evaluated (34.4% males; median age was 83.0 years. Median duration of thromboprophylaxis was 9.0 days. Forty-one (32.8% patients were treated with fondaparinux 1.5 mg daily, 84 (67.2% with 2.5 mg daily. Inappropriately high doses of fondaparinux were used in 77 patients with CrCl 20-50 mL/min, in 12 patients with CrCl below 20 mL/min, in 14 patients with prothrombin time (PT ratio over 1.2, in 8 patients with PT ratio over 1.5, and in 3 patients with thrombocytopenia. No episodes of VTE or of major bleeding were recorded while there were 6 episodes (2.4% of minor bleeding. Both dosages of fondaparinux showed similar safety and efficacy. Twenty-six patients (20.8% died; no cause of death was related to fondaparinux. In conclusion, in elderly acutely ill hospitalized medical patients with renal impairment, prophylaxis with fondaparinux 2.5 or 1.5 mg daily is safe and effective in preventing VTE without increasing bleeding risk.
Opio, Martin Otyek; Kellett, John
BACKGROUND: Although taking a radial pulse is considered to be an essential clinical skill, there have been few reports on how well it is measured in clinical practice, and how its accuracy and precision are influenced by rate, rhythm, and blood pressure. METHODS: This study is a retrospective...... quality audit carried out as part of a larger ongoing prospective observational trial. The radial pulse rates recorded by 2 research nurses were compared with the electrocardiogram (ECG) heart rates measured on acutely ill medical patients during their admission to a resource-poor hospital in sub...
McLean, Huong Q; Peterson, Siri H; King, Jennifer P; Meece, Jennifer K; Belongia, Edward A
Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are common in school-aged children, but few studies have assessed school absenteeism due to specific respiratory viruses. To evaluate school absenteeism among children with medically attended ARI due to common viruses. We analyzed follow-up surveys from children seeking care for acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the influenza vaccine effectiveness study at Marshfield Clinic during the 2012-2013 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons. Archived influenza-negative respiratory swabs were retested using multiplex RT-PCR to detect 16 respiratory virus targets. Negative binomial and logistic regression models were used to examine the association between school absence and type of respiratory viruses; endpoints included mean days absent from school and prolonged (>2 days) absence. We examined the association between influenza vaccination and school absence among children with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza. Among 1027 children, 2295 days of school were missed due to medically attended ARIs; influenza accounted for 39% of illness episodes and 47% of days missed. Mean days absent were highest for influenza (0.96-1.19) and lowest for coronavirus (0.62). Children with B/Yamagata infection were more likely to report prolonged absence than children with A/H1N1 or A/H3N2 infection [OR (95% CI): 2.1 (1.0, 4.5) and 1.7 (1.0, 2.9), respectively]. Among children with influenza, vaccination status was not associated with prolonged absence. School absenteeism due to medically attended ARIs varies by viral infection. Influenza B infections accounted for the greatest burden of absenteeism. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nash, Sara Siris; Kent, Laura K; Muskin, Philip R
This article explores the role of psychodynamics as it applies to the understanding and treatment of medically ill patients in the consultation-liaison psychiatry setting. It provides historical background that spans the eras from Antiquity (Hippocrates and Galen) to nineteenth-century studies of hysteria (Charcot, Janet, and Freud) and into the twentieth century (Flanders Dunbar, Alexander, Engle, and the DSM). The article then discusses the effects of personality on medical illness, treatment, and patients' ability to cope by reviewing the works of Bibring, Kahana, and others. The important contribution of attachment theory is reviewed as it pertains the patient-physician relationship and the health behavior of physically ill patients. A discussion of conversion disorder is offered as an example of psychodynamics in action. This article highlights the important impact of countertransference, especially in terms of how it relates to patients who are extremely difficult and "hateful," and explores the dynamics surrounding the topic of physician-assisted suicide, as it pertains to the understanding of a patient's request to die. Some attention is also given to the challenges surrounding the unique experience of residents learning how to treat medically ill patients on the consultation-liaison service. Ultimately, this article concludes that the use and understanding of psychodynamics and psychodynamic theory allows consultation-liaison psychiatrists the opportunity to interpret the life narratives of medically ill patients in a meaningful way that contributes importantly to treatment.
Buhl, Sussi F; Andersen, Aino L; Andersen, Jens Rikardt
admission and a daily protein supplement (18.8 g protein) and resistance training 3 times per week the 12 weeks following discharge. Muscle mass was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Muscle strength was assessed by Hand Grip Strength and Chair Stand Test. Functional ability was assessed...... mass (unadjusted: β-coefficient = -1.28 P = 0.32, adjusted for gender: β-coefficient = -0.02 P = 0.99, adjusted for baseline lean mass: β-coefficient = -0.31 P = 0.80). The de Morton Mobility Index significantly increased in the Control Group (β-coefficient = -11.43 CI: 0.72-22.13, P = 0.04). No other...... differences were found. CONCLUSION: No significant effect on muscle mass was observed in this group of acutely ill old medical patients. High compliance was achieved with the dietary intervention, but resistance training was challenging. Clinical trials identifier NCT02077491....
Schädlich, Peter K; Kentsch, Michael; Weber, Manfred; Kämmerer, Wolfgang; Brecht, Josef Georg; Nadipelli, Vijay; Huppertz, Eduard
To estimate, from the hospital perspective in Germany, the cost effectiveness of the low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium 40 mg once daily (ENOX) relative to no pharmacological prophylaxis (NPP) and relative to subcutaneous unfractionated heparin (UFH) 5,000 IU three times daily (low-dose UFH [LDUFH]). Each is used in addition to elastic bandages/compression stockings and physiotherapy in the prevention of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in immobilised acutely ill medical inpatients without impaired renal function or extremes of body weight. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of the 'additional cost for ENOX per clinical VTE avoided versus NPP' and 'additional cost for ENOX per episode of major bleeding avoided versus LDUFH' were chosen as target variables. The target variables were quantified using a modelling approach based on the decision-tree technique. Resource use during thromboprophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of VTEs, episode of major bleeding and secondary pneumonia after pulmonary embolism (PE) was collected from a hospital survey. Costs were exclusively those to hospitals incurred by staff expenses, drugs, devices, disposables, laboratory tests and equipment for diagnostic procedures. These costs were determined by multiplying utilised resource items by the price or tariff of each item as of the first quarter of 2003. Safety and efficacy values of the comparators were taken from the MEDENOX (prophylaxis in MEDical patients with ENOXaparin) and the THE-PRINCE (THromboEmbolism-PRevention IN Cardiac or respiratory disease with Enoxaparin) trials and from a meta-analysis. The evaluation encompassed 8 (6-14) days of thromboprophylaxis plus time to treat VTE and episode of major bleeding in hospital. Point estimates of all model parameters were applied exclusively in the base-case analysis. There were incremental costs of euro 1,106 for ENOX per clinical VTE avoided versus NPP (1 euro approximately equals 1
Pao, Maryland; Bosk, Abigail
Anxiety disorders are thought to be one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses in children/adolescents. Chronic medical illness is a significant risk factor for the development of an anxiety disorder and the prevalence rate of anxiety disorders among youths with chronic medical illnesses is higher compared to their healthy counterparts. Anxiety disorders may develop secondary to predisposing biological mechanisms related to a child’s specific medical illness, as a response to being ill or i...
Al-Jboor, Wejdan; Almardini, Reham; Al Bderat, Jwaher; Frehat, Mahdi; Al Masri, Hazem; Alajloni, Mohammad Saleh
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in patients in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). We conducted this study to estimate the incidence and the mortality rate of AKI in critically ill children as well as to describe some other related factors. A retrospective study was conducted at PICU of Queen Rania Abdulla Children Hospital, Amman, Jordan for the period extending from May 2011 to June 2013. The medical records of all patients admitted during this period, and their demographic data were reviewed. Patients with AKI were identified, and management and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. AKI was evaluated according to modified RIFLE criteria. Of the 372 patients admitted to PICU, 64 (17.2%) patients developed AKI. Of these 64 patients who had AKI, 28 (43.7%) patients reached RIFLE max of risk, 21 (32.8%) patients reached injury, and 15 (23.4%) reached failure. Mean Pediatric Risk of Mortality II score at admission was significantly higher in patients with AKI than those without P <0.001. The age ranged between one month and 14 years with the median age as 5.4 year. Thirty-five (54.7%) were males. Sepsis was the most common cause of AKI. The mortality rate in critically ill children without AKI was 58.7%, whereas increased in children with AKI to 73.4%. The mortality rate in patients who received renal replacement therapy was 71.4% and was higher (81.5%) in patients who received mechanical ventilation (95%, [confidence interval (CI)] 79.3-83.4%) and was significantly higher in patients with multi-organ system dysfunction 90.3% (95%, [CI] 88.7-92.5%). The incidence of AKI in critically ill children is high and increased their mortality rate and higher mortality seen in the younger age group, especially those below one year. High mortality rate was associated with multi-organ system dysfunction and the need for mechanical ventilation.
Dean, C; Gadd, E M
To determine the factors influencing the successful outcome of community treatment for severe acute psychiatric illnesses that are traditionally treated in hospital. All patients from a single electoral ward who were either admitted to hospital or treated at home over a two year period (1 October 1987 to 30 September 1989) were included in the study and their case notes audited. The second year of the study is reported. Electoral ward of Sparkbrook, Birmingham. 99 Patients aged 16-65 with severe acute psychiatric illness. 65 Patients were managed by home treatment alone; 34 required admission to hospital. The location of treatment was significantly (all p less than 0.05) influenced by social characteristics of the patients (marital state, age (in men), ethnicity, and living alone) and by characteristics of the referral (occurring out of hours; assessment taking place at hospital or police station). DSM-III-R diagnosis was more weakly associated with outcome. Violence during the episode was significantly related to admission, although deliberate self harm was not. Home treatment is feasible for most patients with acute psychiatric illness. A 24 hour on call assessment service increases the likelihood of success because admission is determined more strongly by social characteristics of the patient and the referral than by illness factors. Admission will still be required for some patients. A locally based mental health resource centre, a 24 hour on call service, an open referral system, and an active follow up policy increase the effectiveness of a home treatment service.
Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique
Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750
Margolis, Rachel; Ludi, Erica; Pao, Maryland; Wiener, Lori
Despite the increasing trend of travel for medical purposes, little is known about the experience of parents and other caregivers who come to the United States specifically to obtain medical treatment for their seriously ill child. In this exploratory, descriptive qualitative study, we used a semi-structured narrative guide to conduct in-depth interviews with 22 Spanish- or English-speaking caregivers about the challenges encountered and adaptation required when entering a new medical and cultural environment. Caregivers identified the language barrier and transnational parenting as challenges while reporting hospital staff and their own families as major sources of support. Using the results of the study as a guide, clinical and program implications are provided and recommendations for social work practice discussed.
Ageno, W; Riva, N; Noris, P; Di Nisio, M; La Regina, M; Arioli, D; Ria, L; Monzani, V; Cuppini, S; Lupia, E; Giorgi Pierfranceschi, M; Pierfranceschi, M G; Dentali, F
Renal impairment is common, affecting around 40% of acutely ill medical patients, and is associated with an increased risk of both venous thromboembolism (VTE) and bleeding. The clinical benefit of effective thromboprophylactic strategies may be outweighed in these patients by an excessive rate of hemorrhage. To assess the safety and efficacy of lower prophylactic doses of fondaparinux in acutely ill medical patients with renal impairment. We carried out a multicenter, investigator-initiated, prospective cohort study. Patients at risk of VTE with a creatinine clearance between 20 and 50 mL min(-1) were treated with fondaparinux 1.5 mg qd for a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 15 days. The primary outcome was the incidence of major bleeding; secondary outcomes were clinically relevant non-major bleeding (CRNMB) and symptomatic VTE. We enrolled 206 patients with a mean age of 82 years, mean creatinine clearance of 33 mL min(-1) , and a mean Charlson co-morbidity index of 8.2. One patient had major bleeding (0.49%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-3.10), eight had CRNMB (3.88%, 95% CI 1.81-7.78) and three developed symptomatic VTE (1.46%, 0.38-4.55). Twenty-three patients (11.17%, 7.36-16.48) died. No independent predictors of bleeding were found at univariate analysis. The addition of moderate to severe renal impairment to patients with traditional risk factors for VTE identified a population of very elderly acutely ill medical patients potentially at high risk of both VTE and bleeding complications. The recently approved lower prophylactic dose of fondaparinux appears to be a safe and relatively effective strategy in these patients. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Abouch Valenty Krymchantovscki
Full Text Available Primary headache patients frequently overuse analgesics. Acute medication overuse plays an important role in the transformation of episodic into chronic headaches. The sudden discontinuation of analgesic and migraine prevention introduction are the main issues in the management of chronic daily headache patients. Educational strategies for those who do not overuse acute medications and an agressive approach to those overusing are fundamental for the efficacy of the primary frequent headache treatment.
Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill children presenting in ... height/length) measurements and z-scores calculated for the individual nutritional ... The factors associated with malnutrition included early introduction of ...
The mortality of acutely ill medical patients for up to 60 days after admission to a resource poor hospital in sub-Saharan Africa compared with patients of similar illness severity admitted to a Danish Regional Teaching Hospital
Nabayigga, Barbara; Kellett, John; Brabrand, Mikkel
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of patients with the same severity of illness in the developed and developing countries have not been compared. Illness severity can now be measured anywhere by the National Early Warning Score (NEWS). METHODS: An exploratory observational study that compared the 7, 30 an...
All doctors are haunted by the possibility that a patient they reassured yesterday will return seriously ill tomorrow. We examined changes in the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) the day after admission, factors that might influence these changes and the relationship of these changes to subsequent clinical outcome.
Tavenier, Juliette; Haupt, Thomas Huneck; Andersen, Aino L
inflammation in healthy elderly. We hypothesized that nutritional support and resistance training would accelerate the resolution of inflammation in hospitalized elderly patients with SIRS. Acutely admitted patients aged >65 years with SIRS were randomized to an intervention consisting of a high-protein diet...... (1.7 g/kg per day) during hospitalization, and daily protein supplement (18.8 g) and 3 weekly resistance training sessions for 12 weeks after discharge (Intervention, n=14), or to standard-care (Control, n=15). Plasma levels of the inflammatory biomarkers soluble urokinase plasminogen activator...... receptor (suPAR), interleukin-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin were measured at admission, discharge, and 4 and 13 weeks after discharge. The Intervention group had an earlier decrease in suPAR levels than the Control group: -15.4% vs. +14.5%, P=.007 during hospitalization, and -2.4% vs. -28.6%, P...
Aronson, Paul L; Shapiro, Eugene D; Niccolai, Linda M; Fraenkel, Liana
Shared decision-making (SDM) has mostly been used with adults and parents in the primary care setting, and there is limited knowledge on the use of SDM with parents of acutely ill children. The objective of this study was to review the literature on SDM with parents in the management of acutely ill children. We searched MEDLINE, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov for English language studies published from the time of database inception to February, 2017. Study eligibility criterion was use of SDM with parents for children aged 18 years or younger with an acute medical problem. We identified 2 ongoing clinical trials and 10 published studies that met inclusion criteria: 2 using hypothetical SDM scenarios, 1 mixed methods study, and 7 intervention studies. Only 1 study compared an SDM intervention with usual care in a randomized controlled trial. The limited literature shows that parents of acutely ill children have differing preferences for testing and/or treatment, and that they generally want the opportunity to express those preferences through an SDM process. Use of SDM often results in acutely ill children undergoing fewer and/or less intensive testing or treatment, although the effect on outcomes is unclear. Parents welcome participation in SDM for management decisions with their acutely ill child. Further investigation is needed to determine how best to implement SDM with parents of acutely ill children and to assess the effect of SDM on outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Little research has focused on the economic hardship among the insured with severe illnesses and high treatment costs, in particular, the consequence of poorer insurance coverage for high-cost illnesses. Therefore, we presented the case for identifying the experiences of insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses. This study identified a qualitative understanding of the economic impact of severe chronic and acute illnesses and household strategies to deal with high treatment costs. Design: Interviews were conducted with 19 insured households of three different health insurance programs with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic or acute illnesses in either Banyumas or Margono Sukarjo hospitals in Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia. A thematic analysis was applied to guide the interpretation of the data. Results: Insured households with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic and acute illnesses were greatly affected by the high treatment costs. Four major issues emerged from this qualitative study: insured patients are still burdened with high out-of-pocket payments, households adopt various strategies to cope with the high cost of treatments, households experience financial hardships, and positive and negative perceptions of the insured regarding their health insurance coverage for acute and chronic illnesses. Conclusions: Askes and Jamsostek patients faced financial burdens from high cost sharing for hospital amenities, non-covered drugs, and treatments and other indirect costs. Meanwhile, Jamkesmas beneficiaries faced no financial burden for related medical services but were rather burdened with indirect costs for the carers. Households relied on internal resources to cover hospital bills as the first strategy, which included the mobilization of savings, sale of assets, and borrowing of money. External support was tapped secondarily and included financial support from
Jensen, Helene Christine Kildegaard; Brabrand, Mikkel; Vinholt, Pernille Just
. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study involving all first time admissions (n=11988) to the Acute Medical Department at Odense University Hospital linking potassium level at admission with registry data on patient characteristics, laboratory data, redeemed prescriptions and time of death......: Hypokalemia occurred in 16.8% of first time admissions (n=2011). It was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio [HR] of 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-1.85) for 7-day mortality and 1.56 (CI, 1.18-3.06) for 8-30 day mortality. Among patients with more severe hypokalemia (plasma [K(+)
Gallagher, Paul F
INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug events (ADEs) are associated with inappropriate prescribing (IP) and result in increased morbidity, mortality and resource utilisation. We used Beers\\' Criteria to determine the three-month prevalence of IP in a non-selected community-dwelling population of acutely ill older people requiring hospitalisation. METHODS: A prospective, observational study of 597 consecutive acute admissions was performed. Diagnoses and concurrent medications were recorded before hospital physician intervention, and Beers\\' Criteria applied. RESULTS: Mean patient age (SD) was 77 (7) years. Median number of medications was 5, range 0-13. IP occurred in 32% of patients (n = 191), with 24%, 6% and 2% taking 1, 2 and 3 inappropriate medications respectively. Patients taking >5 medications were 3.3 times more likely to receive an inappropriate medication than those taking < or =5 medications (OR 3.34: 95%, CI 2.37-4.79; P<0.001). Forty-nine per cent of patients with inappropriate prescriptions were admitted with adverse effects of the inappropriate medications. Sixteen per cent of all admissions were associated with such adverse effects. CONCLUSION: IP is highly prevalent in acutely ill older patients and is associated with polypharmacy and hospitalisation. However, Beers\\' Criteria cannot be used as a gold standard as they do not comprehensively address all aspects of IP in older people.
Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…
Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.
Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…
Full Text Available Respiratory infections, relapses of ear, nose, throat infections, acute and chronic bronchial infections — these are the most common infantile infections. Regardless the wide range of medications, treatment of recurrent ENT and respiratory infections is not always effective especially in the group of frequently ill children. This article contains analysis of the necessity of immunomodulation therapy of recurrent respiratory infections as a part of complex prophylaxis and treatment of infants.Key words: children, acute respiratory infection, polyoxidonium, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 103–107
Ilse M. López Bravo
Full Text Available To help assess the causes and frequency of acute respiratory illnesses (ARI during the first 18 months of life in Chile, a cohort of 437 children born in good health between May 1991 and April 1992 was followed at an urban health clinic in northern Santiago. Information was obtained from medical checkups performed at the clinic, from emergency health care services, from private physicians, and from interviews with each child's mother when the child was enrolled in the study and when it was 6, 12, and 18 months old. Followup was completed for 379 (87% of the children. ARI accounted for 67% of all 3762 episodes of illness recorded for these children in the 18-month study period, 1384 (55% of the ARI episodes affecting the upper respiratory tract and the remaining 1144 (45% affecting the lower. The overall rate of ARI observed was 33 episodes per 100 child-months of observation. The incidences of upper, lower, and total ARI episodes decreased significantly in the third six months of life. A statistically significant association was found between upper ARI ( > or = 2 episodes and maternal smoking ( > or = 5 cigarettes per day, but no significant associations were found with any of the other risk factors studied. However, lower ARI ( > or = 2 episodes was significantly associated with maternal schooling ( or = 4 episodes was significantly associated with these factors and also with the existence of one or more siblings, birth in a cold season, limited breast-feeding (<4 months, and low socioeconomic status. Significant associations were found between obstructive bronchitis episodes and most of the risk factors studied (gender, siblings, season of birth, duration of breast-feeding, maternal schooling, smoking, use of polluting fuels in the home, and a family history of atopic allergy; similarly, significant associations were found between the occurrence of pneumonia and many risk factors (including siblings, season of birth, duration of breast
Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Leizorovicz, Alain; Kakkar, Ajay K
The efficacy and safety of prolonging prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in medically ill patients beyond hospital discharge remain uncertain. We hypothesized that extended prophylaxis with apixaban would be safe and more effective than short-term prophylaxis with enoxaparin....
Barsky, A J; Wyshak, G; Latham, K S; Klerman, G L
Forty-one Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-Revised hypochondriacs were accrued from a primary care practice. Seventy-five control subjects were selected at random from among the remainder of the patients in the same clinic. All subjects completed a structured diagnostic interview and standardized self-report questionnaires. Medical morbidity was assessed with a medical record audit and with primary physicians' ratings. The hypochondriacal and comparison samples did not differ in aggregate medical morbidity, although the hypochondriacal sample had more undiagnosed complaints and nonspecific findings in their medical records. Within the comparison sample, higher levels of medical morbidity were associated with higher levels of hypochondriacal symptoms. This occurred primarily because the most serious medical disorders were associated with more bodily preoccupation, disease conviction, and somatization. Within the hypochondriacal sample, no correlation was found between the degree of hypochondriasis and the extent of medical morbidity.
Full Text Available Background: Globally, people with mental illness frequently encounter stigma, prejudice, and discrimination by public and health care professionals. Research related to medical students′ attitudes toward people with mental illness is limited from India. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare the attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students′. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was carried out among medical students, who were exposed (n = 115 and not exposed (n = 61 to psychiatry training using self-reporting questionnaire. Results: Our findings showed improvement in students′ attitudes after exposure to psychiatry in benevolent (t = 2.510, P < 0.013 and stigmatization (t = 2.656, P < 0.009 domains. Further, gender, residence, and contact with mental illness were the factors that found to be influencing students′ attitudes toward mental illness. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that psychiatric education proved to be effective in changing the attitudes of medical students toward mental illness to a certain extent. However, there is an urgent need to review the current curriculum to prepare undergraduate medical students to provide holistic care to the people with mental health problems.
Wunsch, Hannah; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Johansen, Martin B
IMPORTANCE: The relationship between critical illness and psychiatric illness is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess psychiatric diagnoses and medication prescriptions before and after critical illness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort study in Denmark of critically ill patien...
Hibbard, J H; Pope, C R
The study investigates illness orientation as a factor which may account for sex differences in the utilization of medical care. First, sex differences in the way symptoms are perceived, evaluated and acted upon (illness orientation) are analyzed. Then gender role factors which may account for sex differences in illness orientation are examined. Finally, the degree to which gender role factors and illness orientation account for sex differences in medical care utilization are assessed. The study population includes 1648 adults between the ages of 18 and 59. Medical record data covering 7 years of outpatient services are linked with survey data on the respondents. The findings show that while females are more likely to perceive symptoms than males, there is no apparent sex difference in a tendency to adopt the sick role when ill. In addition, results indicate that gender role factors such as level and type of role responsibility and concern with health are related to female though not male symptom reports. Illness orientation variables are related to rates of medical utilization for both sexes. However, it is primarily the perception of symptoms and an interest and concern with health which contributes to sex differences in utilization rates. When examining respondents who report either a very low or very high number of symptoms, sex differences in utilization rates fall below statistical significance.
Wald, Heidi L; Leykum, Luci K; Mattison, Melissa L P; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Meltzer, David O
Hospitalists and others acute-care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through 4 steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of 10 research questions in the following areas: advanced-care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Treatment of agitation is therefore imperative in order to prevent potential danger to patients and caregivers as well as to prevent excessive use of physical restraints and psychotropic medications. Classification of agitation. Agitation has been classified in several ways. Most commonly, it is classified as either mild or severe.
Evan Hy Einstein
Full Text Available Objective: This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students’ and psychiatry residents’ conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. Methods: The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant’s formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results: Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. Conclusions: If these notions are therefore part of students’ and residents’ conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.
Einstein, Evan Hy; Klepacz, Lidia
This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students' and psychiatry residents' conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant's formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. If these notions are therefore part of students' and residents' conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.
Jain, Ajay K; Sircar, Shohini; Jain, Mayank; Adkar, Sagar; Waghmare, Chandrashekhar; Chahwala, Fatema
The aim of this study was to look at the aetiological factors presenting as acute febrile illness in cirrhotic patients. The study group included all cirrhotic patients admitted as inpatients between January and December 2011 with a history of fever of less than seven days duration. Detailed history, clinical examination and investigations, as required, were noted. The data collected were analysed. A total of 42 patients formed the study group. The male-to-female ratio was 9.5:1. The mean age at presentation was 45.09 years (24-77 years). The aetiological factors for fever were: spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (20), lower respiratory tract infection (8), urinary tract infection (6), lower limb cellulitis (4), acute cholecystitis (2) and malaria (2). The mean MELD (model for end-stage liver disease) score at presentation was 20.4. Three patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and a mean MELD score of 31 died during the hospital admission. Febrile illness in cirrhosis is attributable to multiple causes. Outcome is dependent on the severity of underlying liver disease.
OLIVEIRA, André Vitorio Câmara de; ROCHA, Frederico Theobaldo Ramos; ABREU, Sílvio Romero de Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Not responsible self-medication refers to drug use in high doses without rational indication and often associated with alcohol abuse. It can lead to liver damage and drug interactions, and may cause liver failure. AIM: To warn about how the practice of self-medication can be responsible for acute liver failure. METHOD: Were used the Medline via PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and Lilacs, and additional information on institutional sites of interest crossing the headings acute l...
Hofmann, Bjørn; Svenaeus, Fredrik
In this article we explore how diagnostic and therapeutic technologies shape the lived experiences of illness for patients. By analysing a wide range of examples, we identify six ways that technology can (trans)form the experience of illness (and health). First, technology may create awareness of disease by revealing asymptomatic signs or markers (imaging techniques, blood tests). Second, the technology can reveal risk factors for developing diseases (e.g., high blood pressure or genetic tests that reveal risks of falling ill in the future). Third, the technology can affect and change an already present illness experience (e.g., the way blood sugar measurement affects the perceived symptoms of diabetes). Fourth, therapeutic technologies may redefine our experiences of a certain condition as diseased rather than unfortunate (e.g. assisted reproductive technologies or symptom based diagnoses in psychiatry). Fifth, technology influences illness experiences through altering social-cultural norms and values regarding various diagnoses. Sixth, technology influences and changes our experiences of being healthy in contrast and relation to being diseased and ill. This typology of how technology forms illness and related conditions calls for reflection regarding the phenomenology of technology and health. How are medical technologies and their outcomes perceived and understood by patients? The phenomenological way of approaching illness as a lived, bodily being-in-the-world is an important approach for better understanding and evaluating the effects that medical technologies may have on our health, not only in defining, diagnosing, or treating diseases, but also in making us feel more vulnerable and less healthy in different regards.
Scanlon, Andrew; Murphy, Maria
Debate continues on the use of medical technology to prolong life independent of the quality of the outcomes. As a consequence, acute care nurses often find themselves in situations where they are asked to carry out physician's orders, in the context of a patient's deteriorating condition, which may be at odds with professional and personal ethical standards. This can cause nurses to become distressed when struggling with the ethical dilemmas involved with medical futility. This paper is a perspective on nursing considerations of our Code of Ethics and the concept of medical futility in acute nursing care. The utility of the Code is examined through a clinical vignette. A database search using the keywords medical futility and acute care limited to 2008 to 2012 and a secondary hand search of these references identified thirty journal publications. The Code of Ethics was examined via a clinical scenario pertinent to an acute environment. This paper examines the ethical principles that underpin nursing and illustrates how the code of ethics may serve as sign posts when faced with caring for a terminally ill patient that is inappropriately managed. Understanding how individual nurses may address ethical dilemmas when faced with medical futility can better enable the nurse to fulfil their role as patient advocate, health promoter and alleviator of suffering. Ongoing education and communication to decrease any ambiguity or anguish associated with a patient's impending death optimises apt outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP, also referred to as intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH, affects organ function in critically ill patients. The prevalence of IAH is between 32% - 65% in intensive care units. Normal IAP is ≈ 5–7 mmHg. According to WSACS definition, IAH = IAP ≥12 mmHg and is divided into 4 grades. They are Grade I (12-15 mmHg, Grade II (16-20 mmHg, Grade III (21-25 mmHg, Grade IV (>25 mmHg. Transvesical measurement of IAP currently is the most popular technique. Several systems with or without the need for electronic equipment are available that allow IAP measurement. The aim is to study the incidence of IAH in critically ill patients, to assess the risk factors for development of IAH, to study the role of IAH as a risk factor for Acute Kidney Injury (AKI, to assess the role of IAH as a risk factor for increased (Intensive Care Unit ICU mortality. SUBJECTS AND METHODS This is a prospective observational study. Study period was six months. The study included 52 patients admitted to Medical ICU in Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION There was a very high incidence of intra-abdominal hypertension in critically ill patients. IAH was significantly associated with risk factors like sepsis, mechanical ventilation, pancreatitis, capillary leak, ascites, cumulative fluid balance and cirrhosis. IAH is an independent risk factor for development of acute kidney injury. IAH is an independent predictor of mortality in critically ill patients.
Atar, E.; Bachar, G.N.; Berlin, S.; Neiman, C.; Bleich-Belenky, E.; Litvin, S.; Knihznik, M.; Belenky, A.; Ram, E.
Aim: To evaluate the outcome of percutaneous cholecystostomy in critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis. Materials and methods: The study group included critically ill patients who underwent percutaneous cholecystostomy for acute cholecystitis at a tertiary medical centre in 2007–2011. Data on complications, morbidities, surgical outcome, and imaging findings were collected from the medical files and radiology information system. Results: There were 48 women (59.3%) and 33 men (40.7%), with a median age of 82 years (range 47–99 years). Seventy-one (88%) had calculous cholecystitis and 10 (12%), acalculous cholecystitis. The drain was successfully inserted in all cases with no immediate major procedural complications. Fifteen patients (18.5%) died in-hospital within 30 days, mainly (93%) due to septic shock (14/15), another 20 patients (24.7%) died during the study period of unrelated co-morbidities. Of the remaining 46 patients, 36 (78.2%) had surgical cholecystectomies. In patients with acalculous cholecystitis, the drain was removed after cessation of symptoms. Transcystic cholangiography identified five patients with additional stones in the common bile duct. They were managed by pushing the stones into the duodenum via the cystostomy access, sparing them the need for surgical exploration. Conclusions: Early percutaneous gallbladder drainage is safe and effective in critically ill patients in the acute phase of cholecystitis, with a high technical success rate. Surgical results in survivors are better than reported in patients treated surgically without drainage. Bile duct stones can be eliminated without creating an additional access
Lamas, Daniela J; Owens, Robert L; Nace, R Nicholas; Massaro, Anthony F; Pertsch, Nathan J; Gass, Jonathon; Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D
Chronically critically ill patients have recurrent infections, organ dysfunction, and at least half die within 1 year. They are frequently cared for in long-term acute care hospitals, yet little is known about their experience in this setting. Our objective was to explore the understanding and expectations and goals of these patients and surrogates. We conducted semi-structured interviews with chronically critically ill long-term acute care hospital patients or surrogates. Conversations were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. One long-term acute care hospital. Chronically critically ill patients, defined by tracheotomy for prolonged mechanical ventilation, or surrogates. Semi-structured conversation about quality of life, expectations, and planning for setbacks. A total of 50 subjects (30 patients and 20 surrogates) were enrolled. Thematic analyses demonstrated: 1) poor quality of life for patients; 2) surrogate stress and anxiety; 3) optimistic health expectations; 4) poor planning for medical setbacks; and 5) disruptive care transitions. Nearly 80% of patient and their surrogate decision makers identified going home as a goal; 38% were at home at 1 year. Our study describes the experience of chronically critically ill patients and surrogates in an long-term acute care hospital and the feasibility of patient-focused research in this setting. Our findings indicate overly optimistic expectations about return home and unmet palliative care needs, suggesting the need for integration of palliative care within the long-term acute care hospital. Further research is also needed to more fully understand the challenges of this growing population of ICU survivors.
Review Article: Malnutrition in the acutely ill patient: is it more than just protein and energy? 2011;24(3) ... illness/injury, significant mortality occurs after critically ill patients are discharged from ... a manner similar to that of administering an antibiotic or drug. .... delivery (median of 0.8 g/kg/day protein (after day 3) for the study.
Full Text Available Roberto Gordillo,1 Tania Ahluwalia,2 Robert Woroniecki3 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, IL, USA; 3Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Stony Brook Children’s Hospital, Stony Brook, NY, USA Background: Hyperglycemia and acute kidney injury (AKI are common in critically ill children and have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The incidence of AKI in children is difficult to estimate because of the lack of a standard definition for AKI. The pediatric RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage kidney disease criteria can be used to define AKI in children. Various biomarkers in urine and blood have been studied to detect AKI in critically ill children. However, it is not clear whether hyperglycemia is associated with AKI. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of hyperglycemia on kidney function and its effect on neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL in children. Methods: We studied retrospective and prospective cohorts of pediatric critically ill subjects admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU. We analyzed data from admission that included estimated glomerular filtration rate, plasma and urine NGAL, serum glucose and peak glycemia (highest glycemia during PICU admission, and length of hospital and PICU stay from two different institutions. Results: We found that the prevalence of hyperglycemia was 89% in the retrospective cohort and 86% in the prospective cohort, P=0.99. AKI was associated with peak glycemia, P=0.03. There was a statistically significant correlation between peak glycemia and hospital and PICU stays, P=<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively. Urine NGAL and plasma NGAL were not statistically different in subjects with and without hyperglycemia, P=0.99 and P=0.85, respectively. Subjects on vasopressors had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher
Sud, Anchal; Kline-Rogers, Eva M; Eagle, Kim A; Fang, Jianming; Armstrong, David F; Rangarajan, Krishna; Otten, Richard F; Stafkey-Mailey, Dana R; Taylor, Stephanie D; Erickson, Steven R
Nonadherence to medication may lead to poor medical outcomes. To describe medication-taking behavior of patients with a history of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) for 4 classes of drugs and determine the relationship between self-reported adherence and patient characteristics. Consenting patients with the diagnosis of ACS were interviewed by telephone approximately 10 months after discharge. The survey elicited data characterizing the patient, current medication regimens, beliefs about drug therapy, reasons for discontinuing medications, and adherence. The survey included the Beliefs About Medicine Questionnaire providing 4 scales: Specific Necessity, Specific Concerns, General Harm, and General Overuse, and the Medication Adherence Scale (MAS). Multivariate regression was used to determine the independent variables with the strongest association to the MAS. A p value or =1 other person, and 42% indicating excellent or very good health. The percentage of patients continuing on medication at the time of the survey category ranged from 87.4% (aspirin) to 66.0% (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors). Reasons for stopping medication included physician discontinuation or adverse effects. Of patients still on drug therapy, the mean MAS was 1.3 +/- 0.4, with 53.8% indicating nonadherence (score >1). The final regression model showed R(2) = 0.132 and included heart-related health status and Specific Necessity as significant predictor variables. After ACS, not all patients continue their drugs or take them exactly as prescribed. Determining beliefs about illness and medication may be helpful in developing interventions aimed at improving adherence.
Nabors, Laura; Bartz, Jennifer; Kichler, Jessica; Sievers, Rebecca; Elkins, Rebecca; Pangallo, Jordan
Children's reactions to medical trauma have been recorded through play. In this study, participants were 15 children with medical illnesses, 14 siblings of children with a medical illness, and 6 children in the community who did not have any ill family members. Children participated in play groups and their play with medical toys was videotaped and coded for themes that would provide a window on their perspectives. The play of children with medical illnesses and siblings was similar. Medical play was a mechanism for imaginal coping and working through stress related to medical experiences. In contrast, children in the comparison group did not engage in much medical play and when they did, they did not demonstrate a rich play experience with detailed medical stories. Future research should focus on ways to use play therapy techniques to help medically ill children and their siblings cope with their feelings and reactions to medical events related to chronic illness.
de Oliveira, André Vitorio Câmara; Rocha, Frederico Theobaldo Ramos; Abreu, Sílvio Romero de Oliveira
Not responsible self-medication refers to drug use in high doses without rational indication and often associated with alcohol abuse. It can lead to liver damage and drug interactions, and may cause liver failure. To warn about how the practice of self-medication can be responsible for acute liver failure. Were used the Medline via PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and Lilacs, and additional information on institutional sites of interest crossing the headings acute liver failure [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; acute liver failure [tiab] AND dietary supplements [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND liver failure [tiab] and self-medication [tiab] AND green tea [tiab]. In Lilacs and SciELO used the descriptor self medication in Portuguese and Spanish. From total surveyed were selected 27 articles and five sites specifically related to the purpose of this review. Legislation and supervision disabled and information inaccessible to people, favors the emergence of cases of liver failure drug in many countries. In the list of released drugs that deserve more attention and care, are some herbal medicines used for the purpose of weight loss, and acetaminophen. It is recommended that institutes of health intensify supervision and better orient their populations on drug seemingly harmless, limiting the sale of products or requiring a prescription for release them.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Despite epidemiological transitions, communicable diseases are widely prevalent world over, concomitantly non-communicable diseases are also on the rise. Mental and behavioural disorders account for 12% of the global burden of disease. Caregiving for both groups of patients, rests with an identified primary caregiver. Caregiving lays a great deal of burden on the caregiver, adversely affecting his quality of life. These factors influence the quality of caregiving, and thereby the long-term well-being of the patient. Differences between the two groups of caregivers has not been studied, more so in the Indian context. MATERIALS AND METHODS 60 caregivers of psychiatrically ill and 63 caregivers of the medically ill were studied. Burden of care was assessed using Elmstahl burden scale, and quality of life (QOL using WHOQOL BREF. RESULTS The socio demographic profile of both groups was similar. All subjects experienced a burden of care, with those caring for the psychiatrically ill experiencing a greater burden. QOL was poorer in the care givers of the psychiatrically ill, especially in those married, employed, and in a lower income group. The female care giver, mostly the spouse, experienced a greater burden of care and a poorer QOL. CONCLUSION Chronicity, stigma, poor insight and disabling dependence of the psychiatrically ill, are probably contributory. A higher caregiver burden and a lower QOL will influence quality of caregiving, and have an adverse effect on the course and prognosis of the illness. There is thus a need for routine assessment of the caregiver, and planned intervention for the same.
Janoušková, Miroslava; Weissová, Aneta; Formánek, Tomáš; Pasz, Jiří; Bankovská Motlová, Lucie
Medical school curriculum contributes to future doctors' attitude formation towards people with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to compare stigmatizing attitudes between medical students and faculty, analyse stigmatizing attitudes among students from different years of study and identify factors predicting stigma. A cross-sectional study with the use of scales measuring attitudes and social distance was designed. Online questionnaires were distributed to all students and teachers at a medical faculty in the Czech Republic. The response rate was 32.1% ( n = 308) among students and 26.7% ( n = 149) among teachers. Teachers had a greater prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes than students. Increased tolerant attitudes in students were detected after the fourth year, that is, following introduction to psychiatry. Preferred specialization in psychiatry and attending two psychiatry courses predicted more tolerant attitudes. Among both students and teachers, men possessed more stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness. Age was an important predictor of stigmatizing attitudes among teachers. Educators should pay closer attention to the role of medical psychology and communication training implementation, which may be beneficial to improving skills and increasing medical students' self-esteem and feeling of competence throughout their psychiatry rotation.
Conclusions: A considerable proportion of children with an acute enterovirus infection in Guangdong Province, China during 2009–2012 presented no exanthema, and the absence of exanthema was found to be related to death and illness severity for these acute enterovirus infections. Clinicians in China should consider enterovirus as the possible pathogen when treating children with an acute pathogen infection without exanthema.
Full Text Available Kun Hwang,1 Huan Fan,1 Se Won Hwang2 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea; 2Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, UK Abstract: Pathography is defined as “historical biography from a medical, psychological, and psychiatric viewpoint.” We thought that writing about an experience of illness might help students understand patients’ experience and in turn grow in terms of self-understanding. Participants included 151 medical students. Students wrote about their own experience of illness and were asked to answer questions from the Likert scale. Most students wrote about themselves (79.2%; however, some students (20.8% wrote about the illness of others. Among the 149 pathographies, ecopathography was most frequent (30.9%, followed by testimonial pathography (25.5%; angry pathography (13.4% and alternative pathography (12.1% were relatively less frequent. Eighty-eight pathographies (59.1% showed 120 expressions of family relationship. Among the 120 cases, worrying about family members was most frequent (47.5%, followed by reliance on a family member (32.5%. All students wrote about the enlightenment experienced on returning to daily life. The sense of belonging together was most frequent (38.3%, followed by gratitude for living (20.8%, resolution to be a good doctor (18.1%, and a will to live and be healthy (12.1%. Answers on the Likert scale (total 5 for pathography beneficence were very high in understanding desirable doctor image (4.46, attaining morals and personality as a health care professional (4.49, and understanding basic communication skills (4.46. Writing about an experience of illness allows students to better understand patients’ experience and to grow in self-understanding. Keywords: writing, disease, patients, narration, pathography
Katon, Wayne; Lin, Elizabeth H B; Kroenke, Kurt
Primary care patients with anxiety and depression often describe multiple physical symptoms, but no systematic review has studied the effect of anxiety and depressive comorbidity in patients with chronic medical illnesses. MEDLINE databases were searched from 1966 through 2006 using the combined search terms diabetes, coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure (CHF), asthma, COPD, osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with depression, anxiety and symptoms. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies with >100 patients were included as were all randomized controlled trials that measure the impact of improving anxiety and depressive symptoms on medical symptom outcomes. Thirty-one studies involving 16,922 patients met our inclusion criteria. Patients with chronic medical illness and comorbid depression or anxiety compared to those with chronic medical illness alone reported significantly higher numbers of medical symptoms when controlling for severity of medical disorder. Across the four categories of common medical disorders examined (diabetes, pulmonary disease, heart disease, arthritis), somatic symptoms were at least as strongly associated with depression and anxiety as were objective physiologic measures. Two treatment studies also showed that improvement in depression outcome was associated with decreased somatic symptoms without improvement in physiologic measures. Accurate diagnosis of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and in optimizing the management of somatic symptom burden.
van Sambeeck, S J L; Janssen, E J M; Hundscheid, T; Martens, S J L; Vos, G D
To gain insight into how the acute care of critically ill children at general hospitals is organised, whether staff is sufficiently trained and whether the necessary materials and medications are present. Questionnaire combined with a site visit. Questionnaires were sent to all primarily involved specialists (emergency room specialists and paediatricians), and to the auxiliary anaesthetists and intensivists involved, at the nine general hospitals in Southeast Netherlands. Two researchers performed standardised interviews with the lead paediatricians on site and checked for materials and medication present in the emergency and paediatric departments. Of the 195 questionnaires sent, 97 (49.7%) were deemed suitable for analysis. The response from the primary specialists involved (77.6%) was more than twice that of the auxiliary specialists (31.9%). At 7 hospitals, verbal agreements on the organisation of acute care were maintained, 1 hospital had a written protocol, and 2 hospitals had a task force addressing this topic. One out of 5 respondents was unaware of the verbal agreements and 1 out of 3 mistakenly assumed that a protocol existed. Two out of 3 primary specialists involved were certified for Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS); 1 out of 13 of the auxiliary specialists had such a certificate. Scenario training was being conducted at 8 hospitals. A paediatric resuscitation cart was available at both the emergency and paediatric departments of 8 hospitals, 3 of which were fully stocked at both departments. Laryngeal mask airways and PEEP-valves (Positive End Expiratory Pressure) were lacking at 6 of the 9 hospitals. The medication stock was complete at all the hospitals. The organisation of and training for the acute care of critically ill children and presence of materials - the aspects we investigated - need attention at all general hospitals evaluated. It appeared that many specialists are not APLS certified and written protocols concerning organisation
Dziadzko, Volha; Dziadzko, Mikhail A; Johnson, Margaret M; Gajic, Ognjen; Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V
Post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which encompasses profound psychological morbidity, affects many survivors of critical illness. We hypothesize that acute psychological stress during the intensive care unit (ICU) confinement likely contributes to PICS. In order to develop strategies that mitigate PICS associated psychological morbidity, it is paramount to first characterize acute ICU psychological stress and begin to understand its causative and protective factors. A structured interview study was administered to adult critical illness survivors who received ≥48h of mechanical ventilation in medical and surgical ICUs of a tertiary care center, and their families. Fifty patients and 44 family members were interviewed following ICU discharge. Patients reported a high level of psychological distress. The families' perception of patient's stress level correlated with the patient's self-estimated stress level both in daily life (rho=0.59; ptherapy/walking (14%) were perceived to be important mitigating factors. Clinicians' actions that were perceived to be very constructive included reassurance (54%), explanations (32%) and physical touch (8%). Fear, hallucinations, and the inability to communicate, are identified as central contributors to psychological stress during an ICU stay; the presence of family, and physician's attention are categorized as important mitigating factors. Patients and families identified several practical recommendations which may help assuage the psychological burden of the ICU stay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rajpura, Jigar R; Nayak, Rajesh
Poor compliance with antihypertensive medications is one possible reason why its success in clinical trials has not been translated into everyday practice. In addition, medication noncompliance in elderly leads to increased hospitalizations, physician visits, and higher health care costs. The study assessed influence of illness perceptions and medications beliefs on medication compliance of elderly hypertensive cohorts. A cross-sectional survey research design, utilizing self-administered health surveys, was adapted to address key study objectives. Conceptualized associations among the study variables were explored to assess their individual as well as their collective impact on the medication compliance. A total of 78 (66%) study samples were found to be noncompliant with their medications. Analysis revealed that perceptions about illness and beliefs about medication jointly played a significant role in the prediction of medication compliance (F = 5.966, P compliance building in elderly populations having hypertension by incorporating the value and importance of patient perceptions of illness and medications in order to achieve desired patient outcomes.
Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) resulting from pathogens directly entering the piping of drinking water distribution systems is insufficiently understood. Here, we estimate AGI incidence attributable to virus intrusions into non-disinfecting municipal distribution systems. Viruses were enumerat...
Cockburn, N; Pradhan, A; Taing, M W; Kisely, S; Ford, P J
Many psychotropic medications affect oral health. This review identified oral side effects for antidepressant, antipsychotic, anticonvulsant, antianxiety and sedative drugs that are recommended in Australia for the management of common mental illnesses and provides recommendations to manage these side-effects. The Australian Therapeutic Guidelines and the Australian Medicines Handbook were searched for medications used to treat common mental health conditions. For each medication, the generic name, class, and drug company reported side-effects were extracted from the online Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (eMIMs) and UpToDate databases. Meyler's Side Effect of Drugs Encyclopaedia was used to identify additional oral adverse reactions to these medications. Fifty-seven drugs were identified: 23 antidepressants, 22 antipsychotics or mood stabilisers, and 12 anxiolytic or sedative medications. Xerostomia (91%) the most commonly reported side effect among all classes of medications of the 28 identified symptoms. Other commonly reported adverse effects included dysguesia (65%) for antidepressants, and tardive dyskinesia (94%) or increased salivation (78%) for antipsychotic medications. While xerostomia has often been reported as a common adverse effect of psychotropic drugs, this review has identified additional side effects including dysguesia from antidepressants and tardive dyskinesia and increased salivation from antipsychotics. Clinicians should consider oral consequences of psychotropic medication in addition to other side-effects when prescribing. For antidepressants, this would mean choosing duloxetine, agomelatine and any of the serotonin re-uptake inhibitors except sertraline. In the case of antipsychotics and mood stabilisers, atypical agents have less oral side effects than older alternatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Hayes, Richard D; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Stewart, Robert
Serious mental illness (SMI, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder) is associated with worse general health. However, admissions to general hospitals have received little investigation. We sought to delineate frequencies of and causes for non-psychiatric hospital admissions in SMI and compare with the general population in the same area. Records of 18 380 individuals with SMI aged ⩾20 years in southeast London were linked to hospitalisation data. Age- and gender-standardised admission ratios (SARs) were calculated by primary discharge diagnoses in the 10th edition of the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes, referencing geographic catchment data. Commonest discharge diagnosis categories in the SMI cohort were urinary conditions, digestive conditions, unclassified symptoms, neoplasms, and respiratory conditions. SARs were raised for most major categories, except neoplasms for a significantly lower risk. Hospitalisation risks were specifically higher for poisoning and external causes, injury, endocrine/metabolic conditions, haematological, neurological, dermatological, infectious and non-specific ('Z-code') causes. The five commonest specific ICD-10 diagnoses at discharge were 'chronic renal failure' (N18), a non-specific code (Z04), 'dental caries' (K02), 'other disorders of the urinary system' (N39), and 'pain in throat and chest' (R07), all of which were higher than expected (SARs ranging 1.57-6.66). A range of reasons for non-psychiatric hospitalisation in SMI is apparent, with self-harm, self-neglect and/or reduced healthcare access, and medically unexplained symptoms as potential underlying explanations.
OBJECTIVE: To identify and explore parents' concerns when young children become acutely ill. DESIGN: Qualitative study making use of semi-structured one to one and group interviews with parents of preschool children. SETTING: Disadvantaged inner city community. SUBJECTS: 95 parents of preschool children. RESULTS: Fever, cough, and the possibility of meningitis were parents' primary concerns when their children became acutely ill. Parents' concerns reflected lay beliefs, their interpretation o...
Johansson Kostenniemi, Urban; Norman, David; Borgström, Malin; Silfverdal, Sven Arne
This Swedish study reviewed differences in clinical presentation and laboratory findings of acute bacterial meningitis in children aged one month to 17 years in Västerbotten County, Sweden. A register-based study was performed for the period 1986 to 2013 using the Västerbotten County Council's patient registration and laboratory records at the Department of Laboratory Medicine at Umeå University Hospital. The medical records were reviewed to extract data and confirm the diagnosis. We found 103 cases of acute bacterial meningitis, and Haemophilus influenzae was the most common pathogen, causing 40.8% of all cases, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae at 30.1% and Neisseria meningitidis at 9.7%. Significant differences in clinical presentation and laboratory findings were found. Younger children were more unwell than older ones and had more diffuse symptoms on admission. In addition, important sex-related differences were found that might explain the higher case fatality rates for boys than girls. For example, boys tended to have a higher disturbance in the blood-brain barrier, which is known to be a negative prognostic factor. This study showed that clinical presentation for acute bacterial meningitis varied with age and sex and, to a lesser extent, on the duration of the illness. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with attitudes toward other medical illness, and the influence of the number of years spent in medical school, as well as of several key socio-demographic, ethnic, and cultural variables. A group of 760 U.K. medical students completed a nationwide on-line survey examining their attitudes toward patients with five conditions (pneumonia, depression, psychotic symptoms, intravenous drug use, long-standing unexplained abdominal complaints), using the Medical Condition Regard Scale (MCRS). Students were also asked whether they had completed the psychiatry rotation or had personal experience of mental disorders themselves or among their friends or family members. They were also asked about their ethnic group (using U.K. national census categories), religious affiliation, and how important religion was in their lives. Independent-samples t-tests and one-way ANOVA were used to compare differences between groups on the MCRS. Students showed the highest regard for patients with pneumonia and lowest regard for patients with long-standing, unexplained abdominal complaints. Although attitudes toward pneumonia were more positive in fifth-year students than in first-year students, attitudes toward unexplained chronic abdominal pain were worse in fifth-year students than in first-year students. Personal experience of mental health treatment, or that among family and friends, were associated with less stigmatizing attitudes. Men showed more stigmatization than women for nearly all conditions; Chinese and South Asian students showed more stigmatizing attitudes toward delusions and hallucinations than their white British counterparts. Medical students in this survey
Full Text Available The article is devoted to prevention and treatment of acute respiratory diseases children of megapolises who fall ill frequently. The authors prove the thesis that children falling ill frequently and residing in mega cities, and not only in Russia, have a similar immune status, according to which not only therapeutic but also preventive immunomodulatory treatment courses must be administered to them.Key words: frequently ill children, bacterial immunomodulation, cytokinic status.
Full Text Available Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT has proved to be beneficial for the treatment of critically ill patients with acute renal failure (ARF. The aim of this study is to determine the outcome and identify the predictors of mortality of critically ill patients treated with CRRT for ARF in the intensive care unit (ICU. This prospective cohort study of critically ill patients with ARF requiring CRRT admitted to the ICU was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia from 2002 to 2008. A total of 644 of 7173 patients with ARF required CRRT were studied. About 9% of the ARF patients required CRRT and comprised mainly those with medical causes, carrying a mortality of 64%. Multivariate analysis found high serum creatinine as an independent factor for better outcome and requirement of mechanical ventilation (MV as an independent factor for worse outcome. In our cohort study, ARF requiring CRRT in the ICU was associated with a high mortality.
Zhu, Yifan; Zhang, Hanwen; Yang, Ge; Hu, Xinran; Liu, Zhening; Guo, Na; He, Hongbo; Sun, Bin; Rosenheck, Robert
Stigma towards people with mental illness impedes effective treatment. A recent study found that Chinese students were less socially accepting of people with mental illness than counterparts from other countries. The current study examined stigma among Chinese medical students at different levels of training. Medical students (N = 1372 from 12 Chinese schools) were surveyed with a questionnaire addressing attitudes and beliefs about people with mental illness. Analysis of variance was used to compare responses from students: (1) with no psychiatry training; (2) who had only taken a didactic course; and (3) who had completed both a course and a clinical rotation. Specific attitudes were identified through factor analysis. Interest in further training and other personal experience were also examined. Factor analysis revealed attitudes favoring: (1) social acceptance of people with mental illness, (2) not believing in supernatural causes of mental illness, (3) bio-psycho-social causation, (4) rehabilitation, and (5) social integration. The absence of consistent trends across training levels suggested that education did not increase nonstigmatized attitudes. Areas of most stigmatization were low social acceptance and little favor for social integration. Measures most strongly correlated with nonstigmatized attitudes were as follows: interest in clinical psychiatry, belief that psychiatry should be more valued, and having friends with mental illness. Although medical school education showed little effect on attitudes, students with more individual experiences such as planning to continue clinical psychiatric training, believing psychiatry should be more valued, and having friends with mental illness had less stigmatized attitudes than others. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Itenov, Theis S; Berthelsen, Rasmus Ehrenfried; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik
these patients. DESIGN: Observational study with development and validation of a risk prediction model. SETTING: Nine academic ICUs in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Development cohort of critically ill patients with AKI at ICU admission from the Procalcitonin and Survival Study cohort (n = 568), validation cohort.......1%. CONCLUSION: We constructed and validated a simple model that can predict the chance of recovery from AKI in critically ill patients....
Levine, David M; Ouchi, Kei; Blanchfield, Bonnie; Diamond, Keren; Licurse, Adam; Pu, Charles T; Schnipper, Jeffrey L
Hospitals are standard of care for acute illness, but hospitals can be unsafe, uncomfortable, and expensive. Providing substitutive hospital-level care in a patient's home potentially reduces cost while maintaining or improving quality, safety, and patient experience, although evidence from randomized controlled trials in the US is lacking. Determine if home hospital care reduces cost while maintaining quality, safety, and patient experience. Randomized controlled trial. Adults admitted via the emergency department with any infection or exacerbation of heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or asthma. Home hospital care, including nurse and physician home visits, intravenous medications, continuous monitoring, video communication, and point-of-care testing. Primary outcome was direct cost of the acute care episode. Secondary outcomes included utilization, 30-day cost, physical activity, and patient experience. Nine patients were randomized to home, 11 to usual care. Median direct cost of the acute care episode for home patients was 52% (IQR, 28%; p = 0.05) lower than for control patients. During the care episode, home patients had fewer laboratory orders (median per admission: 6 vs. 19; p Home patients were more physically active (median minutes, 209 vs. 78; p home patients, one occurred in control patients. Median direct cost for the acute care plus 30-day post-discharge period for home patients was 67% (IQR, 77%; p home-care services (22% vs. 55%; p = 0.08) and fewer readmissions (11% vs. 36%; p = 0.32). Patient experience was similar in both groups. The use of substitutive home-hospitalization compared to in-hospital usual care reduced cost and utilization and improved physical activity. No significant differences in quality, safety, and patient experience were noted, with more definitive results awaiting a larger trial. Trial Registration NCT02864420.
