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Sample records for acute liquefaction necrosis

  1. Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis Followed by Duodenal Necrosis

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    del Hierro, Piedad Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis is an uncommon pathology, characterized by endoscopic finding of diffuse black coloration in esophageal mucosa and histological presence of necrosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The first case of acute necrotizing esophagitis followed by duodenal necrosis, in 81 years old woman with a positive history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and usual intake of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs, is reported. Although its etiology remains unknown, the duodenal necrosis suggests that ischemia could be the main cause given that the branches off the celiac axis provide common blood supply to the distal esophageal and duodenal tissue. The massive gastroesophagic reflux and NSAID intake could be involved. PMID:27957030

  2. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

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    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  3. [Acute unclassified leukemia with bone marrow necrosis].

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    Uoshima, N; Yamazaki, N; Iinuma, S; Kimura, S; Wada, K; Kobayashi, Y; Ozawa, M; Horiuchi, H; Maruo, N; Kondo, M

    1991-01-01

    Massive bone marrow necrosis was seen in a 42-year-old male with acute leukemia. In December, 1988, on admission, laboratory data revealed pancytopenia and a high level of serum LDH and ALKP. Bone marrow aspiration resulted in dry-tap and showed bone marrow necrosis in the bone marrow biopsy specimen. A bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In faintly visualized the bone marrow but visualized area was expanded in the extremities compared with normal subjects. The second bone marrow biopsy showed proliferation of blasts. In the middle of March, blasts began to appear in peripheral blood. The blasts were cytochemically negative for POX, Es, PAS, AcP, TdT and had surface markers CD3-, CD19-, CD33-, CD13-, LCA-, HLA-DR-. Even by investigation on rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain region, an origin of the blasts could not be determined. In April, the number of blasts in peripheral blood increased and hepatosplenomegaly developed rapidly. Therefore, he was put on the chemotherapy with vincristine and prednisolone, but he died of cerebral hemorrhage. The autopsy revealed widespread bone marrow necrosis. It has rarely been reported that massive bone marrow necrosis is found prior to the occurrence of acute unclassified leukemia.

  4. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

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    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  5. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation.

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    Aydin, Ibrahim; Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  6. Cytokines and chemokines involved in acute retinal necrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. De Visser (Lenneke); J.H. de Boer (Joke); G.T. Rijkers; Wiertz, K. (Karin); H.J. van den Ham; de Boer, R. (Rob); van Loon, A.M. (Anton M.); A. Rothová (Aniki); J.D.F. de Groot-Mijnes (Jolanda )

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. To investigate which cytokines and chemokines are involved in the immunopatho-genesis of acute retinal necrosis (ARN), and whether cytokine profiles are associated with clinical manifestations, such as visual outcome. METHODS. Serum and aqueous humor (AH) samples of 19 patients

  7. Cytokines and Chemokines Involved in Acute Retinal Necrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, Lenneke; H de Boer, Joke; T Rijkers, Ger; Wiertz, Karin; van den Ham, Henk-Jan; de Boer, Rob; M van Loon, Anton; Rothova, Aniki; de Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda D F

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate which cytokines and chemokines are involved in the immunopathogenesis of acute retinal necrosis (ARN), and whether cytokine profiles are associated with clinical manifestations, such as visual outcome. Methods: Serum and aqueous humor (AH) samples of 19 patients with ARN were

  8. A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen: Idiopathic Isolated Cecal Necrosis

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    Ender Özer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic isolated cecal necrosis is a clinical problem characterized by right-sided inferior abdominal pain. It is rarely seen, develops due to decreased blood flow to the colon and, imitates acute appendicitis. Its clinical signs are similar to many illnesses causing sensitivity in the right inferior quadrant and, the diagnosis is generally determined during surgery. An 86-year-old male patient presented with the complaints of abdominal pain, trichiniasis, nausea and vomiting. Surgical intervention was decided when physical examination and laboratory results were taken into consideration. After diagnostic laparoscopy, right hemicolectomy was performed because of cecal necrosis. While the mortality and morbidity rates for ischemic bowel disease are high, prognosis for early diagnosed patients with isolated cecal necrosis is better, provided that timely surgical treatment is decided.

  9. Contemporary management of infected necrosis complicating severe acute pancreatitis

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    Jamdar, Saurabh; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic necrosis complicating severe acute pancreatitis is a challenging scenario in contemporary critical care practice; it requires multidisciplinary care in a setting where there is a relatively limited evidence base to support decision making. This commentary provides a concise overview of current management of patients with infected necrosis, focusing on detection, the role of pharmacologic intervention, and the timing and nature of surgical interventions. Fine-needle aspiration of necrosis remains the mainstay for establishment of infection. Pharmacological intervention includes antibiotic therapy as an adjunct to surgical debridement/drainage and, more recently, drotrecogin alfa. Specific concerns remain regarding the suitability of drotrecogin alfa in this setting. Early surgical intervention is unhelpful; surgery is indicated when there is strong evidence for infection of necrotic tissue, with the current trend being toward 'less drastic' surgical interventions. PMID:16356213

  10. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis-A case report

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    Prasad Palimar

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42 year old man presented with acute bilateral uveitis and necrotizing retinitis. Systemic investigations including test for AIDS and CMV retinitis were negative. Despite oral Acyclovir, both eyes progressed rapidly to retinal detachment with loss of vision. Early recognition is necessary to diagnose the bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome and initiate treatment. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis (BARN is a term first coined by Young and Bird in 1978 although the syndrome had been originally described by Urayama et al as an unilateral condition. This syndrome is characterized by the triad of acute confluent peripheral necrotizing retinitis, moderate to severe vasculitis and vitritis in an otherwise healthy individual. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment occurs within two to three months of the onset of the disease and the second eye is involved in 36% of patients, usually within 6 weeks. We herein report a patient who presented with simultaneous BARN leading to retinal detachment in a matter of days. Also, to our knowledge this is the first report of this condition in India.

  11. Rhabdomyolysis with acute tubular necrosis following occupational inhalation of thinners.

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    Ngajilo, D; Ehrlich, R

    2017-07-01

    Thinners are mixtures of organic solvents commonly containing toluene, xylene, acetone, hexane, benzene and methyl isobutyl ketone. This report describes a case of rhabdomyolysis with acute tubular necrosis and renal failure, most likely attributable to toluene, following occupational exposure to thinners while cleaning a steel water tank. These adverse health effects have previously been reported following acute poisoning or intentional inhalation by drug abusers, but rarely in the occupational setting. Poor working conditions, lack of health and safety training and delayed treatment contributed to the onset and severity of the patient's complications. This case emphasizes the need for strict control measures, including adequate ventilation, training on working in confined spaces, appropriate personal protective equipment and emergency rescue procedures in such settings. In addition, rhabdomyolysis, acute tubular necrosis and renal failure should be added to safety data material as possible complications of excessive inhalation of thinners. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Renal transplantant blood flow in patients with acute tubular necrosis

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    Huic, D; Crnkovic, S; Bubic-Filipi, L J; Grosev, D; Dodig, P; Porapat, M; Puretic, Z [Univ. Hospital Rebro, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the quantity of renal transport blood flow in patients affected by acute tubular necrosis (ATN). During the four years period two hundred and thirty-three studies were performed using {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate and {sup 131}I - OIH. Renal blood flow was calculated from the first-pass time activity curves generated over the kidney and aorta and expressed as a percentage of cardiac output (RBF/CO). Renal transplant blood flow is clearly diminished in ATN, similar as in acute rejection, and significantly related to the graft function, what means that RBF/CO value could potentially serve as a prognostic factor in the graft function recovery from ATN.

  13. Acute tubular necrosis in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

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    Eranga S Wijewickrama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a well-recognized complication of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH. The predominant mechanism is intravascular hemolysis resulting in massive hemoglobinuria ARF. We report a case of acute tubular necrosis (ATN developed in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis in a 21-year-old man with anemia, who was eventually diagnosed to have PNH. The patient presented with rapidly deteriorating renal functions in the background of iron deficiency anemia, which was attributed to reflux esophagitis. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of intravascular hemolysis. Renal biopsy revealed ATN with deposition of hemosiderin in the proximal tubular epithelial cells. Diagnosis of PNH was confirmed with a positive Ham′s test and flow cytometry. Our case emphasizes the need to consider ATN as a possible cause for ARF in patients suspected to have PNH even in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis.

  14. The diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced CT in Acute bilateral renal cortical necrosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Pil Youb; Lee, Su Han; Lee, Woo Dong

    1996-01-01

    Acute renal cortical necrosis in which there is destruction of the renal cortex and sparing of the renal medulla, is a relatively rare cause of acute renal failure. A definitive diagnosis of acute renal cortical necrosis is based on renal biopsy, but on CT(computed tomography) the rather specific contrast-enhanced appearance of acute renal cortical necrosis has been described. As renal biopsy is not available, contrast-enhanced CT is a useful, noninvasive investigate modality for the early diagnosis of acute renal cortical necrosis. We report the characteristic CT findings of acute renal cortical necrosis in a patient with acute renal failure following an operation for abdominal trauma

  15. A case of severe acute pancreatitis with near total pancreatic necrosis diagnosed by dynamic CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazunori; Kakugawa, Yoichiro; Amikura, Katsumi; Miyagawa, Kikuo; Matsuno, Seiki; Sato, Toshio

    1987-01-01

    A 42 year-old woman with severe acute pancreatitis had drainage of the pancreatic bed, cholecystostomy and jejunostomy on admission, but symptoms were not improved. Fourteen days after admission, clinical sepsis and septisemia were recognized. Dynamic CT scanning of the pancreas showed near total pancreatic necrosis. Symptoms were improved after necrosectomy of the pancreas and debridement of the peripancreatic necrotic tissue were performed. Our experience suggests the usefulness of dynamic CT scanning for detection of pancreatic necrosis in severe acute pancreatitis. (author)

  16. Colonic Necrosis in a 4-Year-Old with Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis

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    Tiffany J. Patton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the case of a 4-year-old male with severe acute pancreatitis due to hyperlipidemia, who presented with abdominal pain, metabolic abnormalities, and colonic necrosis. This colonic complication was secondary to the extension of a large peripancreatic fluid collection causing direct serosal autodigestion by pancreatic enzymes. Two weeks following the initial presentation, the peripancreatic fluid collection developed into a mature pancreatic pseudocyst, which was percutaneously drained. To our knowledge, this is the youngest documented pediatric case of colonic necrosis due to severe pancreatitis and the first descriptive pediatric case of a colonic complication due to hyperlipidemia-induced acute pancreatitis.

  17. Acute hepatic encephalopathy presenting as cortical laminar necrosis: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Mun; Kim, Yoon Hee; Roh, Sook Young

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 55-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis who presented with status epilepticus. Laboratory analysis showed markedly elevated blood ammonia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed widespread cortical signal changes with restricted diffusion, involving both temporo-fronto-parietal cortex, while the perirolandic regions and occipital cortex were uniquely spared. A follow-up brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cortical atrophy with increased signals on T1-weighted images in both the basal ganglia and temporal lobe cortex, representing cortical laminar necrosis. We suggest that the brain lesions, in our case, represent a consequence of toxic effect of ammonia.

  18. Acute hepatic encephalopathy presenting as cortical laminar necrosis: Case report

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    Choi, Jong Mun; Kim, Yoon Hee; Roh, Sook Young [Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Daejin Medical Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    We report on a 55-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis who presented with status epilepticus. Laboratory analysis showed markedly elevated blood ammonia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed widespread cortical signal changes with restricted diffusion, involving both temporo-fronto-parietal cortex, while the perirolandic regions and occipital cortex were uniquely spared. A follow-up brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cortical atrophy with increased signals on T1-weighted images in both the basal ganglia and temporal lobe cortex, representing cortical laminar necrosis. We suggest that the brain lesions, in our case, represent a consequence of toxic effect of ammonia.

  19. Esofagitis necrosante aguda: análisis retrospectivo Acute esophageal necrosis: a retrospective case series

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    R. Ramos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la esofagitis necrosante aguda es una entidad rara. Se reconoce por el aspecto negro difuso del esófago a la endoscopia. Su incidencia e patogénesis se desconoce. Pacientes y métodos: se analizaron retrospectivamente 11 pacientes con esofagitis necrosante aguda desde el punto de vista de los datos clínicos, de laboratorio y endoscopicos en 2 años. Resultados: se analizaron las endoscopias realizadas a 3.976 pacientes, observándose esofagitis necrosante aguda en 11 pacientes. El estado nutricional era malo en 6 pacientes. La resolución completa de la esofagitis se observó en cuatro pacientes. Durante el seguimiento se observó una estenosis en un paciente y un nuevo episodio de esofagitis necrosante aguda en otro paciente. Siete pacientes fallecieron, pero esta elevada mortalidad parece deberse a las enfermedades de base y no es atribuible a las lesiones de la esofagitis necrosante. Conclusiones: la incidencia de esofagitis necrosante aguda en nuestra serie fue 0,28%. La esofagitis necrosante aguda tiene una elevada mortalidad.Background: acute esophageal necrosis has been considered a rare event. It is defined as the presence of diffuse dark pigmentation of the esophagus on upper endoscopy. Its incidence has not yet been established. The pathogenesis remains unknown. Patients and methods: a retrospective analysis of clinical, laboratory, endoscopic, and histological data, and of the clinical course of 11 patients with acute necrotizing esophagitis was carried out over a 2-year period. Results: among 3,976 patients who underwent upper endoscopy, 11 (0.28% with acute esophageal necrosis were identified. Nutritional status was poor for 6 patients. Complete resolution of acute esophageal necrosis without further recurrence was observed in 4. One stricture appeared during follow-up and other patient developed new-onset acute esophageal necrosis. Seven patients died, but no death was directly related to acute esophageal necrosis

  20. Twenty years' delay of fellow eye involvement in herpes simplex virus type 2-associated bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlingemann, R. O.; Bruinenberg, M.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P.; Feron, E.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a case of acute retinal necrosis with concurrent encephalitis and determine the causative virus. The patient had a history of presumed acute retinal necrosis in the left eye at the age of 8 years and recurrent genital herpes. METHODS: Diagnostic anterior chamber puncture of the

  1. INTRAOCULAR AND SERUM LEVELS OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR IN ACUTE RETINAL NECROSIS AND OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiertz, Karin; De Visser, Lenneke; Rijkers, Ger; De Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda; Los, Leonie; Rothova, Aniki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the intraocular and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) and compare those with VEGF levels found in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). Methods: Paired intraocular fluid and serum samples of 17 patients with

  2. Early segmental changes in ischemic acute tubular necrosis of the rat kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faarup, Poul; Nørgaard, Tove; Hegedüs, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    The background and mechanisms of ischemic acute tubular necrosis are still essentially unclarified. Therefore a quantitative morphological technique was applied for evaluation of the early structural changes in different fractions of the proximal convoluted tubule in the rat renal cortex. In male...

  3. Precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with bone marrow necrosis: a case report

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    Khoshnaw Najmaddin SH

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bone marrow necrosis is a clinicopathological condition diagnosed most often at postmortem examination, but it is also seen during the course of malignancy and is not always associated with a poor prognosis. The morphological features of bone marrow necrosis are disruption of the normal marrow architecture and necrosis of myeloid tissue and medullary stroma. Non-malignant conditions associated with bone marrow necrosis are sickle cell anemia, infections, drugs (sulfasalazine, interferon α, all-trans retinoic acid, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and fludarabine, disseminated intravascular coagulation, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and acute graft versus host diseases. The malignant causes are leukemia, lymphoma and metastatic carcinomas. Herein we report the case of a patient with precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bone marrow necrosis at initial presentation. Case presentation A 10-year-old Kurdish boy was presented with generalized bone pain and fever of 1 month’s duration which was associated with sweating, easy fatigability, nose bleeding, breathlessness and severe weight loss. On examination, we observed pallor, tachypnea, tachycardia, low blood pressure, fever, petechial hemorrhage, ecchymoses, tortuous dilated veins over the chest and upper part of abdomen, multiple small cervical lymph node enlargements, mildly enlarged spleen, palpable liver and gross abdominal distention. Blood analysis revealed pancytopenia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Imaging results showed mediastinal widening on a planar chest X-ray and diffuse focal infiltration of the axial bone marrow on magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral vertebrae. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy examination showed extensive bone marrow necrosis. Immunophenotyping analysis of the bone marrow biopsy confirmed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, as CD3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl

  4. Plasma exchange in Immunoglobulin A nephropathy with thrombotic microangiopathy and acute cortical necrosis

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    P Doddi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old female presented with decreased urine output, deranged renal function, thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia. Kidney biopsy was consistent with thrombotic microangiopathy with acute cortical necrosis and Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN. Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and urine output improved after five sessions of plasma exchange. Renal function showed a delayed recovery and serum creatinine normalized by 3 months. This is first case of successful use of plasma exchange in hemolytic uremic syndrome with cortical necrosis associated with IgAN.

  5. Acute necrosis after Gamma Knife surgery in vestibular schwannoma leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies.

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    Kapitza, Sandra; Pangalu, Athina; Horstmann, Gerhard A; van Eck, Albert T; Regli, Luca; Tarnutzer, Alexander A

    2016-08-01

    We discuss a rare acute complication after Gamma Knife therapy (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) in a single patient. A 52-year-old woman presented with vertigo, facial weakness and hearing loss emerging 48hours following Gamma Knife radiosurgery for a right-sided vestibular schwannoma. Neurological examination 6days after symptom onset showed right-sided facial palsy, spontaneous left-beating nystagmus and pathologic head-impulse testing to the right. Pure-tone audiogram revealed right-sided sensorineural hearing loss. A diagnosis of acute vestibulocochlear and facial neuropathy was made. Brain MRI demonstrated focal contrast sparing within the schwannoma, likely related to acute radiation necrosis. Acute multiple cranial neuropathies of the cerebellopontine angle after Gamma Knife treatment should raise suspicion of acute tissue damage within the schwannoma and should result in urgent MRI. Treatment with steroids may be considered based on accompanying swelling and edema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Avascular necrosis of bone in severe acute respiratory syndrome

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    Hong, N. E-mail: hongnan@bjmu.edu.cn; Du, X.K

    2004-07-01

    AIM: To report the incidence of avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven SARS patients who had large joint pain between March 2003 and May 2003 underwent both plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination on the same day. All patients received steroids and ribavirin treatment. All plain radiographs and MR images were analysed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Any abnormalities, location, extent, morphology, the number, size and signal intensity of lesions were evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were identified with AVN, The mean time to diagnosis of AVN was 119 days after the onset of SARS, or 116 days after steroid use. Three patients had early bilateral AVN of the femoral head, four patients of one femoral head, five patients of the bilateral hips and knees, four patients of the ipsilateral hip and knees, 10 patients of the knee(s), one patient of the right proximal fibula, and one patient of the knees and talus. Results of hip, knee and ankle plain radiographs were negative. CONCLUSION: AVN can occur in the patients with SARS. AVN had a strong association with steroid use. More studies are required to confirm whether the virus itself can also lead to AVN.

  7. Avascular necrosis of bone in severe acute respiratory syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, N.; Du, X.K.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To report the incidence of avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven SARS patients who had large joint pain between March 2003 and May 2003 underwent both plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination on the same day. All patients received steroids and ribavirin treatment. All plain radiographs and MR images were analysed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Any abnormalities, location, extent, morphology, the number, size and signal intensity of lesions were evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were identified with AVN, The mean time to diagnosis of AVN was 119 days after the onset of SARS, or 116 days after steroid use. Three patients had early bilateral AVN of the femoral head, four patients of one femoral head, five patients of the bilateral hips and knees, four patients of the ipsilateral hip and knees, 10 patients of the knee(s), one patient of the right proximal fibula, and one patient of the knees and talus. Results of hip, knee and ankle plain radiographs were negative. CONCLUSION: AVN can occur in the patients with SARS. AVN had a strong association with steroid use. More studies are required to confirm whether the virus itself can also lead to AVN

  8. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis and other current concepts in the radiological assessment of acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Elen Freitas de Cerqueira; Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Pereira, Fabio Payao; Blasbalg, Roberto; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition caused by intracellular activation and extravasation of inappropriate proteolytic enzymes determining destruction of pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissues. This is a fairly common clinical condition with two main presentations, namely, endematous pancreatitis - a less severe presentation - and necrotizing pancreatitis - the most severe presentation that affects a significant part of patients. The radiological evaluation, particularly by computed tomography, plays a fundamental role in the definition of the management of severe cases, especially regarding the characterization of local complications with implications in the prognosis and in the definition of the therapeutic approach. New concepts include the subdivision of necrotizing pancreatitis into the following presentations: pancreatic parenchymal necrosis with concomitant peripancreatic tissue necrosis, and necrosis restricted to peripancreatic tissues. Moreover, there was a systematization of the terms acute peripancreatic fluid collection, pseudocyst, post-necrotic pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collections and walled-off pancreatic necrosis. The knowledge about such terms is extremely relevant to standardize the terminology utilized by specialists involved in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. (author)

  9. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis and other current concepts in the radiological assessment of acute pancreatitis

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    Cunha, Elen Freitas de Cerqueira [Image Memorial/DASA and Diagnoson Medicina Diagnostica, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Pereira, Fabio Payao; Blasbalg, Roberto; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USPU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2014-05-15

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition caused by intracellular activation and extravasation of inappropriate proteolytic enzymes determining destruction of pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissues. This is a fairly common clinical condition with two main presentations, namely, endematous pancreatitis - a less severe presentation - and necrotizing pancreatitis - the most severe presentation that affects a significant part of patients. The radiological evaluation, particularly by computed tomography, plays a fundamental role in the definition of the management of severe cases, especially regarding the characterization of local complications with implications in the prognosis and in the definition of the therapeutic approach. New concepts include the subdivision of necrotizing pancreatitis into the following presentations: pancreatic parenchymal necrosis with concomitant peripancreatic tissue necrosis, and necrosis restricted to peripancreatic tissues. Moreover, there was a systematization of the terms acute peripancreatic fluid collection, pseudocyst, post-necrotic pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collections and walled-off pancreatic necrosis. The knowledge about such terms is extremely relevant to standardize the terminology utilized by specialists involved in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. (author)

  10. Short article: Presence, extent and location of pancreatic necrosis are independent of aetiology in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Robert C; Sternby, Hanna; Dimova, Alexandra; Ignatavicius, Povilas; Koiva, Peter; Penttila, Anne K; Ilzarbe, Lucas; Regner, Sara; Rosendahl, Jonas; Bollen, Thomas L

    2018-03-01

    The most common aetiologies of acute pancreatitis (AP) are gallstones, alcohol and idiopathic. The impact of the aetiology of AP on the extent and morphology of pancreatic and extrapancreatic necrosis (EXPN) has not been clearly established. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of aetiology on the presence and location of pancreatic necrosis in patients with AP. We carried out a post-hoc analysis of a previously established multicentre cohort of patients with AP in whom a computed tomography was available for review. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. All computed tomographies were revised by the same expert radiologist. The impact of aetiology on pancreatic and EXPN was calculated. In total, 159 patients with necrotizing pancreatitis were identified from a cohort of 285 patients. The most frequent aetiologies were biliary (105 patients, 37%), followed by alcohol (102 patients, 36%) and other aetiologies including idiopathic (78 patients, 27%). No relationship was found between the aetiology and the presence of pancreatic necrosis, EXPN, location of pancreatic necrosis or presence of collections. We found no association between the aetiology of AP and the presence, extent and anatomical location of pancreatic necrosis.

  11. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis associated with bilateral uveal effusion in an immunocompetent patient: A challenging association

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    S Bala Murugan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral uveal effusion syndrome associated with bilateral acute retinal necrosis is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A 52 year old man presented with bilateral angle closure with choroidal detachment. With restricted fundus view, parenteral steroid was started. During close follow up bilateral discrete areas of peripheral retinitis were noted. Parenteral steroids were promptly stopped and parenteral antivirals with oral steroids were continued. It showed healing response with nil recurrences till last follow up. Aggressive treatment of bilateral uveal effusion with parenteral steroids can cause progression of bilateral acute retinal necrosis leading to phthisis bulbi. However early diagnosis, prompt intervention and close follow up are the key elements to therapeutic success even during diagnostic surprises and avoid costly mistakes.

  12. Ten years of experience with transgastric necrosectomy for walled-off necrosis in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busse, Malene Just; Ainsworth, Alan Patrick

    2015-01-01

    : Acute pancreatitis with walled-off necrosis has a high mortality rate. Need for additional therapy following necrosectomy was associated with fatal outcome. Endocrine and exocrine insufficiency was often seen at follow-up. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by the Danish Data....... Ten patients (20%) died during their admission to our department. In total, 18 (45%) patients developed late complications defined as endocrine and/or exocrine malfunction of the pancreas (diabetes (n = 10), exocrine insufficiency (n = 4), both diabetes and exocrine insufficiency (n = 4)). CONCLUSION......INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to report our results with open transgastric necrosectomy for walled-off necrosis in acute pancreatitis over a period of ten years. METHODS: Patients operated at the department from 2003 until 2012 were studied retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients...

  13. Fundus autofluorescence in the diagnosis and monitoring of acute retinal necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Tyson SJ; Reddy, Ashvini K

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), a vision threatening viral retinitis, is often diagnosed and treated based on clinical findings. These clinical features have been well characterized by various imaging modalities, but not using fundus autofluorescence (FAF), a noninvasive method of evaluating the neurosensory retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) based on the detection of endogenous fluorophores. Findings A patient diagnosed with ARN was followed over a 10-month period to identi...

  14. Two sides of one coin: massive hepatic necrosis and progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in acute liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei eWeng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Massive hepatic necrosis is a key event underlying acute liver failure, a serious clinical syndrome with high mortality. Massive hepatic necrosis in acute liver failure has unique pathophysiological characteristics including extremely rapid parenchymal cell death and removal. On the other hand, massive necrosis rapidly induces the activation of liver progenitor cells, the so-called second pathway of liver regeneration. The final clinical outcome of acute liver failure depends on whether liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration can efficiently restore parenchymal mass and function within a short time. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding massive hepatic necrosis and liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in patients with acute liver failure, the two sides of one coin.

  15. Two sides of one coin: massive hepatic necrosis and progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hong-Lei; Cai, Xiaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liebe, Roman; Dooley, Steven; Li, Hai; Wang, Tai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Massive hepatic necrosis is a key event underlying acute liver failure, a serious clinical syndrome with high mortality. Massive hepatic necrosis in acute liver failure has unique pathophysiological characteristics including extremely rapid parenchymal cell death and removal. On the other hand, massive necrosis rapidly induces the activation of liver progenitor cells, the so-called "second pathway of liver regeneration." The final clinical outcome of acute liver failure depends on whether liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration can efficiently restore parenchymal mass and function within a short time. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding massive hepatic necrosis and liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in patients with acute liver failure, the two sides of one coin.

  16. Prognostic criteria in acute pancreatitis: importance of assessment of pancreatic necrosis by contrast-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echevarria, F.; Martinez, B.; Lopez, F.; Vuelta, R.V.

    1997-01-01

    To compare the value of the clinical criteria of Ranson, the classical tomographic criteria of Balthzar and the severity of illness index according to CT in predicting the development of complications of acute pancreatitis. A retrospective study was performed in 100 patients with clinical and analytical evidence of acute pancreatitis. All patients were assessed according to Ranson score at admission and 48 hours later, and contrast-enhanced abdominal CT was carried out. The tomographic images were analyzed on the basis of the classical criteria of Balthazar and the new CT severity of illness index, which includes the assessment of pancreatic necrosis, identified as the areas of the pancreas that are not enhanced by the administration of the contrast material. These three criteria were then correlated with onset of medical and surgical implications. Our findings show that, of the three criteria analyzed, the CT severity of illness index presents the greatest specificity, sensitivity and positive and negative predictive values in the prediction of complications of acute pancreatitis. We conclude that the inclusion of pancreatic necrosis in the tomographic study improves the early assessment of the prognosis of acute pancreatitis. (Author) 20 refs

  17. Gallbladder Volvulus: A Rare Emergent Cause of Acute Cholecystitis, if Untreated, Progresses to Necrosis and Perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justin L, Regner; Angela, Lomas

    2016-01-01

    An 86 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for abdominal hernia and Alzheimer dementia presented to the Emergency Department with a 24 hour history of acute right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and non-bilious emesis. Physical exam revealed right sided abdominal tenderness with associated mass. All laboratory values were within normal ranges. Both abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen/pelvis revealed a large distended gallbladder with wall thickening and gallstones. Based on presentation and radiologic findings, the emergency general surgery service was consulted for suspected acute cholecystitis. The patient was then admitted for intravenous antibiotics and scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy the following day. Intra-operative findings revealed volvulus with acute necrosis of the entire gallbladder. The gallbladder had a long pedunculated cystic duct and artery that was detorsed before proceeding with resection. Postoperatively, the patient did well and was discharged a few days later tolerating a regular diet

  18. Gallbladder Volvulus: A Rare Emergent Cause of Acute Cholecystitis, if Untreated, Progresses to Necrosis and Perforation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justin L, Regner, E-mail: Justin.Regner@BSWHealth.org; Angela, Lomas [Department of Surgery, Baylor Scott and White Health and Texas A& M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX (United States)

    2016-03-25

    An 86 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for abdominal hernia and Alzheimer dementia presented to the Emergency Department with a 24 hour history of acute right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and non-bilious emesis. Physical exam revealed right sided abdominal tenderness with associated mass. All laboratory values were within normal ranges. Both abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen/pelvis revealed a large distended gallbladder with wall thickening and gallstones. Based on presentation and radiologic findings, the emergency general surgery service was consulted for suspected acute cholecystitis. The patient was then admitted for intravenous antibiotics and scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy the following day. Intra-operative findings revealed volvulus with acute necrosis of the entire gallbladder. The gallbladder had a long pedunculated cystic duct and artery that was detorsed before proceeding with resection. Postoperatively, the patient did well and was discharged a few days later tolerating a regular diet.

  19. A vascular necrosis of bone. A complication of agressive therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, S.; Saika, S.; Sirohi, B.; Pai, S.; Advani, S. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay (India). Dept. of Medical Oncology

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to report cases of avascular necrosis of bone (AVNB) arising as a complication of chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). X-rays and {sup 99m}technicium-MDP bone scans were performed on patients with symptoms of bone pain, whereby five patients out of 850 patients were detected to have avascular necrosis of the femoral head. All had received aggressive chemotherapy with steroids. Two patients were still on therapy for the primary disease. In these patients further chemotherapy was continued without steroids. The medium period from diagnosis of ALL to development of AVNB was 29 months. Three patients underwent corrective surgical procedures. To conclude, the data suggest that patients receiving combination chemotherapy, especially those with high cumulative doses, run a risk of developing AVNB. Awarness of this complication is important in order to have an early diagnosis so as to limit disability. (orig.)

  20. A vascular necrosis of bone. A complication of agressive therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, S.; Saika, S.; Sirohi, B.; Pai, S.; Advani, S.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to report cases of avascular necrosis of bone (AVNB) arising as a complication of chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). X-rays and 99m technicium-MDP bone scans were performed on patients with symptoms of bone pain, whereby five patients out of 850 patients were detected to have avascular necrosis of the femoral he[. All h[ received aggressive chemotherapy with steroids. Two patients were still on therapy for the primary disease. In these patients further chemotherapy was continued without steroids. The medium period from diagnosis of ALL to development of AVNB was 29 months. Three patients underwent corrective surgical procedures. To conclude, the data suggest that patients receiving combination chemotherapy, especially those with high cumulative doses, run a risk of developing AVNB. Awarness of this complication is important in order to have an early diagnosis so as to limit disability. (orig.)

  1. Kyrieleis plaques associated with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 acute retinal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Goel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with features typical of acute retinal necrosis (ARN. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous tap was positive for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV – 1. Following therapy with intravenous Acyclovir, followed by oral Acyclovir and steroids, there was marked improvement in the visual acuity and clinical picture. At one week after initiation of treatment, Kyrieleis plaques were observed in the retinal arteries. They became more prominent despite resolution of the vitritis, retinal necrosis and vasculitis and persisted till six weeks of follow-up, when fluorescein angiography was performed. The appearance of this segmental retinal periarteritis also known as Kyrieleis plaques has not been described in ARN due to HSV-1 earlier.

  2. Phytoceuticals in Acute Pancreatitis: Targeting the Balance between Apoptosis and Necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaman, Laura; Robu, Georgiana Catalina; Radoi, Mugurel Petrinel; Stroica, Laura; Badea, Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the complex pathogenesis of pancreatitis, the management of the disease remains suboptimal. The use of phytoceuticals (plant-derived pleiotropic multitarget molecules) represents a new research trend in pancreatology. The purpose of this review is to discuss the phytoceuticals with pancreatoprotective potential in acute pancreatitis and whose efficacy is based, at least in part, on their capacity to modulate the acinar cell death. The phytochemicals selected, belonging to such diverse classes as polyphenols, flavonoids, lignans, anthraquinones, sesquiterpene lactones, nitriles, and alkaloids, target the balance between apoptosis and necrosis. Activation of apoptosis via various mechanisms (e.g., inhibition of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis proteins by embelin, upregulation of FasL gene expression by resveratrol) and/or inhibition of necrosis seem to represent the essential key for decreasing the severity of the disease. Apart from targeting the apoptosis/necrosis balance, the phytochemicals displayed other specific protective activities: inhibition of inflammasome (e.g., rutin), suppression of neutrophil infiltration (e.g., ligustrazine, resveratrol), and antioxidant activity. Even though many of the selected phytoceuticals represent a promising therapeutic alternative, there is a shortage of human evidence, and further studies are required to provide solid basis to justify their use in the treatment of pancreatitis. PMID:29686719

  3. Early magnetic resonance detection of cortical necrosis and acute network injury associated with neonatal and infantile cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, Tetsuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Nozawa, Kumiko [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Niwa, Tetsu [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isehara (Japan); Shibasaki, Jun [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Neonatology, Yokohama (Japan); Osaka, Hitoshi [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    Knowledge of MRI findings in pediatric cerebral infarction is limited. To determine whether cortical necrosis and network injury appear in the acute phase in post-stroke children and to identify anatomical location of acute network injury and the ages at which these phenomena are seen. Images from 12 children (age range: 0-9 years; neonates [<1 month], n=5; infants [1 month-12 months], n=3; others [≥1 year], n=4) with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) cortical infarction were retrospectively analyzed. Cortical necrosis was defined as hyperintense cortical lesions on T1-weighted imaging that lacked evidence of hemorrhage. Acute network injury was defined as hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging that were not in the MCA territory and had fiber connections with the affected cerebral cortex. MRI was performed within the first week after disease onset. Cortical necrosis was only found in three neonates. Acute network injury was seen in the corticospinal tract (CST), thalamus and corpus callosum. Acute network injury along the CST was found in five neonates and one 7-month-old infant. Acute network injury was evident in the thalamus of four neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months) and in the corpus callosum of five neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months). The entire thalamus was involved in three children when infarction of MCA was complete. In acute MCA cortical infarction, MRI findings indicating cortical necrosis or acute network injury was frequently found in neonates and early infants. Response to injury in a developing brain may be faster than that in a mature one. (orig.)

  4. Early magnetic resonance detection of cortical necrosis and acute network injury associated with neonatal and infantile cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Tetsuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Nozawa, Kumiko; Niwa, Tetsu; Shibasaki, Jun; Osaka, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of MRI findings in pediatric cerebral infarction is limited. To determine whether cortical necrosis and network injury appear in the acute phase in post-stroke children and to identify anatomical location of acute network injury and the ages at which these phenomena are seen. Images from 12 children (age range: 0-9 years; neonates [<1 month], n=5; infants [1 month-12 months], n=3; others [≥1 year], n=4) with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) cortical infarction were retrospectively analyzed. Cortical necrosis was defined as hyperintense cortical lesions on T1-weighted imaging that lacked evidence of hemorrhage. Acute network injury was defined as hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging that were not in the MCA territory and had fiber connections with the affected cerebral cortex. MRI was performed within the first week after disease onset. Cortical necrosis was only found in three neonates. Acute network injury was seen in the corticospinal tract (CST), thalamus and corpus callosum. Acute network injury along the CST was found in five neonates and one 7-month-old infant. Acute network injury was evident in the thalamus of four neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months) and in the corpus callosum of five neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months). The entire thalamus was involved in three children when infarction of MCA was complete. In acute MCA cortical infarction, MRI findings indicating cortical necrosis or acute network injury was frequently found in neonates and early infants. Response to injury in a developing brain may be faster than that in a mature one. (orig.)

  5. Early magnetic resonance detection of cortical necrosis and acute network injury associated with neonatal and infantile cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Tetsuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Niwa, Tetsu; Nozawa, Kumiko; Shibasaki, Jun; Osaka, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of MRI findings in pediatric cerebral infarction is limited. To determine whether cortical necrosis and network injury appear in the acute phase in post-stroke children and to identify anatomical location of acute network injury and the ages at which these phenomena are seen. Images from 12 children (age range: 0-9 years; neonates [acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) cortical infarction were retrospectively analyzed. Cortical necrosis was defined as hyperintense cortical lesions on T1-weighted imaging that lacked evidence of hemorrhage. Acute network injury was defined as hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging that were not in the MCA territory and had fiber connections with the affected cerebral cortex. MRI was performed within the first week after disease onset. Cortical necrosis was only found in three neonates. Acute network injury was seen in the corticospinal tract (CST), thalamus and corpus callosum. Acute network injury along the CST was found in five neonates and one 7-month-old infant. Acute network injury was evident in the thalamus of four neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months) and in the corpus callosum of five neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months). The entire thalamus was involved in three children when infarction of MCA was complete. In acute MCA cortical infarction, MRI findings indicating cortical necrosis or acute network injury was frequently found in neonates and early infants. Response to injury in a developing brain may be faster than that in a mature one.

  6. Mitochondria Play a Central Role in Nonischemic Cardiomyocyte Necrosis: Common to Acute and Chronic Stressor States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Usman; Cheema, Yaser; Shahbaz, Atta U.; Ahokas, Robert A.; Sun, Yao; Gerling, Ivan C.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Weber, Karl T.

    2012-01-01

    The survival of cardiomyocytes must be ensured as the myocardium adjusts to a myriad of competing physiologic and pathophysiologic demands. A significant loss of these contractile cells, together with their replacement by stiff fibrillar collagen in the form of fibrous tissue accounts for a transition from a usually efficient muscular pump into one that is failing. Cellular and subcellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenic origins of cardiomyocyte cell death have long been of interest. This includes programmed molecular pathways to either necrosis or apoptosis which are initiated from ischemic or nonischemic origins. Herein we focus on the central role played by a mitochondriocentric signal-transducer-effector pathway to nonischemic cardiomyocyte necrosis which is common to acute and chronic stressor states. We begin by building upon the hypothesis advanced by Albrecht Fleckenstein and coworkers some 40 years ago based on the importance of calcitropic hormone- mediated intracellular Ca2+ overloading which predominantly involves subsarcolemmal mitochondria and is the signal to pathway activation. Other pathway components, which came to be recognized in subsequent years, include the induction of oxidative stress and opening of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability transition pore. The ensuing loss of cardiomyocytes and consequent replacement fibrosis, or scarring, represents a disease of adaptation and a classic example of when homeostasis begets dyshomeostasis. PMID:22328074

  7. Acute massive gastric dilatation causing ischaemic necrosis and perforation of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslim, Maitham A; Mittal, Jay; Falk, Gavin A; Ustin, Jeffrey S; Morris-Stiff, Gareth

    2017-06-15

    Acute massive gastric dilatation (AMGD) is a rare distinctive condition but associates with high morbidity and mortality. Though usually seen in patients with eating disorders, many aetiologies of AMGD have been described. The distension has been reported to cause gastric necrosis with or without perforation, usually within 1-2 days of an inciting event of AMGD.We report the case of a 58-year-old male who presented with gastric perforation associated with AMGD 11 days after surgical relief of a proximal small bowel obstruction. The AMGD arose from a closed loop obstruction between a tumour at the gastro-oesophageal junction and a small bowel obstruction as a result of volvulus around a jejunal feeding tube.To our knowledge, this is the first case of a closed loop obstruction of this aetiology reported in the literature, and the presentation of this patient's AMGD was notable for the delayed onset of gastric necrosis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy and a partial gastrectomy to excise a portion of his perforated stomach. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of delayed ischaemic gastric perforation in cases of AMGD. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Renal blood flow after transplantation: Effects of acute tubular necrosis, rejection, and cyclosporine toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, J.L.; Raff, U.; Jain, R.; Horgan, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors incorporated their recently developed radionuclide first pass-technique for the quantitative measurement of renal transplant perfusion into routine DTPA imaging. Using this technique they investigated the effects of acute tubular necrosis (ATN), rejection, and cyclosporing toxicity on renal blood flow in a series of 80 studies in 35 patients, with independent evaluation of renal function. Transplant flow values were as follows: normal functioning, 439 mL/min +-83; ATN 248 mL/min +-63; rejection, 128 mL/min +-58; cyclosporing toxicity, 284 mL/min +-97; (normal flow in nontransplanted kidneys, approximately 550 mL/min). Differences between normal functioning, ATN, and rejection were significant (P < .05). Interestingly, immediate postsurgical hyperemia frequently occurred, with flow values sometimes exceeding 700 mL/min

  9. Determination of the infectious nature of the agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome affecting penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Loc; Nunan, Linda; Redman, Rita M; Mohney, Leone L; Pantoja, Carlos R; Fitzsimmons, Kevin; Lightner, Donald V

    2013-07-09

    A new emerging disease in shrimp, first reported in 2009, was initially named early mortality syndrome (EMS). In 2011, a more descriptive name for the acute phase of the disease was proposed as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS). Affecting both Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp P. monodon, the disease has caused significant losses in Southeast Asian shrimp farms. AHPNS was first classified as idiopathic because no specific causative agent had been identified. However, in early 2013, the Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory at the University of Arizona was able to isolate the causative agent of AHPNS in pure culture. Immersion challenge tests were employed for infectivity studies, which induced 100% mortality with typical AHPNS pathology to experimental shrimp exposed to the pathogenic agent. Subsequent histological analyses showed that AHPNS lesions were experimentally induced in the laboratory and were identical to those found in AHPNS-infected shrimp samples collected from the endemic areas. Bacterial isolation from the experimentally infected shrimp enabled recovery of the same bacterial colony type found in field samples. In 3 separate immersion tests, using the recovered isolate from the AHPNS-positive shrimp, the same AHPNS pathology was reproduced in experimental shrimp with consistent results. Hence, AHPNS has a bacterial etiology and Koch's Postulates have been satisfied in laboratory challenge studies with the isolate, which has been identified as a member of the Vibrio harveyi clade, most closely related to V. parahemolyticus.

  10. Symptomatic Avascular Necrosis: An Understudied Risk Factor for Acute Care Utilization by Patients with SCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tiffany; Campbell, Timothy; Ciuffetelli, Isabella; Haywood, Carlton; Carroll, C. Patrick; Resar, Linda M.S.; Strouse, John J.; Lanzkron, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with high healthcare utilization rates and poor outcomes in a subset of patients, although the underlying factors that predict this phenotype are poorly understood. Prior studies suggest that comorbid avascular necrosis (AVN) contributes to high healthcare utilization. We sought to clarify whether AVN independently predicts acute care utilization in adults with SCD and to identify characteristics of those with AVN that predict higher utilization. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 87 patients with SCD with symptomatic AVN and compared acute care utilization and clinical characteristics with 87 sex- and age-matched patients with SCD without symptomatic AVN. Patients with ≥2 years of follow-up were included. Outcomes were compared using bivariate analysis and multivariate regression. Results Our study included 1381 follow-up years, with a median of 7 years per patient. The AVN cohort had greater median rates of urgent care visits (3.2/year vs 1.3/year; P = 0.0155), admissions (1.3/year vs 0.4/year; P = 0.0002), and admission days (5.1 days/year vs 1.8 days/year; P = 0.0007). History of high utilization (odds ratio [OR] 4.28; P = 0.001), acute chest syndrome (OR 3.12; P = 0.005), pneumonia (OR 3.20; P = 0.023), hydroxyurea therapy (OR 2.23; P = 0.0136), and long-term transfusion (OR 2.33; P = 0.014) were associated with AVN. In a median regression model, AVN, acute chest syndrome, and pneumonia were independently associated with greater urgent care visits and admissions. Conclusions Symptomatic AVN was found to be an independent risk factor for acute care utilization in patients with SCD. Because this is a potentially modifiable factor, further studies are urgently needed to determine whether AVN prevention/early treatment interventions will alter utilization and improve outcomes for patients with SCD. PMID:27598353

  11. Esofagitis necrotizante aguda: Una entidad inusual Acute esophageal necrosis: An unusual entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana E. Pramparo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La esofagitis necrotizante aguda (ENA, también denominada esófago negro, es una rara enfermedad poco descripta en la literatura médica. Describimos el caso de un hombre de 80 años, con hemorragia digestiva alta quien desarrolló un esófago negro luego de un episodio de hipotensión. La necrosis fue confirmada histológicamente. Los pacientes se presentan con hematemesis y melena en más del 70% de los casos. Los hallazgos endoscópicos muestran una coloración negruzca de la mucosa esofágica. El diagnóstico se realiza con endoscopia y confirmación histológica. La mortalidad es alta (más del 50% aunque relacionada a las enfermedades de base del paciente. Por último, podemos decir que la sospecha es muy importante en el diagnóstico de ENA, particularmente en pacientes ancianos con enfermedades asociadas y evidencia de hemorragia digestiva alta. En este trabajo describimos las características clínicas, endoscópicas e histopatológicas de un paciente con ENA.Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN, also designated black esophagus, is a rare disorder that is poorly described in the medical literature. We present the case of an 80 years old man, with upper gastrointestinal bleeding who developed a black esophagus after hypotensive episodes. Necrosis was confirmed histologically. Hematemesis and melena are present in more than 70% of the cases. Endoscopic findings show black discoloration of the distal esophagus with proximal extension ending sharply at the gastroesophageal junction. Diagnosis is reached endoscopically with histological support. Mortality is high (up to 50% even though related to the patient's underlying condition. Finally, we may say that to keep in mind the posibility of AEN is a key factor in its diagnosis, particularly in older patients with associated morbidity and evidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. In the present report we describe the clinical, endoscopic and histophatological characteristics of a patient with a

  12. Acyclovir resistant acute herpes simplex encephalitis associated with acute retinal necrosis: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Haruchika; Fukae, Jiro; Kimura, Satoshi; Aoki, Mikiko; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Tsuboi, Yoshio

    2017-05-27

    A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for investigation of high fever, decreased consciousness and bilateral visual impairment. His cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis of mononuclear cells and an increased protein concentration. FLAIR images revealed multiple high-intensity lesions in the frontal lobe, part of which was enhanced with gadolinium. Despite initiating treatment with acyclovir and corticosteroids, his consciousness and visual acuity deteriorated. Immunopathological examination of brain biopsies showed numerous herpes simplex virus type 2-positive neurons and macrophages, leading to a diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Fundoscopic examination revealed multiple foci of retinitis with vasculopathies, and inflammation in the anterior chamber and vitreous, indicating acute retinal necrosis (ARN). Foscarnet treatment was initiated in place of acyclovir and his consciousness improved, with a slight improvement in visual acuity. ARN is typically caused by a herpes virus infection limited to the eyeball, and rarely in combination with HSE. In such cases, there is a latency of approximately 2-4 weeks between ARN and the onset of encephalitis. Our case is unique in that HSE and ARN developed simultaneously, and it highlights that there may not always be a latency between the onsets of the two disorders. Finally, foscarnet should be considered in cases of HSE and ARN with acyclovir resistance.