Megan E Reller
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV re-emerged in Sri Lanka in late 2006 after a 40-year hiatus. We sought to identify and characterize acute chikungunya infection (CHIK in patients presenting with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in unstudied rural and semi-urban southern Sri Lanka in 2007.We enrolled febrile patients ≥ 2 years of age, collected uniform epidemiologic and clinical data, and obtained serum samples for serology, virus isolation, and real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR. Serology on paired acute and convalescent samples identified acute chikungunya infection in 3.5% (28/797 patients without acute dengue virus (DENV infection, 64.3% (18/28 of which were confirmed by viral isolation and/or real-time RT-PCR. No CHIKV/DENV co-infections were detected among 54 patients with confirmed acute DENV. Sequencing of the E1 coding region of six temporally distinct CHIKV isolates (April through October 2007 showed that all isolates posessed the E1-226A residue and were most closely related to Sri Lankan and Indian isolates from the same time period. Except for more frequent and persistent musculoskeletal symptoms, acute chikungunya infections mimicked DENV and other acute febrile illnesses. Only 12/797 (1.5% patients had serological evidence of past chikungunya infection.Our findings suggest CHIKV is a prominent cause of non-specific acute febrile illness in southern Sri Lanka.
Noiesen, Eline; Trosborg, Ingelise; Bager, Louise
To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients.......To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients....
Medical certificate templates are now available in the Admin e-guide (follow the “Forms and templates” link): Medical certificate for illness/accident Medical certificate for a medical examination or treatment Medical certificate in the event of illness of a close relative These templates are provided for the convenience of members of the personnel and their use is recommended but not compulsory. Other forms of medical certificates issued by a medical doctor may also be submitted, provided they contain the same items of information as those given in the templates. More information on the applicable rules and on the way leave is managed at CERN can be found in the Admin e-guide web pages. Human Resources department HR.email@example.com
Vieira, José M; Castro, Isac; Curvello-Neto, Américo; Demarzo, Sérgio; Caruso, Pedro; Pastore, Laerte; Imanishe, Marina H; Abdulkader, Regina C R M; Deheinzelin, Daniel
Acute kidney injury (AKI) worsens outcome in various scenarios. We sought to investigate whether the occurrence of AKI has any effect on weaning from mechanical ventilation. Observational, retrospective study in a 23-bed medical/surgical intensive care unit (ICU) in a cancer hospital from January to December 2003. The inclusion criterion was invasive mechanical ventilation for > or =48 hrs. AKI was defined as at least one measurement of serum creatinine of > or =1.5 mg/dL during the ICU stay. Patients were then separated into AKI and non-AKI patients (control group). The criterion for weaning was the combination of positive end-expiratory pressure of or =85% increase in baseline serum creatinine (hazard rate, 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-4.08), oliguria (hazard rate, 2.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.08), and the number of antibiotics (hazard rate, 2.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-4.63) predicted longer duration of weaning. The length of ICU stay and ICU mortality rate were significantly greater in the AKI patients. After adjusting for Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, oliguria (odds ratio, 30.8; 95% confidence interval, 7.7-123.0) remained as a strong risk factor for mortality. This study shows that renal dysfunction has serious consequences in the duration of mechanical ventilation, weaning from mechanical ventilation, and mortality in critically ill cancer patients.
Full Text Available Objective: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV has been reported to be a predictor of mortality after myocardial infarction (MI. Patients’ beliefs and perceptions concerning their illness may play a role in decreased HRV. This study investigated if illness perceptions predict HRV at three months following acute MI. Methods: 130 patients referred to a tertiary cardiology centre, were examined within 48 hours and three months following acute MI. At admission, patients’ cognitive representations of their MI were assessed using the German version of the self-rated Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ. At admission and after three months (follow-up, frequency and time domain measures of HRV were obtained from 5-min electrocardiogram (ECG recordings during stable supine resting. Results: Linear hierarchical regression showed that the Brief IPQ dimensions timeline (β coefficient = -0.29; p = .044, personal control (β = 0.47; p = .008 and illness understanding (β = 0.43; p = .014 were significant predictors of HRV, adjusted for age, gender, baseline HRV, diabetes, beta-blockers, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, attendance of cardiac rehabilitation, and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: As patients’ negative perceptions of their illness are associated with lower HRV following acute MI, a brief illness perception questionnaire may help to identify patients who might benefit from a specific illness perceptions intervention.
Tom, Dina M; Aquino, Christian; Arredondo, Anthony R; Foster, Byron A
The goal of this study was to examine preferences for shared decision-making (SDM) in parents of acutely ill versus chronically ill children in the inpatient setting. Additionally, we explored the effect of parental perception of illness severity and uncertainty in illness on decision-making preference. In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed parents of children admitted to pediatric inpatient units at an academic, tertiary-care hospital. Surveys were administered in person and used validated tools to assess SDM preferences and uncertainty in illness. Descriptive statistics evaluated associations stratified by acute versus chronic illness, and multivariable analyses were performed. Of the 200 parents who participated, the majority were women (78%), Hispanic (81.5%), English speaking (73%), between 30 and 39 years old (37.5%), and had an education achievement of less than a college degree (77%). The mean age of hospitalized children was 8.1 years, and half reported a chronic illness. Most parents preferred an active (43%) or collaborative (40%) role in SDM. There was no association with SDM preference by demographics, number of previous hospitalizations, perception of illness severity, or uncertainty. However, parents of chronically ill children significantly preferred a passive role in SDM when they perceived a high level of uncertainty in illness. Most parents of hospitalized children prefer to take an active or collaborative role in SDM. However, parents of chronically ill children who perceive high levels of uncertainty surrounding their children's illness prefer a passive role, thus illustrating the complexity in decision-making among this parent population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Oct 3, 2009 ... can be a symptom of a psychiatric illness or a medical illness.2,3. Psychiatric .... reported a 27.2% prevalence of physical illness in psychiatric inpatients in Nigeria, Janse ..... Results in a state mental health system. Arch Gen ...
Loss of muscle mass and muscle weakness are often found in cases of acute or chronic illness in elderly patients. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for complications and higher mortality. Based on an exact diagnosis and knowledge of the risk factors for developing sarcopenia, it is now possible to improve the prognosis by providing effective treatment options. This review was carried out based on a PubMed search in the period from 1998 to 2015 using original articles and reviews and posting the terms "sarcopenia", "elderly" and "acute illness". Given the evidence from the current literature, in the case of acute illness it is feasible to identify patients at risk, diagnose sarcopenia and prescribe a multidimensional treatment program to prevent or treat sarcopenia even in the bustling environment of geriatric wards or institutions.
Stone, Amanda M; Merlo, Lisa J
Mental illness stigma remains a significant barrier to treatment. However, the recent increase in the medical and nonmedical use of prescription psychiatric medications among college students seems to contradict this phenomenon. This study explored students' attitudes and experiences related to psychiatric medications, as well as correlates of psychiatric medication misuse (ie, attitudes toward mental illness and beliefs about the efficacy of psychiatric medications). Data were collected anonymously via self-report questionnaires from April 2008 to February 2009. Measures included the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, the Drug Abuse Screening Test, Day's Mental Illness Stigma Scale, the Attitudes Toward Psychiatric Medication scale, and the Psychiatric Medication Attitudes Scale. Participants included 383 university students (59.2% female), recruited on the campus of a large state university or through online classes offered through the same university. High rates of psychiatric medication misuse were shown (13.8%) when compared to rates of medical use (6.8%), and students with prescriptions for psychiatric drugs were also more likely to be misusers (χ(2) = 20.60, P mental illness, including lower anxiety around the mentally ill (t = 3.26, P mental illness (t = -2.11, P mental illness, the appropriate use of psychiatric medications, and the potential consequences associated with abuse of these potent drugs. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
ECG dispersion mapping (ECG-DM) is a novel technique that analyzes low amplitude ECG oscillations and reports them as the myocardial micro-alternation index (MMI). This study compared the ability of ECG-DM to predict in-hospital mortality with traditional risk factors such as age, vital signs and co-morbid diagnoses, as well as three predictive scores: the Simple Clinical Score (SCS)--based on clinical and ECG findings, and two Medical Admission Risk System scores--one based on vital signs and laboratory data (MARS), and one only on laboratory data (LD).
Van Camp, Roscoe O; Ortega, Hernando J
Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (HS) kills most organisms that cause acute illness, an important cause of lost duty time among aviation personnel. This preliminary study observed the impact on the acute illness rate when HS was made readily accessible to pilots. Wall-mounted HS dispensers were placed in two fighter squadron operations buildings during November 2005 and various media were used to alert all base personnel to the importance of hand hygiene and cough hygiene. Data were obtained for two groups of personnel on the same base: 1) pilots who worked in the two HS-equipped buildings (Squadron) (n = 56); and 2) pilots and air traffic controllers who worked at other locations (Non-Squadron) (n = 61). The incidence of acute illness and the cumulative number of duty days lost was determined in each group for the winters of 2004-05 (no HS) and 2005-06 (HS available). For the Squadron group, the acute illness rates were 2.4% in 2004-5 (210 duty days lost) (no HS) compared with 0.9% in 2005-6 (78 duty days lost) when HS was provided. No year-to-year difference was apparent for the Non-Squadron group, where the illness rates were 2.4% in 2004-5 (229 duty days lost) and 2.3% in 2005-6 (221 duty days lost). Making HS readily available at locations frequented by pilots together with educating them regarding hand hygiene may reduce the occurrence of acute illness and number of duty days lost.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal illness is an important global public health issue, even in developed countries, where the morbidity and economic impact are significant. Our objective was to evaluate the demographic determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness in Canadians. Methods We used data from two population-based studies conducted in select communities between 2001 and 2003. Together, the studies comprised 8,108 randomly selected respondents; proxies were used for all respondents under 12 years and for respondents under 19 years at the discretion of the parent or guardian. Using univariate and multivariate logistic regression, we evaluated the following demographic determinants: age, gender, cultural group, and urban/rural status of the respondent, highest education level of the respondent or proxy, number of people in the household, and total annual household income. Two-way interaction terms were included in the multivariate analyses. The final multivariate model included income, age, gender, and the interaction between income and gender. Results After adjusting for income, gender, and their interaction, children under 10 years had the highest risk of acute gastrointestinal illness, followed by young adults aged 20 to 24 years. For males, the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was similar across all income levels, but for females the risk was much higher in the lowest income category. Specifically, in those with total annual household incomes of less than $20,000, the odds of acute gastrointestinal illness were 2.46 times higher in females than in males. Conclusion Understanding the demographic determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness is essential in order to identify vulnerable groups to which intervention and prevention efforts can be targeted.
Mogensen, T; Hjortsø, N C
A case of acute postoperative hypothyroidism in a 62-year old woman is presented. One month before emergency admission because of a perforated gastric ulcer the patient had normal thyroid function, despite removal of a thyroid adenoma 20 years earlier. Following surgery the patient developed circ...... circulatory instability, renal insufficiency, hypothermia and immeasurable concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Treatment with triiodothyronine was commenced but the patient died following an episode of severe hypotension....
Hause, Anne M; Avadhanula, Vasanthi; Maccato, Maurizio L; Pinell, Phillip M; Bond, Nanette; Santarcangelo, Patricia; Ferlic-Stark, Laura; Munoz, Flor M; Piedra, Pedro A
Other than influenza, little is known about the consequences of viral acute respiratory illness (ARI) on pregnant women and fetuses. Our objectives were to determine the frequency of ARI due to respiratory viruses and the associated clinical outcomes during pregnancy. Pregnant women in their second or third trimester were enrolled if they reported having symptoms of ARI or were healthy within the preceding 2 weeks. Nasopharyngeal secretions were evaluated for respiratory viruses by molecular diagnostic assays. Clinical outcomes were evaluated at enrollment and via a follow-up telephone-based questionnaire 2 weeks later. There were 155 pregnant participants, with 81 ARI cases and 91 healthy controls. Acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRTI) was identified in 29 cases (36%). Human rhinovirus (HRV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and influenza virus accounted for 75% of virus-positive cases of ALRTI. Cases with ALRTI often reported a longer duration of illness, history of allergies, symptoms of wheezing, shortness of breath, or chest pain, and use of prescription medication. Two cases with ALRTI reported decreased fetal movement; a third case with ALRTI was hospitalized. In over one third of ARI cases, participants had symptoms consistent with ALRTI. Infection with HRV, RSV, or influenza virus was commonly detected in patients with ALRTI. Viral ALRTI during pregnancy appears to be common and is associated with significant morbidity.
Lopez, M.; Martin, M.
The acute radiation syndrome (ARS) occurs after whole-body or significant partial-body irradiation (typically at a dose of >1 Gy). ARS can involve the hematopoietic, cutaneous, gastrointestinal and the neurovascular organ systems either individually or in combination. There is a correlation between the severity of clinical signs and symptoms of ARS and radiation dose. Radiation induced multi-organ failure (MOF) describes the progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems over time. Radiation combined injury (RCI) is defined as radiation injury combined with blunt or penetrating trauma, burns, blast, or infection. The classic syndromes are: hematopoietic (doses >2 - 3 Gy), gastrointestinal (doses 5- 12 Gy) and cerebrovascular syndrome (doses 10 - 20 Gy). There is no possibility to survive after doses >10 - 12 Gy. The Phases of ARS are - prodromal: 0 - 2 days from exposure, latent: 2 - 20 days, and manifest illness: 21 - 60 days from exposure. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) at a dose of 5 micro g/kg body weight per day subcutaneously has been recommended as treatment of neutropenia, and antibiotics, antiviral and antifungal agents for prevention or treatment of infections. If taken within the first hours of contamination, stable iodine in the form of nonradioactive potassium iodide (KI) saturates iodine binding sites within the thyroid and inhibits incorporation of radioiodines into the gland. Finally, if severe aplasia persists under cytokines for more than 14 days, the possibility of a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation should be evaluated. This review will focus on the clinical aspects of the ARS, using the European triage system (METREPOL) to evaluate the severity of radiation injury, and scoring groups of patients for the general and specific management of the syndrome. (authors)
Harper, Sherilee L.; Edge, Victoria L.; Ford, James; Thomas, M. Kate; Pearl, David; Shirley, Jamal; McEwen, Scott A.
Background The incidence of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, and Iqaluit, Nunavut, is higher than reported elsewhere in Canada; as such, understanding AGI-related healthcare use is important for healthcare provision, public health practice and surveillance of AGI. Objectives This study described symptoms, severity and duration of self-reported AGI in the general population and examined the incidence and factors associated with healthcare utilization for AGI in these 2 Inuit communities. Design Cross-sectional survey data were analysed using multivariable exact logistic regression to examine factors associated with individuals’ self-reported healthcare and over-the-counter (OTC) medication utilization related to AGI symptoms. Results In Rigolet, few AGI cases used healthcare services [4.8% (95% CI=1.5–14.4%)]; in Iqaluit, some cases used healthcare services [16.9% (95% CI=11.2–24.7%)]. Missing traditional activities due to AGI (OR=3.8; 95% CI=1.18–12.4) and taking OTC medication for AGI symptoms (OR=3.8; 95% CI=1.2–15.1) were associated with increased odds of using healthcare services in Iqaluit. In both communities, AGI severity and secondary symptoms (extreme tiredness, headache, muscle pains, chills) were significantly associated with increased odds of taking OTC medication. Conclusions While rates of self-reported AGI were higher in Inuit communities compared to non-Inuit communities in Canada, there were lower rates of AGI-related healthcare use in Inuit communities compared to other regions in Canada. As such, the rates of healthcare use for a given disease can differ between Inuit and non-Inuit communities, and caution should be exercised in making comparisons between Inuit and non-Inuit health outcomes based solely on clinic records and healthcare use. PMID:26001982
Sherilee L. Harper
Full Text Available Background: The incidence of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI in Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, and Iqaluit, Nunavut, is higher than reported elsewhere in Canada; as such, understanding AGI-related healthcare use is important for healthcare provision, public health practice and surveillance of AGI. Objectives: This study described symptoms, severity and duration of self-reported AGI in the general population and examined the incidence and factors associated with healthcare utilization for AGI in these 2 Inuit communities. Design: Cross-sectional survey data were analysed using multivariable exact logistic regression to examine factors associated with individuals’ self-reported healthcare and over-the-counter (OTC medication utilization related to AGI symptoms. Results: In Rigolet, few AGI cases used healthcare services [4.8% (95% CI=1.5–14.4%]; in Iqaluit, some cases used healthcare services [16.9% (95% CI=11.2–24.7%]. Missing traditional activities due to AGI (OR=3.8; 95% CI=1.18–12.4 and taking OTC medication for AGI symptoms (OR=3.8; 95% CI=1.2–15.1 were associated with increased odds of using healthcare services in Iqaluit. In both communities, AGI severity and secondary symptoms (extreme tiredness, headache, muscle pains, chills were significantly associated with increased odds of taking OTC medication. Conclusions: While rates of self-reported AGI were higher in Inuit communities compared to non-Inuit communities in Canada, there were lower rates of AGI-related healthcare use in Inuit communities compared to other regions in Canada. As such, the rates of healthcare use for a given disease can differ between Inuit and non-Inuit communities, and caution should be exercised in making comparisons between Inuit and non-Inuit health outcomes based solely on clinic records and healthcare use.
Harper, Sherilee L; Edge, Victoria L; Ford, James; Thomas, M Kate; Pearl, David; Shirley, Jamal; McEwen, Scott A
The incidence of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, and Iqaluit, Nunavut, is higher than reported elsewhere in Canada; as such, understanding AGI-related healthcare use is important for healthcare provision, public health practice and surveillance of AGI. This study described symptoms, severity and duration of self-reported AGI in the general population and examined the incidence and factors associated with healthcare utilization for AGI in these 2 Inuit communities. Cross-sectional survey data were analysed using multivariable exact logistic regression to examine factors associated with individuals' self-reported healthcare and over-the-counter (OTC) medication utilization related to AGI symptoms. In Rigolet, few AGI cases used healthcare services [4.8% (95% CI=1.5-14.4%)]; in Iqaluit, some cases used healthcare services [16.9% (95% CI=11.2-24.7%)]. Missing traditional activities due to AGI (OR=3.8; 95% CI=1.18-12.4) and taking OTC medication for AGI symptoms (OR=3.8; 95% CI=1.2-15.1) were associated with increased odds of using healthcare services in Iqaluit. In both communities, AGI severity and secondary symptoms (extreme tiredness, headache, muscle pains, chills) were significantly associated with increased odds of taking OTC medication. While rates of self-reported AGI were higher in Inuit communities compared to non-Inuit communities in Canada, there were lower rates of AGI-related healthcare use in Inuit communities compared to other regions in Canada. As such, the rates of healthcare use for a given disease can differ between Inuit and non-Inuit communities, and caution should be exercised in making comparisons between Inuit and non-Inuit health outcomes based solely on clinic records and healthcare use.
Uchino, Shigehiko; Kellum, John A.; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Doig, Gordon S.; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Morgera, Stanislao; Schetz, Miet; Tan, Ian; Bouman, Catherine; Macedo, Ettiene; Gibney, Noel; Tolwani, Ashita; Ronco, Claudio
Although acute renal failure (ARF) is believed to be common in the setting of critical illness and is associated with a high risk of death, little is known about its epidemiology and outcome or how these vary in different regions of the world. To determine the period prevalence of ARF in intensive
Lee, Joon; Maslove, David M
Severity of illness (SOI) scores are traditionally based on archival data collected from a wide range of clinical settings. Mortality prediction using SOI scores tends to underperform when applied to contemporary cases or those that differ from the case-mix of the original derivation cohorts. We investigated the use of local clinical data captured from hospital electronic medical records (EMRs) to improve the predictive performance of traditional severity of illness scoring. We conducted a retrospective analysis using data from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database, which contains clinical data from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts. A total of 17 490 intensive care unit (ICU) admissions with complete data were included, from 4 different service types: medical ICU, surgical ICU, coronary care unit, and cardiac surgery recovery unit. We developed customized SOI scores trained on data from each service type, using the clinical variables employed in the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS). In-hospital, 30-day, and 2-year mortality predictions were compared with those obtained from using the original SAPS using the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUROC) as well as the area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC). Test performance in different cohorts stratified by severity of organ injury was also evaluated. Most customized scores (30 of 39) significantly outperformed SAPS with respect to both AUROC and AUPRC. Enhancements over SAPS were greatest for patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery and for prediction of 2-year mortality. Custom models based on ICU-specific data provided better mortality prediction than traditional SAPS scoring using the same predictor variables. Our local data approach demonstrates the value of electronic data capture in the ICU, of secondary uses of EMR data, and of local customization of SOI scoring. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hartl, Wolfgang H; Wolf, Hilde; Schneider, Christian P; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jauch, Karl-Walter
Various cohort studies have shown that acute (short-term) mortality rates in unselected critically ill patients may have improved during the past 15 years. Whether these benefits also affect acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill patients is unclear, as are determinants relevant to prognosis. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from March 1993 to February 2005. A cohort of 390 consecutive surgical patients requiring intensive care therapy for more than 28 days was analyzed. The intensive care unit (ICU) survival rate was 53.6%. Survival rates at one, three and five years were 61.8%, 44.7% and 37.0% among ICU survivors. After adjustment for relevant covariates, acute and long-term survival rates did not differ significantly between 1993 to 1999 and 1999 to 2005 intervals. Acute prognosis was determined by disease severity during ICU stay and by primary diagnosis. However, only the latter was independently associated with long-term prognosis. Advanced age was an independent prognostic determinant of poor short-term and long-term survival. Acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill surgical patients has remained unchanged throughout the past 12 years. After successful surgical intervention and intensive care, long-term outcome is reasonably good and is mainly determined by age and underlying disease.
Arnold, Benjamin F; Schiff, Kenneth C; Ercumen, Ayse; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Steele, Joshua A; Griffith, John F; Steinberg, Steven J; Smith, Paul; McGee, Charles D; Wilson, Richard; Nelsen, Chad; Weisberg, Stephen B; Colford, John M
Rainstorms increase levels of fecal indicator bacteria in urban coastal waters, but it is unknown whether exposure to seawater after rainstorms increases rates of acute illness. Our objective was to provide the first estimates of rates of acute illness after seawater exposure during both dry- and wet-weather periods and to determine the relationship between levels of indicator bacteria and illness among surfers, a population with a high potential for exposure after rain. We enrolled 654 surfers in San Diego, California, and followed them longitudinally during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winters (33,377 days of observation, 10,081 surf sessions). We measured daily surf activities and illness symptoms (gastrointestinal illness, sinus infections, ear infections, infected wounds). Compared with no exposure, exposure to seawater during dry weather increased incidence rates of all outcomes (e.g., for earache or infection, adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27, 2.71; for infected wounds, IRR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.54, 5.98); exposure during wet weather further increased rates (e.g., for earache or infection, IRR = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.95, 5.51; for infected wounds, IRR = 4.96, 95% CI: 2.18, 11.29). Fecal indicator bacteria measured in seawater (Enterococcus species, fecal coliforms, total coliforms) were strongly associated with incident illness only during wet weather. Urban coastal seawater exposure increases the incidence rates of many acute illnesses among surfers, with higher incidence rates after rainstorms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Acute Medical Assessment Units (AMAUs) are being proposed as an alternative to congested Emergency Departments (EDs for the assessment of patients with a range of acute medical problems. We retrospectively reviewed the discharge destination of patients referred to a newly established AMAU during a six-month period. During the same period we contrasted activity in the ED for a similar group of patients. 1,562 patients were assessed in the AMAU. 196 (12.5%) were admitted to an in-patient bed and 1,148 (73.5%) were entered into specific diagnosis-driven out-patient pathways. 1,465 patients attended the ED and 635 (43.3%) were admitted. Out-patient alternatives to expensive in-patient care need to be provided at the \\'coal face" of acute referral. The AMAU provides this, and as a consequence admission rates are relatively low. This is achieved by directly communicating with GPs, accessing senior clinical decision makers, and providing immediate access to diagnostically driven outpatient pathways.
Zhang, Haiyan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Dong, Lei
We aimed to clarify associations between nutritional status and mortality in patients with acute renal failure. De-identified data were obtained from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III database comprising more than 40,000 critical care patients treated at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centerbetween 2001 and 2012. Weight loss and body mass index criteria were used to define malnutrition. Data of 193 critically ill patients with acute renal failure were analyzed, including demographics, nutrition intervention, laboratory results, and disease severity. Main outcomes were in-hospital and 1-year mortality. The 1-year mortality was significantly higher in those with malnutrition than in those without malnutrition (50.0% vs 29.3%, p=0.010), but differences in in-hospital survival were not significant (p=0.255). Significant differences in mortality were found between those with malnutrition and without starting at the 52nd day after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge (p=0.036). No significant differences were found between men and women with malnutrition in in-hospital mortality (p=0.949) and 1-year mortality (p=0.051). Male patients requiring intervention with blood products/colloid supplements had greater risk of 1-year mortality, but without statistical significance. Nutritional status is a predictive factor for mortality among critically ill patients with acute renal failure, particularly 1-year mortality after ICU discharge. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Chiles, Catherine; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert
Stigma among health care providers toward people with mental illness is a worldwide problem. This study at a large US university examined medical student attitudes toward mental illness and its causes, and whether student attitudes change as they progress in their education. An electronic questionnaire focusing on attitudes toward people with mental illness, causes of mental illness, and treatment efficacy was used to survey medical students at all levels of training. Exploratory factor analysis was used to establish attitudinal factors, and analysis of variance was used to identify differences in student attitudes among these factors. Independent-samples t tests were used to assess attitudes toward efficacy of treatments for six common psychiatric and medical conditions. The study response rate was 42.6 % (n = 289). Exploratory factor analysis identified three factors reflecting social acceptance of mental illness, belief in supernatural causes, and belief in biopsychosocial causes. Stages of student education did not differ across these factors. Students who had completed the psychiatry clerkship were more likely to believe that anxiety disorders and diabetes could be treated effectively. Students reporting personal experiences with mental illness showed significantly more social acceptance, and people born outside the USA were more likely to endorse supernatural causes of mental illness. Sociocultural influences and personal experience with mental illness have a greater effect than medical education on attitudes toward people with mental illness. Psychiatric education appears to have a small but significant effect on student attitudes regarding treatment efficacy.
Olson, Daniel; Lamb, Molly; Lopez, Maria Renee; Colborn, Kathryn; Paniagua-Avila, Alejandra; Zacarias, Alma; Zambrano-Perilla, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Castro, Sergio Ricardo; Cordon-Rosales, Celia; Asturias, Edwin Jose
With their increasing availability in resource-limited settings, mobile phones may provide an important tool for participatory syndromic surveillance, in which users provide symptom data directly into a centralized database. We studied the performance of a mobile phone app-based participatory syndromic surveillance system for collecting syndromic data (acute febrile illness and acute gastroenteritis) to detect dengue virus and norovirus on a cohort of children living in a low-resource and rural area of Guatemala. Randomized households were provided with a mobile phone and asked to submit weekly reports using a symptom diary app (Vigilant-e). Participants reporting acute febrile illness or acute gastroenteritis answered additional questions using a decision-tree algorithm and were subsequently visited at home by a study nurse who performed a second interview and collected samples for dengue virus if confirmed acute febrile illness and norovirus if acute gastroenteritis. We analyzed risk factors associated with decreased self-reporting of syndromic data using the Vigilant-e app and evaluated strategies to improve self-reporting. We also assessed agreement between self-report and nurse-collected data obtained during home visits. From April 2015 to June 2016, 469 children in 207 households provided 471 person-years of observation. Mean weekly symptom reporting rate was 78% (range 58%-89%). Households with a poor (mobile phones for text messaging at study enrollment (61%, 35/57 vs 76.7%, 115/150; RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9), and were less likely to access care at the local public clinic (35%, 20/57 vs 67.3%, 101/150; RR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6). Parents of female enrolled participants were more likely to have low response rate (57.1%, 84/147 vs 43.8%, 141/322; RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Several external factors (cellular tower collapse, contentious elections) were associated with periods of decreased reporting. Poor response rate (mobile phone app-based participatory syndromic
Goldberg, Richard W; Dickerson, Faith; Lucksted, Alicia; Brown, Clayton H; Weber, Elyssa; Tenhula, Wendy N; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Dixon, Lisa B
Individuals with serious mental illness have elevated rates of comorbid chronic general medical conditions and may benefit from interventions designed to support illness self-management. This study examined the effectiveness of a modified version of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program called Living Well for individuals with serious mental illness. A total of 63 mental health consumers with serious mental illness and at least one concurrent chronic general medical condition were randomly assigned to receive the 13-session peer-cofacilitated Living Well intervention or usual care. Participants were evaluated on attitudinal, behavioral, and functional outcomes at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at a two-month follow-up. Living Well participants showed significant postintervention improvements across a range of attitudinal (self-efficacy and patient activation), behavioral (illness self-management techniques), and functional (physical and emotional well-being and general health functioning) outcomes. Although attenuation of effect was observed for most outcomes at two months postintervention, evidence was found of continued improvement in general self-management behaviors (use of action planning, brainstorming, and problem-solving). Continued advantage was found for the Living Well group in other areas, such as health-related locus of control and reports of healthy eating and physical activity. Receipt of Living Well was associated with a notable decrease in use of the emergency room for medical care, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. Living Well shows promise in helping mental health consumers more effectively manage chronic general medical conditions and experience improved functioning and well-being.
Kopera, Maciej; Suszek, Hubert; Bonar, Erin; Myszka, Maciej; Gmaj, Bart?omiej; Ilgen, Mark; Wojnar, Marcin
The study investigated explicit and implicit attitudes towards people with mental illness among medical students (non-professionals) with no previous contact with mentally ill patients and psychiatrists and psychotherapists (professionals) who had at least 2?years of professional contact with mentally ill patients. Explicit attitudes where assessed by self-report. Implicit attitudes were measured with the Go/No-Go Association Task, a variant of the Implicit Association Test that does not requ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, gastrointestinal illness (GI is typically mild and self-limiting, however, it has considerable economic impact due to high morbidity. Methods The magnitude and distribution of acute GI in British Columbia (BC, Canada was evaluated via a cross-sectional telephone survey of 4,612 randomly selected residents, conducted from June 2002 to June 2003. Respondents were asked if they had experienced vomiting or diarrhoea in the 28 days prior to the interview. Results A response rate of 44.3% was achieved. A monthly prevalence of 9.2% (95%CI 8.4 – 10.0, an incidence rate of 1.3 (95% CI 1.1–1.4 episodes of acute GI per person-year, and an average probability that an individual developed illness in the year of 71.6% (95% CI 68.0–74.8, weighted by population size were observed. The average duration of illness was 3.7 days, translating into 19.2 million days annually of acute GI in BC. Conclusion The results corroborate those from previous Canadian and international studies, highlighting the substantial burden of acute GI.
Amini, Homayoun; Majdzadeh, Reza; Eftekhar-Ardebili, Hasan; Shabani, Amir; Davari-Ashtiani, Rozita
The study aimed to assess medical students' attitudes toward mental illness following a 4-week psychiatry clerkship. All fifth-year medical students from three academic centers in Tehran were asked to participate in the study. They completed the questionnaire on the last day of their 4-week psychiatry clerkship. A self-administered questionnaire was used to examine participants' Attitudes Toward Mental Illness (ATMI). One hundred and sixty eight students completed the questionnaires (88.9% response rate). In general, the students had favorable attitudes toward mental illness at the end of their clerkship, with mean (± SD) ATMI total score of 78.6 (± 8.1) (neutral score, 66.0). The students showed the most favorable opinion (95.2%) about Category 5 (stereotypic attitude toward people with mental illness) whilst they revealed the least favorable opinion (64.3%) regarding Category 1 (social relations with people affected by mental illness). In addition, the students thought that movies were on the top of influential media on shaping the attitudes toward mental illness. Overall, most of Iranian medical students had generally favorable attitudes toward people with mental illness at the end of their clerkship. Therefore, it may be expected next generation of medical doctors show more favorable attitude toward mental illness. PMID:23878611
Zaw Myo Tun
Full Text Available Abstract Background Undifferentiated acute febrile illness (AFI is a common presentation among adults in primary care settings in Singapore but large gaps exist in the understanding of the characteristics of these patients. We studied clinical and epidemiological characteristics of AFI patients and factors associated with delayed recovery from AFI. Methods We performed a secondary data analysis using data from the Early DENgue infection and outcome (EDEN study on 2046 adult patients presenting at 5 Singapore polyclinics between December 2007 and February 2013 with a history of fever (≥38 °C for less than 72 h. We used an accelerated failure time model to investigate factors associated with delayed recovery from AFI. Results The mean age of patients was 36.6 years, 65 % were male, 51 % were of Chinese ethnicity, and 75 % lived in public housing. Median illness duration was 5 days (interquartile range, 3–7. In multivariable analysis, the unemployed and white collar workers had longer illness duration compared with blue collar workers (time ratio (TR, 1.10; 95 % confidence interval (CI, 1.03–1.17 and TR, 1.08; 95 % CI, 1.02–1.15, respectively. Patients with more symptoms at initial consultation had slower recovery (TR, 1.03 per additional symptom; 95 % CI, 1.02–1.03. Other clinical factors were also associated with longer duration of illness, including use of analgesics (TR, 1.21; 95 % CI, 1.15–1.28; use of cough medicines (TR, 1.14; 95 % CI, 1.08–1.20; use of antibiotics (TR, 1.14; 95 % CI, 1.07–1.21; and hospitalization (TR, 1.59; 95 % CI, 1.39–1.82. Compared to patients with normal WBC count at first consultation, those with low WBC count had slower recovery (TR, 1.14; 95 % CI, 1.07–1.21, while the reverse was observed among patients with high WBC count (TR, 0.94; 95 % CI, 0.88–1.00. Conclusions Differences in illness duration among different types of employment may reflect differences in their underlying
Tan, Xi; Marshall, Vincent D.; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Patel, Isha; Chang, Jongwha; Erickson, Steven R.
Psychotropic medications are a common treatment for mental illness in people with developmental disabilities. Medication adherence is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of psychotropic drugs, but psychotropic medication adherence research specific to this population remains limited. This retrospective study analyzed Marketscan®…
Basic, David; Hartwell, Tabitha J
To examine the association between falls in hospital and new placement in a nursing home among older people hospitalized with acute illness. This prospective cohort study of 2,945 consecutive patients discharged alive from an acute geriatric medicine service used multivariate logistic regression to model the association between one or more falls and nursing home placement (primary analysis). Secondary analyses stratified falls by injury and occurrence of multiple falls. Demographic, medical, and frailty measures were considered in adjusted models. The mean age of all patients was 82.8±7.6 years and 94% were admitted through the emergency department. During a median length of stay (LOS) of 11 days, 257 (8.7%) patients had a fall. Of these, 66 (25.7%) sustained an injury and 53 (20.6%) had two or more falls. Compared with nonfallers, fallers were more likely to be placed in a nursing home (odds ratio [OR]: 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37-3.00), after adjustment for age, sex, frailty, and selected medical variables (including dementia and delirium). Patients without injury (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.17-2.85) and those with injury (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.15-4.77) were also more likely to be placed. Patients who fell had a longer LOS (median 19 days vs 10 days; Pcare shows that falls in the hospital are significantly associated with new placement in a nursing home. Given the predominantly negative experiences and the financial costs associated with placement in a nursing home, fall prevention should be a high priority in older people hospitalized with acute illness.
Full Text Available People with mental illness are more likely to have serious coexisting physical health problems than the general population. Although lifestyle and genetics may contribute independent risks of cardiovascular dysfunction in schizophrenia and other serious mental illness, antipsychotic treatment also represents an important contributor to risk of cardiovascular disorder, particularly for certain drugs and for vulnerable patients. Mental health professionals and other health care provider must give emphasis to recognize the clinical signposts indicating mental health related cardiovascular problems to forestall progression to type II diabetes, cardiovascular events and premature death.
The delivery of oxygen in an acute Admissions Unit is always (often) riddled with difficulties. While most patients do get oxygen at some point of time it is often uncontrolled and inappropriate. This reflects inadequate and untrained staffing in the very busy Medical Units. We did a small study on 30 random acute admissions ...
Liu, Ying; Song, Shaoxia; Wang, Wei; Geng, Xingyi; Liu, Wen; Han, Debiao; Liu, Ti; Wu, Julong; Li, Zhong; Wang, Xianjun; Bi, Zhenqiang
To analyze the status of acute upper respiratory infection and influenza-like illness (ILI) among community residents in Jinan in 2015, and to make a understand of the patient's medical treatment behavior and influenza vaccination coverage status in 2014. Balloting method and convenient sampling method were used to launch a household survey. The residents who had been in Jinan for more than 3 months were selected, to investigate the residents' attack ratio of acute upper respiratory and influenza-like from Jan. 8 to Feb. 7, 2015. Totally, 1 300 persons from 410 families were involved in this survey which recovered 1 241 valid questionnaires with the efficiency of 95.5%. Based on the national age-urban demographic statistics in 2010, the attack rates of acute respiratory infections, influenza-like illness were estimated by the direct standardization method, and the influenza vaccination rates were also calculated in this study. χ(2)-test method was used to compare the different status of incidence and vaccination among residents with different features. The attack rate of acute upper respiratory infection and influenza-like illness in Jinan from January 8, 2015 to February 7, 2015 were 30.2% (375 cases), and 6.1% (76 cases), respectively, with a standardized rate of 29.1% and 5.4%. 5.3% (66 cases) of the residents have vaccinated with the influenza vaccine inoculation, with an adjusted rate of 3.8%. The attack rate difference of acute upper respiratory tract infections was statistically significant between each age group (χ(2)=17.121, P= 0.002). The 0-4 age group had a highest attack rate (45.4%) of acute respiratory infection, while the 15-24 age group got the lowest (26.5%). 38.9% (146 cases) of patients went for a treatment in hospital. Among them, 37.7% (55 cases) of them selected the county level hospitals for treatment, 37.7% (55 cases) selected the community level hospitals, and 24.6% (36 cases) selected the individual clinic. Significant differences of
Bertheloot, Karen; Deraeve, Pieterjan; Vermandere, Mieke; Aertgeerts, Bert; Lemiengre, Marieke; De Sutter, An; Buntinx, Frank; Verbakel, Jan Y
'Safety netting' advice allows general practitioners (GPs) to cope with diagnostic uncertainty in primary care. It informs patients on 'red flag' features and when and how to seek further help. There is, however, insufficient evidence to support useful choices regarding 'safety netting' procedures. To explore how GPs apply 'safety netting' in acutely ill children in Flanders. We designed a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with 37 GPs across Flanders. Two researchers performed qualitative analysis based on grounded theory components. Although unfamiliar with the term, GPs perform 'safety netting' in every acutely ill child, guided by their intuition without the use of specific guidelines. They communicate 'red flag' features, expected time course of illness and how and when to re-consult and try to tailor their advice to the context, patient and specific illness. Overall, GPs perceive 'safety netting' as an important element of the consultation, acknowledging personal and parental limitations, such as parents' interpretation of their advice. GPs do not feel a need for any form of support in the near future. GPs apply 'safety netting' intuitively and tailor the content. Further research should focus on the impact of 'safety netting' on morbidity and how the advice is conveyed to parents.
Pritchard, A; Kendrick, D
To evaluate practice nurse (PN) and health visitor (HV) management of patients with acute minor illnesses, monitor the effect on general practitioner (GP) workload, and describe the range of conditions seen by nurses. Patients requesting 'urgent' appointments (within 24 hours) were offered consultations with a PN or HV trained in the management of acute minor illness. Comparative data were collected before and after the establishment of the acute minor illness service. A general practice in Nottingham, England. Patient satisfaction, consultation rate, prescriptions, investigations, referrals and urgent re-consultations for the same condition within 2 weeks. About 2056 urgent consultations were recorded in the study period, of which 332 (16.1%) were seen by PNs and 46 (2.2%) by a HV. High levels of patient satisfaction were reported for all health professionals. Patients seeing the HV reported higher levels of satisfaction than those consulting GPs (P=0.033) and PNs (P=0.010). There was no difference by health professional for prescription rates (P=0.76), re-consultations (P=0.14), or referrals to secondary care (P=0.07). General practitioners were more likely to initiate further investigations than the PNs or HV (P manage patients with a range of conditions. General practitioner workload can be reduced while maintaining high patient satisfaction levels.
Siew, Edward D; Fissell, William H; Tripp, Christina M; Blume, Jeffrey D; Wilson, Matthew D; Clark, Amanda J; Vincz, Andrew J; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Girard, Timothy D
Acute kidney injury may contribute to distant organ dysfunction. Few studies have examined kidney injury as a risk factor for delirium and coma. To examine whether acute kidney injury is associated with delirium and coma in critically ill adults. In a prospective cohort study of intensive care unit patients with respiratory failure and/or shock, we examined the association between acute kidney injury and daily mental status using multinomial transition models adjusting for demographics, nonrenal organ failure, sepsis, prior mental status, and sedative exposure. Acute kidney injury was characterized daily using the difference between baseline and peak serum creatinine and staged according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Mental status (normal vs. delirium vs. coma) was assessed daily with the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale. Among 466 patients, stage 2 acute kidney injury was a risk factor for delirium (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.26) and coma (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.25-3.34) as was stage 3 injury (OR for delirium, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.57-4.16) (OR for coma, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.85-6.03). Daily peak serum creatinine (adjusted for baseline) values were also associated with delirium (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.55) and coma (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.20-1.74). Renal replacement therapy modified the association between stage 3 acute kidney injury and daily peak serum creatinine and both delirium and coma. Acute kidney injury is a risk factor for delirium and coma during critical illness.
Alamgir, ASM; Rahman, Mustafizur; Homaira, Nusrat; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Sharker, MA Yushuf; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Dee, Jacob; Gurley, Emily S; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Mah-E-Muneer, Syeda; Fry, Alicia M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Bresee, Joseph; Lindstrom, Stephen; Azim, Tasnim; Brooks, Abdullah; Podder, Goutam; Hossain, M Jahangir; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P
Abstract Objective To determine how much influenza contributes to severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), a leading cause of death in children, among people of all ages in Bangladesh. Methods Physicians obtained nasal and throat swabs to test for influenza virus from patients who were hospitalized within 7 days of the onset of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) or who consulted as outpatients for influenza-like illness (ILI). A community health care utilization survey was conducted to determine the proportion of hospital catchment area residents who sought care at study hospitals and calculate the incidence of influenza using this denominator. Findings The estimated incidence of SARI associated with influenza in children < 5 years old was 6.7 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0–18.3); 4.4 (95% CI: 0–13.4) and 6.5 per 1000 person–years (95% CI: 0–8.3/1000) during the 2008, 2009 and 2010 influenza seasons, respectively. The incidence of SARI in people aged ≥ 5 years was 1.1 (95% CI: 0.4–2.0) and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.5–2.2) per 10 000 person–years during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The incidence of medically attended, laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza in outpatients with ILI was 10 (95% CI: 8–14), 6.6 (95% CI: 5–9) and 17 per 100 person–years (95% CI: 13–22) during the 2008, 2009 and 2010 influenza seasons, respectively. Conclusion Influenza-like illness is a frequent cause of consultation in the outpatient setting in Bangladesh. Children aged less than 5 years are hospitalized for influenza in greater proportions than children in other age groups. PMID:22271960
The release on medical parole of a prominent and influential South African businessman, Mr Schabir Shaik, who served less than 3 years of his 15-year prison term, put the issue of medical parole under the spotlight with several newspaper articles, radio stations and television channels expressing different views regarding ...
Luo, Audrey; He, Hongbo; Mohamed, Somaia; Rosenheck, Robert
Stigma towards people with mental illness is a worldwide concern. A five-nation survey of medical student attitudes towards people with mental illness recently reported far lower levels of social acceptance among Chinese medical students compared to those from the US, Brazil, Ghana, and Nigeria. This qualitative study presented recent Chinese medical school graduates with probes based on questions used in the aforementioned cross-national study to elicit their views of factors underlying the negative attitudes towards social acceptance of people with mental illness. One-hour interviews were conducted with twenty psychiatry residents in June, 2016. Of 241 coded responses concerning negative attitudes, 51.5% were coded as reflecting fear of violent behavior, 22.8% as loss of face (i.e. shame from interpersonal associations), 17.0% lowered social status, 4.98% nonconforming social behavior, and 3.73% the heritability of mental illness. Low levels of social acceptance of individuals with mental illness among medical students in China are largely related to fears of violence of and loss of face. Understanding the attitudes of medical students may inform efforts to reduce stigma through educational initiatives targeted at both medical students and the general public.
Perencevich Eli N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate antibiotic use promotes resistance. Antibiotics are generally not indicated for upper respiratory infections (URIs. Our objectives were to describe patterns of URI treatment and to identify patient and provider factors associated with antibiotic use for URIs. Methods This study was a cross-sectional analysis of medical and pharmacy claims data from the Pennsylvania Medicaid fee-for-service program database. We identified Pennsylvania Medicaid recipients with a URI office visit over a one-year period. Our outcome variable was antibiotic use within seven days after the URI visit. Study variables included URI type and presence of concurrent acute illnesses and chronic conditions. We considered the associations of each study variable with antibiotic use in a logistic regression model, stratifying by age group and adjusting for confounders. Results Among 69,936 recipients with URI, 35,786 (51.2% received an antibiotic. In all age groups, acute sinusitis, chronic sinusitis, otitis, URI type and season were associated with antibiotic use. Except for the oldest group, physician specialty and streptococcal pharyngitis were associated with antibiotic use. History of chronic conditions was not associated with antibiotic use in any age group. In all age groups, concurrent acute illnesses and history of chronic conditions had only had fair to poor ability to distinguish patients who received an antibiotic from patients who did not. Conclusion Antibiotic prevalence for URIs was high, indicating that potentially inappropriate antibiotic utilization is occurring. Our data suggest that demographic and clinical factors are associated with antibiotic use, but additional reasons remain unexplained. Insight regarding reasons for antibiotic prescribing is needed to develop interventions to address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.
Isabel Cristina Martins Emmerick
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the main predictors of access to medicines for persons who experienced acute health conditions. METHODS : This was a cross-sectional analytic study, based on data from household surveys. We examined the predictors of: (1 seeking care for acute illness in the formal health care system and (2 obtaining all medicines sought for the acute condition. RESULTS : The significant predictors of seeking health care for acute illnesses were urban geographic location, head of household with secondary school education or above, age under 15, severity of illness perceived by the respondent, and having health insurance. The most important predictor of obtaining full access to medicines was seeking care in the formal health care system. People who sought care in the formal system were three times more likely to receive all the medicines sought (OR 3.0, 95%CI 2.3;4.0. For those who sought care in the formal health system, the strongest predictors of full access to medicines were seeking care in the private sector, having secondary school education or above, and positive perceptions of quality of health care and medicines in public sector health facilities. For patients who did not seek care in the formal health system, full access to medicines was more likely in Honduras or Nicaragua than in Guatemala. Urban geographic location, higher economic status, and male gender were also significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS : A substantial part of the population in these three countries sought and obtained medicines outside of the formal health care system, which may compromise quality of care and pose a risk to patients. Determinants of full access to medicines inside and outside the formal health care system differ, and thus may require different strategies to improve access to medicines.
Gabriel, Owen O; Jaime, Alina; Mckensie, Martin; Auguste, Ava; Pérez, Enrique; Indar, Lisa
Saint Lucia was the first country to conduct a burden of illness study in the Caribbean to determine the community prevalence and underreporting of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A retrospective cross-sectional population survey on AGE-related illness was administered to a random sample of residents of Saint Lucia in 20 April-16 May 2008 and 6-13 December 2009 to capture the high- and low-AGE season respectively. Of the selected 1,150 individuals, 1,006 were administered the survey through face-to-face interviews (response rate 87.4%). The overall monthly prevalence of AGE was 3.9%. The yearly incidence rate was 0.52 episodes/person-year. The age-adjusted monthly prevalence was 4.6%. The highest monthly prevalence of AGE was among children aged < 5 years (7.5%) and the lowest in persons aged 45-64 years (2.6%). The average number of days an individual suffered from diarrhoea was 3.8 days [range 1-21 day(s)]. Of the reported AGE cases, only seven (18%) sought medical care; however, 83% stayed at home due to the illness [(range 1-16 day(s), mean 2.5]; and 26% required other individuals to take care of them. The estimated underreporting of syndromic AGE and laboratory-confirmed foodborne disease pathogens was 81% and 99% respectively during the study period. The economic cost for treating syndromic AGE was estimated at US$ 3,892.837 per annum. This was a pilot study on the burden of illness (BOI) in the Caribbean. The results of the study should be interpreted within the limitations and challenges of this study. Lessons learnt were used for improving the implementation procedures of other BOI studies in the Caribbean.
Lyons, Zaza; Laugharne, Jonathan; Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John
Stigma towards mental illness has been found to impact adversely on medical students' attitudes towards psychiatry. This study aimed to assess the impact of stigma among final year students at the University of Science and Technology in Kumasi, Ghana, and the University of Western Australia. A 28-item "Attitudes and stigma towards mental health" questionnaire was distributed to final year students at both universities. There was a significant difference in questionnaire scores, with Australian students showing more positive attitudes towards mental illness and lower levels of stigma compared with Ghanaian students. Stigmatization was expressed by Australian and Ghanaian students. A combination of medical school experiences and wider societal and cultural beliefs could be responsible for students' attitudes towards mental illness. Educators can develop locally relevant anti-stigma teaching resources throughout the psychiatry curriculum to improve students' attitudes towards psychiatry as a discipline and mental illness in general.
Krag, Mette; Perner, Anders; Wetterslev, Jørn
PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of, risk factors for, and prognostic importance of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and use of acid suppressants in acutely ill adult intensive care patients. METHODS: We included adults without GI bleeding who were acutely admitted to the intensive care unit (IC...
Megan E Reller
Full Text Available Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Suspected dengue, especially in children in Nicaragua's heavily-urbanized capital of Managua, has been well documented, but unsuspected dengue among children and adults with undifferentitated fever has not.To prospectively study dengue in semi-urban and rural western Nicaragua, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data as well as acute and convalescent sera (2 to 4 weeks after onset of illness from a convenience sample (enrollment Monday to Saturday daytime to early evening of consecutively enrolled patients (n = 740 aged ≥ 1 years presenting with acute febrile illness. We tested paired sera for dengue IgG and IgM and serotyped dengue virus using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Among 740 febrile patients enrolled, 90% had paired sera. We found 470 (63.5% were seropositive for dengue at enrollment. The dengue seroprevalance increased with age and reached >90% in people over the age of 20 years. We identified acute dengue (serotypes 1 and 2 in 38 (5.1% patients. Only 8.1% (3/37 of confirmed cases were suspected clinically.Dengue is an important and largely unrecognized cause of fever in rural western Nicaragua. Since Zika virus is transmitted by the same vector and has been associated with severe congenital infections, the population we studied is at particular risk for being devastated by the Zika epidemic that has now reached Central America.
Burfeind, Kevin G; Michaelis, Katherine A; Marks, Daniel L
When challenged with a variety of inflammatory threats, multiple systems across the body undergo physiological responses to promote defense and survival. The constellation of fever, anorexia, and fatigue is known as the acute illness response, and represents an adaptive behavioral and physiological reaction to stimuli such as infection. On the other end of the spectrum, cachexia is a deadly and clinically challenging syndrome involving anorexia, fatigue, and muscle wasting. Both of these processes are governed by inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, and immune cells. Though the effects of cachexia can be partially explained by direct effects of disease processes on wasting tissues, a growing body of evidence shows the central nervous system (CNS) also plays an essential mechanistic role in cachexia. In the context of inflammatory stress, the hypothalamus integrates signals from peripheral systems, which it translates into neuroendocrine perturbations, altered neuronal signaling, and global metabolic derangements. Therefore, we will discuss how hypothalamic inflammation is an essential driver of both the acute illness response and cachexia, and why this organ is uniquely equipped to generate and maintain chronic inflammation. First, we will focus on the role of the hypothalamus in acute responses to dietary and infectious stimuli. Next, we will discuss the role of cytokines in driving homeostatic disequilibrium, resulting in muscle wasting, anorexia, and weight loss. Finally, we will address mechanisms and mediators of chronic hypothalamic inflammation, including endothelial cells, chemokines, and peripheral leukocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Multiple Family Groups (MFGs) approach for patients with a chronic medical illness and their families is a structured psychoeducational program that unfolds in six weekly 90-minute sessions. In the MFGs, patients and family members explore new ways to balance illness and nonillness priorities in family life (Steinglass, 1998; Steinglass, 2000 Cuadernos de Terapia Familiar, 44-45, 11; Steinglass, Ostroff, & Steinglass, 2011 Family Process, 50, 393). © FPI, Inc.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 1886(h) of the Act, establish a methodology for determining payments to hospitals for the costs of approved graduate medical education (GME) programs.
Jonathan E McDunn
Full Text Available Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness.A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent intratracheal injections of live P. aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa endotoxin, live S. pneumoniae, or normal saline. At 24 hours after injury, GeneChip microarray analysis of circulating buffy coat RNA identified 219 genes that distinguished between the pulmonary insults and differences in 7-day mortality. Similarly, buffy coat microarray expression profiles were generated from 27 mechanically ventilated patients every two days for up to three weeks. Significant heterogeneity of VAP microarray profiles was observed secondary to patient ethnicity, age, and gender, yet 85 genes were identified with consistent changes in abundance during the seven days bracketing the diagnosis of VAP. Principal components analysis of these 85 genes appeared to differentiate between the responses of subjects who did versus those who did not develop VAP, as defined by a general trajectory (riboleukogram for the onset and resolution of VAP. As patients recovered from critical illness complicated by acute infection, the riboleukograms converged, consistent with an immune attractor.Here we present the culmination of a mouse pneumonia study, demonstrating for the first time that disease trajectories derived from microarray expression profiles can be used to quantitatively track the clinical course of acute disease and identify a state of immune recovery. These data suggest that the onset of an infection-specific transcriptional program may precede the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia in patients. Moreover, riboleukograms may help explain variance in the host response due to differences in ethnic background, gender, and pathogen. Prospective clinical trials are indicated
Stigmatisation of mental health patients results from our social representations. The destigmatisation for which medical workers aim towards falls within the political sphere of psychiatry. The other actors, journalists and politicians, also have an important role to play. They can strengthen stigmatisation when their personal interests go before their professional missions.
Perez-Cruzado, David; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Vera-Garcia, Elisa; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermín
Anti-psychotic medication has emerged as the primary medical treatment for people with severe mental illness, despite the great risks involved in the use of this medication. In addition, this population suffers from problems of obesity, sedentary lifestyle and poor physical fitness, which is aggravated by the use of this type of medication. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of the most commonly used antipsychotics in this population (Olanzapine and Risperidone) on physical activity and the physical fitness of people with severe mental illness. Sixty-two people between 26 and 61 years of age with severe mental illness were assessed. All participants were evaluated with a battery of 11 physical tests to assess their physical fitness and with the IPAQ-short version questionnaire to determine their level of physical activity. The doses of Risperidone and Olanzapine were also evaluated in all participants. Significant differences were found for physical activity, with higher levels reported in those patients with severe mental illness who did not take any of these medications. Regarding physical fitness, significant differences were only found for the consumption of Risperidone, with better physical fitness levels seen in patients who did not consume this medication; on the other hand, for the consumption of Olanzapine, differences were found in muscular strength, balance and aerobic condition with better values in non-Olanzapine consumers compared with Olanzapine consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Krishnan, S G Santhana; Cobbs, R K
A 38 year old man with history of obstructive sleep apnea and polycythaemia presented with hypercapnic respiratory failure that required intubation. He developed fever with infiltrates on chest radiography that required empiric antifungal therapy with fluconazole along with broad spectrum antibiotics. He developed acute adrenal insufficiency that recovered after fluconazole was stopped. It is believed that this complication of adrenal suppression attributable to fluconazole is underrecognised and it may be prudent to monitor all critically ill patients who are given fluconazole for this complication. PMID:16954446
Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John
situations. The Ethics Committees' approval of the trial justified by their competence and authority, combined with the NOK´s insight into the patient's wishes may be a relevant and feasible alternative to the current consent procedure. FUNDING: This work was supported by the European Regional Development......INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...
Full Text Available Objectives: Several epidemiological studies on medical care utilization prior to suicide have considered the motivation of suicide, but focused on the influence of physical illnesses. Medical care expenditure in suicide completers with non-illness-related causes has not been investigated. Methods: Suicides motivated by non-illness-related factors were identified using the investigator’s note from the National Police Agency, which was then linked to the Health Insurance Review and Assessment data. We investigated the medical care expenditures of cases one year prior to committing suicide and conducted a case-control study using conditional logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, gender, area of residence, and socioeconomic status. Results: Among the 4515 suicides motivated by non-illness-related causes, medical care expenditures increased in only the last 3 months prior to suicide in the adolescent group. In the younger group, the proportion of total medical expenditure for external injuries was higher than that in the older groups. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed significant associations with being a suicide completer and having a rural residence, low socioeconomic status, and high medical care expenditure. After stratification into the four age groups, a significant positive association with medical care expenditures and being a suicide completer was found in the adolescent and young adult groups, but no significant results were found in the elderly groups for both men and women. Conclusions: Younger adults who committed suicide motivated by non-illness-related causes had a higher proportion of external injuries and more medical care expenditures than their controls did. This reinforces the notion that suicide prevention strategies for young people with suicidal risk factors are needed.
M Trent Herdman
Full Text Available Delays in seeking appropriate healthcare can increase the case fatality of acute febrile illnesses, and circuitous routes of care-seeking can have a catastrophic financial impact upon patients in low-income settings. To investigate the relationship between poverty and pre-hospital delays for patients with acute febrile illnesses, we recruited a cross-sectional, convenience sample of 527 acutely ill adults and children aged over 6 months, with a documented fever ≥38.0 °C and symptoms of up to 14 days' duration, presenting to a tertiary referral hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh, over the course of one year from September 2011 to September 2012. Participants were classified according to the socioeconomic status of their households, defined by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative's multidimensional poverty index (MPI. 51% of participants were classified as multidimensionally poor (MPI>0.33. Median time from onset of any symptoms to arrival at hospital was 22 hours longer for MPI poor adults compared to non-poor adults (123 vs. 101 hours rising to a difference of 26 hours with adjustment in a multivariate regression model (95% confidence interval 7 to 46 hours; P = 0.009. There was no difference in delays for children from poor and non-poor households (97 vs. 119 hours; P = 0.394. Case fatality was 5.9% vs. 0.8% in poor and non-poor individuals respectively (P = 0.001-5.1% vs. 0.0% for poor and non-poor adults (P = 0.010 and 6.4% vs. 1.8% for poor and non-poor children (P = 0.083. Deaths were attributed to central nervous system infection (11, malaria (3, urinary tract infection (2, gastrointestinal infection (1 and undifferentiated sepsis (1. Both poor and non-poor households relied predominantly upon the (often informal private sector for medical advice before reaching the referral hospital, but MPI poor participants were less likely to have consulted a qualified doctor. Poor participants were more likely to attribute delays in
Hansen, Trine Graabæk; Bonnerup, Dorthe Krogsgaard; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel
of principles and methodologies, and the practical procedure is seldom described in detail, which makes reproducing study findings difficult. The objective of this paper is to provide a detailed description of a procedure developed and used for pharmacist-led medication review in acute admissions units......) collection of information about the patient's medical treatment, (3) patient interview, (4) critical examination of the patient's medications and (5) recommendations for the hospital physician.Conclusions We have provided a detailed description of a procedure for pharmacist-led medication review. We do so...
Bright, Cordellia E
Poor medication adherence is a significant problem in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). About 50% of people with SMI become nonadherent to treatment in the first month following discharge from the hospital. This study examined literature in the past decade (2006-2016) on the use of mobile phone contacts in individuals with SMI to improve medication adherence post hospital discharge. This integrative review used the search terms texting, text messaging, SMS, cell/mobile phone, medication adherence, medication compliance, and mental illness. Databases (CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus) and manual searching of reference lists were done. The main inclusion criteria were the use of mobile phone contacts on medication adherence in individuals with SMI. Adults 18 years and older, studies conducted from 2006 to 2016, and studies conducted in English were also criteria for inclusion. Only five studies met criteria for inclusion. Outcomes from the review showed that mobile phone contacts have been used to improve medication adherence in individuals with SMI and able to provide the four types of social support (instrumental, informational, emotional, and, appraisal). When phone contacts especially text messaging was used as an adjunct to other interventions, it yielded better medication adherence than when used alone. However, results on medication adherence rates were mixed in participants on both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric medications. Although mobile phone contacts are a promising tool to enhance medication adherence after hospital discharge, its effectiveness to increase medication adherence in this population remains inconclusive.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence base for mental illness related stigma interventions in health care professionals and trainees is underdeveloped. This study aimed to examine the impact of mental illness related stigma training on third year medical students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour related to people with mental illness. Methods A non-randomised controlled trial was conducted with 110 third year medical students at a medical school in England to determine the effectiveness of a mental illness related stigma training package that targeted their knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Results We detected a significant positive effect of factual content and personal testimonies training upon an improvement in knowledge, F(1, 61 = 16.3, p = 0.0002. No such difference was determined with attitudes or for behaviour. Conclusions Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour may need to be separately targeted in stigma reduction interventions, and separately assessed. The inter-relationships between these components in mental health promotion and medical education warrant further research. The study next needs to be replicated with larger, representative samples using appropriate evaluation instruments. More intensive training for medical students may also be required.
Wald, N.; Watson, J.A.
In weighing the benefits and risks of utilizing nuclear energy, there must be a continuing reassessment as nuclear technology develops and changes. The health effects of radiation accidents, as most important part of the risk, must also be reevaluated as our medical ability grows to modify and ameliorate the consequences. The therapeutic efforts were classified as minimal, supportive or heroic. Supportive treatment included reverse isolation, detailed clinical laboratory measurements copious antibiotics, and transfusions of various blood cells, electrolytes and nutrients. Heroic treatment added bone marrow transplantation, while minimal treatment included none of these. It was concluded that while the LD 50 for man is about 340 rads with only minimal treatment, it could be increased to 510 rads with supportive therapy and to over 1,000 rads with heroic treatment. Hematopoietic injury predominated in this exposure range. Finally an estimate of the medical facilities available in the United States to meet these potential clinical needs was made. The relationship of the medical care resources to the likely needs following a serious nuclear power plant accident will be discussed
Siegel, John H.
This report summarizes the work done on the contract NAG9-567, which was activated at the New Jersey Medical School-UMDNJ in April 1992 and carried on during the 1992-93 year to the present 1993-94 year which was terminated in May 1994. The initial examination stage was completed of an interactive program for the recording of physical and physiologic injury information obtained from examination of an injured person, who might be an astronaut sustaining traumatic injury, due to a burn or physical trauma, either in space or in an earth bound training environment. In this report three aspects will be discussed: 1) a description of the system of diagnostic examination graphics, 2) a description of the organization of the therapeutic advisory systems with a demonstration of two specific modules, and 3) a brief technical description of the organization of the programming system carried out on a UNIX based work station using a WINDOWS environment.
Background The stigma of mental illness among medical students is a prevalent concern that has far reaching negative consequences. Attempts to combat this stigma through educational initiatives have had mixed results. This study examined the impact of a one-time contact-based educational intervention on the stigma of mental illness among medical students and compared this with a multimodal undergraduate psychiatry course at the University of Calgary, Canada that integrates contact-based educational strategies. Attitudes towards mental illness were compared with those towards type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Method A cluster-randomized trial design was used to evaluate the impact of contact-based educational interventions delivered at two points in time. The impact was assessed by collecting data at 4 time points using the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) to assess changes in stigma. Results Baseline surveys were completed by 62% (n=111) of students before the start of the course and post-intervention ratings were available from 90 of these. Stigma scores for both groups were significantly reduced upon course completion (p mental illness and interest in a psychiatric career was increased at the end of the course. Stigma towards mental illness remained greater than for T2DM at all time points. Conclusions Psychiatric education can decrease the stigma of mental illness and increase student confidence. However, one-time, contact-based educational interventions require further evaluation in this context. The key components are postulated to be contact, knowledge and attention to process, where attending to the student’s internal experience of working with people with mental illness is an integral factor in modulating perceptions of mental illness and a psychiatric career. PMID:24156397
Papish, Andriyka; Kassam, Aliya; Modgill, Geeta; Vaz, Gina; Zanussi, Lauren; Patten, Scott
The stigma of mental illness among medical students is a prevalent concern that has far reaching negative consequences. Attempts to combat this stigma through educational initiatives have had mixed results. This study examined the impact of a one-time contact-based educational intervention on the stigma of mental illness among medical students and compared this with a multimodal undergraduate psychiatry course at the University of Calgary, Canada that integrates contact-based educational strategies. Attitudes towards mental illness were compared with those towards type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cluster-randomized trial design was used to evaluate the impact of contact-based educational interventions delivered at two points in time. The impact was assessed by collecting data at 4 time points using the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) to assess changes in stigma. Baseline surveys were completed by 62% (n=111) of students before the start of the course and post-intervention ratings were available from 90 of these. Stigma scores for both groups were significantly reduced upon course completion (p mental illness and interest in a psychiatric career was increased at the end of the course. Stigma towards mental illness remained greater than for T2DM at all time points. Psychiatric education can decrease the stigma of mental illness and increase student confidence. However, one-time, contact-based educational interventions require further evaluation in this context. The key components are postulated to be contact, knowledge and attention to process, where attending to the student's internal experience of working with people with mental illness is an integral factor in modulating perceptions of mental illness and a psychiatric career.
Simms, Jane; McCormack, Vinny; Anderson, Richard; Mulholland, Ciaran
This study compared acutely ill patients with schizophrenia with a history of self-harm (N=17) to those without a history of self-harm (N=16) on measures of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and demographic and psychiatric variables. A subgroup of these patients who experience auditory hallucinations, with and without a history of self-harm, were selected and compared on measures of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation and beliefs about voices. Employing a cross-sectional design, in-patients of two local psychiatric hospital, who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia and who were in an acute phase of the illness, were selected. Each patient was assessed using the Beck Depressions Inventory (BDI), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and the Beck Suicide Scale (BSS). Patients who experienced auditory verbal hallucinations completed the Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire Revised (BAVQ-R). Patients with a history of self-harm completed the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (BSI). Patients with a history of self-harm (N=17) had significantly greater symptoms of depression, greater suicidal thoughts, increased number of hospital admissions, greater duration of illness and were more likely to be married, compared to patients without a history of self-harm (N=16). Among the subgroup of patients who experience auditory hallucinations, those with a history of self-harm (N=9), believed their voice to be more malevolent, had a tendency to resist their voice and experienced significantly greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness compared to those without a history of self-harm (N=6). These findings highlight the importance for screening by clinicians during inpatient hospital stays and for monitoring to be ongoing following discharge. For the subgroup of patients who experience auditory hallucinations, future research should seek to explore the relationship between self-harm and beliefs about voices.
Bodilsen, Ann Christine; Juul-Larsen, Helle Gybel; Petersen, Janne
OBJECTIVE: Physical performance measures can be used to predict functional decline and increased dependency in older persons. However, few studies have assessed the feasibility or reliability of such measures in hospitalized older patients. Here we assessed the feasibility and inter-rater reliabi......OBJECTIVE: Physical performance measures can be used to predict functional decline and increased dependency in older persons. However, few studies have assessed the feasibility or reliability of such measures in hospitalized older patients. Here we assessed the feasibility and inter......-rater reliability of four simple measures of physical performance in acutely admitted older medical patients. DESIGN: During the first 24 hours of hospitalization, the following were assessed twice by different raters in 52 (≥ 65 years) patients admitted for acute medical illness: isometric hand grip strength, 4......, and 30-s chair stand were 8%, 7%, and 18%, and the SRD95% values were 22%, 17%, and 49%. CONCLUSION: In acutely admitted older medical patients, grip strength, gait speed, and the Cumulated Ambulation Score measurements were feasible and showed high inter-rater reliability when administered by different...
This study's purpose was to determine factors influencing treatment choices of individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The sample was drawn from admissions to residential crisis programs in San Francisco. Inclusion criteria were an Axis I and Axis III disorder. This qualitative study utilized grounded theory method. Interviews and field notes were coded for recurring themes. Descriptive data were also collected. Participants revealed that the most important influences on treatment decisions were immediate need for care, the belief that their subacute complaints will not be taken seriously by providers, positive reinforcement for emergency service use, and enabling factors such as insurance coverage. Other remarkable findings included: numerous reports of substance induced medical crises, lack of support from family, and unawareness of client's medical conditions in psychiatric facilities. Health care seeking behaviors are learned and learning that will promote the use of outpatient services in SMI must include positive experiences in the delivery of care in the primary care setting. Participants were knowledgeable regarding their illnesses and able to articulate symptoms of illness well. Failure to communicate symptoms appeared to reflect the participant's perception of a lack of response to their reports.
Vos, Rimke Cathelijne; Kasteleyn, Marise Jeannine; Heijmans, Monique Johanna; de Leeuw, Elke; Schellevis, François Georges; Rijken, Mieke; Rutten, Guy Emile
Chronically ill patients such as people with type 2 diabetes develop perceptions of their illness, which will influence their coping behaviour. Perceptions are formed once a health threat has been recognised. Many people with type 2 diabetes suffer from multimorbidity, for example the combination with cardiovascular disease. Perceptions of one illness may influence perceptions of the other condition. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of an intervention in type 2 diabetes patients with a first acute coronary event on change in illness perceptions and whether this mediates the intervention effect on health status. The current study is a secondary data analysis of a RCT. Two hundred one participants were randomised (1:1 ratio) to the intervention (n = 101, three home visits) or control group (n = 100). Outcome variables were diabetes and acute coronary event perceptions, assessed with the two separate Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaires (BIPQs); and health status (Euroqol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS)). The intervention effect was analysed using ANCOVA. Linear regression analyses were used to assess whether illness perceptions mediated the intervention effect on health status. A positive intervention effect was found on the BIPQ diabetes items coherence and treatment control (F = 8.19, p = 0.005; F = 14.01, p effect was found on the other BIPQ diabetes items consequence, personal control, identity, illness concern and emotional representation. Regarding the acute coronary event, a positive intervention effect on treatment control was found (F = 7.81, p = 0.006). No intervention effect was found on the other items of the acute coronary event BIPQ. Better diabetes coherence was associated with improved health status, whereas perceiving more treatment control was not. The mediating effect of the diabetes perception 'coherence' on health status was not significant. Targeting illness perceptions of people with
Ghatavi, Kayhan; Nicolson, Rob; MacDonald, Cathy; Osher, Sue; Levitt, Anthony
Although guilt is a widely accepted feature of depression, there is limited and inconsistent data defining the nature of this symptom. The purpose of the current study was to examine the specificity and nature of guilt in subjects with major depression as compared to patients with another chronic medical illness and healthy controls. Outpatients with current major depressive episode (MDE; n=34), past-MDE (n=22), chronic cardiac illness (n=20) and healthy controls (n=59) were administered the following measures: The Guilt Inventory (GI), State Shame and Guilt Scale (SSGS), 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Overall multivariate analysis of covariance comparing mean scores for the six guilt subscales [state-guilt, trait-guilt, moral standards (from the GI); state-guilt, -pride, and -shame (from the SSGS)] across the four groups was significant (F=9.1, df=6:121, pguilt (GI), current-MDE>past-MDE>cardiac=healthy controls; for trait-guilt (GI), current-MDE=past-MDE>cardiac=healthy controls; for state-shame, -guilt and -pride (SSGS), current-MDE>past-MDE, past-MDE=cardiac, past-MDE>healthy, cardiac=healthy controls. Among depressed patients, there was significant correlation between Ham-D score and all guilt sub-scales (pguilt, shame and low pride distinguish acutely depressed from all other groups, and are highly influenced by severity of depression. Trait-guilt does not differentiate acute from past depressed. Data suggests guilt may represent both an enduring and fluctuating feature of depressive illness over its longitudinal course.
Verbakel, Jan Y; Lemiengre, Marieke B; De Burghgraeve, Tine; De Sutter, An; Aertgeerts, Bert; Bullens, Dominique M A; Shinkins, Bethany; Van den Bruel, Ann; Buntinx, Frank
Acute infection is the most common presentation of children in primary care with only few having a serious infection (eg, sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia). To avoid complications or death, early recognition and adequate referral are essential. Clinical prediction rules have the potential to improve diagnostic decision-making for rare but serious conditions. In this study, we aimed to validate a recently developed decision tree in a new but similar population. Diagnostic accuracy study validating a clinical prediction rule. Acutely ill children presenting to ambulatory care in Flanders, Belgium, consisting of general practice and paediatric assessment in outpatient clinics or the emergency department. Physicians were asked to score the decision tree in every child. The outcome of interest was hospital admission for at least 24 h with a serious infection within 5 days after initial presentation. We report the diagnostic accuracy of the decision tree in sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and predictive values. In total, 8962 acute illness episodes were included, of which 283 lead to admission to hospital with a serious infection. Sensitivity of the decision tree was 100% (95% CI 71.5% to 100%) at a specificity of 83.6% (95% CI 82.3% to 84.9%) in the general practitioner setting with 17% of children testing positive. In the paediatric outpatient and emergency department setting, sensitivities were below 92%, with specificities below 44.8%. In an independent validation cohort, this clinical prediction rule has shown to be extremely sensitive to identify children at risk of hospital admission for a serious infection in general practice, making it suitable for ruling out. NCT02024282. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Ramkissoon, AnMarie Kamanie; Donald, Casswina; Hutchinson, Gerard
Background/Introduction: Perceptions about the aetiology of mental illness are likely to influence help-seeking behaviour. Understanding help-seeking behaviour will improve service provision and access. Therefore, this is likely to improve treatment outcomes. We assessed the perceptions and help-seeking behaviours surrounding mental illness in a Trinidadian population of 158 tertiary-level students (136 female, 22 male; mean age 30) by analysing their responses to a questionnaire which asked for responses regarding a case vignette of a 25-year-old young woman exhibiting symptoms suggestive of schizophrenia. Of the respondents, 32.3% attributed the symptoms to supernatural causes. Specifically, 27.8% to someone doing her bad and 24.1% to evil spirits. In all, 77.2% of respondents indicated that mental illness was caused by medical problems and 63.3% to work stress. A minimum of 9.5% of the students therefore have dual perceptions regarding causation (77.2 + 32.3 = 109.5) Those who perceived causation to be supernatural said they would seek help from both medical ( p = .000) and supernatural ( p = .000) modalities. This also applied significantly to those who said the causation was medical, that is, seeking both religious intervention ( p = .000) and medical intervention (.000) as the first path in the health-seeking pathway. Dual help-seeking behaviour seems to be the functional result of an integration of religious and medical models of mental illness causation even in respondents who clearly identified only one of these as the likely cause of the illness behaviour.
Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Stefanovics, Elina; Makanjuola, Victor; Rosenheck, Robert
The authors surveyed attitudes towards mental illness among Nigerian medical personnel at three different levels of training and experience: medical students who had not completed their psychiatry rotation, medical students who had competed their psychiatry rotation, and graduate physicians. Six questions addressed beliefs about the effectiveness of treatments for four specific mental illnesses (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and anxiety) and two medical illnesses (diabetes and hypertension) among the three groups. A self-report questionnaire including 56 dichotomous items was used to compare beliefs about and attitudes towards people with mental illness. Factor analysis was used to identify key attitudes and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the groups adjusting for age and personal experience with people with mental illness. There were no significant trends in attitudes towards the effectiveness of medication. Exploratory factor analysis of the beliefs and attitudes items identified four factors: (1) comfort socializing with people with mental, illness; (2) non-superstitious beliefs about the causes of mental illness; (3) neighborly feelings towards people with mental illness; and (4) belief that stress and abuse are part of the etiology of mental illness. ANCOVA comparing attitudes among the three groups showed that on three (1, 2, and 4) of the four factors medical students who had completed a rotation in psychiatry had significantly higher scores than the medical students who had not completed a rotation in psychiatry. Graduate physicians showed a similar pattern scoring higher than the medical students who had not completed a rotation in psychiatry in two factors (1 and 4) but showed no differences from students who had completed their psychiatry rotation. While beliefs about medication effectiveness do not differ between medical trainees and graduate professionals, stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness seem
Erlenwein, J; Moroder, A; Biermann, E; Petzke, F; Ehlers, A P F; Bitter, H; Pogatzki-Zahn, E
Acute pain management is an interprofessional and interdisciplinary task and requires a good and trustful cooperation between stakeholders. Despite provisions in Germany according to which medical treatment can only be rendered by a formally qualified physician ("Arztvorbehalt"), a physician does not have to carry out every medical activity in person. Under certain conditions, some medical activities can be delegated to medical auxiliary personnel but they need to be (1) instructed, (2) supervised and (3) checked by the physician himself; however, medical history, diagnostic assessment and evaluation, indications, therapy planning (e.g. selection, dosage), therapeutic decisions (e. g. modification or termination of therapy) and obtaining informed consent cannot be delegated. With respect to drug therapy, monitoring of the therapy remains the personal responsibility of the physician, while the actual application of medication can be delegated. From a legal perspective, the current practice needs to be stressed about what is within the mandatory requirements and what is not when medical activities are delegated to non-medical staff. The use of standards of care improves treatment quality but like any medical treatment it must be based on the physician's individual assessment and indications for each patient and requires personal contact between physician and patient. Delegation on the ward and in acute pain therapy requires the authorization of the delegator to give instructions in the respective setting. The transfer of non-delegable duties to non-medical personnel is regarded as medical malpractice.
Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Stuebe, Alison
The perinatal period provides an important window into a woman's long-term health. Perinatal mental illness is a common condition conferring potential serious long-term psychiatric and medical consequences for the mother and family. It is known that childbirth acts as a powerful trigger for depressive episodes in some women, and that women with histories of a mood disorder are particularly vulnerable. Some evidence links perinatal mental illness with obstetrical complications and reduced lactation initiation and duration. Therefore, perinatal mental illness may be a marker for long-term risk, and may contribute directly to subsequent cardiometabolic disease through both neuroendocrine mechanisms and the effects of mental illness on health behaviours. In clinical practice, these associations underscore the importance of screening and treating women with perinatal mental illness to ensure best possible long-term outcomes. Early screening and treatment may both mitigate the primary disease process and reduce the risk of comorbid medical conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trish; McElroy, Susan L.; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph W.; Grunze, Heinz; Rowe, Mike
BACKGROUND: Medical illnesses are highly comorbid with bipolar disorder, but their relationship to illness characteristics has not been previously delineated. METHODS: The incidence of 34 medical conditions and 6 poor prognosis factors (PPFs) was derived from answers to a questionnaire in over 900
Post, R.M.; Altshuler, L.; Leverich, G.S.; Frye, M.A.; Suppes, T.; McElroy, S.L.; Keck, P.E.; Nolen, W.A.; Kupka, R.W.; Grunze, H.; Rowe, M.
Background Medical illnesses are highly comorbid with bipolar disorder, but their relationship to illness characteristics has not been previously delineated. Methods The incidence of 34 medical conditions and 6 poor prognosis factors (PPFs) was derived from answers to a questionnaire in over 900
Kumagai, Arno K
The use of narratives, including physicians' and patients' stories, literature, and film, is increasingly popular in medical education. There is, however, a need for an overarching conceptual framework to guide these efforts, which are often dismissed as "soft" and placed at the margins of medical school curricula. The purpose of this article is to describe the conceptual basis for an approach to patient-centered medical education and narrative medicine initiated at the University of Michigan Medical School in the fall of 2003. This approach, the Family Centered Experience, involves home visits and conversations between beginning medical students and patient volunteers and their families and is aimed at fostering humanism in medicine. The program incorporates developmental and learning theory, longitudinal interactions with individuals with chronic illness, reflective learning, and small-group discussions to explore the experience of illness and its care. The author describes a grounding of this approach in theories of empathy and moral development and clarifies the educational value that narratives bring to medical education. Specific pedagogical considerations, including use of activities to create "cognitive disequilibrium" and the concept of transformative learning, are also discussed and may be applied to narrative medicine, professionalism, multicultural education, medical ethics, and other subject areas in medical education that address individuals and their health care needs in society.
Sulaimon T Adedokun
Full Text Available To examine the independent contribution of individual, community and state-level factors to health care service utilization for children with acute childhood illnesses in Nigeria.The study was based on secondary analyses of cross-sectional population-based data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to the data on 6,427 under-five children who used or did not use health care service when they were sick (level 1, nested within 896 communities (level 2 from 37 states (level 3.About one-quarter of the mothers were between 15 and 24 years old and almost half of them did not have formal education (47%. While only 30% of the children utilized health service when they were sick, close to 67% lived in the rural area. In the fully adjusted model, mothers with higher education attainment (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.63; 95% credible interval [CrI] = 1.31-2.03, from rich households (aOR = 1.76; 95% CrI = 1.35-2.25, with access to media (radio, television or magazine (aOR = 1.18; 95% CrI = 1.08-1.29, and engaging in employment (aOR = 1.18; 95% CrI = 1.02-1.37 were significantly more likely to have used healthcare services for acute childhood illnesses. On the other hand, women who experienced difficulty getting to health facilities (aOR = 0.87; 95% CrI = 0.75-0.99 were less likely to have used health service for their children.Our findings highlight that utilization of healthcare service for acute childhood illnesses was influenced by not only maternal factors but also community-level factors, suggesting that public health strategies should recognise this complex web of individual composition and contextual composition factors to guide provision of healthcare services. Such interventions could include: increase in female school enrolment, provision of interest-free loans for small and medium scale enterprises, introduction of mobile clinics and establishment of more primary health care
Parab, Chitra S; Cooper, Carolyn; Woolfenden, Susan; Piper, Susan M
Specialist paediatric home-based nursing services have been proposed as a cost-effective means of reducing distress resulting from hospital admissions, while enhancing primary care and reducing length of hospital stay. This review is an update of our original review, which was published in 2006. To evaluate specialist home-based nursing services for children with acute and chronic illnesses. We searched the following databases in February 2012: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library 2012 Issue 2, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Sociological Abstracts. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of children from birth to age 18 years with acute or chronic illnesses allocated to specialist home-based nursing services compared with conventional health care. Outcomes included utilisation of health care, physical and mental health, satisfaction, adverse health outcomes and costs. Two review authors extracted data from the studies independently and resolved any discrepancies by recourse to a third author. Meta-analysis was not appropriate because of the clinical diversity of the studies and the lack of common outcome measures. We screened 4226 titles to yield seven RCTs with a total of 840 participants. Participants, interventions and outcomes were diverse. No significant differences were reported in health outcomes; two studies reported a reduction in the hospital stay with no difference in the hospital readmission rates. Three studies reported a reduction in parental anxiety and improvement in child behaviours was reported in three studies. Overall increased parental satisfaction was reported in three studies. Also, better parental coping and family functioning was reported in one study. By contrast, one study each reported no impact on parental burden of care or on functional status of
Forshey, Brett M.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Cespedes, Manuel; Vargas, Jorge; Gianella, Alberto; Vallejo, Efrain; Madrid, César; Aguayo, Nicolas; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Suarez, Victor; Morales, Ana Maria; Beingolea, Luis; Reyes, Nora; Perez, Juan; Negrete, Monica; Rocha, Claudio; Morrison, Amy C.; Russell, Kevin L.; J. Blair, Patrick; Olson, James G.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.
Background Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are among the most common agents of human febrile illness worldwide and the most important emerging pathogens, causing multiple notable epidemics of human disease over recent decades. Despite the public health relevance, little is know about the geographic distribution, relative impact, and risk factors for arbovirus infection in many regions of the world. Our objectives were to describe the arboviruses associated with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in participating clinics in four countries in South America and to provide detailed epidemiological analysis of arbovirus infection in Iquitos, Peru, where more extensive monitoring was conducted. Methodology/Findings A clinic-based syndromic surveillance system was implemented in 13 locations in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. Serum samples and demographic information were collected from febrile participants reporting to local health clinics or hospitals. Acute-phase sera were tested for viral infection by immunofluorescence assay or RT-PCR, while acute- and convalescent-phase sera were tested for pathogen-specific IgM by ELISA. Between May 2000 and December 2007, 20,880 participants were included in the study, with evidence for recent arbovirus infection detected for 6,793 (32.5%). Dengue viruses (Flavivirus) were the most common arbovirus infections, totaling 26.0% of febrile episodes, with DENV-3 as the most common serotype. Alphavirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV] and Mayaro virus [MAYV]) and Orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus [OROV], Group C viruses, and Guaroa virus) infections were both observed in approximately 3% of febrile episodes. In Iquitos, risk factors for VEEV and MAYV infection included being male and reporting to a rural (vs urban) clinic. In contrast, OROV infection was similar between sexes and type of clinic. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide a better understanding of the geographic range of arboviruses in South
A. V. Dats
Full Text Available The purpose of the research: to analyze insufficiency of medical care for patients with acute respiratory failure in the ICU.Materials and methods. It was a retrospective study of 160 patients' medical records (age from 15 to 84 years with acute respiratory failure (ARF hospitalized in the ICUs of 24 regional and municipal hospitals of the Irkutsk Oblast. Medical records were provided by the Territorial Fund of Compulsory Medical Insurance of citizens of Irkutsk region.The results. The basic defects in conducting mechanical ventilation were associated with improper lung function evaluation, microbiological tests of sputum and radiology. ARF was not diagnosed in 32 of 160 ICU patients (20%. In 23% of cases the causes of ARF were not diagnosed. The greatest part of the defects in the treatment of patients with acute respiratory failure was found during the treatment of hypoxemia: no recovery of the respiratory tract patency, no prescription of oxygen for hypoxemia, no mechanical ventilation for persistent hypoxemia on the background of maximum oxygen supply and late switching to mechanical ventilation at the stage of hypoxic cardiac arrest.Conclusions. The use of pulse oximetry alone in the absence of arterial blood gas analysis in 98% of patients with acute respiratory failure and failure to perform the lung X-ray and/or MSCT imaging in 21% of patients were accompanied by a high level of undiagnosed acute respiratory distress syndrome (78%, lung contusion (60%, pulmonary embolism (40%, cardiogenic pulmonary edema (33%, and nosocomial pneumonia (28%. Defects of treatment of patients with ARF in 46% of cases were caused by inadequate management of hypoxemia associated with the recovery of the respiratory tract patency, prescription of oxygen, and mechanical ventilation.
Full Text Available Objective This study aims to explore medical students’ social representations of mental ill health in older adults. Method It comprises an exploratory and qualitative investigation based on the theory of social representations. Two focus groups with pre-clinical medics (group 1, N=4; group 2, N=4 and 10 individual interviews with clinical medical students were conducted. Thematic analysis at a latent level explored meanings and differences between groups. Results Three overarching themes reflect participants’ representations of mental health problems in later life – mental ill health in old age, polarisation of care, and challenges to care. Primary health care appears as an important strategy to overcome barriers to mental health care in the community. Nevertheless, disqualifying representations, stigma and organization of services constitute the main challenges to quality mental health care in later life. Conclusion This paper highlights the need to address cultural and organizational barriers to promote quality care.
Gowland, Emily; Ball, Karen Le; Bryant, Catherine; Birns, Jonathan
Acute care common stem acute medicine (ACCS AM) training was designed to develop competent multi-skilled acute physicians to manage patients with multimorbidity from 'door to discharge' in an era of increasing acute hospital admissions. Recent surveys by the Royal College of Physicians have suggested that acute medical specialties are proving less attractive to trainees. However, data on the career pathways taken by trainees completing core acute medical training has been lacking. Using London as a region with a 100% fill rate for its ACCS AM training programme, this study showed only 14% of trainees go on to higher specialty training in acute internal medicine and a further 10% to pursue higher medical specialty training with dual accreditation with internal medicine. 16% of trainees switched from ACCS AM to emergency medicine or anaesthetics during core ACCS training, and intensive care medicine proved to be the most popular career choice for ACCS AM trainees (21%). The ACCS AM training programme therefore does not appear to be providing what it was set out to do and this paper discusses the potential causes and effects. © Royal College of Physicians 2016. All rights reserved.
Prescott, Hallie C; Chang, Virginia W
Obesity has been associated with improved short-term mortality following common acute illness, but its relationship with longer-term mortality is unknown. Observational study of U.S. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) participants with federal health insurance (fee-for-service Medicare) coverage, hospitalized with congestive heart failure (N = 4287), pneumonia (N = 4182), or acute myocardial infarction (N = 2001), 1996-2012. Using cox proportional hazards models, we examined the association between overweight or obese BMI (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 ) and mortality to 5 years after hospital admission, adjusted for potential confounders measured at the same time as BMI, including age, race, sex, education, partnership status, income, wealth, and smoking status. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight collected at the HRS survey prior to hospitalization (a median 1.1 year prior to hospitalization). The referent group was patients with a normal BMI (18.5 to BMI was associated with lower mortality at 1 year after hospitalization for congestive heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction-with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.79), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.64-0.84), and 0.65 (95%CI: 0.53-0.80), respectively. Among participants who lived to one year, however, subsequent survival was similar between patients with normal versus overweight/obese BMI. In older Americans, overweight or obese BMI was associated with improved survival following hospitalization for congestive heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction. This association, however, is limited to the shorter-term. Conditional on surviving to one year, we did not observe a survival advantage associated with excess weight.
Monk, Jennifer M; Makinen, Kimberley; Shrum, Bradly; Woodward, Bill
Acute (i.e., wasting) pediatric malnutrition consistently elevates blood glucocorticoid levels, but neither the magnitude of the rise in concentration nor its kinetics is clear. Male and female C57BL/6J mice, initially 19 days old, and CBA/J mice, initially 23 days old, consumed a complete purified diet either ad libitum (age-matched control) or in restricted daily quantities (mimicking marasmus), or they consumed a purified isocaloric low-protein diet ad libitum (mimicking incipient kwashiorkor). Serum levels of corticosterone were assessed by double antibody radioimmunoassay after 3, 6, and 14 days (C57BL/6J strain) or after 6 and 14 days in the genetically distant CBA/J strain. Age-matched control groups of both strains exhibited mean corticosterone levels of 5-30 ng/ml, whereas the acutely malnourished groups exhibited mean levels of this hormone that were elevated by more than an order of magnitude as early as 3 days after initiation of weight loss. This outcome was confirmed in a second experiment in which the serum corticosterone level of C57BL/6J weanlings was examined by competitive binding enzyme immunoassay 3 and 14 days after initiation of the dietary protocols. Therefore, deficits of protein and/or energy in weanling murine systems relevant to acute pediatric malnutrition elicit early elevations in blood glucocorticoid levels to a magnitude reminiscent of critical illness and multiple trauma. The key to this novel finding was an exsanguination method that permitted accurate assessment of the blood corticosterone level of the healthy, quiescent mouse. Overall, the results of this investigation provide a new perspective on the glucocorticoids as part of the early hormonal response to acute weanling malnutrition coincident with the shift toward catabolic metabolism and the initiation of depression in cellular immune competence.
Lau, J T; Yu, A; Cheung, J C; Leung, S S
To estimate the prevalences of common illnesses in Hong Kong adolescents, the sociodemographic and selected risk factors associated with these illnesses, and their health care utilization behavior and attitudes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 3355 participating secondary school students (response rate = 98%). Self-reported 3-month prevalences were obtained for cough/cold/influenza (55.2%), digestive disorders (34.6%), accidental injuries (29.5%), headache/dizziness (23.6%), chronic anxiety/insomnia (20.1%), skin problems (9.5%), asthma (3.8%), liver disease (1.3%), and menstrual pain (13.8% of female students). Self-perceived poor health, smoking, and alcohol consumption were associated with many of these illnesses. Treatment choice depended on the illness suffered (e.g., most students with respiratory problems consulted medical practitioners, whereas most with chronic anxiety/insomnia did not). Many students lacked trust in their doctors, doctor-shopped, relied heavily on self-medication, did not comply with prescribed treatments, would not seek help about medical problems, felt they had insufficient access to health information, and wanted confidential health care. This study examined for the first time the common illnesses and health care utilization patterns of Hong Kong adolescents. Students with chronic anxiety/insomnia were much less likely to seek care, indicating a need for better education on mental health. Efforts to prevent smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents need to be strengthened. The students' attitudes, poor compliance and help-seeking behaviors suggest suboptimal use of the health care system. Our findings are useful for international comparisons by medical practitioners, health care managers, and researchers.
Le Cong, Minh; Gynther, Bruce; Hunter, Ernest; Schuller, Peter
Aeromedical retrieval services face the difficult problem of appropriate levels of sedation for transport of acutely agitated patients to definitive care. This paper describes a technique using ketamine, which is titratable and avoids problems associated with airway management. A 3-year review of a new technique of ketamine sedation by aeromedical retrieval teams from the Cairns base of the Queensland section of the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia. Clinical records were systematically reviewed for ketamine administration and signs of adverse events during transport and in the subsequent 72 h. 18 patients were sedated during retrieval with intravenous ketamine. Effective sedation was achieved in all cases, with no significant adverse events noted during retrieval or 72 h afterwards. Ketamine sedation is effective and safe in agitated patients with a psychiatric illness in the aeromedical setting and does not lead to worsening agitation in the subsequent 72-h period.
Afzal, Zeeshan; Kallumadanda, Sunand; Wang, Feng; Hemmige, Vagish; Musher, Daniel
Murine typhus occurs relatively commonly in southern Texas, as well as in California. We reviewed records of 90 adults and children in whom murine typhus was diagnosed during a 3-year period in 2 hospitals in southern Texas, USA. Most patients lacked notable comorbidities; all were immunocompetent. Initial signs and symptoms included fever (99%), malaise (82%), headache (77%), fatigue (70%), myalgias (68%), and rash (39%). Complications, often severe, in 28% of patients included bronchiolitis, pneumonia, meningitis, septic shock, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, myositis, and rhabdomyolysis; the last 3 are previously unreported in murine typhus. Low serum albumin and elevated procalcitonin, consistent with bacterial sepsis, were observed in >70% of cases. Rash was more common in children; thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia, elevated hepatic transaminases, and complications were more frequent in adults. Murine typhus should be considered as a diagnostic possibility in cases of acute febrile illness in southern and even in more northern US states.
Mei, Jie; Riedel, Nico; Grittner, Ulrike; Endres, Matthias; Banneke, Stefanie; Emmrich, Julius Valentin
Body temperature is a valuable parameter in determining the wellbeing of laboratory animals. However, using body temperature to refine humane endpoints during acute illness generally lacks comprehensiveness and exposes to inter-observer bias. Here we compared two methods to assess body temperature in mice, namely implanted radio frequency identification (RFID) temperature transponders (method 1) to non-contact infrared thermometry (method 2) in 435 mice for up to 7 days during normothermia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin-induced hypothermia. There was excellent agreement between core and surface temperature as determined by method 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the intra- and inter-subject variation was higher for method 2. Nevertheless, using machine learning algorithms to determine temperature-based endpoints both methods had excellent accuracy in predicting death as an outcome event. Therefore, less expensive and cumbersome non-contact infrared thermometry can serve as a reliable alternative for implantable transponder-based systems for hypothermic responses, although requiring standardization between experimenters.
Wang, Yan; Wang, Jianrong; Liu, Weiwei; Zhang, Guangliang
To develop the comprehensive prediction model of acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) grades of critically ill patients. From April 2015 to November 2015, the binary channel gastrointestinal sounds (GIS) monitor system which has been developed and verified by the research group was used to gather and analyze the GIS of 60 consecutive critically ill patients who were admitted in Critical Care Medicine of Chinese PLA General Hospital. Also, the AGI grades (Grande I(-IIII(, the higher the level, the heavier the gastrointestinal dysfunction) were evaluated. Meanwhile, the clinical data and physiological and biochemical indexes of included patients were collected and recorded daily, including illness severity score (APACHE II( score, consisting of the acute physiology score, age grade and chronic health evaluation), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score, including respiration, coagulation, liver, cardioascular, central nervous system and kidney) and Glasgow coma scale (GCS); body mass index, blood lactate and glucose, and treatment details (including mechanical ventilation, sedatives, vasoactive drugs, enteral nutrition, etc.) Then principal component analysis was performed on the significantly correlated GIS (five indexes of gastrointestinal sounds were found to be negatively correlated with AGI grades, which included the number, percentage of time, mean power, maximum power and maximum time of GIS wave from the channel located at the stomach) and clinical factors after standardization. The top 5 post-normalized main components were selected for back-propagation (BP) neural network training, to establish comprehensive AGI grades models of critically ill patients based on the neural network model. The 60 patients aged 19 to 98 (mean 54.6) years and included 42 males (70.0%). There were 22 cases of multiple fractures, 15 cases of severe infection, 7 cases of cervical vertebral fracture, 7 cases of aortic repair, 5 cases of post-toxicosis and 4 cases of cerebral
Hisam, A.; Rahman, M.; Kadir, E.; Ezam, N.; Khan, M.B.
To find out the frequency of co-existence of malaria and dengue fever in patients presenting with acute febrile illness. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Military Hospital Rawalpindi from June to November 2012. A total of 500 patients with complaint of acute febrile illness were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Preliminary data was collected on a pretested proforma. Blood samples of patients were tested for dengue serology and malaria parasite. Results were entered in respective proforma. Co-existence was considered present when a patient had both dengue serology and malaria parasite slide positive. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Result: Of the total, 349 (69.8%) were males and 151 (30.2%) females. Dengue serology was positive in 16 (3.2%); 81(16.2%) had malaria parasite slide positive; 403 (80.4%) had none of the two findings. Co-existence of both dengue and malaria was nil among the whole sample. In males, 67 (13.4%) had malaria, while 11 (2.2%) had dengue. In females, 14 (2.8%) had malaria, while 5 (1%) suffered from dengue fever. Conclusion: Co-existence of dengue and malaria was zero per cent in 500 patients visiting Military Hospital Rawalpindi. More studies shall be conducted to find out whether the reason of having zero per cent co-existence is that dengue or/and malaria epidemic did not occur in 2012 or whether there are some other factors involved. (author)
Moyes, Jocelyn; Walaza, Sibongile; Pretorius, Marthi; Groome, Michelle; von Gottberg, Anne; Wolter, Nicole; Haffejee, Sumayya; Variava, Ebrahim; Cohen, Adam L; Tempia, Stefano; Kahn, Kathleen; Dawood, Halima; Venter, Marietjie; Cohen, Cheryl; Madhi, Shabir A
There are limited data on the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illness in HIV-infected adults or the elderly in Africa. We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalizations in adults in South Africa from 2009 through 2013. Individuals admitted to sentinel surveillance hospitals were investigated by respiratory tract swabs for RSV, using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The incidence of RSV-associated SARI was calculated for the one site with population denominators. Of 7796 participants investigated, 329 (4%) tested positive for RSV. On multivariable analysis, HIV-infected individuals with RSV-associated SARI had greater odds of being in the age groups 18-44 and 45-64 years (odd ratios (OR) 26.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.2-112.1 and OR 11.4; 95% CI 2.6-50.0) compared with those ≥65 years and being female (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.4-5.4). The relative risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated SARI was 12-18 times higher in HIV infected individual compared to that of HIV-uninfected. The incidence of RSV-associated SARI was higher in HIV-infected individuals and those aged 65 years and older. Further studies are warranted to describe the disease association of RSV detected in adults with SARI. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. All rights reserved.
Vriezen, Rachael; Edge, Victoria L.; Ford, James; Wood, Michele; Harper, Sherilee
Background Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) incidence and per-capita healthcare expenditures are higher in some Inuit communities as compared to elsewhere in Canada. Consequently, there is a demand for strategies that will reduce the individual-level costs of AGI; this will require a comprehensive understanding of the economic costs of AGI. However, given Inuit communities’ unique cultural, economic, and geographic contexts, there is a knowledge gap regarding the context-specific indirect costs of AGI borne by Inuit community members. This study aimed to identify the major indirect costs of AGI, and explore factors associated with these indirect costs, in the Inuit community of Rigolet, Canada, in order to develop a case-based context-specific study framework that can be used to evaluate these costs. Methods A mixed methods study design and community-based methods were used. Qualitative in-depth, group, and case interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis to identify and describe indirect costs of AGI specific to Rigolet. Data from two quantitative cross-sectional retrospective surveys were analyzed using univariable regression models to examine potential associations between predictor variables and the indirect costs. Results/Significance The most notable indirect costs of AGI that should be incorporated into cost-of-illness evaluations were the tangible costs related to missing paid employment and subsistence activities, as well as the intangible costs associated with missing community and cultural events. Seasonal cost variations should also be considered. This study was intended to inform cost-of-illness studies conducted in Rigolet and other similar research settings. These results contribute to a better understanding of the economic impacts of AGI on Rigolet residents, which could be used to help identify priority areas and resource allocation for public health policies and programs. PMID:29768456
Feyler, S; Williamson, V; King, D
Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed. In only 16 cases (12%) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was stated in the case notes in only three cases. In 62 cases (47%), there was no comment made on the film by the requesting clinician. There was a discrepancy in the interpretation of the radiograph between the clinician and the radiologist in 31 cases (24%). The clinical management was influenced by plain abdominal radiographs in only nine cases (7%). The majority of plain abdominal radiographs requested on acute medical emergencies is inappropriate. There is a need to ensure guidelines are followed to prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation as well as preventing expenditure on irrelevant investigations.
Barwise, Amelia; Garcia-Arguello, Lisbeth; Dong, Yue; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Vukoja, Marija; Schultz, Marcus J; Adhikari, Neill K J; Bonneton, Benjamin; Kilickaya, Oguz; Kashyap, Rahul; Gajic, Ognjen; Schmickl, Christopher N
The Checklist for Early Recognition and Treatment of Acute Illness (CERTAIN) is an international collaborative project with the overall objective of standardizing the approach to the evaluation and treatment of critically ill patients world-wide, in accordance with best-practice principles. One of CERTAIN's key features is clinical decision support providing point-of-care information about common acute illness syndromes, procedures, and medications in an index card format. This paper describes 1) the process of developing and validating the content for point-of-care decision support, and 2) the content management system that facilitates frequent peer-review and allows rapid updates of content across different platforms (CERTAIN software, mobile apps, pdf-booklet) and different languages. Content was created based on survey results of acute care providers and validated using an open peer-review process. Over a 3 year period, CERTAIN content expanded to include 67 syndrome cards, 30 procedure cards, and 117 medication cards. 127 (59 %) cards have been peer-reviewed so far. Initially MS Word® and Dropbox® were used to create, store, and share content for peer-review. Recently Google Docs® was used to make the peer-review process more efficient. However, neither of these approaches met our security requirements nor has the capacity to instantly update the different CERTAIN platforms. Although we were able to successfully develop and validate a large inventory of clinical decision support cards in a short period of time, commercially available software solutions for content management are suboptimal. Novel custom solutions are necessary for efficient global point of care content system management.
To identify risk factors associated with self-reported medical, medication and laboratory error in eight countries. The Commonwealth Fund's 2008 International Health Policy Survey of chronically ill patients in eight countries. None. A multi-country telephone survey was conducted between 3 March and 30 May 2008 with patients in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the UK and the USA who self-reported being chronically ill. A bivariate analysis was performed to determine significant explanatory variables of medical, medication and laboratory error (P error: age 65 and under, education level of some college or less, presence of two or more chronic conditions, high prescription drug use (four+ drugs), four or more doctors seen within 2 years, a care coordination problem, poor doctor-patient communication and use of an emergency department. Risk factors with the greatest ability to predict experiencing an error encompassed issues with coordination of care and provider knowledge of a patient's medical history. The identification of these risk factors could help policymakers and organizations to proactively reduce the likelihood of error through greater examination of system- and organization-level practices.
Fex, Angelika; Flensner, Gullvi; Ek, Anna-Christina; Söderhamn, Olle
This study aimed to elucidate meanings of health-illness transition experiences among adult persons using advanced medical technology at home. As an increasing number of persons perform self-care while using different sorts of advanced medical technology at home, knowledge about health-illness transition experiences in this situation may be useful to caregivers in supporting these patients. A qualitative design was used. Five women and five men, all of whom performed self-care at home, either using long-term oxygen therapy from a ventilator or oxygen cylinder, or performing peritoneal or haemodialysis, were interviewed. Ethics committee approval was obtained. Informed consent was received from all participants, and ethical issues concerning their rights in research were raised. The interviews were analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutical methodology, including both an inductive and a deductive structural analysis. This method offers possibilities to obtain an increased understanding by uncovering a deeper meaning of lived experiences through interviews transcribed as texts. The health-illness transition for adult persons in this context was found to mean a learning process of accepting, managing, adjusting and improving daily life with technology, facilitated by realizing the gain from technology at home. Further, the meaning of the health-illness transition experience was interpreted as contentment with being part of the active and conscious process towards transcending into a new state of living, in which the individual and the technology were in tune. The healthy transition experience was characterized by human growth and becoming. This study elucidates one meaning of health-illness transition experiences in relation to the use of advanced medical technology on a more generic level, independent of the specific type of technology used. A positive attitude towards technology at home facilitates the transition. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of
Choo, Janet; Johnston, Linda; Manias, Elizabeth
This study examined registered nurses' overall compliance with accepted medication administration procedures, and explored the distractions they faced during medication administration at two acute care hospitals in Singapore. A total of 140 registered nurses, 70 from each hospital, participated in the study. At both hospitals, nurses were distracted by personnel, such as physicians, radiographers, patients not under their care, and telephone calls, during medication rounds. Deviations from accepted medication procedures were observed. At one hospital, the use of a vest during medication administration alone was not effective in avoiding distractions during medication administration. Environmental factors and distractions can impact on the safe administration of medications, because they not only impair nurses' level of concentration, but also add to their work pressure. Attention should be placed on eliminating distractions through the use of appropriate strategies. Strategies that could be considered include the conduct of education sessions with health professionals and patients about the importance of not interrupting nurses while they are administering medications, and changes in work design. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Yingyong, Thitipong; Praphasiri, Prabda; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A
Information on the burden, characteristics and seasonality of non-influenza respiratory viruses is limited in tropical countries. Describe the epidemiology of selected non-influenza respiratory viruses in Thailand between June 2010 and May 2014 using a sentinel surveillance platform established for influenza. Patients with influenza-like illness (ILI; history of fever or documented temperature ≥38°C, cough, not requiring hospitalization) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI; history of fever or documented temperature ≥38°C, cough, onset respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), metapneumovirus (MPV), parainfluenza viruses (PIV) 1-3, and adenoviruses by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR. We screened 15 369 persons with acute respiratory infections and enrolled 8106 cases of ILI (5069 cases respiratory viruses tested, while for SARI cases respiratory viruses, particularly seasonality, although adjustments to case definitions may be required. © 2018 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background Parents of seriously ill children participate in making difficult medical decisions for their child. In some cases, parents face situations where their initial goals, such as curing the condition, may have become exceedingly unlikely. While some parents continue to pursue these goals, others relinquish their initial goals and generate new goals such as maintaining the child’s quality of life. We call this process of transitioning from one set of goals to another regoaling. Discussion Regoaling involves factors that either promote or inhibit the regoaling process, including disengagement from goals, reengagement in new goals, positive and negative affect, and hopeful thinking. We examine these factors in the context of parental decision making for a seriously ill child, presenting a dynamic conceptual model of regoaling. This model highlights four research questions that will be empirically tested in an ongoing longitudinal study of medical decision making among parents of children with serious illness. Additionally, we consider potential clinical implications of regoaling for the practice of pediatric palliative care. Summary The psychosocial model of regoaling by parents of children with a serious illness predicts that parents who experience both positive and negative affect and hopeful patterns of thought will be more likely to relinquish one set of goals and pursue a new set of goals. A greater understanding of how parents undergo this transition may enable clinicians to better support them through this difficult process. PMID:24625345
Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Leith, Jaclyn; Medoff, Deborah R.; Fang, LiJuan; Dickerson, Faith B.; Brown, Clayton H.; Goldberg, Richard W.; Potts, Wendy; Dixon, Lisa B.
Inadequate self-management of chronic medical conditions like Type 2 diabetes may play a role in the poor health status of individuals with serious mental illnesses. We compared adherence to hypoglycemic medications and blood glucose control between 44 diabetes patients with a serious mental illness and 30 patients without a psychiatric illness. The two groups did not differ in their ability to manage a complex medication regimen as assessed by a performance-based measure of medication management capacity. However, significantly fewer patients with a mental illness self-reported nonadherence to their hypoglycemic regimens compared to those without a mental illness. Although individuals with mental illnesses also had better control of blood glucose, this metabolic parameter was not correlated with adherence to hypoglycemic medications in either patient group. The experience of managing a chronic mental illness may confer advantages to individuals with serious mental illnesses in the self-care of co-occurring medical conditions like Type 2 diabetes. PMID:21459458
Karvellas, Constantine J; Farhat, Maha R; Sajjad, Imran
Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the impact of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis were used in this study. PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web ...
Two provider-based traveler-focused networks allowed for the detection of a large outbreak of acute muscular sarcocystosis (AMS). Clinicians evaluating travelers returning ill from Malaysia with fever and myalgia noted the biphasic aspect of the disease, the later onset of elevated CPK and eosinophi...
Potentially inappropriate prescribing is common in older people presenting to hospital with acute illness in Ireland. The aim of this study was to determine if this phenomenon is unique to Ireland or whether it is a more widespread problem in hospitals across Europe.
Robert A. Bitonte
Full Text Available Medical students experience higher rates of mental illness than the general population. With competition rising for success in medical school, and residency, increasing incidence of distress are leading this population to experience higher rates of thoughts of dropping out of school, and even suicide. Since many stigmas deter medical students from receiving mental health counseling, such as the perceived inability to handle the stresses of medical school, and the potential lack of competitiveness for residencies if reported, prevention of mental illness may be a better course to take in reducing prevalence in this population. Regular exercise has demonstrated a positive effect on not only promoting physical health, but also mental health. Exercise encourages a healthy mood, positive self esteem, and better cognition, while decreasing the chances of depression, anxiety, and burnout. Implementing exercise time into medical school curriculums, just like the basic sciences, albeit for less time in the day, could provide a feasible way to ensure that all students are taking time to partake in this important activity for their well being. Though medical schools are rigid with attempts to make changes in their curriculum, thirty minutes a day, three to five times a week of exercise of the students’ choice not only is more cost effective than counseling, but it also reduces the chances that they will experience burnout, which if left untreated could transcend into a compromised training experience.
Cosci, Fiammetta; Fava, Giovanni A; Sonino, Nicoletta
Affective disturbances involving alterations of mood, anxiety and irritability may be early symptoms of medical illnesses. The aim of this paper was to provide a systematic review of the literature with qualitative data synthesis. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Science were systematically searched from inception to February 2014. Search terms were 'prodrome/early symptom', combined using the Boolean 'AND' operator with 'anxiety/depression/mania/hypomania/irritability/irritable mood/hostility', combined with the Boolean 'AND' operator with 'medical illness/medical disorder'. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A total of 21 studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Depression was found to be the most common affective prodrome of medical disorders and was consistently reported in Cushing's syndrome, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic and lung cancer, myocardial infarction, Wilson's disease, and AIDS. Mania, anxiety and irritability were less frequent. Physicians may not pursue medical workup of cases that appear to be psychiatric in nature. They should be alerted that disturbances in mood, anxiety and irritability may antedate the appearance of a medical disorder.
Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels; Stenager, Elsebeth
often experience being met with mistrust and feel their identity threatened as a consequence of being illegitimately ill. There is a strong tendency in health care towards assessment thorough standardized so-called assessment packages. The study used a case study approach. Ethnographic fieldwork......This article reports a case study of the illness career and identity work of patients who have had medically unexplained symptoms for many years with a particular emphasis on their interactions with a specialized and standardized health care system. Patients with medically unexplained symptoms...... assessment with limited time can lead to a diagnostic limbo and that patients and health care professionals keep on searching for legitimate explanations for the patients' still unexplained symptoms. Consequently the patients were left in a constant identity negotiation....
Cerri, Anna Paola; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Mazzone, Andrea; Pittella, Francesca; Landi, Francesco; Zambon, Antonella; Annoni, Giorgio
Data about the prevalence of sarcopenia among hospitalized patients is lacking and it is unclear whether the diagnostic criteria commonly used in community-dwellers is applicable in acutely ill subjects. The aims of this report are: (i) to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia among hospitalized patients; (ii) to assess whether the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria are applicable in an acute care setting; and (iii) to assess the mortality rate at 3 months. 103 patients admitted to the Acute Geriatric Clinic were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥65 years and malnutrition or risk of malnutrition, according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form. Sarcopenia was diagnosed using the EWGSOP criteria by means of bioimpedance analysis, handgrip strength and gait speed, within 72 h of admission. Information on deaths was obtained by telephone interview at 3 months following discharge. Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 22 patients (21.4%). Twenty-three patients (22.3%) were not able to perform the gait speed and/or the handgrip strength because bedridden or requiring intensive treatments. In this group, a definite diagnosis of sarcopenia was not possible, lacking at least one EWGSOP criteria. Eleven (10.7%) patients died within the 3 months post-discharge period. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that sarcopenic patients died significantly more frequently than others (log-rank p ≤ 0.001). In a population of hospitalized elderly malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, sarcopenia is highly prevalent and associated with an increased risk to die in the short-term. Furthermore, the EWGSOP criteria cannot be satisfactorily applied in a relevant proportion of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Line Due; Andersen, Ove; Hallin, Marianne
: Patients aged ≥65 years admitted to the acute medical unit during the period October to December 2011 were included. Patients were interviewed at admission and at a follow-up visit 30 days after discharge. Data included information about medications, social status, functional status, cognitive status.......94), cognition (p = 0.10), pain (p = 0.46), or visual acuity (p = 0.55). CONCLUSIONS: Use of PIMs was very common among older people admitted to an acute medical unit. The use of PIMs is associated with low functional status, low handgrip strength, and reduced health-related quality of life.......: The prevalence of PIMs and the association with PIMs and functional status handgrip strength, HRQOL, comorbidities, social demographic data and vision. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients (55 % men) with a median age of 78.7 years participated. The median number of medications was eight per person. Eighty percent were...
Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI necessitating renal replacement therapy (RRT is associated with high mortality and increased risk for end stage renal disease. However, it is unknown if this applies to patients with a preliminary unremarkable medical history. The purpose of this study was to describe overall and renal survival in critically ill patients with AKI necessitating RRT stratified by the presence of comorbidity.A retrospective cohort study was performed, between 1994 and 2010, including all adult critically ill patients with AKI necessitating RRT, stratified by the presence of comorbidity. Logistic regression, survival curve and cox proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate overall and renal survival. Standardized mortality rate (SMR analysis was performed to compare long-term survival to the predicted survival in the Dutch population.Of the 1067 patients included only 96(9.0% had no comorbidity. Hospital mortality was 56.6% versus 43.8% in patients with and without comorbidity, respectively. In those who survived hospitalization 10-year survival was 45.0% and 86.0%, respectively. Adjusted for age, sex and year of treatment, absence of comorbidity was not associated with hospital mortality (OR=0.74, 95%-CI=0.47-1.15, while absence of comorbidity was associated with better long-term survival (adjusted HR=0.28, 95%-CI = 0.14-0.58. Compared to the Dutch population, patients without comorbidity had a similar mortality risk (SMR=1.6, 95%-CI=0.7-3.2, while this was increased in patients with comorbidity (SMR=4.8, 95%-CI=4.1-5.5. Regarding chronic dialysis dependency, 10-year renal survival rates were 76.0% and 92.9% in patients with and without comorbidity, respectively. Absence of comorbidity was associated with better renal survival (adjusted HR=0.24, 95%-CI=0.07-0.76.While hospital mortality remains excessively high, the absence of comorbidity in critically ill patients with RRT-requiring AKI is associated with a relative good long
Ellis, Kerri A; Connolly, Ann; Hosseinnezhad, Alireza; Lilly, Craig M
To increase the frequency of communication of patient information between acute and primary care providers. A secondary objective was to determine whether higher rates of communication were associated with lower rates of hospital readmission 30 days after discharge. A validated instrument was used for telephone surveys before and after an intervention designed to increase the frequency of communication among acute care and primary care providers. The communication intervention was implemented in 3 adult intensive care units from 2 campuses of an academic medical center. The frequency of communication among acute care and primary care providers, the perceived usefulness of the intervention, and its association with 30-day readmission rates were assessed for 202 adult intensive care episodes before and 100 episodes after a communication intervention. The frequency of documented communication increased significantly (5/202 or 2% before to 72/100 or 72% after the intervention; P communication was considered useful by every participating primary care provider. Rates of rehospitalization at 30 days were lower for the intervention group than the preintervention group, but the difference was not statistically significant (41/202 or 23% vs 16/88 or 18% of discharged patients; P = .45; power 0.112 at P = .05). The frequency of communication episodes that provide value can be increased through standardized processes. The key aspects of this effective intervention were setting the expectation that communication should occur, documenting when communication has occurred, and reviewing that documentation during multiprofessional rounds. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Effiong Ekong Akpan
Full Text Available Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30–35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes “holy water” green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango, shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew, Carica papaya (paw-paw leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree, and Azadirachta indica (Neem trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for “body cleansing” and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission.
De Roos, Anneclaire J; Gurian, Patrick L; Robinson, Lucy F; Rai, Arjita; Zakeri, Issa; Kondo, Michelle C
Turbidity has been used as an indicator of microbiological contamination of drinking water in time-series studies attempting to discern the presence of waterborne gastrointestinal illness; however, the utility of turbidity as a proxy exposure measure has been questioned. We conducted a review of epidemiological studies of the association between turbidity of drinking-water supplies and incidence of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI), including a synthesis of the overall weight of evidence. Our goal was to evaluate the potential for causal inference from the studies. We identified 14 studies on the topic (distinct by region, time period and/or population). We evaluated each study with regard to modeling approaches, potential biases, and the strength of evidence. We also considered consistencies and differences in the collective results. Positive associations between drinking-water turbidity and AGI incidence were found in different cities and time periods, and with both unfiltered and filtered supplies. There was some evidence for a stronger association at higher turbidity levels. The studies appeared to adequately adjust for confounding. There was fair consistency in the notable lags between turbidity measurement and AGI identification, which fell between 6 and 10 d in many studies. The observed associations suggest a detectable incidence of waterborne AGI from drinking water in the systems and time periods studied. However, some discrepant results indicate that the association may be context specific. Combining turbidity with seasonal and climatic factors, additional water quality measures, and treatment data may enhance predictive modeling in future studies. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1090.
L. A. Kharitonova
Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the impact of incorporation of cycloferon into a therapy regimen on the efficiency of treatment for acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in frequently ill children. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 117 children divided into three groups according to the therapy regimen. Thus, symptomatic and local antiviral therapies (interferon nasal ointment and viferon suppositories were prescribed to all the children; furthermore, Group 1 (control used antibiotic therapy; Group 2 (Comparison Group 1 took antibiotics and cycloferon (tablets, and Group 3 (Comparison Group 2 had Cycloferon. Results: At the beginning of treatment, there was a reduction in interferon-a and interferon-y values with preserved serum interferon levels, suggesting the diminished compensatory responses ensuring antiviral protection. Analysis of the immune status revealed that virtually half of the children exhibited activation of compensatory mechanisms (stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ production and an increase in NST test activity, one third displayed a disturbance (decreases in CD4+, CDlfrf, IgA, and NST test activity. After treatment, interferonogenesis was recovered in the majority (86,7% of the patients taking Cycloferon, in 74,1% of those who had a treatment regimen containing cycloferon and antibiotics, and only in 47,1 % of those who received antibiotics. Comparison of the immunological indicators during therapy with antibiotics alone or in combination with cycloferon demonstrated a more noticeable and balanced response to the latter: the normalized CD4+ and CD8+ values in the patients on antibiotic therapy was 8,9 and 5,8%, respectively, and 11,1 % in those who received antibiotics and cycloferon. Conclusion. Incorporation of cycloferon into ARVI treatment regimens for frequently ill patients has the positive effect on immunological indicators, which shows itself as recovery of initially diminished interferonogenesis
Russell, Kate E; Fowlkes, Ashley; Stockwell, Melissa S; Vargas, Celibell Y; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine L; LaRussa, Philip; Di Lonardo, Steve; Popowich, Michael; St George, Kirsten; Steffens, Andrea; Reed, Carrie
Surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States is primarily conducted through medical settings despite a significant burden of non-medically attended ILI. To assess consistency between surveillance for respiratory viruses in outpatient and community settings using ILI surveillance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) and the Mobile Surveillance for Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) and Influenza-Like Illness in the Community (MoSAIC) Study. The Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project conducts ILI surveillance in 3 primary care clinics in New York City, and MoSAIC conducts community-based ILI/ARI surveillance through text messaging among a cohort of New York City residents. Both systems obtain respiratory specimens from participants with ILI/ARI and test for multiple pathogens. We conducted a retrospective review of ILI cases in IISP and MoSAIC from January 2013 to May 2015 with descriptive analyses of clinical and laboratory data. Five-hundred twelve MoSAIC and 669 IISP participants met an ILI criteria (fever with cough or sore throat) and were included. Forty percent of MoSAIC participants sought care; the majority primary care. Pathogens were detected in 63% of MoSAIC and 70% of IISP cases. The relative distribution of influenza and other respiratory viruses detected was similar; however, there were statistically significant differences in the frequency that were not explained by care seeking. Outpatient and community-based surveillance in the one found similar timing and relative distribution of respiratory viruses, but community surveillance in a single neighborhood may not fully capture the variations in ILI etiology that occur more broadly. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rachel M. Little
Discussion: Respiratory infections, malaria, and skin or soft tissue infections are leading reasons for seeking medical care at a small community medical centre in Arusha, Tanzania, highlighting the burden of infectious diseases in this type of facility. Males may be more likely to present with trauma, burns, and laceration injuries than females. Many patients required one or no procedures to determine their diagnosis, most treatments administered were inexpensive, and most patients were discharged home, suggesting that providing acute care in this setting could be accomplished with limited resources.
Ayman A El-Badawy
Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a complex disorder with clinical manifestations ranging from mild dysfunction to complete kidney failure. The published literature on the incidence and outcome of AKI in the critically ill neonatal population is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the types, the associated risk factors and short-term outcome of AKI in the critically ill neonates. A cohort study was conducted including 100 critically ill neonates successively admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The inclusion criteria were a gestational age ≥28 weeks and body weight ≥1 kg. Exclusion criteria included those with multiple congenital anomalies or on drugs altering glomerular filtration rate or AKI developing postoperatively. Neonates were evaluated for the development of AKI [creatinine >1.5 mg/dL and/or blood urea nitrogen (BUN >20 mg/dL] and were assigned as group A (who developed AKI and group B (who did not develop AKI. Forty-one patients developed AKI (group A among whom nine (22% showed oliguric AKI. The most common risk factors among group A patients were sepsis (75.6% and nephrotoxic drug administration (75.6%, followed by shock (39%. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups except for male sex predominance and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, which were significantly higher among group A (P <0.05. Use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP ventilation was significantly higher in neonates without AKI (13.6% vs 0.0%, P = 0.02. The mortality rate among group A reached 51.2%. Various risk factors including gender, gestational age, birth weight, shock, NEC, sepsis, nephrotoxic drugs, oliguria and mechanical ventilation were studied as regards outcome of group A, and all factors except gender and oliguria proved to be significantly higher in deceased neonates. Male sex and NEC were important risk factors for developing AKI that was predominantly non-oliguric. CPAP ventilation may have a
Darnell, Doyanne; Peterson, Roselyn; Berliner, Lucy; Stewart, Terri; Russo, Joan; Whiteside, Lauren; Zatzick, Douglas
Rape is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related comorbidities. Most victims do not obtain treatment for these conditions. Acute care medical settings are well positioned to link patients to services; however, difficulty engaging victims and low attendance at provided follow-up appointments is well documented. Identifying factors associated with follow-up can inform engagement and linkage strategies. Administrative, patient self-report, and provider observational data from Harborview Medical Center were combined for the analysis. Using logistic regression, we examined factors associated with follow-up health service utilization after seeking services for rape in the emergency department. Of the 521 diverse female (n = 476) and male (n = 45) rape victims, 28% attended the recommended medical/counseling follow-up appointment. In the final (adjusted) logistic regression model, having a developmental or other disability (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.21-0.77), having a current mental illness (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.13-0.49), and being assaulted in public (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.28-0.87) were uniquely associated with reduced odds of attending the follow-up. Having a prior mental health condition (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.86-4.91), a completed Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner's (SANE) examination (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.84-4.81), and social support available to help cope with the assault (OR = 3.54, 95% CI = 1.76-7.11) were associated with an increased odds of attending the follow-up. Findings point to relevant characteristics ascertained at the acute care medical visit for rape that may be used to identify victims less likely to obtain posttraumatic medical and mental health services. Efforts to improve service linkage for these patients is warranted and may require alternative service delivery models that engage rape survivors and support posttraumatic recovery.
Riebschleger, Joanne; Scheid, Jeanette; Luz, Clare; Mickus, Maureen; Liszewski, Christine; Eaton, Monaca
Objective: This descriptive study explored the extent that medical education curriculum guidelines contained content about the experiences and needs of family members of people with serious mental illness. Methods: Key family-focused-literature themes about the experiences and needs of families of individuals with mental illness were drawn from a…
Aschbrenner, K.A.; Pepin, R.; Mueser, K.T.; Naslund, J.A.; Rolin, S.A.; Faber, M.J.; Bartels, S.J.
OBJECTIVE: Many older persons with serious mental illness (SMI) suffer from high rates of comorbid medical conditions. Although families play a critical role in psychiatric illness management among adults with SMI, their contributions to improving health outcomes in this population has received
Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R; Molinari, Noelle-Angelique M; Fairbrother, Gerry; Szilagyi, Peter G; Edwards, Kathryn M; Griffin, Marie R; Cassedy, Amy; Poehling, Katherine A; Bridges, Carolyn; Staat, Mary Allen
Studies have documented direct medical costs of influenza-related illness in young children, however little is known about the out-of-pocket and indirect costs (e.g., missed work time) incurred by caregivers of children with medically attended influenza. To determine the indirect, out-of-pocket (OOP), and direct medical costs of laboratory-confirmed medically attended influenza illness among young children. Using a population-based surveillance network, we evaluated a representative group of children aged accounting databases, and follow-up interviews with caregivers. Outcome measures included work time missed, OOP expenses (e.g., over-the-counter medicines, travel expenses), and direct medical costs. Costs were estimated (in 2009 US Dollars) and comparisons were made among children with and without high risk conditions for influenza-related complications. Data were obtained from 67 inpatients, 121 ED patients and 92 outpatients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Caregivers of hospitalized children missed an average of 73 work hours (estimated cost $1456); caregivers of children seen in the ED and outpatient clinics missed 19 ($383) and 11 work hours ($222), respectively. Average OOP expenses were $178, $125 and $52 for inpatients, ED-patients and outpatients, respectively. OOP and indirect costs were similar between those with and without high risk conditions (p>0.10). Medical costs totaled $3990 for inpatients and $730 for ED-patients. Out-of-pocket and indirect costs of laboratory-confirmed and medically attended influenza in young children are substantial and support the benefits of vaccination. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Vlaar, Alexander P. J.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Prins, David; van Stein, Danielle; Hofstra, Jorrit J.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Juffermans, Nicole P.
Objectives: To determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of transfusion-related acute lung injury in a cohort of critically ill patients. Design: In a retrospective cohort study, patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury were identified using the consensus criteria of acute lung
Vlaar, Alexander P. J.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Prins, David; van Stein, Danielle; Hofstra, Jorrit J.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Juffermans, Nicole P.
Objectives: To determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of transfusion-related acute lung injury in a cohort of critically ill patients. Design: In a retrospective cohort study, patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury were identified using the consensus criteria of acute lung
Joyce Ohiole Omoaregba
Full Text Available Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness are commonly reported among health professionals. Familiarity with mental illness has been reported to improve these attitudes. Very few studies have compared future medical doctors’ attitudes toward types of mental illness, substance use disorders and physical illness. A cross-sectional survey of 5th and 6th year medical students as well as recently graduated medical doctors was conducted in April 2011. The 12-item level of contact report and the Attitude towards Mental Illness Questionnaire were administered. Participants endorsed stigmatising attitudes towards mental illness; with attitudes more adverse for schizophrenia compared to depression. Stigmatising attitudes were similarly endorsed for substance use disorders. Paradoxically, attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were positive and similar to diabetes mellitus. Increasing familiarity with mental illness was weakly associated with better attitudes towards depression and schizophrenia. Stigmatising attitudes towards depression and schizophrenia are common among future doctors. Efforts to combat stigma are urgently needed and should be promoted among medical students and recent medical graduates.
Full Text Available Background: A number of studies from the western world have explored the negative beliefs held by individuals towards people with mental illness. The knowledge of attitude and awareness of undergraduate medical students towards psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders is of utmost importance. Objective: The current study aims at assessment of attitudes of medical students towards mental illness and mentally ill. Materials and Methods: The study used a cross-sectional survey design. The instruments used included Beliefs toward Mental Illness (BMI scale, Attitudes to Mental Illness Questionnaire (AMIQ. ANOVA was carried out to compare the in between group differences for the four study groups. Additionally Bonferroni correction was used to conduct the post hoc analysis. Results: The interns were significantly more likely to agree with the statement that the mental disorders are recurrent; less likely to be of thought that the behavior of people with mental disorders is unpredictable; more likely to disagree with the fact that diagnosis of depression as described in the case vignette was going to damage the career of the individual; more likely to agree with the option of inviting a depressed person to a party; more likely to believe in fact that mentally ill individuals are more likely to be criminals as compared to medical students in different professional years. Conclusions: Adequate modifications to existing medical curriculum would help improve attitude of medical students towards mentally ill.
Salazar L, Nicole; Jirón A, Marcela; Escobar O, Leslie; Tobar, Eduardo; Romero, Carlos
Critically ill patients are especially vulnerable to medication errors (ME) due to their severe clinical situation and the complexities of their management. To determine the frequency and characteristics of ME and identify shortcomings in the processes of medication management in an Intensive Care Unit. During a 3 months period, an observational prospective and randomized study was carried out in the ICU of a university hospital. Every step of patient's medication management (prescription, transcription, dispensation, preparation and administration) was evaluated by an external trained professional. Steps with higher frequency of ME and their therapeutic groups involved were identified. Medications errors were classified according to the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. In 52 of 124 patients evaluated, 66 ME were found in 194 drugs prescribed. In 34% of prescribed drugs, there was at least 1 ME during its use. Half of ME occurred during medication administration, mainly due to problems in infusion rates and schedule times. Antibacterial drugs had the highest rate of ME. We found a 34% rate of ME per drug prescribed, which is in concordance with international reports. The identification of those steps more prone to ME in the ICU, will allow the implementation of an intervention program to improve the quality and security of medication management.
Fischer, Jason B; Prasad, Priya A; Coffin, Susan E; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Mistry, Rakesh D
Validated clinical scales, such as the Canadian Acute Respiratory Illness and Flu Scale (CARIFS), have not been used to differentiate influenza (FLU) from other respiratory viruses. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an influenza-like infection from 2008 to 2010. Subjects were children aged 0 to 19 years who had a venipuncture and respiratory virus polymerase chain reaction. Demographics and CARIFS items were assessed during the ED visit; comparisons were made between FLU and non-FLU subjects. The 203 subjects had median age 30.5 months; 61.6% were male. Comorbid conditions (51.2%) were common. FLU was identified in 26.6%, and were older than non-FLU patients (69.7 vs 47.9 months, P = .02). Demographic, household factors, and mean CARIFS score did not differ between FLU (33.7), and non-FLU (32.0) (mean difference 1.6, 95% CI: -2.0 to 5.2) groups. CARIFS cannot discriminate between FLU and non-FLU infection in ED children with influenza-like infection. © The Author(s) 2014.
Qasmieh, Saba; Mounts, Anthony Wayne; Alexander, Burmaa; Besselaar, Terry; Briand, Sylvie; Brown, Caroline; Clark, Seth; Dueger, Erica; Gross, Diane; Hauge, Siri; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Jorgensen, Pernille; Katz, Mark A; Mafi, Ali; Malik, Mamunur; McCarron, Margaret; Meerhoff, Tamara; Mori, Yuichiro; Mott, Joshua; Olivera, Maria Teresa da Costa; Ortiz, Justin R; Palekar, Rakhee; Rebelo-de-Andrade, Helena; Soetens, Loes; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Zhang, Wenqing; Vandemaele, Katelijn
Abstract The formulation of accurate clinical case definitions is an integral part of an effective process of public health surveillance. Although such definitions should, ideally, be based on a standardized and fixed collection of defining criteria, they often require revision to reflect new knowledge of the condition involved and improvements in diagnostic testing. Optimal case definitions also need to have a balance of sensitivity and specificity that reflects their intended use. After the 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a technical consultation on global influenza surveillance. This prompted improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of the case definition for influenza – i.e. a respiratory disease that lacks uniquely defining symptomology. The revision process not only modified the definition of influenza-like illness, to include a simplified list of the criteria shown to be most predictive of influenza infection, but also clarified the language used for the definition, to enhance interpretability. To capture severe cases of influenza that required hospitalization, a new case definition was also developed for severe acute respiratory infection in all age groups. The new definitions have been found to capture more cases without compromising specificity. Despite the challenge still posed in the clinical separation of influenza from other respiratory infections, the global use of the new WHO case definitions should help determine global trends in the characteristics and transmission of influenza viruses and the associated disease burden. PMID:29403115
Perez, Enrique; Majowicz, Shannon E.; Reid-Smith, Richard; Albil, Silvia; Monteverde, Marcos; McEwen, Scott A.
This study evaluated the magnitude and distribution of acute gastrointestinal illness (GI) in Gálvez, Argentina, and assessed the outcome of a seven-day versus 30-day recall period in survey methodology. A cross-sectional population survey, with either a seven-day or a 30-day retrospective recall period, was conducted through door-to-door visits to randomly-selected residents during the ‘high’ and the ‘low’ seasons of GI in the community. Comparisons were made between the annual incidence rates obtained using the seven-day and the 30-day recall period. Using the 30-day recall period, the mean annual incidence rates was 0.43 (low season of GI) and 0.49 (high season of GI) episodes per person-year. Using the seven-day recall period, the mean annual incidence rate was 0.76 (low season of GI) and 2.66 (high season of GI) episodes per person-year. This study highlights the significant burden of GI in a South American community and confirms the importance of seasonality when investigating GI in the population. The findings suggest that a longer recall period may underestimate the burden of GI in retrospective population surveys of GI. PMID:20411678
Luo, Wei; Tran, Truyen; Berk, Michael; Venkatesh, Svetha
Background Although physical illnesses, routinely documented in electronic medical records (EMR), have been found to be a contributing factor to suicides, no automated systems use this information to predict suicide risk. Objective The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of physical illnesses on suicide risk, and develop a predictive model that captures this relationship using EMR data. Methods We used history of physical illnesses (except chapter V: Mental and behavioral disorders) from EMR data over different time-periods to build a lookup table that contains the probability of suicide risk for each chapter of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes. The lookup table was then used to predict the probability of suicide risk for any new assessment. Based on the different lengths of history of physical illnesses, we developed six different models to predict suicide risk. We tested the performance of developed models to predict 90-day risk using historical data over differing time-periods ranging from 3 to 48 months. A total of 16,858 assessments from 7399 mental health patients with at least one risk assessment was used for the validation of the developed model. The performance was measured using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results The best predictive results were derived (AUC=0.71) using combined data across all time-periods, which significantly outperformed the clinical baseline derived from routine risk assessment (AUC=0.56). The proposed approach thus shows potential to be incorporated in the broader risk assessment processes used by clinicians. Conclusions This study provides a novel approach to exploit the history of physical illnesses extracted from EMR (ICD-10 codes without chapter V-mental and behavioral disorders) to predict suicide risk, and this model outperforms existing clinical assessments of suicide risk. PMID:27400764
Ozcakir, Alis; Bilgel, Nazan
Addressing the emotional needs of dying patients is rarely found to have a place in formal medical curriculum and is also a difficult area to teach through classical medical lectures. "Cinemeducation" is a wonderful way to educate health care providers about the magnitude of emotions that arise during those difficult situations. The aims of this study were to test the relevance and usefulness of the movie 'Wit' in teaching medical students about the personal meaning of terminal illness and to assess the impact of this teaching method on students' attitudes toward palliative care. This was an education study using qualitative and quantitative data analysis of 518 first-year medical students in a single medical faculty in Turkey. Students watched the entire film, filled out an evaluation questionnaire, and answered questions about the film. Students also expressed their own feelings and thoughts about palliative care. Overall, 88% rated the film as excellent, very good, or good. According to 54% of the students, the emotions of terminally ill patients were fully portrayed in the film and in a very realistic way. Approximately 61.4% of the students found this film emotional. Most students (80.5%) stated that this film made them think about the emotional and spiritual suffering that dying patients go through and found this learning approach about palliative care more useful than didactic lectures and journal article readings but not more useful than bedside rounds. It was thought that caring for dying patients would be very or fairly personally satisfying for 65.3% of the students. The film 'Wit' gave the students an opportunity to explore their beliefs, values and attitudes in terms of the bio-psycho-social-spiritual aspects of health care and encouraged them to think more about the humanitarian issues of the medical profession.
Wood, Winnie; Tschannen, Dana; Trotsky, Alyssa; Grunawalt, Julie; Adams, Danyell; Chang, Robert; Kendziora, Sandra; Diccion-MacDonald, Stephanie
For many patients, hospitalization brings prolonged periods of bed rest, which are associated with such adverse health outcomes as increased length of stay, increased risk of falls, functional decline, and extended-care facility placement. Most studies of progressive or early mobility protocols designed to minimize these adverse effects have been geared toward specific patient populations and conducted by multidisciplinary teams in either ICUs or surgical units. Very few mobility programs have been developed for and implemented on acute care medical units. This evidence-based quality improvement project describes how a mobility program, devised for and put to use on a general medical unit in a large Midwestern academic health care system, improved patient outcomes.
Baer, Rebecca J; Chambers, Christina D; Bandoli, Gretchen; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L
Previous studies have demonstrated an association between mental illness and preterm birth (before 37 weeks). However, these investigations have not simultaneously considered gestation of preterm birth, the indication (eg, spontaneous or medically indicated), and specific mental illness classifications. The objective of the study was to examine the likelihood of preterm birth across gestational lengths and indications among Medi-Cal (California's Medicaid program) participants with a diagnostic code for mental illness. Mental illnesses were studied by specific illness classification. The study population was drawn from singleton live births in California from 2007 through 2011 in the birth cohort file maintained by the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, which includes birth certificate and hospital discharge records. The sample was restricted to women with Medi-Cal coverage for prenatal care. Women with mental illness were identified using International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, codes from their hospital discharge record. Women without a mental illness International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, code were randomly selected at a 4:1 ratio. Adjusting for maternal characteristics and obstetric complications, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for preterm birth comparing women with a mental illness diagnostic code with women without such a code. We identified 6198 women with a mental illness diagnostic code and selected 24,792 women with no such code. The risk of preterm birth in women with a mental illness were 1.2 times higher than women without a mental illness (adjusted relative risk, 1.2, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.3). Among the specific mental illnesses, schizophrenia, major depression, and personality disorders had the strongest associations with preterm birth (adjusted relative risks, 2.0, 2.0 and 3.3, respectively). Women receiving prenatal care through California's low
Marie R Griffin
Full Text Available We estimated the effectiveness of four monovalent pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccines (three unadjuvanted inactivated, one live attenuated available in the U.S. during the pandemic. Patients with acute respiratory illness presenting to inpatient and outpatient facilities affiliated with four collaborating institutions were prospectively recruited, consented, and tested for influenza. Analyses were restricted to October 2009 through April 2010, when pandemic vaccine was available. Patients testing positive for pandemic influenza by real-time RT-PCR were cases; those testing negative were controls. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated in logistic regression models adjusted for study community, patient age, timing of illness, insurance status, enrollment site, and presence of high-risk medical conditions. Pandemic virus was detected in 1,011 (15% of 6,757 enrolled patients. Fifteen (1% of 1,011 influenza positive cases and 1,042 (18% of 5,746 test-negative controls had record-verified pandemic vaccination >14 days prior to illness onset. Adjusted effectiveness (95% confidence interval for pandemic vaccines combined was 56% (23%, 75%. Adjusted effectiveness for inactivated vaccines alone (79% of total was 62% (25%, 81% overall and 32% (-92%, 76%, 89% (15%, 99%, and -6% (-231%, 66% in those aged 0.5 to 9, 10 to 49, and 50+ years, respectively. Effectiveness for the live attenuated vaccine in those aged 2 to 49 years was only demonstrated if vaccination >7 rather than >14 days prior to illness onset was considered (61%∶ 12%, 82%. Inactivated non-adjuvanted pandemic vaccines offered significant protection against confirmed pandemic influenza-associated medical care visits in young adults.
Kabakyenga, Jerome; Barigye, Celestine; Brenner, Jennifer; Maling, Samuel; Buchner, Denise; Nettle-Aquirre, Alberto; Singhal, Nalini; Kyomuhangi, Teddy; Tumusiime, David; Finch, Janet; MacLeod, Stuart
Benefits of mobile phone deployment for children mobile phone use. Impact was assessed by quantitative measures and qualitative evaluation through household surveys, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews. CHWs in targeted sites improved child healthcare through mobile phone use coupled with iCCM. Of acutely ill children, 92.6% were correctly managed. Significant improvements in clinical outcomes compared to those obtained by CHWs with enhanced iCCM training alone were unproven in this limited demonstration. Nonetheless, qualitative evaluation showed gains in treatment planning, supply management, and logistical efficiency. Provider confidence and communications were enhanced as was ease and accuracy of record keeping. Mobile phones appear synergistic with iCCM to bolster basic supportive care for acutely ill children provided by CHWs. The full impact of expanded mobile phone deployment warrants further evaluation prior to scaling up in low-resource settings.
Saraf, Sonali Rajesh; Naphade, Nilesh S; Kalgutkar, Alka D
As in any medical disorder, in non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) also, precise analysis of causes of death is needed to focus research efforts and improve morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to review the clinical presentation, mode of death and the immunophenotype of the autopsy cases of NHL. Autopsy cases wherein NHL was diagnosed, were selected for study. Autopsy cases which were diagnosed as NHL, either antemortem or after autopsy during a 7 years period at a tertiary care referral centre were studied and reviewed. Descriptive statistical analysis used. The autopsy findings seen in eight cases of NHL were reviewed. Except one, all cases were above 40 years age. Infective etiology (62%) followed by cardiorespiratory failure (38%) was the cause of death observed in these patients. In three cases, the antemortem diagnosis of NHL was missed as the patients were being treated for acute febrile illness and were referred late to the Tertiary Care Centre. One of these was a case of extra-nodal primary splenic lymphoma. As NHL present with nonspecific symptoms, these tumours may not be detected in early stages and hence may not be treated appropriately. These patients have weakened immunity and hence are prone to infection and sepsis which can be a major cause of mortality. This autopsy study experience has shown that NHL can masquerade as acute febrile illness which if not detected early and treated adequately can turn fatal.
Thomas, Leela V; Wedel, Kenneth R
Inaccessibility to health care services due to lack of transportation affects the most vulnerable segments of the society. The effect of Medicaid-provided nonemergency medical transportation (NEMT) in Oklahoma on health care visits for the management of chronic illnesses is examined. Analyses of claims data show that African Americans are the highest users of NEMT. Medicaid beneficiaries who use NEMT services are significantly more likely to make the recommended number of annual visits for the management of chronic conditions than those who do not use NEMT. Increased use of NEMT by making the services more accommodating and convenient for beneficiaries is proposed.
Ertmann, Ruth Kirk; Reventlow, Susanne; Söderström, Margareta
for improvements in the medical encounter. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Twenty strategically selected families with a child from a birth cohort in Frederiksborg County, Denmark were interviewed. RESULTS: Parents wanted to consult their GP at the right time, i.e. neither too early nor...... to be acknowledged as competent collaborators. The GP's failure to acknowledge the parents' knowledge of their child's current illness, and the parents' attempt to identify what is wrong with the child and make the child feel better before the encounter may have consequences for the GP's credibility. It is therefore...
Xing, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Hai-Jun; Huang, Chu-Lin; Yang, Quan-Hui; Qu, Shi-Ning; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Hao; Gao, Yong; Xiao, Qing-Ling; Sun, Ke-Lin
Several risk scoures have been used in predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) of patients undergoing general or specific operations such as cardiac surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the use of two AKI risk scores in patients who underwent non-cardiac surgery but required intensive care. The clinical data of patients who had been admitted to ICU during the first 24 hours of ICU stay between September 2009 and August 2010 at the Cancer Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College were retrospectively collected and analyzed. AKI was diagnosed based on the acute kidney injury network (AKIN) criteria. Two AKI risk scores were calculated: Kheterpal and Abelha factors. The incidence of AKI was 10.3%. Patients who developed AKI had a increased ICU mortality of 10.9% vs. 1.0% and an in-hospital mortality of 13.0 vs. 1.5%, compared with those without AKI. There was a significant difference between the classification of Kheterpal's AKI risk scores and the occurrence of AKI (PAbelha's AKI risk scores and the occurrence of AKI (P=0.499). Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.655±0.043 (P=0.001, 95% confidence interval: 0.571-0.739) for Kheterpal's AKI risk score and 0.507±0.044 (P=0.879, 95% confidence interval: 0.422-0.592) for Abelha's AKI risk score. Kheterpal's AKI risk scores are more accurate than Abelha's AKI risk scores in predicting the occurrence of AKI in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery with moderate predictive capability.
During September 7-11, 2000, CDC was notified by the Idaho Department of Health, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, and the GeoSentinel Global Surveillance Network of at least 20 cases of acute febrile illness in three countries; all ill patients had participated in the Eco-Challenge-Sabah 2000 multisport expedition race in Borneo, Malaysia, during August 21-September 3, 2000. Participants included athletes from 29 U.S. states and 26 countries. This report updates the ongoing investigation of this outbreak through December 2, which suggests that Leptospira were the cause of illness and that water from the Segama River was the primary source of infection. Participants in adventure sports and exotic tourism should be aware of potential exposure to unusual and emerging infectious agents.
An, Gary; Hunt, C Anthony; Clermont, Gilles; Neugebauer, Edmund; Vodovotz, Yoram
Translational systems biology approaches can be distinguished from mainstream systems biology in that their goal is to drive novel therapies and streamline clinical trials in critical illness. One systems biology approach, dynamic mathematical modeling (DMM), is increasingly used in dealing with the complexity of the inflammatory response and organ dysfunction. The use of DMM often requires a broadening of research methods and a multidisciplinary team approach that includes bioscientists, mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists. However, the development of these groups must overcome domain-specific barriers to communication and understanding. We present 4 case studies of successful translational, interdisciplinary systems biology efforts, which differ by organizational level from an individual to an entire research community. Case 1 is a single investigator involved in DMM of the acute inflammatory response at Cook County Hospital, in which extensive translational progress was made using agent-based models of inflammation and organ damage. Case 2 is a community-level effort from the University of Witten-Herdecke in Cologne, whose efforts have led to the formation of the Society for Complexity in Acute Illness. Case 3 is an institution-based group, the Biosystems Group at the University of California, San Francisco, whose work has included a focus on a common lexicon for DMM. Case 4 is an institution-based, transdisciplinary research group (the Center for Inflammation and Regenerative Modeling at the University of Pittsburgh), whose modeling work has led to internal education efforts, grant support, and commercialization. A transdisciplinary approach, which involves team interaction in an iterative fashion to address ambiguity and is supported by educational initiatives, is likely to be necessary for DMM in acute illness. Communitywide organizations such as the Society of Complexity in Acute Illness must strive to facilitate the implementation of DMM in
Livia J. De Picker
Full Text Available ObjectiveSchizophrenia poses a tremendous health, social, and economic burden upon patients and society, indicating current treatment options remain inadequate. Recent findings from several lines of evidence have pointed to the importance of immune system involvement in not only premorbid neurodevelopmental but also subsequent symptom generation and aging processes of brain change in schizophrenia. In this meta-review, we use the summarized evidence from recent quantitative systematic reviews (SRs and meta-analyses of several subspecialties to critically evaluate the hypothesis that immune-related processes shape the symptomatic presentation and illness course of schizophrenia, both directly and indirectly through altered neuroplasticity.MethodsWe performed a data search in PubMed for English language SRs and meta-analyses from 2010 to 2017. The methodological quality of the SRs was assessed with the AMSTAR instrument. In addition, we review in this paper 11 original publications on translocator protein (TSPO positron emission tomography (PET imaging in schizophrenia.ResultsWe reviewed 26 SRs and meta-analyses. Evidence from clinical observational studies of inflammatory or immunological markers and randomized controlled drug trials of immunomodulatory compounds as add-on in the treatment of schizophrenia suggests psychotic exacerbations are accompanied by immunological changes different from those seen in non-acute states, and that the symptoms of schizophrenia can be modified by compounds such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and minocycline. Information derived from post-mortem brain tissue analysis and PET neuroimaging studies to evaluate microglial activation have added new perspectives to the available evidence, yet these results are very heterogeneous. Each research domain comes with unique opportunities as well as inherent limitations. A better understanding of the (patho-physiology of microglial cells and their role in
Maicelys Ramírez Zaldívar
Full Text Available Introducción: la anemia es una de las enfermedades más conocidas y evaluadas en la práctica médica diaria. Objetivo: determinar la morbilidad y mortalidad de pacientes graves con anemia. Métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo de 118 pacientes ingresados en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva del Hospital General Universitario "Vladimir Ilich Lenin" de Holguín, desde agosto hasta diciembre de 2010. Las variables discretas fueron comparadas mediante el test de £i al cuadrado y el de Fisher, y las continuas, por medio de las pruebas de T-Student y Mann-Whitney (la hemoglobina media, para á=0,05. Resultados: la anemia afectó 79,6 % de los integrantes de la serie y aumentó evolutivamente, con el consecuente empeoramiento de estos, de los cuales fallecieron 34,0 %, quienes tenían mayor edad (p=0,0004, necesitaron más transfusiones sanguíneas (p=0,005 y presentaron el trastorno de la hemoglobina más tardíamente (5,1 días. De los pacientes con anemia grave (hemoglobina:0,05. Conclusiones: la anemia en los pacientes graves se relacionó con una mayor mortalidad, estadía, necesidad de transfusiones de glóbulos rojos y causas médicas (neurológicas, en tanto, la edad avanzada y la gravedad de la anemia de aparición tardía se asociaron fundamentalmente a la mortalidad.Introduction: anemia is one of the well-known and evaluated diseases in the daily medical practice. Objective: to determine the morbidity and mortality of acutely ill patients with anemia. Methods: a prospective study of 118 patients admitted in the Intensive Therapy Unit of "Vladimir Ilich Lenin" General University Hospital in Holguín was carried out from August to December, 2010. Discrete variables were compared by means of the X² and Fisher tests, and the continuous variables, by means of the T-Student and Mann-Whitney tests (the mean hemoglobin, for á =0.05. Results: anemia affected 79.6% of the members of the series and it increased progressively, with the
Hellferscee, Orienka; Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Wolter, Nicole; Madhi, Shabir A.; du Plessis, Mignon; Cohen, Cheryl; Treurnicht, Florette K.
Enteroviruses can cause outbreaks of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and EV-A, -B, -C, and -D species have different pathogenic profiles and circulation patterns. We aimed to characterize and determine the prevalence of enterovirus genotypes among South African patients with respiratory illness and controls during June 2012 to July 2014. Syndromic SARI and influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance was performed at two sentinel sites. At each site nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimens were collected from SARI and ILI patients as well as controls. Specimens were tested for enterovirus by real-time PCR. Positive specimenswere further genotyped by sequencing a region of theVP1 gene. The prevalence of enterovirus was 5.8% (87/1494), 3.4% (103/3079), and 3.4% (46/1367) among SARI, ILI, and controls, respectively (SARI/controls, P=0.002 and ILI/control, P = 0.973). Among the 101/236 (42.8%) enterovirus-positive specimens that could be genotyped, we observed a high diversity of circulating enterovirus genotypes (a total of 33 genotypes) from all four human enterovirus species with high prevalence of Enterovirus-B (60.4%; 61/101) and Enterovirus-A (21.8%; 22/101) compared to Enterovirus-C (10.9%; 11/101) and Enterovirus-D (6.9%; 7/101) (P = 0.477). Of the enterovirus genotypes identified, Echovirus 30 (9.9%, 10/101), Coxsackie virus B5 (7.9%, 8/101) and Enterovirus-D68 (6.9%, 7/101) were most prevalent. There was no difference in disease severity (SARI or ILI compared to controls) between the different enterovirus species (P = 0.167).We observed a high number of enterovirus genotypes in patients with respiratory illness and in controls from South Africa with no disease association of EV species with disease severity. PMID:28574589
Wang, Chi-Jane; Fetzer, Susan J; Yang, Yi-Ching; Wang, Jing-Jy
It is a challenge for rural health professionals to promote medication safety among older adults taking multiple medications. A volunteer coaching program to promote medication safety among rural elders with chronic illnesses was designed and evaluated. A community-based interventional study randomly assigned 62 rural elders with at least two chronic illnesses to routine care plus volunteer coaching or routine care alone. The volunteer coaching group received a medication safety program, including a coach and reminders by well-trained volunteers, as well as three home visits and five telephone calls over a two-month period. All the subjects received routine medication safety instructions for their chronic illnesses. The program was evaluated using pre- and post-tests of knowledge, attitude and behaviors with regard to medication safety. Results show the volunteer coaching group improved their knowledge of medication safety, but there was no change in attitude after the two-month study period. Moreover, the group demonstrated three improved medication safety behaviors compared to the routine care group. The volunteer coaching program and instructions with pictorial aids can provide a reference for community health professionals who wish to improve the medication safety of chronically ill elders. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Zamora Elson, M; Serón Arbeloa, C; Labarta Monzón, L; Garrido Ramírez de Arellano, I; Lander Azcona, A; Marquina Lacueva, M I; López Claver, J C; Escós Orta, J
To assess the nutritional response of a group of critically ill patients, as well as the differences in the response to nutritional support between medical and surgical patients. One-year long retrospective study including critically ill patients on artificial nutrition for 7 days. Throughout the first week, three nutritional biochemical controls were done that included albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, cholesterol, and electrolytes. Other data gathered were: nutritional risk index, age, gender, weight, height, APACHE, delay of onset of nutritional support, access route, predicted and real caloric intake, medical or surgical patient, hospital stay, duration of the central venous catheter, urinary tube, and/or mechanical ventilation, incidence and density of incidence of nosocomial infections. Sixty-three patients were studied, 30 (47%) medical and 33 (53%) surgical/trauma patients, with a usage of EN higher among medical patients (16/30, 53% vs. 5/33, 15%), PN higher among surgical patients (25/33, 76%), and mixed nutrition similar in both groups (5 medical and 3 surgical patients) (p = 0.001). There were no differences between medical and surgical patients regarding: both predicted and real caloric and nitrogenous intake, APACHE, delay of onset of nutrition, phosphorus, magnesium or glucose levels, mortality and incidence of nosocomial infections. There were no differences either in hospital stay or use of mechanical ventilation, although these tended to be lower in surgical patients. The baseline biochemical parameters did not show differences between both groups, although they were worse among surgical patients. These patients presented during the study period steady albumin levels with improvement in the remaining parameters, whereas medical patients showed a decrease in albumin and transferrin levels, steady prealbumin levels, and slightly improvement in cholesterol levels. We have observed higher usage of PN among surgical patients, which showed worse
Seng, Elizabeth K; Robbins, Matthew S; Nicholson, Robert A
Objective To examine the influence of acute migraine medication adherence on migraine disability and acute medication satisfaction. Methods Adults with migraine completed three months of daily electronic diaries assessing headache symptoms, acute medication taken, acute medication satisfaction, and daily migraine disability. Repeated measures mixed-effects models examined the effect of initial medication type [migraine-specific medication (MSM) vs. over-the-counter analgesic (OTC) vs. an opiate/barbiturate], the severity of pain at dosing, and their interaction with daily migraine disability and satisfaction with acute medication. Results Participants (N = 337; 92.5% female; 91.1% Caucasian, non-Hispanic; 84.0% with episodic migraine) recorded 29,722 diary days. Participants took acute medication on 96.5% of 8090 migraine days. MSM was most frequently taken first (58%), followed by OTC (29.9%) and an opiate/barbiturate (12.1%). Acute medication was most frequently taken when pain was mild (41.2%), followed by moderate (37.7%) and severe pain (11.4%). Initially dosing with MSM while pain was mild was associated with the lowest daily disability [medication × pain at dosing F (4, 6336.12) = 58.73, p migraine disability and highest acute medication satisfaction.
Voaklander, D C; Rowe, B H; Dryden, D M; Pahal, J; Saar, P; Kelly, K D
Suicide among seniors is a significant health problem in north America, particularly for men in whom the rates rise steadily after 50 years of age. The goal of this study was to examine elder suicides identified from a large population-based database using case-control methods to determine disease and medication factors related to suicide. A population-based 1 : 5 case-control study was conducted comparing seniors aged 66 years and older who had died by suicide with age and sex-matched controls. Case data were obtained through British Columbia (BC) Vital Statistics, whereas controls were randomly selected from the BC Health Insurance Registry. Cases and controls were linked to the provincial PharmaCare database to determine medication use and the provincial Physician Claims and Inpatient Hospitalization databases to determine co-morbidity. Between 1993 and 2002 a total of 602 seniors died by suicide in BC giving an annual rate of 13.2 per 100,000. Firearms were the most common mechanism (28%), followed by hanging/suffocation (25%), self-poisoning (21%), and jumping from height (7%). In the adjusted logistic model, variables related to suicide included: lower socioeconomic status, depression/psychosis, neurosis, stroke, cancer, liver disease, parasuicide, benzodiazepine use, narcotic pain killer use and diuretic use. There was an elevated risk for those prescribed inappropriate benzodiazepines and for those using strong narcotic pain killers. This study is consistent with previous studies that have identified a relationship between medical or psychiatric co-morbidity and suicide in seniors. In addition, new and potentially useful information confirms that certain types and dosages of benzodiazepines are harmful to seniors and their use should be avoided.
Mueller, Tara C.; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J.; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier
In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects. PMID:24755844
Lata Baswanna Galate
Full Text Available Background: Chikungunya fever (CHIK is an arboviral disease. Dengue fever (DENG and CHIK are indistinguishable clinically and need to be differentiated by laboratory investigations. Purpose: This study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of CHIK mono-infection and CHIK and DENG dual infection in suspected patients. We also analyzed the age, sex distribution, joint involvement, and relation of joint movement restriction with visual analog scale (VAS. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients clinically suspected with DENG and CHIK were enrolled from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai from April 2012 to October 2013. The detailed history and examination findings were recorded. Serum samples were subjected to DENG and CHIK immunoglobulin G (IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The seroprevalence of CHIK was 12.5%. Mono-infection of CHIK was 3%, and CHIK and DENG dual infection was 9.5%. Most affected age group in CHIK cases was 46-60 years wherein female preponderance was seen. All 6 patients with CHIK mono-infection had fever and joint involvement; knee and elbow were the most commonly affected joints. All CHIK patients had VAS score of 6-10 with restricted joint movement. Of the patients with dual infection, the majorities were from 31 to 45 years with male preponderance; all had fever and joint pain mainly affecting knee and elbow. Of patients who had VAS score 6-10 in patients with dual infection, only 5.26% had restricted joint movement. Conclusion: IgM ELISA for Chikungunya infection should be included in the routine laboratory tests for acute febrile illness.
Edward B Breitschwerdt
Full Text Available Case series summary At different time points spanning 6 months, three adopted feral flea-infested cats, residing in the household of a veterinary technician, became acutely anorexic, lethargic and febrile. Enrichment blood culture/PCR using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM confirmed initial infection with the same Bartonella henselae genotype in all three cases. With the exception of anemia and neutropenia, complete blood counts, serum biochemical profiles and urinalysis results were within reference intervals. Also, tests for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Toxoplasma gondii and feline coronavirus antibodies were negative. Serial daily temperature monitoring in one case confirmed a cyclic, relapsing febrile temperature pattern during 1 month, with resolution during and after treatment with azithromycin. Bartonella henselae Western immunoblot (WB results did not consistently correlate with BAPGM enrichment blood culture/PCR results or B henselae indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA titers, and WB titration results were not informative for establishing antibiotic treatment failure. During the respective follow-up periods, no illnesses or additional febrile episodes were reported, despite repeat documentation of B henselae bacteremia in two cats available for follow-up (one with the same genotype and the other with a different B henselae genotype; one cat was, unfortunately, killed by dogs before follow-up testing. Relevance and novel information We conclude that microbiological diagnosis and treatment of B henselae infection in cats can be challenging, that antibody titration results and resolution of clinical abnormalities may not correlate with a therapeutic cure, and that fever and potentially neutropenia should be differential diagnostic considerations for young cats with suspected bartonellosis.
Praptiningsih, Catharina Y; Lafond, Kathryn E; Wahyuningrum, Yunita; Storms, Aaron D; Mangiri, Amalya; Iuliano, Angela D; Samaan, Gina; Titaley, Christiana R; Yelda, Fitra; Kreslake, Jennifer; Storey, Douglas; Uyeki, Timothy M
Understanding healthcare-seeking patterns for respiratory illness can help improve estimations of disease burden and inform public health interventions to control acute respiratory disease in Indonesia. The objectives of this study were to describe healthcare-seeking behaviors for respiratory illnesses in one rural and one urban community in Western Java, and to explore the factors that affect care seeking. From February 8, 2012 to March 1, 2012, a survey was conducted in 2520 households in the East Jakarta and Bogor districts to identify reported recent respiratory illnesses, as well as all hospitalizations from the previous 12-month period. We found that 4% (10% of those less than 5years) of people had respiratory disease resulting in a visit to a healthcare provider in the past 2weeks; these episodes were most commonly treated at government (33%) or private (44%) clinics. Forty-five people (0.4% of those surveyed) had respiratory hospitalizations in the past year, and just over half of these (24/45, 53%) occurred at a public hospital. Public health programs targeting respiratory disease in this region should account for care at private hospitals and clinics, as well as illnesses that are treated at home, in order to capture the true burden of illness in these communities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Barwise, Amelia; Garcia-Arguello, Lisbeth; Dong, Yue; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Vukoja, Marija; Schultz, Marcus J.; Adhikari, Neill K. J.; Bonneton, Benjamin; Kilickaya, Oguz; Kashyap, Rahul; Gajic, Ognjen; Schmickl, Christopher N.
The Checklist for Early Recognition and Treatment of Acute Illness (CERTAIN) is an international collaborative project with the overall objective of standardizing the approach to the evaluation and treatment of critically ill patients world-wide, in accordance with best-practice principles. One of
García, Andrés; Romero, César; Arroyave, Cristhian; Giraldo, Fabián; Sánchez, Leidy; Sánchez, Julio
To determine the acute effects of a variety of recognized energy drinks on medical students, based on the hypothesis that these beverages may affect negatively cardiovascular parameters, stress levels and working memory. Eighty young healthy medical students were included in the study. 62.5 % of the participants were male, and the age mean was 21.45 years. Each person was evaluated via measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, oxygen saturation, breath rate, temperature, STAI score (to assess anxiety state), salivary cortisol and N-back task score (to determine cognitive enhancement). These evaluations were performed before and following the intake of either carbonated water or one of three energy drinks containing caffeine in similar concentrations and an undetermined energy blend; A contained less sugar and no taurine. Thirty-minute SBP increased significantly in the A and C groups. The B group exhibited a diminution of the percentage of the 1-h SBP increase, an increase of 1-h DBP and QTc shortening. HR showed an increase in the percent change in the A and C groups. Cortisol salivary levels increased in the B group. The STAI test score decreased in the C group. The percent change in N-back scores increased in the A group. The data reinforce the need for further research on the acute and chronic effects of energy drinks to determine the actual risks and benefits. Consumers need to be more informed about the safety of these energy drinks, especially the young student population.
Noiesen, Eline; Trosborg, Ingelise; Bager, Louise; Herning, Margrethe; Lyngby, Christel; Konradsen, Hanne
To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients. Constipation is a common medical problem with severe consequences, and most people suffer from constipation at some point in their lives. In the general population, constipation is one of the most common complaints and is a significant personal and public health burden. Alteration in patients' patterns of elimination while in hospital has long been identified as either a potential or an actual problem that requires attention. Knowledge of the prevalence and incidence of constipation during hospitalisation is only sporadic. The study was descriptive and a prospective cohort design was chosen. The Constipation Assessment Scale was translated into Danish and was used for the assessment of patient-reported bowel function. Five nurses made the assessments at admission to the acute medical ward and three days after admission. Three hundred and seventy-three patients participated in this study. Thirty-nine percent of the patients showed symptoms of constipation at admission. Of the patients who did not have the symptoms at admission, 43% developed the symptoms during the first three days of their stay in hospital. Significantly more of the older patients developed symptoms of moderate constipation. The incidence rate was 143 new cases per 1000 patient days. In this study, symptoms of constipation were common among patients acutely admitted to hospital due to different medical conditions. Symptoms of constipation were also developed during the first three days of the stay in hospital. The study highlights the need to develop both clinical guidelines towards treating constipation, and preventive measures to ensure that patients do not become constipated while staying in hospital. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Muralidharan, Anjana; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Prior, Steven J; Molinari, Victor; Goldberg, Richard W
Older adults with serious mental illness (SMI) are an understudied population with complex care needs and high rates of obesity/overweight. Little is known about the experiences of older adults with SMI with weight management. The present study is an observational study of veterans ages 55 and over with a body mass index in the overweight or obese range, comparing Veterans with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (n = 9044) to their same-age peers with no mental health disorders (n = 71156), on their responses to a questionnaire assessment of medical and psychosocial factors related to weight management. Responses to the questionnaire between August, 2005 and May, 2013 were used to examine the following: demographics, clinical characteristics, medical barriers to weight management, current weight loss plan, reliability of social support, reasons for being overweight, and weight loss barriers. Physical health concerns were highly prevalent in both groups. Veterans in the SMI group endorsed more medical issues and were significantly more likely to endorse experiences that indicated that their medical conditions were poorly controlled (e.g., shortness of breath). Veterans in the SMI group were more likely to endorse many barriers to healthy eating and physical activity, across medical, psychological, social, and environmental domains. Even within a sample at medically high-risk for complications related to obesity and metabolic syndrome, older veterans with SMI and overweight/obesity experience more challenges with weight management than their same-age peers with overweight/obesity and no mental health disorders. Weight management interventions for this population should take a multifaceted approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Noordraven, Ernst L; Wierdsma, André I; Blanken, Peter; Bloemendaal, Anthony Ft; Mulder, Cornelis L
Noncompliance is a major problem for patients with a psychotic disorder. Two important risk factors for noncompliance that have a severe negative impact on treatment outcomes are impaired illness insight and lack of motivation. Our cross-sectional study explored how they are related to each other and their compliance with depot medication. Interviews were conducted in 169 outpatients with a psychotic disorder taking depot medication. Four patient groups were defined based on low or high illness insight and on low or high motivation. The associations between depot-medication compliance, motivation, and insight were illustrated using generalized linear models. Generalized linear model showed a significant interaction effect between motivation and insight. Patients with poor insight and high motivation for treatment were more compliant (94%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.821, 3.489) with their depot medication than patients with poor insight and low motivation (61%) (95% CI: 0.288, 0.615). Patients with both insight and high motivation for treatment were less compliant (73%) (95% CI: 0.719, 1.315) than those with poor insight and high motivation. Motivation for treatment was more strongly associated with depot-medication compliance than with illness insight. Being motivated to take medication, whether to get better or for other reasons, may be a more important factor than having illness insight in terms of improving depot-medication compliance. Possible implications for clinical practice are discussed.
In critically ill children, a negative protein balance is associated with an increased incidence of infections, fewer ventilator-free days, and increased length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit. Additionally, a malnourished state due to chronic illness increases the risk of respiratory
Full Text Available Francesca Assogna,1 Sabrina Fagioli,1 Luca Cravello,1 Giuseppe Meco,2 Mariangela Pierantozzi,3 Alessandro Stefani,3 Francesca Imperiale,2 Carlo Caltagirone,1,3 Francesco E Pontieri,4 Gianfranco Spalletta11I.R.C.C.S. Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry (Parkinson’s Centre and Research Centre of Social Diseases (CIMS, University “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Neuroscience, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Neuroscience, Mental Health and Sensory Systems, University “Sapienza”, Movement Disorder Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, ItalyBackground: Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients with that of control subjects (CS suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses.Methods: One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD and minor depressive disorder (MIND, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR, criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were also administered to measure depression severity.Results: When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP, comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of
Pattyn, E; Verhaeghe, M; Sercu, C; Bracke, P
This study contrasts the medicalized conceptualization of mental illness with psychologizing mental illness and examines what the consequences are of adhering to one model versus the other for help seeking and stigma. The survey "Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study" (2009) conducted face-to-face interviews among a representative sample of the general Belgian population using the vignette technique to depict schizophrenia (N = 381). Causal attributions, labeling processes, and the disease view are addressed. Help seeking refers to open-ended help-seeking suggestions (general practitioner, psychiatrist, psychologist, family, friends, and self-care options). Stigma refers to social exclusion after treatment. The data are analyzed by means of logistic and linear regression models in SPSS Statistics 19. People who adhere to the biopsychosocial (versus psychosocial) model are more likely to recommend general medical care and people who apply the disease view are more likely to recommend specialized medical care. Regarding informal help, those who prefer the biopsychosocial model are less likely to recommend consulting friends than those who adhere to the psychosocial model. Respondents who apply a medical compared to a non-medical label are less inclined to recommend self-care. As concerns treatment stigma, respondents who apply a medical instead of a non-medical label are more likely to socially exclude someone who has been in psychiatric treatment. Medicalizing mental illness involves a package deal: biopsychosocial causal attributions and applying the disease view facilitate medical treatment recommendations, while labeling seems to trigger stigmatizing attitudes.
Niang, Makhtar; Thiam, Laty Gaye; Sow, Abdourahmane; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Bob, Ndeye Sakha; Diop, Fode; Diouf, Babacar; Niass, Oumy; Mansourou, Annick; Varela, Marie Louise; Perraut, Ronald; Sall, Amadou A; Toure-Balde, Aissatou
Control efforts towards malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum significantly decreased the incidence of the disease in many endemic countries including Senegal. Surprisingly, in Kedougou (southeastern Senegal) P. falciparum malaria remains highly prevalent and the relative contribution of other Plasmodium species to the global malaria burden is very poorly documented, partly due to the low sensitivity of routine diagnostic tools. Molecular methods offer better estimate of circulating Plasmodium species in a given area. A molecular survey was carried out to document circulating malaria parasites in Kedougou region. A total of 263 long-term stored sera obtained from patients presenting with acute febrile illness in Kedougou between July 2009 and July 2013 were used for malaria parasite determination. Sera were withdrawn from a collection established as part of a surveillance programme of arboviruses infections in the region. Plasmodium species were characterized by a nested PCR-based approach targeting the 18S small sub-unit ribosomal RNA genes of Plasmodium spp. Of the 263 sera screened in this study, Plasmodium genomic DNA was amplifiable by nested PCR from 62.35% (164/263) of samples. P. falciparum accounted for the majority of infections either as single in 85.97% (141/164) of Plasmodium-positive samples or mixed with Plasmodium ovale (11.58%, 19/164) or Plasmodium vivax (1.21%, 2/164). All 19 (11.58%) P. ovale-infected patients were mixed with P. falciparum, while no Plasmodium malariae was detected in this survey. Four patients (2.43%) were found to be infected by P. vivax, two of whom were mixed with P. falciparum. P. vivax infections originated from Bandafassi and Ninefesha villages and concerned patients aged 4, 9, 10, and 15 years old, respectively. DNA sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that sequences from Kedougou corresponded to P. vivax, therefore confirming the presence of P. vivax infections in Senegal. The results confirm the
Soares, Douglas de Sousa; Reis, André da Fonte; Silva Junior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Leite, Tacyano Tavares; Parente Filho, Sérgio Luiz Arruda; Rocha, Carina Vieira de Oliveira; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco
This study aims to investigate renal toxicities of Polymyxin B and Vancomycin among critically ill patients and risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital in Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: those who used association of Polymyxin B + Vancomycin (Group I) and those who used only Polymyxin B (Group II). Risk factors for AKI were also analyzed. A total of 115 patients were included. Mean age was 59.2 ± 16.1 years, and 52.2% were males. Group I presented higher GFR (117.1 ± 70.5 vs. 91.5 ± 50 ml/min/1.73 m², p = 0.02) as well as lower creatinine (0.9 ± 0.82 vs. 1.0 ± 0.59 mg/dL, p = 0.014) and urea (51.8 ± 23.7 vs. 94.5 ± 4.9 mg/dL, p = 0.006) than group II on admission. Group I also manifested significantly higher incidence of AKI than group II (62.7% vs. 28.5%, p = 0.005), even when stratified according to RIFLE criteria ('Risk' 33.9% vs. 10.7%; 'Injury' 10.2% vs. 8.9%; 'Failure' 18.6% vs. 8.9%; p = 0.03). Accumulated Polymyxin B dose > 10 million IU was an independent predictor for AKI (OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.13-6.51, p = 0.024). Although patients who received Polymyxin B plus vancomycin had more favorable clinical profile and higher previous GFR, they presented a higher AKI incidence than those patients who received Polymyxin B alone. Cumulative Polymyxin B dose > 10 million IU was independently associated to AKI.