  13. Detection of acute avascular necrosis with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadel, S.N.; Richardson, W.J.; Martinez, S.; Rizk, W.S.; Malizos, K.; Debatin, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Early detection of avascular necrosis (AVN) may allow earlier intervention and lead to improved treatment success. This paper is designed to compare standard and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in the detection of acute AVN. A previously described animal model of AVN was used. Five anesthetized dogs underwent right femoral head devascularization, including placement of a supercooling coil around the femoral neck. Within 3 hours the dogs were imaged in a 1.5-T Signa magnet. Standard T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and STIR images were obtained through both hips. A DiGrass sequence with 30 sequential 3.2-second T1-weighted images was used, and 0.2 mmol/kg gadoteridol was injected intravenously at the start of the sequence at 2 mL/sec with an automated injector. Following imaging, oxytetracycline was given intravenously. After 3 days the dogs were killed, and their femoral heads were extracted, coronally sectioned, and analyzed for fluorescence. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and STIR sequences showed no marrow abnormalities on either the normal or the operated-on side. With contrast material injection, all normal areas and the unoperated portion the femoral neck and diaphysis enhanced markedly 4-9 seconds following the bolus

  14. Pressure necrosis masquerading as a burn injury in a patient with a cervical epidural abscess producing acute quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Eric J; McCallin, John P; Miller, Sidney F

    2008-01-01

    A case of a patient with acute onset of quadriplegia from a cervical epidural abscess referred to our tertiary burn center is presented. The pattern of the patient's 'burns' suggested pressure necrosis. A literature review was undertaken of this unusual condition, its evaluation and management. Cervical epidural abscesses are rare and present in a variety of ways. Acute onset of quadriplegia without a history of trauma should trigger a workup to make the diagnosis. The management of complicating skin lesions or burns and the patient outcome will primarily be determined by the management of the epidural abscess.

  15. [Pulmonary apoptosis and necrosis in hyperoxia-induced acute mouse lung injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-feng; Foda, Hussein D

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the pathways to cell death in hyperoxia-induced lung injury and the functional significance of apoptosis in vivo in response to hyperoxia. Seventy-two mice were exposed in sealed cages > 98% oxygen (for 24 - 72 h) or room air, and the severity of lung injury and epithelium sloughing was evaluated. The extent and location of apoptosis in injured lung tissues were studied by terminal transferase dUTP end labeling assay (TUNEL), reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Hyperoxia caused acute lung injury; the hyperoxic stress resulted in marked epithelium sloughing. TUNEL assay exhibited increased apoptosis index both in alveolar epithelial cells and bronchial epithelial cells in sections from mice after 48 h hyperoxia compared with their control group (0.51 +/- 0.10, 0.46 +/- 0.08 verse 0.04 +/- 0.02, 0.02 +/- 0.01). This was accompanied by increased expression of caspase-3 mRNA in lung tissues after 48 h hyperoxia compared with their control group (0.53 +/- 0.09 verse 0.34 +/- 0.07), the expression was higher at 72 h of hyperoxia (0.60 +/- 0.08). Immunohistochemistry study showed caspase-3 protein was located in cytoplasm and nuclei of airway epithelial cells, alveolar epithelial cells and macrophage in hyperoxia mice. The expression of caspase-3 protein in airway epithelium significantly increased at 24 h of hyperoxia compared with their control group (41.62 +/- 3.46 verse 15.86 +/- 1.84), the expression level was highest at 72 h of hyperoxia (55.24 +/- 6.80). Both apoptosis and necrosis contribute to cell death during hyperoxia. Apoptosis plays an important role in alveolar damage and cell death from hyperoxia.

  16. Acute Liver Failure from Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonists: Report of Four Cases and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Beverley; Lester, Erica L W; Lee, William M; Hanje, A James; Stravitz, R Todd; Girgis, Safwat; Patel, Vaishali; Peck, Joshua R; Esber, Christopher; Karvellas, Constantine J

    2018-03-21

    Tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF-α) have been associated with drug-induced liver injury. However, cases of anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure have only been rarely reported. To identify cases of anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure and evaluate patterns of liver injury and common characteristics to the cases. The United States Acute Liver Failure Study Group database was searched from 1998 to 2014. Four subjects were identified. A PubMed search for articles that reported anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure identified five additional cases. The majority of individuals affected were female (eight of nine cases). Age of individual ranged from 20 to 53 years. The most common anti-TNF-α agent associated with acute liver failure was infliximab (n = 8). The latency between initial drug exposure and acute liver failure ranged from 3 days to over a year. Of the nine cases, six required emergency LT. Liver biopsy was obtained in seven cases with a preponderance toward cholestatic-hepatitic features; none showed clear autoimmune features. Anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure displays somewhat different characteristics compared with anti-TNF-α-induced drug-induced liver injury. Infliximab was implicated in the majority of cases. Cholestatic-hepatitic features were frequently found on pre-transplant and explant histology.

  17. Erythrocyte deformation in ischemic acute tubular necrosis and amelioration by splenectomy in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A K; Taylor, C A; Bell, R D; Hillman, N M; Jarnot, M D; Cunningham, J D; Phillips, L G

    1991-11-01

    Bilateral renal artery occlusion (RAO) for 120 minutes in dogs results in acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and peritubular capillary (PTC) congestion with rapidly deteriorating renal function. We have shown that prior splenectomy minimizes RAO-induced renal functional and histopathologic changes. The purpose of this study was to examine whether this renal protection is due to prevention of red blood cell echinocyte formation and resultant renal PTC congestion. Echinocytes (burr cells) are poorly deformable, impart high viscosity to the blood, and may hinder reperfusion by increasing resistance to renal capillary blood flow. Splenectomized (SPLX) or sham-SPLX dogs were treated with bilateral RAO for 120 minutes. After RAO, renal function and renal blood flow were monitored, and peripheral blood red blood cells were examined at 1 hour and at 24-hour intervals for 96 hours. Renal biopsies were taken 1 hour after RAO and the kidneys removed 96 hours after RAO. The RBCs and renal tissues were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Renal function was assessed by endogenous creatinine clearance. Sham-SPLX animals showed a marked and sustained decrease in creatinine clearance, consistently elevated serum creatinine levels and fractional excretion of sodium, and diffuse ATN and PTC congestion with echinocytes. These animals had a peak in circulating echinocytes 1 hour after RAO (p less than 0.05), which showed an excellent negative correlation with creatinine clearance (r = -0.999; p less than 0.001). On the contrary, SPLX animals had essentially no change in serum creatinine or fractional excretion of sodium, minimal tubular changes, no PTC congestion, and no rise in circulating echinocytes during the 96-hour observation. In vitro treatment of the postischemic red blood cells from sham animals with adenosine-inosine or fresh postischemic plasma from the SPLX animals showed almost complete reversal to discocytes (normal red blood cells), whereas in vitro treatment of

  18. Proliferative capacity of stem/progenitor-like cells in the kidney may associate with the outcome of patients with acute tubular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Youxin; Wang, Bingyin; Jiang, Xinxin; Hu, Weiming; Feng, Jian; Li, Hua; Jin, Mei; Ying, Yingjuan; Wang, Wenjuan; Mao, Xiaoou; Jin, Kunlin

    2011-08-01

    Animal studies indicate that adult renal stem/progenitor cells can undergo rapid proliferation in response to renal injury, but whether the same is true in humans is largely unknown. To examine the profile of renal stem/progenitor cells responsible for acute tubular necrosis in human kidney, double and triple immunostaining was performed using proliferative marker and stem/progenitor protein markers on sections from 10 kidneys with acute tubular necrosis and 4 normal adult kidneys. The immunopositive cells were recorded using 2-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found that dividing cells were present in the tubules of the cortex and medulla, as well as the glomerulus in normal human kidney. Proliferative cells in the parietal layer of Bowman capsule expressed CD133, and dividing cells in the tubules expressed immature cell protein markers paired box gene 2, vimentin, and nestin. After acute tubular necrosis, Ki67-positive cells in the cortex tubules significantly increased compared with normal adult kidney. These Ki67-positive cells expressed CD133 and paired box gene 2, but not the cell death marker, activated caspase-3. In addition, the number of dividing cells increased significantly in patients with acute tubular necrosis who subsequently recovered, compared with patients with acute tubular necrosis who consequently developed protracted acute tubular necrosis or died. Our data suggest that renal stem/progenitor cells may reside not only in the parietal layer of Bowman capsule but also in the cortex and medulla in normal human kidney, and the proliferative capacity of renal stem/progenitor cells after acute tubular necrosis may be an important determinant of a patient's outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a 4- to 9-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Firooz; Shamsian, Bibi Shahin; Alavi, Samin; Madadi, Firoozeh; Eajazi, Alireza; Aslani, Afshin

    2011-10-05

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is usually seen in children aged 1.5 to 10 years, reaching a peak incidence between the ages of 4 and 9. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a known complication of corticosteroid therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. There are few reports in the literature regarding the natural history of this condition, and there is no consensus on its management. This study examined the natural history of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in children with leukemia. From 1993 to 2006, a total of 865 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were admitted to the hematology-oncology ward of a children's hospital. The diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was established by bone marrow aspiration. Based on clinical and radiographic findings, avascular necrosis of the femoral head was found in 7 patients; these patients underwent follow-up for 4 to 9 years. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head was clinically symptomatic in all of the children, and they had advanced radiographic collapse of the femoral head. However, the head of the femur was not at risk in any patient based on clinical and radiographic findings. Patients received supportive treatment such as abduction brace and physiotherapy. After 4 to 9 years of follow-up, clinical and radiographic results were satisfactory. Provided that the head of the femur is not at risk, avascular necrosis of the femoral head in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia may be successfully managed with nonoperative care. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on severity of acute pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, K A; Pucher, P H; Berry, D P; Elberm, H; Abu-Hilal, M; Marangoni, G; Hamady, Zzr

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common emergency presentation and can be disabling. There is significant morbidity and mortality associated with AP, and it places a considerable burden on the healthcare system. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to have a protective effect in some elective contexts. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the effect of NSAIDs on the course of AP and the severity of the disease. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out of 324 patients admitted as an emergency with a diagnosis of AP to two UK hospitals. Patients were divided into two groups: those already taking NSAIDs for other co-morbidities and those not taking NSAIDs. Variables compared included: admission to a high dependency or intensive care unit; pancreatic necrosis; pseudocyst development; need for surgery; serum inflammatory markers; modified early warning scores on days 1, 3 and 5; length of stay; and mortality. Results Patients not taking NSAIDs were more likely to have a C-reactive protein level of ≥150mg/l (p=0.007). Patients in the NSAID group experienced less pancreatic necrosis (p=0.019) and lower rates of pseudocyst formation (p=0.010). Other variables showed no difference between the two groups, specifically length of stay and mortality. Conclusions Routine NSAID use may exert a protective effect on the development of AP, its severity, and complications. Therapeutic use of NSAIDs in acute presentations with pancreatitis should be further evaluated.

  1. Radiation-induced acute necrosis of the pancreatic islet and the diabetic syndrome in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubouchi, S; Suzuki, H; Ariyoshi, H [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer

    1981-07-01

    Exposure of golden hamsters to 35 000 rad of X-rays induced acute and specific necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas within 4 hours, whereas no other tissue revealed any drastic changes which would lead to a critical illness until 36 hours. Animals began to show the characteristic signs of diabetes, that is, hyperglycaemia, hyperkalaemia, ketonemia, and acidosis at 12 hours and these continued until death, 56+-8 hours later. These were accompanied by the disappearance of ..beta..-cell granules and a decrease of plasma insulin. Treatment of irradiated animals with injections of insulin resulted in a reduction in high blood glucose and the prolongation of survival time up to 5 days, which is comparable to the survival time when the cause of death is gastrointestinal. It is concluded that this radiation-induced diabetic syndrome resulted from acute necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans, a previously unreported lethal effect of radiation in golden hamsters.

  2. Predictors of mortality and the provision of dialysis in patients with acute tubular necrosis. The Auriculin Anaritide Acute Renal Failure Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertow, G M; Lazarus, J M; Paganini, E P; Allgren, R L; Lafayette, R A; Sayegh, M H

    1998-04-01

    To explore the natural history of critically ill patients with acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, we evaluated 256 patients enrolled in the placebo arm of a randomized clinical trial. Death and the composite outcome, death or the provision of dialysis, were determined with follow-up to 60 d. The relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) associated with routinely available demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were estimated using proportional hazards regression. Ninety-three (36%) deaths were documented; an additional 52 (20%) patients who survived received dialysis. Predictors of mortality included male gender (RR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.21 to 3.36), oliguria (RR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.43 to 3.55), mechanical ventilation (RR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.93), acute myocardial infarction (RR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.85 to 5.31), acute stroke or seizure (RR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.56 to 6.06), chronic immunosuppression (RR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.16 to 4.88), hyperbilirubinemia (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.08 per 1 mg/dl increase in total bilirubin) and metabolic acidosis (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99 per 1 mEq/L increase in serum bicarbonate concentration). Predictors of death or the provision of dialysis were oliguria (RR, 5.95; 95% CI, 3.96 to 8.95), mechanical ventilation (RR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.21), acute myocardial infarction (RR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.07), arrhythmia (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.19), and hypoalbuminemia (RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.74 per 1 g/dl increase in serum albumin concentration). Neither mortality nor the provision of dialysis was related to patient age. These observations can be used to estimate risk early in the course of acute tubular necrosis. Furthermore, these and related models may be used to adjust for case-mix variation in quality improvement efforts, and to objectively stratify patients in future intervention trials aimed at favorably altering the course of hospital-acquired acute renal failure.

  3. High serum soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 predicts poor treatment response in acute-stage schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimon, Shohei; Ohnuma, Tohru; Takebayashi, Yuto; Katsuta, Narimasa; Takeda, Mayu; Nakamura, Toru; Sannohe, Takahiro; Higashiyama, Ryoko; Kimoto, Ayako; Shibata, Nobuto; Gohda, Tomohito; Suzuki, Yusuke; Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Arai, Heii

    2017-06-02

    Inflammation may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, few cross-sectional or longitudinal studies have examined changes in biomarker expression to evaluate diagnostic and prognostic efficacy in acute-stage schizophrenia. We compared serum inflammatory biomarker concentrations in 87 patients with acute-stage schizophrenia on admission to 105 age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. The measured biomarkers were soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1) and adiponectin, which are associated with inflammatory responses, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), which has anti-inflammatory properties. We then investigated biomarker concentrations and associations with clinical factors in 213 patients (including 42 medication-free patients) and 110 unmatched healthy controls to model conditions typical of clinical practice. Clinical symptoms were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Global Assessment of Function. In 121 patients, biomarker levels and clinical status were evaluated at both admission and discharge. Serum sTNFR1 was significantly higher in patients with acute-stage schizophrenia compared to matched controls while no significant group differences were observed for the other markers. Serum sTNFR1 was also significantly higher in the 213 patients compared to unmatched controls. The 42 unmedicated patients had significantly lower PEDF levels compared to controls. Between admission and discharge, sTNFR1 levels decreased significantly; however, biomarker changes did not correlate with clinical symptoms. The discriminant accuracy of sTNFR1 was 93.2% between controls and patients, showing no symptom improvement during care. Inflammation and a low-level anti-inflammatory state may be involved in both schizophrenia pathogenesis and acute-stage onset. High serum sTNFR1 in the acute stage could be a useful prognostic biomarker for treatment response in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017

  4. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  5. Bmi-1 plays a critical role in the protection from acute tubular necrosis by mobilizing renal stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianhui; Yu, Zhenzhen; Xie, Chunfeng; Dai, Xiuliang; Li, Qing; Miao, Dengshun; Jin, Jianliang

    2017-01-22

    The regeneration of injured tubular cell occurs primarily from intrinsic renal stem/progenitor cells (RSCs) labeled with CD24 and CD133 after acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Bmi-1 plays a crucial role in regulating self-renewal, differentiation and aging of multiple adult stem cells and progenitor cells. Bmi-1 was rapidly elevated in the induction of adult kidney regeneration by renal injury. To determine whether Bmi-1 maintained mobilization of RSCs in the protection from ATN, glycerol-rhabdomyolysis-induced ATN were performed in wild type (WT) and Bmi-1-deficient (Bmi-1 -/- ) mice. Their ATN phenotypes were analyzed; CD24 and CD133 double positive (CD24 + CD133 + ) cells were measured; and the levels of serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) were detected. We found that CD24 + CD133 + RSCs were mobilized in WT ATN mice with the increased expression of Bmi-1; Bmi-1 deficiency led to increased tubular cast formation and necrosis, elevated levels of SUN and SCr, decreased tubular proliferation, and immobilized ratio of RSCs in ATN. These findings indicated that Bmi-1 played a critical role in the protection from ATN by maintaining mobilization of RSCs and would be a novel therapeutic target for preventing the progression of ATN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute retinal necrosis results in low vision in a young patient with a history of herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Sanjeet K

    2017-05-01

    Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), secondary to herpes simplex encephalitis, is a rare syndrome that can present in healthy individuals, as well as immuno-compromised patients. Most cases are caused by a secondary infection from the herpes virus family, with varicella zoster virus being the leading cause of this syndrome. Potential symptoms include blurry vision, floaters, ocular pain and photophobia. Ocular findings may consist of severe uveitis, retinal vasculitis, retinal necrosis, papillitis and retinal detachment. Clinical manifestations of this disease may include increased intraocular pressure, optic disc oedema, optic neuropathy and sheathed retinal arterioles. A complete work up is essential to rule out cytomegalovirus retinitis, herpes simplex encephalitis, herpes virus, syphilis, posterior uveitis and other conditions. Depending on the severity of the disease, the treatment options consist of anticoagulation therapy, cycloplegia, intravenous acyclovir, systemic steroids, prophylactic laser photocoagulation and pars plana vitrectomy with silicon oil for retinal detachment. An extensive history and clinical examination is crucial in making the correct diagnosis. Also, it is very important to be aware of low vision needs and refer the patients, if expressing any sort of functional issues with completing daily living skills, especially reading. In this article, we report one case of unilateral ARN 20 years after herpetic encephalitis. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  7. Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α on Neutralization of Ventricular Fibrillation in Rats with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α on ventricular fibrillation (VF in rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Rats were randomly classified into AMI group, sham operation group and recombinant human tumor necrosis factor receptor:Fc fusion protein (rhTNFR:Fc group. Spontaneous and induced VFs were recorded. Monophasic action potentials (MAPs among different zones of myocardium were recorded at eight time points before and after ligation and MAP duration dispersions (MAPDds were calculated. Then expression of TNF-α among different myocardial zones was detected. After ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, total TNF-α expression in AMI group began to markedly increase at 10 min, reached a climax at 20–30min, and then gradually decreased. The time-windows of VFs and MAPDds in the border zone performed in a similar way. At the same time-point, the expression of TNF-α in the ischemia zone was greater than that in the border zone, and little in the non-ischemia zone. Although the time windows of TNF-α expression, the MAPDds in the border zone and the occurrence of VFs in the rhTNFR:Fc group were similar to those in the AMI group, they all decreased in the rhTNFR:Fc group. Our findings demonstrate that TNF-α could enlarge the MAPDds in the border zone, and promote the onset of VFs.

  8. Bone marrow necrosis in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia during re-induction therapy with arsenic trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Kenji; Shirahashi, Akihiko; Iwao, Yasuhiro; Shishime, Mikiko; Takamatsu, Yasushi; Takatsuka, Yoshifusa; Utsunomiya, Atae; Suzumiya, Junji; Hara, Syuji; Tamura, Kazuo

    2004-04-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) therapy at a daily dose of 0.15 mg/kg was given to a 60-yr-old Japanese male with refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia. White blood cell (WBC) of 6.6 x 10(3)/microl increased to 134 x 10(3)/microl following the administration of As2O3. Daily hydroxyurea (HU), and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) were added on days 7 and 19, respectively. Both HU and 6-MP were discontinued on day 28, when WBC declined to 54.0 x 10(3)/microl. He developed unexplained fever and profound cytopenia requiring multiple blood products transfusions. Bone marrow examination on day 42 revealed massive necrosis. Pharmacokinetics confirmed a mean maximum plasma arsenic concentration (Cpmax) and a half-life time (t1/2) of 6.9 microm and 3.2 h, respectively, in the therapeutic range. This is the first case of bone marrow necrosis after standard-dose As2O3 therapy.

  9. Bmi-1 plays a critical role in the protection from acute tubular necrosis by mobilizing renal stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Xianhui; Yu, Zhenzhen; Xie, Chunfeng; Dai, Xiuliang; Li, Qing; Miao, Dengshun; Jin, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    The regeneration of injured tubular cell occurs primarily from intrinsic renal stem/progenitor cells (RSCs) labeled with CD24 and CD133 after acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Bmi-1 plays a crucial role in regulating self-renewal, differentiation and aging of multiple adult stem cells and progenitor cells. Bmi-1 was rapidly elevated in the induction of adult kidney regeneration by renal injury. To determine whether Bmi-1 maintained mobilization of RSCs in the protection from ATN, glycerol-rhabdomyolysis-induced ATN were performed in wild type (WT) and Bmi-1-deficient (Bmi-1 −/− ) mice. Their ATN phenotypes were analyzed; CD24 and CD133 double positive (CD24 + CD133 + ) cells were measured; and the levels of serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) were detected. We found that CD24 + CD133 + RSCs were mobilized in WT ATN mice with the increased expression of Bmi-1; Bmi-1 deficiency led to increased tubular cast formation and necrosis, elevated levels of SUN and SCr, decreased tubular proliferation, and immobilized ratio of RSCs in ATN. These findings indicated that Bmi-1 played a critical role in the protection from ATN by maintaining mobilization of RSCs and would be a novel therapeutic target for preventing the progression of ATN.

  10. Avascular Necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Reports Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Avascular Necrosis Home > Cancer Resources > Late Effects of Treatment > Avascular Necrosis Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a disorder resulting from ...

  11. A prospective evaluation of pancreatic exocrine function in patients with acute pancreatitis: correlation with extent of necrosis and pancreatic endocrine insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreham, B; Ammori, B J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess pancreatic exocrine function in patients recovering from a first attack of acute pancreatitis, and to evaluate its relationship to severity of attack, extent of pancreatic necrosis and severity of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency. Between December 2000 and November 2001, 23 patients were prospectively evaluated. Pancreatic exocrine function was measured by the faecal elastase-1 test and insufficiency was classified as moderately impaired or severely impaired. Pancreatic necrosis was determined by contrast-enhanced CT scan, and its extent was categorised according to Balthazar's classification. The severity of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency was categorised according to insulin dependence. Attacks were classified as mild (n = 16) or severe (n = 7) according to the Atlanta criteria. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency was significantly more frequent in patients recovering from severe attacks than mild (n = 6, 86% vs. n = 2, 13%; p = 0.002), and in those who developed pancreatic necrosis or pseudocyst than those who did not (6 of 7 patients vs. 2 of 16 patients, and 5 of 5 patients vs. 3 of 18 patients respectively; p = 0.002). The development of exocrine insufficiency correlated strongly with the extent of pancreatic necrosis (r = -0.754, p pancreatic endocrine insufficiency (n = 4, r = -0.453, p = 0.03). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is a common occurrence in patients recovering from severe acute pancreatitis, and its severity correlates with the extent of pancreatic necrosis and the severity of concomitant pancreatic endocrine insufficiency. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP

  12. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...

  13. Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease-Causing Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Maintain an Antibacterial Type VI Secretion System with Versatile Effector Repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Kinch, Lisa N; Ray, Ann; Dalia, Ankur B; Cong, Qian; Nunan, Linda M; Camilli, Andrew; Grishin, Nick V; Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2017-07-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emerging shrimp disease that has severely damaged the global shrimp industry. AHPND is caused by toxic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that have acquired a "selfish plasmid" encoding the deadly binary toxins PirA vp /PirB vp To better understand the repertoire of virulence factors in AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus , we conducted a comparative analysis using the genome sequences of the clinical strain RIMD2210633 and of environmental non-AHPND and toxic AHPND isolates of V. parahaemolyticus Interestingly, we found that all of the AHPND strains, but none of the non-AHPND strains, harbor the antibacterial type VI secretion system 1 (T6SS1), which we previously identified and characterized in the clinical isolate RIMD2210633. This finding suggests that the acquisition of this T6SS might confer to AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus a fitness advantage over competing bacteria and facilitate shrimp infection. Additionally, we found highly dynamic effector loci in the T6SS1 of AHPND-causing strains, leading to diverse effector repertoires. Our discovery provides novel insights into AHPND-causing pathogens and reveals a potential target for disease control. IMPORTANCE Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a serious disease that has caused severe damage and significant financial losses to the global shrimp industry. To better understand and prevent this shrimp disease, it is essential to thoroughly characterize its causative agent, Vibrio parahaemolyticus Although the plasmid-encoded binary toxins PirA vp /PirB vp have been shown to be the primary cause of AHPND, it remains unknown whether other virulent factors are commonly present in V. parahaemolyticus and might play important roles during shrimp infection. Here, we analyzed the genome sequences of clinical, non-AHPND, and AHPND strains to characterize their repertoires of key virulence determinants. Our studies reveal that an antibacterial type

  14. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  15. Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Its Upregulation by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Janowska-Wieczorek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP has been implicated in tumor invasion, as well as trafficking of normal hematopoietic cells, and acts as a physiologic activator of proMMP-2. In this study we examined MT1-MMP expression in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells. Because tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α is known to be elevated in AML, we also investigated the effect of TNF-α on MT1-MMP expression. We found (i MT1-MMP mRNA expression in 41 out of 43 primary AML samples tested; (ii activation of proMMP-2 in co-cultures of AML cells with normal bone marrow stromal cells; and (iii inhibition of proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration of AML cells by gene silencing using MT1-MMP siRNA. Moreover, recombinant human TNF-α upregulated MT1-MMP expression in AML cells resulting in enhanced proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration. Thus, AML cells express MT1-MMP and TNF-α enhances it leading to increased MMP-2 activation and most likely contributing to the invasive phenotype. We suggest that MT1-MMP, together with TNF-α, should be investigated as potential therapeutic targets in AML.

  16. Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Its Upregulation by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez-Curtis, Leah A.; Shirvaikar, Neeta; Turner, A. Robert; Mirza, Imran; Surmawala, Amir; Larratt, Loree M.; Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) has been implicated in tumor invasion, as well as trafficking of normal hematopoietic cells, and acts as a physiologic activator of proMMP-2. In this study we examined MT1-MMP expression in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Because tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is known to be elevated in AML, we also investigated the effect of TNF-α on MT1-MMP expression. We found (i) MT1-MMP mRNA expression in 41 out of 43 primary AML samples tested; (ii) activation of proMMP-2 in co-cultures of AML cells with normal bone marrow stromal cells; and (iii) inhibition of proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration of AML cells by gene silencing using MT1-MMP siRNA. Moreover, recombinant human TNF-α upregulated MT1-MMP expression in AML cells resulting in enhanced proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration. Thus, AML cells express MT1-MMP and TNF-α enhances it leading to increased MMP-2 activation and most likely contributing to the invasive phenotype. We suggest that MT1-MMP, together with TNF-α, should be investigated as potential therapeutic targets in AML

  17. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) presenting with an unusually prolonged period of marked polyuria heralded by an abrupt oliguric phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutar, Virin; Landa, Cristian; James, Leighton R

    2014-08-22

    A 50-year-old African-American man presented with acute tubular necrosis (ATN) secondary to hypotension from non-typhoid Salmonella gastroenteritis and bacteraemia. The oliguric phase lasted only 24 h followed by prolonged polyuria for 20 days, with urine output in excess of 16 L/day at maximum. As indexed in PubMed this is only the second published case of this nature since 1974, in which an abrupt oliguric phase of 24 h or less heralded prolonged polyuria in ATN. The diagnosis is challenging as fractional excretion of sodium early in the clinical course and rapid normalisation of serum creatinine with intravenous fluids (IVF) may point towards prerenal azotaemia resulting in a premature discharge from hospital. Patients with an abrupt oliguric phase may suffer a secondary renal insult from the profound fluid loss that is to follow and may need inpatient monitoring with supplemental IVF to prevent deleterious outcomes. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Its Upregulation by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Curtis, Leah A.; Shirvaikar, Neeta [Canadian Blood Services R& D, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R8 (Canada); Turner, A. Robert [Departments of Medicine and Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3 (Canada); Mirza, Imran [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2B7 (Canada); Surmawala, Amir; Larratt, Loree M. [Departments of Medicine and Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3 (Canada); Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna, E-mail: anna.janowska@blood.ca [Canadian Blood Services R& D, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R8 (Canada); Departments of Medicine and Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3 (Canada)

    2012-07-25

    Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) has been implicated in tumor invasion, as well as trafficking of normal hematopoietic cells, and acts as a physiologic activator of proMMP-2. In this study we examined MT1-MMP expression in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Because tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is known to be elevated in AML, we also investigated the effect of TNF-α on MT1-MMP expression. We found (i) MT1-MMP mRNA expression in 41 out of 43 primary AML samples tested; (ii) activation of proMMP-2 in co-cultures of AML cells with normal bone marrow stromal cells; and (iii) inhibition of proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration of AML cells by gene silencing using MT1-MMP siRNA. Moreover, recombinant human TNF-α upregulated MT1-MMP expression in AML cells resulting in enhanced proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration. Thus, AML cells express MT1-MMP and TNF-α enhances it leading to increased MMP-2 activation and most likely contributing to the invasive phenotype. We suggest that MT1-MMP, together with TNF-α, should be investigated as potential therapeutic targets in AML.

  19. Liquefaction of uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Numerical methods for assessing the liquefaction potential of soils are reviewed with a view to their application to uranium tailings. The method can be divided into two categories: total stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are not considered in the soil model, and effective stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are included in the soil model. Effective stress analysis is more realistic, but few computer programs exist for such analysis in two or three dimensions. A simple linearized, two-dimensional, finite element effective stress analysis which incorporates volumetric compaction due to shear motion is described and implemented. The new program is applied to the assessment of liquefaction potential of tailings in the Quirke Mine tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario. The results are compared with those of a total stress analysis. Both analyses indicate liquefaction would occur if a magnitude 6.0 earthquake were to occur near the area. However, the extent of liquefaction predicted by the effective stress analysis is much less than that predicted by the total stress analysis. The results of both methods are sensitive to assumed material properties and to the method used to determine the cyclic shear strength of the tailings. Further analysis, incorporating more in situ and/or laboratory data, is recommended before conclusions can be made concerning the dynamic stability of these tailings

  20. Detection of Acute Tubular Necrosis Using Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Bauer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To date, there is no imaging technique to assess tubular function in vivo. Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI measures tissue oxygenation based on the transverse relaxation rate (R2*. The present study investigates whether BOLD MRI can assess tubular function using a tubule-specific pharmacological maneuver. Methods: Cross sectional study with 28 participants including 9 subjects with ATN-induced acute kidney injury (AKI, 9 healthy controls, and 10 subjects with nephron sparing tumor resection (NSS with clamping of the renal artery serving as a model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced subclinical ATN (median clamping time 15 min, no significant decrease of eGFR, p=0.14. BOLD MRI was performed before and 5, 7, and 10 min after intravenous administration of 40 mg furosemide. Results: Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin was significantly higher in ATN-induced AKI and NSS subjects than in healthy controls (p=0.03 and p=0.01, respectively. Before administration of furosemide, absolute medullary R2*, cortical R2*, and medullary/cortical R2* ratio did not significantly differ between ATN-induced AKI vs. healthy controls and between NSS-I/R vs. contralateral healthy kidneys (p>0.05 each. Furosemide led to a significant decrease in the medullary and cortical R2* of healthy subjects and NSS contralateral kidneys (p<0.05 each, whereas there was no significant change of R2* in ATN-induced AKI and the NSS-I/R kidneys (p>0.05 each. Conclusion: BOLD-MRI is able to detect even mild tubular injury but necessitates a tubule-specific pharmacological maneuver, e.g. blocking the Na+-K+-2Cl- transporter by furosemide.

  1. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of shrimp hemocytes in response to acute hepatopancreas necrosis disease (AHPND) causing Vibrio parahemolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhihong; Wang, Fan; Aweya, Jude Juventus; Li, Ruiwei; Yao, Defu; Zhong, Mingqi; Li, Shengkang; Zhang, Yueling

    2018-03-01

    The recent emergence of acute hepatopancreas necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimps has posed a major challenge in the shrimp aquaculture industry. The Pir toxin proteins carried by some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are believed to play essential roles in the pathogenesis of AHPND. However, few studies have so far explored how the host immune system responds to these bacteria. In this study, AHPND V. parahaemolyticus (with Pir) and non-AHPND V. parahaemolyticus (without Pir) were injected into two groups of shrimps, and the hemocytes collected for comparative transcriptomic analyses. A total of 1064 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 910 were up-regulated and 154 were down-regulated. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that many DEGs were involved in a number of biological processes such as cellular process, metabolic process and single-organism process in the AHPND V. parahaemolyticus injected group than the non-AHPND V. parahaemolyticus injected group. Among these, major metabolic processes such as carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism were further identified as the major responsive gene groups. We observed that genes involved in cell growth and anti-apoptosis including src, iap2, cas2, cytochrome P450, gst and cytochromecoxidase were strongly activated in the AHPND V. parahaemolyticus group than in the non-AHPND V. parahaemolyticus group. Collectively, our results unveiled that shrimp hemocytes respond to AHPND related strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection at the transcriptional level, which is useful in furthering our understanding of AHPND. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  3. Acute tubular necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms may include any of the following: Decreased consciousness , coma, delirium or confusion , drowsiness, and lethargy Decreased urine output or no urine output General swelling, fluid retention ...

  4. A CMR study of the effects of tissue edema and necrosis on left ventricular dyssynchrony in acute myocardial infarction: implications for cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manka Robert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In acute myocardial infarction (AMI, both tissue necrosis and edema are present and both might be implicated in the development of intraventricular dyssynchrony. However, their relative contribution to transient dyssynchrony is not known. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR can detect necrosis and edema with high spatial resolution and it can quantify dyssynchrony by tagging techniques. Methods Patients with a first AMI underwent percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI of the infarct-related artery within 24 h of onset of chest pain. Within 5–7 days after the event and at 4 months, CMR was performed. The CMR protocol included the evaluation of intraventricular dyssynchrony by applying a novel 3D-tagging sequence to the left ventricle (LV yielding the CURE index (circumferential uniformity ratio estimate; 1 = complete synchrony. On T2-weighted images, edema was measured as high-signal (>2 SD above remote tissue along the LV mid-myocardial circumference on 3 short-axis images (% of circumference corresponding to the area-at-risk. In analogy, on late-gadolinium enhancement (LGE images, necrosis was quantified manually as percentage of LV mid-myocardial circumference on 3 short-axis images. Necrosis was also quantified on LGE images covering the entire LV (expressed as %LV mass. Finally, salvaged myocardium was calculated as the area-at-risk minus necrosis (expressed as % of LV circumference. Results After successful PCI (n = 22, 2 female, mean age: 57 ± 12y, peak troponin T was 20 ± 36ug/l and the LV ejection fraction on CMR was 41 ± 8%. Necrosis mass was 30 ± 10% and CURE was 0.91 ± 0.05. Edema was measured as 58 ± 14% of the LV circumference. In the acute phase, the extent of edema correlated with dyssynchrony (r2 = −0.63, p 2 = −0.19, p = 0.05. PCI resulted in salvaged myocardium of 27 ± 14%. LV dyssynchrony (=CURE decreased at 4 months from 0.91

  5. Clinical value of blood lipid, serum β2-microglolulin and tumor necrosis factor-α level in patients with acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xiaohua; Huang Zhairong; Yang Yongqing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study on diagnosis value of blood lipid, serum β 2 -microglolulin (β 2 -MG) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in acute leukemia. Methods: The serum β 2 -MG and TNF-α (with radioimmunoassay) blood lipid (with biochemistry) levels were determined in 123 patients with acute leukemia as well as 36 controls, then conducted the correlative tests. Results: Serum β 2 -MG, TNF-α and triglyceride levels in 123 patients including 46 patients with acute monocytic leukemia, 32 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia and 45 patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia were significantly higher than those in 36 controls (t=4.123-6.815, P 0.05); The serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A levels in 123 patients with acute leukemia were significantly lower than those in 36 controls (t=2.110-2.574, P 0.05). Conclusion: The determination of blood lipid, serum β 2 -MG and TNF-α level might be useful for diagnosing acute leukemia and reflecting the prognostic value. (authors)

  6. Acute putaminal necrosis and white matter demyelination in a child with subnormal copper metabolism in Wilson disease: MR imaging and spectroscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Chun-Jung; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Yu.; Chin, Shy-Chy; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chu, Hsin; Zimmerman, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) that manifests solely with acute and severe neurological damage in the absence of hepatic disease and Kayser-Fleischer ring of the cornea is rare and difficult to diagnose at the acute setting. This report describes unusual diffusion and proton spectroscopic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a 12-year-old boy with WD who presented with hemichorea and subnormal copper metabolism. The MR imaging findings of lactate accumulation, decrease of N-acerylaspartate/creatinine (NAA/Cr) ratio and markedly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the asymmetrical edematous putaminal lesions in the early stage were suggestive of acute necrosis with anaerobic metabolism of glucose leading to poor clinical outcome at follow-up. (orig.)

  7. Acute putaminal necrosis and white matter demyelination in a child with subnormal copper metabolism in Wilson disease: MR imaging and spectroscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Chun-Jung; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (Taiwan); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (Taiwan); Chen, Cheng-Yu.; Chin, Shy-Chy; Hsueh, Chun-Jen [Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (Taiwan); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (Taiwan); Chu, Hsin [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Taipei (Taiwan); Zimmerman, Robert A. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Wilson disease (WD) that manifests solely with acute and severe neurological damage in the absence of hepatic disease and Kayser-Fleischer ring of the cornea is rare and difficult to diagnose at the acute setting. This report describes unusual diffusion and proton spectroscopic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a 12-year-old boy with WD who presented with hemichorea and subnormal copper metabolism. The MR imaging findings of lactate accumulation, decrease of N-acerylaspartate/creatinine (NAA/Cr) ratio and markedly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the asymmetrical edematous putaminal lesions in the early stage were suggestive of acute necrosis with anaerobic metabolism of glucose leading to poor clinical outcome at follow-up. (orig.)

  8. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  9. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international

  10. Serum pentraxin-3 and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK predict severity of infections in acute decompensated cirrhotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chien Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 and soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK are new candidate prognostic markers for comorbidities and mortality in various inflammatory diseases. Acute decompensation of cirrhosis is characterized by acute exacerbation of chronic systemic inflammation. Recently, increased circulating PTX3 levels have been reported in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients and positively correlated with disease severity. This study aims to explore serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels and their relationship with clinical outcomes in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. Methods: We analyzed serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels in relation to inhospital and 3-month new clinical events and survivals in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. Results: During admission, serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels were significantly higher in acute decompensated cirrhotic patients than controls and positively correlated with protein-energy wasting (PEW, new infections, long hospital stays, high medical costs, and high mortality. During a 3-month follow-up, acute decompensated cirrhotic patients with high serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels had more episodes of unplanned readmission and high 3-month mortality. On multivariate analysis, high PTX3/sTWEAK levels and PEW were independent risk factors for high mortality. Conclusion: High serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels and PEW are common in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. As compared with low serum PTX3 and sTWEAK cases, cirrhotic patients with high serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels a have higher probability of new severe infections, severe sepsis, septic shock, type 1 hepatorenal syndrome, in-hospital, and 3-month follow-up mortalities. Therefore, high serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels on hospital admission predict disease severity and case fatality in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. Keywords: pentraxin-3, protein-energy wasting, soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis

  11. Tratamento da necrose aguda de retina: revisão sistemática Treatment of acute retinal necrosis: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Eduardo Zajdenweber

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi pela realização de revisão sistemática, determinar o melhor tratamento para a necrose aguda de retina. MÉTODOS: Seguindo a orientação metodológica da Colaboração Cochrane e de seu subgrupo editorial "Eye and Vision Group", o autor, por meio de mecanismos de busca, selecionou trabalhos sobre o tratamento da necrose aguda de retina. RESULTADO: Foram selecionadas 146 referências bibliográficas, sendo considerados como relevantes 13 estudos. Destes estudos 2 foram considerados como preenchendo os critérios de inclusão. O primeiro estudo aponta a possibilidade de o tratamento para necrose aguda de retina, com aciclovir endovenoso associado a corticóide sistêmico, proteger o olho contralateral de acometimento. Foram estudados 54 pacientes, 31 tratados e 23 não tratados, sendo observada incidência de doença no olho contralateral de 12,9% no grupo tratado e de 69,5% no grupo não tratado. O segundo estudo incluído mostra 19 olhos acometidos com necrose aguda de retina, sendo que 12 destes olhos foram submetidos à fotocoagulação com laser de argônio, com o objetivo de prevenir o descolamento de retina. Dos 12 olhos, 2 desenvolveram descolamento de retina (16,6% ao passo que, no grupo não tratado, composto por 7 olhos, 4 desenvolveram descolamento de retina (57,1%. CONCLUSÃO: O autor conclui que os dois tipos de intervenção propostos se mostraram eficazes, porém, como os estudos são metodologicamente fracos, torna-se necessária a realização de estudos clínicos randomizados para que se possa estabelecer o melhor tratamento para a necrose aguda de retina.PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify, according to an sistematic review, the best treatment for acute retinal necrosis. METHODS: Following the methodologic guidance of the Cochrane Collaboration and its editorial subgroup "Eye and Vision Group", using search strategy for study identification, articles about the treatment

  12. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  13. Magnetic refrigerator for hydrogen liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, T [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Kamlya, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan); Utaki, T. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, K. [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    This paper reviews the development status of magnetic refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction. There is no doubt that hydrogen is one of most important energy sources in the near future. In particular, liquid hydrogen can be utilized for infrastructure construction consisting of storage and transportation. Liquid hydrogen is in cryogenic temperatures and therefore high efficient liquefaction method must be studied. Magnetic refrigeration which uses the magneto-caloric effect has potential to realize not only the higher liquefaction efficiency > 50 %, but also to be environmentally friendly and cost effective. Our hydrogen magnetic refrigeration system consists of Carnot cycle for liquefaction stage and AMR (active magnetic regenerator) cycle for precooling stages. For the Carnot cycle, we develop the high efficient system > 80 % liquefaction efficiency by using the heat pipe. For the AMR cycle, we studied two kinds of displacer systems, which transferred the working fluid. We confirmed the AMR effect with the cooling temperature span of 12 K for 1.8 T of the magnetic field and 6 second of the cycle. By using the simulation, we estimate the total efficiency of the hydrogen liquefaction plant for 10 kg/day. A FOM of 0.47 is obtained in the magnetic refrigeration system operation temperature between 20 K and 77 K including LN2 work input.