Manderson, Lenore; Smith-Morris, Carolyn
.... Breaking new ground in medical anthropology by challenging the chronic/acute divide in illness and disease, the editors, along with a group of rising scholars and some of the most influential minds...
Kasper, Matthew R; Wierzba, Thomas F; Sovann, Ly; Blair, Patrick J; Putnam, Shannon D
Influenza-like illness (ILI) is often defined as fever (>38.0°C) with cough or sore throat. In this study, we tested the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of this case definition in a Cambodia patient population. Passive clinic-based surveillance was established at nine healthcare centers to identify the causes of acute undifferentiated fever in patients aged two years and older seeking treatment. Fever was defined as tympanic membrane temperature >38°C lasting more than 24 hours and less than 10 days. Influenza virus infections were identified by polymerase chain reaction. From July 2008 to December 2008, 2,639 patients were enrolled. From 884 (33%) patients positive for influenza, 652 presented with ILI and 232 acute fever patients presented without ILI. Analysis by age group identified no significant differences between influenza positive patients from the two groups. Positive predictive values (PPVs) varied during the course of the influenza season and among age groups. The ILI case definition can be used to identify a significant percentage of patients with influenza infection during the influenza season in Cambodia, assisting healthcare providers in its diagnosis and treatment. However, testing samples based on the criteria of fever alone increased our case detection by 34%.
Bülow, Cille; Faerch, Kirstine Ullitz; Armandi, Helle
In some hospitals, clinical pharmacists review the medication to find drug-related problems (DRPs) in acutely admitted patients. We aimed to identify the nature of identified DRPs and investigate factors of potential importance for the clinical implementation of pharmacist suggestions. In 100.......05). The most frequently implemented suggestions were based on DRPs concerning 'indication for drug treatment not noticed', 'inappropriate drug form' and 'drug dose too low', with implementation rates of 83%, 67% and 63%, respectively. In our sample, the pharmacist's MR suggestions were only implemented...
Lautrette, Alexandre; Phan, Thuy-Nga; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Aithssain, Ali; Tixier, Vincent; Heng, Anne-Elisabeth; Souweine, Bertrand
A high dose of anti-infective agents is recommended when treating infectious meningitis. High creatinine clearance (CrCl) may affect the pharmacokinetic / pharmacodynamic relationships of anti-infective drugs eliminated by the kidneys. We recorded the incidence of high CrCl in intensive care unit (ICU) patients admitted with meningitis and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of two common methods used to identify high CrCl. Observational study performed in consecutive patients admitted with community-acquired acute infectious meningitis (defined by >7 white blood cells/mm3 in cerebral spinal fluid) between January 2006 and December 2009 to one medical ICU. During the first 7 days following ICU admission, CrCl was measured from 24-hr urine samples (24-hr-UV/P creatinine) and estimated according to Cockcroft-Gault formula and the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. High CrCl was defined as CrCl >140 ml/min/1.73 m2 by 24-hr-UV/P creatinine. Diagnostic accuracy was performed with ROC curves analysis. Thirty two patients were included. High CrCl was present in 8 patients (25%) on ICU admission and in 15 patients (47%) during the first 7 ICU days for a median duration of 3 (1-4) days. For the Cockcroft-Gault formula, the best threshold to predict high CrCl was 101 ml/min/1.73 m2 (sensitivity: 0.96, specificity: 0.75, AUC = 0.90 ± 0.03) with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.06. For the simplified MDRD equation, the best threshold to predict high CrCl was 108 ml/min/1.73 m2 (sensitivity: 0.91, specificity: 0.80, AUC = 0.88 ± 0.03) with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.11. There was no difference between the estimated methods in the diagnostic accuracy of identifying high CrCl (p = 0.30). High CrCl is frequently observed in ICU patients admitted with community-acquired acute infectious meningitis. The estimated methods of CrCl could be used as a screening tool to identify high CrCl.
Hellferscee, Orienka; Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Wolter, Nicole; Madhi, Shabir A; du Plessis, Mignon; Cohen, Cheryl; Treurnicht, Florette K
Enteroviruses can cause outbreaks of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and EV-A, -B, -C, and -D species have different pathogenic profiles and circulation patterns. We aimed to characterize and determine the prevalence of enterovirus genotypes among South African patients with respiratory illness and controls during June 2012 to July 2014. Syndromic SARI and influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance was performed at two sentinel sites. At each site nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimens were collected from SARI and ILI patients as well as controls. Specimens were tested for enterovirus by real-time PCR. Positive specimens were further genotyped by sequencing a region of the VP1 gene. The prevalence of enterovirus was 5.8% (87/1494), 3.4% (103/3079), and 3.4% (46/1367) among SARI, ILI, and controls, respectively (SARI/controls, P = 0.002 and ILI/control, P = 0.973). Among the 101/236 (42.8%) enterovirus-positive specimens that could be genotyped, we observed a high diversity of circulating enterovirus genotypes (a total of 33 genotypes) from all four human enterovirus species with high prevalence of Enterovirus-B (60.4%; 61/101) and Enterovirus-A (21.8%; 22/101) compared to Enterovirus-C (10.9%; 11/101) and Enterovirus-D (6.9%; 7/101) (P = 0.477). Of the enterovirus genotypes identified, Echovirus 30 (9.9%, 10/101), Coxsackie virus B5 (7.9%, 8/101) and Enterovirus-D68 (6.9%, 7/101) were most prevalent. There was no difference in disease severity (SARI or ILI compared to controls) between the different enterovirus species (P = 0.167). We observed a high number of enterovirus genotypes in patients with respiratory illness and in controls from South Africa with no disease association of EV species with disease severity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gevers, Josette; van Erven, Pierre; de Jonge, Jan; Maas, Maaike; de Jong, Jos
This paper is a report of a study conducted to determine the combined effect of acute and chronic job demands on acute job strains experienced during medical emergencies, and its consequences for individual teamwork behaviour. Medical emergency personnel have to cope with high job demands, which may cause considerable work stress (i.e. job strains), particularly when both acute and chronic job demands are experienced to be high. This may interfere with effective individual teamwork behaviour. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in 2008, involving 48 members (doctors and nurses) of medical emergency teams working in the emergency department of a Dutch general hospital. Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical regression analyses. High acute job demands impeded effective teamwork behaviour, but only when they resulted in acute job strain. Acute emotional demands were more likely to result in acute job strain when chronic emotional job demands were also experienced as high. Although acute cognitive and physical strains were also detrimental, effective teamwork behaviour was particularly impeded by acute emotional strain. Acute job strains impair effective individual teamwork behaviour during medical emergencies, and there is urgent need to prevent or reduce a build-up of job strain from high acute and chronic demands, particularly of the emotional kind.
Bajor, Laura A; Gunzler, Douglas; Einstadter, Douglas; Thomas, Charles; McCormick, Richard; Perzynski, Adam T; Kanuch, Stephanie W; Cassidy, Kristin A; Dawson, Neal V; Sajatovic, Martha
While previous work has demonstrated elevation of both comorbid anxiety disorders and diabetes mellitus type II in individuals with serious mental illness, little is known regarding the impact of comorbid anxiety on diabetes mellitus type II outcomes in serious mental illness populations. We analyzed baseline data from patients with serious mental illness and diabetes mellitus type II to examine relationships between comorbid anxiety, glucose control as measured by hemoglobin A1c score, and overall illness burden. Using baseline data from an ongoing prospective treatment study involving 157 individuals with serious mental illness and diabetes mellitus type II, we compared individuals with and without a comorbid anxiety disorder and compared hemoglobin A1c levels between these groups to assess the relationship between anxiety and management of diabetes mellitus type II. We conducted a similar analysis using cumulative number of anxiety diagnoses as a proxy for anxiety load. Finally, we searched for associations between anxiety and overall medical illness burden as measured by Charlson score. Anxiety disorders were seen in 33.1% (N=52) of individuals with serious mental illness and diabetes mellitus type II and were associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms and decreased function. Hemoglobin A1c levels were not significantly different in those with or without anxiety, and having multiple anxiety disorders was not associated with differences in diabetes mellitus type II control. However, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher hemoglobin A1c levels. Neither comorbid anxiety nor anxiety load was significantly associated with overall medical burden. One in three people with serious mental illness and diabetes mellitus type II had anxiety. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with Hb1Ac levels while anxiety symptoms had no relation to hemoglobin A1c; this is consistent with previously published work. More studies are
Su, Szu-Huei; Wu, Li-Min
The severity of diseases and high mortality rates that typify the intensive care unit often make it difficult for surrogate decision makers to make decisions for critically ill patients regarding whether to continue medical treatments or to accept palliative care. To explore the behavioral intentions that underlie the medical decisions of surrogate decision makers of critically ill patients and the related factors. A cross-sectional, correlation study design was used. A total of 193 surrogate decision makers from six ICUs in a medical center in southern Taiwan were enrolled as participants. Three structured questionnaires were used, including a demographic datasheet, the Family Relationship Scale, and the Behavioral Intention of Medical Decisions Scale. Significantly positive correlations were found between the behavioral intentions underlying medical decisions and the following variables: the relationship of the participant to the patient (Eta = .343, p = .020), the age of the patient (r = .295, p medical decisions of the surrogate decision makers, explaining 13.9% of the total variance. In assessing the behavioral intentions underlying the medical decisions of surrogate decision makers, health providers should consider the relationship between critical patients and their surrogate decision makers, patient age, the length of ICU stay, and whether the patient has a pre-signed advance healthcare directive in order to maximize the effectiveness of medical care provided to critically ill patients.
Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Jones, Jeffrey; Casey, Rachael; Kedar, Prasad
Introduction: Traditionally, the treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) includes supportive therapy, cytokine therapy, blood component transfusions and even stem cell transplantation. Recommendations for ARS treatment are based on clinical symptoms, laboratory results, radiation exposure doses and information received from medical examinations. However, the current medical management of ARS does not include immune prophylaxis based on antiradiation vaccines or immune therapy with hyperimmune antiradiation serum. Immuneprophylaxis of ARS could result from stimulating the immune system via immunization with small doses of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants-SRD) that possess significant immuno-stimulatory properties. Methods: Principles of immuno-toxicology were used to derive this method of immune prophylaxis. An antiradiation vaccine containing a mixture of Hematotoxic, Neurotoxic and Non-bacterial (GI) radiation toxins, underwent modification into a toxoid forms of the original SRD radiation toxins. The vaccine was administered to animals at different times prior to irradiation. The animals were subjected to lethal doses of radiation that induced different forms of ARS at LD 100/30. Survival rates and clinical symptoms were observed in both control and vaccine-treated animals. Results: Vaccination with non-toxic doses of Radiation toxoids induced immunity from the elaborated Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD) toxins. Neutralization of radiation toxins by specific antiradiation antibodies resulted in significantly improved clinical symptoms in the severe forms of ARS and observed survival rates of 60-80% in animals subjected to lethal doses of radiation expected to induce different forms of ARS at LD 100/30. The most effective vaccination schedule for the antiradiation vaccine consisted of repeated injections 24 and 34 days before irradiation. The vaccine remained effective for the next two years, although the specific immune memory probably
Ambe, Peter C; Kaptanis, Sarantos; Papadakis, Marios; Weber, Sebastian A; Zirngibl, Hubert
Acute cholecystitis is a common diagnosis. However, the heterogeneity of presentation makes it difficult to standardize management. Although surgery is the mainstay of treatment, critically ill patients have been managed via percutaneous cholecystostomy. However, the role of percutaneous cholecystostomy in the management of such patients has not been clearly established. This systematic review will compare the outcomes of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis managed with percutaneous cholecystostomy to those of similar patients managed with cholecystectomy. Systematic searches will be conducted across relevant health databases including the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus using the following keywords: (acute cholecystitis OR severe cholecystitis OR cholecystitis) AND (cholecystectomy OR laparoscopic cholecystectomy OR open cholecystectomy) AND (Cholecystostomy OR percutaneous cholecystectomy OR gallbladder drain OR gallbladder tube OR transhepatic gallbladder drain OR transhepatic gallbladder tube OR cholecystostomy tube). The reference lists of eligible articles will be hand searched. Articles from 2000-2014 will be identified using the key terms "acute cholecystitis, cholecystectomy, and percutaneous cholecystostomy". Studies including both interventions will be included. Relevant data will be extracted from eligible studies using a specially designed data extraction sheet. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale will be used to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Central tendencies will be reported in terms of means and standard deviations where necessary, and risk ratios will be calculated where possible. All calculations will be performed with a 95 % confidence interval. Furthermore, the Fisher's exact test will be used for the calculation of significance, which will be set at p < 0.05. Pooled estimates will be presented after consideration of both clinical and
Lucca, J M; Ramesh, M; Parthasarathi, G; Ram, D
In spite of the progress made in the treatment of psychiatric disorders during the last few decades, nonadherence continues to be a frequent phenomenon, often associated with potentially severe clinical consequences and increased health-care costs. There are numerous factors associated with medication nonadherence in patients with mental illness. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and factors associated with medication nonadherence among psychiatric outpatients. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the outpatient psychiatric department of an Indian tertiary care private hospital over a period of 1 year. Patients aged 18 years and above who presented with mental illness as diagnosed by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 and who were receiving at least one psychotropic medication for at least 1 month were included in the study. Medication adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS). Of the 400 patients, 172 (43%) were nonadherent to their prescribed medications. There is a statistically significant association between the education (P = 0.001), number of drugs (P = 0.002), family income (P = 0.013), and nonadherence. Among the 172 patients, 33.5 % were nonadherent to their therapy due to patient-related factors followed by drug-related factors (32%) and disease-related factors (31%). The overall incidence of medication nonadherence in patients with mental illness was 43%. Numerous factors contributed to medication nonadherence. Strategies need to be developed and implemented to enhance medication adherence, and thereby achieve a better therapeutic outcome in patients with mental illness.
J M Lucca
Full Text Available Background: In spite of the progress made in the treatment of psychiatric disorders during the last few decades, nonadherence continues to be a frequent phenomenon, often associated with potentially severe clinical consequences and increased health-care costs. There are numerous factors associated with medication nonadherence in patients with mental illness. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and factors associated with medication nonadherence among psychiatric outpatients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the outpatient psychiatric department of an Indian tertiary care private hospital over a period of 1 year. Patients aged 18 years and above who presented with mental illness as diagnosed by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10 and who were receiving at least one psychotropic medication for at least 1 month were included in the study. Medication adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS. Results: Of the 400 patients, 172 (43% were nonadherent to their prescribed medications. There is a statistically significant association between the education (P = 0.001, number of drugs (P = 0.002, family income (P = 0.013, and nonadherence. Among the 172 patients, 33.5 % were nonadherent to their therapy due to patient-related factors followed by drug-related factors (32% and disease-related factors (31%. Conclusion: The overall incidence of medication nonadherence in patients with mental illness was 43%. Numerous factors contributed to medication nonadherence. Strategies need to be developed and implemented to enhance medication adherence, and thereby achieve a better therapeutic outcome in patients with mental illness.
Gobat, Nina H; Gal, Micaela; Francis, Nick A; Hood, Kerenza; Watkins, Angela; Turner, Jill; Moore, Ronald; Webb, Steve A R; Butler, Christopher C; Nichol, Alistair
A rigorous research response is required to inform clinical and public health decision-making during an epi/pandemic. However, the ethical conduct of such research, which often involves critically ill patients, may be complicated by the diminished capacity to consent and an imperative to initiate trial therapies within short time frames. Alternative approaches to taking prospective informed consent may therefore be used. We aimed to rapidly review evidence on key stakeholder (patients, their proxy decision-makers, clinicians and regulators) views concerning the acceptability of various approaches for obtaining consent relevant to pandemic-related acute illness research. We conducted a rapid evidence review, using the Internet, database and hand-searching for English language empirical publications from 1996 to 2014 on stakeholder opinions of consent models (prospective informed, third-party, deferred, or waived) used in acute illness research. We excluded research on consent to treatment, screening, or other such procedures, non-emergency research and secondary studies. Papers were categorised, and data summarised using narrative synthesis. We screened 689 citations, reviewed 104 full-text articles and included 52. Just one paper related specifically to pandemic research. In other emergency research contexts potential research participants, clinicians and research staff found third-party, deferred, and waived consent to be acceptable as a means to feasibly conduct such research. Acceptability to potential participants was motivated by altruism, trust in the medical community, and perceived value in medical research and decreased as the perceived risks associated with participation increased. Discrepancies were observed in the acceptability of the concept and application or experience of alternative consent models. Patients accepted clinicians acting as proxy-decision makers, with preference for two decision makers as invasiveness of interventions increased
Barry, P J
-dwelling subjects. The total number of inappropriate prescriptions identified using the Beers\\' criteria (ID) was 148 affecting 121 patients. The Beers\\' criteria (CD) identified 69 inappropriate prescriptions in 60 patients and the IPET identified 112 inappropriate prescriptions in 78 patients. The Beers criteria (ID and CD combined) identified at least one inappropriate prescription in 34% of subjects and the IPET identified one in at least 22% of subjects. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies high rates of use of inappropriate medications in community-dwelling elderly presenting with acute illness to hospital. These are comparable with inappropriate prescribing rates identified in previous studies. The revised Beers\\' criteria (2003) identified more inappropriate prescriptions than the IPET in this population of elders.
Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 71 year old man with a medical history significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease with post-operative status coronary artery bypass grafting, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (25% and atrial fibrillation/flutter underwent an elective ablation of the tachyarrhythmia at another facility and was prescribed amiodarone post procedure. He started complaining of cough and dyspnea one day post procedure and was empirically treated with 2 weeks of broad spectrum antibiotics. He subsequently was transferred to our facility due to worsening symptoms. He also complained of nausea, anorexia with resultant weight loss since starting amiodarone, which was stopped 5 days prior to transfer. Infectious work up was negative. On arrival to our facility, he was diagnosed with small sub-segmental pulmonary emboli, pulmonary edema and possible acute amiodarone toxicity. His was profoundly hypoxic requiring high flow nasal cannula or 100% non-rebreather mask at all times. His symptoms persisted despite ...
Barrett, Kevin M; Lal, Brajesh K; Meschia, James F
Evidence-based therapeutic options for stroke continue to emerge based on results from well-designed clinical studies. Ischemic stroke far exceeds hemorrhagic stroke in terms of prevalence and incidence, both in the USA and worldwide. The public health effect of reducing death and disability related to ischemic stroke justifies the resources that have been invested in identifying safe and effective treatments. The emergence of novel oral anticoagulants for ischemic stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has introduced complexity to clinical decision making for patients with this common cardiac arrhythmia. Some accepted ischemic stroke preventative strategies, such as carotid revascularization for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, require reassessment, given advances in risk factor management, antithrombotic therapy, and surgical techniques. Intra-arterial therapy, particularly with stent retrievers after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, has recently been demonstrated to improve functional outcomes and will require investment in system-based care models to ensure that effective treatments are received by patients in a timely fashion. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in medical and surgical approaches to ischemic stroke prevention and acute treatment. Results from recently published clinical trials will be highlighted along with ongoing clinical trials addressing key questions in ischemic stroke management and prevention where equipoise remains.
Arnold, J Malcom O; Howlett, Jonathan G; Dorian, Paul; Ducharme, Anique; Giannetti, Nadia; Haddad, Haissam; Heckman, George A; Ignaszewski, Andrew; Isaac, Debra; Jong, Philip; Liu, Peter; Mann, Elizabeth; McKelvie, Robert S; Moe, Gordon W; Parker, John D; Svendsen, Anna M; Tsuyuki, Ross T; O'Halloran, Kelly; Ross, Heather J; Rao, Vivek; Sequeira, Errol J; White, Michel
Heart failure is common, yet it is difficult to treat. It presents in many different guises and circumstances in which therapy needs to be individualized. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society published a comprehensive set of recommendations in January 2006 on the diagnosis and management of heart failure, and the present update builds on those core recommendations. Based on feedback obtained through a national program of heart failure workshops during 2006, several topics were identified as priorities because of the challenges they pose to health care professionals. New evidence-based recommendations were developed using the structured approach for the review and assessment of evidence adopted and previously described by the Society. Specific recommendations and practical tips were written for the prevention of heart failure, the management of heart failure during intercurrent illness, the treatment of acute heart failure, and the current and future roles of biomarkers in heart failure care. Specific clinical questions that are addressed include: which patients should be identified as being at high risk of developing heart failure and which interventions should be used? What complications can occur in heart failure patients during an intercurrent illness, how should these patients be monitored and which medications may require a dose adjustment or discontinuation? What are the best therapeutic, both drug and nondrug, strategies for patients with acute heart failure? How can new biomarkers help in the treatment of heart failure, and when and how should BNP be measured in heart failure patients? The goals of the present update are to translate best evidence into practice, to apply clinical wisdom where evidence for specific strategies is weaker, and to aid physicians and other health care providers to optimally treat heart failure patients to result in a measurable impact on patient health and clinical outcomes in Canada.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimization of hemodynamic instability during renal replacement therapy (RRT in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI is often challenging. We examined the relative hemodynamic tolerability of sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT in critically ill patients with AKI. We also compared the feasibility of SLED administration with that of CRRT and intermittent hemodialysis (IHD. Methods This cohort study encompassed four critical care units within a single university-affiliated medical centre. 77 consecutive critically ill patients with AKI who were treated with CRRT (n = 30, SLED (n = 13 or IHD (n = 34 and completed at least two RRT sessions were included in the study. Overall, 223 RRT sessions were analyzed. Hemodynamic instability during a given session was defined as the composite of a > 20% reduction in mean arterial pressure or any escalation in pressor requirements. Treatment feasibility was evaluated based on the fraction of the prescribed therapy time that was delivered. An interrupted session was designated if Results Hemodynamic instability occurred during 22 (56.4% SLED and 43 (50.0% CRRT sessions (p = 0.51. In a multivariable analysis that accounted for clustering of multiple sessions within the same patient, the odds ratio for hemodynamic instability with SLED was 1.20 (95% CI 0.58-2.47, as compared to CRRT. Session interruption occurred in 16 (16.3, 30 (34.9 and 11 (28.2 of IHD, CRRT and SLED therapies, respectively. Conclusions In critically ill patients with AKI, the administration of SLED is feasible and provides comparable hemodynamic control to CRRT.
Seidell, J C; de Groot, L.C.; van Sonsbeek, J L; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.
Data on height, weight, illness, medical care consumption, and demographic variables for 19,126 Dutch adults aged 20 years or older were obtained from three annual Health Interview Surveys. Data on severely overweight (Body Mass Index 30.0-40.0 kg/m2) and moderately overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2)
Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester
BACKGROUND: Gastroschisis, a congenital anomaly of the abdomen, is associated with young maternal age and has increased in prevalence in many countries. Maternal illness and medication exposure are among environmental risk factors implicated in its aetiology. METHODS: A population-based case-malf...
Garg, Sunil Kumar
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature. With the rise in number of persons adopting this activity, there is evolving paradigm of illnesses presented to intensive care in this population subset. Strict adherence to details of bodybuilding and avoidance of unsupervised medications are essential to prevent untoward effects.
Mohammad A. Abusedera
Conclusions: Bedside IVUS-guided filter placement in medical-surgical critically ill patient in intensive care unit is a feasible, safe and reliable technique for IVC interruption. IVUS may be the most appropriate tool to guide filter insertion in obese patient.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human bocavirus (HBoV is a newly discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI and gastrointestinal illness. Our study is the first to analyze the characteristics of HBoV-positive samples from ARTI patients with a wide age distribution from Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Throat swabs (n=2811 were collected and analyzed from children and adults with ARTI over a 13-month period. The HBoV complete genome from a 60 year-old female patient isolate was also determined. Results HBoV DNA was detected in 65/2811 (2.3% samples, of which 61/1797 were from children (Mycoplasma pneumoniae had the highest frequency of 16.9% (11/65. Upper and lower respiratory tract illness were common symptoms, with 19/65 (29.2% patients diagnosed with pneumonia by chest radiography. All four adult patients had systemic influenza-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome revealed a close relationship with other HBoVs, and a more distant relationship with HBoV2 and HBoV3. Conclusions HBoV was detected from children and adults with ARTI from Guangzhou, southern China. Elderly people were also susceptive to HBoV. A single lineage of HBoV was detected among a wide age distribution of patients with ARTI.
Bagshaw, Sean M; Wald, Ron
Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is increasingly utilized to support critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI). The question of whether and when to start RRT for a critically ill patient with AKI has long troubled clinicians. When severe complications of AKI develop, the need to commence RRT is unambiguous. In the absence of such complications but in the presence of severe AKI, the optimal time and thresholds for starting RRT are uncertain. The majority of existing data have largely been derived from observational studies. These have been limited due to confounding by indication, considerable heterogeneity in case mix and illness severity, and variably applied definitions for both AKI and for how "timing" was anchored relative to starting RRT. It is unclear whether a preemptive or earlier strategy of RRT initiation aimed largely at avoiding complications related to AKI or a more conservative strategy where RRT is started in response to developing complications leads to better patient-centered outcomes and health services use. This question has been the focus of 2 recently completed randomized trials. In this review, we provide an appraisal of available evidence, discuss existing knowledge gaps, and provide perspective on future research that will better inform the optimal timing of RRT initiation in AKI. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cole, Evan S; Campbell, Claudia; Diana, Mark L; Webber, Larry; Culbertson, Richard
The patient-centered medical home model of primary care has received considerable attention for its potential to improve outcomes and reduce health care costs. Yet little information exists about the model's ability to achieve these goals for Medicaid patients. We sought to evaluate the effect of patient-centered medical home certification of Louisiana primary care clinics on the quality and cost of care over time for a Medicaid population. We used a quasi-experimental pre-post design with a matched control group to assess the effect of medical home certification on outcomes. We found no impact on acute care use and modest support for reduced costs and primary care use among medical homes serving higher proportions of chronically ill patients. These findings provide preliminary results related to the ability of the patient-centered medical home model to improve outcomes for Medicaid beneficiaries. The findings support a case-mix-adjusted payment policy for medical homes going forward. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
studies. Keywords: simulation, foundation, training, acute, medical, mannequin
Trøstrup, Jeanette; Andersen, Helle; Kam, Charlotte Agger Meiner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Older adults acutely hospitalized for medical illness typically have comorbidity and disability, and inhospital physical inactivity greatly increases the likelihood of developing new disability. Thus, assessment of the patients' mobility status is crucial for planning....... Assessments of mobility using the DEMMI (score range 0-100), the CAS (score range 0-6), and the Barthel Index (BI, score range 0-100) were performed by physical or occupational therapists at hospital admission and discharge. In addition, at discharge patients and therapists were independently asked to assess...... and geriatric wards. In contrast, the CAS appears to be appropriate to identify whether a patient is independently mobile or needs assistance, while the measure is less suitable for measuring improvements in mobility.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution...
Conclusion: The SARS outbreak did not eliminate the need of critically ill patients for advanced medical support. However, besides an overall decrease in patient numbers, the SARS epidemic markedly altered demographic information, clinical characteristics, and the use of medical services by adult patients in the ED of a SARS-dedicated hospital.
Nielsen, Lindsey K; Bracker, Kiko; Price, Lori Lyn
To describe the clinical features and outcomes of critically ill dogs and cats with acute kidney injury (AKI) receiving fenoldopam infusions compared to patients with AKI that did not receive fenoldopam. Retrospective clinical study from May 1, 2008 until June 1, 2012. Private emergency and specialty referral hospital. Client-owned dogs (28) and cats (34) with AKI that received fenoldopam compared with similar patients with AKI (30 dogs and 30 cats) that did not. None. The medical records of 62 critically ill dogs and cats with AKI that received fenoldopam were reviewed. Presenting clinical signs, physical examination findings, and primary and secondary disease processes were identified in all patients. The mean number of days on fenoldopam was 1.5 days (range 0.3-4.0 days) for dogs and 1.9 days (range 1.0-4.0 days) for cats. Eleven of 28 (39%) dogs survived to discharge and 13 of 34 (38%) of the cats survived to discharge. Of the animals in the group receiving fenoldopam that died, the majority (84%) were euthanized. Potential adverse reactions were evaluated, with hypotension being the most commonly encountered adverse effect (7% of fenoldopam group [FG] dogs and 23% of FG cats). When compared with patients with AKI that did not receive fenoldopam, no significant differences were found between the groups with regards to survival, length of hospital stay, adverse effects, or changes in creatinine, BUN, or sodium concentrations except that patients receiving fenoldopam were significantly more likely to have received other renally active medications. In this study of patients with AKI, fenoldopam administration at 0.8 μg/kg/min in dogs and 0.5 μg/kg/min in cats appeared relatively safe but was not associated with improvement in survival to discharge, length of hospital stay, or improvement in renal biochemical parameters when compared to patients with AKI not receiving fenoldopam. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.
resistance and unnecessary mor- bidity and mortality. There are limited data on the epidemiology of other febrile illnesses in Papua. Scrub typhus ...World War. 4, 5 In the Dutch colonial era, there were descriptions of several infections, including scrub typhus , leptospirosis, gran- uloma inguinale...paired serologic samples analysis for dengue, Japanese encephalitis, leptospirosis, scrub typhus , murine typhus , and spotted fever group rickettsia
Hegerová, Petra; Dědková, Zuzana; Sobotka, Luboš
An acute disease is regularly associated with inflammation, decreased food intake, and low physical activity; the consequence is loss of muscle mass. However, the restoration of muscle tissue is problematic, especially in older patients. Loss of muscle mass leads to further decrease of physical activity which leads, together with recurring disease, to the progressive muscle mass loss accompanied by loss of self-sufficiency. Early nutrition support and physical activity could reverse this situation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether an active approach based on early nutritional therapy and exercise would influence the development of sarcopenia and impaired self-sufficiency during acute illness. Two hundred patients >78 y were admitted to a hospital internal medicine department and participated in a prospective, randomized controlled study. The patients were randomized to a control group receiving standard treatment (n = 100) or to an intervention group (n = 100). The intervention consisted of nutritional supplements (600 kcal, 20 g/d protein) added to a standard diet and a simultaneous intensive rehabilitation program. The tolerance of supplements and their influence on spontaneous food intake, self-sufficiency, muscle strength, and body composition were evaluated during the study period. The patients were then regularly monitored for 1 y post-discharge. The provision of nutritional supplements together with early rehabilitation led to increased total energy and protein intake while the intake of standard hospital food was not reduced. The loss of lean body mass and a decrease in self-sufficiency were apparent at discharge from the hospital and 3 mo thereafter in the control group. Nutritional supplementation and the rehabilitation program in the study group prevented these alterations. A positive effect of nutritional intervention and exercise during the hospital stay was apparent at 6 mo post-discharge. The early nutritional intervention
Chiles, Catherine; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert
Stigma towards people with mental illness remains a burden for patients and healthcare providers. This study at a large US university examined the attitudes of psychiatry residents and fellows towards mental illness and its causes, and whether their attitudes differed from the medical student attitudes previously studied utilizing the same survey method. An electronic questionnaire examining attitudes toward people with mental illness, causes of mental Illness, and treatment efficacy was used to survey the attitudes of psychiatry residents and fellows. Exploratory factor analysis derived from the authors' medical student survey was used to examine attitudinal factors. The study response rate was 54.2% (n = 94). Factor analysis employed three factors previously identified reflecting social acceptance of mental illness, belief in supernatural causes, and belief in biopsychosocial causes. Residents and fellows reporting more personal experiences with mental illness, both as a group and when compared with medical students, were significantly more willing to socialize with the mentally ill. Respondents who had more professional (work) experience other than medical school or post-graduate training were less likely to believe in supernatural causes of mental illness. Female residents and fellows were more willing to socialize with the mentally ill, and were less likely to believe in supernatural causes for mental illness than their male counterparts. In our study, increased social acceptance of the mentally ill relates to having personal experiences, advanced training in psychiatry, and female gender. Both professional experiences outside of training and female gender reduced the belief in supernatural causes.
Christopher J. Kirwan
Full Text Available Introduction. RIFLE and AKIN provide a standardised classification of acute kidney injury (AKI, but their categorical rather than continuous nature restricts their use to a research tool. A more accurate real-time description of renal function in AKI is needed, and some published data suggest that equations based on serum creatinine that estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR can provide this. In addition, incorporating serum cystatin C concentration into estimates of GFR may improve their accuracy, but no eGFR equations are validated in critically ill patients with AKI. Aim. This study tests whether creatinine or cystatin-C-based eGFR equations, used in patients with CKD, offer an accurate representation of 4-hour creatinine clearance (4CrCl in critically ill patients with AKI. Methods. Fifty-one critically ill patients with AKI were recruited. Thirty-seven met inclusion criteria, and the performance of eGFR equations was compared to 4CrCl. Results. eGFR equations were better than creatinine alone at predicting 4CrCl. Adding cystatin C to estimates did not improve the bias or add accuracy. The MDRD 7 eGFR had the best combination of correlation, bias, percentage error and accuracy. None were near acceptable standards quoted in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Conclusions. eGFR equations are not sufficiently accurate for use in critically ill patients with AKI. Incorporating serum cystatin C does not improve estimates. eGFR should not be used to describe renal function in patients with AKI. Standards of accuracy for validating eGFR need to be set.
von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Larsen, Karina
. Determinants for respiratory symptoms were increasing age, winter season, household size, size of residence, day-care attendance, and having siblings aged 1-3 years attending a day nursery. In conclusion, the present study provides detailed data on the occurrence of disease symptoms during the first year......Respiratory symptoms are common in infancy. Most illnesses occurring among children are dealt with by parents and do not require medical attention. Nevertheless, few studies have prospectively and on a community-basis assessed the amount of respiratory symptoms and general illness in normal infants...... out by multiple logistic regression analysis. On average, children had general symptoms for 3.5 months during their first year of life, nasal discharge being most frequent followed by cough. Frequency of all symptoms increased steeply after 6 months of age. Each child had on average 6.3 episodes...
Wu, Chia-Yi; Liu, Shen-Ing; Chang, Shu-Sen; Sun, Fang-Ju
Mental health promotion campaigns require a good understanding of public attitudes and mental health literacy. Few studies have investigated changes in these two aspects over time. We aimed to examine such changes and their associations with help-seeking preference in Taiwan. Data were extracted from the Taiwan Social Change Survey (1990, 1995, and 2000) based on national representative samples. Each wave of the surveys included four questions about attitudes toward severe mental illness, a case vignette describing depressive and anxiety symptoms to evaluate respondents' mental health literacy, and their preference of medical and/or informal help-seeking if they develop such symptoms. Mental and physical health statuses measured using the Chinese Health Questionnaire and self-reported chronic physical illnesses were included as covariates. There were 2531, 2075, and 1892 respondents in the three waves of the surveys, respectively. During the 1990 s, approximately one in four to five Taiwanese held some misconceptions toward mental illness. The attitudes toward mental illness were generally not associated with medical or informal help-seeking preference after statistical adjustment. However, respondents viewing symptoms in the vignette as physical or mental in origin were more willing to seek help than those who saw these symptoms as not being an illness. Attribution of depressive and anxiety symptoms appeared to be more likely to influence help-seeking behaviors than attitudes toward mental illness. Enhancing public mental health literacy toward depression may help facilitate help-seeking in response to potential mental illness. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sungur, Gonul; Sahin, Habibe; Tasci, Sultan
To determine the effect of the enteral nutrition algorithm on nutritional support in critically ill medical patients. The quasi-experimental study was conducted at a medical Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital in central Anatolia region in Turkey from June to December 2008. The patients were divided into two equal groups: the historical group was fed in routine clinical applications, while the study group was fed according to the enteral nutritional algorithm. Prior to collecting data, nurses were trained interactively about enteral nutrition and the nutritional support algorithm. The nutrition of the study group was directed by the nurses. Data were recorded during 3 days of care. SPSS 22 was used for statistical analysis. The 40 patients in the study were divided into two equal groups of 20(50%) each. The energy intake of study group was 62% of the prescribed energy requirement on the 1st, 68.5% on the 2nd and 63% on the 3rd day, whereas in the historical group 38%, 56.5% and 60% of the prescribed energy requirement were met. The consumed energy of the historical group on the 1st 2nd and 3rd day was significantly different (p=0.020). In the study group, serum total protein and albumin levels decreased significantly (pgroup, any of the serum parameters did not change. Enteral nutrition-induced complications, duration of stay in intensive care unit were not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05). The use of standard algorithms for enteral nutrition may be an effective way to meet the nutritional requirements of patients.
Risør, Mette Bech
Patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are often considered to be strictly confined to thinking about their symptoms as having only a physical etiology. However, several studies have shown, that the patients also apply other explanations for their sufferings. The aim of this study is to analyse the social construction of illness explanations among patients with MUS, and to illustrate the use of explanatory idioms as being dependent on space, time and setting, legitimizing each idiom. The study is based on repeated, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with nine informants during a period of 1.5 years. A thematic content analysis was performed on a pragmatic and phenomenological basis. We found, that patients with MUS employ at least four different explanatory idioms defined as: (1) the symptomatic idiom; (2) the personal idiom; (3) the social idiom; and (4) the moral idiom. All idioms play an important role in the process of creating meaning in the patients' everyday life. The symptomatic idiom is mainly used at clinical consultations in primary care, but it is not the only idiom of significance for the patients. Simultaneously other idioms exist and gradually become important for especially patients with MUS due to the lack of valid diagnoses and treatment opportunities. Clinical settings, however, call for the employment of the symptomatic idiom and a discrepancy is found between the general practitioners' notion of the bio-psycho-social model and the patients' everyday life idioms.
Salzer, Mark S
Community inclusion refers to equal opportunities for people to participate in the community and willingness to welcome and active community attitude. The opportunity to participate in the community is both a medical necessity and a rights issue. This concept provides a novel theoretical framework for the advancement of mental health policies, programs, and global practices that enable the development of the well-being and health of people with mental disorders. Eleven fundamentals for promoting community inclusion of individuals with serious mental illnesses that are supported by key conceptual, theoretical, and research evidence. These fundamentals reflect beliefs and schemas that need to be present to truly prioritize and facilitate inclusion, intervention strategies and achieve the most impactful objectives that were expected. The greater inclusion, greater community participation, which includes work, education, religion and spiritual participation, and other domains associated with having a life that makes sense, all of which generates physical, cognitive and mental benefts for anyone, disregarding the presence or absence of a mental disorder. The concept of community inclusion offers a transformative next step in the delivery of mental health services that clearly articulates community participation in meaningful areas as the target for promoting full health and wellness.
Minal S Kale
Full Text Available Low health literacy is associated with low adherence to self-management in many chronic diseases. Additionally, health beliefs are thought to be determinants of self-management behaviors. In this study we sought to determine the association, if any, of health literacy and health beliefs among elderly individuals with COPD.We enrolled a cohort of patients with COPD from two academic urban settings in New York, NY and Chicago, IL. Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Using the framework of the Self-Regulation Model, illness and medication beliefs were measured with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ and Beliefs about Medications Questionnaire (BMQ. Unadjusted analyses, with corresponding Cohen's d effect sizes, and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the relationships between HL and illness and medication beliefs.We enrolled 235 participants, 29% of whom had low health literacy. Patients with low health literacy were more likely to belong to a racial minority group (p<0.001, not be married (p = 0.006, and to have lower income (p<0.001 or education (p<0.001. In unadjusted analyses, patients with low health literacy were less likely to believe they will always have COPD (p = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.42, and were more likely to be concerned about their illness ((p = 0.04, Cohen's d = 0.17. In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors and other health beliefs, patients with low health literacy were less likely to believe that they will always have COPD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.94. In addition, the association of low health literacy with expressed concern about medications remained significant (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05-1.37 though the association of low health literacy with belief in the necessity of medications was no longer significant (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.04.In this cohort of urban individuals with COPD, low health literacy was
Vincent, Jean-Louis; Russell, James A; Jacob, Matthias; Martin, Greg; Guidet, Bertrand; Wernerman, Jan; Ferrer, Ricard; Roca, Ricard Ferrer; McCluskey, Stuart A; Gattinoni, Luciano
Albumin solutions have been used worldwide for the treatment of critically ill patients since they became commercially available in the 1940s. However, their use has become the subject of criticism and debate in more recent years. Importantly, all fluid solutions have potential benefits and drawbacks. Large multicenter randomized studies have provided valuable data regarding the safety of albumin solutions, and have begun to clarify which groups of patients are most likely to benefit from their use. However, many questions remain related to where exactly albumin fits within our fluid choices. Here, we briefly summarize some of the physiology and history of albumin use in intensive care before offering some evidence-based guidance for albumin use in critically ill patients.
Mulder, N.H.; Houwen, B.
The authors describe research results on five patients suffering from acute leukemia. In each case the first diagnosis is given, followed by the treatment, and a second diagnosis is quoted after an interval of a few years. One patient had cancer of neck and breast and two had Hodgkins disease according to the first diagnosis. In each case the second diagnosis was acute or smouldering leukemia. The treatments applied include radiotherapy, some surgery and applications of drugs. Details are given for each case in turn. (G.C.)
Mulder, N H; Houwen, B [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis
The authors describe research results on five patients suffering from acute leukemia. In each case the first diagnosis is given, followed by the treatment, and a second diagnosis is quoted after an interval of a few years. One patient had cancer of neck and breast and two had Hodgkins disease according to the first diagnosis. In each case the second diagnosis was acute or smouldering leukemia. The treatments applied include radiotherapy, some surgery and applications of drugs. Details are given for each case in turn.
Ballantyne, M; Orava, T; Bernardo, S; McPherson, A C; Church, P; Fehlings, D
Parents undergo multiple transitions following the birth of an ill infant: their infant's illness-health trajectory, neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization and transfers from one healthcare setting to another, while also transitioning to parenthood. The objective of this review was to map and synthesize evidence on the experiences and needs of parents of preterm or ill infants as they transition within and between healthcare settings following birth. The scoping review followed Arskey and O'Malley's () framework, enhanced by Levac et al. (). Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search strategy of scientific and grey literature databases, online networks, Web of Science and citation lists of relevant articles. Inclusion criteria encompassed a focus on infants undergoing a healthcare transition, and the experiences and needs of parents during transition. Studies were appraised for design quality, and data relevant to parent experiences were extracted and underwent thematic analysis. A total of 7773 records were retrieved, 90 full texts reviewed and 11 articles synthesized that represented a total sample of 435 parents of preterm or ill infants. Parents reported on their experiences in response to their infant's transition within and between hospitals and across levels of neonatal intensive care unit, intermediate and community hospital care. Ten studies used qualitative research methods, while one employed quantitative survey methods. Four key themes were identified: that of parent distress throughout transition, parenting at a distance, sources of stress and sources of support. Parents' stress resulted from not being informed or involved in the transition decision, inadequate communication and perceived differences in cultures of care across healthcare settings. Opportunities to improve parents' early transition experiences include enhanced engagement, communication, information-sharing and shared decision-making between health care
Clark, Tristan W; Medina, Marie-jo; Batham, Sally; Curran, Martin D; Parmar, Surendra; Nicholson, Karl G
Many adult patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness have viruses detected but the overall importance of viral infection compared to bacterial infection is unclear. Patients were recruited from two acute hospital sites in Leicester (UK) over 3 successive winters. Samples were taken for viral and bacterial testing. Of the 780 patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness 345 (44%) had a respiratory virus detected. Picornaviruses were the most commonly isolated viruses (detected in 23% of all patients). Virus detection rates exceeded 50% in patients with exacerbation of asthma (58%), acute bronchitis and Influenza-like-illness (64%), and ranged from 30 to 50% in patients with an exacerbation of COPD (38%), community acquired pneumonia (36%) and congestive cardiac failure (31%). Bacterial detection was relatively frequent in patients with exacerbation of COPD and pneumonia (25% and 33% respectively) but was uncommon in all other groups. Antibiotic use was high across all clinical groups (76% overall) and only 21% of all antibiotic use occurred in patients with detectable bacteria. Respiratory viruses are the predominant detectable aetiological agents in most hospitalised adults with acute respiratory illness. Antibiotic usage in hospital remains excessive including in clinical conditions associated with low rates of bacterial detection. Efforts at reducing excess antibiotic use should focus on these groups as a priority. Registered International Standard Controlled Trial Number: 21521552. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cristiana M. Toscano
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the annual costs for the treatment of diabetic foot disease (DFD in Brazil. We conducted a cost-of-illness study of DFD in 2014, while considering the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS perspective. Direct medical costs of outpatient management and inpatient care were considered. For outpatient costs, a panel of experts was convened from which utilization of healthcare services for the management of DFD was obtained. When considering the range of syndromes included in the DFD spectrum, we developed four well-defined hypothetical DFD cases: (1 peripheral neuropathy without ulcer, (2 non-infected foot ulcer, (3 infected foot ulcer, and (4 clinical management of amputated patients. Quantities of each healthcare service was then multiplied by their respective unit costs obtained from national price listings. We then developed a decision analytic tree to estimate nationwide costs of DFD in Brazil, while taking into the account the estimated cost per case and considering epidemiologic parameters obtained from a national survey, secondary data, and the literature. For inpatient care, ICD10 codes related to DFD were identified and costs of hospitalizations due to osteomyelitis, amputations, and other selected DFD related conditions were obtained from a nationwide hospitalization database. Direct medical costs of DFD in Brazil was estimated considering the 2014 purchasing power parity (PPP (1 Int$ = 1.748 BRL. We estimated that the annual direct medical costs of DFD in 2014 was Int$ 361 million, which denotes 0.31% of public health expenses for this period. Of the total, Int$ 27.7 million (13% was for inpatient, and Int$ 333.5 million (87% for outpatient care. Despite using different methodologies to estimate outpatient and inpatient costs related to DFD, this is the first study to assess the overall economic burden of DFD in Brazil, while considering all of its syndromes and both outpatients and inpatients
Toscano, Cristiana M; Sugita, Tatiana H; Rosa, Michelle Q M; Pedrosa, Hermelinda C; Rosa, Roger Dos S; Bahia, Luciana R
The aim of this study was to estimate the annual costs for the treatment of diabetic foot disease (DFD) in Brazil. We conducted a cost-of-illness study of DFD in 2014, while considering the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS) perspective. Direct medical costs of outpatient management and inpatient care were considered. For outpatient costs, a panel of experts was convened from which utilization of healthcare services for the management of DFD was obtained. When considering the range of syndromes included in the DFD spectrum, we developed four well-defined hypothetical DFD cases: (1) peripheral neuropathy without ulcer, (2) non-infected foot ulcer, (3) infected foot ulcer, and (4) clinical management of amputated patients. Quantities of each healthcare service was then multiplied by their respective unit costs obtained from national price listings. We then developed a decision analytic tree to estimate nationwide costs of DFD in Brazil, while taking into the account the estimated cost per case and considering epidemiologic parameters obtained from a national survey, secondary data, and the literature. For inpatient care, ICD10 codes related to DFD were identified and costs of hospitalizations due to osteomyelitis, amputations, and other selected DFD related conditions were obtained from a nationwide hospitalization database. Direct medical costs of DFD in Brazil was estimated considering the 2014 purchasing power parity (PPP) (1 Int$ = 1.748 BRL). We estimated that the annual direct medical costs of DFD in 2014 was Int$ 361 million, which denotes 0.31% of public health expenses for this period. Of the total, Int$ 27.7 million (13%) was for inpatient, and Int$ 333.5 million (87%) for outpatient care. Despite using different methodologies to estimate outpatient and inpatient costs related to DFD, this is the first study to assess the overall economic burden of DFD in Brazil, while considering all of its syndromes and both outpatients and inpatients. Although we
Sharma, Rupali; Jayathissa, Sisira; Weatherall, Mark
To determine the knowledge in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) process, preference for CPR, and desire to participate in end-of-life decision making amongst older hospitalised patients. We prospectively interviewed 100 participants above 65 years of age awaiting discharge from acute medical ward and collected demographics, knowledge of CPR and opinion on CPR in various clinical scenarios. Amongst the participants, 58% had good understanding of all components of CPR and 91% overestimated its success. Fifty-eight percent wished to have CPR in current health status, but this declined if they were presented a hypothetical scenario of critical illness (46%), functional impairment (17%), terminal illness (13%) and dementia (13%). Tertiary education, male gender and not living alone were associated with accepting CPR. Ninety-three percent were comfortable discussing CPR and 84% felt comfortable documenting their wishes in the medical notes. Seventy percent wished such discussion to include themselves and their family. Older inpatients have a reasonable understanding of the components of CPR and wish to be involved in CPR decision-making. Clinical scenarios with poor prognosis may lead to patients declining CPR. Discussion and documentation of resuscitation wishes is useful in routine assessment process among elderly hospitalised patients.
Hayes, Ariel; Russ, Mark J
This study examined the impact of eliminating intramuscular PRN medication for agitation on patient and staff safety in an acute psychiatric inpatient setting. The current retrospective chart review investigated the use of PRN medications (oral and intramuscular) to treat acute agitation, including aggression, and related outcomes before and after a mandated change in PRN practice that required real time physician input before administration of intramuscular medications. The use of both oral and intramuscular PRN medications dramatically decreased following implementation of the mandated change in practice. In particular, the use of intramuscular PRNs for agitation decreased by about half. Despite this decrease, the assault rate in the hospital was unchanged, and the utilization of restraint and seclusion continued to decrease. It is possible to reduce the utilization of PRN medications for agitation without broadly compromising safety on acute care psychiatric inpatient units.
McTier, Lauren; Botti, Mari; Duke, Maxine
Patient participation in medication management during hospitalization is thought to reduce medication errors and, following discharge, improve adherence and therapeutic use of medications. There is, however, limited understanding of how patients participate in their medication management while hospitalized. To explore patient participation in the context of medication management during a hospital admission for a cardiac surgical intervention of patients with cardiovascular disease. Single institution, case study design. The unit of analysis was a cardiothoracic ward of a major metropolitan, tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Multiple methods of data collection were used including pre-admission and pre-discharge patient interviews (n = 98), naturalistic observations (n = 48) and focus group interviews (n = 2). All patients had changes made to their pre-operative cardiovascular medications as a consequence of surgery. More patients were able to list and state the purpose and side-effects of their cardiovascular medications at pre-admission than prior to discharge from hospital. There was very little evidence that nurses used opportunities such as medication administration times to engage patients in medication management during hospital admission. Failure to engage patients in medication management and provide opportunities for patients to learn about changes to their medications has implications for the quality and safety of care patients receive in hospital and when managing their medications once discharged. To increase the opportunity for patients to participate in medication management, a fundamental shift in the way nurses currently provide care is required. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Stigma can complicate people’s mental health problems by affecting different sides of personal life, increasing negative attitudes, causing discriminatory behavior towards them, and reducing the chances of recovery and returning to normal life. This research aims to compare the stigma of mental illness among nurses working in psychiatric and non-psychiatric wards in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. A total of 240 nurses participated in this descriptive and analytic study. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill (CAMI Scale, which is a 40-item self-report questionnaire. All data were analyzed using SPSS 13. The majority of nurses have a medium level of stigma toward people with mental illness, and there is no significant relation between the type of wards and mean stigma scores. After eliminating factors such as mental illness in nurses and their families, it seems that only working with people with mental illness in psychiatric wards is not enough to create a positive attitude toward them. Additionally, the less physical activity and taking advantage of legal benefits of work hardship for psychiatric nurses, low income, and stigma toward psychiatric nursing, probably may make a difference in inclining to work in psychiatry ward between the two groups in spite of relatively equal stigma scores.
Seng, Elizabeth K; Holroyd, Kenneth A
This study aims to qualitatively examine the behaviors required to optimally use acute headache medication and the barriers to successful performance of these behaviors. The efficacy of drug treatment is partly determined by medication adherence. The adherence literature has focused almost exclusively on the behaviors required to optimally use medications that are taken on a fixed schedule, as opposed to medications taken on an as needed basis to treat acute episodes of symptoms, such as headaches. Twenty-one people with headache and 15 health care providers participated in qualitative phenomenological interviews that were transcribed and coded by a multidisciplinary research team using phenomenological analysis. Interviews revealed 8 behaviors required to optimally use acute headache medication, including cross-episode behaviors that people with headache regularly perform to ensure optimal acute headache medication use, and episode-specific behaviors used to treat an individual headache episode. Interviews further revealed 9 barriers that hinder successful performance of these behaviors. Behaviors required to optimally use acute headache medication were numerous, often embedded in a larger chain of behaviors, and were susceptible to disruption by numerous barriers. © 2013 American Headache Society.
Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Pepin, Renee; Mueser, Kim T; Naslund, John A; Rolin, Stephanie A; Faber, Marjan J; Bartels, Stephen J
Many older persons with serious mental illness (SMI) suffer from high rates of comorbid medical conditions. Although families play a critical role in psychiatric illness management among adults with SMI, their contributions to improving health outcomes in this population has received little attention. This study explored family involvement in medical care for older adults with SMI. This mixed methods study involved analysis of quantitative data collected from older adults with SMI and cardiovascular risk (n = 28) participating in a pilot study of an intervention designed to improve patient-centered primary care augmented by qualitative interviews with their relatives (n = 13) to explore family involvement in medical care. Approximately 89% of older adults with SMI reported family involvement in at least one aspect of their medical care (e.g., medication reminders, medical decision making). However, many family members reported that they were rarely involved in their relative's medical visits, and most did not perceive a need to be involved during routine care. Family members identified obesity as their relative's primary health concern and many wanted guidance from providers on effective strategies for supporting weight loss. Although many family members did not perceive a need to be involved in their relative's routine medical visits, they expressed interest in talking with providers about how to help their relative change unhealthy behaviors. Educating patients, families, and providers about the potential benefits of family involvement in medical care, including routine medical visits for persons with SMI and cardiovascular health risk may promote patient- and family-centered collaboration in this high-risk population.
Patel, Ankur; Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep
To determine the incidence and risk factors of acute renal failure (ARF) in hospitalized critically ill neonates and analyze outcome of all neonates with renal failure in relation to risk factors. In this prospective observational study 815 infants were enrolled. Renal profile (blood urea and serum creatinine) was done after 12 h of life (or at the time of admission for outborn babies) and then every 12 hourly. Daily 24 h urine output was evaluated. Incidence of renal failure in critically ill neonates was 10.67%. Out of 87 ARF neonates 52 (60%) expired. Mortality in the renal failure group was significantly higher in comparison to control group (p renal failure was more common than oliguric renal failure, but mortality in the oliguric renal failure group was more. Neonatal sepsis was the most common cause of ARF. Eight neonates underwent peritoneal dialysis (PD) out of which there were seven neonatal deaths. Prognosis of neonates with ARF requiring PD was very poor. It can thus be concluded that the health care personal should do rapid diagnosis of ARF in neonates with potential risk factors and also goal at an early and effective treatment of these risk factors in neonates with ARF.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the extent to which health shocks play a role in black-white wealth inequality. Deploying data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we implement a first-differences identification strategy in estimating the effects of acute health events on changes in wealth for couples across waves of data from 1999 to 2011. We find that although such shocks affect both white and black families, they make black families more vulnerable financially as family heads near retirement. In comparison with their white counterparts, black families that experience an acute health shock are more likely to rely on social safety nets, such as food stamps and Social Security Disability Insurance. Findings hold implications across multiple policy arenas, including health-care and labor law.
Andela, Cornelie D; Biermasz, Nienke R; Kaptein, Adrian A; Pereira, Alberto M; Tiemensma, Jitske
Patients with acromegaly can be treated with surgery, radiotherapy and/or medical treatment. In general, patients' beliefs about medication are associated with illness perceptions, a contributory factor of Quality of Life (QoL). At present, there are no quantitative studies on medication beliefs in patients with acromegaly. Here, we aimed to examine possible associations between medication beliefs, illness perceptions, and QoL. Furthermore we aimed to explore whether illness perceptions of patients with remission of acromegaly receiving medical treatment differ from patients without medical treatment. Cross-sectional evaluation of 73 patients with remission of acromegaly (n = 28 patients with medication, n = 45 without medication). The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R), EuroQoL-5D, and AcroQoL were used for the assessment. Stronger beliefs about the necessity of medical treatment and stronger concerns about the adverse effects were associated with attributing more symptoms to acromegaly, perceiving more negative consequences, and having a stronger belief in a cyclical timeline (BMQ, all P Negative medication beliefs were related to more negative illness perceptions and worse disease-specific QoL. Patients receiving medical treatment for acromegaly tend to perceive a more chronic timeline of their disease, compared to patients with remission without medical treatment. These psychological factors need to be taken into account when treating patients and developing a psychosocial education program aiming to improve QoL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krishnan, S G Santhana; Cobbs, R K
A 38 year old man with history of obstructive sleep apnea and polycythaemia presented with hypercapnic respiratory failure that required intubation. He developed fever with infiltrates on chest radiography that required empiric antifungal therapy with fluconazole along with broad spectrum antibiotics. He developed acute adrenal insufficiency that recovered after fluconazole was stopped. It is believed that this complication of adrenal suppression attributable to fluconazole is underrecognised...
Weingarten, Kaethe; Worthen, Miranda
"Take care of yourself" may be one of the most ubiquitous phrases spoken to people who are ill or to their caretakers. Yet few people who offer it as a balm consider what the self experience is of the person to whom the injunction is offered. We unravel some of the paradoxes inherent in the phrase, illustrating complexities that arise in the context of a life-threatening diagnosis. To illustrate the relational nature of the self, we analyze a partial transcript of an interview conducted in 1988 with the authors-a family therapist mother who had recently undergone surgery for breast cancer and her then 9-year-old daughter. We also examine the role of time in the interview. We propose that unlike PTSD when the past invades the present, in life-threatening illness the future is foreclosed, leading to distortions in current perception and behavior. The second author presents a follow-up to the interview and relates it to her current experience as a mother with chronic health issues. We close with suggestions for clinicians. © 2018 Family Process Institute.
conditions hypobares ou hyperbares ] To order the complete compilation report, use: ADA395680 The component part is provided here to allow users access to...following report: TITLE: Operational Medical Issues in Hypo-and Hyperbaric Conditions [les Questions medicales a caractere oprationel liees aux...Navy diving accidents, and with the assistance of the British Hyperbaric Association (BHA) all civilian cases of decompression illness treated by member
Full Text Available John D Piette1, Ann Marie Rosland1, Maria J Silveira1, Rodney Hayward1, Colleen A McHorney21Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2US Outcomes Research, Merck and Co, Inc, North Wales, PA, USAAbstract: A national internet survey was conducted between March and April 2009 among 27,302 US participants in the Harris Interactive Chronic Illness Panel. Respondents reported behaviors related to cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN and the impacts of medication costs on other aspects of their daily lives. Among respondents aged 40–64 and looking for work, 66% reported CRN in 2008, and 41% did not fill a prescription due to cost pressures. More than half of respondents aged 40–64 and nearly two-thirds of those in this group who were looking for work or disabled reported other impacts of medication costs, such as cutting back on basic needs or increasing credit card debt. More than one-third of respondents aged 65+ who were working or looking for work reported CRN. Regardless of age or employment status, roughly half of respondents reporting medication cost hardship said that these problems had become more frequent in 2008 than before the economic recession. These data show that many chronically ill patients, particularly those looking for work or disabled, reported greater medication cost problems since the economic crisis began. Given links between CRN and worse health, the financial downturn may have had significant health consequences for adults with chronic illness.Keywords: medication adherence, cost-of-care, access to care, chronic disease
Serpa Neto, Ary; Nagtzaam, Liselotte; Schultz, Marcus J.
There is convincing evidence for benefit from lung-protective mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is uncertain whether this strategy benefits critically ill patients without ARDS as well. This manuscript systematically
OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hallegraeff, Joannes M.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Krijnen, Wim P.; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.
Background: The eight-item Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire is used as a screening instrument in physical therapy to assess mental defeat in patients with acute low back pain, besides patient perception might determine the course and risk for chronic low back pain. However, the psychometric
Pearce, Michelle J.; Koenig, Harold G.; Robins, Clive J.; Nelson, Bruce; Shaw, Sally F.; Cohen, Harvey J.; King, Michael B.
Intervention studies have found that psychotherapeutic interventions that explicitly integrate clients’ spiritual and religious beliefs in therapy are as effective, if not more so, in reducing depression than those that do not for religious clients. However, few empirical studies have examined the effectiveness of religiously (vs. spiritually) integrated psychotherapy, and no manualized mental health intervention had been developed for the medically ill with religious beliefs. To address this gap, we developed and implemented a novel religiously integrated adaptation of cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of depression in individuals with chronic medical illness. This article describes the development and implementation of the intervention. First, we provide a brief overview of CBT. Next, we describe how religious beliefs and behaviors can be integrated into a CBT framework. Finally, we describe Religiously Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (RCBT), a manualized therapeutic approach designed to assist depressed individuals to develop depression-reducing thoughts and behaviors informed by their own religious beliefs, practices, and resources. This treatment approach has been developed for 5 major world religions (Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism), increasing its potential to aid the depressed medically ill from a variety of religious backgrounds. PMID:25365155
Sales Barros, Renan; Borst, Jordi; Kleynenberg, Steven; Badr, Celine; Ganji, Rama-Rao; de Bliek, Hubrecht; Zeng-Eyindanga, Landry-Stephane; van den Brink, Henk; Majoie, Charles; Marquering, Henk; Olabarriaga, Silvia Delgado
Acute stroke is the leading cause of disabilities and the fourth cause of death worldwide. The treatment of stroke patients often requires fast collaboration between medical experts and fast analysis and sharing of large amounts of medical data, especially image data. In this situation, cloud
Background. We aimed to determine the outcome and certain predictors of outcome for acute renal failure (ARF) in the medical intensive care unit (ICU) at Tygerberg Hospital. Method. We conducted a retrospective, single-centre cohort study over 12 months comprising all patients admitted to the medical ICU with all causes ...
Hawgood, Barbara J
Alexander Falconer Sr (1843-1915) came from Scotland to New Zealand. A practical Christian, he set up places of relaxation for miners, sailors and soldiers; he became the Seamen's Missionary. Son, Dr Alexander Falconer (1874-1955) trained at Otago University Medical School. As medical superintendent for the mentally ill, he urged the early introduction of psychotherapy. His son, Murray Falconer (1910-1977) was the first Nuffield Dominions Clinical Fellow, training in neurosurgery in Oxford. He was the first director of the Guy's-Maudsley Neurosurgical Unit in London and was internationally known for the surgical management of temporal lobe epilepsy in adults and children. © The Author(s) 2016.
Steele, Leah S; Durbin, Anna; Sibley, Lyn M; Glazier, Richard
In Ontario, Canada, the patient-centred medical home is a model of primary care delivery that includes 3 model types of interest for this study: enhanced fee-for-service, blended capitation, and team-based blended capitation. All 3 models involve rostering of patients and have similar practice requirements but differ in method of physician reimbursement, with the blended capitation models incorporating adjustments for age and sex, but not case mix, of rostered patients. We evaluated the extent to which persons with mental illness were included in physicians' total practices (as rostered and non-rostered patients) and were included on physicians' rosters across types of medical homes in Ontario. Using population-based administrative data, we considered 3 groups of patients: those with psychotic or bipolar diagnoses, those with other mental health diagnoses, and those with no mental health diagnoses. We modelled the prevalence of mental health diagnoses and the proportion of patients with such diagnoses who were rostered across the 3 medical home model types, controlling for demographic characteristics and case mix. Compared with enhanced fee-for-service practices, and relative to patients without mental illness, the proportions of patients with psychosis or bipolar disorders were not different in blended capitation and team-based blended capitation practices (rate ratio [RR] 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82-1.01; RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.96-1.17, respectively). However, there were fewer patients with other mental illnesses (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.99; RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.85-0.94, respectively). Compared with expected proportions, practices based on both capitation models were significantly less likely than enhanced fee-for-service practices to roster patients with psychosis or bipolar disorders (for blended capitation, RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.90-0.93; for team-based capitation, RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.88-0.93) and also patients with other mental illnesses (for blended capitation
Maben, Jill; Adams, Mary; Peccei, Riccardo; Murrells, Trevor; Robert, Glenn
Few empirical studies have directly examined the relationship between staff experiences of providing healthcare and patient experience. Present concerns over the care of older people in UK acute hospitals - and the reported attitudes of staff in such settings - highlight an important area of study. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. To examine the links between staff experience of work and patient experience of care in a 'Medicine for Older People' (MfOP) service in England. A mixed methods case study undertaken over 8 months incorporating a 149-item staff survey (66/192 - 34% response rate), a 48-item patient survey (26/111 - 23%), 18 staff interviews, 18 patient and carer interviews and 41 hours of non-participant observation. Variation in patient experience is significantly influenced by staff work experiences. A high-demand/low-control work environment, poor staffing, ward leadership and co-worker relationships can each add to the inherent difficulties staff face when caring for acutely ill older people. Staff seek to alleviate the impact of such difficulties by finding personal satisfaction from caring for 'the poppets'; those patients they enjoy caring for and for whom they feel able to 'make a difference'. Other patients - noting dehumanising aspects of their care - felt like 'parcels'. Patients are aware of being seen by staff as 'difficult' or 'demanding' and seek to manage their relationships with nursing staff accordingly. The work experiences of staff in a MfOP service impacted directly on patient care experience. Poor ward and patient care climates often lead staff to seek job satisfaction through caring for 'poppets', leaving less favoured - and often more complex patients - to receive less personalised care. Implications for practice. Investment in staff well-being and ward climate is essential for the consistent delivery of high-quality care for older people in acute settings. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Oktaria, V; Lee, K J; Bines, J E; Watts, E; Satria, C D; Atthobari, J; Nirwati, H; Kirkwood, C D; Soenarto, Y; Danchin, M H
Infant morbidity and mortality rates remain high in Indonesia, with acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) and diarrhea the leading two health problems in children under 5 years. We aimed to describe the nutritional status, feeding practice and case management of ARI and diarrhea of infants from two regions of Indonesia during the first 6 months of life. This study was an observational study conducted in parallel to an immunogenicity and efficacy trial of an oral rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) in the Klaten and Yogyakarta regions, Indonesia. Mothers were interviewed at 3 time points: within the first 6 days of their infant's life, and at 8-10 and 22-24 weeks of age. Questions asked included pregnancy history, infant nutritional status, feeding status and health of infants within up to 2 weeks prior to the assessment. Between February 2013 and January 2014, 233 mother-infant pairs were recruited. 60% (136/223) of infants were exclusively breastfed (EBF) until 6 months of age with the strongest support for EBF reported by mothers themselves 70% (101/223) and 25% (36/223) from their partners. At 6 months, 6% (14/223) of infants were underweight and severely underweight; 4% (8/ 223) wasted and severely wasted; and 12% (28/223) were stunted and severely stunted. Non-recommended medication use was high, with 54% (21/39) of infants with reported cough within 2 weeks of an assessment receiving cough medication, 70% (27 /39) an antihistamine, 26% (10/39) a mucolytic and 15% (6 /39) an oral bronchodilator. At age 22-24 week, infants with reported diarrhea within 2 weeks of an assessment had low use of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) (3/21;14%) and zinc therapy (2/ 21;10%). In this unique observational study, breastfeeding rates of 60% at 6 months were below the Indonesian national target of >75%. Adherence to WHO guidelines for management of ARI and diarrhea was poor, with high use of non-recommended cough medications and oral bronchodilators in the first 6 months of life
Full Text Available Due to the dual critical shortages of acute care and healthcare workers in resource-limited settings, many people suffer or die from conditions that could be easily treated if existing resources were used in a more timely and effective manner. In order to address this preventable morbidity and mortality, a novel emergency midlevel provider training program was developed in rural Uganda. This is the first study that assesses this unique application of a task-shifting model to acute care by evaluating the outcomes of 10,105 patients.Nurses participated in a two-year training program to become midlevel providers called Emergency Care Practitioners at a rural district hospital. This is a retrospective analysis of the Emergency Department's quality assurance database, including three-day follow-up data. Case fatality rates (CFRs are reported as the percentage of cases with a specific diagnosis that died within three days of their Emergency Department visit.Overall, three-day mortality was 2.0%. The most common diagnoses of patients who died were malaria (n=60, pneumonia (n=51, malnutrition (n=21, and trauma (n=18. Overall and under-five CFRs were as follows: malaria, 2.0% and 1.9%; pneumonia, 5.5% and 4.1%; and trauma, 1.2% and 1.6%. Malnutrition-related fatality (all cases <18 years old was 6.5% overall and 6.8% for under-fives.This study describes the outcomes of emergency patients treated by midlevel providers in a resource-limited setting. Our fatality rates are lower than previously published regional rates. These findings suggest this model of task-shifting can be successfully applied to acute care in order to address the shortage of emergency care services in similar settings as part of an integrated approach to health systems strengthening.
Ilse M. López Bravo
Full Text Available To help assess the causes and frequency of acute respiratory illnesses (ARI during the first 18 months of life in Chile, a cohort of 437 children born in good health between May 1991 and April 1992 was followed at an urban health clinic in northern Santiago. Information was obtained from medical checkups performed at the clinic, from emergency health care services, from private physicians, and from interviews with each child's mother when the child was enrolled in the study and when it was 6, 12, and 18 months old. Followup was completed for 379 (87% of the children. ARI accounted for 67% of all 3762 episodes of illness recorded for these children in the 18-month study period, 1384 (55% of the ARI episodes affecting the upper respiratory tract and the remaining 1144 (45% affecting the lower. The overall rate of ARI observed was 33 episodes per 100 child-months of observation. The incidences of upper, lower, and total ARI episodes decreased significantly in the third six months of life. A statistically significant association was found between upper ARI ( > or = 2 episodes and maternal smoking ( > or = 5 cigarettes per day, but no significant associations were found with any of the other risk factors studied. However, lower ARI ( > or = 2 episodes was significantly associated with maternal schooling ( or = 4 episodes was significantly associated with these factors and also with the existence of one or more siblings, birth in a cold season, limited breast-feeding (Para conocer las causas y frecuencia de las enfermedades respiratorias agudas (ERA durante los primeros 18 meses de vida en una población chilena, se siguió, en un consultorio urbano del norte de Santiago, a una cohorte de 437 niños nacidos sanos entre mayo de 1991 y abril de 1992. La información se obtuvo de los controles médicos realizados en el consultorio, del servicio de urgencia y de médicos particulares, así como de entrevistas a las madres al incorporar a los niños en el
Zepf, Florian D; Rao, Pradeep; Runions, Kevin; Stewart, Richard M; Moore, Julia K; Wong, Janice Wy; Linden, Maike; Sungurtekin, Idil; Glass, Franziska; Gut, Linda; Peetz, Dirk; Hintereder, Gudrun; Schaab, Michael; Poustka, Fritz; Wöckel, Lars
Research has implicated that changes in zinc (Zn) metabolism may be associated with the biological underpinnings of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa. However, to date research on the role of Zn in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) is scarce. We aimed to explore serum Zn concentrations in young patients with BN, with a focus on the stage of the disorder, comparing acutely ill and recovered patients with BN with healthy controls. Serum Zn concentrations were obtained from healthy controls and from acutely ill and remitted young patients with BN. Mean duration of remission was 4.0±3.5 years. Remitted patients showed elevated serum Zn concentrations when compared to controls (Cohen's d=2.022), but concentrations were still in the normal range. Acutely ill patients also had higher serum Zn levels when compared to controls (all values still being within the reference range, Cohen's d=0.882). There was no difference between acutely ill and remitted patients with BN in serum Zn concentrations. Of note, remitted patients had a significantly higher body weight when compared to the other two groups. Overall, there were no significant differences in dietary preferences with regard to Zn containing foods between the groups. The present study provides preliminary evidence that the underlying factors for changes in Zn serum concentrations in young patients with BN do not vary with regard to the stage of illness (acute versus remitted BN). Further prospective research is needed in order to disentangle the possible interplay between serum Zn status and bulimic eating behaviors.
Hallegraeff, Joannes M; van der Schans, Cees P; Krijnen, Wim P; de Greef, Mathieu H G
The eight-item Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire is used as a screening instrument in physical therapy to assess mental defeat in patients with acute low back pain, besides patient perception might determine the course and risk for chronic low back pain. However, the psychometric properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in common musculoskeletal disorders like acute low back pain have not been adequately studied. Patients' perceptions vary across different populations and affect coping styles. Thus, our aim was to determine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability and validity of the Dutch language version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in acute non-specific low back pain patients in primary care physical therapy. A non-experimental cross-sectional study with two measurements was performed. Eighty-four acute low back pain patients, in multidisciplinary health care center in Dutch primary care with a sample mean (SD) age of 42 (12) years, participated in the study. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) and test-retest procedures (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients and limits of agreement) were evaluated at a one-week interval. The concurrent validity of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire was examined by using the Mental Health Component of the Short Form 36 Health Survey. The Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.67 - 0.83); and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient test-retest reliability was acceptable: 0.72 (95% CI, 0.53 - 0.82), however, the limits of agreement were large. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient measuring concurrent validity 0.65 (95% CI, 0.46 - 0.80). The Dutch version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire is an appropriate instrument for measuring patients' perceptions in acute low back pain patients, showing acceptable internal consistency and reliability. Concurrent validity is adequate, however, the instrument may be unsuitable for detecting changes in low
Objective: To provide an overview of the changing epidemiology of acute appendicitis in the developed and developing countries and the presumptive reasons. Data source: Major published series of the last two decades were reviewed using Medline Search and Index Medicus. The myriad of diagnostic approaches ...
first few days of treatment with typical anti‑psychotic drugs.. Manifestations of acute ... He admitted hearing voices of ... Patient's contact with orthodox medicine was a day before presentation ... placed on oral trifluoperazine 5 mg thrice daily, artane 2.5 mg ... deficit in central dopamine transmission resulting in overactive.
Abstract. This was a prospective study that was conducted between July 2000 and September 2001. It was designed to determine the incidence and the risk factor(s) of aspiration pneumonia in patients with acute cerebrovascular accident. Aspiration pneumonia was recorded in 23.5% of the 68 patients that were recruited.
Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the influence of physicochemical parameters on survival in metabolic acidosis (MA and acute kidney injury (AKI patients. Materials and Methods. Seventy-eight MA patients were collected and assigned to AKI or non-AKI group. We analyzed the physiochemical parameters on survival at 24 h, 72 h, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after AKI. Results. Mortality rate was higher in the AKI group. AKI group had higher anion gap (AG, strong ion gap (SIG, and apparent strong ion difference (SIDa values than non-AKI group. SIG value was higher in the AKI survivors than nonsurvivors and this value was correlated serum creatinine, phosphate, albumin, and chloride levels. SIG and serum albumin are negatively correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV scores. AG was associated with mortality at 1 and 3 months post-AKI, whereas SIG value was associated with mortality at 24 h, 72 h, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months post-AKI. Conclusions. Whether high or low SIG values correlate with mortality in MA patients with AKI depends on its correlation with serum creatinine, chloride, albumin, and phosphate (P levels. AG predicts short-term mortality and SIG value predicts both short- and long-term mortality among MA patients with AKI.
Bell, Derek; Lambourne, Adrian; Percival, Frances; Laverty, Anthony A; Ward, David K
Recent recommendations for physicians in the UK outline key aspects of care that should improve patient outcomes and experience in acute hospital care. Included in these recommendations are Consultant patterns of work to improve timeliness of clinical review and improve continuity of care. This study used a contemporaneous validated survey compared with clinical outcomes derived from Hospital Episode Statistics, between April 2009 and March 2010 from 91 acute hospital sites in England to evaluate systems of consultant cover for acute medical admissions. Clinical outcomes studied included adjusted case fatality rates (aCFR), including the ratio of weekend to weekday mortality, length of stay and readmission rates. Hospitals that had an admitting Consultant presence within the Acute Medicine Unit (AMU, or equivalent) for a minimum of 4 hours per day (65% of study group) had a lower aCFR compared with hospitals that had Consultant presence for less than 4 hours per day (p40 acute medical admissions per day had a lower aCFR compared to hospitals with fewer than 40 admissions per day (pstudy is the first large study to explore the potential relationships between systems of providing acute medical care and clinical outcomes. The results show an association between well-designed systems of Consultant working practices, which promote increased patient contact, and improved patient outcomes in the acute hospital setting.
Full Text Available Recent recommendations for physicians in the UK outline key aspects of care that should improve patient outcomes and experience in acute hospital care. Included in these recommendations are Consultant patterns of work to improve timeliness of clinical review and improve continuity of care. This study used a contemporaneous validated survey compared with clinical outcomes derived from Hospital Episode Statistics, between April 2009 and March 2010 from 91 acute hospital sites in England to evaluate systems of consultant cover for acute medical admissions. Clinical outcomes studied included adjusted case fatality rates (aCFR, including the ratio of weekend to weekday mortality, length of stay and readmission rates. Hospitals that had an admitting Consultant presence within the Acute Medicine Unit (AMU, or equivalent for a minimum of 4 hours per day (65% of study group had a lower aCFR compared with hospitals that had Consultant presence for less than 4 hours per day (p40 acute medical admissions per day had a lower aCFR compared to hospitals with fewer than 40 admissions per day (p<0.03 and had a lower 7 day re-admission rate (p<0.02. This study is the first large study to explore the potential relationships between systems of providing acute medical care and clinical outcomes. The results show an association between well-designed systems of Consultant working practices, which promote increased patient contact, and improved patient outcomes in the acute hospital setting.
Druss, Benjamin G; Singh, Manasvini; von Esenwein, Silke A; Glick, Gretl E; Tapscott, Stephanie; Tucker, Sherry Jenkins; Lally, Cathy A; Sterling, Evelina W
Individuals with serious mental illnesses have high rates of general medical comorbidity and challenges in managing these conditions. A growing workforce of certified peer specialists is available to help these individuals more effectively manage their health and health care. However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of peer-led programs for self-management of general medical conditions for this population. This randomized study enrolled 400 participants with a serious mental illness and one or more chronic general medical conditions across three community mental health clinics. Participants were randomly assigned to the Health and Recovery Peer (HARP) program, a self-management program for general medical conditions led by certified peer specialists (N=198), or to usual care (N=202). Assessments were conducted at baseline and three and six months. At six months, participants in the intervention group demonstrated a significant differential improvement in the primary study outcome, health-related quality of life. Specifically, compared with the usual care group, intervention participants had greater improvement in the Short-Form Health Survey physical component summary (an increase of 2.7 versus 1.4 points, p=.046) and mental component summary (4.6 versus 2.5 points, p=.039). Significantly greater six-month improvements in mental health recovery were seen for the intervention group (p=.02), but no other between-group differences in secondary outcome measures were significant. The HARP program was associated with improved physical health- and mental health-related quality of life among individuals with serious mental illness and comorbid general medical conditions, suggesting the potential benefits of more widespread dissemination of peer-led disease self-management in this population.
Sinnema, Margje; Maaskant, Marian A; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M J; Boer, Harm; Curfs, Leopold M G; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T R M
Adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have an increased occurrence of several medical conditions. We report on the consequences of high morbidity rates such as prevalence rate of hospital admissions, medication use and surgery in a Dutch cohort of adults with PWS. Special attention is paid to causes and symptoms of serious illness. Participants were contacted via the Dutch Prader-Willi Parent Association and through physicians specializing in persons with ID. The persons with PWS and their main caregivers were visited at home. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews on 102 adults with PWS. The need for medical care in the neonatal period is associated with hypotonia and feeding problems. Hospital admissions for respiratory tract infections are frequent. During childhood most hospital admissions were due to PWS syndrome specific surgery. During adolescence hospital admissions occurred for scoliosis surgery and endocrine evaluations. At adult age, hospitalization was associated with inguinal hernia surgery, diabetes mellitus, psychosis, erysipelas, water and drug intoxications. In the older group, respiratory infections were again the main reason for hospital admissions. Frequently used medications at adult age included psychotropics, laxatives, anti-diabetics and dermatologic preparations. Abnormal drinking patterns, problems with anesthesia, decreased ability to vomit, abnormal pain awareness and unpredictable fever responses were frequent and often lead to delayed diagnoses of serious conditions. People with PWS are frequent users of medical-care. Reasons for hospitalization and medication use are age specific. Knowledge on the different presentation of symptoms in people with PWS is needed. In case of unexplained illness, disturbances of consciousness and behavioral changes in people with PWS, an infection should be ruled out in the first place. Information from this study may help in preventing conditions and recognizing conditions in an
Prieto Rodríguez, M Ángeles; Danet Danet, Alina; Escudero Carretero, María J; Ruiz Azarola, Ainhoa; Pérez Corral, Olivia; García Toyos, Noelia
To identify the attributes used by chronically-ill patients to describe physicians' competence in the public healthcare system in Andalucia. A total of 147 chronically-ill patients and their relatives were included in this qualitative study. Focal groups and in-depth interviews were performed in health centers and outpatient centers in Granada, Malaga, Seville, Cadiz and Cordoba between 2007 and 2008. Content analysis was carried out using Nudist Vivo. The participants defined medical competence as combining elements of technical ability and knowledge (awareness of and interest in the disease, continuity of follow-up and requesting specific tests) with interpersonal skills related to communication, information (informing, listening, trust, prompting questions) and attention (courtesy, cordiality, respect, interest and approachability). Primary care was expected to provide a close relationship, personalized treatment, information, drug prescription, and referral to specialized care. Specialized care was expected to provide an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment, information and follow-up. Highly valued aspects of emergency care were symptom relief, accurate diagnosis, referral to specialists and courtesy. Chronically-ill patients based their evaluation of medical competence on technical and interpersonal skills. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Emptaz, A.; Prevot, N.; Dubois, F.; Mahul, P.; Mariat, G.; Jospe, R.; Auboyer, C.; Cuilleron, M.
Introduction: Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a serious disease, difficult to diagnose in critically ill patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic performances of abdominal ultrasonography (US) and morphine-augmented cholescintigraphy (MC) and to improve diagnostic strategy in patients of intensive care unit (ICU) with suspected AA C. Methods: We retrospectively studied 82 consecutive ICU patients with suspected AA C. US was positive if the triad of gallbladder distension, gallbladder wall thickening and sludge was found. MC was positive if the gallbladder remained non-visualized after morphine injection. In a second time, other scintigraphic criteria of interpretation were tested, according to the visualization of the gallbladder before or after morphine administration. Treatment was decided on the basis of clinical, laboratory and imaging data. Results: The diagnosis of AAC was retained in 34 patients. US and MC had respectively for the diagnosis of AAC a sensitivity of 20.6 and 70.6%, and a specificity of 95.8 and 100%. Interpreting the MC as positive if the gallbladder remains non-visualized after morphine, as negative if it appears before, and as non-conclusive if visualized after, makes it possible to define respectively patients with high probability (100%), with low probability (7.5%) or with intermediate probability (39%) of AAC. Conclusions: MC is better than US for diagnosing AAC in critically ill patients, having in particular excellent specificity using the classical criteria of interpretation. MC must be thus performed in patients at risk for AAC, determined with clinical, laboratory and eventually echographic findings. To decrease false negative rate of MC, a probability categorical classification is proposed to improve patients' care. (author)
da Hora Passos, Rogerio; Ramos, Joao Gabriel Rosa; Gobatto, André; Caldas, Juliana; Macedo, Etienne; Batista, Paulo Benigno
In evidence-based medicine, multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for evaluating treatment benefits and ensuring the effectiveness of interventions. Patient-centered outcomes, such as mortality, are most often the preferred evaluated outcomes. While there is currently agreement on how to classify renal dysfunction in critically ill patients , the application frequency of this new classification system in RCTs has not previously been evaluated. In this study, we aim to assess the definition of renal dysfunction in multicenter RCTs involving critically ill patients that included mortality as a primary endpoint. A comprehensive search was conducted for publications reporting multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adult patients in intensive care units (ICUs) that included mortality as a primary outcome. MEDLINE and PUBMED were queried for relevant articles in core clinical journals published between May 2004 and December 2017. Of 418 articles reviewed, 46 multicenter RCTs with a primary endpoint related to mortality were included. Thirty-six (78.3%) of the trial reports provided information on renal function in the participants. Only seven articles (15.2%) included mean or median serum creatinine levels, mean creatinine clearance or estimated glomerular filtration rates. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was the most commonly used definition of renal dysfunction (20 studies; 43.5%). Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria were used in five (10.9%) trials. In thirteen trials (28.3%), no renal dysfunction criteria were reported. Only one trial excluded patients with renal dysfunction, and it used urinary output or need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) as criteria for this diagnosis. The presence of renal dysfunction was included as a baseline patient characteristic in
Jangala Mohan Sidhartha
Conclusions: Our study has assessed that hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus are the major risk factors for medical complications of hemorrhagic stroke. Female mortality rate was more when compared to males.
Viereck, Søren; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg
without an inappropriate amount of false positive cases. CONCLUSIONS: We report an overall high recognition of stroke by medical dispatchers. A final diagnosis of TIA, compared to ICH, was positively associated with recognition of acute stroke. Emergency medical dispatchers serve as the essential first...... stroke are therefore critical in organising emergency stroke care. We aimed to describe the sensitivity and positive predictive value of medical dispatchers' ability to recognise acute stroke during emergency calls, and to identify factors associated with recognition. METHODS: This was an observational...... study of 2653 consecutive unselected patients with a final diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). All admitted through the Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, during a 2-year study period (2012-2014). Final diagnoses were matched with dispatch codes from the Emergency Medical...
Jiang, Ke; You, Daming; Li, Zhendong; Wei, Wei; Mainstone, Mitchell
The emergence of rural health insurance plays a crucial role in alleviating the pressure on rural medical expenditure. Under the current medical system in northern China, rural medical insurance may reduce the free referral of patients with chronic diseases among hospitals. This study was carried out based on the results of an investigation of rural chronically-ill patients in eight county hospitals in northern China, as well as through the comparison and analysis of patients with chronic diseases, considering whether they were with or without rural health insurance. The main results showed that both age ( χ 2 = 22.9, p rural peoples' willingness to buy health insurance. Meanwhile, both the quality of the hospital's treatment ( B = 0.555, p rural health insurance had weakened the three relationships upon which the aforementioned correlations were based.
Junehag, Lena; Asplund, Kenneth; Svedlund, Marianne
After an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), people are encouraged to adopt a healthy lifestyle. But they are not always motivated to maintain the necessary lifestyle changes and need the right support to do it. In sparsely populated areas, people afflicted by an AMI have difficulty in finding standard rehabilitation programmes near their homes during the recovery, so they need alternative forms of support. The aim was to describe individual perceptions of their lifestyle and support, 1 year after an AMI, with or without mentorship. This study has a qualitative, descriptive design with data collected in individual interviews. Twenty men and women were interviewed 1 year after their first AMI, and 11 had been offered contact with mentors who had had an AMI. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Those with and without mentors had similarities and tendencies to variation in their perceptions, with both a positive and negative view of life. The participants were aware of the necessity of living a healthy lifestyle but some resisted doing so. They wished to live as before, and all saw the future positively. Having a mentor with the same experience could be valuable for some people, but more research is needed to understand the lack of motivation to make beneficial lifestyle changes after a serious health event as AMI. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Full Text Available Respiratory Diseases are public health concern worldwide. The diseases have been associated with air pollution especially indoor air pollution from biomass fuel burning in developing countries. However, researches on pollution levels and on association of respiratory diseases with biomass fuel pollution are limited. A study was therefore undertaken to characterize the levels of pollutants in biomass fuel using homes and examine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI disease in Nianjema village in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Pollution was assessed by measuring PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations in kitchen, living room and outdoors. ARI prevalence was assessed by use of questionnaire which gathered health information for all family members under the study. Results showed that PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations were highest in the kitchen and lowest outdoors. Kitchen concentrations were highest in the kitchen located in the living room for all pollutants except CO. Family size didnÃ¢Â€Â™t have effect on the levels measured in kitchens. Overall ARI prevalence for cooks and children under age 5 making up the exposed group was 54.67% with odds ratio (OR of 5.5; 95% CI 3.6 to 8.5 when compared with unexposed men and non-regular women cooks. Results of this study suggest an association between respiratory diseases and exposure to domestic biomass fuel smoke, but further studies with improved design are needed to confirm the association.
LeBlanc, Thomas W; Fish, Laura J; Bloom, Catherine T; El-Jawahri, Areej; Davis, Debra M; Locke, Susan C; Steinhauser, Karen E; Pollak, Kathryn I
Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) face a unique, difficult situation characterized by sudden changes in health, complex information, and pressure to make quick treatment decisions amid sizeable tradeoffs. Yet, little is known about patients' experiences with AML. We used qualitative methods to learn about their experiences with diagnosis and treatment decision-making to identify areas for improvement. We recruited hospitalized patients with AML to participate in semi-structured qualitative interviews about their experiences being diagnosed with AML, receiving information, and making a treatment decision. Interviews were conducted during their hospitalization for induction chemotherapy. We analyzed data by using a constant comparison approach. Thirty-two patients completed an interview. Four main themes emerged: (a) shock and suddenness, (b) difficulty processing information, (c) poor communication, and (d) uncertainty. Patients frequently described their diagnosis as shocking. They also felt that the amount of information was too great and too difficult to process, which negatively impacted their understanding. Patients frequently described a lack of emotional support from clinicians and described uncertainty about their prognosis, the number and nature of available treatments, and what to expect from treatment. Acute myeloid leukemia poses a sudden, emotionally challenging, information-laden situation, where little time is available to make important decisions. This results in difficulty processing information and is sometimes complicated by a lack of emotive communication from clinicians. Results indicate a need for targeted interventions to improve AML patients' understanding of illness and treatment options and to address their traumatic experiences around diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zapatero, A; Dot, I; Diaz, Y; Gracia, M P; Pérez-Terán, P; Climent, C; Masclans, J R; Nolla, J
To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill patients upon admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and its prognostic implications. A single-center, prospective observational study was carried out from January to November 2015. Patients were followed-up on until death or hospital discharge. The department of Critical Care Medicine of a university hospital. All adults admitted to the ICU during the study period, without known factors capable of altering serum 25(OH)D concentration. Determination of serum 25(OH)D levels within the first 24h following admission to the ICU. Prevalence and mortality at 28 days. The study included 135 patients, of which 74% presented deficient serum 25(OH)D levels upon admission to the ICU. Non-survivors showed significantly lower levels than survivors (8.14ng/ml [6.17-11.53] vs. 12ng/ml [7.1-20.30]; P=.04], and the serum 25(OH)D levels were independently associated to mortality (OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.05-7.86; P=.04]. The area under the ROC curve was 0.61 (95% CI 0.51-0.75), and the best cut-off point for predicting mortality was 10.9ng/ml. Patients with serum 25(OH)D<10.9ng/ml also showed higher acute kidney injury rates (13 vs. 29%; P=.02). Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent upon admission to the ICU. Severe Vitamin D deficiency (25[OH]D<10.9ng/ml) upon admission to the ICU is associated to acute kidney injury and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Schödel, Petra; Proescholdt, Martin; Brawanski, Alexander; Bele, Sylvia; Schebesch, Karl-Michael
Burr-hole trephine and insertion of an external ventricular drainage (EVD) is a common procedure in neurosurgical practice. In critically ill patients, the transport to the operating room, OR represents a major risk. Thus, the burr-hole trephine and implantation of an EVD is frequently performed on the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Since 2004, we have applied two different procedures: the conventional method with a mechanical compressed air or an electric drill, and an alternative method with a manual twist drill, including fixation of the EVD in a skull screw (Bolt Kit, Raumedic AG, Germany). This study was designed to evaluate the outcome of both surgical procedures. In this retrospective analysis we included 166 consecutive patients with acute hydrocephalus due to intracranial hemorrhage that had been operated at our neurosurgical ICU in a six years interval. We reviewed the charts for gender and age, kind of surgical procedure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-infections, duration of drainage, attempts of insertions, wound infections, misplacement rate, post-surgical hemorrhages, revisions, comorbidities and shunt-dependency. In 122 patients we applied the Bolt Kit System, in 44 patients the conventional method was performed. We found a significantly lower rate of CSF-infections and significantly fewer attempts of insertions in the Bolt Kit group (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). The rate of wound infections, misplacement, revisions, shunt-dependency and the post-surgical hemorrhages did not differ significantly. Our data indicate that the manual drill and the skull screw are safe and feasible tools in the treatment of acute hydrocephalus. Presumably, the direct skin contact is causative for the higher rate of CSF-infections when the conventional method is performed. The skull screw guides the EVD into the ventricle without skin contact. The lower number of insertions needed may be due to the fact that the skull screw allows just one trajectory for the insertion
Sandfort, Veit; Johnson, Alistair E W; Kunz, Lauren M; Vargas, Jose D; Rosing, Douglas R
We sought to evaluate the association of prolonged elevated heart rate (peHR) with survival in acutely ill patients. We used a large observational intensive care unit (ICU) database (Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III [MIMIC-III]), where frequent heart rate measurements were available. The peHR was defined as a heart rate >100 beats/min in 11 of 12 consecutive hours. The outcome was survival status at 90 days. We collected heart rates, disease severity (simplified acute physiology scores [SAPS II]), comorbidities (Charlson scores), and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnosis information in 31 513 patients from the MIMIC-III ICU database. Propensity score (PS) methods followed by inverse probability weighting based on the PS was used to balance the 2 groups (the presence/absence of peHR). Multivariable weighted logistic regression was used to assess for association of peHR with the outcome survival at 90 days adjusting for additional covariates. The mean age was 64 years, and the most frequent main disease category was circulatory disease (41%). The mean SAPS II score was 35, and the mean Charlson comorbidity score was 2.3. Overall survival of the cohort at 90 days was 82%. Adjusted logistic regression showed a significantly increased risk of death within 90 days in patients with an episode of peHR ( P < .001; odds ratio for death 1.79; confidence interval, 1.69-1.88). This finding was independent of median heart rate. We found a significant association of peHR with decreased survival in a large and heterogenous cohort of ICU patients.
Anglada-Martínez, Helena; Martin-Conde, Maite; Rovira-Illamola, Marina; Sotoca-Momblona, Jose Miguel; Sequeira, Ethel; Aragunde, Valentin; Codina-Jané, Carles
Poor adherence to medication is a prevalent issue that affects 50-60% of chronically ill patients. We present Medplan, a platform for patients/caregivers and healthcare professionals (HCPs) that aims to enhance adherence, increase patient medication knowledge, and facilitate communication between patients and HCPs. The Medplan platform was designed and developed by a multidisciplinary team composed of primary care and hospital physicians, pharmacists, patients, and developers. We questioned 62 patients in order to know their opinion about the different functions the app would incorporate and other possible features that should be taken into consideration. Medplan comprises a website for HCPs and an application (app) that is installed on the patient's phone. The app is available in Spanish, Catalan, and English. The patient's medication plan was introduced by the HCP and interfaced with the app. Each medicine is represented by an icon showing the indication of the treatment, the trade name, active ingredients, dose, and route of administration. Information about special requirements (e.g., need to take medication on an empty stomach), side effects, or lifestyle recommendations can also be provided. Additional functions include a medication reminder alarm system, by which patients can confirm whether or not they have taken the drug. Patients can self-track their adherence, and all data collected are sent automatically to the website for analysis by the HCP. Weekly motivation messages are sent to encourage adherence. A tool enabling interactive communication between patients and HCPs (primary care or hospital care) is also included. The app contains a feature enabling the HCP to verify the suitability of over-the-counter drugs. Medplan has the potential to significantly improve management of medication in chronically ill patients. A pilot study is being conducted to test whether Medplan is useful and effective.
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a syndrome characterised by rapid decline in glomerular filtration rate and retention of nitrogenous waste products such as urea and creatinine. The objective of this study was to study the prevalence, risk and outcome of women with obstetrical renal failure. Methods: This observational study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan from October 2009 to September 2010. Thirty-five patients with obstetrical acute renal failure were included in the study, patients with chronic renal diseases, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and renal stones were excluded from the study. A detailed history was followed by thorough examination and investigation. Their clinical history, physical examination and intake/urine output was recorded. Routine laboratory investigations were done related to each case and specialised investigations like renal scan, renal ultrasonography and renal biopsies were performed in selected cases where recovery was delayed for more than 3 weeks. Results: Total numbers of admissions in obstetric ward were 3,285. Pregnancy related acute renal failure was found in 35 (1.065%) women. Age ranged from 18-40 years. Most of the women belonged to age group 30-35. Out of 35 women 31.42% had postpartum haemorrhage. Ante partum haemorrhage was found in 25.71%, Eclampsia in 17.14%, DIC in 14.28%, and sepsis in 11.42%. Anuria was observed in 25 patients, remaining presented with oliguria (28.57%). Haemodialysis was done in 75% of patients, others were managed conservatively. Complete recovery was observed in 53% cases. Maternal mortality was 25.71% and foetal mortality was 22.85%. Conclusion: Pregnancy related ARF is one of the most common causes of ARF, it is a dangerous complication of pregnancy which carries very high mortality and morbidity. (author)
Stewart, Ian J; Faulk, Tarra I; Sosnov, Jonathan A; Clemens, Michael S; Elterman, Joel; Ross, James D; Howard, Jeffrey T; Fang, Raymond; Zonies, David H; Chung, Kevin K
Rhabdomyolysis has been associated with poor outcomes in patients with traumatic injury, especially in the setting of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, rhabdomyolysis has not been systematically examined in a large cohort of combat casualties injured in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. We conducted a retrospective study of casualties injured during combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan who were initially admitted to the intensive care unit from February 1, 2002, to February 1, 2011. Information on age, sex, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, Injury Severity Score (ISS), mechanism of injury, shock index, creatine kinase, and serum creatinine were collected. These variables were examined via multivariate logistic and Cox regression analyses to determine factors independently associated with rhabdomyolysis, AKI, and death. Of 6,011 admissions identified, a total of 2,109 patients met inclusion criteria and were included for analysis. Rhabdomyolysis, defined as creatine kinase greater than 5,000 U/L, was present in 656 subjects (31.1%). Risk factors for rhabdomyolysis identified on multivariable analysis included injuries to the abdomen and extremities, increased ISS, male sex, explosive mechanism of injury, and shock index greater than 0.9. After adjustment, patients with rhabdomyolysis had a greater than twofold increase in the odds of AKI. In the analysis for mortality, rhabdomyolysis was significantly associated with death until AKI was added, at which point it lost statistical significance. We found that rhabdomyolysis is associated with the development of AKI in combat casualties. While rhabdomyolysis was strongly associated with mortality on the univariate model and in conjunction with both ISS and age, it was not associated with mortality after the inclusion of AKI. This suggests that the effect of rhabdomyolysis on mortality may be mediated by AKI. Prognostic and epidemiologic study, level III.
Full Text Available Abstract The incubation period of infectious diseases, the time from infection with a microorganism to onset of disease, is directly relevant to prevention and control. Since explicit models of the incubation period enhance our understanding of the spread of disease, previous classic studies were revisited, focusing on the modeling methods employed and paying particular attention to relatively unknown historical efforts. The earliest study on the incubation period of pandemic influenza was published in 1919, providing estimates of the incubation period of Spanish flu using the daily incidence on ships departing from several ports in Australia. Although the study explicitly dealt with an unknown time of exposure, the assumed periods of exposure, which had an equal probability of infection, were too long, and thus, likely resulted in slight underestimates of the incubation period. After the suggestion that the incubation period follows lognormal distribution, Japanese epidemiologists extended this assumption to estimates of the time of exposure during a point source outbreak. Although the reason why the incubation period of acute infectious diseases tends to reveal a right-skewed distribution has been explored several times, the validity of the lognormal assumption is yet to be fully clarified. At present, various different distributions are assumed, and the lack of validity in assuming lognormal distribution is particularly apparent in the case of slowly progressing diseases. The present paper indicates that (1 analysis using well-defined short periods of exposure with appropriate statistical methods is critical when the exact time of exposure is unknown, and (2 when assuming a specific distribution for the incubation period, comparisons using different distributions are needed in addition to estimations using different datasets, analyses of the determinants of incubation period, and an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.
The incubation period of infectious diseases, the time from infection with a microorganism to onset of disease, is directly relevant to prevention and control. Since explicit models of the incubation period enhance our understanding of the spread of disease, previous classic studies were revisited, focusing on the modeling methods employed and paying particular attention to relatively unknown historical efforts. The earliest study on the incubation period of pandemic influenza was published in 1919, providing estimates of the incubation period of Spanish flu using the daily incidence on ships departing from several ports in Australia. Although the study explicitly dealt with an unknown time of exposure, the assumed periods of exposure, which had an equal probability of infection, were too long, and thus, likely resulted in slight underestimates of the incubation period. After the suggestion that the incubation period follows lognormal distribution, Japanese epidemiologists extended this assumption to estimates of the time of exposure during a point source outbreak. Although the reason why the incubation period of acute infectious diseases tends to reveal a right-skewed distribution has been explored several times, the validity of the lognormal assumption is yet to be fully clarified. At present, various different distributions are assumed, and the lack of validity in assuming lognormal distribution is particularly apparent in the case of slowly progressing diseases. The present paper indicates that (1) analysis using well-defined short periods of exposure with appropriate statistical methods is critical when the exact time of exposure is unknown, and (2) when assuming a specific distribution for the incubation period, comparisons using different distributions are needed in addition to estimations using different datasets, analyses of the determinants of incubation period, and an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is responsible for major epidemics worldwide. Autochthonous cases were recently reported in several European countries. Acute infection is thought to be monophasic. However reports on chronic pain related to CHIKV infection have been made. In particular, the fact that many of these patients do not respond well to usual analgesics suggests that the nature of chronic pain may be not only nociceptive but also neuropathic. Neuropathic pain syndromes require specific treatment and the identification of neuropathic characteristics (NC in a pain syndrome is a major step towards pain control. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study at the end of the major two-wave outbreak lasting 17 months in Réunion Island. We assessed pain in 106 patients seeking general practitioners with confirmed infection with the CHIK virus, and evaluated its impact on quality of life (QoL. Results The mean intensity of pain on the visual-analogical scale (VAS was 5.8 ± 2.1, and its mean duration was 89 ± 2 days. Fifty-six patients fulfilled the definition of chronic pain. Pain had NC in 18.9% according to the DN4 questionnaire. Conversely, about two thirds (65% of patients with NC had chronic pain. The average pain intensity was similar between patients with or without NC (6.0 ± 1.7 vs 6.1 ± 2.0. However, the total score of the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ(15.5 ± 5.2 vs 11.6 ± 5.2; p Conclusions There exists a specific chronic pain condition associated to CHIKV. Pain with NC seems to be associated with more aggressive clinical picture, more intense impact in QoL and more challenging pharmacological treatment.
Weinberger, Linda E; Sreenivasan, Shoba; Garrick, Thomas
In recent years, assisted suicide has been legalized in four states for those who are terminally ill and wish to end their lives with the assistance of lethal doses of medications prescribed by a physician. The ethics-related and legal questions raised by end-of-life suicide and decisional capacity to refuse treatment assessments are complex. In treating patients with end-stage medical conditions or disorders that severely affect the future quality of their lives, clinicians tend to engage in suicide prevention at all costs. Overriding the patient's expressed desire to die conflicts with another value, however, that of the individual's right to autonomy. We provide a framework for understanding these difficult decisions, by providing a review of the epidemiology of suicide in later life; reviewing findings from a unique dataset of suicides among the elderly obtained from the Los Angeles County Coroner's Office, as well as data from states with legalized assisted suicide; presenting a discussion of the two frameworks of suicidal ideation as a pathological versus an existential reaction; and giving a case example that highlights the dilemmas faced by clinicians addressing decisional capacity to refuse treatment in an elderly, medically ill patient who has expressed the wish to die. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Hellferscee, Orienka; Treurnicht, Florette K; Tempia, Stefano; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Kahn, Kathleen; Cohen, Adam L; Pretorius, Marthi; Cohen, Cheryl; Madhi, Shabir A; Venter, Marietjie
Human enteroviruses (EV) have been associated with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) in South Africa. We aimed to describe the molecular epidemiology of EV serotypes among patients hospitalized with SARI during 2009-2011. Study samples from patients were tested for the presence of enterovirus using a polymerase chain reaction assay. 8.2% (842/10 260) of SARI cases tested positive for enterovirus; 16% (7/45) were species EV-A, 44% (20/45) EV-B, 18% (8/45) EV-C and 22% (10/45) EV-D. Seventeen different EV serotypes were identified within EV-A to EV-D, of which EV-D68 (22%; 10/45) and Echovirus 3 (11%; 5/45) were the most prevalent. EV-D68 should be monitored in South Africa to assess the emergence of highly pathogenic strains. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Delgado, M; Zavala, E; Tomás, R; Fernandez, R
Proportional assist ventilation plus (PAV+) applies pressure depending on the patient's inspiratory effort, automatically adjusting flow and volume assist to changes in respiratory mechanics. We aimed to assess the clinical factors associated with the success of PAV+ as first-line support in the acute phase of critical illness. A prospective cohort study was carried out. Mechanically ventilated patients>24h were switched from assist-control ventilation to PAV+ as soon as they regained spontaneous breathing activity. PAV+ was set to deliver the highest assistance. We compared patients in whom PAV+ succeeded versus those in whom it failed. PAV+ succeeded in 12 (63%) patients, but failed in 7 (37%) due to tachypnea (n=4), hypercapnia (n=2), and metabolic acidosis (n=1), but without statistical significance. Both groups had similar clinical parameters. On the day of inclusion, total work of breathing per breath was lower in the successful PAV+ group (WOBTOT: 0.95 [0.8-1.35] vs. 1.6 [1.4-1.8] J/L; Psuccess was WOBTOTfactors associated with failure, though statistical significance was not reached. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Csörsz, Ilona; Kakuk, Péter; Mills, Eszter M; Molnár, Péter; Máth, János; Csabai, Márta
We attempted to identify whether and how the gender of the patient influences interpretations of an illness narrative. We investigated how medical and psychology undergraduates' (n = 313) views change according to the patient's gender, students' gender, and field of study. A short story about a female patient was chosen as stimulus material, and a gender-modified version with a male protagonist was created for comparison. Responses were content analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods. The female patient elicited more detailed descriptions and somatizing attributions. The gender of students had a stronger impact on responses than their field of study.
Deane, Frank P; McAlpine, Elizabeth; Byrne, Mitchell K; Davis, Esther L; Mortimer, Christine
Medication nonadherence among consumers with psychiatric disorders can significantly affect the health and wellbeing of the consumer and their family. Previous research has suggested that carers have an impact on consumer attitudes toward medication and adherence. Yet, how carer attitudes toward medication may be related to consumer attitudes and adherence has received little investigation. This exploratory study aimed to investigate the relationships between carer and consumer attitudes toward medication and consumer adherence behaviour. A cross-sectional survey assessing consumer and carer attitudes toward medication and consumer adherence was conducted amongst 42 consumer-carer dyads. Correlation analyses showed a positive association between consumer and carer attitudes toward medication and between consumer and carer attitudes with adherence. There was a general indication that the greater the difference between consumer and carer attitudes, the lower the level of adherence. Regression analyses revealed that while neither consumer nor carer attitudes were significant predictors of adherence, carer attitudes appeared to have a stronger role in adherence than consumer attitudes. These preliminary results highlight the importance of carer attitudes in relation to patient perceptions and behaviours toward medication, and thus the potential benefits of addressing both consumer and carer attitudes in any intervention for improving adherence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hartman-Ksycińska, Anna; Kluz-Zawadzka, Jolanta; Lewandowski, Bogumił
High-altitude illness is a result of prolonged high-altitude exposure of unacclimatized individuals. The illness is seen in the form of acute mountain sickness (AMS) which if not treated leads to potentially life-threatening high altitude pulmonary oedema and high-altitude cerebral oedema. Medical problems are caused by hypobaric hypoxia stimulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) release. As a result, the central nervous system, circulation and respiratory system function impairment occurs. The most important factor in AMS treatment is acclimatization, withdrawing further ascent and rest or beginning to descent; oxygen supplementation, and pharmacological intervention, and, if available, a portable hyperbaric chamber. Because of the popularity of high-mountain sports and tourism better education of the population at risk is essential.
Creating opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration and patient-centred care: how nurses, doctors, pharmacists and patients use communication strategies when managing medications in an acute hospital setting.
Liu, Wei; Gerdtz, Marie; Manias, Elizabeth
This paper examines the communication strategies that nurses, doctors, pharmacists and patients use when managing medications. Patient-centred medication management is best accomplished through interdisciplinary practice. Effective communication about managing medications between clinicians and patients has a direct influence on patient outcomes. There is a lack of research that adopts a multidisciplinary approach and involves critical in-depth analysis of medication interactions among nurses, doctors, pharmacists and patients. A critical ethnographic approach with video reflexivity was adopted to capture communication strategies during medication activities in two general medical wards of an acute care hospital in Melbourne, Australia. A mixed ethnographic approach combining participant observations, field interviews, video recordings and video reflexive focus groups and interviews was employed. Seventy-six nurses, 31 doctors, 1 pharmacist and 27 patients gave written consent to participate in the study. Data analysis was informed by Fairclough's critical discourse analytic framework. Clinicians' use of communication strategies was demonstrated in their interpersonal, authoritative and instructive talk with patients. Doctors adopted the language discourse of normalisation to standardise patients' illness experiences. Nurses and pharmacists employed the language discourses of preparedness and scrutiny to ensure that patient safety was maintained. Patients took up the discourse of politeness to raise medication concerns and question treatment decisions made by doctors, in their attempts to challenge decision-making about their health care treatment. In addition, the video method revealed clinicians' extensive use of body language in communication processes for medication management. The use of communication strategies by nurses, doctors, pharmacists and patients created opportunities for improved interdisciplinary collaboration and patient-centred medication
DE HERT, MARC; CORRELL, CHRISTOPH U.; BOBES, JULIO; CETKOVICH-BAKMAS, MARCELO; COHEN, DAN; ASAI, ITSUO; DETRAUX, JOHAN; GAUTAM, SHIV; MÖLLER, HANS-JURGEN; NDETEI, DAVID M.; NEWCOMER, JOHN W.; UWAKWE, RICHARD; LEUCHT, STEFAN
The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic treatment and disparities in health care access, utilization and provision that contribute to these poor physical health outcomes. We searched MEDLINE (1966 – August 2010) combining the MeSH terms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with the different MeSH terms of general physical disease categories to select pertinent reviews and additional relevant studies through cross-referencing to identify prevalence figures and factors contributing to the excess morbidity and mortality rates. Nutritional and metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, viral diseases, respiratory tract diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, sexual dysfunction, pregnancy complications, stomatognathic diseases, and possibly obesity-related cancers are, compared to the general population, more prevalent among people with SMI. It seems that lifestyle as well as treatment specific factors account for much of the increased risk for most of these physical diseases. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence that people with SMI are less likely to receive standard levels of care for most of these diseases. Lifestyle factors, relatively easy to measure, are barely considered for screening; baseline testing of numerous important physical parameters is insufficiently performed. Besides modifiable lifestyle factors and side effects of psychotropic medications, access to and quality of health care remains to be improved for individuals with SMI. PMID:21379357
McCarthy, Rose; Nuttall, Janet; Smith, Joyce; Hollins Martin, Caroline J
The most recent Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CMACE, 2011) identified human errors, specifically those of midwives and obstetricians/doctors as a fundamental component in contributing to maternal death in the U.K. This paper discusses these findings and outlines a project to provide training in Maternal-Acute Illness Management (M-AIM) to final year student midwives. Contents of the program are designed to educate and simulate AIM skills and increase confidence and clinical ability in early recognition, management and referral of the acutely ill woman. An outline of the Maternal-AIM program delivered at the University of Salford (Greater Manchester, UK) is presented to illustrate how this particular institution has responded to a perceived need voiced by local midwifery leaders. It is proposed that developing this area of expertise in the education system will better prepare student midwives for contemporary midwifery practice. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meredith E Young
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the impact of medical terminology on perceptions of disease. Specifically, we look at the changing public perceptions of newly medicalized disorders with accompanying newly medicalized terms (e.g. impotence has become erectile dysfunction disorder. Does using "medicalese" to label a recently medicalized disorder lead to a change in the perception of that condition? Undergraduate students (n = 52 rated either the medical or lay label for recently medicalized disorders (such as erectile dysfunction disorder vs. impotence and established medical conditions (such as a myocardial infarction vs. heart attack for their perceived seriousness, disease representativeness and prevalence. Students considered the medical label of the recently medicalized disease to be more serious (mean = 4.95 (SE = .27 vs. mean = 3.77 (SE = .24 on a ten point scale, more representative of a disease (mean = 2.47 (SE = .09 vs. mean = 1.83 (SE = .09 on a four point scale, and have lower prevalence (mean = 68 (SE = 12.6 vs. mean = 122 (SE = 18.1 out of 1,000 than the same disease described using common language. A similar pattern was not seen in the established medical conditions, even when controlled for severity. This study demonstrates that the use of medical language in communication can induce bias in perception; a simple switch in terminology results in a disease being perceived as more serious, more likely to be a disease, and more likely to be a rare condition. These findings regarding the conceptualization of disease have implications for many areas, including medical communication with the public, advertising, and public policy.