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to other adrenal hormones during an acute inflammatory stressful disease state compared with chronic inflammatory disease: role of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Rainer H; Lehle, Karin; Herfarth, Hans; Weber, Markus; Falk, Werner; Preuner, Jurgen; Scholmerich, Jurgen

    2002-03-01

    Serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) are low in chronic inflammatory diseases, although the reasons are unexplained. Furthermore, the behaviour of serum levels of these hormones during an acute inflammatory stressful disease state is not well known. In this study in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state (13 patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery) and patients with chronic inflammation (61 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)) vs. 120 controls, we aimed to investigate adrenal hormone shifts looking at serum levels of DHEA in relation to other adrenal hormones. Furthermore, we tested the predictive role of serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) for a change of serum levels of DHEA in relation to other adrenal hormones. The molar ratio of serum levels of DHEA/androstenedione (ASD) was increased in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state and was decreased in patients with chronic inflammation. The molar ratio of serum levels of DHEAS/DHEA was reduced during an acute inflammatory stressful disease state and was increased in patients with chronic inflammation. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that elevated serum levels of TNF were associated with a high ratio of serum levels of DHEA/ASD in all groups (for IL-6 in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state only), and, similarly, elevated serum levels of TNF were associated with a high ratio of serum levels of DHEAS/DHEA only in IBD (for IL-6 only in healthy subjects). This study indicates that changes of serum levels of DHEA in relation to serum levels of other adrenal hormones are completely different in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state compared with patients with chronic inflammation. The decrease of serum levels of DHEAS and DHEA is typical for chronic inflammation and TNF and IL-6 play a predictive role for these changes.

  15. [C1q/tumor necrosis factor related protein 6 (CTRP6) is involved in gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Yang, Xiaoxia; Yu, Yan; Zhou, Meilan; Tian, Xiujuan; Feng, Shidong; Wang, Hanmin

    2016-11-01

    Objective To explore the role of the anti-inflammatory cytokine C1q/tumor necrosis factor related protein 6 (CTRP6) in gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury in rats. Methods SD rats were divided into 5 groups including control group, model group and the other 3 experimental groups. The rats in model group and experimental groups were subcutaneously injected with gentamicin at the dose of 400 mg/(kg.d) for consecutive 2 days to induce acute renal injury. Two days before gentamicin injection, the rats in the 3 experimental groups were given pAd-CTRP6 at the doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. The serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were respectively assayed with picric acid colorimetry and ultraviolet spectrophotometry; ELISA was used to detect serum CTRP6 content and the production of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the kidney homogenate; Western blotting was performed to detect the expressions of CTRP6, caspase-1 and pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) proteins in the renal tissues of rats. Results Compared with control group, serum BUN and Cr contents increased in the model rats; the secretion of inflammatory factors IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as the expressions of caspase-1 and NLRP3 were also enhanced in the model group. Compared with the model group, serum BUN and Cr contents decreased in the experimental groups; the secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as the expressions of caspase-1 and NLRP3 were also attenuated in the experimental groups. Moreover, with the increase of the injection dosage of pAd-CTRP6, the suppressive effect was gradually strengthened. Conclusion CTRP6 can attenuate gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in rats in a dose-dependent manner.

  16. Coal liquefaction policy in China: Explaining the policy reversal since 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Fang; Victor, David G.

    2011-01-01

    China has emerged as a leader in coal liquefaction. While the country's abundant coal resources and acute concerns about oil security help explain China's interest in liquefaction, the driving forces for this industry are complicated and policy has been inconsistent. Since 2006 Beijing has tried to slow down the development of liquefaction; even as China has become more dependent on imported oil, the central government has been wary about the large impact of liquefaction technologies on scarce resources such as water. However, local government officials in coal rich areas have strong incentives to pour investment into the technology, which helps explain the uneven development and policy. The future of coal liquefaction will depend on how these forces unfold along with major Beijing-led reforms in the Chinese coal industry, which is closing smaller mines and favoring the emergence of larger coal producing firms. Those reforms will have mixed effects on liquefaction. They temporarily contribute to higher prices for coal while over the longer term creating coal companies that have much greater financial and technical skills needed to deploy technologies such as coal liquefaction at a scale needed if this energy pathway is to be competitive with conventional sources of liquid fuel. - Highlights: ► We explain swings in Chinese policy on coal liquefaction, a possible substitute for imported oil. ► Since 2006 Beijing's support has waned due to fears about environmental impacts and cost of liquefaction. ► Local governments in some coal rich regions remain strongly supportive. ► Volatile oil prices and rising coal prices make this industry more risky than previously thought. ► Consolidation of the coal industry will have mixed effects on viability of liquefaction projects.

  17. 99mTc-HDP Bone Scan Findings of Acute Rhabdomyolysis of Lumbar Multifidus and Thigh Muscles and Bone Scan and US Signs of Acute Tubular Necrosis in Excessive Rabbit's Leaping: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Jang Min

    2008-01-01

    Marked rhabdomyolysis (RML) complicated by acute tubular necrosis is not a rare disease. It is characterized by disintegration of skeletal muscle fibers due to a variety of causes including excessive physical exercise, trauma, operation, infection, bed-ridden life, alcohol, drugs, toxins, exhaustion and others. We report a case of RML with acute renal failure studied using magnification bone scan which specifically identified the muscles injured by excessive rabbit's leap. The injured muscles recognized were the multifidus of the lumbar spine and the anterior and posterior muscle groups of the thigh. In addition, 99 mTc-HDP bone scan findings of acute tubular necrosis correlated with that of the sonographic signs are described. Patient was treated simply with normal saline hydration and bed rest and uneventfully recovered to be discharged on the fourth hospital day. Lab data on the final hospital day: LDH=20 IU/L (normalized) and CPK=600 IU/L (still higher than normal), BUN=14.2 mg/dl (normalized) and creatinin=1.5 mg/dl (normalized) GOT=20 mg/dl (normalized) and GPT=72 mg/dl (higher than normal), respectively

  18. {sup 99m}Tc-HDP Bone Scan Findings of Acute Rhabdomyolysis of Lumbar Multifidus and Thigh Muscles and Bone Scan and US Signs of Acute Tubular Necrosis in Excessive Rabbit's Leaping: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Jang Min [Sung Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Marked rhabdomyolysis (RML) complicated by acute tubular necrosis is not a rare disease. It is characterized by disintegration of skeletal muscle fibers due to a variety of causes including excessive physical exercise, trauma, operation, infection, bed-ridden life, alcohol, drugs, toxins, exhaustion and others. We report a case of RML with acute renal failure studied using magnification bone scan which specifically identified the muscles injured by excessive rabbit's leap. The injured muscles recognized were the multifidus of the lumbar spine and the anterior and posterior muscle groups of the thigh. In addition, {sup 99}mTc-HDP bone scan findings of acute tubular necrosis correlated with that of the sonographic signs are described. Patient was treated simply with normal saline hydration and bed rest and uneventfully recovered to be discharged on the fourth hospital day. Lab data on the final hospital day: LDH=20 IU/L (normalized) and CPK=600 IU/L (still higher than normal), BUN=14.2 mg/dl (normalized) and creatinin=1.5 mg/dl (normalized) GOT=20 mg/dl (normalized) and GPT=72 mg/dl (higher than normal), respectively.

  19. A spotlight on liquefaction: evidence from clinical settings and experimental models in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2011-01-01

    Liquefaction is one of the most intriguing aspects of human tuberculosis. It is a major cause of the transition from the infection to active disease (tuberculosis, TB) as well as the transmission of M. tuberculosis to other persons. This paper reviews the natural history of liquefaction in humans from a pathological and radiological point of view and discusses how the experimental models available can be used to address the topic of liquefaction and cavity formation. Different concepts that have been related to liquefaction, from the influence of immune response to mechanical factors, are reviewed. Synchronic necrosis or apoptosis of infected macrophages in a close area, together with an ineffective fibrosis, appears to be clue in this process, in which macrophages, the immune response, and bacillary load interact usually in a particular scenario: the upper lobes of the lung. The summary would be that even if being a stochastic effect, liquefaction would result if the organization of the intragranulomatous necrosis (by means of fibrosis) would be disturbed.

  20. A Spotlight on Liquefaction: Evidence from Clinical Settings and Experimental Models in Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere-Joan Cardona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefaction is one of the most intriguing aspects of human tuberculosis. It is a major cause of the transition from the infection to active disease (tuberculosis, TB as well as the transmission of M. tuberculosis to other persons. This paper reviews the natural history of liquefaction in humans from a pathological and radiological point of view and discusses how the experimental models available can be used to address the topic of liquefaction and cavity formation. Different concepts that have been related to liquefaction, from the influence of immune response to mechanical factors, are reviewed. Synchronic necrosis or apoptosis of infected macrophages in a close area, together with an ineffective fibrosis, appears to be clue in this process, in which macrophages, the immune response, and bacillary load interact usually in a particular scenario: the upper lobes of the lung. The summary would be that even if being a stochastic effect, liquefaction would result if the organization of the intragranulomatous necrosis (by means of fibrosis would be disturbed.

  1. Plasma electrolytic liquefaction of cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingliang, TANG; Xianhui, ZHANG; Si-ze, YANG

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the rapid liquefaction of a corncob was achieved by plasma electrolysis, providing a new method for cellulosic biomass liquefaction. The liquefaction rate of the corncob was 95% after 5 min with polyethylene glycol and glycerol as the liquefying agent. The experiments not only showed that H+ ions catalyzed the liquefaction of the corncob, but also that using accelerated H+ ions, which were accelerated by an electric field, could effectively improve the liquefaction efficiency. There was an obvious discharge phenomenon, in which the generated radicals efficiently heated the solution and liquefied the biomass, in the process of plasma electrolytic liquefaction. Finally, the optimum parameters of the corncob liquefaction were obtained by experimentation, and the liquefaction products were analyzed.

  2. Long-term results and quality of life of patients undergoing sequential surgical treatment for severe acute pancreatitis complicated by infected pancreatic necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquepalmi, Lorenza; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Rovera, Francesca; Diurni, Mario; Benevento, Angelo; Dionigi, Renzo

    2006-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is one of the most severe complications of acute pancreatitis (AP). Sequential surgical debridement represents one of the most effective treatments in terms of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper is to describe the quality of life and long-term results (e.g., nutritional, muscular, and pancreatic function) of patients treated by sequential necrosectomy at the Department of Surgery of the University of Insubria (Varese, Italy). Data were collected on patients undergoing sequential surgical debridement as treatment for IPN. The severity of AP was evaluated using the Ranson criteria, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) Score, and the Sepsis Score, as well as the extent of necrosis. The surgical approach was through a midline or subcostal laparotomy, followed by exploration of the peritoneal cavity, wide debridement, and peritoneal lavage. The abdomen was either left open or closed partially with a surgical zipper, with multiple re-laparotomies scheduled until debridement of necrotic tissue was complete. The long-term evaluation focused on late morbidity, performance status, and abdominal wall function. In the majority of patients (68%), mixed flora were isolated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism identified most commonly (59%), often associated with Candida albicans or C. glabrata. The mean total hospital stay was 71+/-38 days (range 13-146 days), of which 24+/-19 days (range 0-66 days) were in the intensive care unit. Eight patients died, the deaths being caused by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in seven patients and hemorrhage from the splenic artery in one. Normal exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function was observed in 28 patients (88%). At discharge, four patients had steatorrhea, which was temporary. Eight patients (23%) developed pancreatic pseudocysts, and in six, cystogastostomy was performed. Most patients (29/32, 91%) developed a post-operative hernia, but only five

  3. Liquefaction resistance of calcareous sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Vallejo, Eimar

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

  4. Acute Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Mouse Induces Infertility or Placental Parasite Invasion and Ischemic Necrosis Associated with Massive Fetal Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Mjihdi, Abdelkarim; Lambot, Marie-Alexandra; Stewart, Ian J.; Detournay, Olivier; Noël, Jean-Christophe; Carlier, Yves; Truyens, Carine

    2002-01-01

    Pathogens may impair reproduction in association or not with congenital infections. We have investigated the effect of acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan agent of Chagas’ disease in Latin America, on reproduction of mice. Although mating of infected mice occurred at a normal rate, 80% of them did not become gravid. In the few gravid infected mice, implantation numbers were as in uninfected control mice, but 28% of fetuses resorbed. Such infertility and early fetal losses we...

  5. EARTHQUAKE INDUCED LIQUEFACTION ANALYSIS OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    liquefaction analysis of Tendaho earth-fill dam, which is part ... sugar cane plantation in an area of 60,000 hectares. The project .... The model is prepared using the QUAKE/W program for the ..... Geo-slope International, Ltd., Canada. Dynamic ...

  6. Inflammatory cascades driven by tumor necrosis factor-alpha play a major role in the progression of acute liver failure and its neurological complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Chastre

    Full Text Available Acute liver failure (ALF due to ischemic or toxic liver injury is a clinical condition that results from massive loss of hepatocytes and may lead to hepatic encephalopathy (HE, a serious neuropsychiatric complication. Although increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in liver, plasma and brain has been observed, conflicting results exist concerning its roles in drug-induced liver injury and on the progression of HE. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic value of etanercept, a TNF-α neutralizing molecule, on the progression of liver injury and HE in mice with ALF resulting from azoxymethane (AOM hepatotoxicity.Mice were administered saline or etanercept (10 mg/kg; i.p. 30 minutes prior to, or up to 6 h after AOM. Etanercept-treated ALF mice were sacrificed in parallel with vehicle-treated comatose ALF mice and controls. AOM induced severe hepatic necrosis, leading to HE, and etanercept administered prior or up to 3 h after AOM significantly delayed the onset of coma stages of HE. Etanercept pretreatment attenuated AOM-induced liver injury, as assessed by histological examination, plasma ammonia and transaminase levels, and by hepatic glutathione content. Peripheral inflammation was significantly reduced by etanercept as shown by decreased plasma IL-6 (4.1-fold; p<0.001 and CD40L levels (3.7-fold; p<0.001 compared to saline-treated ALF mice. Etanercept also decreased IL-6 levels in brain (1.2-fold; p<0.05, attenuated microglial activation (assessed by OX-42 immunoreactivity, and increased brain glutathione concentrations.These results indicate that systemic sequestration of TNF-α attenuates both peripheral and cerebral inflammation leading to delayed progression of liver disease and HE in mice with ALF due to toxic liver injury. These results suggest that etanercept may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the management of ALF patients awaiting liver transplantation.

  7. Poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 expression is related to cold ischemia, acute tubular necrosis, and delayed renal function in kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco O'Valle

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Cold ischemia time especially impacts on outcomes of expanded-criteria donor (ECD transplantation. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury produces excessive poly[ADP-Ribose] Polymerase-1 (PARP-1 activation. The present study explored the hypothesis that increased tubular expression of PARP-1 contributes to delayed renal function in suboptimal ECD kidney allografts and in non-ECD allografts that develop posttransplant acute tubular necrosis (ATN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nuclear PARP-1 immunohistochemical expression was studied in 326 paraffin-embedded renal allograft biopsies (193 with different degrees of ATN and 133 controls and in murine Parp-1 knockout model of IR injury. RESULTS: PARP-1 expression showed a significant relationship with cold ischemia time (r coefficient = 0.603, time to effective diuresis (r = 0.770, serum creatinine levels at biopsy (r = 0.649, and degree of ATN (r = 0.810 (p = 0.001, Pearson test. In the murine IR model, western blot showed an increase in PARP-1 that was blocked by Parp-1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemical study of PARP-1 in kidney allograft biopsies would allow early detection of possible delayed renal function, and the administration of PARP-1 inhibitors may offer a therapeutic option to reduce damage from IR in donor kidneys by preventing or minimizing ATN. In summary, these results suggest a pivotal role for PARP-1 in the ATN of renal transplantation. We propose the immunohistochemical assessment of PARP-1 in kidney allograft biopsies for early detection of a possible delayed renal function.

  8. Expression of toll-like receptor 4, tumor necrosis factor- alpha, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and effects of benazepril in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Cao, Yun-Shan; Su, Peng; Li, Yu-Hong; Gao, Zhi-Ling; Borst, Mathias M

    2010-10-11

    The study aims to explore the relationship between expressions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on peripheral blood monocytes, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in patients with acute coronary syndromes(ACS), and to investigate the possible mechanisms of Benazepril stabilizing atherosclerosis plaques. 70 patients selected were randomly divided into Benazepril treatment group (35 patients) and regular treatment group (35 patients). Meanwhile, Stable angina pectoris (SAP) group of 32 patients and control group of 22 patients were also set up. With the help of flow-cytometry, expressions of TLR4 on peripheral blood monocytes of the four groups were analyzed and compared to show differences, correlations and changes of the above mentioned indicators. The concentration of TNF-α and MMP-9 in serum were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (1) Expressions of TLR4, levels of TNF-α and MMP-9 were increased and the rate was rising from the control group, to SAP group and then to ACS group. All these indicators in ACS group are significantly higher than those in other groups (P Benazepril treatment group and regular treatment group before treatment (P > 0.05) while they all fell after treatment (P Benazepril can inhibit over-expression of TLR4 and reduce serum levels of TNF-α and MMP-9, thus stabilize the vulnerable plaques and improve the condition of the patients with ACS.

  9. Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) related microRNAs in Litopenaeus vannamei infected with AHPND-causing strain of Vibrio parahemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhihong; Aweya, Jude Juventus; Wang, Fan; Yao, Defu; Lun, Jingsheng; Li, Shengkang; Ma, Hongyu; Zhang, Yueling

    2018-05-08

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has emerged as a major debilitating disease that causes massive shrimp death resulting in substantial economic losses in shrimp aquaculture. Given that several diseases and infections have been associated with microRNAs (miRNAs), we conducted a comparative transcriptomic analysis using the AHPND (VA) and non-AHPND (VN) strains of Vibrio parahemolyticus to identify miRNAs potentially involved in AHPND pathogenesis in Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 83 miRNAs (47 upregulated and 36 downregulated) were significantly differentially expressed between the VA and VN challenged groups, while 222 target genes of these miRNAs were predicted. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the miRNAs target genes were involved in multiple biological processes including metabolic pathways, amoebiasis, Vibrio cholerae infection etc. Finally, interaction network and qPCR (Real-time Quantitative PCR) analysis of 12 potential key AHPND-related miRNAs and their predicted target genes, revealed their possible involvement in modulating several immune-related processes in the pathogenesis of AHPND. We have shown using comparative transcriptomic analysis, miRNAs and their target genes that are responsive to AHPND V. parahemolyticus infection in shrimp, therefore suggesting their possible role in defense response to AHPND V. parahemolyticus infection.

  10. Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave-flum......-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction....

  11. MRI Findings of Pericardial Fat Necrosis: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyo Hyeok; Ryu, Dae Shick; Jung, Sang Sig; Jung, Seung Mun; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dae Hee

    2011-01-01

    Pericardial fat necrosis is an infrequent cause of acute chest pain and this can mimic acute myocardial infarction and acute pericarditis. We describe here a patient with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of pericardial fat necrosis and this was correlated with the computed tomography (CT) findings. The MRI findings may be helpful for distinguishing pericardial fat necrosis from other causes of acute chest pain and from the fat-containing tumors in the cardiophrenic space of the anterior mediastinum.

  12. Coal liquefaction still a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overberg, H

    1982-03-19

    Liquefaction of coal is not profitable in West Germany and will not be so far some time to coal. This is true for West German and imported coal. The result may be improved but not changed by combined conversion of coal and top residues of distilleries. These are the main statements of a study carried out by Messrs. Veba Oel AG, Gelsenkirchen, on behalf of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology. The results of the study are presented in 20 volumes.

  13. Liquefaction technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    A survey of coal liquefaction technology and analysis of projected relative performance of high potential candidates has been completed and the results are reported here. The key objectives of the study included preparation of a broad survey of the status of liquefaction processes under development, selection of a limited number of high potential process candidates for further study, and an analysis of the relative commercial potential of these candidates. Procedures which contributed to the achievement of the above key goals included definition of the characteristics and development status of known major liquefaction process candidates, development of standardized procedures for assessing technical, environmental, economic and product characteristics for the separate candidates, and development of procedures for selecting and comparing high potential processes. The comparisons were made for three production areas and four marketing areas of the US. In view of the broad scope of the objectives the survey was a limited effort. It used the experience gained during preparation of seven comprehensive conceptual designs/economic evaluations plus comprehensive reviews of the designs, construction and operation of several pilot plants. Results and conclusions must be viewed in the perspective of the information available, how this information was treated, and the full context of the economic comparison results. Comparative economics are presented as ratios; they are not intended to be predictors of absolute values. Because the true cost of constructing and operating large coal conversion facilities will be known only after commercialization, relative values are considered more appropriate. (LTN)

  14. The role of necrosis, acute hypoxia and chronic hypoxia in 18F-FMISO PET image contrast: a computational modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Daniel R.; Partridge, Mike

    2016-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) is a promising technique for imaging tumour hypoxia, and a potential target for radiotherapy dose-painting. However, the relationship between FMISO uptake and oxygen partial pressure ({{P}{{\\text{O}2}}} ) is yet to be quantified fully. Tissue oxygenation varies over distances much smaller than clinical PET resolution (necrosis. This work develops a computational model of FMISO uptake in millimetre-scale tumour regions. Coupled partial differential equations govern the evolution of oxygen and FMISO distributions, and a dynamic vascular source map represents temporal variations in perfusion. Local FMISO binding capacity is modulated by the necrotic fraction. Outputs include spatiotemporal maps of {{P}{{\\text{O}2}}} and tracer accumulation, enabling calculation of tissue-to-blood ratios (TBRs) and time-activity curves (TACs) as a function of mean tissue oxygenation. The model is characterised using experimental data, finding half-maximal FMISO binding at local {{P}{{\\text{O}2}}} of 1.4 mmHg (95% CI: 0.3-2.6 mmHg) and half-maximal necrosis at 1.2 mmHg (0.1-4.9 mmHg). Simulations predict a non-linear non-monotonic relationship between FMISO activity (4 hr post-injection) and mean tissue {{P}{{\\text{O}2}}} : tracer uptake rises sharply from negligible levels in avascular tissue, peaking at  ˜5 mmHg and declining towards blood activity in well-oxygenated conditions. Greater temporal variation in perfusion increases peak TBRs (range 2.20-5.27) as a result of smaller predicted necrotic fraction, rather than fundamental differences in FMISO accumulation under acute hypoxia. Identical late FMISO uptake can occur in regions with differing {{P}{{\\text{O}2}}} and necrotic fraction, but simulated TACs indicate that additional early-phase information may allow discrimination of hypoxic and necrotic signals. We conclude that a robust approach to FMISO interpretation (and dose-painting prescription

  15. Liquefaction macrophenomena in the great Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longwei; Yuan, Xiaoming; Cao, Zhenzhong; Hou, Longqing; Sun, Rui; Dong, Lin; Wang, Weiming; Meng, Fanchao; Chen, Hongjuan

    2009-06-01

    On May 12, 2008 at 14:28, a catastrophic magnitude M s 8.0 earthquake struck the Sichuan Province of China. The epicenter was located at Wenchuan (31.00°N, 103.40°E). Liquefaction macrophenomena and corresponding destruction was observed throughout a vast area of 500 km long and 200 km wide following the earthquake. This paper illustrates the geographic distribution of the liquefaction and the relationship between liquefaction behavior and seismic intensity, and summarizes the liquefaction macrophenomena, including sandboils and waterspouts, ground subsidence, ground fissures etc., and relevant liquefaction features. A brief summary of the structural damage caused by liquefaction is presented and discussed. Based on comparisons with liquefaction phenomena observed in the 1976 Tangshan and 1975 Haicheng earthquakes, preliminary analyses were performed, which revealed some new features of liquefaction behavior and associated issues arising from this event. The site investigation indicated that the spatial non-uniformity of liquefaction distribution was obvious and most of the liquefied sites were located in regions of seismic intensity VIII. However, liquefaction phenomena at ten different sites in regions of seismic intensity VI were also observed for the first time in China mainland. Sandboils and waterspouts ranged from centimeters to tens of meters, with most between 1 m to 3 m. Dramatically high water/sand ejections, e.g., more than 10 m, were observed at four different sites. The sand ejections included silty sand, fine sand, medium sand, course sand and gravel, but the ejected sand amount was less than that in the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. Possible liquefaction of natural gravel soils was observed for the first time in China mainland.

  16. Photorhabdus insect-related (Pir) toxin-like genes in a plasmid of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jee Eun; Tang, Kathy F. J.; Tran, Loc H.; Lightner, Donald V.

    2016-01-01

    The 69 kb plasmid pVPA3-1 was identified in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain 13-028/A3 that can cause acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). This disease is responsible for mass mortalities in farmed penaeid shrimp and is referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS). The plasmid has a GC content of 45.9% with a copy number of 37 per bacterial cell as determined by comparative quantitative PCR analyses. It consists of 92 open reading frames that encode mobilization proteins, replication enzymes, transposases, virulence-associated proteins, and proteins similar to Photorhabdus insect-related (Pir) toxins. In V. parahaemolyticus, these Pir toxin-like proteins are encoded by 2 genes ( pirA- and pirB-like) located within a 3.5 kb fragment flanked with inverted repeats of a transposase-coding sequence (1 kb). The GC content of these 2 genes is only 38.2%, substantially lower than that of the rest of the plasmid, which suggests that these genes were recently acquired. Based on a proteomic analysis, the pirA-like (336 bp) and pirB-like (1317 bp) genes encode for 13 and 50 kDa proteins, respectively. In laboratory cultures of V. parahaemolyticus 13-028/A3, both proteins were secreted into the culture medium. We developed a duplex PCR diagnostic method, with a detection limit of 105 CFU ml−1 and targeting pirA- and pirB-like genes in this strain of V. parahaemolyticus. This PCR protocol can reliably detect AHPND-causing strains of V. parahaemolyticus and does not cross react with non-pathogenic strains or with other species of Vibrio isolated from shrimp ponds. PMID:25667334

  17. Characterization and PCR Detection Of Binary, Pir-Like Toxins from Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates that Cause Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND in Shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchanok Sirikharin

    Full Text Available Unique isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND have previously been identified as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND in shrimp. AHPND is characterized by massive sloughing of tubule epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas (HP, proposed to be induced by soluble toxins released from VPAHPND that colonize the shrimp stomach. Since these toxins (produced in broth culture have been reported to cause AHPND pathology in reverse gavage bioassays with shrimp, we used ammonium sulfate precipitation to prepare protein fractions from broth cultures of VPAHPND isolates for screening by reverse gavage assays. The dialyzed 60% ammonium sulfate fraction caused high mortality within 24-48 hours post-administration, and histological analysis of the moribund shrimp showed typical massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells characteristic of AHPND. Analysis of the active fraction by SDS-PAGE revealed two major bands at marker levels of approximately 16 kDa (ToxA and 50 kDa (ToxB. Mass spectrometry analysis followed by MASCOT analysis revealed that both proteins had similarity to hypothetical proteins of V. parahaemolyticus M0605 (contig034 GenBank accession no. JALL01000066.1 and similarity to known binary insecticidal toxins called 'Photorhabdus insect related' proteins A and B (Pir-A and Pir-B, respectively, produced by the symbiotic, nematode bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. In in vivo tests, it was shown that recombinant ToxA and ToxB were both required in a dose dependent manner to cause AHPND pathology, indicating further similarity to Pir-A and -B. A single-step PCR method was designed for detection of the ToxA gene and was validated using 104 bacterial isolates consisting of 51 VPAHPND isolates, 34 non-AHPND VP isolates and 19 other isolates of bacteria commonly found in shrimp ponds (including other species of Vibrio and Photobacterium. The results showed 100% specificity and sensitivity for

  18. Significant inter-observer variation in the diagnosis of extrapancreatic necrosis and type of pancreatic collections in acute pancreatitis - An international multicenter evaluation of the revised Atlanta classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternby, Hanna; Verdonk, Robert C; Aguilar, Guadalupe; Dimova, Alexandra; Ignatavicius, Povilas; Ilzarbe, Lucas; Koiva, Peeter; Lantto, Eila; Loigom, Tonis; Penttilä, Anne; Regnér, Sara; Rosendahl, Jonas; Strahinova, Vanya; Zackrisson, Sophia; Zviniene, Kristina; Bollen, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    For consistent reporting and better comparison of data in research the revised Atlanta classification (RAC) proposes new computed tomography (CT) criteria to describe the morphology of acute pancreatitis (AP). The aim of this study was to analyse the interobserver agreement among radiologists in evaluating CT morphology by using the new RAC criteria in patients with AP. Patients with a first episode of AP who obtained a CT were identified and consecutively enrolled at six European centres backwards from January 2013 to January 2012. A local radiologist at each center and a central expert radiologist scored the CTs separately using the RAC criteria. Center dependent and independent interobserver agreement was determined using Kappa statistics. In total, 285 patients with 388 CTs were included. For most CT criteria, interobserver agreement was moderate to substantial. In four categories, the center independent kappa values were fair: extrapancreatic necrosis (EXPN) (0.326), type of pancreatitis (0.370), characteristics of collections (0.408), and appropriate term of collections (0.356). The fair kappa values relate to discrepancies in the identification of extrapancreatic necrotic material. The local radiologists diagnosed EXPN (33% versus 59%, P < 0.0001) and non-homogeneous collections (35% versus 66%, P < 0.0001) significantly less frequent than the central expert. Cases read by the central expert showed superior correlation with clinical outcome. Diagnosis of EXPN and recognition of non-homogeneous collections show only fair agreement potentially resulting in inconsistent reporting of morphologic findings. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  20. Wave liquefaction in soils with clay content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, Özgür; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (in silt-clay and sand-clay mixtures) on liquefaction beneath progressive waves. The experiments showed that the influence of clay content is very significant. Susceptibility of silt to liquefaction is increa...

  1. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  2. Pathological investigation of radiation necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nishio; Yoshimura, Noriaki; Ikuta, Fusahiro

    1975-01-01

    The brain and spinal cord of an 18-year-old male, who suffered from cerebellar medulloblastoma with subarachnoid spread, had been irradiated by a large amount of Linac X-ray: 14,450 rads to the lower thoracic segments and 7,400 rads to the lumbar segments. The tumor at the roof of the 4th ventricle had disseminated along the ventricular system but was limited to the subarachnoid space of the cervical spinal cord. No remarkable changes were found in the volume or consistency of the thoracic and lumbar cord. Elasticity of the lower thoracic segment was greatly diminished and the cut surfaces were yellowish white and fragile. Microscopically extensive coagulation necrosis was observed with complete disintegration of myelin and axon. Vascular changes were most prominent in the smaller vessels, eg. hyalinous thickening, concentric cleavage, adventitial fibrosis and edema of small artery perivascular spaces, fibrin thrombi occulusion of arterioles and capillaries, and telangiectasia. In the lumbar spinal cord, moderate neuronal degeneration and protoplasmic astrocytosis were observed. Changes in the lumbar posterior white column were considered to be not only secondary degeneration but also a primary lesion caused by irradiation. Liquefactive necrosis in the gray matter of the cervical cord was thought to be a nonspecific circulatory disturbance because of the absence of vascular changes. Vascular changes were thought to be very important in the histological diagnosis of radiation myelopathy and it was supposed that increased permeability of the vessel walls was a factor in coagulation necrosis. They considered this case to have typical histology of radiation myelopathy. (Evans, J.)

  3. Earthquake-induced liquefaction in Ferland, Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, M.; Seeber, L.

    1991-02-01

    Detailed geological investigations are under way at a number of liquefaction sites in the Ferland-Boilleau valley, Quebec, where sand boils, ground cracks and liquefaction-related damages to homes were documented immediately following the Ms=6.0, Mblg=6.5 Saguenay earthquake of November 25, 1988. To date, results obtained from these subsurface investigations of sand boils at two sites in Ferland, located about 26 km from the epicentre, indicate that: the Saguenay earthquake induced liquefaction in late-Pleistocene and Holocene sediments which was recorded as sand dikes, sills and vents in near-surface sediments and soils; earthquake-induced liquefaction and ground failure have occurred in this area at least three times in the past 10,000 years; and, the size and morphology of liquefaction features and the liquefaction susceptibility of source layers of the features may be indicative of the intensity of ground shaking. These preliminary results are very promising and suggest that with continued research liquefaction features will become a useful tool in glaciated terrains, such as northeastern North America, for determining not only the timing and location but also the size of past earthquakes

  4. Measurement of tumor necrosis factor-α, leukotriene B4, and interleukin 8 in the exhaled breath condensate in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny WS Ko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fanny WS Ko1, Ting-Fan Leung2, Gary WK Wong2, Jenny Ngai1, Kin W To1, Susanna Ng1, David SC Hui11Department of Medicine and Therapeutics; 2Department of Pediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong KongBackground: Assessment of airway inflammation in the clinical course of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD may advance our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment.Objectives: To assess airway inflammation in patients during the course of AECOPD by serial analyses of their exhaled breath condensates (EBC.Methods: Twenty-six patients with AECOPD (22 males, mean[SD] percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 44.8 [14.3], 11 with stable COPD, and 14 age and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. Patients with AECOPD were treated with systemic steroid and antibiotic for 7 days. EBC was collected from each patient with AECOPD on Day 5, 14, 30, and 60 post-hospitalization using EcoScreen (VIASYS Healthcare, USA during tidal breathing over 10 minutes. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, leukotriene B4 (LTB4, and interleukin-8 (IL-8 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: The median (IQR of TNF-α level on Day 5 was 5.08 (3.80–6 .32 pg/ml, which was lower than on Day 14 (5.84 [4.91–9.14] pg/ml, p = 0.017, Day 30 (6.14 [3.82–7.67] pg/ml, p = 0.045, and Day 60 (5.60 [4.53–8.80] pg/ml, p = 0.009. On Day 60, subjects receiving inhaled corticosteroid (ICS had a lower level of TNF-α than those who were not (4.82 [4.06–5.65] vs 7.66 [5.48–10.9] pg/ml, p = 0.02. EBC LTB4 level did not change significantly during recovery from AECOPD whereas IL-8 was mostly undetectable.Conclusions: EBC TNF-α level was low in patients receiving systemic steroid and antibiotic therapy for AECOPD. These findings suggest a potential role for serial EBC TNF-α for noninvasive monitoring of disease activity.Keywords: COPD, exacerbation, exhaled breath

  5. Tumor Necrosis Factor-producing T-regulatory Cells Are Associated With Severe Liver Injury in Patients With Acute Hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Seok; Jung, Min Kyung; Lee, Jeewon; Choi, Seong Jin; Choi, Sung Hoon; Lee, Hyun Woong; Lee, Jong-Joo; Kim, Hyung Joon; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Kim, Won; Park, Su-Hyung; Huh, Jun R; Kim, Hyoung-Pyo; Park, Jun Yong; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2018-03-01

    CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + T-regulatory (Treg) cells control immune responses and maintain immune homeostasis. However, under inflammatory conditions, Treg cells produce cytokines that promote inflammation. We investigated production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by Treg cells in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA), and examined the characteristics of these cells and association with clinical factors. We analyzed blood samples collected from 63 patients with AHA at the time of hospitalization (and some at later time points) and 19 healthy donors in South Korea. Liver tissues were collected from patients with fulminant AHA during liver transplantation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from whole blood and lymphocytes were isolated from liver tissues and analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokine production from Treg cells (CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + ) was measured by immunofluorescence levels following stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. Epigenetic stability of Treg cells was determined based on DNA methylation patterns. Phenotypes of Treg cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and an RORγt inhibitor, ML-209, was used to inhibit TNF production. Treg cell suppression assay was performed by co-culture of Treg-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells s and isolated Treg cells. A higher proportion of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg cells from patients with AHA compared with controls produced TNF upon stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 (11.2% vs 2.8%). DNA methylation analysis confirmed the identity of the Treg cells. TNF-producing Treg cells had features of T-helper 17 cells, including up-regulation of RORγt, which was required for TNF production. The Treg cells had reduced suppressive functions compared with Treg cells from controls. The frequency of TNF-producing Treg cells in AHA patients' blood correlated with their serum level of alanine aminotransferase. Treg cells from patients with AHA have altered functions compared with Treg cells from healthy

  6. Histotripsy Liquefaction of Large Hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Monsky, Wayne L; Haider, Yasser A; Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Matula, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Intra- and extra-muscular hematomas result from repetitive injury as well as sharp and blunt limb trauma. The clinical consequences can be serious, including debilitating pain and functional deficit. There are currently no short-term treatment options for large hematomas, only lengthy conservative treatment. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-based technique, termed histotripsy, for rapid (within a clinically relevant timeframe of 15-20 min) liquefaction of large volume (up to 20 mL) extra-vascular hematomas for subsequent fine-needle aspiration. Experiments were performed using in vitro extravascular hematoma phantoms-fresh bovine blood poured into 50 mL molds and allowed to clot. The resulting phantoms were treated by boiling histotripsy (BH), cavitation histotripsy (CH) or a combination in a degassed water tank under ultrasound guidance. Two different transducers operating at 1 MHz and 1.5 MHz with f-number = 1 were used. The liquefied lysate was aspirated and analyzed by histology and sized in a Coulter Counter. The peak instantaneous power to achieve BH was lower than (at 1.5 MHz) or equal to (at 1 MHz) that which was required to initiate CH. Under the same exposure duration, BH-induced cavities were one and a half to two times larger than the CH-induced cavities, but the CH-induced cavities were more regularly shaped, facilitating easier aspiration. The lysates contained a small amount of debris larger than 70 μm, and 99% of particulates were smaller than 10 μm. A combination treatment of BH (for initial debulking) and CH (for liquefaction of small residual fragments) yielded 20 mL of lysate within 17.5 minutes of treatment and was found to be most optimal for liquefaction of large extravascular hematomas. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Renal papillary necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asking your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bushinsky DA, Monk RD. Nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. ...

  8. Assessment and mitigation of liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czelada, J. A.; Melentijevic, S.

    2014-01-01

    The simplified empirical procedure in its original form presented in Youd et al (2001) and some further developments given in Idriss and Boulanger (2006) for evaluating liquefaction resistance of soils is presented in this paper only for the criteria based on standard penetration test (SPT). Methods for estimating the ground improvement techniques by stone columns and dynamics compaction are presented. For stone columns Priebe method (1995) and homogenized method (equivalent parameters) are present. for dynamic compaction methods proposed by Recomendacion Geotecnica para las Obras Maritimas y/o Porturaria - ROM 0.5-05 (2005) and Nashed et al. (2009) are described. These analysis methods for each ground improvement technique are compared in two different case histories showing similar results in each one. (Author)

  9. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  10. Clinical and CT imaging features of abdominal fat necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinkun; Bai Renju

    2013-01-01

    Fat necrosis is a common pathological change at abdominal cross-sectional imaging, and it may cause abdominal pain, mimic pathological change of acute abdomen, or be asymptomatic and accompany other pathophysiologic processes. Fat necrosis is actually the result of steatosis by metabolism or mechanical injury. Common processes that are present in fat necrosis include epiploic appendagitis, infarction of the greater omentum, pancreatitis, and fat necrosis related to trauma or ischemia. As a common fat disease, fat necrosis should be known by clinicians and radiologists. Main content of this text is the clinical symptoms and CT findings of belly fat necrosis and related diseases. (authors)

  11. Basic studies on coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of research and development of coal liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992, regarding the coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products. For the fundamental study on coal liquefaction reaction, were investigated effect of asphaltene in petroleum residue on coprocessing, pretreatment effect in coprocessing of Taiheiyo coal and tarsand bitumen using oil soluble catalyst, solubilization and liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal at mild conditions with the aid of super acid, and flash hydropyrolysis of finely pulverized swollen coal under high hydrogen pressure. On the other hand, for the study on hydrotreatment of coal derived liquid, were investigated catalytic hydroprocessing of Wandoan coal liquids, production of gasoline from coal liquids by fluid catalytic cracking, solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from coal liquids, and separation of hetero compounds in coal liquid by means of high pressure crystallization. Further progress in these studies has been confirmed. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Targeting of regulated necrosis in kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martin-Sanchez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The term acute tubular necrosis was thought to represent a misnomer derived from morphological studies of human necropsies and necrosis was thought to represent an unregulated passive form of cell death which was not amenable to therapeutic manipulation. Recent advances have improved our understanding of cell death in acute kidney injury. First, apoptosis results in cell loss, but does not trigger an inflammatory response. However, clumsy attempts at interfering with apoptosis (e.g. certain caspase inhibitors may trigger necrosis and, thus, inflammation-mediated kidney injury. Second, and most revolutionary, the concept of regulated necrosis emerged. Several modalities of regulated necrosis were described, such as necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis and mitochondria permeability transition regulated necrosis. Similar to apoptosis, regulated necrosis is modulated by specific molecules that behave as therapeutic targets. Contrary to apoptosis, regulated necrosis may be extremely pro-inflammatory and, importantly for kidney transplantation, immunogenic. Furthermore, regulated necrosis may trigger synchronized necrosis, in which all cells within a given tubule die in a synchronized manner. We now review the different modalities of regulated necrosis, the evidence for a role in diverse forms of kidney injury and the new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Resumen: La idea de que el término necrosis tubular aguda supone una denominación inapropiada se deriva de estudios morfológicos de necropsias humanas. La opinión generalizada ha sido que la necrosis representa una forma pasiva de muerte celular no regulada que no es susceptible de manipulación terapéutica. Los recientes avances han mejorado nuestra comprensión de la muerte celular en la lesión renal aguda. En primer lugar, la apoptosis origina una pérdida celular, pero no desencadena una respuesta inflamatoria. Sin embargo, los intentos rudimentarios de interferir en la apoptosis

  13. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  15. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  16. Prospect of coal liquefaction in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartiniati; Dasuki, A.S.; Artanto, Yu.; Sulaksono, D.; Gunanjar

    1997-01-01

    With the current known oil reserves of about 11 billion barrel and annual production of approximately 500 million barrel, the country's oil reserves will be depleted by 2010, and Indonesia would have become net oil importer if no major oil fields be found somewhere in the archipelago. Under such circumstances the development of new sources of liquid fuel becomes a must, and coal liquefaction can be one possible solution for the future energy problem in Indonesia, particularly in the transportation sector due to the availability of coal in huge amount. This paper present the prospect of coal liquefaction in Indonesia and look at the possibility of integrating the process with HTR as a heat supplier. Evaluation of liquidability of several low grade Indonesian coals will also be presented. Coal from South Banko-Tanjung Enim is found to be one of the most suitable coal for liquefaction. Several studies show that an advanced coal liquefaction technology recently developed has the potential to reduce not only the environmental impact but also the production cost. The price of oil produced in the year 2000 is expected to reach US $ 17.5 ∼ 19.2/barrel and this will compete with the current oil price. Not much conclusion can be drawn from the idea of integrating HTR with coal liquefaction plant due to limited information available. (author). 7 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion contractors review conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This volume contains 55 papers presented at the conference. They are divided into the following topical sections: Direct liquefaction; Indirect liquefaction; Gas conversion (methane conversion); and Advanced research liquefaction. Papers in this last section deal mostly with coprocessing of coal with petroleum, plastics, and waste tires, and catalyst studies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the seabed liquefaction beneath standing waves. Silt (with d50 =0.070mm) was used in the experiments. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore water pressure measurements and water surface elevation measurements. These measurements...... were synchronized with video recording of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height H= 5.9-12.0 cm, wave period T= 1.09s, and water depth h=30 cm. The experiments show that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although...... qualitatively similar, show features different from that caused by progressive waves. The pore water pressure builds up (or accumulated) in the areas around the node and subsequently spreads out toward the antinodes. The experimental results imply that this transport is caused by a diffusion mechanism...

  19. Piroxicam induced submassive necrosis of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, D; Kerlin, P; Walker, N; Lynch, S; Strong, R

    1992-01-01

    Several widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been reported as causing severe hepatitis. Three cases of severe acute hepatitis have been reported in association with piroxicam. A fatal submassive necrosis that occurred in a 68 year old lady who had received piroxicam for 15 months is described. A 48 year old man who developed submassive hepatic necrosis six weeks after beginning piroxicam but was successfully treated with orthotopic liver transplantation is also reported. Piroxicam may induce submassive necrosis of the liver, probably as an idiosyncratic reaction. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1446877

  20. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  1. Liquefaction chemistry and kinetics: Hydrogen utilization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberger, K.S.; Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the chemistry and kinetics that occur in the initial stages of coal liquefaction and to determine the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst activity, and solvent type on the quantity and quality of the products produced. The project comprises three tasks: (1) preconversion chemistry and kinetics, (2) hydrogen utilization studies, and (3) assessment of kinetic models for liquefaction. The hydrogen utilization studies work will be the main topic of this report. However, the other tasks are briefly described.

  2. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  3. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  4. Improvements on mapping soil liquefaction at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing

    Earthquake induced soil liquefaction is an important secondary hazard during earthquakes and can lead to significant damage to infrastructure. Mapping liquefaction hazard is important in both planning for earthquake events and guiding relief efforts by positioning resources once the events have occurred. This dissertation addresses two aspects of liquefaction hazard mapping at a regional scale including 1) predictive liquefaction hazard mapping and 2) post-liquefaction cataloging. First, current predictive hazard liquefaction mapping relies on detailed geologic maps and geotechnical data, which are not always available in at-risk regions. This dissertation improves the predictive liquefaction hazard mapping by the development and validation of geospatial liquefaction models (Chapter 2 and 3) that predict liquefaction extent and are appropriate for global application. The geospatial liquefaction models are developed using logistic regression from a liquefaction database consisting of the data from 27 earthquake events from six countries. The model that performs best over the entire dataset includes peak ground velocity (PGV), VS30, distance to river, distance to coast, and precipitation. The model that performs best over the noncoastal dataset includes PGV, VS30, water table depth, distance to water body, and precipitation. Second, post-earthquake liquefaction cataloging historically relies on field investigation that is often limited by time and expense, and therefore results in limited and incomplete liquefaction inventories. This dissertation improves the post-earthquake cataloging by the development and validation of a remote sensing-based method that can be quickly applied over a broad region after an earthquake and provide a detailed map of liquefaction surface effects (Chapter 4). Our method uses the optical satellite images before and after an earthquake event from the WorldView-2 satellite with 2 m spatial resolution and eight spectral bands. Our method

  5. Regulated necrosis-related molecule mRNA expression in humans and mice and in murine acute tissue injury and systemic autoimmunity leading to progressive organ damage, and progressive fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarpisheh, Mohsen; Desai, Jyaysi; Marschner, Julian A; Weidenbusch, Marc; Lech, Maciej; Vielhauer, Volker; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Mulay, Shrikant R

    2016-12-01

    The species-specific, as well as organ-specific expression of regulated necrosis (RN)-related molecules, is not known. We determined the expression levels of tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1), receptor activated protein kinase (RIPK)1, RIPK3, mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), CASP8, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (CIAP)1, CIAP2, glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4), cyclophilin D (CYPD), CASP1, NLRP3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) in human and mouse solid organs. We observed significant differences in expression of these molecules between human and mice. In addition, we characterized their expression profiles in acute as well as persistent tissue injury and chronic tissue remodelling using acute and chronic kidney injury models. We observed that the degree and pattern of induction of RN-related molecules were highly dependent on the trigger and disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, we studied their expression patterns in mice with lupus-like systemic autoimmunity, which revealed that the expression of MLKL, GPX4 and PARP1 significantly increased in the spleen along disease progression and CASP1, RIPK1, RIPK3 and CYPD were higher at the earlier stages but were significantly decreased in the later stages. In contrast, in the kidney, the expression of genes involved in pyroptosis, e.g. NLRP3 and CASP1 were significantly increased and TNFR1, RIPK1, RIPK3, CIAP1/2 and GPX4 were significantly decreased along the progression of lupus nephritis (LN). Thus, the organ- and species-specific expression of RN-related molecules should be considered during designing experiments, interpreting the results as well as extrapolating the conclusions from one species or organ to another species or organ respectively. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Dispersed-phase catalysis in coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, B.R.; Cugini, A.V.; Frommell, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the specific reaction (activation) conditions for the conversion of catalyst precursors to unsupported catalyst have a direct effect on the catalytic activity and dispersion. The importance of reaction intermediates in decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and the sensitivity of these intermediates to reaction conditions, were studied in coal liquefaction systems. Recent results indicate that optimization of activation conditions facilitates the formation of a highly dispersed and active form of molybdenum disulfide for coal liquefaction. The use of the catalyst precursors ammonium heptamolybdate, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum trisulfide for the conversion of coal to soluble products will be discussed. The use of an unsupported dispersed-phase catalyst for direct coal liquefaction is not a novel concept and has been employed in may studies with varying success. Dispersed-phase catalysts soluble and oil-soluble salts, and as finely divided powders. While some methods of catalyst introduction give higher dispersion of the catalyst and greater activity for the liquefaction of coal, all of the techniques allow the formation of a finely dispersed inorganic phase

  7. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of the Microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard Christensen, Per; Peng, Gaël; Vogel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum was processed by hydrothermal liquefaction in order to assess the influence of reaction temperature and reaction time on the product and elemental distribution. The experiments were carried out at different reaction times (5 and 15 min) and over a wide range...

  8. Evaluating liquefaction potential. A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blystra, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Several earthen hydropower embankment dams in the midwestern United States were constructed using hydraulic fill methods and are liable to liquefaction during an earthquake due to the use of very loose, saturated sand in the embankment or foundations. A case history is presented describing the methodology used in evaluating the liquefaction potential of the largest earthfill dam in Michigan. The methodology includes the use of standard penetration and cone penetration test data in the formulation of a simplified procedure. Field investigations, laboratory testing, and analyses used are described. In addition to the drilling program, field work included an extensive ground penetrating radar survey, acoustic emission testing, and an electrical resistivity survey. It was found that the lowest calculated factor of safety against liquefaction is 0.63 for a loose zone ca 140 feet below the top of the embankment, and the factor of safety against slope failure, should the zone liquefy, is 1.49. It was concluded that while liquefaction is possible, post earthquake stability is adequate. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Liquefaction of torrefied wood using microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengchao Zhou; Thomas Eberhardt; Pingping Xin; Chung-Yun Hse; Hui Pan

    2016-01-01

    Torrefaction is an effective pretreatment method to improve the uniformity and quality of lignocellulosic biomass before further thermal processing (e.g., gasification, combustion). The objective of this study was to determine the impacts of torrefaction as a pretreatment before liquefaction. Wood chips were torrefied for 2 h at three different temperatures (230, 260,...

  10. Ketoconazole attenuates radiation-induction of tumor necrosis factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallahan, D.E.; Virudachalam, S.; Kufe, D.W.; Weichselbaum, R.R. [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that inhibitors of phospholipase A2 attenuate ionizing radiation-induced arachidonic acid production, protein kinase C activation, and prevent subsequent induction of the tumor necrosis factor gene. Because arachidonic acid contributes to radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor expression, the authors analyzed the effects of agents which alter arachidonate metabolism on the regulation of this gene. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors quinicrine, bromphenyl bromide, and pentoxyfylline or the inhibitor of lipoxygenase (ketoconazole) or the inhibitor of cycloxygenase (indomethacine) were added to cell culture 1 h prior to irradiation. Radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by each of the phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinicrine, bromphenylbromide, and pentoxyfylline). Furthermore, ketoconazole attenuated X ray induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression. Conversely, indomethacin enhanced tumor necrosis factor expression following irradiation. The finding that radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by ketoconazole suggests that the lipoxygenase pathway participates in signal transduction preceding tumor necrosis factor induction. Enhancement of tumor necrosis factor expression by indomethacin following irradiation suggests that prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase act as negative regulators of tumor necrosis factor expression. Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor induction ameliorate acute and subacute sequelae of radiotherapy. The authors propose therefore, that ketoconazole may reduce acute radiation sequelae such as mucositis and esophagitis through a reduction in tumor necrosis factor induction or inhibition of phospholipase A2 in addition to its antifungal activity. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  11. The Prognostic Significance of The Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL in Childhood Acute Leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Haytoglu

    2015-12-01

    Results: The comparison of the average values of the TRAIL levels in acute leukemia patients and control group have shown that patients with leukemia have low serum TRAIL levels (p=0.002. In patients with high-risk-grade (HRG of ALL compared with control group have shown low serum TRAIL levels in HRG of ALL (p=0.008. In patients with common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen(CALLA(- B ALL compared with control group have shown low serum TRAIL levels in CALLA(- B ALL (p=0.004. Children with acute leukemias (ALL, AML who died during treatment compared with survived group have shown low levels of serum TRAIL in expired patients (p=0.004. Conclusion: As a result, serum TRAIL might play a role in leukomegenesis. The low levels of serum TRAIL detected in our patients may be associated with leukomogenezis and impaired TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. To suggest soluble TRAIL's role in acute leukemias detection of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis is needed. The low serum TRAIL may be used as a sign of bad prognosis. For more comphrensive results prospective studies with greaater number of patients are needed. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 774-781

  12. ROLE OF THE MATERNAL ACUTE PHASE RESPONSE AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE IN THE CD-1 MOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT The acute phase response (APR) functions to reset metabolic homeostasis following infectious, toxic or traumatic insult. TNF- , a putative mediator of the APR, has been associated with fetal death in rodents and preterm labor and delivery in humans. We hypothesized...

  13. Tracheal stoma necrosis: a case repor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute tracheal dilatation, due to an overinflated cuff, has been reported early in the course of mechanical ventilation through an endotracheal tube. Tracheal stoma necrosis is a rare complication, but such can accompany acute tracheal dilation. Herein, we report a case of tracheal necrosis 9 days following tracheostomy placement in a 71-year old woman associated with overinflation of the tracheal tube cuff. This case report aims to 1 add to the scant body of knowledge about the diagnosis and management for the patients with tracheal stoma necrosis and 2 raise awareness for error-traps in interpreting diagnostic images, specifically satisfaction of search error, inattentional blindness error, and alliterative error.

  14. Draft genome sequence of pathogenic bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain Ba94C2, associated with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease isolate from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Restrepo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a pathogenic bacteria which has been associated to the early mortality syndrome (EMS also known as hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND causing high mortality in shrimp farms. Pathogenic strains contain two homologous genes related to insecticidal toxin genes, PirA and PirB, these toxin genes are located on a plasmid contained within the bacteria. Genomic sequences have allowed the finding of two strains with a divergent structure related to the geographic region from where they were found. The isolates from the geographic collection of Southeast Asia and Mexico show variable regions on the plasmid genome, indicating that even though they are not alike they still conserve the toxin genes. In this paper, we report for the first time, a pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strain in shrimp from South America that showed symptoms of AHPND. The genomic analysis revealed that this strain of V. parahaemolyticus found in South America appears to be more related to the Southeast Asia as compared to the Mexican strains. This finding is of major importance for the shrimp industry, especially in regards to the urgent need for disease control strategies to avoid large EMS outbreaks and economic loss, and to determine its dispersion in South America. The whole-genome shotgun project of V. parahaemolyticus strain Ba94C2 have been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession PRJNA335761.

  15. Direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina to biofuels with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Liao, Hansheng; Zhou, Shiqin; Li, Qiuping; Wang, Lu; Yu, Zhihao; Jing, Li

    2018-01-01

    We report herein on acquiring biofuels from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina. The component of bio-oil from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction was similar to that from two independent processes (including liquefaction and upgrading of biocrude). However, one step process has higher carbon recovery, due to the less loss of carbons. It was demonstrated that the yield and HHV of bio-oil from direct catalytic algae with hydrothermal condition is higher than that from two independent processes.

  16. Two-stage coal liquefaction without gas-phase hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, H.P.

    1986-06-05

    A process is provided for the production of a hydrogen-donor solvent useful in the liquefaction of coal, wherein the water-gas shift reaction is used to produce hydrogen while simultaneously hydrogenating a donor solvent. A process for the liquefaction of coal using said solvent is also provided. The process enables avoiding the use of a separate water-gas shift reactor as well as high pressure equipment for liquefaction. 3 tabs.

  17. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  18. Experimental study on the liquefaction of cellulose in supercritical ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinxing; Liu, Xinyuan; Bao, Zhenbo

    2018-03-01

    Cellulose is the major composition of solid waste for producing biofuel; cellulose liquefaction is helpful for realizing biomass supercritical liquefaction process. This paper is taking supercritical ethanol as the medium, liquefied cellulose with the intermittence installation of high press cauldron. Experiments have studied technical condition and the technology parameter of cellulose liquefaction in supercritical ethanol, and the pyrolysis mechanism was analysed based on the pyrolysis product. Results show that cellulose can be liquefied, can get good effect through appropriate technology condition. Under not catalyst, highest liquefaction rate of cellulose can reach 73.5%. The composition of the pyrolysis product was determined by GC-MS.

  19. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON NOVEL COAL LIQUEFACTION CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-11-30

    The report presents a summary the work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95050. Investigations performed under Task 4--Integrated Flow Sheet Testing are detailed. In this program, a novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Approaches to reduce costs for a conceptual commercial plant were recommended at the conclusion of Task 3. These approaches were investigated in Task 4. The economic analysis of the process as it was defined at the conclusion of Task 4, indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies.

  20. A novel vortex tube-based N2-expander liquefaction process for enhancing the energy efficiency of natural gas liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qyyum Muhammad Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work unfolds a simple, safe, and environment-friendly energy efficient novel vortex tube-based natural gas liquefaction process (LNG. A vortex tube was introduced to the popular N2-expander liquefaction process to enhance the liquefaction efficiency. The process structure and condition were modified and optimized to take a potential advantage of the vortex tube on the natural gas liquefaction cycle. Two commercial simulators ANSYS® and Aspen HYSYS® were used to investigate the application of vortex tube in the refrigeration cycle of LNG process. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD model was used to simulate the vortex tube with nitrogen (N2 as a working fluid. Subsequently, the results of the CFD model were embedded in the Aspen HYSYS® to validate the proposed LNG liquefaction process. The proposed natural gas liquefaction process was optimized using the knowledge-based optimization (KBO approach. The overall energy consumption was chosen as an objective function for optimization. The performance of the proposed liquefaction process was compared with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. The vortex tube-based LNG process showed a significant improvement of energy efficiency by 20% in comparison with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. This high energy efficiency was mainly due to the isentropic expansion of the vortex tube. It turned out that the high energy efficiency of vortex tube-based process is totally dependent on the refrigerant cold fraction, operating conditions as well as refrigerant cycle configurations.

  1. A novel vortex tube-based N2-expander liquefaction process for enhancing the energy efficiency of natural gas liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qyyum, Muhammad Abdul; Wei, Feng; Hussain, Arif; Ali, Wahid; Sehee, Oh; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-11-01

    This research work unfolds a simple, safe, and environment-friendly energy efficient novel vortex tube-based natural gas liquefaction process (LNG). A vortex tube was introduced to the popular N2-expander liquefaction process to enhance the liquefaction efficiency. The process structure and condition were modified and optimized to take a potential advantage of the vortex tube on the natural gas liquefaction cycle. Two commercial simulators ANSYS® and Aspen HYSYS® were used to investigate the application of vortex tube in the refrigeration cycle of LNG process. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to simulate the vortex tube with nitrogen (N2) as a working fluid. Subsequently, the results of the CFD model were embedded in the Aspen HYSYS® to validate the proposed LNG liquefaction process. The proposed natural gas liquefaction process was optimized using the knowledge-based optimization (KBO) approach. The overall energy consumption was chosen as an objective function for optimization. The performance of the proposed liquefaction process was compared with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. The vortex tube-based LNG process showed a significant improvement of energy efficiency by 20% in comparison with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. This high energy efficiency was mainly due to the isentropic expansion of the vortex tube. It turned out that the high energy efficiency of vortex tube-based process is totally dependent on the refrigerant cold fraction, operating conditions as well as refrigerant cycle configurations.

  2. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, D.; Lukas, J.; Schoen, P.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for biomass-to-biofuels conversion, under development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Five cases were developed and the costs associated with all cases ranged from $22 MM/year - $47 MM/year.

  3. Neonatal deep white matter venous infarction and liquefaction: a pseudo-abscess lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, Lynne; Rusin, Jerome A.; Dent, Carly M.; Tiarks, Hailey J.; Yoshida, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with subsequent cavitation due to necrosis and liquefaction has been described in neonates and may be associated with infection and meningitis. In our experience, the MRI pattern of these lesions is confused with the pattern seen with cerebral abscesses. The purpose of our study was to characterize the MRI findings of post infarction necrosis and liquefaction after hemorrhagic deep white matter venous infarction in infants and to distinguish these lesions from cerebral abscesses. An institutional review board approved a retrospective review of imaging records to identify all patients with cerebral venous infarction at a children's hospital during a 10-year period. Nine infants had deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions. A diagnosis of cerebral abscess was considered in all. The imaging and laboratory findings in these patients are reviewed and compared to descriptions of abscesses found in the literature. There were six female and three male infants. The mean age at presentation was 20 days (range: 0-90 days), while the corrected age at presentation was less than 30 days for all patients. Seven patients presented with seizures and signs of infection; one infant presented with lethargy and later proved to have protein C deficiency. MRI was performed 0-12 days from presentation in these eight patients. Another patient with known protein C deficiency underwent MRI at 30 days for follow-up of screening US abnormalities. There were a total of 38 deep cerebral white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions: 25 frontal, 9 parietal, 2 temporal, 2 occipital. Larger lesions had dependent debris. All lesions had associated hemorrhage and many lesions had evidence of adjacent small vessel venous thrombosis. Lesions imaged after gadolinium showed peripheral enhancement. Three lesions increased in size on follow-up imaging. Three patients, two with meningitis confirmed via

  4. Neonatal deep white matter venous infarction and liquefaction: a pseudo-abscess lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruess, Lynne; Rusin, Jerome A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, OH (United States); Dent, Carly M.; Tiarks, Hailey J.; Yoshida, Michelle A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with subsequent cavitation due to necrosis and liquefaction has been described in neonates and may be associated with infection and meningitis. In our experience, the MRI pattern of these lesions is confused with the pattern seen with cerebral abscesses. The purpose of our study was to characterize the MRI findings of post infarction necrosis and liquefaction after hemorrhagic deep white matter venous infarction in infants and to distinguish these lesions from cerebral abscesses. An institutional review board approved a retrospective review of imaging records to identify all patients with cerebral venous infarction at a children's hospital during a 10-year period. Nine infants had deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions. A diagnosis of cerebral abscess was considered in all. The imaging and laboratory findings in these patients are reviewed and compared to descriptions of abscesses found in the literature. There were six female and three male infants. The mean age at presentation was 20 days (range: 0-90 days), while the corrected age at presentation was less than 30 days for all patients. Seven patients presented with seizures and signs of infection; one infant presented with lethargy and later proved to have protein C deficiency. MRI was performed 0-12 days from presentation in these eight patients. Another patient with known protein C deficiency underwent MRI at 30 days for follow-up of screening US abnormalities. There were a total of 38 deep cerebral white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions: 25 frontal, 9 parietal, 2 temporal, 2 occipital. Larger lesions had dependent debris. All lesions had associated hemorrhage and many lesions had evidence of adjacent small vessel venous thrombosis. Lesions imaged after gadolinium showed peripheral enhancement. Three lesions increased in size on follow-up imaging. Three patients, two with meningitis confirmed via

  5. Liquefaction Microzonation of Babol City Using Artificial Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, F.; Choobbasti, A.J.; Barari, Amin

    2012-01-01

    that will be less susceptible to damage during earthquakes. The scope of present study is to prepare the liquefaction microzonation map for the Babol city based on Seed and Idriss (1983) method using artificial neural network. Artificial neural network (ANN) is one of the artificial intelligence (AI) approaches...... microzonation map is produced for research area. Based on the obtained results, it can be stated that the trained neural network is capable in prediction of liquefaction potential with an acceptable level of confidence. At the end, zoning of the city is carried out based on the prediction of liquefaction...... that can be classified as machine learning. Simplified methods have been practiced by researchers to assess nonlinear liquefaction potential of soil. In order to address the collective knowledge built-up in conventional liquefaction engineering, an alternative general regression neural network model...

  6. The direct liquefaction proof of concept program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Stalzer, R.H. [New York & Puritan Avenues, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of the Proof of Concept (POC) Program is to develop Direct Coal Liquefaction and associated transitional technologies towards commercial readiness for economically producing premium liquid fuels from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. The program focuses on developing the two-stage liquefaction (TSL) process by utilizing geographically strategic feedstocks, commercially feasible catalysts, new prototype equipment, and testing co-processing or alternate feedstocks and improved process configurations. Other high priority objectives include dispersed catalyst studies, demonstrating low rank coal liquefaction without solids deposition, improving distillate yields on a unit reactor volume basis, demonstrating ebullated bed operations while obtaining scale-up data, demonstrating optimum catalyst consumption using new concepts (e.g. regeneration, cascading), producing premium products through on-line hydrotreating, demonstrating improved hydrogen utilization for low rank coals using novel heteroatom removal methods, defining and demonstrating two-stage product properties for upgrading; demonstrating efficient and economic solid separation methods, examining the merits of integrated coal cleaning, demonstrating co-processing, studying interactions between the preheater and first and second-stage reactors, improving process operability by testing and incorporating advanced equipment and instrumentation, and demonstrating operation with alternate coal feedstocks. During the past two years major PDU Proof of Concept runs were completed. POC-1 with Illinois No. 6 coal and POC-2 with Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal. Results from these operations are continuing under review and the products are being further refined and upgraded. This paper will update the results from these operations and discuss future plans for the POC program.

  7. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  8. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred G. Comolli; Peizheng Zhou; HTI Staff

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the U.S. DOE, Office of Fossil Energy, is to ensure the US a secure energy supply at an affordable price. An integral part of this program was the demonstration of fully developed coal liquefaction processes that could be implemented if market and supply considerations so required, Demonstration of the technology, even if not commercialized, provides a security factor for the country if it is known that the coal to liquid processes are proven and readily available. Direct liquefaction breaks down and rearranges complex hydrocarbon molecules from coal, adds hydrogen, and cracks the large molecules to those in the fuel range, removes hetero-atoms and gives the liquids characteristics comparable to petroleum derived fuels. The current processes being scaled and demonstrated are based on two reactor stages that increase conversion efficiency and improve quality by providing the flexibility to adjust process conditions to accommodate favorable reactions. The first stage conditions promote hydrogenation and some oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen removal. The second stage hydrocracks and speeds the conversion to liquids while removing the remaining sulfur and nitrogen. A third hydrotreatment stage can be used to upgrade the liquids to clean specification fuels.

  9. Mars Propellant Liquefaction Modeling in Thermal Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Pooja; Hauser, Dan; Sutherlin, Steven

    2017-01-01

    NASAs current Mars architectures are assuming the production and storage of 23 tons of liquid oxygen on the surface of Mars over a duration of 500+ days. In order to do this in a mass efficient manner, an energy efficient refrigeration system will be required. Based on previous analysis NASA has decided to do all liquefaction in the propulsion vehicle storage tanks. In order to allow for transient Martian environmental effects, a propellant liquefaction and storage system for a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) was modeled using Thermal Desktop. The model consisted of a propellant tank containing a broad area cooling loop heat exchanger integrated with a reverse turbo Brayton cryocooler. Cryocooler sizing and performance modeling was conducted using MAV diurnal heat loads and radiator rejection temperatures predicted from a previous thermal model of the MAV. A system was also sized and modeled using an alternative heat rejection system that relies on a forced convection heat exchanger. Cryocooler mass, input power, and heat rejection for both systems were estimated and compared against sizing based on non-transient sizing estimates.

  10. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  11. Ischemic necrosis and osteochondritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Osteonecrosis indicates that ischemic death of the cellular constituents of bone and marrow has occurred. Historically, this first was thought to be related to sepsis in the osseous segments. However, continued studies led to the use of the term aseptic necrosis. Subsequent observations indicated that the necrotic areas of bone were not only aseptic, but were also avascular. This led to the terms ischemic necrosis, vascular necrosis and bone infarction. Ischemic necrosis of bone is discussed in this chapter. It results from a significant reduction in or obliteration of blood supply to the affected area. The various bone cells, including osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts, usually undergo anoxic death in 12 to 48 hours after blood supply is cut off. The infarct that has thus developed in three-dimensional and can be divided into a number of zones: a central zone of cell death; an area of ischemic injury, most severe near the zone of cell death, and lessening as it moves peripherally; an area of active hyperemia and the zone of normal unaffected tissue. Once ischemic necrosis has begun, the cellular damage provokes an initial inflammatory response, which typically is characterized by vasodilatation, transudation of fluid and fibrin, and local infiltration of flammatory cells. This response can be considered the first stage in repair of the necrotic area

  12. A Meta-analysis on the Effect of Ulinastatin on Serum Levels of C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin 6, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Asian Patients with Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunze; Wang, Yijia; Fu, Wenzheng; Zhang, Weihua; Wang, Tao; Qin, Hai

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the influence of ulinastatin (UTI) on the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in Asian patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) by performance of a meta-analysis. Two investigators independently searched 11 databases, including PUBMED, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Journal Full-text Database, and China Biomedicine Database. The full-text articles were screened and the data were extracted using a standardized data extraction form. All statistical analyses were conducted with Stata software, version 12.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX). A total of 94 studies were initially retrieved, and 10 studies containing 424 Asian patients with AP were ultimately enrolled in this meta-analysis. The results revealed that the serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in Asian AP patients significantly decreased after UTI therapy (CRP: standardized mean difference [SMD] = 3.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-4.83, p < 0.001; IL-6: SMD = 5.92, 95% CI = 2.09-9.75, p = 0.002; TNF-α: SMD = 4.07, 95% CI = 0.79-7.35, p = 0.015). The results of this meta-analysis suggest that UTI can effectively depress the serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in Asian patients with AP, and thereby inhibit inflammation.

  13. Coal liquefaction technologies for producing ultra clean fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.S.; Haq, N.U.; Nasir, H.; Islam, N.

    2011-01-01

    The expanding demand for petroleum, accompanied by the diminishing petroleum reserves and the energy security, has intensified the significance in coal liquefaction technologies (CTL) globally and specially in Pakistan. Pakistan is rich in coal resources, but short of petroleum. The Geological Survey of Pakistan based on wide spread drilling over an area of 9000 sq. km, a total of 175 billion tons of coal resource potential has been assessed. This paper overviews a general introduction on the mechanisms and processes of CLT such as direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) technologies. (author)

  14. Influence of clay content on wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    of measurements were carried out: (1) pore-water pressure measurements across the soil depth and (2) water-surface elevation measurements. These measurements were synchronized with video recordings of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height...... of silt and clay was not liquefied. Sand may become prone to liquefaction with the introduction of clay, contrary to the general perception that this type of sediment is normally liquefaction-resistant under waves. For instance, sand with d50 50:4 mmwas liquefied with CC510:8%, whereas sand with d50 50...

  15. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  16. Numerical simulation of liquefaction behaviour of granular materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    cles using Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to study the liquefaction behaviour of ... studies have focussed on the stress-strain relation- ... experimentation still remains quite problematic. ... distorting the periodic cell and changing its vol-.

  17. On the risk of liquefaction of buffer and backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    The necessary prerequisites for liquefaction of buffers and backfills in a KBS-3 repository exist but the stress conditions and intended densities practically eliminate the risk of liquefaction for single earthquakes with magnitudes up to M=8 and normal duration. For buffers rich in expandable minerals it would be possible to reduce the density at water saturation to 1,700 - 1,800 kg/m{sup 3} or even less without any significant risk of liquefaction, while the density at saturation of backfills with 10 - 15% expandable clay should not be reduced to less than about 1,900 kg/m{sup 3}. Since the proposed densities of both buffers and backfills will significantly exceed these minimum values it is concluded that there is no risk of liquefaction of the engineered soil barriers in a KBS-3 repository even for very significant earthquakes.

  18. On the risk of liquefaction of buffer and backfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    2000-10-01

    The necessary prerequisites for liquefaction of buffers and backfills in a KBS-3 repository exist but the stress conditions and intended densities practically eliminate the risk of liquefaction for single earthquakes with magnitudes up to M=8 and normal duration. For buffers rich in expandable minerals it would be possible to reduce the density at water saturation to 1,700 - 1,800 kg/m 3 or even less without any significant risk of liquefaction, while the density at saturation of backfills with 10 - 15% expandable clay should not be reduced to less than about 1,900 kg/m 3 . Since the proposed densities of both buffers and backfills will significantly exceed these minimum values it is concluded that there is no risk of liquefaction of the engineered soil barriers in a KBS-3 repository even for very significant earthquakes

  19. Initial Earthquake Centrifuge Model Experiments for the Study of Liquefaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steedman, R

    1998-01-01

    .... These are intended to gather data suitable for the development of improved design approaches for the prediction of liquefaction under earthquake loading using the new centrifuge facility at the WES...

  20. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Anderson, Daniel; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2014-07-30

    This report describes the base case yields and operating conditions for converting whole microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading to liquid fuels. This serves as the basis against which future technical improvements will be measured.

  1. An Advanced Wet Expansion Turbine for Hydrogen Liquefaction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Topic X10.01, specifically, the need for efficient small- to medium-scale hydrogen liquefaction technologies including...

  2. Technical and economic aspects of brown coal gasification and liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speich, P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of gasification and liquefaction processes for Rhenish brown coal are investigated along with the technical and economic aspects of coal beneficiation. The status of coal beneficiation and the major R + D activities are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  3. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential Based on Numerical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobasti, A. Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Torabi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Paying special attention to geotechnical hazards such as liquefaction in huge civil projects like urban railways especially in susceptible regions to liquefaction is of great importance. A number of approaches to evaluate the potential for initiation of liquefaction, such as Seed and Idriss...... simplified method have been developed over the years. Although simplified methods are available in calculating the liquefaction potential of a soil deposit and shear stresses induced at any point in the ground due to earthquake loading, these methods cannot be applied to all earthquakes with the same...... accuracy, also they lack the potential to predict the pore pressure developed in the soil. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a ground response analysis to obtain pore pressures and shear stresses in the soil due to earthquake loading. Using soil historical, geological and compositional criteria...

  4. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  5. New method for evaluating liquefaction potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulmoli, K.; Arulanandan, K.; Seed, H.B.

    1985-01-01

    A new method of indexing the grain and aggregate properties of sand using electrical parameters is described. Correlations are established between these parameters and relative density, D /sub r/ , cyclic stress ratio, /tau//sigma'/sub 0/, and K2 /sub max/ . An electrical probe, used to predict these parameters from in-situ electrical measurements, is described. Evaluations are made of D /sub r/ and /tau//sigma/sub 0/, which are compared with values measured independently from controlled laboratory tests. Reasonable agreement is found between predicted and measured values. The potential applicability of the electrical probe in the field is shown by evaluation of liquefaction and nonliquefaction at sites affected by the 1906 San Francisco, Niigata and Tangshan earthquakes.

  6. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Maitra, Sujay; Ray, Amit; Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Malay

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature. PMID:24604987

  7. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Mohan Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature.

  8. Potential of soil liquefaction at Perlis, northern region of Malalysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md; Rahim, Mustaqqim Abdul; Nasir, Mohamad Amzar Bin Mhd; Isa, Nur Fitriah; Zaki, Mohd Faiz Mohammad; Hassan, Zulkarnain Bin; Ismail, Zul-Atfi Bin

    2017-09-01

    Soil liquefaction is earthquake's secondary effect which could cause fatal damages and structures instability. Despite Malaysia been located in stable zone of Pacific Ring of Fire, few significant surrounded quakes like Sumatra-Andaman earthquake had prompted Malaysian's public concern, especially in Perlis area, on local seismic resistant. Hence, this research presents the analysis result of liquefaction potential of the soils, as the secondary effect of earthquake, within Perlis, northern region of Malaysia; the next strong and sustainable metropolis by using semi-empirical procedures introduced by Seed and Idriss. The study consists of two stages which were determination of the local geological and geotechnical site conditions within Perlis and analysis of soil liquefaction susceptibility by using various methods and liquefaction potential by using Simplified Procedure developed by Seed and Idriss on stress approach. There were consist of four phases implemented in order to achieve the objectives targeted for the study after problem being identified. Firstly, a comprehensive review of literature on liquefaction at Perlis was carried out. Second phase was data collection process that includes collection of Site Investigation (SI) report. Thirdly, data analysis was carried out by utilizing suitable method. The final phase was to draw conclusion and recommendation for this study. It can be concluded that the overall Perlis due to earthquake moment magnitude below 7.5 has no potential to soil liquefaction. However, with the range of liquefaction potential of 1.60 to 5.64 in Kuala Perlis area, it is liquefiable. The development of liquefaction severity map of Perlis, Malaysia in this research, may be used by others as a reference for seismic design and standard safety measures as well as for further research work.

  9. Liquefaction Potential for Soil Deposits in Muscat, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hussain, I. W.; Deif, A.; Girgis, M.; Al-Rawas, G.; Mohamed, A.; Al-Jabri, K.; Al-Habsi, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Muscat is located in the northeastern part of Oman on a narrow strip between Oman coast and Oman Mountains, which is the place for at least four earthquakes of order of 5.2 magnitude in the last 1300 years. The near surface geology of Muscat varies from hard rocks in the eastern, southern and western parts to dense and lose sediments in the middle and northern parts. Liquefaction occurs in saturated cohesionless soils when its shear strength decreased to zero due to the increase of pore pressure. More than 500 boreholes in Muscat area were examined for their liquefaction susceptibility based on the soil characteristics data. Only soils susceptible to liquefaction are further considered for liquefaction hazard assessment. Liquefaction occurs if the cyclic stress ratio (CSR) caused by the earthquake is higher than the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) of the soil. CSR values were evaluated using PGA values at the surface obtained from previously conducted seismic hazard and microzonation studies. CRR for Muscat region is conducted using N values of SPT tests from numerous borehole data and the shear wave velocity results from 99 MASW surveys over the entire region. All the required corrections are conducted to get standardized (N1) 60 values, to correct shear-wave velocity, and scale the results for Mw 6.0 instead of the proposed 7.5 (magnitude scaling factor). Liquefaction hazard maps are generated using the minimum factor of safety (FS) at each site as a representative of the FS against liquefaction at that location. Results indicate that under the current level of seismic hazard, liquefaction potential is possible at few sites along the northern coast where alluvial soils and shallow ground water table are present. The expected soft soil settlement is also evaluated at each liquefiable site.

  10. The Liquefaction of Hydrogen and Helium Using Small Coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the history of the liquefaction of hydrogen and helium using small coolers. This history dates form the 1960's when two stage GM coolers capable of reaching 7 K were used to liquefy helium and hydrogen by suing an added compressor and J-T circuit. Liquefaction using the added circuit failed to become mainstream because the J-T valve and heat exchanger clogged because of impurities in the gas being liquefied. Liquefaction using a GM cooler without an added J-T circuit proved to be difficult because the first stage was not used to pre-cool the gas coming to the second stage of the cooler. Once the gas being liquefied was pre-cooled using the cooler first stage, improvements in the liquefaction rates were noted. The advent of low temperature pulse tube cooler (down to 2.5 K) permitted one to achieve dramatic improvement is the liquefactions rates for helium. Similar but less dramatic improvements are expected for hydrogen as well. Using the PT-415 cooler, one can expect liquefaction rates of 15 to 20 liters per day for helium or hydrogen provided the heat leak into the cooler and the storage vessel is low. A hydrogen liquefier for MICE is presented at the end of this report

  11. Mongolian coal liquefaction test; Mongorutan no ekika tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Kubo, H. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tsedevsuren, T. [National Research Center of Chemistry and Technology of Coal in Mongoria (Mongolia)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes the results of liquefaction tests of Mongolian coals using an autoclave and a flow micro reactor. Uvdughudag coal, Hootiinhonhor coal, and Shivee-Ovoo coal were used for liquefaction tests with an autoclave. Oil yields of Uvdughudag and Hootiinhonhor coals were 55.56 wt% and 55.29 wt%, respectively, which were similar to that of Wyoming coal. Similar results were obtained, as to produced gas and water yields. These coals were found to be suitable for coal liquefaction. Lower oil yield, 42.55 wt% was obtained for Shivee-Ovoo coal, which was not suitable for liquefaction. Liquefaction tests were conducted for Uvdughudag coal with a flow micro reactor. The oil yield was 55.7 wt%, which was also similar to that of Wyoming coal, 56.1 wt%. Hydrogen consumption of Uvdughudag coal was also similar to that of Wyoming coal. From these, Uvdughudag coal can be a prospective coal for liquefaction. From the distillation distribution of oil, distillate fraction yield below 350{degree}C of Uvdughudag coal was 50.7 wt%, which was much higher than that of Wyoming coal, 35.6 wt%. Uvdughudag coal is a coal with high light oil fraction yield. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Two-stage liquefaction of a Spanish subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.T.; Fernandez, I.; Benito, A.M.; Cebolla, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Oelert, H.H. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A Spanish subbituminous coal has been processed in two-stage liquefaction in a non-integrated process. The first-stage coal liquefaction has been carried out in a continuous pilot plant in Germany at Clausthal Technical University at 400[degree]C, 20 MPa hydrogen pressure and anthracene oil as solvent. The second-stage coal liquefaction has been performed in continuous operation in a hydroprocessing unit at the Instituto de Carboquimica at 450[degree]C and 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, with two commercial catalysts: Harshaw HT-400E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and HT-500E (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The total conversion for the first-stage coal liquefaction was 75.41 wt% (coal d.a.f.), being 3.79 wt% gases, 2.58 wt% primary condensate and 69.04 wt% heavy liquids. The heteroatoms removal for the second-stage liquefaction was 97-99 wt% of S, 85-87 wt% of N and 93-100 wt% of O. The hydroprocessed liquids have about 70% of compounds with boiling point below 350[degree]C, and meet the sulphur and nitrogen specifications for refinery feedstocks. Liquids from two-stage coal liquefaction have been distilled, and the naphtha, kerosene and diesel fractions obtained have been characterized. 39 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  14. Myoglobinaemia in relation to cardiac necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComb, J M

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of the usefulness of estimation of the serum myoglobin in the detection of myocardial necrosis was made in patients with suspected acute ischemic heart disease and in patients in whom elective cardiac catheterization was performed. Measurement of serum myoglobin, by radioimmunoassay, in patients admitted with suspected acute myocardial infarction, suggested that a raised serum myoglobin level was a sensitive indicator of myocardial necrosis. It also showed that the serum myoglobin rose to abnormal levels before the serum creatine kinase. A study of 70 consecutive patients confirmed that the serum myoglobin level is a sensitive indicator of acute myocardial infarction and showed that its sensitivity was greater, and its specificity similar to that of serum creatine kinase. This study allowed calculation of a predictive index for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from the serum myoglobin and serum creatine kinase six hours after the onset of symptoms. The use of a single myoglobin measurement in 114 patients admitted to a coronary care unit was then studied. The proposition that myocardial damage might results from cardiac catheterization was investigated in 115 patients.

  15. Effects of Long-Duration Ground Motions on Liquefaction Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael W.

    Soil liquefaction during past earthquakes has caused extensive damage to buildings, bridges, dam, pipelines and other elements of infrastructure. Geotechnical engineers use empirical observations from earthquake case histories in conjunction with soil mechanics to predict the behavior of liquefiable soils. However, current empirical databases are insufficient to evaluate the behavior of soils subject to long-duration earthquakes, such as a possible Mw = 9.0 Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake. The objective of this research is to develop insight into the triggering and effects of liquefaction due to long-duration ground motions and to provide recommendations for analysis and design. Recorded ground motions from 21 case histories with surficial evidence of liquefaction showed marked differences in soil behavior before and after liquefaction was triggered. In some cases, strong shaking continued for several minutes after the soil liquefied, and a variety of behaviors were observed including dilation pulses, continued softening due to soil fabric degradation, and soil stiffening due to pore pressure dissipation and drainage. Supplemental field and laboratory investigations were performed at three sites that liquefied during the 2011 Mw = 9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The recorded ground motions and field investigation data were used in conjunction with laboratory observations, analytical models, and numerical models to evaluate the behavior of liquefiable soils subjected to long-duration ground motions. Observations from the case histories inspired a framework to predict ground deformations based on the differences in soil behavior before and after liquefaction has triggered. This framework decouples the intensity of shaking necessary to trigger liquefaction from the intensity of shaking that drives deformation by identifying the time when liquefaction triggers. The timing-based framework promises to dramatically reduce the uncertainty in deformation estimates compared to

  16. Sinking during earthquakes: Critical acceleration criteria control drained soil liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, C.; Toussaint, R.; Stojanova, M.; Aharonov, E.

    2018-02-01

    This article focuses on liquefaction of saturated granular soils, triggered by earthquakes. Liquefaction is defined here as the transition from a rigid state, in which the granular soil layer supports structures placed on its surface, to a fluidlike state, in which structures placed initially on the surface sink to their isostatic depth within the granular layer. We suggest a simple theoretical model for soil liquefaction and show that buoyancy caused by the presence of water inside a granular medium has a dramatic influence on the stability of an intruder resting at the surface of the medium. We confirm this hypothesis by comparison with laboratory experiments and discrete-element numerical simulations. The external excitation representing ground motion during earthquakes is simulated via horizontal sinusoidal oscillations of controlled frequency and amplitude. In the experiments, we use particles only slightly denser than water, which as predicted theoretically increases the effect of liquefaction and allows clear depth-of-sinking measurements. In the simulations, a micromechanical model simulates grains using molecular dynamics with friction between neighbors. The effect of the fluid is captured by taking into account buoyancy effects on the grains when they are immersed. We show that the motion of an intruder inside a granular medium is mainly dependent on the peak acceleration of the ground motion and establish a phase diagram for the conditions under which liquefaction happens, depending on the soil bulk density, friction properties, presence of water, and peak acceleration of the imposed large-scale soil vibrations. We establish that in liquefaction conditions, most cases relax toward an equilibrium position following an exponential in time. We also show that the equilibrium position itself, for most liquefaction regimes, corresponds to the isostatic equilibrium of the intruder inside a medium of effective density. The characteristic time to relaxation is

  17. Small scale demand type neon liquefaction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, W.P.; Slifka, A.J.; Bitsy, R.M.; Sparks, L.L.; Johnson, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    Low-temperature measurement of the thermal conductivity of insulating materials is generally made using a boil-off calorimetry technique involving liquid hydrogen (LH2). Liquid neon (LNe) has nearly the same normal boiling point as LH2, but has a much larger heat of vaporization, allowing extended run times. The main drawback of using LNe has been its excessive cost; $170.00 versus $1.50/l for LH2 (1989 prices). A neon liquefaction plant has been designed and constructed to capture, purify, and refrigerate the neon boil-off from calorimetry experiments. Recycling the neon reduces operating costs to approximately $20/l. The system consists of a purification section, a heat exchanger, LNe and LH2 storage dewars, and a fully automated control system. After purification, neon is liquified in the heat exchanger by LH2 flowing countercurrently through stainless steel cooling coils. Hydrogen flow is automatically adjusted to keep the neon at its normal saturation temperature, 27 K. The liquid neon is then stored in a dewar placed directly below the heat exchanger

  18. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction (CMSL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Ganguli, P.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, T.L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Popper, G.; Smith, T.; Stalzer, R.H.

    1996-11-01

    Reported herein are the details and the results of laboratory and bench scale experiments that were conducted at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92147 during the period of October 1, 1992, to December 31, 1995. The program results described herein build on the previous technology base and investigating additional methods to improve the economics of producing transportation fuels from coal. This included purely physical parameters, coal treatment and variation in solvent to coal ratio, the use of syngas to replace part of the hydrogen as the reducing gas, the use of dispersed catalyst in addition to and replacing the supported catalyst, and the co-processing of coal with plastic waste material. The overall objective of this program is to produce liquid fuels from direct coal liquefaction at a cost that is competitive with conventional fuels. The report includes the results of an economic assessment of the various process strategies that were evaluated during this program. A summary of the technical/economic evaluations is given in Volume I, Section II of this report. The experimental details of the eleven run of the program are given in Volume I, Section III and Volume II of this report. The details of the technical evaluations are given in the Volume III of the report.

  19. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Hazard analyses were performed to evaluate the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment process was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. The analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public. The following selected hazardous scenarios received increased attention: •Scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy, controls were identified in the What-If analysis table that prevent the occurrence or mitigate the effects of the release. •Scenarios with significant consequences that could impact personnel outside the immediate operations area, quantitative analyses were performed to determine the potential magnitude of the scenario. The set of “critical controls” were identified for these scenarios (see Section 4) which prevent the occurrence or mitigate the effects of the release of events with significant consequences.

  20. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.

    2016-10-16

    Feedstock cost is the greatest barrier to the commercial production of biofuels. The merits of any thermochemical or biological conversion process are constrained by their applicability to the lowest cost feedstocks. At PNNL, a recent resource assessment of wet waste feedstocks led to the identification of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) solids as a cost-negative source of biomass. WWTP solids disposal is a growing environmental concern [1, 2] and can account for up to half of WWTP operating costs. The high moisture content is well-suited for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), avoiding the costs and parasitic energy losses associated with drying the feedstock for incineration. The yield and quality of biocrude and upgraded biocrude from WWTP solids is comparable to that obtained from algae feedstocks but the feedstock cost is $500-1200 less per dry ton. A collaborative project was initiated and directed by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) and included feedstock identification, dewatering, shipping to PNNL, conversion to biocrude by HTL, and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous byproduct. Additional testing at PNNL included biocrude upgrading by catalytic hydrotreatment, characterization of the hydrotreated product, and a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on empirical results. This short article will cover HTL conversion and biocrude upgrading. The WERF project report with complete HTL results is now available through the WERF website [3]. The preliminary TEA is available as a PNNL report [4].

  1. Helium refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, J. Kumar, Sr.; Menon, RS; Goyal, M.; Ansari, NA; Chakravarty, A.; Joemon, V.

    2017-02-01

    Liquid hydrogen around 20 K is used as cold moderator for generating “cold neutron beam” in nuclear research reactors. A cryogenic helium refrigeration system is the core upon which such hydrogen liquefaction applications are built. A thermodynamic process based on reversed Brayton cycle with two stage expansion using high speed cryogenic turboexpanders (TEX) along with a pair of compact high effectiveness process heat exchangers (HX), is well suited for such applications. An existing helium refrigeration system, which had earlier demonstrated a refrigeration capacity of 470 W at around 20 K, is modified based on past operational experiences and newer application requirements. Modifications include addition of a new heat exchanger to simulate cryogenic process load and two other heat exchangers for controlling the temperatures of helium streams leading out to the application system. To incorporate these changes, cryogenic piping inside the cold box is suitably modified. This paper presents process simulation, sizing of new heat exchangers as well as fabrication aspects of the modified cryogenic process piping.

  2. Femoral head avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysikopoulos, H.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.L.; Ashburn, W.; Pretorius, T.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than planar scintigraphy for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. However, experience with single photon emission CT (SPECT) is limited. The authors retrospectively compared 1.5-T MR imaging with SPECT in 14 patients with suspected femoral head AVN. Agreement between MR imaging and SPECT was present in 24 femurs, 14 normal and ten with AVN. MR imaging showed changes of AVN in the remaining four femoral heads. Of these, one was normal and the other three inconclusive for AVN by SPECT. The authors conclude that MR imaging is superior to SPECT for the evaluation of AVN of the hip

  3. Assessment of liquefaction potential during earthquakes by arias intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.E.; Mitchell, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    An Arias intensity approach to assess the liquefaction potential of soil deposits during earthquakes is proposed, using an energy-based measure of the severity of earthquake-shaking recorded on seismograms of the two horizontal components of ground motion. Values representing the severity of strong motion at depth in the soil column are associated with the liquefaction resistance of that layer, as measured by in situ penetration testing (SPT, CPT). This association results in a magnitude-independent boundary that envelopes initial liquefaction of soil in Arias intensity-normalized penetration resistance space. The Arias intensity approach is simple to apply and has proven to be highly reliable in assessing liquefaction potential. The advantages of using Arias intensity as a measure of earthquake-shaking severity in liquefaction assessment are: Arias intensity is derived from integration of the entire seismogram wave form, incorporating both the amplitude and duration elements of ground motion; all frequencies of recorded motion are considered; and Arias intensity is an appropriate measure to use when evaluating field penetration test methodologies that are inherently energy-based. Predictor equations describing the attenuation of Arias intensity as a function of earthquake magnitude and source distance are presented for rock, deep-stiff alluvium, and soft soil sites.