Sonali Rajesh Saraf
Conclusion: As NHL present with nonspecific symptoms, these tumours may not be detected in early stages and hence may not be treated appropriately. These patients have weakened immunity and hence are prone to infection and sepsis which can be a major cause of mortality. This autopsy study experience has shown that NHL can masquerade as acute febrile illness which if not detected early and treated adequately can turn fatal.
Genyao, Ye; Guilin, Wang; Shimin, Huang; Xiyuan, Cheng; Bingzhi, Mao; Yingqi, Li [North Taiping Road Hospital, Beijing, BJ (China)
The authors summarize the experiences in the medical management of 7 radiation accidents resulting in 5 cases of acute radiation sickness, 3 cases of subacute radiation sickness and 8 cases of overexposed persons with estimated physical doses below 1 Gy in the past 5 years. The therapeutic measures including the application of antiradiation drugs such as estriol and herbal medicine '208', measures to improve the microcirculation and transfusion of fetal liver cells, etc., were emphasized in the treatment of acute radiation sickness. For subacute radiation sickness, large doses of stanozolum (18 mg/d) in combination with 654-2 (60 mg/d) were administered as the principal therapeutic agents. The advances in the medical management of acute accidentally overexposed cases in China are briefly reviewed and discussed.
José Luis RAMÍREZ LUENGO
Full Text Available Whereas the 18th Century medical vocabulary is something that has been studied during recent years in Spain, the situation is very different in Latin America, where papers on this subject are very limited. In this case, this paper aims to study the denominations for illnesses that were discovered in a 18th Century New Spain document corpus: to do so, the corpus will be described and then the vocabulary used in the documents will be analysed; the paper will pay special attention to questions such as neologisms, fluctuating words and the presence of colloquial vocabulary. Thus, the purposes of the paper are three: 1 to demonstrate the importance of official documents for the study of medical vocabulary; 2 to provide some data for writing the history of this vocabulary; and 3 to note some analyses that should be done in the future.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaps in disease surveillance capacity, particularly for emerging infections and bioterrorist attack, highlight a need for efficient, real time identification of diseases. Methods We studied automated records from 1996 through 1999 of approximately 250,000 health plan members in greater Boston. Results We identified 152,435 lower respiratory infection illness visits, comprising 106,670 episodes during 1,143,208 person-years. Three diagnoses, cough (ICD9CM 786.2, pneumonia not otherwise specified (ICD9CM 486 and acute bronchitis (ICD9CM 466.0 accounted for 91% of these visits, with expected age and sex distributions. Variation of weekly occurrences corresponded closely to national pneumonia and influenza mortality data. There was substantial variation in geographic location of the cases. Conclusion This information complements existing surveillance programs by assessing the large majority of episodes of illness for which no etiologic agents are identified. Additional advantages include: a sensitivity, uniformity and efficiency, since detection of events does not depend on clinicians' to actively report diagnoses, b timeliness, the data are available within a day of the clinical event; and c ease of integration into automated surveillance systems. These features facilitate early detection of conditions of public health importance, including regularly occurring events like seasonal respiratory illness, as well as unusual occurrences, such as a bioterrorist attack that first manifests as respiratory symptoms. These methods should also be applicable to other infectious and non-infectious conditions. Knowledge of disease patterns in real time may also help clinicians to manage patients, and assist health plan administrators in allocating resources efficiently.
Wingate, D.; Phillips, S. F.; Lewis, S. J.; Malagelada, J. R.; Speelman, P.; Steffen, R.; Tytgat, G. N.
Acute uncomplicated diarrhoea is commonly treated by self-medication. Guidelines for treatment exist, but are inconsistent, sometimes contradictory, and often owe more to dogma than evidence. An ad hoc multidisciplinary group has reviewed the literature to determine best practice. In general it is
Wright, Carlee J; Sargeant, Jan M; Edge, Victoria L; Ford, James D; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow; Shiwak, Inez; Flowers, Charlie; Harper, Sherilee L
One of the highest self-reported incidence rates of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in the global peer-reviewed literature occurs in Inuit communities in the Canadian Arctic. This high incidence of illness could be due, in part, to the consumption of contaminated water, as many northern communities face challenges related to the quality of municipal drinking water. Furthermore, many Inuit store drinking water in containers in the home, which could increase the risk of contamination between source and point-of-use (i.e., water recontamination during storage). To examine this risk, this research characterized drinking water collection and storage practices, identified potential risk factors for water contamination between source and point-of-use, and examined possible associations between drinking water contamination and self-reported AGI in the Inuit community of Rigolet, Canada. The study included a cross-sectional census survey that captured data on types of drinking water used, household practices related to drinking water (e.g., how it was collected and stored), physical characteristics of water storage containers, and self-reported AGI. Additionally, water samples were collected from all identified drinking water containers in homes and analyzed for presence of Escherichia coli and total coliforms. Despite municipally treated tap water being available in all homes, 77.6% of households had alternative sources of drinking water stored in containers, and of these containers, 25.2% tested positive for total coliforms. The use of transfer devices and water dippers (i.e., smaller bowls or measuring cups) for the collection and retrieval of water from containers were both significantly associated with increased odds of total coliform presence in stored water (OR transfer device = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-11.7; OR dipper = 13.4, 95% CI 3.8-47.1). Twenty-eight-day period prevalence of self-reported AGI during the month before the survey was 17.2% (95% CI 13
Koenig, Harold G; Pearce, Michelle J; Nelson, Bruce; Daher, Noha
We compared the effectiveness of religiously integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (RCBT) versus standard CBT (SCBT) on increasing optimism in persons with major depressive disorder (MDD) and chronic medical illness. Participants aged 18-85 were randomized to either RCBT (n = 65) or SCBT (n = 67) to receive ten 50-min sessions remotely (94% by telephone) over 12 weeks. Optimism was assessed at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks by the Life Orientation Test-Revised. Religiosity was assessed at baseline using a 29-item scale composed of religious importance, individual religious practices, intrinsic religiosity, and daily spiritual experiences. Mixed effects growth curve models were used to compare the effects of treatment group on trajectory of change in optimism. In the intention-to-treat analysis, both RCBT and SCBT increased optimism over time, although there was no significant difference between treatment groups (B = -0.75, SE = 0.57, t = -1.33, P = .185). Analyses in the highly religious and in the per protocol analysis indicated similar results. Higher baseline religiosity predicted an increase in optimism over time (B = 0.07, SE = 0.02, t = 4.12, P optimism predicted a faster decline in depressive symptoms over time (B = -0.61, SE = 0.10, t = -6.30, P optimism in persons with MDD and chronic medical illness. While baseline religiosity does not moderate this effect, religiosity predicts increases in optimism over time independent of treatment group. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
da Rocha Neto, Helio Gomes; Rosenheck, Robert A; Stefanovics, Elina A; Cavalcanti, Maria Tavares
The authors evaluated whether a psychiatric clerkship reduces stigmatized attitudes towards people with mental illness among medical students. A 56-item questionnaire was used to assess the attitudes of medical students towards patients with mental illness and their beliefs about its causes before and after their participation in their psychiatric clerkship at a major medical school in Rio de Janeiro. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors, reflecting "social acceptance of people with mental illness," "normalizing roles for people with mental illness in society," "non-belief in supernatural causes for mental illness," and "belief in bio-psychosocial causes for mental illness." Analysis of variance was used to evaluate changes in these factors before and after the clerkship. One significant difference was identified with a higher score on the factor representing social acceptance after as compared to before the clerkship (p = 0.0074). No significant differences were observed on the other factors. Participation in a psychiatric clerkship was associated with greater social acceptance but not with improvement on other attitudinal factors. This may reflect ceiling effects in responses before the clerkship concerning supernatural and bio-psychosocial beliefs about causes of mental illness that left little room for change.
Risør, Bettina Wulff; Lisby, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan
Background Medication errors have received extensive attention in recent decades and are of significant concern to healthcare organisations globally. Medication errors occur frequently, and adverse events associated with medications are one of the largest causes of harm to hospitalised patients...... cabinet, automated dispensing and barcode medication administration; (2) non-patient specific automated dispensing and barcode medication administration. The occurrence of administration errors was observed in three 3 week periods. The error rates were calculated by dividing the number of doses with one...
Cutler, Janis L.; Harding, Kelli J.; Hutner, Lucy A.; Cortland, Clarissa; Graham, Mark J.
Objective: The authors designed an intervention to reduce beginning medical students' stigmatization of people with chronic mental illness (CMI). Methods: Pre-clinical medical students visited a state psychiatric facility's "Living Museum," a combination patient art studio/display space, as the intervention. During the visit, students interacted…
Piątkowski, Włodzimierz; Skrzypek, Michał
The cognitive identity of medical sociology has developed in a historical perspective in the context of a specific double frame of reference comprising medicine and general sociology. The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the process of the development of the subdiscipline's research specificity in Poland, drawing attention to the general-sociological context of the conceptualization of basic interpretive and analytical sociomedical categories. In this aspect, the presented study is based on the analysis of Polish sociomedical and general-sociological research published from the early 1960s until 1989. The purpose of the study is also to describe in this perspective the structure of the research field of contemporary Western medical sociology, which was a major point of reference in this process. A look at the chronology of how the scientific identity of medical sociology developed in Poland from a historical perspective shows the gradual balancing-out of the subdiscipline's medical references, typical of the early stage of its development, and manifested in the implementation of research projects for the requirements of doctors, through consistently developed and cultivated connections with general sociology manifested in complementing the knowledge of society with aspects related to health and illness. A sine qua non condition for undertaking this scope of research was to work out strictly sociological formulations of these concepts, which was accomplished as a result of the successful reception of general sociology by the subdiscipline in question. The contemporary understanding of the research field of Polish medical sociology defined by Magdalena Sokołowska and developed as part of the 'school of medical sociology', which she initiated, is characterized by the maintenance of close relations with general sociology (affiliations of sociomedical departments in academic sociological institutions, etc.), and at the same time, by partnership cooperation with
Full Text Available Hyperglycemia during chemotherapy occurs in approximately 10% to 30% of patients. Glucocorticoids and L-asparaginase are well known to cause acute hyperglycemia during chemotherapy. Long-term hyperglycemia is also frequently observed, especially in patients with hematologic malignancies treated with L-asparaginase-based regimens and total body irradiation. Glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia often develops because of increased insulin resistance, diminished insulin secretion, and exaggerated hepatic glucose output. Screening strategies for this condition include random glucose testing, hemoglobin A1c testing, oral glucose loading, and fasting plasma glucose screens. The management of hyperglycemia starts with insulin or sulfonylurea, depending on the type, dose, and delivery of the glucocorticoid formulation. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors are associated with a high incidence of hyperglycemia, ranging from 13% to 50%. Immunotherapy, such as anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1 antibody treatment, induces hyperglycemia with a prevalence of 0.1%. The proposed mechanism of immunotherapy-induced hyperglycemia is an autoimmune process (insulitis. Withdrawal of the PD-1 inhibitor is the primary treatment for severe hyperglycemia. The efficacy of glucocorticoid therapy is not fully established and the decision to resume PD-1 inhibitor therapy depends on the severity of the hyperglycemia. Diabetic patients should achieve optimized glycemic control before initiating treatment, and glucose levels should be monitored periodically in patients initiating mTOR inhibitor or PD-1 inhibitor therapy. With regard to hyperglycemia caused by anti-cancer therapy, frequent monitoring and proper management are important for promoting the efficacy of anti-cancer therapy and improving patients' quality of life.
Hanghøj, Signe; Boisen, Kirsten A
's views. Data was analyzed using a thematic synthesis approach. RESULTS: Of 3,655 records 28 articles with both quantitative, qualitative, and q-methodology study designs were included in the review. The synthesis led to the following key themes: Relations, adolescent development, health and illness......, forgetfulness, organization, medicine complexity, and financial costs. Most reported barriers to adherence were not unique to specific diseases. CONCLUSION: Some barriers seem to be specific to adolescence; for example, relations to parents and peers and adolescent development. Knowledge and assessment...
Rodríguez, A; Reyes, L F; Monclou, J; Suberviola, B; Bodí, M; Sirgo, G; Solé-Violán, J; Guardiola, J; Barahona, D; Díaz, E; Martín-Loeches, I; Restrepo, M I
Serum procalcitonin (PCT) concentration could be increased in patients with renal dysfunction in the absence of bacterial infection. To determine the interactions among serum renal biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) and serum PCT concentration, in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to lung influenza infection. Secondary analysis of a prospective multicentre observational study. 148 Spanish ICUs. ICU patients admitted with influenza infection without bacterial co-infection. Clinical, laboratory and hemodynamic variables were recorded. AKI was classified as AKI I or II based on creatinine (Cr) concentrations (≥1.60-2.50mg/dL and Cr≥2.51-3.99mg/dL, respectively). Patients with chronic renal disease, receiving renal replacement treatment or with Cr>4mg/dL were excluded. Spearman's correlation, simple and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. None. Out of 663 patients included in the study, 52 (8.2%) and 10 (1.6%) developed AKI I and II, respectively. Patients with AKI were significantly older, had more comorbid conditions and were more severally ill. PCT concentrations were higher in patients with AKI (2.62 [0.60-10.0]ng/mL vs. 0.40 [0.13-1.20]ng/mL, p=0.002). Weak correlations between Cr/PCT (rho=0.18) and Urea (U)/PCT (rho=0.19) were identified. Simple linear regression showed poor interaction between Cr/U and PCT concentrations (Cr R 2 =0.03 and U R 2 =0.018). Similar results were observed during multiple linear regression analysis (Cr R 2 =0.046 and U R 2 =0.013). Although PCT concentrations were slightly higher in patients with AKI, high PCT concentrations are not explained by AKI and could be warning sign of a potential bacterial infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Valette, Xavier; Desmeulles, Isabelle; Savary, Benoit; Masson, Romain; Seguin, Amélie; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Brunet, Jennifer; Verrier, Pierre; Pottier, Véronique; Orabona, Marie; Samba, Désiré; Viquesnel, Gérald; Lermuzeaux, Mathilde; Hazera, Pascal; Dutheil, Jean-Jacques; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; du Cheyron, Damien
To test whether hydration with bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride reduces the risk of contrast-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Prospective, double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled study. Three French ICUs. Critically ill patients with stable renal function (n = 307) who received intravascular contrast media. Hydration with 0.9% sodium chloride or 1.4% sodium bicarbonate administered with the same infusion protocol: 3 mL/kg during 1 hour before and 1 mL/kg/hr during 6 hours after contrast medium exposure. The primary endpoint was the development of contrast-associated acute kidney injury, as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, 72 hours after contrast exposure. Patients randomized to the bicarbonate group (n = 151) showed a higher urinary pH at the end of the infusion than patients randomized to the saline group (n = 156) (6.7 ± 2.1 vs 6.2 ± 1.8, respectively; p 0.99) were also similar between the saline and bicarbonate groups, respectively. Except for urinary pH, none of the outcomes differed between the two groups. Among ICU patients with stable renal function, the benefit of using sodium bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride for preventing contrast-associated acute kidney injury is marginal, if any.
Owiti, J A; Bowers, L
This paper offers a narrative review of the 22 studies of medication refusal in acute psychiatry. Because of varied definitions of medication refusal, diverse methodologies and few rigorous studies, it has not been possible to draw firm conclusions on the average rate of refusal of psychotropic medications in acute psychiatry. However, it is clear that medication refusal is common and leads to poor outcomes characterized by higher rates of seclusion, restraint, threats of, and actual, assaults and longer hospitalizations. There are no statistically significant differences between refusers and acceptors in gender, marital status and preadmission living arrangements. Although no firm conclusions on the influence of ethnicity, status at admission and diagnosis on refusal, the refusers are more likely to have higher number of previous hospitalizations and history of prior refusal. The review indicates that staff factors such as the use of temporary staff, lack of confidence in ward staff and ineffective ward structure are associated with higher rates of medication refusal. Comprehensive knowledge of why, and how, patients refuse medication is lacking. Research on medication refusal is still fragmented, of variable methodological quality and lacks an integrating model. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.
Coulehan, Jack; Granek, Iris A
One respected tradition in medical education holds that physicians should struggle to maintain sensibility, openness, and compassion in the face of strong contravening tendencies. However, today's medical education is structured around a more recent tradition, which maintains that physicians should struggle to develop emotional detachment as a prerequisite for objectivity. In this model, sensibility and reflective capacity are potentially subversive. Reflective writing is one component of a revisionist approach to medical education that explicitly addresses reflective "habits of the mind" as core competencies and builds on existential concerns voiced by medical students. In response to Wald and colleagues' study, the authors reflect on the role of repeated formative feedback in developing reflective capacity. Formative feedback is as critical in this process as it is in traditional clinical learning. The authors emphasize that well-designed rubrics can assist learners in delineating desired outcomes and teachers in providing appropriate guidance.
Frayne, Susan M; Holmes, Tyson H; Berg, Eric; Goldstein, Mary K; Berlowitz, Dan R; Miller, Donald R; Pogach, Leonard M; Laungani, Kaajal J; Lee, Tina T; Moos, Rudolf
Background Mental health condition (MHC) comorbidity is associated with lower intensity care in multiple clinical scenarios. However, little is known about the effect of MHC upon clinicians? decisions about intensifying antiglycemic medications in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control. We examined whether delay in intensification of antiglycemic medications in response to an elevated Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value is longer for patients with MHC than for those without MHC, and whether an...
Phillips, L Alison; Cohen, Joshua; Burns, Edith; Abrams, Jessica; Renninger, Steffi
Non-adherence to health behaviors required for chronic illness self-management is pervasive. Advancing health-behavior theory to include behavioral initiation and maintenance factors, including reflective (e.g., belief- and feedback-based) and automatic (e.g., habit-based) mechanisms of adherence to different treatment-related behaviors could improve non-adherence prediction and intervention efforts. To test behavioral initiation and maintenance factors from an extended common sense self-regulation theoretical framework for predicting medication adherence and physical activity among patients with Type 2 diabetes. Patients (n = 133) in an in-person (n = 80) or online (n = 53) version of the study reported treatment-related (1) barriers, (2) beliefs and experiential feedback (reflective mechanisms of treatment-initiation and short-term repetition), and (3) habit strength (automatic mechanism of treatment-maintenance) for taking medication and engaging in regular physical activity at baseline. Behaviors were assessed via self-reports (n = 133) and objectively (electronic monitoring pill bottles, accelerometers; n = 80) in the subsequent month. Treatment-specific barriers and habit strength predicted self-reported and objective adherence for both behaviors. Beliefs were inconsistently related to behavior, even when habits were "weak". Experiential feedback from behavior was not related to adherence. Among patients with Type 2 diabetes diagnosis, medication and physical activity adherence were better predicted by their degree of automatic behavioral repetition than their beliefs/experiences with the treatment-actions. Habit strength should be an intervention target for chronic illness self-management; assessing it in practice settings may effectively detect non-adherence to existing treatment-regimens. However, future research and further refining of CS-SRM theory regarding the processes required for such habit development are needed.
Niles, Andrea N; Dour, Halina J; Stanton, Annette L; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Rose, Raphael D; Craske, Michelle G
Anxiety is linked to a number of medical conditions, yet few studies have examined how symptom severity relates to medical comorbidity. The current study assessed associations between severity of anxiety and depression and the presence of medical conditions in adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Nine-hundred eighty-nine patients diagnosed with panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders reported on the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and on diagnoses of 11 medical conditions. Severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms was strongly associated with having more medical conditions over and above control variables, and the association was as strong as that between BMI and disease. Odds of having asthma, heart disease, back problems, ulcer, migraine headache and eyesight difficulties also increased as anxiety and depressive symptom severity increased. Anxiety symptoms were independently associated with ulcer, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with heart disease, migraine, and eyesight difficulties. These findings add to a growing body of research linking anxiety disorders with physical health problems and indicate that anxiety and depressive symptoms deserve greater attention in their association with disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Dawn I Velligan,1 Martha Sajatovic,2 Ainslie Hatch,3 Pavel Kramata,4 John P Docherty3 1Department of Psychiatry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, 2Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, 3Medical Affairs, ODH, Inc., Princeton, NJ, 4C4 MedSolutions LLC, Yardley, PA, USA Background: Antipsychotic medication reduces the severity of serious mental illness (SMI and improves patient outcomes only when medicines were taken as prescribed. Nonadherence to the treatment of SMI increases the risk of relapse and hospitalization and reduces the quality of life. It is necessary to understand the factors influencing nonadherence to medication in order to identify appropriate interventions. This systematic review assessed the published evidence on modifiable reasons for nonadherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with SMI. Methods: Articles published between January 1, 2005, and September 10, 2015, were searched on MEDLINE through PubMed. Abstracts were independently screened by 2 randomly assigned authors for inclusion, and disagreement was resolved by another author. Selected full-text articles were divided among all authors for review. Results: A qualitative analysis of data from 36 articles identified 11 categories of reasons for nonadherence. Poor insight was identified as a reason for nonadherence in 55.6% (20/36 of studies, followed by substance abuse (36.1%, 13/36, a negative attitude toward medication (30.5%, 11/36, medication side effects (27.8%, 10/36, and cognitive impairments (13.4%, 7/36. A key reason directly associated with intentional nonadherence was a negative attitude toward medication, a mediator of effects of insight and therapeutic alliance. Substance abuse was the only reason consistently associated with unintentional nonadherence, regardless of type and stage of SMI. Discussion: Although adherence research is inherently biased
T B Singh
Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication in hospitalized patients. There are few comparative studies on hospital-acquired AKI (HAAKI in medical, surgical, and ICU patients. This study was conducted to compare the epidemiological characteristics, clinical profiles, and outcomes of HAAKI among these three units. All adult patients (>18 years of either gender who developed AKI based on RIFLE criteria (using serum creatinine, 48 h after hospitalization were included in the study. Patients of acute on chronic renal failure and AKI in pregnancy were excluded. Incidence of HAAKI in medical, surgical, and ICU wards were 0.54%, 0.72%, and 2.2% respectively ( P < 0.0001. There was no difference in age distribution among the groups, but onset of HAAKI was earliest in the medical ward ( P = 0.001. RIFLE-R was the most common AKI in medical (39.2% and ICU (50% wards but in the surgical ward, it was RIFLE-F that was most common (52.6%. Acute tubular necrosis was more common in ICU ( P = 0.043. Most common etiology of HAAKI in medical unit was drug induced (39.2%, whereas in surgical and ICU, it was sepsis (34% and 35.2% respectively. Mortality in ICU, surgical and medical units were 73.5%, 43.42%, and 37.2%, respectively ( P = 0.003. Length of hospital stay in surgical, ICU and medical units were different ( P = 0.007. This study highlights that the characters of HAAKI are different in some aspects among different hospital settings.
Brown, E; Gray, R
Although people with schizophrenia require medication to manage symptoms such as hearing voices, most do not take it as prescribed (they are non-adherent). We talked to psychiatrists, nurses and pharmacists about how they work with patients to help them be better at sticking with their medication. Although the professionals that we talked to recognized that treatment adherence was a major issue in their clinical work, they did not make best use of evidence-based interventions to address the problem. Often their practice was based on what they believed would work (e.g. patient education) even when the research shows that way of working to be ineffective. As far as we can determine, this is the first study to examine what interventions different mental health professionals report that they use in clinical practice to address patient's medication non-adherence. Non-adherence with medication is common in patients with schizophrenia. Addressing adherence to treatment may enhance clinical outcomes. Our aim was to explore mental health professionals experience and practise managing medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia. In this qualitative study, we interviewed mental health professionals from three key groups involved in promoting adherence: pharmacists, psychiatrists and nurses. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach. Thirty-five health professionals participated. From these interviews, we identified five main themes: my beliefs inform my practice; withholding information; adherence is important; who is responsible for promoting adherence?; and is it ok to pay people to take medication? Our overarching meta-theme was that practice with regard to promoting adherence was informed by beliefs and not by evidence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to explore different mental health professionals' approaches to working with patients who do not want to take medication. The significance of participants' personal
Teo, Irene; Singh, Ratna; Malhotra, Chetna; Ozdemir, Semra; Dent, Rebecca A; Kumarakulasinghe, Nesaretnam Barr; Yeo, Wee Lee; Cheung, Yin Bun; Malhotra, Rahul; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Yee, Alethea Chung Pheng; Chan, Noreen; Wu, Huei Yaw; Chin, Soh Mun; Allyn, Hum Yin Mei; Yang, Grace Meijuan; Neo, Patricia Soek Hui; Nadkarni, Nivedita V; Harding, Richard; Finkelstein, Eric A
Advanced cancer significantly impacts quality of life of patients and families as they cope with symptom burden, treatment decision-making, uncertainty and costs of treatment. In Singapore, information about the experiences of advanced cancer patients and families and the financial cost they incur for end-of-life care is lacking. Understanding of this information is needed to inform practice and policy to ensure continuity and affordability of care at the end of life. The primary objectives of the Cost of Medical Care of Patients with Advanced Serious Illness in Singapore (COMPASS) cohort study are to describe changes in quality of life and to quantify healthcare utilization and costs of patients with advanced cancer at the end of life. Secondary objectives are to investigate patient and caregiver preferences for diagnostic and prognostic information, preferences for end-of-life care, caregiver burden and perceived quality of care and to explore how these change as illness progresses and finally to measure bereavement adjustment. The purpose of this paper is to present the COMPASS protocol in order to promote scientific transparency. This cohort study recruits advanced cancer patients (n = 600) from outpatient medical oncology clinics at two public tertiary healthcare institutions in Singapore. Patients and their primary informal caregiver are surveyed every 3 months until patients' death; caregivers are followed until 6 months post patient death. Patient medical and billing records are obtained and merged with patient survey data. The treating medical oncologists of participating patients are surveyed to obtain their beliefs regarding care delivery for the patient. The study will allow combination of self-report, medical, and cost data from various sources to present a comprehensive picture of the end-of-life experience of advanced cancer patients in a unique Asian setting. This study is responsive to Singapore's National Strategy for Palliative Care which
Harold G. Koenig
Full Text Available This paper (1 reviews the physical and religious barriers to CBT that disabled medically ill-depressed patients face, (2 discusses research on the relationship between religion and depression-induced physiological changes, (3 describes an ongoing randomized clinical trial of religious versus secular CBT in chronically ill patients with mild-to-moderate major depression designed to (a overcome physical and religious barriers to CBT and (b compare the efficacy of religious versus secular CBT in relieving depression and improving immune and endocrine functions, and (4 presents preliminary results that illustrate the technical difficulties that have been encountered in implementing this trial. CBT is being delivered remotely via instant messaging, telephone, or Skype, and Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, and Hindu versions of religious CBT are being developed. The preliminary results described here are particular to the technologies employed in this study and are not results from the CBT clinical trial whose findings will be published in the future after the study ends and data are analyzed. The ultimate goal is to determine if a psychotherapy delivered remotely that integrates patients’ religious resources improves depression more quickly than a therapy that ignores them, and whether religious CBT is more effective than conventional CBT in reversing depression-induced physiological changes.
Full Text Available Niklas Ekerstad,1,2 Björn W Karlson,3 Synneve Dahlin Ivanoff,4 Sten Landahl,5 David Andersson,6 Emelie Heintz,7 Magnus Husberg,2 Jenny Alwin2 1Department of Cardiology, NU (NÄL-Uddevalla Hospital Group, Trollhattan, 2Division of Health Care Analysis, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, 3Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, 4Centre for Ageing and Health, AGECAP, Department of Health and Rehabilitation, 5Department of Geriatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 6Division of Economics, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, 7Health Outcomes and Economic Evaluation Research Group, Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute care of frail elderly patients in a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA unit is superior to the care in a conventional acute medical care unit. Design: This is a clinical, prospective, randomized, controlled, one-center intervention study. Setting: This study was conducted in a large county hospital in western Sweden. Participants: The study included 408 frail elderly patients, aged ≥75 years, in need of acute in-hospital treatment. The patients were allocated to the intervention group (n=206 or control group (n=202. Mean age of the patients was 85.7 years, and 56% were female. Intervention: This organizational form of care is characterized by a structured, systematic interdisciplinary CGA-based care at an acute elderly care unit. Measurements: The primary outcome was the change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL 3 months after discharge from hospital, measured by the Health Utilities Index-3 (HUI-3. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, rehospitalizations, and hospital care costs. Results: After adjustment by
Gold, Katherine J; Shih, Elizabeth R; Goldman, Edward B; Schwenk, Thomas L
State medical licensing boards are responsible for evaluating physician impairment. Given the stigma generated by mental health issues among physicians and in the medical training culture, we were interested in whether states asked about mental and physical health conditions differently and whether questions focused on current impairment. Two authors reviewed physician medical licensing applications for US physicians seeking first-time licensing in 2013 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Questions about physical and mental health, as well as substance abuse, were identified and coded as to whether or not they asked about diagnosis and/or treatment or limited the questions to conditions causing physician impairment. Forty-three (84%) states asked questions about mental health conditions, 43 (84%) about physical health conditions, and 47 (92%) about substance use. States were more likely to ask for history of treatment and prior hospitalization for mental health and substance use, compared with physical health disorders. Among states asking about mental health, just 23 (53%) limited all questions to disorders causing functional impairment and just 6 (14%) limited to current problems. While most state medical licensing boards ask about mental health conditions or treatment, only half limited queries to disorders causing impairment. Differences in how state licensing boards assess mental health raise important ethical and legal questions about assessing physician ability to practice and may discourage treatment for physicians who might otherwise benefit from appropriate care.
Zhao, Hua; Wang, Xiaoting; Liu, Dawei; Zhang, Hongmin; He, Huaiwu; Long, Yun
To evaluate the diagnostic value and potential therapeutic impact of Peking Union Medical College Hospital critical ultrasonic management (PCUM) in the early management of critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Patients admitted into the ICU of Peking Union Medical College Hospital for ARF were consecutively recruited over a 18-month period. Patients were randomly divided into conventional group and PCUM group (critical care ultrasonic examination was added in addition to conventional examinations). The two groups were compared with respect to time to preliminary diagnosis, time to final diagnosis, diagnostic accuracy, time to treatment response, time to other examination. A total of 187 patients were included in this study. The two groups showed no significant differences in general clinical information or final diagnosis (P > 0.05). The PCUM group had a shorter time to preliminary diagnosis, time to final diagnosis, time to treatment response, time to X-ray/CT examination, and a higher diagnostic accuracy than the conventional group (P < 0.001). PCUM had high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (sensitivity 92.0%, specificity 98.5%), acute pulmonary edema (sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 96.1%), pulmonary consolidation (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 98.6%), COPD/asthma (sensitivity 84.2%, specificity 98.7%). The PCUM is seem to be an attractive complementary diagnostic tool and able to contribute to an early therapeutic decision for the patients with ARF.
Introduction: STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons\\' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions) is a new, systems-defined medicine review tool. We compared the performance of STOPP to that of established Beers\\' criteria in detecting potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) and related adverse drug events (ADEs) in older patients presenting for hospital admission. METHODS: we prospectively studied 715 consecutive acute admissions to a university teaching hospital. Diagnoses, reason for admission and concurrent medications were recorded. STOPP and Beers\\' criteria were applied. PIMs with clear causal connection or contribution to the principal reason for admission were determined. RESULTS: median patient age (interquartile range) was 77 (72-82) years. Median number of prescription medicines was 6 (range 0-21). STOPP identified 336 PIMs affecting 247 patients (35%), of whom one-third (n = 82) presented with an associated ADE. Beers\\' criteria identified 226 PIMs affecting 177 patients (25%), of whom 43 presented with an associated ADE. STOPP-related PIMs contributed to 11.5% of all admissions. Beers\\' criteria-related PIMs contributed to significantly fewer admissions (6%). CONCLUSION: STOPP criteria identified a significantly higher proportion of patients requiring hospitalisation as a result of PIM-related adverse events than Beers\\' criteria. This finding has significant implications for hospital geriatric practice.
Kundavaram Paul Prabhakar Abhilash
Full Text Available Background: Acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI may have similar clinical presentation, and the etiology is varied and region specific. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in South India. All adult patients presenting with AUFI of 3-14 days duration were evaluated for etiology, and the differences in presentation and outcome were analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 1258 patients. A microbiological cause was identified in 82.5% of our patients. Scrub typhus was the most common cause of AUFI (35.9% followed by dengue (30.6%, malaria (10.4%, enteric fever (3.7%, and leptospirosis (0.6%. Both scrub typhus and dengue fever peaked during the monsoon season and the cooler months, whereas no seasonality was observed with enteric fever and malaria. The mean time to presentation was longer in enteric fever (9.9 [4.7] days and scrub typhus (8.2 [3.2] days. Bleeding manifestations were seen in 7.7% of patients, mostly associated with dengue (14%, scrub typhus (4.2%, and malaria (4.6%. The requirement of supplemental oxygen, invasive ventilation, and inotropes was higher in scrub typhus, leptospirosis, and malaria. The overall mortality rate was 3.3% and was highest with scrub typhus (4.6% followed by dengue fever (2.3%. Significant clinical predictors of scrub typhus were breathlessness (odds ratio [OR]: 4.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.38-7.3, total whole blood cell count >10,000 cells/mm 3 (OR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.64-3.24, serum albumin <3.5 g % (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.68-3.2. Overt bleeding manifestations (OR: 2.98; 95% CI: 1.84-4.84, and a platelet count of <150,000 cells/mm 3 (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.47-2.98 were independent predictors of dengue fever. Conclusion: The similarity in clinical presentation and diversity of etiological agents demonstrates the complexity of diagnosis and treatment of AUFI in South India. The etiological profile will be of use in the development of
Ekerstad, Niklas; Karlson, Björn W; Dahlin Ivanoff, Synneve; Landahl, Sten; Andersson, David; Heintz, Emelie; Husberg, Magnus; Alwin, Jenny
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute care of frail elderly patients in a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) unit is superior to the care in a conventional acute medical care unit. This is a clinical, prospective, randomized, controlled, one-center intervention study. This study was conducted in a large county hospital in western Sweden. The study included 408 frail elderly patients, aged ≥75 years, in need of acute in-hospital treatment. The patients were allocated to the intervention group (n=206) or control group (n=202). Mean age of the patients was 85.7 years, and 56% were female. This organizational form of care is characterized by a structured, systematic interdisciplinary CGA-based care at an acute elderly care unit. The primary outcome was the change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 3 months after discharge from hospital, measured by the Health Utilities Index-3 (HUI-3). Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, rehospitalizations, and hospital care costs. After adjustment by regression analysis, patients in the intervention group were less likely to present with decline in HRQoL after 3 months for the following dimensions: vision (odds ratio [OR] =0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.14-0.79), ambulation (OR =0.19, 95% CI =0.1-0.37), dexterity (OR =0.38, 95% CI =0.19-0.75), emotion (OR =0.43, 95% CI =0.22-0.84), cognition (OR = 0.076, 95% CI =0.033-0.18) and pain (OR =0.28, 95% CI =0.15-0.50). Treatment in a CGA unit was independently associated with lower 3-month mortality adjusted by Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio [HR] =0.55, 95% CI =0.32-0.96), and the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of hospital care costs ( P >0.05). Patients in an acute CGA unit were less likely to present with decline in HRQoL after 3 months, and the care in a CGA unit was also independently associated with lower mortality, at no higher cost.
Robson, Catherine M.; Lian, Olaug S.
Bodily phenomena that are difficult to identify, localize, explain and cure with the aid of modern biomedical knowledge and technology leave ample room for cultural influence. That makes them a perfect case for studying the cultural dimension of medical knowledge and practice. Building on this assumption we qualitatively explore the communication between neurologists and women with seizure disorders of uncertain etiology, often labeled psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES), in a specialis...
Pescosolido, B A; Kronenfeld, J J
The current situation in health care organizations, among providers and for people, dramatically challenges the "business as usual" roles of medicine, government, insurance companies, the community, and the university. Health care reform marks the first attempt in a century to consider a reconstruction of the social contract between society and medicine. While sociology stands as one of the earliest social sciences to systematically study the health care arena and create a health-focused subfield, there is a perception, not without support, of a desertion of identity from within, an encroachment by other areas from without, and abandonment by the parent discipline. We argue that these situations in medical arenas and in research fields require serious rethinking. The key lies in understanding how these phenomena are related to each other and to larger social forces, and how they offer opportunities, rather than signal limitations, to medical sociologists. We turn to the theoretical tools of sociology to help unravel the complicated challenges that face both policymakers and researchers. After framing these issues in a sociology of knowledge perspective, we use the case of "utilization theory" to illustrate the connections between society and systems of care (as well as studies of them) and to create a future agenda. We end by raising three basic questions: (1) Why is a sociological perspective critical to the understanding of change and reform in health care? (2) Why is medical sociology critical to the survival of the general sociological enterprise? and (3) Why is general sociology critical to the research agenda in medical sociology?
Lodise, Thomas P; Fan, Weihong; Griffith, David C; Dudley, Michael N; Sulham, Katherine A
Nonclinical studies have suggested that oxidative damage, caspase-mediated apoptosis, and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels may be involved in the pathogenesis of colistin (CST)-associated acute renal failure. MIN inhibits caspase 1, caspase 3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, leading to the hypothesis that coadministration of CST with MIN (CST-MIN) may reduce the incidence of acute renal failure as well as produce additive or synergistic antimicrobial effects. A multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Premier Research database to examine the impact of CST-MIN on acute renal failure. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age of ≥18 years, intensive care unit admission at CST initiation, primary International Classification of Diseases 9 (ICD-9) diagnosis of pneumonia or sepsis, nondialysis at hospital admission, and discharge between January 2010 and December 2015. ICD-9 code 584.XX or ICD-10 code N17 was used to define acute renal failure. Baseline comparisons, 1:8 propensity score matching, and confirmatory logistic regression analyses were conducted. In total, 4,817 patients received CST and met inclusion criteria; 93 received CST-MIN. Unadjusted frequency of acute renal failure was significantly lower in patients receiving CST-MIN than CST (11.8% versus 23.7%, P = 0.007). Similar results were seen in propensity score matching (12.0% versus 22.3%, P = 0.031) and logistic regression analyses (odds ratio of 0.403, P = 0.006). Mortalities and 30-day readmission rates were similar between groups. The acute renal failure rate was not impacted by prevalence of baseline renal disease. CST-MIN in critically ill patients may reduce CST-associated acute renal failure. Further evaluation of this combination in prospective clinical studies is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Lodise et al.
Catherine M. Robson
Full Text Available Bodily phenomena that are difficult to identify, localize, explain and cure with the aid of modern biomedical knowledge and technology leave ample room for cultural influence. That makes them a perfect case for studying the cultural dimension of medical knowledge and practice. Building on this assumption we qualitatively explore the communication between neurologists and women with seizure disorders of uncertain etiology, often labeled psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES, in a specialist clinic in England. Based on an interpretation of film-recordings of eight naturally-occurring clinical consultations we discuss the following questions: How do neurologists explain the name, the cause and the treatment options to these patients? How do patients and their companions respond to these explanations? And finally, what makes these interactions so difficult? Our interpretation of the data is inspired by critical discourse analysis, and framed within a social constructionist perspective on medical knowledge and practice. We found that the neurologists presented the diagnosis and its cause—inappropriate stress management—through objective language that conveyed a high degree of certainty. Patient-parties often disagreed, and found it hard to believe that these physical symptoms had a psychological origin. Companions often acted as advocates for the patients in negotiations with the doctors. The polarized debate between psychogenic and somatic understandings of the seizures that emerged illuminates how the Cartesian dualism between body and mind complicates clinical encounters—a dualism doctors explicitly reject, but presumably accept. We argue that it is impossible to overcome this polarization without acknowledging the cultural dimension of medical knowledge and practice. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160122
Hosokawa, Yuri; Adams, William M; Belval, Luke N; Davis, Robert J; Huggins, Robert A; Jardine, John F; Katch, Rachel K; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J
To investigate the influence of estimated wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and the International Institute of Race Medicine (IIRM) activity modification guidelines on the incidence of exertional heat stroke (EHS) and heat exhaustion (HEx) and the ability of an on-site medical team to treat those afflicted. Medical records of EHS and HEx patients over a 17-year period from the New Balance Falmouth Road Race were examined. Climatologic data from nearby weather stations were obtained to calculate WBGT with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (WBGT A ) and Liljegren (WBGT L ) models. Incidence rate (IR) of EHS, HEx, and combined total of EHS and HEx (COM) were calculated, and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between IR and WBGT A or WBGT L . One-way ANOVA was performed to compare differences in EHS, HEx, and COM incidence to four alert levels in the IIRM guidelines. Incidence of EHS, HEx, and COM was 2.12, 0.98, and 3.10 cases per 1000 finishers. WBGT A explained 48, 4, and 46% of the variance in EHS, HEx, and COM IR; WBGT L explained 63, 13, and 69% of the variance in EHS, HEx, and COM IR. Main effect of WBGT A and WBGT L on the alert levels were observed in EHS and COM IR (p < 0.05). The cumulative number of EHS patients treated did not exceed the number of cold water immersion tubs available to treat them. EHS IR increased as WBGT and IIRM alert level increased, indicating the need for appropriate risk mitigation strategies and on-site medical treatment.
Frayne, Susan M; Holmes, Tyson H; Berg, Eric; Goldstein, Mary K; Berlowitz, Dan R; Miller, Donald R; Pogach, Leonard M; Laungani, Kaajal J; Lee, Tina T; Moos, Rudolf
Mental health condition (MHC) comorbidity is associated with lower intensity care in multiple clinical scenarios. However, little is known about the effect of MHC upon clinicians' decisions about intensifying antiglycemic medications in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control. We examined whether delay in intensification of antiglycemic medications in response to an elevated Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value is longer for patients with MHC than for those without MHC, and whether any such effect varies by specific MHC type. In this observational study of diabetic Veterans Health Administration (VA) patients on oral antiglycemics with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥8) (N =52,526) identified from national VA databases, we applied Cox regression analysis to examine time to intensification of antiglycemics after an elevated HbA1c value in 2003-2004, by MHC status. Those with MHC were no less likely to receive intensification: adjusted Hazard Ratio [95% CI] 0.99 [0.96-1.03], 1.13 [1.04-1.23], and 1.12 [1.07-1.18] at 0-14, 15-30 and 31-180 days, respectively. However, patients with substance use disorders were less likely than those without substance use disorders to receive intensification in the first two weeks following a high HbA1c, adjusted Hazard Ratio 0.89 [0.81-0.97], controlling for sex, age, medical comorbidity, other specific MHCs, and index HbA1c value. For most MHCs, diabetic patients with MHC in the VA health care system do not appear to receive less aggressive antiglycemic management. However, the subgroup with substance use disorders does appear to have excess likelihood of non-intensification; interventions targeting this high risk subgroup merit attention.
Hosokawa, Yuri; Adams, William M.; Belval, Luke N.; Davis, Robert J.; Huggins, Robert A.; Jardine, John F.; Katch, Rachel K.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Casa, Douglas J.
To investigate the influence of estimated wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and the International Institute of Race Medicine (IIRM) activity modification guidelines on the incidence of exertional heat stroke (EHS) and heat exhaustion (HEx) and the ability of an on-site medical team to treat those afflicted. Medical records of EHS and HEx patients over a 17-year period from the New Balance Falmouth Road Race were examined. Climatologic data from nearby weather stations were obtained to calculate WBGT with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (WBGTA) and Liljegren (WBGTL) models. Incidence rate (IR) of EHS, HEx, and combined total of EHS and HEx (COM) were calculated, and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between IR and WBGTA or WBGTL. One-way ANOVA was performed to compare differences in EHS, HEx, and COM incidence to four alert levels in the IIRM guidelines. Incidence of EHS, HEx, and COM was 2.12, 0.98, and 3.10 cases per 1000 finishers. WBGTA explained 48, 4, and 46% of the variance in EHS, HEx, and COM IR; WBGTL explained 63, 13, and 69% of the variance in EHS, HEx, and COM IR. Main effect of WBGTA and WBGTL on the alert levels were observed in EHS and COM IR (p < 0.05). The cumulative number of EHS patients treated did not exceed the number of cold water immersion tubs available to treat them. EHS IR increased as WBGT and IIRM alert level increased, indicating the need for appropriate risk mitigation strategies and on-site medical treatment.
, subtotal-total form on the 14th day after the medical treatment started. Supplementation of standard treatment regimens for the edematic form of acute pancreatitis with a systemic multifunctional metabolic corrector allow impact the homeostatic disorders caused by enzyme toxemia, in particular metabolic and ischemic-reperfusion mechanisms of hepatic dysfunction formation that, under the condition of destructive forms, requires additional drugs of low molecular weight heparins for the recovery of hemorheological features at at the systemic and intraorgan levels.
Marker, Søren; Perner, Anders; Wetterslev, Jørn
or no prophylaxis as control interventions. The participants will be adult hospitalised acutely ill patients with high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. We will systematically search the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS and Epistemonikos for relevant literature. We will follow...... the recommendations by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The risk of systematic errors (bias) and random errors will be assessed, and the overall quality of evidence will be evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment...
Barr, Lesley; Wynaden, Dianne; Heslop, Karen
Many countries now have national mental health policies and guidelines to decrease or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint yet the use of Pro Re Nata (PRN) medications has received less practice evaluation. This research aimed to identify mental health nurses' attitudes towards the use of PRN medications with mental health consumers. Participants were working in forensic mental health and non-forensic acute mental health settings. The "Attitudes towards PRN medication use survey" was used and data were collected online. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package Social Sciences, Version 22.0. Practice differences between forensic and other acute mental health settings were identified related to the use of PRN medications to manage symptoms from nicotine, alcohol and other drug withdrawal. Differences related to the useage of comfort rooms and conducting comprehensive assessments of consumers' psychiatric symptoms were also detected. Qualitative findings highlighted the need for increased accountability for the prescribing and administration of PRN medications along with more nursing education/training to use alternative first line interventions. Nurses administering PRN medications should be vigilant regarding the indications for this practice to ensure they are facilitating the consumer's recovery by reducing the use of all forms of potentially restrictive practices in the hospital setting. The reasons for using PRN medications and PRN administration rates must be continually monitored to avoid practices such as high dose antipsychotics use and antipsychotic polypharmacy to ensure the efficacy of the consumers' management plans on their health care outcomes. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Popov, A V; Cherednichenko, T V; Lishnevskiĭ, S A; Khomenko, T V; Prigornitskaia, Ia I
Acute ischemic brain injury (stroke, stroke), a leader among the causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. This pathology is one of the most pressing health and social problems that cause enormous economic damage to society, due to the high fatality rate, significant disability and social maladjustment of patients, which is based in most cases are the motor and cognitive impairment. Despite the fact that, currently established risk factors and pathophysiological basis of this disease, the availability of effective methods of diagnosing illness, still a practicing neurologist in some cases difficult to find adequate therapy that could effectively reach a well-established neurological deficit. Therefore the search for treatments that effectively reduce the health and social consequences of vascular damage to the brain, is one of the priority areas of neurology.
Schwarz, Daniel; Štourač, Petr; Komenda, Martin; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina; Gregor, Jakub; Hůlek, Richard; Smékalová, Olga; Křikava, Ivo; Štoudek, Roman; Dušek, Ladislav
Medical Faculties Network (MEFANET) has established itself as the authority for setting standards for medical educators in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, 2 independent countries with similar languages that once comprised a federation and that still retain the same curricular structure for medical education. One of the basic goals of the network is to advance medical teaching and learning with the use of modern information and communication technologies. We present the education portal AKUTNE.CZ as an important part of the MEFANET's content. Our focus is primarily on simulation-based tools for teaching and learning acute medicine issues. Three fundamental elements of the MEFANET e-publishing system are described: (1) medical disciplines linker, (2) authentication/authorization framework, and (3) multidimensional quality assessment. A new set of tools for technology-enhanced learning have been introduced recently: Sandbox (works in progress), WikiLectures (collaborative content authoring), Moodle-MEFANET (central learning management system), and Serious Games (virtual casuistics and interactive algorithms). The latest development in MEFANET is designed for indexing metadata about simulation-based learning objects, also known as electronic virtual patients or virtual clinical cases. The simulations assume the form of interactive algorithms for teaching and learning acute medicine. An anonymous questionnaire of 10 items was used to explore students' attitudes and interests in using the interactive algorithms as part of their medical or health care studies. Data collection was conducted over 10 days in February 2013. In total, 25 interactive algorithms in the Czech and English languages have been developed and published on the AKUTNE.CZ education portal to allow the users to test and improve their knowledge and skills in the field of acute medicine. In the feedback survey, 62 participants completed the online questionnaire (13.5%) from the total 460 addressed
De Hert, Marc; Correll, Christoph U.; Bobes, Julio; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Cohen, Dan; Asai, Itsuo; Detraux, Johan; Gautam, Shiv; Moeller, Hans-Jurgen; Ndetei, David M.; Newcomer, John W.; Uwakwe, Richard; Leucht, Stefan
The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic
May, Larissa S.; Griffin, Beth Ann; Bauers, Nicole Maier; Jain, Arvind; Mitchum, Marsha; Sikka, Neal; Carim, Marianne; Stoto, Michael A.
Background: The purpose of syndromic surveillance is early detection of a disease outbreak. Such systems rely on the earliest data, usually chief complaint. The growing use of electronic medical records (EMR) raises the possibility that other data, such as emergency department (ED) diagnosis, may provide more specific information without significant delay, and might be more effective in detecting outbreaks if mechanisms are in place to monitor and report these data. Objective: The purpose of this study is to characterize the added value of the primary ICD-9 diagnosis assigned at the time of ED disposition compared to the chief complaint for patients with influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of the EMR of a single urban, academic ED with an annual census of over 60, 000 patients per year from June 2005 through May 2006. We evaluate the objective in two ways. First, we characterize the proportion of patients whose ED diagnosis is inconsistent with their chief complaint and the variation by complaint. Second, by comparing time series and applying syndromic detection algorithms, we determine which complaints and diagnoses are the best indicators for the start of the influenza season when compared to the Centers for Disease Control regional data for Influenza-Like Illness for the 2005 to 2006 influenza season using three syndromic surveillance algorithms: univariate cumulative sum (CUSUM), exponentially weighted CUSUM, and multivariate CUSUM. Results: In the first analysis, 29% of patients had a different diagnosis at the time of disposition than suggested by their chief complaint. In the second analysis, complaints and diagnoses consistent with pneumonia, viral illness and upper respiratory infection were together found to be good indicators of the start of the influenza season based on temporal comparison with regional data. In all examples, the diagnosis data outperformed the chief-complaint data. Conclusion: Both analyses
Basic, David; Khoo, Angela
To examine the relationship between newly made medical diagnoses and length of stay (LOS) of acutely unwell older patients. Consecutive patients admitted under the care of four geriatricians were randomly allocated to a model development sample (n = 937) or a model validation sample (n = 855). Cox regression was used to model LOS. Variables considered for inclusion in the development model were established risk factors for LOS and univariate predictors from our dataset. Variables selected in the development sample were tested in the validation sample. A median of five new medical diagnoses were made during a median LOS of 10 days. New diagnoses predicted an increased LOS (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.88-0.92). Other significant predictors of increased LOS in both samples were malnutrition and frailty. Identification of new medical diagnoses may have implications for Diagnosis Related Groups-based funding models and may improve the care of older people. © 2015 AJA Inc.
van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Adèr, H.J.; Boenink, A.; Linszen, D.; van Dyck, R.
Background In a 3-year epidemiological survey (N = 2623) prevalence of psychosis in epilepsy patients as compared with other chronic medically ill patients is assessed. Aim To explore the role of cerebral pathology as compared to the role of chronic burden of disease in the onset of psychosis.
van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Ader, H.J.; Boenink, A.D.; Linszen, D.; van Dyck, R.
Background: In a 3-year epidemiological survey (N = 2623) prevalence of psychosis in epilepsy patients as compared with other chronic medically ill patients is assessed. Aim: To explore the role of cerebral pathology as compared to the role of chronic burden of disease in the onset of psychosis.
van der Feltz-Cornelis, C. M.; Aldenkamp, A. P.; Adèr, H. J.; Boenink, A.; Linszen, D.; van Dyck, R.
BACKGROUND: In a 3-year epidemiological survey (N=2623) prevalence of psychosis in epilepsy patients as compared with other chronic medically ill patients is assessed. AIM: To explore the role of cerebral pathology as compared to the role of chronic burden of disease in the onset of psychosis.
Kolbe, J; Vamos, M; Fergusson, W
In asthma, socio-economic and health care factors may operate by a number of mechanisms to influence asthma morbidity and mortality. To determine the quality of medical care including the patient perception of the doctor-patient relationship, and the level of socio-economic disadvantage in patients admitted to hospital with acute severe asthma. One hundred and thirty-eight patients (15-50 years) admitted to hospital (general ward or intensive care unit) with acute asthma were prospectively assessed using a number of previously validated instruments. The initial subjects had severe asthma on admission (pH = 7.3 +/- 0.2, PaCO2 = 7.1 +/- 5.0 kPa, n = 90) but short hospital stay (3.7 +/- 2.6 days). Although having high morbidity (40% had hospital admission in the last year and 60% had moderate/severe interference with sleep and/or ability to exercise), they had indicators of good ongoing medical care (96% had a regular GP, 80% were prescribed inhaled steroids, 84% had a peak flow meter, GP measured peak flow routinely in 80%, 52% had a written crisis plan and 44% had a supply of steroids at home). However, they were severely economically disadvantaged (53% had experienced financial difficulties in the last year, and for 35% of households the only income was a social security benefit). In the last year 39% had delayed or put off GP visit because of cost. Management of the index attack was compromised by concern about medical costs in 16% and time off work in 20%. Patients admitted to hospital with acute asthma have evidence of good quality on-going medical care, but are economically disadvantaged. If issues such as financial barriers to health care are not acknowledged and addressed, the health care services for asthmatics will not be effectively utilised and the current reductions in morbidity and mortality may not be maintained.
Ashur, Sana Taher; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Bosseri, Soad; Morisky, Donald E; Shamsuddin, Khadijah
The surrounding environment influences the constitution of illness perceptions. Therefore, local research is needed to examine how Libyan diabetes patients perceive diabetes and how their perceptions influence their medication adherence. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology in Tripoli, Libya, between October and December 2013. A total of 523 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this study. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection; this included the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire and the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. The respondents showed moderately high personal control and treatment control perceptions and a moderate consequences perception. They reported a high perception of diabetes timeline as chronic and a moderate perception of the diabetes course as unstable. The most commonly perceived cause of diabetes was Allah's will. The prevalence of low medication adherence was 36.1%. The identified significant predictors of low medication adherence were the low treatment control perception (p=0.044), high diabetes identity perception (p=0.008), being male (p=0.026), and employed (p=0.008). Diabetes illness perceptions of type 2 diabetic Libyans play a role in guiding the medication adherence and could be considered in the development of medication adherence promotion plans.
Sana Taher Ashur
Full Text Available Background: The surrounding environment influences the constitution of illness perceptions. Therefore, local research is needed to examine how Libyan diabetes patients perceive diabetes and how their perceptions influence their medication adherence. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology in Tripoli, Libya, between October and December 2013. A total of 523 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this study. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection; this included the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire and the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Results: The respondents showed moderately high personal control and treatment control perceptions and a moderate consequences perception. They reported a high perception of diabetes timeline as chronic and a moderate perception of the diabetes course as unstable. The most commonly perceived cause of diabetes was Allah's will. The prevalence of low medication adherence was 36.1%. The identified significant predictors of low medication adherence were the low treatment control perception (p=0.044, high diabetes identity perception (p=0.008, being male (p=0.026, and employed (p=0.008. Conclusion: Diabetes illness perceptions of type 2 diabetic Libyans play a role in guiding the medication adherence and could be considered in the development of medication adherence promotion plans.
The Italian opera singer Enrico Caruso is considered by many people the most famous opera singer of all time or "The Matchless Singer" for his unique and suggestive vocal timber. Although a man of humble origins, he managed to rise from poverty, thanks to his extraordinary intelligence and determination. From his debut in 1895 in Naples, until December 24, 1920, the tenor had a brilliant career with many performances and over 500 songs in his repertoire. This intense lifestyle went on until 1919, when the fortune that had always accompanied him began to fade and he entered a fast "descending parable." In this study, we analyze Caruso's medical history during his last year of life: Through the study of the newspapers from the period and the statements reported on the tenor's many biographies, we tried to offer a detailed evaluation of the complex pathogenic chain of events that led to his death, impeding him from keeping to alleviate the heart-breaking nostalgia of many emigrants that felt in his singing the warmth of a too distant land.
Goldstein, David H; Phelan, Rachel; Wilson, Rosemary; Ross-White, Amanda; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G; Penning, John P; Jaeger, Melanie
The purpose of this paper is to examine physician barriers to adopting electronic medical records (EMRs) as well as anesthesiologists' experiences with the EMRs used by the acute pain management service at two tertiary care centres in Canada. We first review the recent literature to determine if physician barriers to adoption are changing given the exponential growth of information technology and the evolving healthcare environment. We next report on institutional experience from two academic health sciences centres regarding the challenges they encountered over the past ten years in developing and implementing an electronic medical record system for acute pain management. The key identified barriers to adoption of EMRs are financial, technological, and time constraints. These barriers are identical to those reported in a systematic review performed prior to 2009 and remain significant factors challenging implementation. These challenges were encountered during our institution's process of adopting EMRs specific to acute pain management. In addition, our findings emphasize the importance of physician participation in the development and implementation stages of EMRs in order to incorporate their feedback and ensure the EMR system is in keeping with their workflow. Use of EMRs will inevitably become the standard of care; however, many barriers persist to impede their implementation and adoption. These challenges to implementation can be facilitated by a corporate strategy for change that acknowledges the barriers and provides the resources for implementation. Adoption will facilitate benefits in communication, patient management, research, and improved patient safety.