  4. Energy-based numerical models for assessment of soil liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Alavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents promising variants of genetic programming (GP, namely linear genetic programming (LGP and multi expression programming (MEP to evaluate the liquefaction resistance of sandy soils. Generalized LGP and MEP-based relationships were developed between the strain energy density required to trigger liquefaction (capacity energy and the factors affecting the liquefaction characteristics of sands. The correlations were established based on well established and widely dispersed experimental results obtained from the literature. To verify the applicability of the derived models, they were employed to estimate the capacity energy values of parts of the test results that were not included in the analysis. The external validation of the models was verified using statistical criteria recommended by researchers. Sensitivity and parametric analyses were performed for further verification of the correlations. The results indicate that the proposed correlations are effectively capable of capturing the liquefaction resistance of a number of sandy soils. The developed correlations provide a significantly better prediction performance than the models found in the literature. Furthermore, the best LGP and MEP models perform superior than the optimal traditional GP model. The verification phases confirm the efficiency of the derived correlations for their general application to the assessment of the strain energy at the onset of liquefaction.

  5. Seismic behavior of breakwaters on complex ground by numerical tests: Liquefaction and post liquefaction ground settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Linlin; Zhang, Feng; Bao, Xiaohua; Shi, Zhenming; Ye, Guanlin; Ling, Xianzhang

    2018-04-01

    A large number of breakwaters have been constructed along coasts to protect humans and infrastructures from tsunamis. There is a risk that foundation soils of these structures may liquefy, or partially liquefy during the earthquake preceding a tsunami, which would greatly reduce the structures' capacity to resist the tsunami. It is necessary to consider not only the soil's liquefaction behavior due to earthquake motions but also its post-liquefaction behavior because this behavior will affect the breakwater's capacity to resist an incoming tsunami. In this study, numerical tests based on a sophisticated constitutive model and a soil-water coupled finite element method are used to predict the mechanical behavior of breakwaters and the surrounding soils. Two real breakwaters subjected to two different seismic excitations are examined through numerical simulation. The simulation results show that, earthquakes affect not only the immediate behavior of breakwaters and the surrounding soils but also their long-term settlements due to post-earthquake consolidation. A soil profile with thick clayey layers beneath liquefied soil is more vulnerable to tsunami than a soil profile with only sandy layers. Therefore, quantitatively evaluating the seismic behavior of breakwaters and surrounding soils is important for the design of breakwater structures to resist tsunamis.

  6. Optimization for microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of bamboo residue in glycerol/methanol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Jinqiu Qi; Chungyun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo residues were liquefied in a mixture of glycerol and methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid using microwave energy. We investigated the effects of liquefaction conditions, including glycerol/methanol ratio, liquefaction temperature, and reaction time on the conversion yield. The optimal liquefaction conditions were under the temperature of 120

  7. FY 1994 report on the Coal Liquefaction Committee; 1994 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper reported the FY 1994 activities of the Coal Liquefaction Committee. The Coal Liquefaction Committee in this fiscal year was held on November 29, 1994 (1st) and March 22, 1995 (2nd), and report was made on the bituminous coal liquefaction study and state of the R and D of liquefaction base technology. Report was also made on the state of construction of bituminous coal liquefaction PP, outline of the results of the PSU operation, outline of the 11th Japan-U.S. JTM, etc. In the liquefaction base study, report/discussion were made about the improvement/rationalization of liquefaction process, study of innovative technology of coal liquefaction, study of coal liquefaction conditions, study for higher liquefaction element technology, project on the internationalization of coal liquefaction technology, etc. As to the relation of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant, report/discussion were made about survey/study on the processing of coal for coal gasification use (survey of coal kind selection, development of information processing system for coal conversion technology). Besides, as a topic, report was made on the economical evaluation/calculation of a commercial plant for brown coal liquefaction. (NEDO)

  8. Liquefaction behaviors of bamboo residues in a glycerol-based solvent using microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Jinqiu Qi; Hui Pan

    2014-01-01

    Liquefaction of bamboo was performed in glycerol–methanol as co-solvent using microwave energy and was evaluated by characterizing the liquefied residues. High efficiency conversion of bamboo was achieved under mild reaction conditions. Liquefaction temperature and time interacted to affect the liquefaction reaction. Fourier transform infrared analyzes of the residues...

  9. Reye's syndrome with cortical laminar necrosis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, T.; Takahashi, S.; Ishii, K.; Higano, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Sakamoto, K.; Haginoya, K.; Iinuma, K.

    1996-01-01

    Serial MRI findings are described in two patients with Reye's syndrome, demonstrating diffuse cortical and white matter changes. In the acute stage, T2-weighted images showed subtle but definite laminar high signal and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images laminar enhancement, along the entire cerebral cortex bilaterally. In the chronic stage, unenhanced T1-weighted images showed diffuse cortical laminar high signal. These characteristic MRI features seemed very similar to those of laminar cortical necrosis in hypoxic brain damage. MRI also displayed delayed white matter changes with cerebral atrophy. (orig.)

  10. Liquefaction under drained condition, from the lab to reality ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Cécile; Aharonov, Einat; Stojanova, Menka; Toussaint, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Liquefaction constitutes a significant natural hazard in relation to earthquakes and landslides. This effect can cause buildings to tilt or sink into the soil, mud-volcanoes, floatation of buried objects, long-runout landslides, etc. In this work we present a new understanding regarding the mechanism by which buildings sink and tilt during liquefaction caused by earthquakes. Conventional understanding of liquefaction explains most observed cases as occurring in an undrained, under-compacted, layer of sandy soil saturated with water [1]: According to that understanding, the under compacted sandy layer has the tendency to compact when a load is applied. In our case the load comes from ground shaking during an earthquake. When the soil compacts, the fluid pore pressure rises. Because in undrained conditions the fluid cannot flow out, the pore pressure builds up. The weight of buildings is in this case transferred from the grains of the soil to the pore water. The soil loses its rigidity and it flows like a liquid. From this model scientists made theoretical and empirical laws for geotechnical use and buildings construction. Despite the success of this conventional model in many cases, liquefied soils were also observed under drained conditions, and in previously compacted soils, which doesn't agree with the assumption of the model quoted above. One of the famous liquefaction events is the Kobe port destruction during the 1995 earthquake. A simple calculation of the Deborah number following Goren et al ([2][3]) shows that the undrained constraint was not met below the Kobe port during the 1995 earthquake. We propose another model, of liquefaction in drained granular media. According to our model the mere presence of water in granular media is enough to cause liquefaction during an earthquake, provided that the water reaches close to the surface. Our computations are based on the buoyancy force, and we take into account the static fluid pressure only. For small

  11. The sequence of sediment behaviour during wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Hatipoglu, Figen; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    to be in agreement with recent centrifuge wave-tank experiments. As for the final stage of the sequence of processes (formation of ripples), the ripple steepness (normalized with the angle of repose) for sediment with liquefaction history is found to be the same as that in sediment with no liquefaction history.......This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the complete sequence of sediment behaviour beneath progressive waves. The sediment was silty with d(50) = 0.060 mm. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore-water pressure measurements (across the sediment depth...... of liquefaction and compaction fronts in the sediment and (iii) the characteristics of the orbital motion of the liquefied sediment including the motion of the interface between the water body and the sediment. The ranges of the various quantities in the tests were: wave height, H = 9-17 cm, wave period, T = 1...

  12. Ground motions estimates for a cascadia earthquake from liquefaction evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, S.E.; Obermeier, S.F.

    1998-01-01

    Paleoseismic studies conducted in the coastal regions of the Pacific Northwest in the past decade have revealed evidence of crustal downdropping and subsequent tsunami inundation, attributable to a large earthquake along the Cascadia subduction zone which occurred approximately 300 years ago, and most likely in 1700 AD. In order to characterize the severity of ground motions from this earthquake, we report on results of a field search for seismically induced liquefaction features. The search was made chiefly along the coastal portions of several river valleys in Washington, rivers along the central Oregon coast, as well as on islands in the Columbia River of Oregon and Washington. In this paper we focus only on the results of the Columbia River investigation. Numerous liquefaction features were found in some regions, but not in others. The regional distribution of liquefaction features is evaluated as a function of geologic and geotechnical factors at each site in order to estimate the intensity of ground shaking.

  13. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  14. Intestinal necrosis in young patient due to arterial tumour embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahle, Einar; Gögenur, Ismail; Nørgaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A patient in the thirties, currently undergoing chemotherapy for metastatic osteosarcoma diagnosed 3 years earlier, was admitted with in the emergency department with abdominal pain. Laparoscopic surgery revealed severe inflammation and an abscess. 18 cm of small intestine was removed because...... of intestinal necrosis. Histological examination showed several arterial tumour emboli, morphologically similar to the primary sarcoma. The patient died 1 year after successful surgery. Because of the improved survival of patients with osteosarcoma, acute mesenteric ischaemia should be considered in acute...

  15. Transport fuels from two-stage coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, A.; Cebolla, V.; Fernandez, I.; Martinez, M.T.; Miranda, J.L.; Oelert, H.; Prado, J.G. (Instituto de Carboquimica CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1994-03-01

    Four Spanish lignites and their vitrinite concentrates were evaluated for coal liquefaction. Correlationships between the content of vitrinite and conversion in direct liquefaction were observed for the lignites but not for the vitrinite concentrates. The most reactive of the four coals was processed in two-stage liquefaction at a higher scale. First-stage coal liquefaction was carried out in a continuous unit at Clausthal University at a temperature of 400[degree]C at 20 MPa hydrogen pressure and with anthracene oil as a solvent. The coal conversion obtained was 75.41% being 3.79% gases, 2.58% primary condensate and 69.04% heavy liquids. A hydroprocessing unit was built at the Instituto de Carboquimica for the second-stage coal liquefaction. Whole and deasphalted liquids from the first-stage liquefaction were processed at 450[degree]C and 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, with two commercial catalysts: Harshaw HT-400E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and HT-500E (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The effects of liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), temperature, gas/liquid ratio and catalyst on the heteroatom liquids, and levels of 5 ppm of nitrogen and 52 ppm of sulphur were reached at 450[degree]C, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, 0.08 kg H[sub 2]/kg feedstock and with Harshaw HT-500E catalyst. The liquids obtained were hydroprocessed again at 420[degree]C, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure and 0.06 kg H[sub 2]/kg feedstock to hydrogenate the aromatic structures. In these conditions, the aromaticity was reduced considerably, and 39% of naphthas and 35% of kerosene fractions were obtained. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Liquefaction of solid carbonaceous material with catalyst recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avinash; Greene, Marvin I.

    1992-01-01

    In the two stage liquefaction of a carbonaceous solid such as coal wherein coal is liquefied in a first stage in the presence of a liquefaction solvent and the first stage effluent is hydrogenated in the presence of a supported hydrogenation catalyst in a second stage, catalyst which has been previously employed in the second stage and comminuted to a particle size distribution equivalent to 100% passing through U.S. 100 Mesh, is passed to the first stage to improve the overall operation.

  17. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae's for bio oil production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang

    process water for algae cultivation. GC-MS, elemental analyzer, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-oil yield of 46% was obtained on Nannochloropsis salina at 310 °C...... and 107 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the highest bio-oil yield is 38% at 350 °C and 195 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins...

  18. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1990-- April 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1992-02-15

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science (CFFLS) is currently engaged in a three year contract with the US Department of Energy investigating a range of research topics dealing with direct coal liquefaction. This report summarizes the results of this program in its second year, from May 1, 1990 to April 30, 1991. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction, exploratory research on coal conversion, novel coal liquefaction concepts, and novel catalysts for coal liquefaction.

  19. Biofilms associated with bowel necrosis: A newly recognised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All specimens showed varying degrees of bowel necrosis and an organising acute peritoneal reaction. In addition, all showed colonies of Gram-negative bacteria within a mucopolysaccharide matrix. Conclusions. The identification of biofilms in necrotic bowel has raised questions regarding their clinical implications. Further ...

  20. Systemic anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody treatment exacerbates endotoxin-induced uveitis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, A. F.; van Haren, M. A.; Verhagen, C.; Hoekzema, R.; Kijlstra, A.

    1995-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor is released in the circulation and aqueous humor during endotoxin-induced uveitis, and induces acute uveitis when injected intraocularly in rats. To elucidate the role of tumor necrosis factor in the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis we analysed the effect of

  1. Assessment of liquefaction-induced hazards using Bayesian networks based on standard penetration test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Wei; Bai, Xu; Hu, Ji-Lei; Qiu, Jiang-Nan

    2018-05-01

    Liquefaction-induced hazards such as sand boils, ground cracks, settlement, and lateral spreading are responsible for considerable damage to engineering structures during major earthquakes. Presently, there is no effective empirical approach that can assess different liquefaction-induced hazards in one model. This is because of the uncertainties and complexity of the factors related to seismic liquefaction and liquefaction-induced hazards. In this study, Bayesian networks (BNs) are used to integrate multiple factors related to seismic liquefaction, sand boils, ground cracks, settlement, and lateral spreading into a model based on standard penetration test data. The constructed BN model can assess four different liquefaction-induced hazards together. In a case study, the BN method outperforms an artificial neural network and Ishihara and Yoshimine's simplified method in terms of accuracy, Brier score, recall, precision, and area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). This demonstrates that the BN method is a good alternative tool for the risk assessment of liquefaction-induced hazards. Furthermore, the performance of the BN model in estimating liquefaction-induced hazards in Japan's 2011 Tōhoku earthquake confirms its correctness and reliability compared with the liquefaction potential index approach. The proposed BN model can also predict whether the soil becomes liquefied after an earthquake and can deduce the chain reaction process of liquefaction-induced hazards and perform backward reasoning. The assessment results from the proposed model provide informative guidelines for decision-makers to detect the damage state of a field following liquefaction.

  2. Report on the coal liquefaction committee in fiscal 1992; 1992 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the activities of the coal liquefaction committee in fiscal 1992. The first committee meeting was held on August 21. After having confirmed the minutes of the previous meeting, an explanation was given on the research and development plans in fiscal 1992. The explanation covered the general explanation, bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction, and the common and fundamental aspects. The presented topics included the achievements in the operations using a bituminous coal liquefaction PSU and a small device, the status of compiling the achievements in the brown coal liquefaction project, preparation of the basic policy on developing the common basic technologies, and structuring of a coal liquefaction technology package. The second meeting was held on March 18, 1993. The meeting verified the minutes of the previous meeting, and gave the sub-committee reports for fiscal 1992. The sub-committees include those for bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction, environmental safety evaluation, and separation and refining technologies. As the summary of the achievements in fiscal 1992, descriptions were given on the bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction, and common and basic aspects. The fiscal 1993 plan presented included the budget aspect. A description was given as a topic on the economic performance evaluation and the working scheme (the execution plan) for the brown coal liquefaction process. (NEDO)

  3. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of a multispecies probiotic (Ecologic 641) against pathogens isolated from infected pancreatic necrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridwan, B. U.; Koning, C. J. M.; Besselink, M. G. H.; Timmerman, H. M.; Brouwer, E. C.; Verhoef, J.; Gooszen, H. G.; Akkermans, L. M. A.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Although probiotic prophylaxis has been suggested to prevent small bowel bacterial overgrowth, bacterial translocation and infection of pancreatic necrosis in severe acute pancreatitis, limited data are available on their antimicrobial activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the well-diffusion

  5. Avascular Necrosis of the Capitate

    OpenAIRE

    Bekele, Wosen; Escobedo, Eva; Allen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the capitate is a rare entity. The most common reported etiology is trauma. We report a case of avascular necrosis of the capitate in a patient with chronic wrist pain that began after a single episode of remote trauma.

  6. Avascular Necrosis of the Capitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Wosen; Escobedo, Eva; Allen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the capitate is a rare entity. The most common reported etiology is trauma. We report a case of avascular necrosis of the capitate in a patient with chronic wrist pain that began after a single episode of remote trauma. PMID:22470799

  7. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...

  8. Mineral catalysis of oil producing reactions in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    This work was concerned primarily with the development of a relatively inexpensive, readily available, high activity catalyst that can be used as a disposable catalyst in coal liquefaction processes. For a fair evaluation of the developmental mineral catalyst (presulfided iron oxide), it was necessary to determine at different stages of this work, whether catalyst inhibition, deactivation or activity was the limiting factor in coal liquefaction catalysis. First, different routes were explored to prepare a high hydrogenation activity, iron-based catalyst. Naphthalene hydrogenation was used as a model reaction to rate the hydrogenation activities of different additives. Presulfiding of iron oxide with H/sub 2/S, under controlled conditions, rendered the highest hydrogenation activity mineral catalyst, which had a hydrogenation activity even greater than that of commercial CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst sulfided with creosote oil and hydrogen. Sulfiding of CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst with H/sub 2/S remarkably improved its initial hydrogenation activity. Second, the catalyst inhibition and deactivation during liquefaction were studied. Liquefaction-process solvents contain a number of compounds that can either deactivate or inhibit the hydrogenation activity of a catalyst. Finally, the hydrocracking activity of the presulfided iron oxide catalyst was compared with that of commercial catalysts, CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and low alumina FCC catalyst.

  9. Finite Element Modelling of Seismic Liquefaction in Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galavi, V.; Petalas, A.; Brinkgreve, R.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical aspects of seismic liquefaction in soils as implemented in the finite element code, PLAXIS, is described in this paper. After description of finite element equations of dynamic problems, three practical dynamic boundary conditions, namely viscous boundary tractions, tied degrees of freedom

  10. Biological production of alcohols from coal through indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Prieto, S; Harrison, S B; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing liquid fuels from the components of synthesis gas through biological indirect liquefaction. The results of pure culture and natural source screening studies aimed at finding organisms capable of carrying out the conversions are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. The making of Andersen’s liquefaction chart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation stabilizing soil response.The process of obtaining the original chart has been...

  12. Determination of Liquefaction Potential using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, F; Choobbasti, A.J; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose an alternative general regression model based on neural networks, which enables analysis of summary data obtained by liquefaction analysis according to usual methods. For that purpose, the data from some thirty boreholes made during field investigations in Babol, in the Iranian...

  13. Liquefaction of ground tire rubber at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiangyun; Song, Pan; Zhao, Xinyu; Peng, Zonglin; Wang, Shifeng

    2018-01-01

    Low-temperature liquefaction has been investigated as a novel method for recycling ground tire rubber (GTR) into liquid using an environmentally benign process. The liquefaction was carried out at different temperatures (140, 160 and 180 °C) over variable time ranges (2-24 h) by blending the GTR with aromatic oil in a range from 0 to 100 parts per hundred rubber (phr). The liquefied GTR was separated into sol (the soluble fraction of rubber which can be extracted with toluene) and gel fractions (the solid fraction obtained after extraction) to evaluate the reclaiming efficiency. It was discovered that the percentage of the sol fraction increased with time, swelling ratio and temperature. Liquefied rubber was obtained with a high sol fraction (68.34 wt%) at 140 °C. Simultaneously, separation of nano-sized carbon black from the rubber networks occurred. The separation of carbon black from the network is the result of significant damage to the cross-linked-network that occurs throughout the liquefaction process. During liquefaction, a competitive reaction between main chain scission and cross-link bond breakage takes place. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermochemical liquefaction characteristics of microalgae in sub- and supercritical ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Qiao; Chen, Liang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Changsha (China)

    2011-01-15

    Thermochemical liquefaction characteristics of Spirulina, a kind of high-protein microalgae, were investigated with the sub- and supercritical ethanol as solvent in a 1000 mL autoclave. The influences of various liquefaction parameters on the yields of products (bio-oil and residue) from the liquefaction of Spirulina were studied, such as the reaction temperature (T), the S/L ratio (R{sub 1}, solid: Spirulina, liquid: ethanol), the solvent filling ratio (R{sub 2}) and the type and dosage of catalyst. Without catalyst, the bio-oil yields were in the range of 35.4 wt.% and 45.3 wt.% depending on the changes of T, R{sub 1} and R{sub 2}. And the bio-oil yields increased generally with increasing T and R{sub 2}, while the bio-oil yields reduced with increasing R{sub 1}. The FeS catalyst was certified to be an ideal catalyst for the liquefaction of Spirulina microalgae for its advantages on promoting bio-oil production and suppressing the formation of residue. The optimal dosage of catalyst (FeS) was ranging from 5-7 wt.%. The elemental analyses and FT-IR and GC-MS measurements for the bio-oils revealed that the liquid products have much higher heating values than the crude Spirulina sample and fatty acid ethyl ester compounds were dominant in the bio-oils, irrespective of whether catalyst was used. (author)

  15. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  16. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu, E-mail: triace@163.com; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  17. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels

  18. Femoral head necrosis; Hueftkopfnekrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G.; Scheurecker, A.; Stoeger, A.; Huber, A. [Roentgeninstitut am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria); Hofmann, S. [Orthopaedisches Landeskrankenhaus Stolzalpe (Austria)

    2009-05-15

    The epidemiology and pathohistogenesis of avascular femoral head necrosis has still not been clarified in detail. Because the course of the disease runs in stages and over a long time period nearly always culminates in the necessity for a total hip prosthesis, an exact radiological evaluation is of paramount importance for the treatment. There is a need for a common staging system to enable comparison of different therapy concepts and especially their long-term results. In this article the ARCO staging system is described in full detail, which includes all radiological modalities as well as histopathological alterations. (orig.) [German] Bei der avaskulaeren Femurkopfnekrose handelt es sich um ein Krankheitsbild, dessen Ursachen noch immer nicht vollstaendig geklaert sind. Da die Erkrankung stadienhaft verlaeuft und ueber einen laengeren Zeitraum betrachtet nahezu immer in einem prothetischen Hueftersatz muendet, ist eine genaue radiologische Abklaerung fuer die Behandlung von enormer Bedeutung. Um Langzeiterfolge verschiedener Therapiekonzepte vergleichen zu koennen, sind eine exakte Beschreibung und darauf basierend die Verwendung einer einheitlichen Stadieneinteilung wuenschenswert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die ARCO-Stadieneinteilung im Detail beschrieben, die alle bildgebenden Methoden beruecksichtigt und histopathologische Veraenderungen mit einbezieht. (orig.)

  19. Airway necrosis after salvage esophagectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Norimitsu; Hokamura, Nobukazu; Tachimori, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Salvage esophagectomy is the sole curative intent treatment for patients with persistent or recurrent locoregional disease after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for esophageal carcinoma. However, salvage esophagectomy is a very high-risk operation, and airway necrosis is a fatal complication. Between 1997 and 2007, 49 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer underwent salvage esophagectomy after definitive CRT. We retrospectively compared patients with and without airway necrosis, and investigated operative procedures related to airway necrosis. Airway necrosis occurred in five patients (10.2%), of four patients (80%) died during their hospitalization. Airway necrosis seemed to be closely related to operative procedures, such as resection of bronchial artery and cervical and subcarinal lymph node dissection. Bronchogastric fistula following necrosis of gastric conduit occured in 2 patients reconstructed through posterior mediastinal route. Airway necrosis is a highly lethal complication after salvage esophagectomy. It is important in salvage esophagectomy to take airway blood supply into consideration sufficiently and to reconstruct through retrosternal route to prevent bronchogastric fistula. (author)

  20. Semi-automated landform classification for hazard mapping of soil liquefaction by earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takayuki

    2018-05-01

    Soil liquefaction damages were caused by huge earthquake in Japan, and the similar damages are concerned in near future huge earthquake. On the other hand, a preparation of soil liquefaction risk map (soil liquefaction hazard map) is impeded by the difficulty of evaluation of soil liquefaction risk. Generally, relative soil liquefaction risk should be able to be evaluated from landform classification data by using experimental rule based on the relationship between extent of soil liquefaction damage and landform classification items associated with past earthquake. Therefore, I rearranged the relationship between landform classification items and soil liquefaction risk intelligibly in order to enable the evaluation of soil liquefaction risk based on landform classification data appropriately and efficiently. And I developed a new method of generating landform classification data of 50-m grid size from existing landform classification data of 250-m grid size by using digital elevation model (DEM) data and multi-band satellite image data in order to evaluate soil liquefaction risk in detail spatially. It is expected that the products of this study contribute to efficient producing of soil liquefaction hazard map by local government.

  1. Coal liquefaction committee report for fiscal 1981; 1981 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    For the assurance of smooth progress of coal technology development endeavors, the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has installed coal technology development committees (general committee on coal technologies, coal liquefaction committee, plant materials committee, coal type survey committee, total system committee, and coal gasification committee). The coal liquefaction committee deliberates and evaluates liquefaction technology and propels forward smoothly the efforts to develop the technology. Under the coal liquefaction committee, there are four subcommittees, which are the 1st subcommittee (primary liquefaction subcommittee), 2nd subcommittee (solid/liquid separation subcommittee), 3rd subcommittee (secondary hydrogenation subcommittee), and the 4th subcommittee (brown coal liquefaction subcommittee). The 2nd and 3rd subcommittees deal with common tasks as they were studied in fiscal 1980. The 1st subcommittee incorporates into itself the old subcommittees that respectively worked on the three liquefaction processes (the direct hydrogenation process, the solvent extraction process, and the Solvolysis process), and is designed to provide a site for information exchange. A brown coal liquefaction committee is incorporated into the coal liquefaction committee as the 4th subcommittee. This report is a compilation of the agendas of the respective subcommittees of the coal liquefaction committee. (NEDO)

  2. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  3. Hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forestry wastes: state-of-the-art review and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Leichang; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Huihui; Tsang, Daniel C W; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction has been widely applied to obtain bioenergy and high-value chemicals from biomass in the presence of a solvent at moderate to high temperature (200-550°C) and pressure (5-25MPa). This article summarizes and discusses the conversion of agricultural and forestry wastes by hydrothermal liquefaction. The history and development of hydrothermal liquefaction technology for lignocellulosic biomass are briefly introduced. The research status in hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forestry wastes is critically reviewed, particularly for the effects of liquefaction conditions on bio-oil yield and the decomposition mechanisms of main components in biomass. The limitations of hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forestry wastes are discussed, and future research priorities are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Post-liquefaction soil-structure interaction for buried structures: Sensitivity analysis studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, J.A.; Ang, H.S.; Katayama, I.; Satoh, M.

    1993-01-01

    The post liquefaction behavior of buried conduits is analyzed and sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the damage potential of the forces induced in the buried lifelines following seismically induced liquefaction of the surrounding soil. Various lifeline configurations and loading conditions are considered. The loading conditions considered are: buoyancy forces and permanent ground displacements parallel to the lifeline axis. Pertinent parameters for the soil-lifeline interaction following liquefaction are identified. (author)

  5. Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337

  6. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Kun Hyung [Korea Gas Corporation, Incheon, 406-130 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  7. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  8. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity

  9. Thermodynamic design of natural gas liquefaction cycles for offshore application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-09-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out for natural gas liquefaction cycles applicable to offshore floating plants, as partial efforts of an ongoing governmental project in Korea. For offshore liquefaction, the most suitable cycle may be different from the on-land LNG processes under operation, because compactness and simple operation are important as well as thermodynamic efficiency. As a turbine-based cycle, closed Claude cycle is proposed to use NG (natural gas) itself as refrigerant. The optimal condition for NG Claude cycle is determined with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS), and the results are compared with fully-developed C3-MR (propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant) JT cycles and various N2 (nitrogen) Brayton cycles in terms of efficiency and compactness. The newly proposed NG Claude cycle could be a good candidate for offshore LNG processes.

  10. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coals under mild conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, N.; Rinaldi, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Due to decreasing of petroleum reserves, direct coal liquefaction is attracting renewed interest as an alternative process to produce liquid fuels. The combination of hydrogen peroxide and coal is not a new one. In the early 1980, Vasilakos and Clinton described a procedure for desulfurization by leaching coal with solutions of sulphuric acid/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. But so far, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has never been ascribed a major role in coal liquefaction. Herein, we describe a novel approach for liquefying low-rank coals using a solution of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in presence of a soluble non-transition metal catalyst. (orig.)

  11. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  12. Characteristics estimation of coal liquefaction residue; Sekitan ekika zansa seijo no suisan ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itonaga, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Okada, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The paper studied a possibility of estimating characteristics of coal liquefaction residue from liquefaction conditions in the case of fixing coal kind in the NEDOL process coal liquefaction PSU. Wyoming coal was used for the study, and the already proposed simplified liquefaction reaction models were used. Among material balances explained by the models, those of asphaltene, preasphaltene, THF insoluble matters are concerned with residue composition. Ash content is separately calculated from ash balance. Reaction velocity constants of simplified liquefaction reaction models which influence the residue composition were obtained by the multiple regression method from experimental results in the past. The estimation expression of residue viscosity was introduced from residue ash/composition. When the residue composition is estimated by the model from liquefaction conditions, and the residue viscosity is obtained using it, the higher the liquefaction temperature is, the higher the residue viscosity is. The result obtained well agreed the measuring result. The simplified liquefaction model of a certain coal kind has been established, and characteristics of residue can be estimated even at liquefaction conditions which have never been experienced before if there is a certain amount of the accumulated data on residue composition/characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1992 report on the Coal Liquefaction Committee; 1992 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the Coal Liquefaction Committee in FY 1992. In the 1st committee meeting, report/discussion were made of the summary of the FY 1992 R and D plan on the bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction and the common/basic technology. Further, the following were reported as topics: results of the operation by bituminous coal liquefaction PSU and small equipment, state of arrangement of the results of the brown coal liquefaction project, making of the basic policy for development of the common/basic technology, construction of package of coal liquefaction technology. In the 2nd committee meeting, the summary of the results of the FY 1992 R and D was reported/discussed. As to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, study using pilot plant and support study were reported. Concerning the development of brown coal liquefaction technology, study using a 50t/d pilot plant and complementary study of operation. Relating to the development of the common/basic technology, trial manufacture/development of plant equipment/materials, survey of selection of coal kind, etc. The paper also reported a scheme on the evaluation of efficiency of the brown coal liquefaction process. (NEDO)

  15. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  16. The making of Andersen’s liquefaction chart

    OpenAIRE

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation stabilizing soil response.The process of obtaining the original chart has been improved. Algorithm based approximation is introduced. Pore pressure dependent ultimate bearing capacity normalization factor is introduced to normalize the chart.

  17. The current status of coal liquefaction technologies - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, a first coal liquefaction unit to produce motor fuel (20,000 BPSD) will come on-stream in Shenhua, China (in the Ercos region of Inner Mongolia). Other, more ambitious projects have been announced in China for between now and 2020. Since oil production is expected to peak in the medium term, this technology may develop regionally in the next 20 years to cover ever-increasing demand for motor fuel

  18. New magnetic refrigeration materials for the liquefaction of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A.; Takeya, H.; Moorman, J.O.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Malik, S.K.; Zimm, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    Five heavy lanthanide ferromagnetic intermetallic compounds were studied as potential magnetic refrigerants for the liquefaction of hydrogen gas. (Dy 0.5 Er 0.5 )Al 2 and TbNi 2 appear to be better refrigerants than GdPd for a Joule-Brayton cycle refrigerator, while (Gd 0.54 Er 0.46 )AlNi seems to be a suitable refrigerant for an Ericsson cycle refrigerator

  19. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, DC; Biller, P; Ross, AB; Schmidt, AJ; Jones, SB

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their pr...

  20. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    An updated assessment of the physico-chemical analytical methodology applicable to coal-liquefaction product streams and a review of the literature dealing with the modeling of fossil-fuel resid conversion to product oils are presented in this document. In addition, a summary is provided for the University of Delaware program conducted under this contract to develop an empirical test to determine relative resid reactivity and to construct a computer model to describe resid structure and predict reactivity.

  2. Machine learning modelling for predicting soil liquefaction susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Samui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes two machine learning techniques applied to predict liquefaction susceptibility of soil based on the standard penetration test (SPT data from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. The first machine learning technique which uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN based on multi-layer perceptions (MLP that are trained with Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm. The second machine learning technique uses the Support Vector machine (SVM that is firmly based on the theory of statistical learning theory, uses classification technique. ANN and SVM have been developed to predict liquefaction susceptibility using corrected SPT [(N160] and cyclic stress ratio (CSR. Further, an attempt has been made to simplify the models, requiring only the two parameters [(N160 and peck ground acceleration (amax/g], for the prediction of liquefaction susceptibility. The developed ANN and SVM models have also been applied to different case histories available globally. The paper also highlights the capability of the SVM over the ANN models.

  3. Solvent recyclability in a multistep direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetland, M.D.; Rindt, J.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Direct liquefaction research at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has, for a number of years, concentrated on developing a direct liquefaction process specifically for low-rank coals (LRCs) through the use of hydrogen-donating solvents and solvents similar to coal-derived liquids, the water/gas shift reaction, and lower-severity reaction conditions. The underlying assumption of all of the research was that advantage could be taken of the reactivity and specific qualities of LRCs to produce a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble material that might be easier to upgrade than the soluble residuum produced during direct liquefaction of high-rank coals. A multistep approach was taken to produce the THF-soluble material, consisting of (1) preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, (2) solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and (3) polishing to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrotreatment step. The results of the EERC`s research indicated that additional studies to develop this process more fully were justified. Two areas were targeted for further research: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The current project was funded to investigate these two areas.

  4. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  5. Management of infected pancreatic necrosis: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rasslan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pancreatic necrosis occurs in 15% of acute pancreatitis. The presence of infection is the most important factor in the evolution of pancreatitis. The diagnosis of infection is still challenging. Mortality in infected necrosis is 20%; in the presence of organic dysfunction, mortality reaches 60%. In the last three decades, there has been a real revolution in the treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis. However, the challenges persist and there are many unsolved questions: antibiotic treatment alone, tomography-guided percutaneous drainage, endoscopic drainage, video-assisted extraperitoneal debridement, extraperitoneal access, open necrosectomy? A step up approach has been proposed, beginning with less invasive procedures and reserving the operative intervention for patients in which the previous procedure did not solve the problem definitively. Indication and timing of the intervention should be determined by the clinical course. Ideally, the intervention should be done only after the fourth week of evolution, when it is observed a better delimitation of necrosis. Treatment should be individualized. There is no procedure that should be the first and best option for all patients. The objective of this work is to critically review the current state of the art of the treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis.

  6. Post-cyclic behavior of low plasticity silt under full and limited liquefaction using triaxial compression testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    During an earthquake, liquefaction does not happen all the time. It depends on the duration and magnitude of the earthquake and the properties (with relationship to resistance of liquefaction) of the low plasticity silt. Under low duration or magnitu...

  7. Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Ainsworth, Mark Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presents with an exacerbation of Crohn's ileocolitis. He received a diagnosis of Crohn's disease 8 years ago and has been treated on three previous occasions with prednisone. Because of a recurrent need for glucocorticoids, treatment with azathioprine (150 mg per day) was starte...... colonoscopy show acute and chronic granulomatous inflammation, and the gastroenterologist recommends treatment with a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor....

  8. Comparative study on liquefaction of creosote and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood and untreated southern pine wood: effects of acid catalyst content, liquefaction time, temperature, and phenol to wood ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Creosote- and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste and untreated southern pine wood were liquefied with phenol and sulfuric acid. The effects of sulfuric acid content, liquefaction time, liquefaction temperature, and phenol to wood ratio on liquefaction rate (i.e., wood residue content) were investigated and analyzed by analysis of variance (...

  9. Widespread marrow necrosis during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knickerbocker, W.J.; Quenville, N.F.

    1982-01-01

    Recently, a 22-year-old Caucasian female was referred to our Hospital two days post-partum. She had been feeling unwell during the last few days of her pregnancy and complained of multiple aches and pains, worst in the abdomen and lower back. Her admission platelet count was severely depressed and a bone biopsy showed extensive marrow necrosis with viable bony trabeculae. There was no evidence of vasculitis, vascular thrombosis, or malignancy. Widespread marrow necrosis in pregnancy followed by recovery, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. (orig.)

  10. Plasma cytokines in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Boysen, Gudrun; Christensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    GOALS: The aim of this study was to test the relations between plasma cytokines and the clinical characteristics, course, and risk factors in acute stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The analysis was based on 179 patients with acute stroke included within 24 hours of stroke onset. On inclusion and 3...... months later plasma levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNF-R2) were...

  11. Liquefaction of Lignocellulose in Fractionated Light Bio-Oil: Proof of Concept and Techno-Economic Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.; Lange, Jean Paul; van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The direct thermal liquefaction of lignocellulose can provide a biocrude that could be used as a precursor for biofuels. However, earlier attempts to use the whole reactor effluent as a liquefaction medium, by recycling it to the liquefaction reactor, were hampered by the buildup of heavy products.

  12. BP and NCB to collaborate in coal liquefaction study. [Supercritical gas extraction; dissolution in anthracene oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-17

    British Petroleum and NCB are collaborating in a two year study of coal liquefaction which could result in a demonstration plant being built. The two liquefaction techniques which the NCB is developing at present are supercritical extraction, and dissolution in anthracene oil. A disadvantage of the latter process is that high grade coking coals must be used.

  13. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  14. Renewable chemical feedstocks from integrated liquefaction processing of lingocellulosic materials using microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to find a simple method for the production of phenolic rich products and sugar derivatives (biopolyols) via separation of liquefied lingocellulosic materials. Liquefaction of lignocellulosic materials was conducted in methanol at 180 °C for 15 min with the conversion of raw materials at about 75%. After liquefaction, the...

  15. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-12-30

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the kinetics-assisted design, synthesis and characterization of fme-pardcle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. The goal is to develop a fundamental understanding of coal catalysis and catalysts that will, in turn, allow for the specification of a novel optimal catalyst for coal liquefaction.

  16. Influence of solvent type on microwave-assisted liquefaction of bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Tingxing Hu

    2016-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction of bamboo in glycerol, polyethylene glycerol (PEG), methanol, ethanol, and water were comparatively investigated by evaluating the temperature-dependence for conversion and liquefied residue characteristics. The conversion for the liquefaction in methanol, ethanol, and water increased with an increase in reaction temperature, while that...

  17. Dynamic dielectric properties of a wood liquefaction system using polyethylene glycol and glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengchao Zhou; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Bo Cai; Chung-Yun Hse; Hui Pan

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction has shown potential for rapid thermal processing of lignocellulosic biomass. The efficiency of microwave heating depends largely on the dielectric properties of the materials being heated. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic interactions between microwave energy and the reaction system during the liquefaction of a...

  18. Development of delayed radiation necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, ShigFeki; Takagi, Terumasa; Shibata, Taichiro; Nagai, Hajime.

    1983-01-01

    The authors discussed the developing process of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain from the case of a 42-year-old female who developed intracranial hypertension and left hemiparesis 5 and a half years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The initial sign of radiation necrosis was from a CT scan taken 3 and a half years after radiotherapy showing an irregular low density lesion in the right temporal lobe. CT scan 2 years later demonstrated displacement of the midline structures to the left and a larger low density lesion with partially high density in the right MCA territory that was enhanced with intravenous contrast medium. Recovery after a right temporal lobectomy and administration of steroid hormone were uneventful. Eight months later there were no signs of raised intracranial pressure nor of neurological deficits. Tissues obtained from the right temporal lobe at lobectomy revealed the characteristic changes of delayed radiation necrosis; a mixture of fresh, recent, and old vascular lesions in the same specimen. From these findings, it was speculated that delayed radiation necrosis might initially occur within several years after radiotherapy and might gradually take a progressive and extended course, even in cases whose clinical symptoms develop much later. (author)

  19. Acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Vege, Santhi S

    2015-09-01

    To summarize recent data on classification systems, cause, risk factors, severity prediction, nutrition, and drug treatment of acute pancreatitis. Comparison of the Revised Atlanta Classification and Determinant Based Classification has shown heterogeneous results. Simvastatin has a protective effect against acute pancreatitis. Young black male, alcohol, smoldering symptoms, and subsequent diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis are risk factors associated with readmissions after acute pancreatitis. A reliable clinical or laboratory marker or a scoring system to predict severity is lacking. The PYTHON trial has shown that oral feeding with on demand nasoenteric tube feeding after 72 h is as good as nasoenteric tube feeding within 24 h in preventing infections in predicted severe acute pancreatitis. Male sex, multiple organ failure, extent of pancreatic necrosis, and heterogeneous collection are factors associated with failure of percutaneous drainage of pancreatic collections. The newly proposed classification systems of acute pancreatitis need to be evaluated more critically. New biomarkers are needed for severity prediction. Further well designed studies are required to assess the type of enteral nutritional formulations for acute pancreatitis. The optimal minimally invasive method or combination to debride the necrotic collections is evolving. There is a great need for a drug to treat the disease early on to prevent morbidity and mortality.

  20. Evaluation of soil liquefaction potential for level ground during earthquakes. A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, H.B.; Arango, I.; Chan, C.K.

    1975-10-01

    The results of a three-year research program conducted to investigate the settlement and liquefaction of sands under multi-directional shaking are evaluated. The investigation indicated that the behavior of a saturated sand under cyclic loading conditions is a function of its geologic and seismic history and grain structure as well as its placement density. It is concluded that the resistance to liquefaction of a sand deposit can best be estimated by laboratory testing on undisturbed samples. It is shown that cyclic triaxial tests used in conjunction with appropriate correction factors to account for multi-directional shaking, simple shear loading conditions, and overconsolidation effects can provide valid data on cyclic loading characteristics. The concepts of ''limited strain potential'' and acceptable value of the factor of safety against initial liquefaction are introduced. Finally, the two basic methods for evaluating liquefaction potential and the effects of liquefaction are reviewed and updated with the information obtained through this research effort

  1. Kinetics of coal liquefaction during heating-up and isothermal stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian Li; Haoquan Hu; Shengwei Zhu; Shuxun Hu; Bo Wu; Meng Meng [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2008-04-15

    Direct liquefaction of Shenhua bituminous coal was carried out in a 500 ml autoclave with iron catalyst and coal liquefaction cycle-oil as solvent at initial hydrogen of 8.0 MPa, residence time of 0-90 min. To investigate the liquefaction kinetics, a model for heating-up and isothermal stages was developed to estimate the rate constants of both stages. In the model, the coal was divided into three parts, easy reactive part, hard reactive part and unreactive part, and four kinetic constants were used to describe the reaction mechanism. The results showed that the model is valid for both heating-up and isothermal stages of liquefaction perfectly. The rate-controlled process for coal liquefaction is the reaction of preasphaltene plus asphaltene (PAA) to oil plus gas (O + G). The upper-limiting conversion of isothermal stage was estimated by the kinetic calculation. 21 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Probabilistic versus deterministic hazard assessment in liquefaction susceptible zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminelli, Rosastella; Gerosa, Daniele; Marcellini, Alberto; Tento, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), usually adopted in the framework of seismic codes redaction, is based on Poissonian description of the temporal occurrence, negative exponential distribution of magnitude and attenuation relationship with log-normal distribution of PGA or response spectrum. The main positive aspect of this approach stems into the fact that is presently a standard for the majority of countries, but there are weak points in particular regarding the physical description of the earthquake phenomenon. Factors like site effects, source characteristics like duration of the strong motion and directivity that could significantly influence the expected motion at the site are not taken into account by PSHA. Deterministic models can better evaluate the ground motion at a site from a physical point of view, but its prediction reliability depends on the degree of knowledge of the source, wave propagation and soil parameters. We compare these two approaches in selected sites affected by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna and Lombardia earthquake, that caused widespread liquefaction phenomena unusually for magnitude less than 6. We focus on sites liquefiable because of their soil mechanical parameters and water table level. Our analysis shows that the choice between deterministic and probabilistic hazard analysis is strongly dependent on site conditions. The looser the soil and the higher the liquefaction potential, the more suitable is the deterministic approach. Source characteristics, in particular the duration of strong ground motion, have long since recognized as relevant to induce liquefaction; unfortunately a quantitative prediction of these parameters appears very unlikely, dramatically reducing the possibility of their adoption in hazard assessment. Last but not least, the economic factors are relevant in the choice of the approach. The case history of 2012 Emilia-Romagna and Lombardia earthquake, with an officially estimated cost of 6 billions

  3. Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siika-aho Matti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases, resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C.

  4. Latent hazard related to a hydrogen liquefaction installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoendlin, R.

    1961-01-01

    In this note, the author reports an attempt of analysis of hazards which could be related to a hydrogen liquefaction installation in order to identify the most appropriate safety measures. In order to do so, experiments have been performed on electrostatic charges born by solid crystals in liquid hydrogen, and explosion tests have been performed on a mixture of solid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. Moreover, the author tried to analyse accidents which occurred in this field by performing a survey among scientists working in laboratories in different countries

  5. Ground Characterization Studies in Canakkale Pilot Site of LIQUEFACT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcep, F.; Oztoprak, S.; Aysal, N.; Bozbey, I.; Tezel, O.; Ozer, C.; Sargin, S.; Bekin, E.; Almasraf, M.; Cengiz Cinku, M.; Ozdemir, K.

    2017-12-01

    The our aim is to outline the ground characterisation studies in Canakkale test site. Study is based on the EU H2020 LIQUEFACT project entitled "Liquefact: Assessment and mitigation of liquefaction potential across Europe: a holistic approach to protect structures / infrastructures for improved resilience to earthquake-induced liquefaction disasters". Objectives and extent of ground characterization for Canakkale test site includes pre-existing soil investigation studies and complementary field studies. There were several SPT and geophysical tests carried out in the study area. Within the context of the complementary tests, six (6) study areas in the test site were chosen and complementary tests were carried out in these areas. In these areas, additional boreholes were opened and SPT tests were performed. It was decided that additional CPT (CPTU and SCPT) and Marchetti Dilatometer (DMT) tests should be carried out within the scope of the complementary testing. Seismic refraction, MASW and micro tremor measurements had been carried out in pre-existing studies. Shear wave velocities obtained from MASW measurements were evaluated to the most rigorous level. These tests were downhole seismic, PS-logging, seismic refraction, 2D-ReMi, MASW, micro tremor (H/V Nakamura method), 2D resistivity and resonance acoustic profiling (RAP). RAP is a new technique which will be explained briefly in the relevant section. Dynamic soil properties had not been measured in pre-existing studies, therefore these properties were investigated within the scope of the complementary tests. Selection of specific experimental tests of the complementary campaign was based on cost-benefit considerations Within the context of complementary field studies, dynamic soil properties were measured using resonant column and cyclic direct shear tests. Several sieve analyses and Atterberg Limits tests which were documented in the pre-existing studies were evaluated. In the complementary study carried out

  6. Analysis of engineering cycles power, refrigerating and gas liquefaction plant

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, R W

    1991-01-01

    Extensively revised, updated and expanded, the fourth edition of this popular text provides a rigorous analytical treatment of modern energy conversion plant. Notable for both its theoretical and practical treatment of conventional and nuclear power plant, and its studies of refrigerating and gas-liquefaction plant. This fourth edition now includes material on topics of increasing concern in the fields of energy 'saving' and reduction of environmental pollution. This increased coverage deals specifically with the following areas: CHP (cogeneration) plant, studies of both gas and coal burning p

  7. Liquefaction of Saturated Soil and the Diffusion Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Andrzej; Sławińska, Justyna

    2015-06-01

    The paper deals with the diffusion equation for pore water pressures with the source term, which is widely promoted in the marine engineering literature. It is shown that such an equation cannot be derived in a consistent way from the mass balance and the Darcy law. The shortcomings of the artificial source term are pointed out, including inconsistencies with experimental data. It is concluded that liquefaction and the preceding process of pore pressure generation and the weakening of the soil skeleton should be described by constitutive equations within the well-known framework of applied mechanics. Relevant references are provided

  8. Rationale for continuing R&D in indirect coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G. [MITRE Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this analysis is to use the world energy demand/supply model developed at MITRE to examine future liquid fuels supply scenarios both for the world and for the United States. This analysis has determined the probable extent of future oil resource shortages and the likely time frame in which the shortages will occur. The role that coal liquefaction could play in helping to alleviate this liquid fuels shortfall is also examined. The importance of continuing R&D to improve process performance and reduce the costs of coal-derived transportation fuel is quantified in terms of reducing the time when coal liquids will become competitive with petroleum.

  9. The Comparative Analysis of the Efficiency of Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyka Viktor I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organization of production of synthetic liquid fuels (SLF in Ukraine becomes an especially topical and at the same time complex scientific and applied task, taking into consideration criteria of the techno-ecological and economic rationality. The article presents a methodical approach to the comparative analysis of efficiency of the main methods and technologies for the synthetic liquid fuels production and a carried out testing, the results of which allowed to conclude that the most rational is the technology of indirect coal liquefaction based on coal thermal plasma gasification.

  10. Probabilistic liquefaction hazard analysis at liquefied sites of 1956 Dunaharaszti earthquake, in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győri, Erzsébet; Gráczer, Zoltán; Tóth, László; Bán, Zoltán; Horváth, Tibor

    2017-04-01

    Liquefaction potential evaluations are generally made to assess the hazard from specific scenario earthquakes. These evaluations may estimate the potential in a binary fashion (yes/no), define a factor of safety or predict the probability of liquefaction given a scenario event. Usually the level of ground shaking is obtained from the results of PSHA. Although it is determined probabilistically, a single level of ground shaking is selected and used within the liquefaction potential evaluation. In contrary, the fully probabilistic liquefaction potential assessment methods provide a complete picture of liquefaction hazard, namely taking into account the joint probability distribution of PGA and magnitude of earthquake scenarios; both of which are key inputs in the stress-based simplified methods. Kramer and Mayfield (2007) has developed a fully probabilistic liquefaction potential evaluation method using a performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) framework. The results of the procedure are the direct estimate of the return period of liquefaction and the liquefaction hazard curves in function of depth. The method combines the disaggregation matrices computed for different exceedance frequencies during probabilistic seismic hazard analysis with one of the recent models for the conditional probability of liquefaction. We have developed a software for the assessment of performance-based liquefaction triggering on the basis of Kramer and Mayfield method. Originally the SPT based probabilistic method of Cetin et al. (2004) was built-in into the procedure of Kramer and Mayfield to compute the conditional probability however there is no professional consensus about its applicability. Therefore we have included not only Cetin's method but Idriss and Boulanger (2012) SPT based moreover Boulanger and Idriss (2014) CPT based procedures into our computer program. In 1956, a damaging earthquake of magnitude 5.6 occurred in Dunaharaszti, in Hungary. Its epicenter was located

  11. Study on thermochemical liquefaction of biomass feedstocks; Biomass genryo no yuka hanno tokusei ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-10

    Liquefaction is applied to various biomass wastes and unused biomass to study characteristics of the liquefaction in each case. The paper described the system of the conversion and use of biomass into energy, conducted the positioning of the liquefaction, and outlined a history of the liquefaction chemistry and the study. To obtain basic data of characteristics of the liquefaction of various biomass raw materials, the liquefaction was conducted changing operational factors for the purpose of clarifying the product distribution of oil and by-products and oil properties. A comprehensive consideration was made of the liquefaction based on basic data and literature reports on the liquefaction of various biomass. From the above-mentioned studies, it was concluded that the energy can be recovered in a form of oil by applying the liquefaction to various biomass materials. A series of the study clarified effects of various operational factors on characteristics of the liquefaction as well as effects of classification of biomass materials and composition of the materials on characteristics of the liquefaction. 141 refs., 78 figs., 56 tabs.

  12. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  13. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  14. Novel use of residue from direct coal liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianli Yang; Zhaixia Wang; Zhenyu Liu; Yuzhen Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2009-09-15

    Direct coal liquefaction residue (DCLR) is, commonly, designed to be used as a feed stock for gasification or combustion. Use of DCLR as a value added product is very important for improving overall economy of direct coal liquefaction processes. This study shows that the DCLR may be used as a pavement asphalt modifier. The modification ability is similar to that of Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA), a superior commercial modifier. Asphalts modified by two DCLRs meet the specifications of ASTM D5710 and BSI BS-3690 designated for the TLA-modified asphalts. The required addition amount for the DCLRs tested is less than that for TLA due possibly to the high content of asphaltene in DCLRs. Different compatibility was observed for the asphalts with the same penetration grade but from the different origin. Different components in the DCLR play different roles in the modification. Positive synergetic effects among the fractions were observed, which may due to the formation of the stable colloid structure. Unlike polymer-type modifier, the structure of asphalt-type modifier has a similarity with petroleum asphalts which favors the formation of a stable dispersed polar fluid (DPF) colloid structure and improves the performance of pavement asphalt. 12 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  15. Efficient Air Desulfurization Catalysts Derived from Pig Manure Liquefaction Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Wallace

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochar from the liquefaction of pig manure was used as a precursor of H2S desulfurization adsorbents. In its inorganic matter, it contains marked quantities of calcium, magnesium and iron, which are known as hydrogen sulfide oxidation catalysts. The char was used either as-received or mixed with 10% nanographite. The latter was added to increase both the content of the carbon phase and conductivity. ZnCl2 in two different ratios of char to an activation agent (1:1 and 1:2 was used to create the porosity in the carbon phase. The content of the later was between 18–45%. The activated samples adsorbed 144 mg/g H2S. Sulfur was the predominant product of reactive adsorption. Its deposition in the pore system and blockage of the most active pores ceased the materials’ activity. The presence of the catalytic phase was necessary but not sufficient to guarantee good performance. The developed porosity, which can store oxidation products in the resulting composite, is essential for the good performance of the desulfurization process. The surface of the composite with nanographite showed the highest catalytic activity, similar to that of the commercial Midas® carbon catalyst. The results obtained indicate that a high quality reactive adsorbent/catalyst for H2S removal can be obtained from pig manure liquefaction wastes.

  16. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan, Song; Kirby, S.; Schmidt, E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to explore bimetallic dispersed catalysts for more efficient coal liquefaction. Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting various aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. This paper describes recent results on (1) hydrodeoxygenation of O-containing polycyclic model compounds using novel organometallic catalyst precursors; and (2) activity and selectivity of dispersed Fe catalysts from organometallic and inorganic precursors for hydrocracking of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl) bibenzyl. The results showed that some iron containing catalysts have higher activity in the sulfur-free form, contrary to conventional wisdom. Adding sulfur to Fe precursors with Cp-ligands decreased the activity of the resulting catalyst. This is in distinct contrast to the cases with iron pentacarbonyl and superfine Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where S addition increased their catalytic activity substantially. A positive correlation between sulfur addition and increased activity can be seen, but a reversed trend between Fe cluster size and hydrocracking conversion could be observed, for carbonyl-type Fe precursors. It is apparent that the activity and selectivity of Fe catalysts for NMBB conversion depends strongly on both the type of ligand environment, the oxidation state and the number of intermetal bonds in the molecular precursor.

  17. Report for fiscal 1995 by basic liquefaction technology subcommittee; 1995 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Delivered at the 1st meeting are a report on the fiscal 1995 research plan and an interim report, involving the use of coal-derived oils, research on refining technology using a PDU (process developing unit), reforming technology and petroleum blending technology for coal-derived oils, development of new reforming catalysts, technology of heterocompound separation, and the development of applications. Reported in relation with the development of environmentally friendly coal liquefaction technology are the study of coal liquefaction conditions, study of the upgrading of basic liquefaction techniques for the improvement and rationalization of the liquefaction process, and a project of liquefaction technology internationalization. A report is also given on a liquefaction catalyst study meeting. At the 2nd meeting, reports are delivered on the development of environmentally friendly coal liquefaction technology, including a briefing on the situation in general, designing of highly active catalysts, elucidation of the mechanism of emergence of activity, achievement of the marginal yield of coal-derived oils, and the properties of catalyst attached to coal. Delivered in relation with the use of coal-derived oils and technology for their refining are a briefing on the situation in general and reports on the blockup to occur in the naphtha fraction process and measures to counter the problem, control of the metamorphosis of active metals in reaction, heterocompound separation technology, and the development of applications. (NEDO)

  18. Post Hoc Analysis of Passive Cavitation Imaging for Classification of Histotripsy-Induced Liquefaction in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Kenneth B; Haworth, Kevin J; Maxwell, Adam D; Holland, Christy K

    2018-01-01

    Histotripsy utilizes focused ultrasound to generate bubble clouds for transcutaneous tissue liquefaction. Bubble activity maps are under development to provide image guidance and monitor treatment progress. The aim of this paper was to investigate the feasibility of using plane wave B-mode and passive cavitation images to be used as binary classifiers of histotripsy-induced liquefaction. Prostate tissue phantoms were exposed to histotripsy pulses over a range of pulse durations (5- ) and peak negative pressures (12-23 MPa). Acoustic emissions were recorded during the insonation and beamformed to form passive cavitation images. Plane wave B-mode images were acquired following the insonation to detect the hyperechoic bubble cloud. Phantom samples were sectioned and stained to delineate the liquefaction zone. Correlation between passive cavitation and plane wave B-mode images and the liquefaction zone was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Liquefaction of the phantom was observed for all the insonation conditions. The area under the ROC (0.94 versus 0.82), accuracy (0.90 versus 0.83), and sensitivity (0.81 versus 0.49) was greater for passive cavitation images relative to B-mode images ( ) along the azimuth of the liquefaction zone. The specificity was greater than 0.9 for both imaging modalities. These results demonstrate a stronger correlation between histotripsy-induced liquefaction and passive cavitation imaging compared with the plane wave B-mode imaging, albeit with limited passive cavitation image range resolution.

  19. Fiscal 1991 report. Coal liquefaction committee; 1991 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The committee in this fiscal year had the 1st meeting in July 1991, the 2nd in August 1991, and the 3rd in March 1992, when fiscal 1990 research and development results, fiscal 1991 research and development programs, fiscal 1991 research and development results, etc., were reported and deliberated. At the 2nd meeting, the meaning of coal liquefaction technology development and how to go ahead with the task were described, which topic for discussion was entitled 'How coal liquefaction technology should be for the 21st century.' After discussion, it was agreed upon that a coal liquefaction technology package be completed in fiscal 2000 based on the absorption of each other's findings and on the utilization of basic studies common to both to be realized through the exchange of technologies between the brown coal liquefaction project and the bituminous coal liquefaction project. Under the brown coal liquefaction project, a 50 ton/day pilot plant was built and operated in Victoria, Australia, and the operation was completed in October 1990. The results of research and development under the coal brown liquefaction project will be compiled by fiscal 1993. (NEDO)

  20. Effect of pre-swelling of coal on its liquefaction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Meixia Cao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The effects of pre-swelling of Shenhua coal on its liquefaction property were studied in this paper. It was found that pre-swelling treatments of Shenhua coal in three solvents, i.e toluene (TOL), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and tetralin (THN) increased its liquefaction conversion, and the liquefied product distributions were also quite different. Removal of the pre-swelling solvent from the swollen coals further increased the liquefaction conversion compared to that of the swollen coals with the swelling solvent existed in them. It was found that oil and gas yields for the liquefaction of swollen coals in NMP and TOL with swelling solvent existed dramatically decreased. Pre-swelling in THN at 120{sup o}C gave the highest liquefaction conversion, however the liquefaction conversion decreased with the increase of pre-swelling temperature in the case of NMP. TG and FTIR analyses of raw coal, the swollen coals and liquefied products were carried out and the mechanism of the effects of pre-swelling of coal on its extraction and liquefaction behaviors were probed in the paper. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  2. Survey on development of brown coal liquefaction techniques; Kattan ekika gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-01

    Described herein are results of literature survey on brown coal liquefaction reactions and elementary techniques. Liquefaction of brown coal in the presence of CO and steam, or CO, H{sub 2} and steam has been investigated. It is not clear by the literature survey whether it is superior to the normal process which uses hydrogen. Brown coal contains moisture at high contents, and the drying techniques are necessary to be developed for its liquefaction. The future coal liquefaction plant will be much larger than the past one, and there are a number of problems to be solved, such as those involved in the designs of large-sized high-pressure slurry pumps, heat exchangers and preheaters. It is also necessary to develop the materials of and production techniques for large reactors which are serviceable under severe conditions. The solid-liquid separation for liquefaction products involves a number of the elementary techniques characteristic of coal liquefaction processes, and needs many technological developments. The one-stage brown coal liquefaction process is compared with the two-stage process for the secondary hydrogenation of SCR, but no clear conclusions are reached. (NEDO)

  3. Liquefaction induced by earthquakes in Japan. Jiban no ekijoka/ekijoka saigai chosa kenkyu no seika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tono, I [Nation Inst. for Enviromental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1992-09-01

    Disaster caused by liquefaction is an important problem for the development of water-front because most of the places suffered from liquefaction disasters recently are located on sandy grounds. The damaged cases in the past due to liquefaction induced by earthquakes are grouped into: subsidence and inclination caused by the loss of supporting force of the ground, coming to the surface of buried structures due to excess pore hydrostatic pressure, destruction of lifeline accompanying the fluidization of ground, breakdown of bulkhead, retaining wall, etc. by increased earth pressure, sinking of soil structures, ground fissure, sliding, and immersion in floods and submergence of farms due to spouting of underground water. As regards prediction of liquefaction, description is made on the prediction of the occurrence of liquefaction and liquefaction prediction for which sedimentation environment is taken into consideration. Open-cut investigation can be said as the most effective means for accurate learning of the depth, thickness and sedimentation structure of liquefied layers. Liquefaction layers found in remains are also introduced. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  4. FY 1991 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section; 1991 nendo rekiseitan ekikabukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the bituminous coal liquefaction section in FY 1991. In the 1st bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting, report/discussion were made on the outline of the plan on the FY 1991 research using pilot plant and the support study of pilot plant. In the 2nd section meeting, report was made on 'How the development of coal liquefaction technology should be in the 21st century,' a report made by the joint section of bituminous coal/brown coal liquefaction. In the 3rd section meeting, report/discussion were made on the state of progress of the FY 1991 R and D and results. In the study using the bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant, report was made on the outline of construction of a 150t/d pilot plant, study on the acquisition of material balance, analytical study of the data on liquefaction tower, testing survey on properties of coal slurry, and testing survey on slurry preheating furnace. In the support study of pilot plant, report was made on the study using 1t/d PUS, study on the development of the optimum coal refining technology and improvement in the distillate distribution, study of conditions for coal liquefaction and study of solvent hydrogenation catalyst. (NEDO)

  5. Necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updated by: Frank A. Greco, MD, PhD, Director, Biophysical Laboratory, Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Hospital, Bedford, MA. ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  6. Clinical pathology of acute necrotising pancreatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nordback, I; Lauslahti, K

    1986-01-01

    Seventy nine pancreatic specimens were obtained from patients treated with pancreatic resection for acute necrotising pancreatitis. The necrotising process had started in the periphery of the gland, so that eight of seventy nine cases contained peripancreatic (mainly fat) necrosis only without any parenchymal necrosis. Peripheral parenchymal necrosis was characterised by a severe inflammatory reaction, with multinucleated leucocytes and microabscess. In the deep parts of the pancreas coagulat...

  7. Hydrogen Transfer during Liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite to Biomass; Total Reaction Transformation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunoglu, Cemil; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-12-01

    Given the high cost of the tetraline solvent commonly used in liquefaction, the use of manure with EL is an important factor when considering the high cost of using tetraline as a hydrogen transfer source. In addition, due to the another cost factor which is the catalyst prices, red mud (commonly used, produced as a byproduct in the production of aluminium) is reduced cost in the work of liquefaction of coal, biomass, even coal combined biomass, corresponding that making the EL liquefaction an agenda for our country is another important factor. Conditions for liquefaction experiments conducted for hydrogen transfer from manure to coal; Catalyst concentration of 9%, liquid/solid ratio of 3/1, reaction time of 60 min, fertilizer/lignite ratio of 1/3, and the reaction temperature of 400 °C, the stirred speed of 400 rpm and the initial nitrogen pressure of 20 bar was fixed. In order to demonstrate the hydrogen, transfer from manure to coal, coal is used solely, by using tetraline (also known as a hydrogen carrier) and distilled water which is not hydrogen donor as a solvent in the co-liquefaction of experiments, and also the liquefaction conditions are carried out under an inert (N2) gas atmosphere. According to the results of the obtained liquefaction test; using tetraline solvent the total liquid product conversion percentage of the oil + gas conversion was 38.3 %, however, the results of oil+gas conversion obtained using distilled water and EL combined with manure the total liquid product conversion percentage was 7.4 %. According to the results of calorific value and elemental analysis, only the ratio of (H/C)atomic of coal obtained by using tetraline increased with the liquefaction of manure and distilled water. The reason of the increase in the amount of hydrogen due to hydrogen transfer from the manure on the solid surface of the coal, and also on the surface of the inner pore of the coal during the liquefaction, brings about the evaluation of the coal as a

  8. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  9. Experimental validation of a mathematical model for seabed liquefaction in waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kirca, Özgür; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study directed towards the validation of a mathematical model for the buildup of pore water pressure and resulting liquefaction of marine soils under progressive waves. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with silt ( d50 = 0.......070 mm) in a wave flume with a soil pit. Waves with wave heights in the range 7.7-18 cm with the water depth 55 cm and the wave period 1.6 s enabled us to study both the liquefaction and no-liquefaction regime pore water pressure buildup. The experimental data was used to validate the model. A numerical...

  10. [Identifying the severe acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo Tizón, Anais; Targarona Modena, Javier; Málaga Rodríguez, Germán; Barreda Cevasco, Luis

    2011-01-01

    To compare patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis without any additional complications during their hospital stay (Group A) versus patients with Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis with additional complications during their hospital stay (Group B). Data obtained from a pre-existing base from hospitalized patients with diagnosis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in the specialized unit of "Unidad de Pancreatitis Aguda Grave del Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" between 2000 and 2010. Data included patients with diagnosis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis, of ages 18 and over. Data from 215 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis was included. Patients from Group A represented 32% (68) and from Group B 68% (147). Group A had a average of 39 hospitalized days and Group B had an average of 56 days (p=0.01). From Group A 22% had more than 50% of necrosis while 43% of Group B had this extension of necrosis (p pancreatitis, based on the presence of necrosis, behave likewise. It is an extended necrosis, described as more than 50% of pancreatic necrosis, and not the presence itself which will determine additional complications during the course of disease and a greater mortality.

  11. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  12. Exergy analysis of helium liquefaction systems based on modified Claude cycle with two-expanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rijo Jacob; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2011-06-01

    Large-scale helium liquefaction systems, being energy-intensive, demand judicious selection of process parameters. An effective tool for design and analysis of thermodynamic cycles for these systems is exergy analysis, which is used to study the behavior of a helium liquefaction system based on modified Claude cycle. Parametric evaluation using process simulator Aspen HYSYS® helps to identify the effects of cycle pressure ratio and expander flow fraction on the exergetic efficiency of the liquefaction cycle. The study computes the distribution of losses at different refrigeration stages of the cycle and helps in selecting optimum cycle pressures, operating temperature levels of expanders and mass flow rates through them. Results from the analysis may help evolving guidelines for designing appropriate thermodynamic cycles for practical helium liquefaction systems.

  13. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Subtask 3.3 - Feasibility of Direct Coal Liquefaction in the Modern Economic Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Oster; Joshua Strege; Marc Kurz; Anthony Snyder; Melanie Jensen

    2009-06-15

    Coal liquefaction provides an alternative to petroleum for the production of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels. There are two main processes to liquefy coal: direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Because ICL has been demonstrated to a greater extent than DCL, ICL may be viewed as the lower-risk option when it comes to building a coal liquefaction facility. However, a closer look, based on conversion efficiencies and economics, is necessary to determine the optimal technology. This report summarizes historical DCL efforts in the United States, describes the technical challenges facing DCL, overviews Shenhua's current DCL project in China, provides a DCL conceptual cost estimate based on a literature review, and compares the carbon dioxide emissions from a DCL facility to those from an ICL facility.

  15. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  16. Report on results for fiscal 1997 on development of coal liquefaction technology . Development of liquefaction base technology (studies on development and internationalization of environmentally benign coal liquefaction technology); 1997 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu seika hokokusho. Ekika kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu (kankyo chowagata sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu oyobi kokusaika kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The research objective is the development of environmentally benign coal liquefaction technology and the studies on internationalization of coal liquefaction technology. Implemented for the former are (1) research on improvement and rationalization of liquefaction process and (2) research on advancement of liquefaction base technology. In (1), studies were made on in-oil preprocessing technology and scale suppressing measures for the purpose of obtaining reform/high grade of coal, and on improvement of liquefied oil collecting ratio, sophistication of coal slurry and attainment of light oil/high grade from liquefied crude oil for the purpose of optimizing liquefaction reactive conditions and improving a solvent. In (2), in developing high activity/high dispersion type new catalysts, catalytic sufurization behavior and activity manifestation mechanism were explored, as were iron hydroxide based iron ore properties and liquefaction reactive characteristics. The initial reactive characteristics of liquefaction for example were investigated for the purpose of collecting basic data for expanding kinds of coal. In order to attain the latter objective of the research, a feasibility study of liquefaction location was conducted, as were the investigation including sampling of iron ore for catalytic material and the investigation of coal gasification technology. After the completion of the Australian brown coal liquefaction project, the development of the coal liquefaction technology commenced in fiscal 1994 produced a number of useful records and ended in 1997. (NEDO)

  17. Pressure swing adsorption cycle for natural gas pretreatment for liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.E.

    1984-01-10

    An improved apparatus and method for a regeneration of a solid adsorbent used to pretreat a gas before liquefaction. The spent adsorbent is subjected to a two-step regenerative process, in the first of which the adsorbent is subjected to a low pressure produced by the use of mechanical vacuum pumps. When the pressure of the atmosphere in contact with the adsorbent has been reduced to a level sufficiently low to insure that the gas will flow under laminar rather than viscous conditions, the adsorbent is exposed to the action of a cryoplate condenser maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause any molecules of water which impinge thereon to condense and freeze, thereby reducing the partial pressure of water vapor within the chamber. The reduced partial pressure of the water vapor in turn causes adsorbed water on the adsorbent to be desorbed, thereby effectively removing the water from the adsorbent and depositing it as solid ice on the cryoplate condenser.

  18. Experimental Study of Subcritical Water Liquefaction of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    In this work, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of wood industry residues (wood, bark, sawdust) and macroalgae for producing biofuels has been investigated under subcritical water conditions (at temperature of 300 C), with and without the presence of catalyst. The effects of catalyst and biomass type...... bio-crudes were analyzed. The results showed that the higher heating values (HHVs) were in the range of 24.15 to 31.79 MJ/kg, and they were enhanced in the presence of catalyst, except for that of the macroalgae. The solid residues were characterized by heating value, SEM and FTIR. It was found...... that the addition of K2CO3 lowered the solids quality in terms of the heating values, while it did not have apparent effect on the functional groups of solid residues. SEM analysis of the raw biomass and solid residues revealed that the char formation for wood, sawdust and macroalgae had initially finished when...

  19. An optimum cold end configuration for helium liquefaction cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minta, M.; Smith, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the effect of the non-ideal behavior of helium at low temperature on the performance of helium liquefaction cycles. The effect is isolated by means of a continuum model for the precooling stage. The cold end losses are due primarily to the composite effect of the non-ideality of helium at low temperatures and the heat exchanger losses, in addition to the component losses fixed by the expander/compressor efficiencies. Topics considered include continuously distributed full-pressure ratio expanders, continuously distributed full-flow expanders, the heat exchange effect (ideal gas working fluid, real gas working fluid), and cold end configuration. The cold end configuration minimizes the cycle cold end losses

  20. Characterization of solid residues from coal liquefaction processes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; McDougall, W.M.; Kybett, B.D.; Neufeld, C.

    1981-01-01

    Various coal liquefaction and beneficiation processes are being investigated by independent research groups sponsored by the Canadian Federal Government. These processes include the co-processing of heavy oils and bitumen with coal, oxygen removal and hydrogenation of coal and supercritical gas extraction of coal. The end products, gaseous and liquid fuels and insoluble organic residues, vary with the experimental conditions. The physical properties and origin of the insoluble residue may influence such factors as degree of conversion, efficiency of the process, and ultimately, gaseous and liquid yields. One of the most suitable methods of assessing the nature of the insoluble residues is the use of petrography. This report deals with petrographic assessment of the coals and residues from various coal conversion processes; attempts were made to characterize the solid phases in the residues; to assess them in a quantitative manner and where possible; to correlate the results with experimental data; and to assess their effects on conversion. (30 refs.)

  1. System evaluation of offshore platforms with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; de Oliveira Júnior, Silvio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Floating, production, storage and offloading plants are facilities used for offshore processing of hydrocarbons in remote locations. At present, the produced gas is injected back into the reservoir instead of being exported. The implementation of refrigeration processes offshore for liqu......Abstract Floating, production, storage and offloading plants are facilities used for offshore processing of hydrocarbons in remote locations. At present, the produced gas is injected back into the reservoir instead of being exported. The implementation of refrigeration processes offshore...... improvements are discussed based on an energy and exergy analysis. Compared to a standard platform where gas is directly injected into the reservoir, the total power consumption increases by up to 50%, and the exergy destruction within the processing plant doubles when a liquefaction system is installed....... It is therefore essential to conduct a careful analysis of the trade-off between the capital costs and operating revenues for such options....

  2. Zeolites as Catalysts for Fuels Refining after Indirect Liquefaction Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno de Klerk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of zeolite catalysts for the refining of products from methanol synthesis and Fisher–Tropsch synthesis was reviewed. The focus was on fuels refining processes and differences in the application to indirect liquefaction products was compared to petroleum, which is often a case of managing different molecules. Processes covered were skeletal isomerisation of n-butenes, hydroisomerisation of n-butane, aliphatic alkylation, alkene oligomerisation, methanol to hydrocarbons, ethanol and heavier alcohols to hydrocarbons, carbonyls to hydrocarbons, etherification of alkenes with alcohols, light naphtha hydroisomerisation, catalytic naphtha reforming, hydroisomerisation of distillate, hydrocracking and fluid catalytic cracking. The zeolite types that are already industrially used were pointed out, as well as zeolite types that have future promise for specific conversion processes.

  3. Low-Cost Methane Liquefaction Plant and Vehicle Refueling Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilding, B.; Bramwell, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently negotiating a collaborative effort with Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) that will advance the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel. We plan to develop and demonstrate a small-scale methane liquefaction plant (production of 5,000 to 10,000 gallons per day) and a low-cost ($150,000) LNG refueling station to supply fuel to LNG-powered transit buses and other heavy-duty vehicles. INEEL will perform the research and development work. PG and E will deploy the new facilities commercially in two demonstration projects, one in northern California, and one in southern California

  4. GIS-based soil liquefaction susceptibility map of Mumbai city for earthquake events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaske, Sumedh Yamaji; Choudhury, Deepankar

    2010-03-01

    The problem of liquefaction of soil during seismic event is one of the important topics in the field of Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Liquefaction of soil is generally occurs in loose cohesionless saturated soil when pore water pressure increases suddenly due to induced ground motion and shear strength of soil decreases to zero and leading the structure situated above to undergo a large settlement, or failure. The failures took place due to liquefaction induced soil movement spread over few square km area continuously. Hence this is a problem where spatial variation involves and to represent this spatial variation Geographic Information System (GIS) is very useful in decision making about the area subjected to liquefaction. In this paper, GIS software GRAM++ is used to prepare soil liquefaction susceptibility map for entire Mumbai city in India by marking three zones viz. critically liquefiable soil, moderately liquefiable soil and non liquefiable soil. Extensive field borehole test data for groundwater depth, standard penetration test (SPT) blow counts, dry density, wet density and specific gravity, etc. have been collected from different parts of Mumbai. Simplified procedure of Youd et al. (2001) is used for calculation of factor of safety against soil liquefaction potential. Mumbai city and suburban area are formed by reclaiming lands around seven islands since 1865 till current date and still it is progressing in the area such as Navi Mumbai and beyond Borivali to Mira road suburban area. The factors of safety against soil liquefaction were determined for earthquake moment magnitude ranging from Mw = 5.0 to 7.5. It is found that the areas like Borivali, Malad, Dahisar, Bhandup may prone to liquefaction for earthquake moment magnitude ranging from Mw = 5.0 to 7.5. The liquefaction susceptibility maps were created by using GRAM++ by showing the areas where the factor of safety against the soil liquefaction is less than one. Proposed liquefaction

  5. Avascular necrosis of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.; Genant, H.K.; Lindquist, T.; Chafetz, N.; Steiger, P.; Sanny, J.; Rhodes, M.L.; Rothman, S.L.G.; Delamarter, R.; Kilgus, D.

    1988-01-01

    T1-weighted (repetition time [TR] = 450 msec, echo time [TE] = 20 msec), T2-weighted (TR = 1,800 msec, TE = 20 and 80 msec), and T2*-weighted gradient-echo gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state, TR = 70 msec, TE = 30 msec, theta = 15 0 ) MR images (General Electric Signa, 1.5 T) were generated in 11 patients with avascular necrosis of the hip. Three-dimensional MR image reconstruction was performed on an independent imaging system (IIS, Dimensional Medicine Inc). Pelvic and femoral bone contours were computed based on either the T1-weighted or the T2*-weighted images. Three-dimensional displays of necrotic zones and areas of granulation tissue were computed on the basis of the T2-weighted images. The tissues were simultaneously displayed in the three-dimensional images using different colors and transparencies. The three-dimensional MR images generated demonstrated the extent of the necrotic zone and adjacent granulation tissue and their position relative to the weight-bearing surface. They may soon prove to be useful in preoperative planning and intraoperative localization of complex surgical interventions in avascular necrosis of the hip

  6. Combined Reverse-Brayton Joule Thompson Hydrogen Liquefaction Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimko, Martin A. [Gas Equipment Engineering Corporation, Milford, CT (United States); Dunn, Paul M. [Gas Equipment Engineering Corporation, Milford, CT (United States)

    2011-12-31

    The following is a compilation of Annual Progress Reports submitted to the DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office by Gas Equipment Engineering Corp. for contract DE-FG36-05GO15021. The reports cover the project activities from August 2005 through June 2010. The purpose of this project is to produce a pilot-scale liquefaction plant that demonstrates GEECO’s ability to meet or exceed the efficiency targets set by the DOE. This plant will be used as a model to commercialize this technology for use in the distribution infrastructure of hydrogen fuel. It could also be applied to markets distributing hydrogen for industrial gas applications. Extensive modeling of plant performance will be used in the early part of the project to identify the liquefaction cycle architecture that optimizes the twin goals of increased efficiency and reduced cost. The major challenge of the project is to optimize/balance the performance (efficiency) of the plant against the cost of the plant so that the fully amortized cost of liquefying hydrogen meets the aggressive goals set by DOE. This project will design and build a small-scale pilot plant (several hundred kg/day) that will be both a hardware demonstration and a model for scaling to larger plant sizes (>50,000 kg/day). Though an effort will be made to use commercial or near-commercial components, key components that will need development for either a pilot- or full-scale plant will be identified. Prior to starting pilot plant fabrication, these components will be demonstrated at the appropriate scale to demonstrate sufficient performance for use in the pilot plant and the potential to achieve the performance used in modeling the full-scale plant.

  7. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  8. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  9. Thermal properties of biopolyol from oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF) using solvolysis liquefaction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormin, Shaharuddin; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.

    2017-09-01

    Liquefaction is known to be an effective method for converting biomass into a biopolyol. The biomass liquefaction of oil palm fruit waste (PFW) in the presence of liquefaction solvent/polyhydric alcohol (PA): polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) using sulfuric acid as catalyst was studied. For all experiments, the liquefaction was conducted at 150°C and atmospheric pressure. The mass ratio of OPFW to liquefaction solvents used in all the experiments was, 1/3. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to analyze their biopolyol and residue behaviors. It was found that thermal stability of oil palm mesocarp fibre (PM), oil palm shell (PS) and oil palm kernel (PK) fibre exhibited the first degradation of hard segment at (232, 104, 230°C) and the second degradation of soft segment at (314, 226, 412°C) as compared to PM, PS and PK residue which (229, 102, 227°C) of hard segment and (310, 219, 299°C) of segment, respectively. This behavior of thermal degradation of the hard segment and soft segment of biopolyol was changes after undergo solvolysis liquefaction process. The result analysis showed that the resulting biopolyol and its residue was suitable monomer for polyurethane (PU) synthesis for the production of PU foams.

  10. Prediction of strain energy-based liquefaction resistance of sand-silt mixtures: An evolutionary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziar, Mohammad H.; Jafarian, Yaser; Shahnazari, Habib; Movahed, Vahid; Amin Tutunchian, Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    Liquefaction is a catastrophic type of ground failure, which usually occurs in loose saturated soil deposits under earthquake excitations. A new predictive model is presented in this study to estimate the amount of strain energy density, which is required for the liquefaction triggering of sand-silt mixtures. A wide-ranging database containing the results of cyclic tests on sand-silt mixtures was first gathered from previously published studies. Input variables of the model were chosen from the available understandings evolved from the previous studies on the strain energy-based liquefaction potential assessment. In order to avoid overtraining, two sets of validation data were employed and a particular monitoring was made on the behavior of the evolved models. Results of a comprehensive parametric study on the proposed model are in accord with the previously published experimental observations. Accordingly, the amount of strain energy required for liquefaction onset increases with increase in initial effective overburden pressure, relative density, and mean grain size. The effect of nonplastic fines on strain energy-based liquefaction resistance shows a more complicated behavior. Accordingly, liquefaction resistance increases with increase in fines up to about 10-15% and then starts to decline for a higher increase in fines content. Further verifications of the model were carried out using the valuable results of some downhole array data as well as centrifuge model tests. These verifications confirm that the proposed model, which was derived from laboratory data, can be successfully utilized under field conditions.

  11. Effect of pre-swelling of coal on its solvent extraction and liquefaction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Meixia Cao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-10-15

    Effects of pre-swelling of coal on solvent extraction and liquefaction properties were studied with Shenhua coal. It was found that pre-swelling treatments of the coal in three solvents, i.e., toluene (TOL), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and tetralin (THN) increased its extraction yield and liquefaction conversion, and differed the liquefied product distributions. The pre-swollen coals after removing the swelling solvents showed increased conversion in liquefaction compared with that of the swollen coals in the presence of swelling solvents. It was also found that the yields of (oil + gas) in liquefaction of the pre-swollen coals with NMP and TOL dramatically decreased in the presence of swelling solvent. TG and FTIR analyses of the raw coal, the swollen coals and the liquefied products were carried out in order to investigate the mechanism governing the effects of pre-swelling treatment on coal extraction and liquefaction. The results showed that the swelling pre-treatment could disrupt some non-covalent interactions of the coal molecules, relax its network structure and loosened the coal structure. It would thus benefit diffusion of a hydrogen donor solvent into the coal structure during liquefaction, and also enhance the hydrogen donating ability of the hydrogen-rich species derived from the coal. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Preliminary study of soil liquefaction hazard at Terengganu shoreline, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, H.; Suhatril, M.; Hashim, R.

    2017-06-01

    Terengganu is a shoreline state located in Peninsular Malaysia which is a growing hub for port industries and tourism centre. The northern part offers pristine settings of a relax beach areas whereas the southern part are observed to be a growing centre for development. The serious erosion on soil deposit along the beach line presents vulnerable soil condition to soil liquefaction consists of sandy with low plasticity and shallow ground water. Moreover, local earthquake from nearby fault have present significant tremors over the past few years which need to be considered in the land usage or future development in catering the seismic loading. Liquefaction analysis based on field standard penetration of soil is applied on 546 boreholes scattered along the shoreline areas ranging 244 km of shoreline stretch. Based on simplified approach, it is found that more than 70% of the studied areas pose high liquefaction potential since there are saturated loose sand and silt deposits layer ranges at depth 3 m and up to 20 m. The presence of clay deposits and hard stratum at the remaining 30% of the studied areas shows good resistance to soil liquefaction hence making the area less significant to liquefaction hazard. Result indicates that liquefaction improving technique is advisable in future development of shoreline areas of Terengganu state.

  13. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 20. 1995 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The paper described a summary of the 1995 study on coal liquefaction and gasification under the New Sunshine Project. As for coal liquefaction, a study was made of liquefaction characteristics and catalysts of various coals. Also studied were liquefaction conditions for quality improvement of liquefaction products, an evaluation method of quality of coal liquid, and a utilization method of coal liquid. In order to prevent carbonization and realize effective liquefaction, a study was conducted for elucidation of the reaction mechanism of high pressure hydrogenation. In a 150t/d pilot plant using hydrogen transfer hydrogenation solvents, the NEDOL method was studied using various catalysts and kinds of coals. This is a step prior to data acquisition for engineering, actual construction of equipment and operation. A 1t/d process supporting unit is a unit to support it. The unit conducts studies on slurry letdown valves and synthetic iron sulfide catalysts, screening of Chinese coals, etc. As to coal gasification, the paper added to the basic research the combined cycle power generation using entrained flow coal gasification for improvement of thermal efficiency and environmental acceptability and the HYCOL method for hydrogen production. 68 refs., 40 figs.

  14. Effect of Recycle Solvent Hydrotreatment on Oil Yield of Direct Coal Liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shansong Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the recycle solvent hydrotreatment on oil yield of direct coal liquefaction were carried out in the 0.18 t/day direct coal liquefaction bench support unit of National Engineering Laboratory for Direct Coal Liquefaction (China. Results showed that the hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent improved and the hydrogen consumption of solvent hydrotreatment was increased by decreasing liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 and increasing reaction pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent was enhanced, thus promoting the oil yield and coal conversion of the liquefaction reaction. The coal conversion and distillates yield of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.74% to 88.82% and from 47.41% to 49.10%, respectively, with the increase in the solvent hydrotreatment pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The coal conversion and distillates of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.82% to 89.27% and from 49.10% to 54.49%, respectively, when the LHSV decreased from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 under the solvent hydrotreatment pressure of 19.0 MPa.

  15. A novel process for small-scale pipeline natural gas liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, T.B.; Ju, Y.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel process was proposed to liquefy natural gas by utilizing the pressure exergy. • The process is zero energy consumption. • The maximum liquefaction rate of the process is 12.61%. • The maximum exergy utilization rate is 0.1961. • The economic analysis showed that the payback period of the process is quit short. - Abstract: A novel process for small-scale pipeline natural gas liquefaction is designed and presented. The novel process can utilize the pressure exergy of the pipeline to liquefy a part of natural gas without any energy consumption. The thermodynamic analysis including mass, energy balance and exergy analysis are adopted in this paper. The liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate are chosen as the objective functions. Several key parameters are optimized to approach the maximum liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate. The optimization results showed that the maximum liquefaction rate is 12.61% and the maximum exergy utilization rate is 0.1961. What is more, the economic performances of the process are also discussed and compared by using the maximum liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate as indexes. In conclusion, the novel process is suitable for pressure exergy utilization due to its simplicity, zero energy consumption and short payback period

  16. Motor fuels made by direct liquefaction of coal, peat and biomass. Drivmedel genom direktfoervaetskning av kol, torv och biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granath, L; Karlsson, G; Karlsson, G; Nilsson, T

    1981-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology has completed a system study concerning direct liquefaction of peat and biomass to produce transportation fuel. A comprehensive survey of coal liquefaction is included. Gasoline produced in Sweden from direct liquefaction of imported coal may compete with regular gasoline at the earliest around 1985. Biomass can become a competitive alternative to black coal at the beginning of the 21st century. Methanol can be produced from wood with a higher efficiency than the transportation fuels which are produced by direct liquefaction. The peat is not good source for liquefaction as wood chips. A continuously working liquefaction plant designed also for peat among other substances is under construction at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.

  17. Divergent effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha on apoptosis of human neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. M.; Weyer, S.; Weening, J. J.; Roos, D.; Kuijpers, T. W.

    2001-01-01

    Apoptosis of neutrophils is a key mechanism to control the intensity of the acute inflammatory response. Previously, the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was reported by some to have pro-apoptotic and by others to have antiapoptotic effects on neutrophils. The aim of this study was

  18. Necrosis and haemorrhage of the putamen in methanol poisoning shown on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteifan, K.; Gutbub, A.M.; Laplatte, G.; Oesterle, H.; Tajahmady, T.

    1998-01-01

    Methanol, a highly toxic substance, is used as an industrial solvent and in automobile antifreeze. Acute methanol poisoning produces severe metabolic acidosis and serious neurologic sequelae. We describe a 50-year-old woman with accidental methanol intoxication who was in a vegetative state. MRI showed haemorrhagic necrosis of the putamina and oedema in the deep white matter. (orig.)

  19. Cation dyshomeostasis and cardiomyocyte necrosis: the Fleckenstein hypothesis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Brian J.; Cheema, Yaser; Shahbaz, Atta U.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Weber, Karl T.

    2011-01-01

    An ongoing loss of cardiomyocytes to apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways contributes to the progressive nature of heart failure. The pathophysiological origins of necrotic cell loss relate to the neurohormonal activation that accompanies acute and chronic stressor states and which includes effector hormones of the adrenergic nervous system. Fifty years ago, Albrecht Fleckenstein and coworkers hypothesized the hyperadrenergic state, which accompanies such stressors, causes cardiomyocyte necrosis based on catecholamine-initiated excessive intracellular Ca2+ accumulation (EICA), and mitochondrial Ca2+ overloading in particular, in which the ensuing dysfunction and structural degeneration of these organelles leads to necrosis. In recent years, two downstream factors have been identified which, together with EICA, constitute a signal–transducer–effector pathway: (i) mitochondria-based induction of oxidative stress, in which the rate of reactive oxygen metabolite generation exceeds their rate of detoxification by endogenous antioxidant defences; and (ii) the opening of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability transition pore (mPTP) followed by organellar swelling and degeneration. The pathogenesis of stress-related cardiomyopathy syndromes is likely related to this pathway. Other factors which can account for cytotoxicity in stressor states include: hypokalaemia; ionized hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia with resultant elevations in parathyroid hormone serving as a potent mediator of EICA; and hypozincaemia with hyposelenaemia, which compromise antioxidant defences. Herein, we revisit the Fleckenstein hypothesis of EICA in leading to cardiomyocyte necrosis and the central role played by mitochondria. PMID:21398641

  20. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 2; Bisai sorui to sekitan no kyoekika hanno. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Otsuki, M.; Ikenaga, N.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    For the removal and recycle of CO2, a global warming gas, utilization of photosynthesis by micro algae is investigated. Formed micro algae are decomposed into CO2, H2O and CH4 again, which does not result in the permanent fixation. For the effective utilization of these micro algae, creation of petroleum alternate energy was tried through the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. Were investigated influences of the reaction temperature during the co-liquefaction and influences of catalysts, such as Fe(CO)5-S, Ru(CO)12, and Mo(CO)6-S, which are effective for the coal liquefaction. Micro algae, such as chlorella, spirulina, and littorale, and Yallourn brown coal were tested. It was found that co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal can be successfully proceeded under the same conditions as the liquefaction of coal. The oil yield obtained from the co-liquefaction in the presence of Fe(CO)5-S, an effective catalyst for coal liquefaction, agreed appropriately with the arithmetical mean value from separate liquefaction of coal and micro algae. It was suggested that pyrrhotite, an active species for coal liquefaction, was sufficiently formed by increasing the addition of sulfur. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval Eimar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous biogenous sands Calcareous sands are usually composed of skeletal or non-skeletal remains of marine organisms, with unique characteristics in terms of their mineralogy surface roughness, particle shape, crushability, and intraparticle porosity. The unique characteristics of calcareous sands suggest that their geotechnical engineering behaviour can be substantially different compared to that of terrigenous sands, including their behaviour under seismic loading, which have not been very well studied

    This paper presents the results of an experimental programme aimed at studying the cyclic liquefaction resistance of uncemented calcareous biogenous sands retrieved from south-western Puerto Rico Evaluation of liquefaction potential involved a comprehensive set of isotropically consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial tests on reconstituted samples of this calcareous sand. The programme also included tests on Ottawa terrigenous silica sand samples prepared and tested in similar conditions for comparison purposes.