Fuse, Akira; Shuto, Yuki; Ando, Fumihiko; Shibata, Masafumi; Watanabe, Akihiro; Onda, Hidetaka; Masuno, Tomohiko; Yokota, Hiroyuki
At 14:46 on March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami occurred off the coast of Honshu, Japan. In the acute phase of this catastrophe, one of our teams was deployed as a Tokyo Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) to Kudan Kaikan in Tokyo, where the ceiling of a large hall had partially collapsed as the result of the earthquake, to conduct triage at the scene: 6 casualties were assigned to the red category (immediate), which included 1 case of cardiopulmonary arrest and 1 of flail chest; 8 casualties in the yellow category (delayed); and 22 casualties in the green category (minor). One severely injured person was transported to our hospital. Separately, our medical team was deployed to Miyagi 2 hours after the earthquake in our multipurpose medical vehicle as part of Japan DMAT (J-DMAT). We were the first DMAT from the metropolitan area to arrive, but we were unable to start medical relief activities because the information infrastructure had been destroyed and no specific information had yet reached the local headquarters. Early next morning, J-DMAT decided to support Sendai Medical Center and search and rescue efforts in the affected area and to establish a staging care unit at Camp Kasuminome of the Japan Self-Defense Force. Our team joined others to establish the staging care unit. Because information was still confused until day 3 of the disaster and we could not adequately grasp onsite medical needs, our J-DMAT decided to provide onsite support at Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital, a disaster base hospital, and relay information about its needs to the local J-DMAT headquarters. Although our medical relief teams were deployed as quickly as possible, we could not begin medical relief activities immediately owing to the severely damaged information infrastructure. Only satellite mobile phones could be operated, and information on the number of casualties and the severity of shortages of lifeline services could be obtained only through a "go and
Chomoncik, Mariusz; Nitecki, Jacek; Ogonowska, Dorota; Cisoń-Apanasewicz, Urszula; Potok, Halina
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) were founded by the government to perform tasks aimed at providing people with help in life-threatening conditions. The system comprises two constituent parts. The first one is public administrative bodies which are to organise, plan, coordinate and supervise the completion of the tasks. The other constituent is EMS units which keep people, resources and units in readiness. Supportive services, which include: the State Fire Service (SFS) and the National Firefighting and Rescue System (NFRS), are of great importance for EMS because they are eligible for providing acute medical care (professional first aid). Acute medical care covers actions performed by rescue workers to help people in life-threatening conditions. Rescue workers provide acute medical care in situations when EMS are not present on the spot and the injured party can be accessed only with the use of professional equipment by trained workers of NFRS. Whenever necessary, workers of supportive services can assist paramedics' actions. Cooperation of all units of EMS and NFRS is very important for rescue operations in the integrated rescue system. Time is a key aspect in delivering first aid to a person in life-threatening conditions. Fast and efficient first aid given by the accident's witness, as well as acute medical care performed by a rescue worker can prevent death and minimise negative effects of an injury or intoxication. It is essential that people delivering first aid and acute medical care should act according to acknowledged and standardised procedures because only in this way can the process of decision making be sped up and consequently, the number of possible complications following accidents decreased. The present paper presents an analysis of legal regulations concerning the management of chemical burn and inhalant intoxication in acute medical care procedures of the State Fire Service. It was observed that the procedures for rescue workers entitled to
Full Text Available The acute onset of psychotic symptoms in elderly can be the presenting clinical feature for various Central Nervous System as well as other systemic illnesses. The diagnosis and treatment of such presentation require a cautious medical work up and high level of suspicion even if the patient is not showing any cardinal symptoms for organic pathology.
Conclusion: In southern Taiwan, acute Q fever is the most common rickettsiosis. QSM diseases should be suspected in febrile patients who present with relative bradycardia, hepatomegaly, and elevated serum aminotransferases, but without leukocytosis.
Bushmanov, A.; Nadezhina, N.; Kretov, A.
Medical management during acute period in a case of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure includes 3 stages. During the fist stage patient got conservative treatment according to the common pathogenetic mechanisms of LRI (dis aggregating therapy, stimulation of regeneration, dis intoxication therapy, antibiotic therapy, pain relief therapy, Local anti-burn therapy-specific non-adhesive bandage with antiseptic and anti-burn medicaments); estimation of severity, deepness and area of injury by clinical picture and dates of instrumental methods of examining; defining necessity and volume of surgical treatment; preparing arrangements for surgical treatment. This stage ends with forming of demarcation line of a very hard severity of a Local Radiation Injure. The second stage includes necrectomy of the area of a very hard severity with microsurgical plastic by re vascularized flap and auto dermoplastic. The third stage - adaptation of re vascularized flap and total epithelization of injured area. (author)
Economou, Marina; Kontoangelos, Kontantinos; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Arvaniti, Aikaterini; Samakouri, Maria; Douzenis, Athanasios; Papadimitriou, George N
Medical students' attitudes to mental illnesses and psychiatry may be reshaped during the psychiatric training, with important implications in their future practice of the profession. Therefore, the present study set out to explore the impact of the psychiatric clerkship in students' attitudes, while taking into consideration the site of their practical training. To this end, a total of 678 final-year medical students were recruited. Students completed a self-reported questionnaire entailing the Attitudes to Psychiatry scale, the Attitudes to Mental Illness scale and the Greek Social Distance scale before and after their placement. Findings indicate that the psychiatric clerkship had a positive effect in reducing stigma towards both psychiatry and mental illnesses, with the effect being more pronounced in the general hospital with respect to the former, while in the specialty hospital was more marked regarding the latter. A further exploration of the determinants of change revealed that the improvement discerned in the general hospital was only among those without professional experience of mental illnesses. Therefore, the psychiatric clerkship may exert a substantial influence on shaping favourable attitudes towards mental illnesses and psychiatry; however, other elements should also be taken into consideration, if the clerkship is to tackle stigma in healthcare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Share Compartir Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and is spread by ingestion of contaminated food or water. The infection is often mild or without symptoms, ...
Full Text Available Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of critically ill patients. The impact of different risk factors associated with this entity in the ICU setting is unknown. Objectives. The purpose of this research was to assess the risk factors associated with the development of AKI in critically ill patients by meta-analyses of observational studies. Data Extraction. Two reviewers independently and in duplicate used a standardized form to collect data from published reports. Authors were contacted for missing data. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale assessed study quality. Data Synthesis. Data from 31 diverse studies that enrolled 504,535 critically ill individuals from a wide variety of ICUs were included. Separate random-effects meta-analyses demonstrated a significantly increased risk of AKI with older age, diabetes, hypertension, higher baseline creatinine, heart failure, sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome, use of nephrotoxic drugs, higher severity of disease scores, use of vasopressors/inotropes, high risk surgery, emergency surgery, use of intra-aortic balloon pump, and longer time in cardiopulmonary bypass pump. Conclusion. The best available evidence suggests an association of AKI with 13 different risk factors in subjects admitted to the ICU. Predictive models for identification of high risk individuals for developing AKI in all types of ICU are required.
Full Text Available The personalised nature of mental illness obscures from general view the intolerable burden of private and public distress that people with serious mental illness carry. Invariably the mentally ill person encounters rejection and humiliation that are in some way tantamount to a "second illness." The combination either disrupts or puts beyond reach the usual personal and social life stages of marriage, family life, raising children, sexual relationships, the choice of treatment, affordable housing, transportation, education and gainful employment. As a result of their lack of financial and social support and their experience of rejection from society, persons with mental illness tend to neglect themselves and their diet, and frequently delay seeking treatment. Against this background, this contribution critically focuses on the human rights that influence the mentally ill patient in South African medical law. Specific attention is paid to the relevance and meaning of sections 9 (the equality clause, 27 (access to health care services, 30 and 31 (language, culture and religion of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996.
Williams, Ishmael; Valderrama, Amy L; Bolton, Patricia; Greek, April; Greer, Sophia; Patterson, Davis G; Zhang, Zefeng
To examine prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) scope of practice for acute cardiovascular events and characteristics that may affect scope of practice; and to describe variations in EMS scope of practice for these events and the characteristics associated with that variability. In 2008, we conducted a telephone survey of 1,939 eligible EMS providers in nine states to measure EMS agency characteristics, medical director involvement, and 18 interventions authorized for prehospital care of acute cardiovascular events by three levels of emergency medical technician (EMT) personnel. A total of 1,292 providers responded to the survey, for a response rate of 67%. EMS scope of practice interventions varied by EMT personnel level, with the proportion of authorized interventions increasing as expected from EMT-Basic to EMT-Paramedic. Seven of eight statistically significant associations indicated that EMS agencies in urban settings were less likely to authorize interventions (odds ratios department-based EMS agencies were two to three times more likely to authorize interventions for EMT-Intermediate personnel. Volunteer EMS agencies were more than twice as likely as nonvolunteer agencies to authorize interventions for EMT-Basic and EMT-Intermediate personnel but were less likely to authorize any one of the 11 interventions for EMT-Paramedics. Greater medical director involvement was associated with greater likelihood of authorization of seven of the 18 interventions for EMT-Basic and EMT-Paramedic personnel but had no association with EMT-Intermediate personnel. We noted statistically significant variations in scope of practice by rural vs. urban setting, medical director involvement, and type of EMS service (fire department-based/non-fire department-based; volunteer/paid). These variations highlight local differences in the composition and capacity of EMS providers and offer important information for the transition towards the implementation of a national scope of
Full Text Available The trends in drug utilization in patients with acute cerebrovascular accidents (ACVA and its sequelae were investigated in the Neurological Department of Lviv Regional Hospital, Ukraine, in 2007 and 2015. From the 10 anatomical groups of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification system, in 2007, 181 medications were prescribed for treatment of ACVA and concomitant diseases, compared to 198 medications in 2015. The medications of Group C (Cardiovascular system were of the maximal proportion in both analyzed periods (28.1% in 2007 and 29.8% in 2015. Moreover, the largest proportion of the prescribed medications of the 3rd level groups of the ATC classification system were of group В01А - “Antithrombotic agents” (7.2% in 2007 and 6.6% in 2015. Furthermore, three medications (Magnesium sulfate, L-lysini aescinas and Potassium chloride were prescribed for 50% and more patients in both analyzed periods, while the prescriptions of other medications were characterized by high variability. АТС/DDD analysis also revealed the tendency toward an increase in prescription and drug utilization of the main medication groups, and that these were used for nonspecific and specific therapy for ACVA, as well as for secondary prevention (antihypertensives, anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents and statins. Totally, the drug utilization of these medication groups was 38.5% in 2007 and 58.0%, respectively, in 2015, compared to the overall number of DDDs. The results of our study suggest the existence of a positive tendency in prescriptions, and of compliance with the current principles of treatment, in patients with ACVA, in Ukraine.
Full Text Available This study assessed the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome requiring hospitalization in association with the use of certain antipsychotic medications in schizophrenia patients.A nationwide cohort of 31,177 inpatients with schizophrenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years whose records were enrolled in the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan from 2000 to 2008 and were studied after encrypting the identifications. Cases (n = 147 were patients with subsequent acute coronary syndrome requiring hospitalization after their first psychiatric admission. Based on a nested case-control design, each case was matched with 20 controls for age, sex and the year of first psychiatric admission using risk-set sampling. The effects of antipsychotic agents on the development of acute coronary syndrome were assessed using multiple conditional logistic regression and sensitivity analyses to confirm any association.We found that current use of aripiprazole (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.27-10.64, p<0.05 and chlorpromazine (adjusted RR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.40-6.24, p<0.001 were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome. Although haloperidol was associated with an increased risk (adjusted RR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.20-3.44, p<0.01, there was no clear dose-dependent relationship. These three antipsychotic agents were also associated with an increased risk in the first 30 days of use, and the risk decreased as the duration of therapy increased. Sensitivity analyses using propensity score-adjusted modeling showed that the results were similar to those of multiple regression analysis.Patients with schizophrenia who received aripiprazole, chlorpromazine, or haloperidol could have a potentially elevated risk of developing acute coronary syndrome, particularly at the start of therapy.
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McGinty, Emma E.; Baller, Julia; Azrin, Susan T.; Juliano-Bult, Denise; Daumit, Gail L.
People with serious mental illness (SMI) have mortality rates 2 to 3 times higher than the overall US population, largely due to cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and diabetes mellitus and other conditions, such as HIV/AIDS, is heightened in this group. Based on the recommendations of a National Institute of Mental Health stakeholder meeting, we conducted a comprehensive review examining the strength of the evidence surrounding interventions to address major medical conditions and health-risk behaviors among persons with SMI. Peer-reviewed studies were identified using 4 major research databases. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies testing interventions to address medical conditions and risk behaviors among persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder between January 2000 and June 2014 were included. Information was abstracted from each study by 2 trained reviewers, who also rated study quality using a standard tool. Following individual study review, the quality of the evidence (high, medium, low) and the effectiveness of various interventions were synthesized. 108 studies were included. The majority of studies examined interventions to address overweight/obesity (n = 80). The strength of the evidence was high for 4 interventions: metformin and behavioral interventions had beneficial effects on weight loss; and bupropion and varenicline reduced tobacco smoking. The strength of the evidence was low for most other interventions reviewed. Future studies should test long-term interventions to cardiovascular risk factors and health-risk behaviors. In addition, future research should study implementation strategies to effectively translate efficacious interventions into real-world settings. PMID:26221050
Pourmand, Ali; Tanski, Mary; Davis, Steven; Shokoohi, Hamid; Lucas, Raymond; Zaver, Fareen
Asynchronous online training has become an increasingly popular educational format in the new era of technology-based professional development. We sought to evaluate the impact of an online asynchronous training module on the ability of medical students and emergency medicine (EM) residents to detect electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We developed an online ECG training and testing module on AMI, with emphasis on recognizing ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) and early activation of cardiac catheterization resources. Study participants included senior medical students and EM residents at all post-graduate levels rotating in our emergency department (ED). Participants were given a baseline set of ECGs for interpretation. This was followed by a brief interactive online training module on normal ECGs as well as abnormal ECGs representing an acute MI. Participants then underwent a post-test with a set of ECGs in which they had to interpret and decide appropriate intervention including catheterization lab activation. 148 students and 35 EM residents participated in this training in the 2012-2013 academic year. Students and EM residents showed significant improvements in recognizing ECG abnormalities after taking the asynchronous online training module. The mean score on the testing module for students improved from 5.9 (95% CI [5.7-6.1]) to 7.3 (95% CI [7.1-7.5]), with a mean difference of 1.4 (95% CI [1.12-1.68]) (p<0.0001). The mean score for residents improved significantly from 6.5 (95% CI [6.2-6.9]) to 7.8 (95% CI [7.4-8.2]) (p<0.0001). An online interactive module of training improved the ability of medical students and EM residents to correctly recognize the ECG evidence of an acute MI.
This paper takes a phenomenological hermeneutic orientation to explicate and explore the notion of the grey zone of health and illness and seeks to develop the concept through an examination of the case of alcohol consumption. The grey zone is an interpretive area referring to the irremediable zone of ambiguity that haunts even the most apparently resolute discourse. This idea points to an ontological indeterminacy, in the face of which decisions have to be made with regard to the health of a person (e.g., an alcoholic), a system (e.g., the health system), or a society. The fundamental character of this notion will be developed in relation to the discourse on health and the limitations of different disciplinary practices. The case of alcohol consumption will be used to tease out the grey zone embedded in the different kinds of knowledge made available through the disciplinary traditions of medical science, with its emphasis on somatic well-being, and anthropology, with its focus on communal well-being. This tension or grey zone embedded in different knowledge outcomes will be shown to have a discursive parallel with the dialogue between the Athenian, the Spartan, and the Cretan in Plato's Laws. Making use of the dialogical approach as described by Gadamer, the Athenian's particular resolution of the tension will be explored as a case study to demonstrate the necessarily particular analysis involved in a grey zone resolution.
Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating traditional medical beliefs and practices in illness behavior as well as predictors of the practices in Gondar city, northwestern Ethiopia, by using the integrated model of behavioral prediction. A cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted to collect data through interviewer administered structured questionnaires from 496 individuals selected by probability proportional to size sampling technique. Unadjusted bivariate and adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, and the results indicated that sociocultural predictors of normative response and attitude as well as psychosocial individual difference variables of traditional understanding of illness causation and perceived efficacy had statistically significant associations with traditional medical practices. Due to the influence of these factors, majority of the study population (85% thus relied on both herbal and spiritual varieties of traditional medicine to respond to their perceived illnesses, supporting the conclusion that characterized the illness behavior of the people as mainly involving traditional medical practices. The results implied two-way medicine needs to be developed with ongoing research, and health educations must take the traditional customs into consideration, for integrating interventions in the health care system in ways that the general public accepts yielding a better health outcome.
Ahmed Mohammad Al-Smadi
Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that patients' treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention had negative illness perception and limited behavioral changes 6 months after hospitalization in comparison with other treatment modalities such as percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombolytic treatment. Further research is recommended to confirm this association with longer follow-up study and among different cultures.
Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard; Bodilsen, Ann Christine; Petersen, Janne
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether systemic inflammation in acutely admitted older medical patients (age >65 years) is associated with physical performance and organ dysfunction. Organ dysfunction´s association with physical performance, and whether these associations are mediated by systemic...... inflammation was assessed by suPAR, TNFα, and IL-6. Associations were investigated by regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, cognitive impairment, CRP, and VitalPAC Modified Early Warning Score. RESULTS: A total of 369 patients were evaluated. In adjusted analyses, suPAR and TNFα was associated with both...
Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Sejersten, Maria Sejersten; Baber, Usman
Adequate health care is increasingly dependent on prehospital systems and cardiovascular (CV) disease remains the most common cause for hospital admission. However the prevalence of CV dispatches of emergency medical services (EMS) is not well reported and survival data described in clinical trials......, this study emphasizes the need for an efficient prehospital phase with focus on CV disease and proper triage of patients suitable for invasive evaluation if the outcomes of acute heart disease are to be improved further in the current international context of hospitals merging into highly specialized...
José Raimundo Araújo de Azevedo
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the renal outcome in patients submitted to two different regimens of glycemic control, using the RIFLE criteria to define acute kidney injury. INTRODUCTION: The impact of intensive insulin therapy on renal function outcome is controversial. The lack of a criterion for AKI definition may play a role on that. METHODS: Included as the subjects were 228 randomly selected, critically ill patients engaged in intensive insulin therapyor in a carbohydrate-restrictive strategy. Renal outcome was evaluated through the comparison of the last RIFLE score obtained during the ICU stay and the RIFLE score at admission; the outcome was classified as favorable, stable or unfavorable. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable regarding demographic data. AKI developed in 52% of the patients and was associated with a higher mortality (39.4% compared with those who did not have AKI (8.2% (p60, acute kidney injury and hypoglycemia were risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Intensive insulin therapy and a carbohydrate-restrictive strategy were comparable regarding the incidence of acute kidney injury evaluated using RIFLE criteria.
Denysenko, Lex; Sica, Nicole; Penders, Thomas M; Philbrick, Kemuel L; Walker, Audrey; Shaffer, Scott; Zimbrean, Paula; Freudenreich, Oliver; Rex, Nicole; Carroll, Brendan T; Francis, Andrew
Catatonia in medically ill patients is rare but often unrecognized. This monograph summarizes current knowledge on the diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, and management of catatonia occurring in the medical setting. PubMed searches were used to identify relevant articles from 1962 to present. More than 3,000 articles were obtained and reviewed for relevance, including references of articles identified by the initial search. Several areas were identified as important, including: (1) catatonia and delirium; (2) malignant catatonia; (3) pediatric catatonia; (4) catatonia associated with another medical condition (CAMC); (5) drug exposure and withdrawal syndromes associated with catatonia; and (6) treatment of catatonia in the medical setting. Catatonia in the medically ill appears to have numerous etiologies, although etiology does not seem to modify the general treatment approach of prompt administration of lorazepam. Delirium and catatonia are commonly comorbid in the medical setting and should not be viewed as mutually exclusive. Electroconvulsive therapy should be offered to patients who do not respond to benzodiazepines or have malignant features. Removing offending agents and treating the underlying medical condition is paramount when treating CAMC. Memantine or amantadine may be helpful adjunctive agents. There is not enough evidence to support the use of antipsychotics or stimulants in treating CAMC.
Clawson, Jeff J; Gardett, Isabel; Scott, Greg; Fivaz, Conrad; Barron, Tracey; Broadbent, Meghan; Olola, Christopher
Introduction Early recognition of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can increase the patient's likelihood of survival. As the first point of contact for patients accessing medical care through emergency services, emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) represent the earliest potential identification point for AMIs. The objective of the study was to determine how AMI cases were coded and prioritized at the dispatch point, and also to describe the distribution of these cases by patient age and gender. Hypothesis/Problem No studies currently exist that describe the EMD's ability to correctly triage AMIs into Advanced Life Support (ALS) response tiers. The retrospective descriptive study utilized data from three sources: emergency medical dispatch, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and emergency departments (EDs)/hospitals. The primary outcome measure was the distributions of AMI cases, as categorized by Chief Complaint Protocol, dispatch priority code and level, and patient age and gender. The EMS and ED/hospital data came from the Utah Department of Health (UDoH), Salt Lake City, Utah. Dispatch data came from two emergency communication centers covering the entirety of Salt Lake City and Salt Lake County, Utah. Overall, 89.9% of all the AMIs (n=606) were coded in one of the three highest dispatch priority levels, all of which call for ALS response (called CHARLIE, DELTA, and ECHO in the studied system). The percentage of AMIs significantly increased for patients aged 35 years and older, and varied significantly by gender, dispatch level, and chief complaint. A total of 85.7% of all deaths occurred among patients aged 55 years and older, and 88.9% of the deaths were handled in the ALS-recommended priority levels. Acute myocardial infarctions may present as a variety of clinical symptoms, and the study findings demonstrated that more than one-half were identified as having chief complaints of Chest Pain or Breathing Problems at the dispatch point, followed by Sick
Jellinek, Samantha P; Cohen, Victor; Nelson, Marcia; Likourezos, Antonios; Goldman, William; Paris, Barbara
The Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) comprehensive set of quality assessment tools for ill older persons is a standard designed to measure overall care delivered to vulnerable elders (ie, those aged > or =65 years) at the level of a health care system or plan. The goal of this research was to quantify the pretest and posttest results of medical students and house staff participating in a pharmacotherapist-led educational intervention that focused on the ACOVE quality of pharmacologic care standards. This was a before and after study assessing the knowledge ofACOVE standards following exposure to an educational intervention led by a pharmacotherapist. It was conducted at the 29-bed Acute Care for Elders (ACE) unit of Maimonides Medical Center, a 705-bed, independent teaching hospital located in Brooklyn, New York. Participants included all medical students and house staff completing a rotation on the ACE unit from August 2004 through May 2005 who completed both the pre-and posttests. A pharmacotherapist provided a 1-hour active learning session reviewing the evidence supporting the quality indicators and reviewed case-based questions with the medical students and house staff. Educational interventions also occurred daily through pharmacotherapeutic consultations and during work rounds. Medical students and house staff were administered the same 15-question, patient-specific, case-based, multiple-choice pre-and posttest to assess knowledge of the standards before and after receiving the intervention. A total of 54 medical students and house staff (median age, 28.58 years; 40 men, 14 women) completed the study. Significantly higher median scores were achieved on the multiple-choice test after the intervention than before (median scores, 14/15 [93.3%] vs 12/15 [80.0%], respectively; P = 0.001). A pharmacotherapist-led educational intervention improved the scores of medical students and house staff on a test evaluating knowledge of evidence
A. A. Baranov
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the issue of intoxication in children. Acute accidental intoxication appears to be especially relevant for pediatric practice. Drugs, various chemicals frequently used in everyday life and in farming, as well as animal poisons, including snake poisons, may have a toxic effect on children. Specialists of professional associations of physicians “Russian Society of Emergency Medicine” and pediatricians “Union of Pediatricians of Russia” formulated and briefly described the main causes of acute intoxication in children, clinical manifestations and the most significant laboratory indicators of toxic manifestations for various substances, as well as therapy principles and algorithms for such conditions in compliance with principles of the evidence-based medicine. The article presents pathognomonic symptoms and peculiarities of drug intoxication, provides a description of mediator symptoms of intoxication with various substances, as well as the symptoms that may indicate toxic effect. The article contains a description of principles of correction of vital body functions, measures for removing toxic substances from the body and information on the main antidotes. Special attention is given to the most frequent types of intoxication (with organic acids, lye, naphazoline, paracetamol, snake poisons [viper bite]. The article lists stage of medical care rendering to children suffering from acute intoxication and presents prognosis and further management of pediatric patients suffering from such conditions.
Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Yip, Leona C Y; Jim, Olivia T T; Hui, Anna N N
To examine the relationship between self-perceptions of aging and acute medical events in chronically institutionalized middle-aged and older persons with schizophrenia. Participants were 83 persons with schizophrenia (30% women; mean age = 58.48, SD = 8.14) residing in a long-stay care home, who were without organic mental disorders, mental retardation, serious audiovisual impairment, and serious cognitive and physical impairment. They received assessments in body mass index, functional health, and global mental status, and responded to measures of self-perception of aging at baseline. Acute events that required medical attention were recorded for the next 3 months. 8% of the participants had acute medical events. Bivariate analysis suggested that number of comorbid medical conditions, mobility, Mini-Mental State Examination, and negative self-perception of aging were predictive of acute medical events. However, multivariate analysis (logistic regression) showed that only mobility (OR = 0.78, p = 0.04) and negative self-perception of aging (OR = 3.38, p = 0.02) had independent effects on acute medical events, with the latter being the stronger predictor. Positive aging self-perception, body mass index, and smoking were unrelated to medical events. Physical vulnerabilities may not be sufficient to explain the development of acute medical events in late-life schizophrenia. How individuals perceive their aging process, which is expected to regulate health behavior and help-seeking, may be an even more important factor. Further research should investigate whether such self-perceptions, which are probably rooted in stereotypes about aging socialized early in life, are modifiable in this population. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ågård, Anne Sophie
of the critical illness trajectory. Recovery after critical illness and admission to an ICU entailed a dynamic, reciprocal process requiring substantial efforts from both parties as individuals and as a couple. The findings contribute to the existing body of knowledge about recovery after discharge from an ICU...... and rehabilitation pro-fessionals in hospitals and community-based services to consider the best content, timing, and organization of supportive measures aimed at assisting spouses in their support of recovering patients. To broaden the overall insight into the recovery of the heterogeneous population of ICU......ENGLISH SUMMARY The focus of the study was to describe post-ICU recovery as seen from the perspective of ICU survivors and their spouses in a Danish setting. The aims were to describe the trajectories of the participating patients and spouses and generate theoretical accounts of their main concerns...
Bonaiuti, Donatella; Sioli, Paolo; Fumagalli, Lorenzo; Beghi, Ettore; Agostoni, Elio
Acute medical complications often prevent patients with stroke from being transferred from stroke units to rehabilitation units, prolonging the occupation of hospital beds and delaying the start of intensive rehabilitation. This study defined incidence, timing, duration and risk factors of these complications during the acute phase of stroke. A retrospective case note review was made of hospital admissions of patients with stroke not associated with other disabling conditions, admitted to a stroke unit over 12 months and requiring rehabilitation for gait impairment. In this cohort, a search was made of hypertension, oxygen de-saturation, fever, and cardiac and pulmonary symptoms requiring medical intervention. Included were 135 patients. Hypertension was the most common complication (16.3%), followed by heart disease (14.8%), oxygen de-saturation (7.4%), fever (6.7%) and pulmonary disease (5.2%). Heart disease was the earliest and shortest complication. Most complications occurred during the first week. Except for hypertension, all complications resolved within 2 weeks.
Viertel, A; Weidmann, E; Brodt, H R
Because of the paucity of information on the epidemiology of acute poisoning requiring intensive medical care, all such patients treated on the medical intensive care unit of the university hospital in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, between January 1993 and December 1999, were retrospectively evaluated. Of the total of 6211 patients, 147 (80 women, 67 men, mean age 41 years, 2,3 %) were treated for acute intoxication in the intensive care unit. Reasons for admission to the intensive care unit were the need for ventilator treatment or intensive monitoring of vital functions. 52 % of the patients (n = 76) had attempted suicide, most of them using anti-depressive drugs (n = 19), paracetamol (n = 16), or benzodiazepines (n = 9). Two patients (2,6 %) died. 48 % of the patients (n = 71) were admitted because of accidental poisoning. Leading toxic agents in this group were heroin (n = 19), alcohol (n = 18) and digitalis (n = 12). 11 patients had taken herbicides, animal poisons or chemicals used at work or for house cleaning. In this cohort, three i. v. drug abusers (4,2 %) had died. Depending on the agents used, a variety of treatments (charcoal, antidots, extracorporal therapy) were undertaken. Due to excellent care in the prehospital phase and in the emergency room the number of patients requiring treatment on the intensive care unit was rather low. The mortality was in the range of other reports.
Full Text Available The association between severity of illness of children with osteomyelitis caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and genomic variation of the causative organism has not been previously investigated. The purpose of this study is to assess genomic heterogeneity among MRSA isolates from children with osteomyelitis who have diverse severity of illness.Children with osteomyelitis were prospectively studied between 2010 and 2011. Severity of illness of the affected children was determined from clinical and laboratory parameters. MRSA isolates were analyzed with next generation sequencing (NGS and optical mapping. Sequence data was used for multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood (PAML, and identification of virulence genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP relative to reference strains.The twelve children studied demonstrated severity of illness scores ranging from 0 (mild to 9 (severe. All isolates were USA300, ST 8, SCC mec IVa MRSA by MLST. The isolates differed from reference strains by 2 insertions (40 Kb each and 2 deletions (10 and 25 Kb but had no rearrangements or copy number variations. There was a higher occurrence of virulence genes among study isolates when compared to the reference strains (p = 0.0124. There were an average of 11 nonsynonymous SNPs per strain. PAML demonstrated heterogeneity of study isolates from each other and from the reference strains.Genomic heterogeneity exists among MRSA isolates causing osteomyelitis among children in a single community. These variations may play a role in the pathogenesis of variation in clinical severity among these children.
Zielske, Joerg; Bohne, Silvia; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Axer, Hubertus; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando
Dysphagia is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Structured otorhinolaryngological data on dysphagia in ICU survivors with severe sepsis are missing. In a prospective study, 30 ICU patients with severe sepsis and thirty without sepsis as control group were examined using bedside fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing after 14 days in the ICU (T1) and 4 months after onset of critical illness (T2). Swallowing dysfunction was assessed using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). The Functional Oral Intake Scale was applied to evaluate the diet needed. Primary endpoint was the burden of dysphagia defined as PAS score >5. At T1, 19 of 30 severe sepsis patients showed aspiration with a PAS score >5, compared to 7 of 30 in critically ill patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.002). Severe sepsis and tracheostomy were independent risk factors for severe dysphagia with aspiration (PAS > 5) at T1 (p = 0.042 and 0.006, respectively). 4-month mortality (T2) was 57 % in severe sepsis patients compared to 20 % in patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.006). At T2, more severe sepsis survivors were tracheostomy-dependent and needed more often tube or parenteral feeding (p = 0.014 and p = 0.040, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed tracheostomy at T1 as independent risk factor for severe dysphagia at T2 (p = 0.030). Severe sepsis appears to be a relevant risk factor for long-term dysphagia. An otorhinolaryngological evaluation of dysphagia at ICU discharge is mandatory for survivors of severe critical illness to plan specific swallowing rehabilitation programs.
Wada, Tomoki; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Uemura, Tatsuki; Yahagi, Naoki; Kimura, Akio
Not all patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) require emergency endoscopy. Lactate clearance has been suggested as a parameter for predicting patient outcomes in various critical care settings. This study investigates whether lactate clearance can predict active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB. This single-center, retrospective, observational study included critically ill patients with UGIB who met all of the following criteria: admission to the emergency department (ED) from April 2011 to August 2014; had blood samples for lactate evaluation at least twice during the ED stay; and had emergency endoscopy within 6 h of ED presentation. The main outcome was active bleeding detected with emergency endoscopy. Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were performed using variables associated with active bleeding to derive a prediction rule for active bleeding in critically ill UGIB patients. A total of 154 patients with UGIB were analyzed, and 31.2 % (48/154) had active bleeding. In the univariate analysis, lactate clearance was significantly lower in patients with active bleeding than in those without active bleeding (13 vs. 29 %, P bleeding is derived, and includes three variables: lactate clearance; platelet count; and systolic blood pressure at ED presentation. The rule has 97.9 % (95 % CI 90.2-99.6 %) sensitivity with 32.1 % (28.6-32.9 %) specificity. Lactate clearance may be associated with active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB, and may be clinically useful as a component of a prediction rule for active bleeding.
Conclusion: Attribution of depressive and anxiety symptoms appeared to be more likely to influence help-seeking behaviors than attitudes toward mental illness. Enhancing public mental health literacy toward depression may help facilitate help-seeking in response to potential mental illness.
Lyons, Zaza; Hood, Sean
The stigmatisation of mental illness in Australian and other Western societies is now well documented. This article presents a description of the "stigmatisation" problem associated with mental illness, and discusses the impact that this problem has had on the demand for Psychiatry as a career. The approach taken at UWA to address the…
Chemelli-Steingruber, I. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Chemelli, A. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Strasak, A. [Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Hugl, B. [Department of Vascular Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Hiemetzberger, R. [Department of Cardiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Jaschke, W.; Glodny, B.; Czermak, B.V. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria)
Introduction: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the outcome of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) to that of medical therapy in patients with acute type B aortic dissection (TBD). Materials and methods: From July 1996 to April 2008, 88 patients presenting with acute TBD underwent either TEVAR (group A, n = 38) or medical therapy (group B, n = 50). Indications for TEVAR were intractable pain, aortic branch compromise resulting in end-organ ischemia, rapid aortic dilatation and rupture. Follow-up was performed postinterventionally, at 3, 6 and 12 months and yearly thereafter and included clinical examinations and computed tomography (CT), as well as aortic diameter measurements and assessment of thrombosis. Results: Mean follow-up was 33 months in group A and 36 months in group B. The overall mortality rate was 23.7% in group A and 24% in group B, where 4 patients died of late aortic rupture. In group A, complications included 9 endoleaks and 4 retrograde type A dissections, 3 patients were converted to open surgery and 2 needed secondary intervention. None of the patients developed paraplegia. In group B, 4 patients were converted to open surgery and 2 to TEVAR. The maximal aortic diameter increased in both groups. Regarding the extent of thrombosis, our analyses showed slightly better overall results after TEVAR, but they also showed a tendency towards approximation between the two groups during follow-up. Conclusion: TEVAR is a feasible treatment option in acute TBD. However, several serious complications may occur during and after TEVAR and it should therefore be reserved to patients with life-threatening symptoms.
Ertmann, Ruth K; Reventlow, Susanne; Söderström, Margareta
Parents of sick children frequently visit their general practitioners (GPs). The aim was to explore parents' interpretation of their child's incipient signs and symptoms when falling ill and their subsequent unsatisfactory experience with the GP in order to make suggestions for improvements in the medical encounter. Semi-structured interviews. Twenty strategically selected families with a child from a birth cohort in Frederiksborg County, Denmark were interviewed. Parents wanted to consult their GP at the right time, i.e. neither too early nor too late. Well-educated parents experienced a discrepancy between their knowledge about their child, the information they had sought about the illness and the consultation with the GP, when they were dismissed with phrases such as "it will disappear" or "it is just a virus". The parents went along with the GP's advice if the child only occasionally became sick. However, parents of children with recurrent illnesses seemed very frustrated. During the course of several consultations with their GP, they started to question the GP's competence as the child did not regain health. Parents want to be acknowledged as competent collaborators. The GP's failure to acknowledge the parents' knowledge of their child's current illness, and the parents' attempt to identify what is wrong with the child and make the child feel better before the encounter may have consequences for the GP's credibility. It is therefore recommended that parents of children with recurrent illnesses receive extra attention and information.
Dembo, Justine; Schuklenk, Udo; Reggler, Jonathan
Canada is approaching its federal government's review of whether patients should be eligible for medical assistance in dying (MAID) where mental illness is the sole underlying medical condition, and when "natural death" is not "reasonably foreseeable". For those opposed, arguments involve the following themes: capacity, value of life, vulnerability, stigma, irremediability, and the role of physicians. It has also been suggested that those who are able-bodied should have to kill themselves, even though suicide may be painful, lonely, and violent. Opponents of MAID for severe, refractory suffering due to mental illness imply that it is acceptable to remove agency from such patients on paternalistic grounds. After years of efforts to destigmatise mental illness, these kinds of arguments effectively declare all patients with mental illness, regardless of capacity, unable to make considered choices for themselves. The current paper argues that decisions about capacity must be made on an individual-patient basis. Given the rightful importance granted to respect for patient autonomy in liberal democracies, the wholesale removal of agency advocated by opponents of a permissive MAID regime is difficult to reconcile with Canadian constitutional values.
Bagshaw, Sean M.; Uchino, Shigehiko; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Morgera, Stanislao; Schetz, Miet; Tan, Ian; Bouman, Catherine; Macedo, Ettiene; Gibney, Noel; Tolwani, Ashita; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M.; Ronco, Claudio; Kellum, John A.; French, Craig; Mulder, John; Pinder, Mary; Roberts, Brigit; Botha, John; Mudholkar, Pradeen; Holt, Andrew; Hunt, Tamara; Honoré, Patrick Maurice; Clerbaux, Gaetan; Schetz, Miet Maria; Wilmer, Alexander; Yu, Luis; Macedo, Ettiene V.; Laranja, Sandra Maria; Rodrigues, Cassio José; Suassuna, José Hermógenes Rocco; Ruzany, Frederico; Campos, Bruno; Leblanc, Martine; Senécal, Lynne; Gibney, R. T. Noel; Johnston, Curtis; Brindley, Peter; Tan, Ian K. S.; Chen, Hui De; Wan, Li; Rokyta, Richard; Krouzecky, Ales; Neumayer, Hans-Helmut; Detlef, Kindgen-Milles; Mueller, Eckhard; Tsiora, Vicky; Sombolos, Kostas; Mustafa, Iqbal; Suranadi, Iwayan; Bar-Lavie, Yaron; Nakhoul, Farid; Ceriani, Roberto; Bortone, Franco; Zamperetti, Nereo; Pappalardo, Federico; Marino, Giovanni; Calabrese, Prospero; Monaco, Francesco; Liverani, Chiara; Clementi, Stefano; Coltrinari, Rosanna; Marini, Benedetto; Fuke, Nobuo; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Katayama, Hiroshi; Kurasako, Toshiaki; Hirasaw, Hiroyuki; Oda, Shigeto; Tanigawa, Koichi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Oudemans-van Straaten, Helena Maria; de Pont, Anne-Cornelie J. M.; Bugge, Jan Frederik; Riddervold, Fridtjov; Nilsen, Paul Age; Julsrud, Joar; Teixeira e Costa, Fernando; Marcelino, Paulo; Serra, Isabel Maria; Yaroustovsky, Mike; Grigoriyanc, Rachik; Lee, Kang Hoe; Loo, Shi; Singh, Kulgit; Barrachina, Ferran; Llorens, Julio; Sanchez-Izquierdo-Riera, Jose Angel; Toral-Vazquez, Darío; Wizelius, Ivar; Hermansson, Dan; Gaspert, Tomislav; Maggiorini, Marco; Davenport, Andrew; Lombardi, Raúl; Llopart, Teresita; Venkataraman, Ramesh; Kellum, John; Murray, Patrick; Trevino, Sharon; Benjamin, Ernest; Hufanda, Jerry; Paganini, Emil; Warnock, David; Guirguis, Nabil
The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between timing of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in severe acute kidney injury and clinical outcomes. This was a prospective multicenter observational study conducted at 54 intensive care units (ICUs) in 23 countries enrolling 1238 patients.
The diagnosis of urinary tract infections in young children (DUTY: protocol for a diagnostic and prospective observational study to derive and validate a clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care with an acute illness
Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is common in children, and may cause serious illness and recurrent symptoms. However, obtaining a urine sample from young children in primary care is challenging and not feasible for large numbers. Evidence regarding the predictive value of symptoms, signs and urinalysis for UTI in young children is urgently needed to help primary care clinicians better identify children who should be investigated for UTI. This paper describes the protocol for the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY study. The overall study aim is to derive and validate a cost-effective clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care acutely unwell. Methods/design DUTY is a multicentre, diagnostic and prospective observational study aiming to recruit at least 7,000 children aged before their fifth birthday, being assessed in primary care for any acute, non-traumatic, illness of ≤ 28 days duration. Urine samples will be obtained from eligible consented children, and data collected on medical history and presenting symptoms and signs. Urine samples will be dipstick tested in general practice and sent for microbiological analysis. All children with culture positive urines and a random sample of children with urine culture results in other, non-positive categories will be followed up to record symptom duration and healthcare resource use. A diagnostic algorithm will be constructed and validated and an economic evaluation conducted. The primary outcome will be a validated diagnostic algorithm using a reference standard of a pure/predominant growth of at least >103, but usually >105 CFU/mL of one, but no more than two uropathogens. We will use logistic regression to identify the clinical predictors (i.e. demographic, medical history, presenting signs and symptoms and urine dipstick analysis results most strongly associated with a positive urine culture result. We will
The diagnosis of urinary tract infections in young children (DUTY): protocol for a diagnostic and prospective observational study to derive and validate a clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care with an acute illness.
Downing, Harriet; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Gal, Micaela; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Sterne, Jonathan; Hollingworth, William; Hood, Kerenza; Delaney, Brendan; Little, Paul; Howe, Robin; Wootton, Mandy; Macgowan, Alastair; Butler, Christopher C; Hay, Alastair D
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children, and may cause serious illness and recurrent symptoms. However, obtaining a urine sample from young children in primary care is challenging and not feasible for large numbers. Evidence regarding the predictive value of symptoms, signs and urinalysis for UTI in young children is urgently needed to help primary care clinicians better identify children who should be investigated for UTI. This paper describes the protocol for the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY) study. The overall study aim is to derive and validate a cost-effective clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care acutely unwell. DUTY is a multicentre, diagnostic and prospective observational study aiming to recruit at least 7,000 children aged before their fifth birthday, being assessed in primary care for any acute, non-traumatic, illness of ≤ 28 days duration. Urine samples will be obtained from eligible consented children, and data collected on medical history and presenting symptoms and signs. Urine samples will be dipstick tested in general practice and sent for microbiological analysis. All children with culture positive urines and a random sample of children with urine culture results in other, non-positive categories will be followed up to record symptom duration and healthcare resource use. A diagnostic algorithm will be constructed and validated and an economic evaluation conducted.The primary outcome will be a validated diagnostic algorithm using a reference standard of a pure/predominant growth of at least >103, but usually >105 CFU/mL of one, but no more than two uropathogens.We will use logistic regression to identify the clinical predictors (i.e. demographic, medical history, presenting signs and symptoms and urine dipstick analysis results) most strongly associated with a positive urine culture result. We will then use economic evaluation to compare the cost
Erlangsen, Annette; Vach, Werner; Jeune, Bernhard
-level register data. SETTING: Population-based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All persons aged 52 and older living in Denmark during 1996 to 1998 (N=1,684,205). MEASUREMENTS: The studied event is completed suicide. The following time-varying variables are included in the analysis: current age, hospitalization...... been hospitalized during the previous 2 years: 113 per 100,000 versus 80 per 100,000 in the general population of men aged 80 and older. Also, the oldest-old women with a history of hospitalization had a higher suicide rate than their peer group. Nevertheless, the oldest old experienced a lower...... with no hospitalization, although they experience a lower increase in risk after hospitalization than the middle-aged. The increased prevalence of medical illnesses explains a part of the greater suicide risk with age, especially for the oldest old women. Considering that hospitalization with medical illness often...
Katz, Mark A.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Njuguna, Henry; Arvelo, Wences; Khagayi, Sammy; Emukule, Gideon; Linares-Perez, Nivaldo; McCracken, John; Nokes, D. James; Ngama, Mwanajuma; Kazungu, Sidi; Mott, Joshua A.; Olsen, Sonja J.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Feikin, Daniel R.
Background Knowing the national disease burden of severe influenza in low-income countries can inform policy decisions around influenza treatment and prevention. We present a novel methodology using locally generated data for estimating this burden. Methods and Findings This method begins with calculating the hospitalized severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) incidence for children Guatemala, using data from August 2009–July 2011. In Kenya (2009 population 38.6 million persons), the annual number of hospitalized influenza-associated SARI cases ranged from 17,129–27,659 for children Guatemala (2011 population 14.7 million persons), the annual number of hospitalized cases of influenza-associated pneumonia ranged from 1,065–2,259 (0.5–1.0 per 1,000 persons) among children Guatemala. This method can be performed in most low and lower-middle income countries. PMID:23573177
Woodhouse, Lisa J.; Manning, Lisa; Potter, John F.; Berge, Eivind; Sprigg, Nikola; Wardlaw, Joanna; Lees, Kennedy R.; Bath, Philip M.; Robinson, Thompson G.; , Blood Pressure in Acute Stroke Collaboration (BASC)
Over 50% of patients are already taking blood pressure-lowering therapy on hospital admission for acute stroke. An individual patient data meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials was undertaken to determine the effect of continuation versus temporarily stopping pre-existing antihypertensive medication in acute stroke. Key databases were searched for trials against the following inclusion criteria: randomized design; stroke onset ≤48 hours; investigating the effect of continuation vers...
Beauchamp, Gillian A; McKeown, Nathanael J; Rodriguez, Sergio; Spyker, Daniel A
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) monitors influenza like illness (ILI) and the National Poison Data System (NPDS) warehouses call data uploaded by US poison centers regarding reported exposures to medication. We examined the relationship between calls to poison centers regarding reported exposures to medications commonly used to treat ILI and weekly reports of ILI. The CDC reports ILI, by age group, for each of 10 Health and Human Services (HHS) regions. We examined NPDS summary data from calls reported to poison centers regarding reported exposures to acetaminophen, cough/cold medications, and promethazine, for the same weeks, age groups, and HHS regions for influenza seasons 2000-2013. ILI and NPDS exposures were examined using graphical plots, descriptive statistics, stepwise regression analysis, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). About 5,101,841 influenza-like illness cases were reported to the CDC, and 2,122,940 calls regarding reported exposures to medications commonly used to treat ILI, were reported by poison centers to the NPDS over the 13 flu seasons. Analysis of stepwise models of the linear untransformed data involving 24 NPDS data groups and for 60 ILI measures, over the 13 influenza seasons, demonstrated that reported exposures to medications used to treat ILI correlated with reported cases of ILI with a median R(2 )=( )0.489 (min R(2 )=( )0.248, max R(2 )=( )0.717), with mean ± SD of R(2 )=( )0.494 ± 0.121. Median number of parameters used (degrees of freedom - 1) was 7. NPDS data regarding poison center calls for selected ILI medication exposures were highly correlated with CDC ILI data. Since NPDS data are available in real time, it provides complimentary ILI monitoring. This approach may provide public health value in predicting other illnesses which are not currently as thoroughly monitored.
Fowlkes, Ashley; Giorgi, Andrea; Erdman, Dean; Temte, Jon; Goodin, Kate; Di Lonardo, Steve; Sun, Yumei; Martin, Karen; Feist, Michelle; Linz, Rachel; Boulton, Rachelle; Bancroft, Elizabeth; McHugh, Lisa; Lojo, Jose; Filbert, Kimberly; Finelli, Lyn
Background The Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) monitored outpatient acute respiratory infection (ARI; defined as the presence of ≥2 respiratory symptoms not meeting ILI criteria) and influenza-like illness (ILI) to determine the incidence and contribution of associated viral etiologies. Methods From August 2010 through July 2011, 57 outpatient healthcare providers in 12 US sites reported weekly the number of visits for ILI and ARI and collected respiratory specimens on a subset for viral testing. The incidence was estimated using the number of patients in the practice as the denominator, and the virus-specific incidence of clinic visits was extrapolated from the proportion of patients testing positive. Results The age-adjusted cumulative incidence of outpatient visits for ARI and ILI combined was 95/1000 persons, with a viral etiology identified in 58% of specimens. Most frequently detected were rhinoviruses/enteroviruses (RV/EV) (21%) and influenza viruses (21%); the resulting extrapolated incidence of outpatient visits was 20 and 19/1000 persons respectively. The incidence of influenza virus-associated clinic visits was highest among patients aged 2–17 years, whereas other viruses had varied patterns among age groups. Conclusions The IISP provides a unique opportunity to estimate the outpatient respiratory illness burden by etiology. Influenza virus infection and RV/EV infection(s) represent a substantial burden of respiratory disease in the US outpatient setting, particularly among children. PMID:24338352
Fowlkes, Ashley; Giorgi, Andrea; Erdman, Dean; Temte, Jon; Goodin, Kate; Di Lonardo, Steve; Sun, Yumei; Martin, Karen; Feist, Michelle; Linz, Rachel; Boulton, Rachelle; Bancroft, Elizabeth; McHugh, Lisa; Lojo, Jose; Filbert, Kimberly; Finelli, Lyn
The Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) monitored outpatient acute respiratory infection (ARI; defined as the presence of ≥ 2 respiratory symptoms not meeting ILI criteria) and influenza-like illness (ILI) to determine the incidence and contribution of associated viral etiologies. From August 2010 through July 2011, 57 outpatient healthcare providers in 12 US sites reported weekly the number of visits for ILI and ARI and collected respiratory specimens on a subset for viral testing. The incidence was estimated using the number of patients in the practice as the denominator, and the virus-specific incidence of clinic visits was extrapolated from the proportion of patients testing positive. The age-adjusted cumulative incidence of outpatient visits for ARI and ILI combined was 95/1000 persons, with a viral etiology identified in 58% of specimens. Most frequently detected were rhinoviruses/enteroviruses (RV/EV) (21%) and influenza viruses (21%); the resulting extrapolated incidence of outpatient visits was 20 and 19/1000 persons respectively. The incidence of influenza virus-associated clinic visits was highest among patients aged 2-17 years, whereas other viruses had varied patterns among age groups. The IISP provides a unique opportunity to estimate the outpatient respiratory illness burden by etiology. Influenza virus infection and RV/EV infection(s) represent a substantial burden of respiratory disease in the US outpatient setting, particularly among children.
Henriksen, Daniel P; Pottegård, Anton; Laursen, Christian B
OBJECTIVE: Admission with severe sepsis is associated with an increased short-term mortality, but it is unestablished whether sepsis severity has an impact on intermediate-term and long-term mortality following admission to an acute medical admission unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a populat......OBJECTIVE: Admission with severe sepsis is associated with an increased short-term mortality, but it is unestablished whether sepsis severity has an impact on intermediate-term and long-term mortality following admission to an acute medical admission unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS......: This was a population-based study of all adults admitted to an acute medical admission unit, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, from September 2010 to August 2011, identified by symptoms and clinical findings. We categorized the mortality periods into intermediate-term (31-180 days) and long-term (181-365, 366...
Huang, Lei; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Jin; Chen, Kai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xiaodong; Tang, Fenyang
Influenza-like illness causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Air pollution has already been linked to many health issues, and increasing evidence in recent years supports an association between air pollution and respiratory infections. It is a pioneer study in China to quantify the effects of air pollution on influenza-like illness. This study used wavelet coherence analysis and generalized additive models to explore the potential association between air pollution (including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≦2.5 μm (PM2.5), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≦10 μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) and influenza-like illness (a total of 59860 cases) in Nanjing, China from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. The average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 were 77.37 μg/m(3), 135.20 μg/m(3) and 55.80 μg/m(3). An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 concentration was associated with a 2.99% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64%, 4.36%) increase in daily influenza-like cases on the same day, while the corresponding increase in NO2 was associated with a 3.77% (95% CI: 2.01%, 5.56%) increase in daily cases. People aged 0-4 were proved to be significantly susceptible to PM10 and NO2; 5-14 ages were significantly susceptible to PM2.5 and PM10; and 15-24 ages were significantly susceptible to all the analyzed air pollutants. Air pollution effects tended to be null or negative for patients aged over 25, which might be due to the small number of influenza-like cases in this age group. This study can be useful for understanding the adverse health effects of air pollution and the cause of influenza-like illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuo, R J; Cheng, W C; Lien, W C; Yang, T J
Taiwan is an area where chronic hepatitis is endemic. Liver cancer is so common that it has been ranked first among cancer mortality rates since the early 1980s in Taiwan. Besides, liver cirrhosis and chronic liver diseases are the sixth or seventh in the causes of death. Therefore, as shown by the active research on hepatitis, it is not only a health threat, but also a huge medical cost for the government. The estimated total number of hepatitis B carriers in the general population aged more than 20 years old is 3,067,307. Thus, a case record review was conducted from all patients with diagnosis of acute hepatitis admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) of a well-known teaching-oriented hospital in Taipei. The cost of medical resource utilization is defined as the total medical fee. In this study, a fuzzy neural network is employed to develop the cost forecasting model. A total of 110 patients met the inclusion criteria. The computational results indicate that the FNN model can provide more accurate forecasts than the support vector regression (SVR) or artificial neural network (ANN). In addition, unlike SVR and ANN, FNN can also provide fuzzy IF-THEN rules for interpretation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chiu, Ming-Huang; Lee, Hsin-Dai; Hwang, Hei-Fen; Wang, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Mau-Roung
A nested case-control study was carried out to examine relationships of a fall-risk score and the use of single medications and polypharmacy with falls among hospitalized patients aged 50 years and older in Taiwan. There were 83 patients who experienced a fall during hospitalization in an acute-care hospital. Matched by age and sex, five control patients for each case were randomly selected from all other inpatients who had not experienced any fall at the time of the index fall. Patients who took tricyclic antidepressants, diuretics, and narcotics were 3.36-, 1.83- and 2.09-fold, respectively, more likely to experience a fall than their counterparts. Conversely, patients who took beta-blockers were 0.34-fold more likely than those who did not take them to experience a fall. Patients taking ≥6 medications were 3.08-fold more likely than those taking fewer medications to experience a fall, whereas those with anxiety were 4.72-fold more likely to experience a fall than those without. A high fall-risk score was not significantly associated with the occurrence of falls. Among older hospitalized patients, tricyclic antidepressants, diuretics, narcotics, and polypharmacy should be mindfully prescribed and reviewed on a regular basis. A fall-risk scale developed from community-dwelling older people might not accurately predict falls in hospitalized patients. Further research to validate the negative effect of beta-blocker use on falls is required. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Zimmerman, Richard K; Rinaldo, Charles R; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Gk, Balasubramani; Thompson, Mark G; Moehling, Krissy K; Bullotta, Arlene; Wisniewski, Stephen
Respiratory tract infections are a major cause of outpatient visits, yet only a portion is tested to determine the etiologic organism. Multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (MRT-PCR) assays for detection of multiple viruses are being used increasingly in clinical settings. During January-April 2012, outpatients with acute respiratory illness (≤ 7 days) were tested for influenza using singleplex RT-PCR (SRT-PCR). A subset was assayed for 18 viruses using MRT-PCR to compare detection of influenza and examine the distribution of viruses and characteristics of patients using multinomial logistic regression. Among 662 participants (6 months-82 years), detection of influenza was similar between the MRT-PCR and SRT-PCR (κ = 0.83). No virus was identified in 267 (40.3%) samples. Commonly detected viruses were human rhinovirus (HRV, 15.4%), coronavirus (CoV, 10.4%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 8.4%), human metapneumovirus (hMPV, 8.3%), and influenza (6%). Co-detections were infrequent (6.9%) and most commonly occurred among those infections (P = 0.008), nasal congestion was more frequent in CoV, HRV, hMPV, influenza and RSV infections (P = 0.001), and body mass index was higher among those with influenza (P = 0.036). Using MRT-PCR, a viral etiology was found in three-fifths of patients with medically attended outpatient visits for acute respiratory illness during the influenza season; co-detected viruses were infrequent. Symptoms varied by viral etiology. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stefanovics, Elina; He, Hongbo; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Cavalcanti, Maria Tavares; Rocha Neto, Helio; Makanjuola, Victor; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Leddy, Meaghan; Rosenheck, Robert
This quantitative study sought to compare beliefs about the manifestation, causes and treatment of mental illness and attitudes toward people with mental illness among health professionals from five countries: the United States, Brazil, Ghana, Nigeria, and China. A total of 902 health professionals from the five countries were surveyed using a questionnaire addressing attitudes towards people with mental illness and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. Chi-square and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare age and gender of the samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to confirm the structure and fit of the hypothesized model based on data from a previous study that identified four factors: socializing with people with mental illness (socializing), belief that people with mental illness should have normal roles in society (normalizing), non-belief in supernatural causes (witchcraft or curses), and belief in bio-psycho-social causes of mental illness (bio-psycho-social). Analysis of Covariance was used to compare four factor scores across countries adjusting for differences in ag