    In general, the experimental results showed that Cabo Rojo calcareous sands had higher liquefaction resistance compared to Ottawa silica sands tested under similar conditions. Important differences between calcareous and silica sands regarding pore pressure generation characteristics and axial strain accumulation were also observed


  2. Mastectomy skin necrosis after microsurgical breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Christina R; Koolen, Pieter G; Anderson, Katarina E; Paul, Marek A; Tobias, Adam M; Lin, Samuel J; Lee, Bernard T

    2015-10-01

    Mastectomy skin necrosis represents a significant clinical morbidity after immediate breast reconstruction. In addition to aesthetic deformity, necrosis of the native mastectomy skin may require debridement, additional reconstruction, or prolonged wound care and potentially delay oncologic treatment. This study aims to evaluate patient and procedural characteristics to identify predictors of mastectomy skin necrosis after microsurgical breast reconstruction. A retrospective review was performed of all immediate microsurgical breast reconstructions performed at a single academic center. Patient records were queried for age, diabetes, active smoking, previous breast surgery, preoperative radiation, preoperative chemotherapy, body mass index, mastectomy type, mastectomy weight, flap type, autologous flap type, and postoperative mastectomy skin flap necrosis. There were 746 immediate autologous microsurgical flaps performed by three plastic surgeons at our institution during the study period. The incidence of mastectomy skin flap necrosis was 13.4%. Univariate analysis revealed a significantly higher incidence of mastectomy skin necrosis in patients with higher mastectomy weight (P mastectomy type. Multivariate analysis demonstrated statistically significant associations between mastectomy skin necrosis and both increasing mastectomy weight (odds ratio 1.348 per quartile increase, P = 0.009) and diabetes (odds ratio 2.356, P = 0.011). Increasing mastectomy weight and coexisting diabetes are significantly associated with postoperative mastectomy skin necrosis after microsurgical reconstruction. These characteristics should be considered during patient counseling, procedure selection, operative planning, and intraoperative tissue viability assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Liquefaction susceptibility of fine-grained soils: preliminary study report. Final report, September 1985-March 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, N.Y.

    1987-09-01

    Soil liquefaction, a hazardous ground failure induced by strong motion earthquakes, can cause catastrophic damage to structures such as dams, bridges, power plants, and water-front structures and may involve great losses of life. Examples of liquefaction and resulting damage were observed during the Alaska (1964), Niigata, Japan (1964), and Tangshan, China (1976), earthquakes. Ground failure due to earthquake-induced soil liquefaction may manifest itself as excessive settlement, loss of bearing capacity, sand boiling, and flow slides. The liquefaction potential of clean sands has been studied extensively for the last two decades. However, case histories revealed that liquefied sands were seldom clean. They may contain various percentages of silt or clay or both. In fact, the Chinese observation in the Tansghan earthquake indicated that some cohesive soils may have liquefied. If this indeed had happened, then structures underlain by fine-grained soils, with a marginal safety factor based on the liquefaction criteria normally applied to sands, may actually be unsafe. Thus there is an urgent need for establishing new criteria for the liquefaction susceptibility of soils to include those identified as fine-grained. The author, Professor N.Y. Chang of the University of Colorado at Denver, visited several Chinese agencies and and universities in and near Beijing, China, in the summer of 1985 in an attempt to investigate and verify reported data on the liquefaction of cohesive soils during the Tangshan earthquake of 1976 and to negotiate cooperative research into the problem. This report presents the result of supportive literature review and the findings of the China trip.

  4. Design of a Natural Gas Liquefaction System with Minimum Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergese, Franco

    2004-01-01

    In this work an economic method for liquefying natural gas by diminishing its temperature by means of the Joule-Thomson effect is presented.The pressures from and to which the gas must be expanded arose from a thermodynamic calculation optimizing the cost per unit mass of Liquefied Natural Gas LNG).It was determined that the gas should be expanded from 200 atm to 4 atm.This expansion ratio can be used in different scales.Large Scale: liquefaction of gas at well.It takes advantage of the fact that the gas inside the well is stored at high pressure.The gas is expanded in a valve / nozzle and then compressed to the pressure of the local pipeline system.The objective of this project is to export natural gas as LNG, which is transported by ships to the markets of consumption.Using this method of liquefaction, the LNG production levels are limited to a fraction of the production of the well, due to the injection of the un condensed gas into the local pipelines system.Medium Scale: A high pressure pipeline is the source of the gas.The expansion is performed and then the gas is again compressed to the pressure of a lower pressure pipeline into which the gas is injected.The pressure reductions of natural gas are performed nearby big cities.The aim of this project scale is the storage of fuel for gas thermal power plants during periods of low energy consumption for later burning when the resource is limited. Another possibility that offers this size of plant is the transportation of gas to regions where the resource is unavailable.This transportation would be carried out by means of cistern trucks, in the same way that conventional liquid fuels are transported.Small scale: the place of production would be a CNG refueling station. The source of gas is in this case a gas pipeline of urban distribution and the gas should be compressed with the compressor of the refueling station.Compressors have generally low loading factor and the periods of time when they are not producing

  5. Pathological investigation of radiation necrosis. A case report and histo-pathological analysis of radiation myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N; Yoshimura, N; Ikuta, F [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-05-01

    The brain and spinal cord of an 18-year-old male, who suffered from cerebellar medulloblastoma with subarachnoid spread, had been irradiated by a large amount of Linac X-ray: 14,450 rads to the lower thoracic segments and 7,400 rads to the lumbar segments. The tumor at the roof of the 4th ventricle had disseminated along the ventricular system but was limited to the subarachnoid space of the cervical spinal cord. No remarkable changes were found in the volume or consistency of the thoracic and lumbar cord. Elasticity of the lower thoracic segment was greatly diminished and the cut surfaces were yellowish white and fragile. Microscopically extensive coagulation necrosis was observed with complete disintegration of myelin and axon. Vascular changes were most prominent in the smaller vessels, eg. hyalinous thickening, concentric cleavage, adventitial fibrosis and edema of small artery perivascular spaces, fibrin thrombi occulusion of arterioles and capillaries, and telangiectasia. In the lumbar spinal cord, moderate neuronal degeneration and protoplasmic astrocytosis were observed. Changes in the lumbar posterior white column were considered to be not only secondary degeneration but also a primary lesion caused by irradiation. Liquefactive necrosis in the gray matter of the cervical cord was thought to be a nonspecific circulatory disturbance because of the absence of vascular changes. Vascular changes were thought to be very important in the histological diagnosis of radiation myelopathy and it was supposed that increased permeability of the vessel walls was a factor in coagulation necrosis. They considered this case to have typical histology of radiation myelopathy.

  6. Characterisation of Liquefaction Effects for Beyond-Design Basis Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bán, Zoltán; Győri, Erzsébet; János Katona, Tamás; Tóth, László

    2015-04-01

    Preparedness of nuclear power plants to beyond design base external effects became high importance after 11th of March 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquakes. In case of some nuclear power plants constructed at the soft soil sites, liquefaction should be considered as a beyond design basis hazard. The consequences of liquefaction have to be analysed with the aim of definition of post-event plant condition, identification of plant vulnerabilities and planning the necessary measures for accident management. In the paper, the methodology of the analysis of liquefaction effects for nuclear power plants is outlined. The case of Nuclear Power Plant at Paks, Hungary is used as an example for demonstration of practical importance of the presented results and considerations. Contrary to the design, conservatism of the methodology for the evaluation of beyond design basis liquefaction effects for an operating plant has to be limited to a reasonable level. Consequently, applicability of all existing methods has to be considered for the best estimation. The adequacy and conclusiveness of the results is mainly limited by the epistemic uncertainty of the methods used for liquefaction hazard definition and definition of engineering parameters characterizing the consequences of liquefaction. The methods have to comply with controversial requirements. They have to be consistent and widely accepted and used in the practice. They have to be based on the comprehensive database. They have to provide basis for the evaluation of dominating engineering parameters that control the post-liquefaction response of the plant structures. Experience of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant hit by Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 and analysis of site conditions and plant layout at Paks plant have shown that the differential settlement is found to be the dominating effect in case considered. They have to be based on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and allow the integration into logic

  7. Properties of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to use Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DLCR to modify the asphalt binders and mixtures and to evaluate the performance of modified asphalt mixtures. The dynamic modulus and phase angle of DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixture were analyzed, and the viscoelastic properties of these modified asphalt mixtures were compared to the base asphalt binder SK-90 and Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS modified asphalt mixtures. The master curves of the asphalt mixtures were shown, and dynamic and viscoelastic behaviors of asphalt mixtures were described using the Christensen-Anderson-Marasteanu (CAM model. The test results show that the dynamic moduli of DCLR and DCLR-composite asphalt mixtures are higher than those of the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. Based on the viscoelastic parameters of CAM models of the asphalt mixtures, the high- and low-temperature performance of DLCR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are obviously better than the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. In addition, the DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are more insensitive to the frequency compared to SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures.

  8. Air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, W. H.; Yi, A. C.

    1994-07-01

    A concept is shown for a fully reusable, Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle with horizontal takeoff and landing, employing an air-turborocket for low speed and a rocket for high-speed acceleration, both using liquid hydrogen for fuel. The turborocket employs a modified liquid air cycle to supply the oxidizer. The rocket uses 90% pure liquid oxygen as its oxidizer that is collected from the atmosphere, separated, and stored during operation of the turborocket from about Mach 2 to 5 or 6. The takeoff weight and the thrust required at takeoff are markedly reduced by collecting the rocket oxidizer in-flight. This article shows an approach and the corresponding technology needs for using air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. Reducing the trajectory altitude at the end of collection reduces the wing area and increases payload. The use of state-of-the-art materials, such as graphite polyimide, in a direct substitution for aluminum or aluminum-lithium alloy, is critical to meet the structure weight objective for SSTO. Configurations that utilize 'waverider' aerodynamics show great promise to reduce the vehicle weight.

  9. An entropy flow optimization technique for helium liquefaction cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minta, M.; Smith, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter proposes a new method of analyzing thermodynamic cycles based on a continuous distribution of precooling over the temperature range of the cycle. The method gives the optimum distribution of precooling over the temperature range of the cycle by specifying the mass flow to be expanded at each temperature. The result is used to select a cycle configuration with discrete expansions and to initialize the independent variables for final optimization. Topics considered include the continuous precooling model, the results for ideal gas, the results for real gas, and the application to the design of a saturated vapor compression (SVC) cycle. The optimization technique for helium liquefaction cycles starts with the minimization of the generated entropy in a cycle model with continuous precooling. The pressure ratio, the pressure level and the distribution of the heat exchange are selected based on the results of the continuous precooling analysis. It is concluded that the technique incorporates the non-ideal behavior of helium in the procedure and allows the trade-off between heat exchange area and losses to be determined

  10. Hydrotreating of heavy distillate derived from Wandoan coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Osaka (Japan). Hydrocarbon Research Lab.

    1997-12-03

    The paper reports how the hydrotreatment of coal-derived heavy distillate, obtained from the liquefaction of Wandoan coal using a 1 t/day bench unit, was performed to clarify the effects of catalyst species, reaction temperature and hydrogen pressure on the chemical composition of the product. Experimental runs were carried out over alumina-supported Go-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts in a fixed bed reactor of 20 ml in volume at 350-390{degree}C under hydrogen pressure of 50-150 kg/cm{sup 2}G with liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.5-2 h{sup -1}. The product, as analyzed by gas chromatography, indicated that larger amounts of alkylbenzenes such as toluene or xylenes were produced at the elevated temperature of 390{degree}C, but the concentrations of condensed aromatics such as naphthalene, biphenyl, fluorene and phenanthrene decreased with the severity of reaction conditions. Pyrene and methylpyrene decreased in amount with a shorter LHSV and higher hydrogen pressure, but increased at higher temperature of 390{degree}C. Shorter LHSV and higher hydrogen pressure are much more effective in hydrogenation, hydrodnitrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation than the higher reaction temperature up to 390{degree}C.

  11. [Longjintonglin Capsules for type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction: A clinical observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong-cai; Wan, Chang-chun; Geng, Qiang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Guo-wei; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Longjintonglin Capsules on type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction. We selected 140 patients with type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction according to the diagnostic standards of the American Institutes of Health (NIH) and treated them with Longjintonglin Capsules orally 3 capsules once tid for 12 weeks. We obtained the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Indexes (NIH-CPSI), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome scores, leukocyte count in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS), semen liquefaction time, and the results of semen analysis and compared these indicators before and after the treatment. Of the 140 cases, 132 were included in this study, excluding 8 due to their incomplete case histories. Before and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of medication, the total NIH-CPSI scores were 24.52 ± 5.43, 21.28 ± 4.85, 18.01 ± 4.28, and 14.49 ± 3.65 (P prostatitis were cured and another 72 well responded, with an overall response rate of 78.0%. Of those with abnormal semen liquefaction, 61 were cured, 39 well responded, and 32 failed to respond, with an overall effectiveness rate of 75.8%. Semen analysis showed significantly increased percentage of progressively motile sperm after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of medication as compared with the baseline (P prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction.

  12. Catalytic activity of pyrite for coal liquefaction reaction; Tennen pyrite no shokubai seino ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, K.; Kozu, M.; Okada, T.; Kobayashi, M. [Nippon Coal Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Since natural pyrite is easy to obtain and cheap as coal liquefaction catalyst, it is to be used for the 150 t/d scale NEDOL process bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant. NEDO and NCOL have investigated the improvement of catalytic activity of pulverized natural pyrite for enhancing performance and economy of the NEDOL process. In this study, coal liquefaction tests were conducted using natural pyrite catalyst pulverized by dry-type bowl mill under nitrogen atmosphere. Mechanism of catalytic reaction of the natural pyrite was discussed from relations between properties of the catalyst and liquefaction product. The natural pyrite provided an activity to transfer gaseous hydrogen into the liquefaction product. It was considered that pulverized pyrite promotes the hydrogenation reaction of asphaltene because pulverization increases its contact rate with reactant and the amount of active points on its surface. It was inferred that catalytic activity of pyrite is affected greatly by the chemical state of Fe and S on its surface. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Retesting of liquefaction and nonliquefaction case histories from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R.E.S.; Kayen, R.E.; Tong, L.-Y.; Liu, S.-Y.; Cai, G.-J.; Wu, J.

    2011-01-01

    A field investigation was performed to retest liquefaction and nonliquefaction sites from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake in China. These sites were carefully investigated in 1978 and 1979 by using standard penetration test (SPT) and cone penetration test (CPT) equipment; however, the CPT measurements are obsolete because of the now nonstandard cone that was used at the time. In 2007, a modern cone was mobilized to retest 18 selected sites that are particularly important because of the intense ground shaking they sustained despite their high fines content and/or because the site did not liquefy. Of the sites reinvestigated and carefully reprocessed, 13 were considered accurate representative case histories. Two of the sites that were originally investigated for liquefaction have been reinvestigated for cyclic failure of fine-grained soil and removed from consideration for liquefaction triggering. The most important outcome of these field investigations was the collection of more accurate data for three nonliquefaction sites that experienced intense ground shaking. Data for these three case histories is now included in an area of the liquefaction triggering database that was poorly populated and will help constrain the upper bound of future liquefaction triggering curves. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  14. A study on the hydrotreating of coal hydro liquefaction residue and its kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Lu, X.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-09-15

    Hydro-conversion of coal hydro liquefaction residue obtained from a 6 t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydro liquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 {sup o}C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydro liquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydro liquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ-mol{sup -1}. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values. (authors)

  15. Fiscal 1991 report on the brown coal liquefaction section meeting; 1991 nendo kattan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    At the 1st through 5th brown coal liquefaction group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are delivered and discussions are made about the progress of research and development. At the 1st meeting, a fiscal 1991 brown coal liquefaction research plan is introduced, and discussed. At the 2nd meeting, an interim report on the brown coal liquefaction technology development project is discussed. At the 3rd meeting (a joint meeting of the brown coal and bituminous coal liquefaction groups), an agendum entitled 'what the development of brown/bituminous coal liquefaction technologies for the 21st century should be' is reported, and discussed. At the 4th meeting, reports are made on the results of deliberation at the Industrial Technology Council, progress of the follow-up study, progress of the collection of achievements, and so forth. At the 5th meeting, the outline of the follow-up study, the collection of achievements in the pilot plant study (a project report preparation schedule and materials evaluation), the progress of pilot plant dismantling work, etc., are reported and discussed. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1989 report. Coal liquefaction committee; 1989 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The committee in this fiscal year had its 1st meeting in June 1989 and 2nd meeting in March 1990, when fiscal 1989 research and development programs and fiscal 1989 research and development results, etc., were reported and discussed. The operating status of the 1 ton/day PSU (process supporting unit) for bituminous coal liquefaction was reported and discussed. The report included its 1st operation for the demonstration of a long-term stable run under standard conditions that continued for trouble-free 50 days, the 2nd operation for the investigation of the effect of liquefaction reaction temperature in which the liquefaction yield recorded the maximum at 450 degrees C with the collection of coal oils of 55 wt.% on the average, and the 3rd operation for the investigation of the effects of liquefaction reaction pressure and catalyst injection size whose details were being analyzed. Reported in relation with the brown coal liquefaction pilot plant was a comprehensive operation of a series of 1st hydrogenation, solvent deashing, and 2nd hydrogenation processes completed after a continuous operation of 460 hours establishing a total operating time of 1050 hours. (NEDO)

  17. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential in Defence Housing Authority, Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Asif Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of liquefaction phenomenon may be induced in the event of a large magnitude earthquake but sometimes loose, saturated and poorly graded sand may be subjected to liquefaction due to the vibration produced by other sources. Liquefaction could cause damage to building and infrastructure due to sudden increase of pore pressure in the loose layers of saturated sand causing the loss of bearing capacity and shear strength. Defence Housing Authority (DHA is the well planned residential scheme established by Pakistan Army along the coastal belt of Karachi. The soil occurring in DHA is fine grained, poorly graded and mainly comprises of sandy silt and silty sand of Recent age, where water table is encountered at very shallow depth. Hence, it is important to assess the geotechnical behavior of the soil in DHA area, where most of the high rise buildings and mega civil structures are being constructed. In present study, seismic soil liquefaction was evaluated at 15 sites (30 bore holes in DHA by using simplified empirical method in terms of Factor of Safety (FS. The Relative Density (RD was determined with the help of Standard Penetration Test (SPT data. Grain size analysis was also carried out on each borehole samples. The results revealed that the DHA area is vulnerable to liquefaction during severe seismic event of magnitude between 6.5 and 7.5 in Karachi.

  18. Fiscal 1991 report on the brown coal liquefaction section meeting; 1991 nendo kattan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    At the 1st through 5th brown coal liquefaction group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are delivered and discussions are made about the progress of research and development. At the 1st meeting, a fiscal 1991 brown coal liquefaction research plan is introduced, and discussed. At the 2nd meeting, an interim report on the brown coal liquefaction technology development project is discussed. At the 3rd meeting (a joint meeting of the brown coal and bituminous coal liquefaction groups), an agendum entitled 'what the development of brown/bituminous coal liquefaction technologies for the 21st century should be' is reported, and discussed. At the 4th meeting, reports are made on the results of deliberation at the Industrial Technology Council, progress of the follow-up study, progress of the collection of achievements, and so forth. At the 5th meeting, the outline of the follow-up study, the collection of achievements in the pilot plant study (a project report preparation schedule and materials evaluation), the progress of pilot plant dismantling work, etc., are reported and discussed. (NEDO)

  19. Programmed necrosis and necroptosis – molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Giżycka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Programmed necrosis has been proven vital for organism development and homeostasis maintenance. Its regulatory effects on functional activity of the immune system, as well as on pathways regulating the death mechanisms in cells with diminished apoptotic activity, including malignant cells, have been confirmed. There is also increasing evidence indicating necrosis involvement in many human pathologies. Contrary to previous beliefs, necrosis is not only a passive, pathological, gene-independent process. However, the current knowledge regarding molecular regulation of programmed necrosis is scarce. In part this is due to the multiplicity and complexity of signaling pathways involved in programmed necrosis, as well as the absence of specific cellular markers identifying this process, but also the ambiguous and imprecise international terminology. This review presents the current state of the art on molecular mechanisms of programmed necrosis. In particular, its specific and frequent form, necroptosis, is discussed. The role of RIP1 and RIP3 kinases in this process is presented, as well as the diverse pathways induced by ligation of tumor necrosis factor α, to its receptor, TNFR1, i.e. cell survival, apoptosis or necroptosis.

  20. Regulation of Tumor Progression by Programmed Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing malignant tumors frequently encounter hypoxia and nutrient (e.g., glucose deprivation, which occurs because of insufficient blood supply. This results in necrotic cell death in the core region of solid tumors. Necrotic cells release their cellular cytoplasmic contents into the extracellular space, such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, which is a nonhistone nuclear protein, but acts as a proinflammatory and tumor-promoting cytokine when released by necrotic cells. These released molecules recruit immune and inflammatory cells, which exert tumor-promoting activity by inducing angiogenesis, proliferation, and invasion. Development of a necrotic core in cancer patients is also associated with poor prognosis. Conventionally, necrosis has been thought of as an unregulated process, unlike programmed cell death processes like apoptosis and autophagy. Recently, necrosis has been recognized as a programmed cell death, encompassing processes such as oncosis, necroptosis, and others. Metabolic stress-induced necrosis and its regulatory mechanisms have been poorly investigated until recently. Snail and Dlx-2, EMT-inducing transcription factors, are responsible for metabolic stress-induced necrosis in tumors. Snail and Dlx-2 contribute to tumor progression by promoting necrosis and inducing EMT and oncogenic metabolism. Oncogenic metabolism has been shown to play a role(s in initiating necrosis. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic stress-induced programmed necrosis that promote tumor progression and aggressiveness.

  1. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combined with chemical treatment and ultrasonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung Hse; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Tingxing Hu; Jinqiu Qi; Todd F. Shupe

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose nanofibers were successfully isolated from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combinedwith chemical treatment and ultrasonic nanofibrillation processes. The microwave liquefaction couldeliminate almost all the lignin in bamboo, resulting in high cellulose content residues within 7 min, andthe cellulose enriched residues could be readily purified by...

  2. Microwave-assisted liquefaction of wood with polyhydric alcohols and its application in preparation of polyurethane (PU) foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Zhifeng Zheng; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Microwave radiation was used as the heating source in southern pine wood liquefaction with PEG/glycerin binary solvent. It was found that microwave heating was more efficient than conventional oil bath heating for wood liquefaction. The wood residue content of the H2SO4 catalyzed liquefied wood dropped to zero within 5 min with microwave heating. The resulting...

  3. Report for fiscal 1994 by subcommittee on coal liquefaction basic technology; 1994 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report covers the proceedings of subcommittee meetings. Using PDUs (process development unit), comparison is made between bituminous coal-derived oils (150t/d plant for the Indonesian coal) and brown coal-derived oils (50t/d plant for the Yallourn coal), product quality is improved by a 2-stage refining process, engines are tested, etc., all these demonstration and research efforts intended to win social recognition for coal liquefaction products. Among basic studies, there are the development of technologies for reforming coal-derived oils and for mixing them will petroleum, development of new catalysts for reforming, development of a technology for separating heterocompounds and the like, and the development of their applications. Furthermore, technologies are developed for environmentally friendly coal liquefaction, feasibility of coal liquefaction technology internationalization is deliberated, and technical researches and joint researches are conducted. At the second meeting of the subcommittee, achievements relative to the refining and applications of liquefaction products are presented, including the hydrorefining of naphtha, heating oil, and light oil; development of new catalysts; heterocompound separation technology; and the development of new applications. In relation with the development of environmentally friendly coal liquefaction technologies, studies are presented on liquefaction conditions and on the upgrading of basic technologies of liquefaction. Also referred to are the reports delivered at a meeting on liquefaction catalysts (January 1995). (NEDO)

  4. Investigation of bio-composites using Novolac type liquefied wood resin: effects of liquefaction and fabrication conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Wood liquefaction using an organic solvent and an acid catalyst has long been studied as a novel technique to utilize biomass as an alternative to petroleum-based products. Oxalic acid is a weaker organic acid than a mineral acid and wood liquefaction with oxalic acid as a catalyst will result in a higher amount of wood residue than that with a mineral acid....

  5. Two-stage alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of wood to biocrude in a continuous bench-scale system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria; Grigoras, Ionela; Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt

    2017-01-01

    unit. In total, 100 kg of wood paste with 25% dry matter is processed at 400 °C and 30 MPa, demonstrating the usefulness of this two-stage liquefaction strategy. An additional advantage liquefaction of such pretreated wood shows increased biocrude yields with approximately 10% compared to the case...

  6. ROLE OF THE MITOCHONDRION IN PROGRAMMED NECROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eBaines

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the programmed nature of apoptosis and autophagy, necrotic cell death has always been believed to be a random, uncontrolled process that leads to the accidental death of the cell. This dogma, however, is being challenged and the concept of necrosis also being programmed is gaining ground. In particular, mitochondria appear to play a pivotal role in the mediation of programmed necrosis. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to appraise the current concepts regarding the signaling mechanisms of programmed necrosis, with specific attention to the contribution of mitochondria to this process.

  7. Extent and distribution of skeletal muscle necrosis after graded periods of complete ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, R.; Lindsay, T.; Walker, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The management of an acutely ischemic extremity requires knowledge of the response of skeletal muscle (the largest component of the lower limb) to prolonged periods of complete normothermic ischemia. We have used the canine gracilis muscle model to evaluate the extent and distribution of ischemic necrosis after 3 and 5 hours of ischemia and 48 hours of reperfusion. Each muscle was cut into six slices, and the extent and distribution of postischemic necrosis identified by means of nitroblue tetrazolium staining and 99mTc pyrophosphate uptake. After 3, 4, and 5 hours of ischemia the extent of necrosis was 2.0% +/- 0.9%, 30.3% +/- 6.0%, and 90.1% +/- 3.5% (mean +/- SEM), respectively. A statistically significant correlation exists between the extent of necrosis and the uptake of 99mTc pyrophosphate uptake per gram of tissue (y = 1574.9x - 8.4, r = 0.84, p less than 0.001). Most necrosis was centrally located and found in the thickest portion of the muscle. We conclude that there is a graded response in the extent of skeletal muscle necrosis related to the length of ischemic stress rather than an ''all-or-none'' phenomenon. This central distribution of necrosis makes the usual external evaluation of ischemic damage clinically unreliable. In addition, since there was no enveloping fascia in this model, a compartment release alone may not prevent the development of skeletal muscle necrosis. This knowledge of the response of skeletal muscle to ischemia may lead to an improved clinical approach to an extremity suffering a prolonged ischemic insult

  8. Biomass Direct Liquefaction Options. TechnoEconomic and Life Cycle Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Iva J.; Zhu, Yunhua; Drennan, Corinne; Elliott, Douglas C.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Onarheim, Kristin; Solantausta, Yrjo; Beckman, David

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this work was to assess the competitiveness of two biomass to transportation fuel processing routes, which were under development in Finland, the U.S. and elsewhere. Concepts included fast pyrolysis (FP), and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), both followed by hydrodeoxygenation, and final product refining. This work was carried out as a collaboration between VTT (Finland), and PNNL (USA). The public funding agents for the work were Tekes in Finland and the Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. The effort was proposed as an update of the earlier comparative technoeconomic assessment performed by the IEA Bioenergy Direct Biomass Liquefaction Task in the 1980s. New developments in HTL and the upgrading of the HTL biocrude product triggered the interest in reinvestigating this comparison of these biomass liquefaction processes. In addition, developments in FP bio-oil upgrading had provided additional definition of this process option, which could provide an interesting comparison.

  9. Activity and selectivity of three molybdenum catalysts for coal liquefaction reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W.; Pellegrino, J.L.

    The activity and selectivity of three different molybdenum catalysts for reactions occurring in coal liquefaction, specifically for hydrogenation (HYD), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodesulfurization (HDS), and hydrocracking (HYC), have been examined. The three molybdenum catalysts used were molybdenum napthenate, molybdenum on ..gamma..-alumina, and a precipitated, disordered MoS/sub 2/. Molybdenum naphthenate was most selective for HYD and HDN. All three catalysts exhibited approximately equal activity for HDS and HDO and little selectivity for HYC of alkyl bridge structures. The activity and selectivity of the three molybdenum catalysts for producing hydrocarbons and removing heteroatoms from coal during liquefaction were determined and compared. Molybdenum naphthenate was the most active catalyst for hydrocarbon production and removal of nitrogen- and oxygen-containing species during coal liquefaction. 31 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Numerical analysis of stone columns in mitigating liquefaction effects in embankment fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghei, Z.; Soroush, A. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noorzad, A. [Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    The traditional approach to liquefaction in embankment fills is to use in-situ densification. The use of stone columns offers the possibility of preventing liquefaction and associated settlements while reducing the cost and time required for treatment. This paper investigated the behaviour of stone columns using a numerical method. The study focused on a case study, a sand layer beneath two wall tanks, butane and propane NGL, located on Siri Island, Persian Gulf, Iran. Numerical analyses were carried out to evaluate the rate of excess pore pressure build-up in the improved ground. The numerical model results were compared to the simulation results from a centrifuge test for a uniform 19m-thick liquefiable sand layer. The numerical methodology was verified. The results showed that the stone columns can significantly increase the rate of pore pressure dissipation and reduce the settlement. It was found that the installation process densifies the surrounding soil, decreasing the liquefaction potential.

  11. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  12. Subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw in fresh water and recycled aqueous phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    This project focuses on the investigation of addition of aqueous phase in the production of biofuel from biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a wet thermal conversion process, which can convert all kinds of biomass to fuels. In this study, barley...... straw was first liquefied in fresh distilled water with the presence of K2CO3 catalyst at 300 C as the reference run. Afterwards, the aqueous phase which is obtained from liquefaction process in the previous run was recycled and used as the reaction medium from the second to the fourth run....... With the addition of recycling aqueous phase in HTL process, it is expected that the amount of the waste water and energy consumption can be reduced. The effect of water recirculation on product yield and properties was investigated in this study. The results showed that bio-oil yield was 34.85 wt% when the barley...

  13. Acute pancreatitis: staging with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gialeli, E.; Petrocheilou, G.; Georgaki, S.; Tzemailas, I.; Adraktas, A.; Charilas, G.; Patsiogiannis, V.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Computed Tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis and staging of acute pancreatitis and its complications. Objectives and tasks: The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate the findings in CT images which are useful for staging acute pancreatitis according to Balthazar, their significance and restrictions. Materials and methods: CT images from patients who were referred to our Department for an abdominal CT scan for the diagnosis or/and staging of acute pancreatitis were retrospectively studied. Results: In acute pancreatitis, CT helps to stage the severity of inflammatory process, to detect pancreatic necrosis and to depict local complications. CT severity index (CTSI), which was proposed by Balthazar et al, combines the grade of pancreatitis with the extent of pancreatic necrosis assigning points to the patients in order to find the severity index which scales from 0-10. More points are given for a higher grade of pancreatitis and for more extensive necrosis. Types of pancreatitis according to CTSI are: interstitial (Balthazar grade A-C), exudative (Balthazar grade D or E), necrotising (Balthazar grade E, CTSI:10) and central gland necrotising. Patients with pancreatitis but no collections or necrosis have an interstitial (mild) pancreatitis. In exudative pancreatitis there is normal enhancement of the entire pancreas associated with extensive peripancreatic collections. Necrotizing (severe) pancreatitis is characterized by protacted clinical course, high incidence of local complications and high mortality rate. Central gland necrosis is a subtype of necrotizing pancreatitis. Conclusions: The combination of CT imaging and clinical and laboratory evaluation allows the early diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis may vary from a mild uneventful disease to a severe life-threatening illness with multisystemic organ failure. Thus, it is crucial to identify patients who are at high risk of severe

  14. Assessment of materials selection and performance for direct-coal- liquefaction plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R.; Keiser, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Several direct coal liquefaction processes have been demonstrated at the pilot plant level in the United States. Presently only one plant remains operational, namely, the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., 4.0- ton-per-day process development unit in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The period from 1974 to 1982 saw the greatest amount of development of direct coal liquefaction in the United States with four major pilot plants being devoted to variants of this technology. The plants included the SRC-I plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, which operated from 1974 to 1992; the SRC-I/II plant at Fort Lewis, Washington, which operated from 1974 to 1981; the H-Coal plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, which operated from 1980 to 1982; and the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant at Baytown, Texas, which operated from 1980 to 1982. Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists and engineers were actively involved in many phases and technical disciplines at all four of these plants, especially in materials testing, evaluation, and failure analyses. In addition, ORNL materials scientists and engineers conducted reviews of the demonstration and commercial plant designs for materials selections. The ORNL staff members worked closely with materials engineers at the pilot plants in identifying causes of materials degradation and failures, and in identifying solutions to these problems. This report provides a comprehensive summary of those materials activities. Materials performance data from laboratory and coal liquefaction pilot plant tests, failure analyses, and analyses of components after use in pilot plants were reviewed and assessed to determine the extent and causes of materials degradation in direct coal liquefaction process environments. Reviews of demonstration and commercial plant design documents for materials selections were conducted. These reviews and assessments are presented to capture the knowledge base on the most likely materials of construction for direct coal liquefaction plants.

  15. Quaternary Geology and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Napa, California 1:100,000 Quadrangle: A Digital Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Janet M.; Noller, Jay S.; Lettis, William R.

    1998-01-01

    Earthquake-induced ground failures such as liquefaction have historically brought loss of life and damage to property and infrastructure. Observations of the effects of historical large-magnitude earthquakes show that the distribution of liquefaction phenomena is not random. Liquefaction is restricted to areas underlain by loose, cohesionless sands and silts that are saturated with water. These areas can be delineated on the basis of thorough geologic, geomorphic, and hydrologic mapping and map analysis (Tinsley and Holzer, 1990; Youd and Perkins, 1987). Once potential liquefaction zones are delineated, appropriate public and private agencies can prepare for and mitigate seismic hazard in these zones. In this study, we create a liquefaction susceptibility map of the Napa 1:100,000 quadrangle using Quaternary geologic mapping, analysis of historical liquefaction information, groundwater data, and data from other studies. The study is atterned after state-of-the-art studies by Youd (1973) Dupre and Tinsley (1980) and Dupre (1990) in the Monterey-Santa Cruz area, Tinsley and others (1985) in the Los Angeles area, and Youd and Perkins (1987) in San Mateo County, California. The study area comprises the northern San Francisco Metropolitan Area, including the cities of Santa Rosa, Vallejo, Napa, Novato, Martinez, and Fairfield (Figure 1). Holocene estuarine deposits, Holocene stream deposits, eolian sands, and artificial fill are widely present in the region (Helley and Lajoie, 1979) and are the geologic materials of greatest concern. Six major faults capable of producing large earthquakes cross the study area, including the San Andreas, Rodgers Creek, Hayward, West Napa, Concord, and Green Valley faults (Figure 1).

  16. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-01-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes

  17. Intracellular serpins, firewalls and tissue necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Stefan J; Lomas, David A

    2008-02-01

    Luke and colleagues have recently attributed a new role to a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. They have used Caenorhabditis elegans to show that an intracellular serpin is crucial for maintaining lysosomal integrity. We examine the role of this firewall in preventing necrosis and attempt to integrate this with current theories of stress-induced protein degradation. We discuss how mutant serpins cause disease either through polymerization or now, perhaps, by unleashing necrosis.

  18. Application of Algae as Cosubstrate To Enhance the Processability of Willow Wood for Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Zhao, Xueli

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a novel strategy to improve the continuous processing of wood slurries in hydrothermal liquefaction systems by coprocessing with algae. Of all algae tested, brown seaweeds and microalgae perform best in preventing slurries dewatering, the main reason for pumpability issues...... with wood slurries. Rheological tests (viscosity–shear rate profile) indicate that the addition of these two algae to the wood slurry causes the highest increase in viscosity, which coincides with improved wood slurries stability and pumpability. Hydrothermal liquefaction of wood-algae slurries at 400 °C...

  19. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusen, III, L C [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States). Research Div.

    1997-06-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author).

  20. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusen, L.C. III

    1997-01-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author)

  1. Method of controlling a distillatory coulumn in a liquefaction and distillation device for radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigeru; Awata, Yoshihisa.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To automatically and securely perform controlling purity of column bottom liquid, which is most difficult in the liquefaction and distillation device. Structure: In a liquefaction and distillation device for liquefying and separating rare gas krypton in fuel reprocessing gases, a difference in temperature between the column bottom liquid (column top) and the distillation portion is detected so as to maintain temperature in the distillation portion of the distilling column constant, and the vaporization amount of column bottom liquid is varied with the difference in temperature to control purity of the column bottom liquid. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Probabilistic and Scenario Seismic and Liquefaction Hazard Analysis of the Mississippi Embayment Incorporating Nonlinear Site Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, C. H.; Dhar, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of deep sediment deposits of the Mississippi Embayment (ME) on the propagation of seismic waves is poorly understood and remains a major source of uncertainty for site response analysis. Many researchers have studied the effects of these deposits on seismic hazard of the area using available information at the time. In this study, we have used updated and newly available resources for seismic and liquefaction hazard analyses of the ME. We have developed an improved 3D geological model. Additionally, we used surface geological maps from Cupples and Van Arsdale (2013) to prepare liquefaction hazard maps. Both equivalent linear and nonlinear site response codes were used to develop site amplification distributions for use in generating hazard maps. The site amplification distributions are created using the Monte Carlo approach of Cramer et al. (2004, 2006) on a 0.1-degree grid. The 2014 National Seismic Hazard model and attenuation relations (Petersen et al., 2014) are used to prepare seismic hazard maps. Then liquefaction hazard maps are generated using liquefaction probability curves from Holzer (2011) and Cramer et al. (2015). Equivalent linear response (w/ increased precision, restricted nonlinear behavior with depth) shows similar hazard for the ME compared to nonlinear analysis (w/o pore pressure) results. At short periods nonlinear deamplification dominates the hazard, but at long periods resonance amplification dominates. The liquefaction hazard tends to be high in Holocene and late Pleistocene lowland sediments, even with lowered ground water levels, and low in Pleistocene loess of the uplands. Considering pore pressure effects in nonlinear site response analysis at a test site on the lowlands shows amplification of ground motion at short periods. PGA estimates from ME liquefaction and MMI observations are in the 0.25 to 0.4 g range. Our estimated M7.5 PGA hazard within 10 km of the fault can exceed this. Ground motion observations from

  3. Characteristics of process oils from HTI coal/plastics co-liquefaction runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide timely analytical support to DOE`s liquefaction development effort. Specific objectives of the work reported here are presented. During a few operating periods of Run POC-2, HTI co-liquefied mixed plastics with coal, and tire rubber with coal. Although steady-state operation was not achieved during these brief tests periods, the results indicated that a liquefaction plant could operate with these waste materials as feedstocks. CONSOL analyzed 65 process stream samples from coal-only and coal/waste portions of the run. Some results obtained from characterization of samples from Run POC-2 coal/plastics operation are presented.

  4. Kinetics assisted design of catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.; Foley, H.C.; Calkins, W.H.; Scouten, C.

    1998-02-01

    The thermal and catalytic reactions of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NBBM), a resid and coal model compound, were examined. Catalytic reaction of NBBM was carried out at 400 C under hydrogen with a series of transition metal-based catalytic materials including Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 5}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MoS{sub 2}. Experimental findings and derived mechanistic insights were organized into molecular-level reaction models for NBBM pyrolysis and catalysis. Hydropyrolysis and catalysis reaction families occurring during NBBM hydropyrolysis at 420 C were summarized in the form of reaction matrices which, upon exhaustive application to the components of the reacting system, yielded the mechanistic reaction model. Each reaction family also had an associated linear free energy relationship (LFER) which provided an estimate of the rate constant k{sub i} given a structural property of species i or its reaction. Including the catalytic reaction matrices with those for the pyrolysis model provided a comprehensive NBBM catalytic reaction model and allowed regression of fundamental LFER parameters for the catalytic reaction families. The model also allowed specification of the property of an optimal catalyst. Iron, molybdenum and palladium were predicted to be most effective for model compound consumption. Due to the low costs associated with iron and its disposal, it is a good choice for coal liquefaction catalysis and the challenge remains to synthesize small particles able to access the full surface area of the coal macromolecule.

  5. Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Huffman

    2000-03-31

    The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

  6. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-09-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench- Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE- AC22- 91PC91040 during the period April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which includes dispersed lower- cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This report includes a data analysis of the ALC- 2 run which was the second continuous run in which Wyodak Black Thunder coal was fed to a two kg/ h bench- scale unit. One of the objectives of that run was to determine the relative activity of several Mo- based coal impregnated catalyst precursors. The precursors included ammonium heptamolybdate (100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal), which was used alone as well as in combination with ferrous sulfate (1% Fe/ dry coal) and nickel sulfate (50 mg Ni/ kg dry coal). The fourth precursor that was tested was phosphomolybdic acid which was used at a level of 100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal. Because of difficulties in effectively separating solids from the product stream, considerable variation in the feed stream occurred. Although the coal feed rate was nearly constant, the amount of recycle solvent varied which resulted in wide variations of resid, unconverted coal and mineral matter in the feed stream. Unfortunately, steady state was not achieved in any of the four conditions that were run. Earlier it was reported that Ni- Mo catalyst appeared to give the best results based upon speculative steady- state yields that were developed.

  7. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aghighi

    high T1 signal in areas of tumor necrosis and low signal in areas of intracellularly compartmentalized iron.Differential T1- and T2-enhancement patterns of USPIO in tumors enable conclusions about their intracellular and extracellular location. This information can be used to characterize the composition of the tumor microenvironment.

  8. Jejunal Replacement of Stomach in Two Children with Total Gastric Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Ozden

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Total gastrectomy is an extremely rare procedure in children and experience with its replacement is very limited. We present two patients who had jejunal replacement due to total gastric necrosis. The first patient was a- 2-year-old boy who admitted with a history of caustic ingestion. He was taken operation because of gastric perforation and necrosis. Anastomosis was applied by using jejunal segments. The second patient was an 11-years-old girl who left diaphragmatic hernia and acute gastric volvulus. At laparotomy, Total gastrectomy and Hunt-Lawrence type gastroesophostomy were made. Reconstruction with jejunum is thought as a good option in total gastric necrosis according to our 2 patient experiences. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 403-407

  9. Muscle necrosis in the extremities: evaluation with Tc-99m pyrophosphate scanning--a retrospective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmons, J.H.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.J.; Cawthon, M.A.; Bauman, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective review was done of 34 extremities studied between 1981 and 1985 with technetium-99m pyrophosphate scanning; 22 were subsequently amputated. Results of detailed pathologic examination or immediate postoperative examination of the resected extremity were available in 16 cases. In these cases, scanning had allowed correct prediction of the level of amputation and of the specific areas of muscle infarction in 13 cases. In the one case in which amputation was performed for infection rather than muscle necrosis, the lack of necrosis was correctly predicted with the scan. The limited results of this study indicate that the Tc-99m pyrophosphate scan allows the location of necrotic muscle to be predicted accurately and may therefore be a useful adjunct in determining the best level for ultimate amputation. Special caution is required in those cases in which muscle necrosis is due to acute causes (e.g., traumatic thrombosis) rather than chronic vascular disease

  10. Summary of FY 1980 results of Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction techniques; 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sunshine keikaku itaku kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 3 R and D themes for coal liquefaction techniques, pursued by the Sunshine Project; (1) development of solvent extraction type liquefaction plant, and brown coal liquefaction technique R and D demonstration surveys, (2) development of solvolysis type liquefaction plant, and (3) development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant. For the theme (1), the 1 T/D test plant, solid/liquid separator and small-size continuous settlement separator are constructed, and partly completed. The elementary studies include solvent extraction type liquefaction process, materials for coal liquefaction plant and solid/liquid separation. Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal are studied to clarify the possible problems involved in liquefaction of these coal species for commercialization of the liquefaction techniques in the early stage. The elementary techniques studied include dehydration of brown coal, milling at high temperature in oil, de-ashing, and secondary and primary hydrogenation. For the theme (2), the 1 T/D plant is inspected and maintained to clarify the problems involved in the continuous operation, revamped and repaired as necessary, given preventive maintenance, and tested for operability confirmation. The elementary studies include solvolysis type liquefaction process, scale-up, hydrogenation plant for solvolysis pitch. For the item (3), the 2.4 T/D test plant is constructed, and the elementary studies are conducted, for, e.g., liquefaction reactions in the presence of an iron-based catalyst. (NEDO)

  11. Summary of FY 1980 results of Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction techniques; 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sunshine keikaku itaku kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 3 R and D themes for coal liquefaction techniques, pursued by the Sunshine Project; (1) development of solvent extraction type liquefaction plant, and brown coal liquefaction technique R and D demonstration surveys, (2) development of solvolysis type liquefaction plant, and (3) development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant. For the theme (1), the 1 T/D test plant, solid/liquid separator and small-size continuous settlement separator are constructed, and partly completed. The elementary studies include solvent extraction type liquefaction process, materials for coal liquefaction plant and solid/liquid separation. Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal are studied to clarify the possible problems involved in liquefaction of these coal species for commercialization of the liquefaction techniques in the early stage. The elementary techniques studied include dehydration of brown coal, milling at high temperature in oil, de-ashing, and secondary and primary hydrogenation. For the theme (2), the 1 T/D plant is inspected and maintained to clarify the problems involved in the continuous operation, revamped and repaired as necessary, given preventive maintenance, and tested for operability confirmation. The elementary studies include solvolysis type liquefaction process, scale-up, hydrogenation plant for solvolysis pitch. For the item (3), the 2.4 T/D test plant is constructed, and the elementary studies are conducted, for, e.g., liquefaction reactions in the presence of an iron-based catalyst. (NEDO)

  12. A case study of liquefaction risk analysis based on the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer using CPT and electric resistivity data in the Hinode area, Itako City, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinguuji, Motoharu; Toprak, Selcuk

    2017-12-01

    The Hinode area of Itako City in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, suffered some of the most severe liquefaction damage of any areas in the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake in 2011. This liquefaction damage has been investigated by Itako City, as well as by universities and research institutes in Japan. The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) has carried out numerous investigations along the Tone River, and in particular, intensive surveys were done in the Hinode area. We have conducted a risk analysis based on the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer measured using cone penetration testing (CPT) data and electric resistivity data obtained in the Hinode area. The distribution of the risk estimated from CPT at 143 points, and that obtained from analysis of the resistivity survey data, agreed with the distribution of actual damage. We also carried out conventional risk analyses method using the liquefaction resistance factor (FL) and liquefaction potential index (PL) methods with CPT data. The results show high PL values over the entire area, but their distribution did not agree well with actual damage in some parts of the study area. Because the analysis of the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer, using geophysical prospecting methods, can cover a widespread area, this method will be very useful in investigating liquefaction risk, especially for gas and water pipelines.

  13. The current status of coal liquefaction technologies - Panorama 2008; La liquefaction du charbon: ou en est-on aujourd'hui? - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    In 2008, a first coal liquefaction unit to produce motor fuel (20,000 BPSD) will come on-stream in Shenhua, China (in the Ercos region of Inner Mongolia). Other, more ambitious projects have been announced in China for between now and 2020. Since oil production is expected to peak in the medium term, this technology may develop regionally in the next 20 years to cover ever-increasing demand for motor fuel.

  14. Influence of the void ratio and the confining on the static liquefaction in slopes in shangi sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mariano Ramos Cañón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study on the onset of static liquefaction in slopes under undrained conditions of loading was developed based on a general liquefaction flow instability criterion for elastoplastic soils based on the concept of loss of controllability. The criterion is applied to the case of axisymmetric loading to detect the onset of static liquefaction. The criterion is used in conjunction with an elastoplastic model for sands and is tested by means of numerical simulations of element tests. The numerical results are compared with experimental evidence obtaining good agreement. A quantitative study of the influence of the mean pressure, void ratio and the anisotropy of stress on the onset of static liquefaction is presented for the Changi sand. From the analysis of the numerical results, it can be concluded that: a. the mobilized friction angle at the onset of liquefaction is not an intrinsic property of the material, but is a state variable b. Despite of the multiple variables involved in the process of generation of undrained instability, the state of stresses at the onset of static liquefaction can be conveniently represented by a linear relation between Dq/po and no . This graphical representation can be used in the practice of geotechnical engineering to quantify the margin of security against the static liquefaction of a sandy slope.

  15. Thermodynamic Analysis on of Skid-Mounted Coal-bed Methane Liquefaction Device using Cryogenic Turbo-Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangtao; Niu, Lu; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Xiaojiang; Lou, Fang; Chen, Liang; Hou, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Coal-bed methane (CBM) reserves are rich in Sinkiang of China, and liquefaction is a critical step for the CBM exploration and utilization. Different from other CBM gas fields in China, CBM distribution in Sinkiang is widespread but scattered, and the pressure, flow-rate and nitrogen content of CBM feed vary significantly. The skid-mounted liquefaction device is suggested as an efficient and economical way to recover methane. Turbo-expander is one of the most important parts which generates the cooling capacity for the cryogenic liquefaction system. Using turbo-expander, more cooling capacity and higher liquefied fraction can be achieved. In this study, skid-mounted CBM liquefaction processes based on Claude cycle are established. Cryogenic turbo-expander with high expansion ratio is employed to improve the efficiency of CBM liquefaction process. The unit power consumption per liquefaction mole flow-rate for CBM feed gas is used as the object function for process optimization, compressor discharge pressure, flow ratio of feed gas to turbo-expander and nitrogen friction are analyzed, and optimum operation range of the liquefaction processes are obtained.

  16. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Els, T. [Dept. of Neurology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  17. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M.; Els, T.

    2001-01-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  18. Correlation of MRI Biomarkers with Tumor Necrosis in Hras5 Tumor Xenograft in Athymic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Bradley

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can measure the effects of therapies targeting the tumor vasculature and has demonstrated that vascular-damaging agents (VDA induce acute vascular shutdown in tumors in human and animal models. However, at subtherapeutic doses, blood flow may recover before the induction of significant levels of necrosis. We present the relationship between changes in MRI biomarkers and tumor necrosis. Multiple MRI measurements were taken at 4.7 T in athymic rats (n = 24 bearing 1.94 ± 0.2-cm3 subcutaneous Hras5 tumors (ATCC 41000 before and 24 hours after clinically relevant doses of the VDA, ZD6126 (0-10 mg/kg, i.v.. We measured effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*, initial area under the gadolinium concentration-time curve (IAUGC60/150, equivalent enhancing fractions (EHF60/150, time constant (Ktrans, proportion of hypoperfused voxels as estimated from fit failures in Ktrans analysis, and signal intensity (SI in T2-weighted MRI (T2W. ZD6126 treatment induced < 90% dose-dependent tumor necrosis at 10 mg/kg; correspondingly, SI changes were evident from T2W MRI. Although R2* did not correlate, other MRI biomarkers significantly correlated with necrosis at doses of ≥ 5 mg/kg ZD6126. These data on Hras5 tumors suggest that the quantification of hypoperfused voxels might provide a useful biomarker of tumor necrosis.

  19. Fiscal 1989 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting; 1989 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    At the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are given and discussions are made about the progress of research and development. Reported and discussed in relation to the progress of the pilot plant support research are studies with the 1t/d PSU (process supporting unit) (Nippon Steel Corporation, Mitsui Coal Liquefaction Co., Ltd., and Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.); improvement on distillate distribution (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); development of an optimum decalcification technique (Sumitomo Coal Mining Co., Ltd., and Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); studies of solvent hydrogenation catalysts (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., and Chiyoda Corp.); and studies of coal liquefaction conditions (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.). In relation to studies using a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant, the progress of the 150t/d PP (pilot plant) effort (Japan Coal Oil, Co., Ltd.) and the outlines of pilot surveys (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.) are reported and discussed, the latter covering liquefaction solvent performance optimization, slurry preheating furnaces, coal slurry properties, and so forth. (NEDO)

  20. Process Water Recycle in Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Microalgae To Enhance Bio-oil Yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Tercero, E.A.; Bertucco, A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the effect of recycling the process water (PW) of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) to the HTL reactor was investigated, with the objective being to recover carbon from the organic content of the PW and to develop a solvent-free process. When recycling twice the PW at 220, 240, and 265

  1. Hydrothermal co-liquefaction of microalgae, wood, and sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brilman, D. W.F.; Drabik, N.; Wądrzyk, M.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal co-liquefaction of mixed (wet and dry) biomass residue streams would greatly enhance the viability and scale up potential of the technology as platform in bioenergy and biorefinery applications. This study aims to identify possible interaction effects between three different feeds

  2. Comparison of the sand liquefaction estimated based on codes and practical earthquake damage phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Huang, Yahong

    2017-12-01

    Conducting sand liquefaction estimated based on codes is the important content of the geotechnical design. However, the result, sometimes, fails to conform to the practical earthquake damages. Based on the damage of Tangshan earthquake and engineering geological conditions, three typical sites are chosen. Moreover, the sand liquefaction probability was evaluated on the three sites by using the method in the Code for Seismic Design of Buildings and the results were compared with the sand liquefaction phenomenon in the earthquake. The result shows that the difference between sand liquefaction estimated based on codes and the practical earthquake damage is mainly attributed to the following two aspects: The primary reasons include disparity between seismic fortification intensity and practical seismic oscillation, changes of groundwater level, thickness of overlying non-liquefied soil layer, local site effect and personal error. Meanwhile, although the judgment methods in the codes exhibit certain universality, they are another reason causing the above difference due to the limitation of basic data and the qualitative anomaly of the judgment formulas.

  3. Influence of saturation degree and role of suction in unsaturated soils behaviour: application to liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernay Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the pore fluid compressibility on liquefaction has been studied by various authors. But few papers have been published about the role of suction in cyclic behavior of unsaturated soils. Most of these works use Skempton coefficient B as a reference in terms of saturation degree to analyze their results. The use of B in experimental conditions is convenient, but is not accurate when studying liquefaction behavior, since effects of suction are neglected. In this paper, the influence of saturation degree on mechanical behavior of a soil under dynamic loads is studied. Cyclic undrained triaxial tests were performed on sand samples, under various levels of saturation. Soil-water characteristic curve was used, in order to study influence of suction. The first results confirm that when the degree of saturation decreases, the resistance increases. Initial positive suction tends to stiffen the soil. It also appears that the presence of air delays the occurrence of liquefaction, but doesn’t prevent it. Indeed, liquefaction is observed, whether the soil is saturated or not.

  4. Microalgae growth on the aqueous phase from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of the same microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation of Desmodesmus sp. microalgae in the recycled aqueous phase (AP) recovered after Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) of the same microalgae was studied to evaluate the potential of nutrients recycling. AP dilution ratio was systematically varied, using either water or water enriched with

  5. Effect of methanol on the liquefaction reaction of biomass in hot compressed water under microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chun-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2013-01-01

    Liquefaction of sawdust was studied in methanol-water solutions using an acid catalyst under microwave energy. The effect of the methanol concentration on the changes of components in the liquefied products was analyzed by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS). It was found that 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid are the...

  6. Liquefaction analysis of alluvial soil deposits in Bedsa south west of Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bedsa is one of the districts in Dahshour that lays south west of Cairo and suffered from liquefaction during October 1992 earthquake, Egypt. The soil profile consists of alluvial river Nile deposits mainly sandy mud with low plasticity; the ground water is shallow. The earthquake hypocenter was 18 km far away with local magnitude 5.8; the fault length was 13.8 km, as recorded by the Egyptian national seismological network (ENSN at Helwan. The analysis used the empirical method introduced by the national center for earthquake engineering research (NCEER based on field standard penetration of soil. It is found that the studied area can liquefy since there are saturated loose sandy silt layers at depth ranges from 7 to 14 m. The settlement is about 26 cm. The probability of liquefaction ranges between 40% and 100%. The presence of impermeable surface from medium cohesive silty clay acts as a plug resisting and trapping the upward flow of water during liquefaction, so fountain and spouts at weak points occurs. It is wise to use point bearing piles with foundation level deeper than 14 m beyond the liquefiable depth away from ground slopes, otherwise liquefaction improving techniques have to be applied in the area.

  7. Catalytic Liquefaction of Humin Substances from Sugar Biorefineries with Pt/C in 2-Propanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Agarwal, S.; Heeres, H. J.

    The catalytic liquefaction of humins, the solid byproduct from the conversion of C6 sugars (glucose, fructose) to S-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid (LA), using a supported Pt/C catalyst in isopropanol (IPA) as the solvent was investigated. At bench mark conditions (400 degrees C, 7 h,

  8. Renewable hydrocarbon fuels from hydrothermal liquefaction: A techno-economic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Hansen, Nick Høy; Pérez, Oscar Miralles

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates the economic feasibility of producing renewable transportation drop-in fuels from lignocellulosic biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading. An Aspen Plus® process model is developed based on extensive experimental data to document a techno-economic assessmen...

  9. To the vibrational over wetting and liquefaction effects in moistured soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, F.H.; Oripov, G.O.; Saidov, R.M.; Tojibekov, M.

    2003-01-01

    There is a lot of evidence of the dynamical effects in soils when they become wetted or during or after the earthquakes or explosions. There are some quantitative estimates for the vibrational wetting and liquefaction of soils under consideration. For the models in the present research the moistured sands and weak soils like losses are accepted. The first model is focusing on soil fractures sliding down under the action of vibrations, tightening of a hard phase, squeezing water phase out and thus bringing to soil liquefaction. The second is based on soil fractures plunging at the action of vibrations into the aquatic background. This mechanism seems to be more effective for the high degree moistured soils. The third mechanism is based on capillary phenomena in moistured porous medium. When inertia forces are large enough the resultant force, consisting of sliding down gravity component and inertia forces, overcomes friction and fracture becomes unstable. Both vibrations amplitude and frequency are the stability controlling factors, playing an important role in the vibrational wetting and liquefaction effects through porous water phase squeezing out or capillary lifting phenomena leading to the wetting or liquefaction of the medium. (author)

  10. Biocrude production via supercritical hydrothermal co-liquefaction of spent mushroom compost and aspen wood sawdust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasiunas, Lukas; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Toor, Saqib Sohail

    2017-01-01

    The work investigates a new potential feedstock source for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) driven biocrude production. Specifically, the focus is set on utilizing spent mushroom compost (SMC), the primary waste by-product from mushroom farming. It is considered as a feedstock for HTL conversion due...

  11. Shear-wave velocity-based probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic soil liquefaction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.; Moss, R.E.S.; Thompson, E.M.; Seed, R.B.; Cetin, K.O.; Der Kiureghian, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2013-01-01

    Shear-wave velocity (Vs) offers a means to determine the seismic resistance of soil to liquefaction by a fundamental soil property. This paper presents the results of an 11-year international project to gather new Vs site data and develop probabilistic correlations for seismic soil liquefaction occurrence. Toward that objective, shear-wave velocity test sites were identified, and measurements made for 301 new liquefaction field case histories in China, Japan, Taiwan, Greece, and the United States over a decade. The majority of these new case histories reoccupy those previously investigated by penetration testing. These new data are combined with previously published case histories to build a global catalog of 422 case histories of Vs liquefaction performance. Bayesian regression and structural reliability methods facilitate a probabilistic treatment of the Vs catalog for performance-based engineering applications. Where possible, uncertainties of the variables comprising both the seismic demand and the soil capacity were estimated and included in the analysis, resulting in greatly reduced overall model uncertainty relative to previous studies. The presented data set and probabilistic analysis also help resolve the ancillary issues of adjustment for soil fines content and magnitude scaling factors.

  12. Liquefaction of H2 molecules upon exterior surfaces of carbon nanotube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Soo; Kang, Jeung Ku; Lee, Hyuck Mo; Duin, Adri C.T. van; Goddard, William A. III

    2005-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate interaction of H 2 molecules on the exterior surfaces of carbon nanotubes (CNTs): single and bundle types. At 80 K and 10 MPa, it is found that charge transfer occurs from a low curvature region to a high curvature region of the deformed CNT bundle, which develops charge polarization only on the deformed structure. The long-range electrostatic interactions of polarized charges on the deformed CNT bundle with hydrogen molecules are observed to induce a high local-ordering of H 2 gas that results in hydrogen liquefaction. Our predicted heat of hydrogen liquefaction on the CNT bundle is 97.6 kcal kg -1 . On the other hand, hydrogen liquefaction is not observed in the CNT of a single type. This is because charge polarization is not developed on the single CNT as it is symmetrically deformed under the same pressure. Consequently, the hydrogen storage capacity on the CNT bundle is much higher due to liquefaction than that on the single CNT. Additionally, our results indicate that it would also be possible to liquefy H 2 gas on a more strongly polarized CNT bundle at temperatures higher than 80 K

  13. Fiscal 1990 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting; 1990 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    At the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are delivered and discussions are made concerning the progress of research and development activities. Reported and discussed in relation to the pilot plant support research, etc., are studies with the 1t/d PSU (process supporting unit) (Nippon Steel Corporation, Mitsui Coal Liquefaction Co., Ltd., and Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.); development of an optimum coal refining technique (Sumitomo Coal Mining Co., Ltd.); development of an optimum pretreatment technique and improvement on distillate distribution (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); studies of coal liquefaction conditions (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.); and studies of solvent hydrogenation catalysts (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., and Chiyoda Corp.). Reported and discussed in relation to researches using a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant are the progress of the 150t/d PP (pilot plant) effort (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.) and the outlines of pilot surveys (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.), the latter covering liquefaction solvent performance optimization, slurry pre-heating furnaces, coal slurry properties, and so forth. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1993 report. Coal liquefaction committee; 1993 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The committee in this fiscal year had the 1st meeting in July 1993, the 2nd in December 1993, and the 3rd in March 1994, when fiscal 1993 research and development programs and results were reported and discussed. Reported and discussed at the 2nd meeting were the compilation of brown coal liquefaction technology development project results, evaluation report on the same, hydrorefining of oil from brown coal and the research and development of application technologies for the same, and an environmental safety evaluation test on the same. In selecting a standard coal for the operation of the 150 ton/day pilot plant, PSU (process supporting unit)-aided studies were made on the analytical values presented by coals, yield of the liquid, yield of the liquefaction residue, yield of the generated gas, amount of the hydrogen consumed, coal oil properties, liquefaction residue properties, operationality, etc. On-site investigations were conducted also in Indonesia, and a conclusion was reached that Tanito Harum coal would be the most suitable for the pilot plant. Concerning the liquefaction catalyst for the pilot plant, a report was given on a comparison made between the activity of a synthetic iron sulfide and that of natural pyrite. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1994 report. Liquefaction key technology subcommittee; 1994 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The subcommittee held the 1st meeting in August 1994 and the 2nd in March 1995, when preceding fiscal year's research results, fiscal 1994 research plans, fiscal 1994 research results, etc., were introduced, and deliberated. In the study of hydrorefining of naphtha, kerosene, and light oil fractions, a nitrogen concentration level of not more than 5 ppm was achieved by refining oils from Indonesian coal. Studies were also made about the two-step hydrorefining system, the relationship between the coal oil refining level and sludge formation, etc. In the research for the development of novel catalysts for upgrading coal oil, the active life of a nickel-supporting catalyst for hydrogenation at the 1st step was somewhat prolonged with an increase in the amount of nickel. In the study of coal liquefaction conditions, an AWIP method was deliberated, wherein liquefaction process waste water was utilized as one of catalytic component adjusting materials. For upgrading liquefaction key technologies, studies were made for catalyst improvement and pretreatment method development, and about the behavior of liquefaction reaction in a high boiling solvent-aided process. (NEDO)

  16. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis Salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, H.; Deng, S.

    2013-01-01

    residue, and recycling process water for algae cultivation. GC-MS, elemental analyzer, FT-IR, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-crude yield of 46% was obtained...

  17. Bio-char derived from sewage sludge by liquefaction: Characterization and application for dye adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Lijian [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Yuan, Xingzhong, E-mail: yxz@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Huang, Huajun [School of Land Resources and Environment, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045 (China); Shao, Jianguang; Wang, Hou [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Xiaohong [School of Business, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zeng, Guangming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SS liquefaction bio-chars were effective on MG and MB removal from aqueous. • MG adsorption capacity depended strongly on carboxylic and phenolic groups. • Metal release accounted for nearly 30% of the total MG adsorbed on bio-chars. • Acetone and low temperature favor effective adsorbent production by liquefaction. - Abstract: Bio-chars produced by liquefaction of sewage sludge with methanol, ethanol, or acetone as the solvent at 260–380 °C were characterized in terms of their elemental composition, thermogravimetric characteristics, surface area and pore size distribution, and oxygen-containing functional groups composition. The surface area and total volume of the bio-chars were low, but the contents of oxygen-containing functional groups were high. The bio-chars were effective on Malachite green (MG) and Methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The MG adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir model and the kinetic data fitted well to the Pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic investigations indicated that MG adsorption on bio-char was spontaneous and endothermic. The MG adsorption mechanism appears to be associated with cation release and functional group participation. Additionally, liquefaction of SS with acetone as the solvent at low temperature (280 °C) would favor the production of bio-char adsorbent in terms of bio-char yield and MG and MB adsorption capacity.

  18. Quantitative characterization of the aqueous fraction from hydrothermal liquefaction of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddi, Balakrishna; Panisko, Ellen; Wietsma, Thomas; Lemmon, Teresa; Swita, Marie; Albrecht, Karl; Howe, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Aqueous streams generated from hydrothermal liquefaction contain approximately 30% of the total carbon present from the algal feed. Hence, this aqueous carbon must be utilized to produce liquid fuels and/or specialty chemicals for economic sustainability of hydrothermal liquefaction on industrial scale. In this study, aqueous fractions produced from the hydrothermal liquefaction of fresh water and saline water algal cultures were analyzed using a wide variety of analytical instruments to determine their compositional characteristics. This study will also inform researchers designing catalysts for down-stream processing such as high-pressure catalytic conversion of organics in aqueous phase, catalytic hydrothermal gasification, and biological conversions. Organic chemical compounds present in all eight aqueous fractions were identified using two-dimensional gas chromatography equipped with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Identified compounds include organic acids, nitrogen compounds and aldehydes/ketones. Conventional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography methods were utilized to quantify the identified compounds. Inorganic species in the aqueous stream of hydrothermal liquefaction of algae were identified using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The concentrations of organic chemical compounds and inorganic species are reported. The amount quantified carbon ranged from 45 to 72 % of total carbon in the aqueous fractions.

  19. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-12-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Results are reported from experiments in which various methods were tested to activate dispersed Mo precursors. Several oxothiomolybdates precursors having S/Mo ratios from two to six were prepared. Another having a S/Mo ratio of eleven was also prepared that contained an excess of sulfur. In the catalyst screening test, none of these precursors exhibited an activity enhancement that might suggest that adding sulfur into the structure of the Mo precursors would be beneficial to the process. In another series of experiments, AHM impregnated coal slurried in the reaction mixture was pretreated withH S/H under pressure and successively heated for 30 min at 120, 250 2 2 and 360 C. THF conversions in the catalyst screening test were not affected while resid conversions o increased such that pretreated coals impregnated with 100 ppm Mo gave conversions equivalent to untreated coals impregnated with 300 ppm fresh Mo. Cobalt, nickel and potassium phosphomolybdates were prepared and tested as bimetallic precursors. The thermal stability of these compounds was evaluated in TG/MS to determine whether the presence of the added metal would stabilize the Keggin structure at reaction temperature. Coals impregnated with these salts showed the Ni and Co salts gave the same THF conversion as PMA while the Ni salt gave higher

  20. Assessment of Susceptibility to Liquefaction of Saturated Road Embankment Subjected to Dynamic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, Anna; Maciejewski, Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Liquefaction has always been intensely studied in parts of the world where earthquakes occur. However, the seismic activity is not the only possible cause of this phenomenon. It may in fact be triggered by some human activities, such as constructing and mining or by rail and road transport. In the paper a road embankment built across a shallow water reservoir is analyzed in terms of susceptibility to liquefaction. Two types of dynamic loadings are considered: first corresponding to an operation of a vibratory roller and second to an earthquake. In order to evaluate a susceptibility of soil to liquefaction, a factor of safety against triggering of liquefaction is used (FSTriggering). It is defined as a ratio of vertical effective stresses to the shear stresses both varying with time. For the structure considered both stresses are obtained using finite element method program, here Plaxis 2D. The plastic behavior of the cohesionless soils is modeled by means of Hardening Soil (HS) constitutive relationship, implemented in Plaxis software. As the stress tensor varies with time during dynamic excitation, the FSTriggering has to be calculated for some particular moment of time when liquefaction is most likely to occur. For the purposes of this paper it is named a critical time and established for reference point at which the pore pressures were traced in time. As a result a factor of safety distribution throughout embankment is generated. For the modeled structure, cyclic point loads (i.e., vibrating roller) present higher risk than earthquake of magnitude 5.4. Explanation why considered structure is less susceptible to earthquake than typical dam could lay in stabilizing and damping influence of water, acting here on both sides of the slope. Analogical procedure is applied to assess liquefaction susceptibility of the road embankment considered but under earthquake excitation. Only the higher water table is considered as it is the most unfavorable. Additionally the

  1. Liquefaction assessment based on combined use of CPT and shear wave velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bán, Zoltán; Mahler, András; Győri, Erzsébet

    2017-04-01

    Soil liquefaction is one of the most devastating secondary effects of earthquakes and can cause significant damage in built infrastructure. For this reason liquefaction hazard shall be considered in all regions where moderate-to-high seismic activity encounters with saturated, loose, granular soil deposits. Several approaches exist to take into account this hazard, from which the in-situ test based empirical methods are the most commonly used in practice. These methods are generally based on the results of CPT, SPT or shear wave velocity measurements. In more complex or high risk projects CPT and VS measurement are often performed at the same location commonly in the form of seismic CPT. Furthermore, VS profile determined by surface wave methods can also supplement the standard CPT measurement. However, combined use of both in-situ indices in one single empirical method is limited. For this reason, the goal of this research was to develop such an empirical method within the framework of simplified empirical procedures where the results of CPT and VS measurements are used in parallel and can supplement each other. The combination of two in-situ indices, a small strain property measurement with a large strain measurement, can reduce uncertainty of empirical methods. In the first step by careful reviewing of the already existing liquefaction case history databases, sites were selected where the records of both CPT and VS measurement are available. After implementing the necessary corrections on the gathered 98 case histories with respect to fines content, overburden pressure and magnitude, a logistic regression was performed to obtain the probability contours of liquefaction occurrence. Logistic regression is often used to explore the relationship between a binary response and a set of explanatory variables. The occurrence or absence of liquefaction can be considered as binary outcome and the equivalent clean sand value of normalized overburden corrected cone tip

  2. Report on the FY 1998 results of the New Sunshine Project (B version). Development of coal liquefaction technology (Development of base technology of liquefaction (Project on internationalization of coal liquefaction technology)); 1998 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (B ban). Ekika kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu (sekitan ekika gijutsu no kokusaika jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In 1994, a memorandum on the research cooperation was agreed between NEDO and BPPT (The Agency for the Assessment and Application Technology) in Indonesia, based on the request for the coal liquefaction technology cooperation from BPPT. It includes the following items: conference for professionals to be held, invitation and training of Indonesian engineers, activity for joint field survey and potential survey of location of coal liquefaction commercial plant. Further in 1997, the secondary memorandum was concluded for the potential survey for securing the hydrogen required for coal liquefaction by coal gasification. The survey was summarized as the potential survey for location of coal liquefaction. In the testing study for improving economical efficiency of liquefaction process, it was made clear that the higher the Fe content of Banko coal is, the higher the reaction of liquefaction is, and that Fe compounds in coal show catalysis. In the Soroako area in Sulawesi island, there are the nickel mine run by PT. Inco. Soroako limonite is promising as catalyst material for commercial-scale coal liquefaction. In the gasification method, the plant construction cost increases, but the production amount of coal-derived liquid can be increased. That is more profitable than the production of hydrogen from natural gas. (NEDO)

  3. Dynamic behavior of potentially unstable soils and application of model for seismic risk reduction from liquefaction occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheshov, Vlatko

    2002-11-01

    Throughout the last decades, liquefaction phenomenon has been one of the most frequently discussed subjects in geotechnical earthquake engineering. Liquefaction has been a problem arousing considerable attention among the world scientists. The consequences from liquefaction occurrence have been present after each stronger earthquake. We have been witnesses of several strong earthquakes (Kobe - Japan, Chi Chi-Taiwan, Bhuj-India) that have occurred in the last decade. In these earthquakes, the liquefaction phenomenon caused severe damage to structures, loss of their functioning and indirect loss of human lives. Liquefaction as a phenomenon should not arouse fear but should call for serious elaboration and attention instead. The destructive nature of liquefaction could be mitigated, i.e., overcome in two ways: avoiding construction at locations characterized by high liquefaction potential which is not always possible and taking of measures for improvement of foundation soil. Finding out suitable measures for improvement of soil and thus mitigating the liquefaction potential has been the main incentive for the elaboration of this dissertation. The dissipation method involving the use of vertical drains as one of the measures for improvement of soils has been elaborated in details in this scientific work. The doctoral dissertation has been realized through experimental and analytical investigations. The experimental investigations done in the first phase represent model seismic shaking table tests of the efficiency of vertical drains (prefabricated and gravel drains). The analytical investigations in this phase have involved mathematical simulation of the effect of vertical drains upon pore pressure state during the experiments. The second phase of the experimental investigations has involved model tests of the behavior of pile foundations in soils susceptible to liquefaction with installed prefabricated drains. In this phase, the 'p - y' relationships have been

  4. Liquefaction of Semen Generates and Later Degrades a Conserved Semenogelin Peptide That Enhances HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haichuan; Usmani, Shariq M.; Neidleman, Jason; Müller, Janis A.; Avila-Herrera, Aram; Gawanbacht, Ali; Zirafi, Onofrio; Chu, Simon; Dong, Ming; Kumar, Senthil T.; Smith, James F.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Fändrich, Marcus; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Greene, Warner C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Semen enhances HIV infection in vitro, but how long it retains this activity has not been carefully examined. Immediately postejaculation, semen exists as a semisolid coagulum, which then converts to a more liquid form in a process termed liquefaction. We demonstrate that early during liquefaction, semen exhibits maximal HIV-enhancing activity that gradually declines upon further incubation. The decline in HIV-enhancing activity parallels the degradation of peptide fragments derived from the semenogelins (SEMs), the major components of the coagulum that are cleaved in a site-specific and progressive manner upon initiation of liquefaction. Because amyloid fibrils generated from SEM fragments were recently demonstrated to enhance HIV infection, we set out to determine whether any of the liquefaction-generated SEM fragments associate with the presence of HIV-enhancing activity. We identify SEM1 from amino acids 86 to 107 [SEM1(86-107)] to be a short, cationic, amyloidogenic SEM peptide that is generated early in the process of liquefaction but that, conversely, is lost during prolonged liquefaction due to the activity of serine proteases. Synthetic SEM1(86-107) amyloids directly bind HIV-1 virions and are sufficient to enhance HIV infection of permissive cells. Furthermore, endogenous seminal levels of SEM1(86-107) correlate with donor-dependent variations in viral enhancement activity, and antibodies generated against SEM1(86-107) recognize endogenous amyloids in human semen. The amyloidogenic potential of SEM1(86-107) and its virus-enhancing properties are conserved among great apes, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved function. These studies identify SEM1(86-107) to be a key, HIV-enhancing amyloid species in human semen and underscore the dynamic nature of semen's HIV-enhancing activity. IMPORTANCE Semen, the most common vehicle for HIV transmission, enhances HIV infection in vitro, but how long it retains this activity has not been investigated. Semen

  5. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Produced in Cardiomyocytes Mediates a Predominant Myocardial Inflammatory Response to Stretch in Early Volume Overload

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yuanwen; Pat, Betty; Zheng, Junying; Cain, Laura; Powell, Pamela; Shi, Ke; Sabri, Abdelkarim; Husain, Ahsan; Dell’Italia, Louis J

    2010-01-01

    Acute stretch caused by volume overload (VO) of aorto-caval fistula (ACF) induces a variety of myocardial responses including mast cell accumulation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and collagen degradation, all of which are critical in dictating long term left ventricle (LV) outcome to VO. Meanwhile, these responses can be part of myocardial inflammation dictated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) which is elevated after acute ACF. However, it is unknown whether TNF-α mediates a ma...

  6. Assessment of thermodynamic models for the design, analysis and optimisation of gas liquefaction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Six thermodynamic models used for evaluating gas liquefaction systems are compared. • Three gas liquefaction systems are modelled, assessed and optimised for each equation of state. • The predictions of thermophysical properties and energy flows are significantly different. • The GERG-2008 model is the only consistent one, while cubic, virial and statistical equations are unsatisfying. - Abstract: Natural gas liquefaction systems are based on refrigeration cycles – they consist of the same operations such as heat exchange, compression and expansion, but they have different layouts, components and working fluids. The design of these systems requires a preliminary simulation and evaluation of their performance. However, the thermodynamic models used for this purpose are characterised by different mathematical formulations, ranges of application and levels of accuracy. This may lead to inconsistent results when estimating hydrocarbon properties and assessing the efficiency of a given process. This paper presents a thorough comparison of six equations of state widely used in the academia and industry, including the GERG-2008 model, which has recently been adopted as an ISO standard for natural gases. These models are used to (i) estimate the thermophysical properties of a Danish natural gas, (ii) simulate, and (iii) optimise liquefaction systems. Three case studies are considered: a cascade layout with three pure refrigerants, a single mixed-refrigerant unit, and an expander-based configuration. Significant deviations are found between all property models, and in all case studies. The main discrepancies are related to the prediction of the energy flows (up to 7%) and to the heat exchanger conductances (up to 11%), and they are not systematic errors. The results illustrate the superiority of using the GERG-2008 model for designing gas processes in real applications, with the aim of reducing their energy use. They demonstrate as well that

  7. St. Louis area earthquake hazards mapping project; seismic and liquefaction hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Chris H.; Bauer, Robert A.; Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, David; Pierce, Larry; Voigt, Vicki; Mitchell, Brad; Gaunt, David; Williams, Robert; Hoffman, David; Hempen, Gregory L.; Steckel, Phyllis; Boyd, Oliver; Watkins, Connor M.; Tucker, Kathleen; McCallister, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    We present probabilistic and deterministic seismic and liquefaction hazard maps for the densely populated St. Louis metropolitan area that account for the expected effects of surficial geology on earthquake ground shaking. Hazard calculations were based on a map grid of 0.005°, or about every 500 m, and are thus higher in resolution than any earlier studies. To estimate ground motions at the surface of the model (e.g., site amplification), we used a new detailed near‐surface shear‐wave velocity model in a 1D equivalent‐linear response analysis. When compared with the 2014 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Model, which uses a uniform firm‐rock‐site condition, the new probabilistic seismic‐hazard estimates document much more variability. Hazard levels for upland sites (consisting of bedrock and weathered bedrock overlain by loess‐covered till and drift deposits), show up to twice the ground‐motion values for peak ground acceleration (PGA), and similar ground‐motion values for 1.0 s spectral acceleration (SA). Probabilistic ground‐motion levels for lowland alluvial floodplain sites (generally the 20–40‐m‐thick modern Mississippi and Missouri River floodplain deposits overlying bedrock) exhibit up to twice the ground‐motion levels for PGA, and up to three times the ground‐motion levels for 1.0 s SA. Liquefaction probability curves were developed from available standard penetration test data assuming typical lowland and upland water table levels. A simplified liquefaction hazard map was created from the 5%‐in‐50‐year probabilistic ground‐shaking model. The liquefaction hazard ranges from low (60% of area expected to liquefy) in the lowlands. Because many transportation routes, power and gas transmission lines, and population centers exist in or on the highly susceptible lowland alluvium, these areas in the St. Louis region are at significant potential risk from seismically induced liquefaction and associated

  8. Effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by liquefaction, which occurs following an earthquake, is usually because of settlement and lateral spreading. Generally, the evaluation of liquefaction has been centered on settlement, that is, residual volumetric strain. However, in actual soil, residual shear and residual volumetric deformations occur simultaneously after an earthquake. Therefore, the simultaneous evaluation of the two phenomena and the clarification of their relationship are likely to evaluate post-liquefaction soil behaviors more accurately. Hence, a quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction damage will also be possible. In this study, the effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformations were reviewed through a series of lateral constrained-control hollow cylindrical torsion tests under undrained conditions. In order to identify the relationship between residual shear and residual volumetric strains, this study proposed a new test method that integrates monotonic loading after cyclic loading, and K0-drain after cyclic loading – in other words, the combination of cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and the K0 drain. In addition, a control that maintained the lateral constrained condition across all the processes of consolidation, cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and drainage was used to reproduce the anisotropy of in situ ground. This lateral constrain control was performed by controlling the axial strain, based on the assumption that under undrained conditions, axial and lateral strains occur simultaneously, and unless axial strain occurs, lateral strain does not occur. The test results confirmed that the recovery of effective stresses, which occur during monotonic loading and drainage after cyclic loading, respectively, result from mutually different structural restoration characteristics. In addition, in the ranges of 40–60% relative density and 50–100% accumulated shear strain, relative

  9. Comparison of oxygen liquefaction methods for use on the Martian surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Hauser, D. M.; Plachta, D. W.; Wang, X.-Y. J.; Banker, B. F.; Desai, P. S.; Stephens, J. R.; Swanger, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    In order to use oxygen that is produced on the surface of Mars from In-Situ production processes in a chemical propulsion system, the oxygen must first be converted from vapor phase to liquid phase and then stored within the propellant tanks of the propulsions system. There are multiple ways that this can be accomplished, from simply attaching a liquefaction system onto the propellant tanks to carrying separate tanks for liquefaction and storage of the propellant and loading just prior to launch (the way that traditional rocket launches occur on Earth). A study was done into these various methods by which the oxygen (and methane) could be liquefied and stored on the Martian surface. Five different architectures or cycles were considered: Tube-on-Tank (also known as Broad Area Cooling or Distributed Refrigeration), Tube-in-Tank (also known as Integrated Refrigeration and Storage), a modified Linde open liquefaction/refrigeration cycle, the direct mounting of a pulse tube cryocooler onto the tank, and an in-line liquefier at ambient pressure. Models of each architecture were developed to give insight into the performance and losses of each of the options. The results were then compared across eight categories: Mass, Power (both input and heat rejection), Operability, Cost, Manufacturability, Reliability, Volume-ility, and Scalability. The result was that Tube-on-Tank and Tube-in-Tank architectures were the most attractive solutions, with NASA's engineering management choosing to pursue tube on tank development rather than further differentiate the two. As a result NASA is focusing its Martian surface liquefaction activities and technology development on Tube-on-Tank liquefaction cycles.

  10. Catalytic subcritical water liquefaction of flax straw for high yield of furfural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, Inibehe; Ibrahim, Hussameldin; Thring, Ron; Idem, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial interest in the application of biomass as a renewable fuel or for production of chemicals. Flax straw can be converted into valuable chemicals and biofuels via liquefaction in sub-critical water. In this study, the yield of furfural and the kinetics of flax straw liquefaction under sub-critical water conditions were investigated using a high-pressure autoclave reactor. The liquefaction was conducted in the temperature range of 175–325 °C, pressure of 0.1 MPa–8 MPa, retention time in the range of 0 min–120 min, and flax straw mass fraction (w F ) of 5–20 %. Also, the effect of acid catalysts on furfural yield was studied. The kinetic parameters of flax straw liquefaction were determined using nonlinear regression of the experimental data, assuming second-order kinetics. The apparent activation energy was found to be 27.97 kJ mol −1 while the reaction order was 2.0. The optimum condition for furfural yield was at 250 °C, 6.0 MPa, w F of 5% and 0 retention time after reaching set conditions. An acid catalyst was found to selectively favour furfural yield with 40% flax straw conversion. - Highlights: • Flax straw liquefaction in subcritical water. • Creation of a reaction pathway that can be used to optimized furfural production. • Acid catalyst selectively favoured furfural yield with respect to other liquid products. • At the highest process temperature of 325 °C, a carbon conversion of 40% was achieved. • Activation energy and reaction order was 28 kJ/mol and 2.0 respectively

  11. Direct hydrothermal liquefaction of undried macroalgae Enteromorpha prolifera using acid catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wenchao; Li, Xianguo; Liu, Shishi; Feng, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bio-oil from liquefaction of wet E. prolifera was as feasible as dry powder. • Adding acid catalysts could improve the flow property of bio-oil. • Alkenes in the bio-oil converted to ketones in the presence of acid catalysts. • Content of 5-methyl furfural increased in the bio-oil obtained with acid catalysts. • Esters were formed in the bio-oil when adding sulfuric acid as a catalyst. - Abstract: Direct liquefaction of macroalgae Enteromorpha prolifera without predrying treatment was performed in a batch reactor. Effects of temperature, reaction time, biomass-to-water ratio and acid catalysts (sulfuric acid and acetic acid) on liquefaction products were investigated. Raw material and liquefaction products were analyzed by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results showed that liquefaction at 290 °C for 20 min with 1:3 biomass-to-water ratio produced the highest bio-oil yield of 28.4 wt%, and high heating value (HHV) was 29.5 MJ/kg. Main components of bio-oil were fatty acids, ketones, alkenes and 5-methyl furfural, and main components of water soluble organics (WSOs) were pyridines, carboxylic acids and glycerol. In the bio-oil obtained with acid catalysts, content of ketones significantly increased while alkenes disappeared. Content of 5-methyl furfural also increased. Flow property of bio-oils was improved in the presence of acid catalysts. Moreover, esters were formed when adding sulfuric acid

  12. Analysis of flammability limits for the liquefaction process of oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.Y.; Wang, L.; Ju, Y.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel liquefaction and distillation process is designed for oxygen bearing coal-bed methane. → Oxygen contained in coal-bed methane is removed in distillation process. → Flammability limits are analyzed for the whole operation process. → We find explosion hazard may exist in distillation tower. → Effective measures are proposed to ensure the operation safety in distillation tower. - Abstract: A novel liquefaction and distillation process has been proposed and designed for the typical oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane (CBM), in which the impurities of the oxygen and nitrogen components are removed in the distillation column. The flammability limit theory combining with HYSYS simulation results are employed to analyze and calculate the flammability limits and the results indicate that no flammability hazard exists in the stages of compression, liquefaction and throttling. However, flammability hazard exists at the top the distillation column because the methane mole fraction decreases to the value below the upper flammability limit (UFL). The safety measures of initially removing oxygen content from the feed gas combining with the control of the bottom flowrate (flowrate of the liquid product at column bottom) are proposed to ensure the operation safety of the liquefaction process. The results reveal that the operation safety of the whole process can be guaranteed, together with high methane recovery rate and high purity of the liquid product. The applicability of the liquefaction process has also been analyzed in this paper. The simulation results can offer references for the separation of oxygen from CBM, the analysis of flammability limits and the safety measures for the whole process.

  13. Status of health and environmental research relative to direct coal liquefaction: 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E. (eds.)

    1982-06-01

    This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.

  14. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, G C; Montes, L F; Cassady, G

    1978-08-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) developed in a 1-week-old black boy. His mother had received numerous medications for eclampsia. Birth was by Caesarean section and complicated by meconium aspiration. There were numerous nodules over the back, buttocks and extremities that yielded a caseous-like material. Microscopically, these nodules showed crystallization and necrosis of the fat. Hypoglycemia, pneumonia, oliguria, thrombocytopenia, seizures and urinary infection were associated with the cutaneous problem and led to a fatal outcome 2 weeks after birth.

  15. Breast necrosis associated with thromboembolic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, I.; Adler, D.D.; Ljungberg, O.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor

    1987-01-01

    Two obese women with thrombotic disease complicated by necrosis of the breast are described. In one patient the reaction started after a few days of coumarin treatment and progressed to severe necrosis requiring mastectomy. The other patient was not on anticoagulant therapy when the breast reaction started and the clinical course was less severe. The radiographic appearance was characterized by thickening of the breast trabeculae, increased density of the breast and skin thickening. Although the radiographic findings are non-specific, the correct diagnosis can be suggested if combined with appropriate clinical information. The disease process may mimic breast cancer of the inflammatory type, clinically as well as radiographically. (orig.)

  16. Development of liquefaction process of coal and biomass in supercritical water; Chorinkaisui wo mochiita sekitan biomass doji ekika process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, H.; Matsumura, Y.; Tsutsumi, A.; Yoshida, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Masuno, Y.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Liquefaction of coal and biomass in supercritical water has been investigated, in which strong solubilization force of supercritical water against hydrocarbons is utilized. Free radicals are formed through the cleavage of covalent bonds in coal under the heating condition at around 400{degree}C during coal liquefaction. It is important to stabilize these unstable intermediate products by hydrogen transfer. On the other hand, hydrogen is not required for the liquefaction of biomass having higher H/C atomic ratio and oxygen content than those of coal. Co-liquefaction of coal and biomass was conducted using supercritical water, in which excess hydrogen from the liquefaction of biomass would be transferred to coal, resulting in the effective liquefaction of coal. Mixture of coal and cellulose was liquefied in supercritical water at 390{degree}C under the pressure of 25 MPa using a semi-continuous reactor, and the results were compared with those from the separate liquefaction of them. The co-liquefaction of coal and cellulose did not show any difference in the residue yield from the separate liquefaction of these, but led to the increased production of compounds with lower molecular weight. The liquefaction was completed in 15 minutes. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Outline of research achievement of fiscal 1983. Development of coal liquefaction technologies; Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu. 1983 nendo kenkyu seika no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    Reported are the results of (1) the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, (2) development of brown coal liquefaction technology, (3) experimental fabrication and development of plant equipment and materials therefor, and (4) a survey on coal type selection. The goals of the development are mentioned below. Under Item (1), an optimum liquefaction process and a solid/liquid separation process are to be defined, the effect of iron-based catalysts upon liquefaction reaction is to be elucidated, a technology for constructing a direct hydroliquefaction unit is to be established, and a plant using such a unit is to be developed. Under Item (2), an optimum liquefaction technology is to be established, high in economic efficiency and reliability, by subjecting Australia's Victoria brown coal to the direct liquefaction process. In particular, a new brown coal liquefaction technology is to be established, which will be an organic combination of a novel, raw brown coal slurry dehydration technology, a solvent deashing technology, and the secondary hydrogenation technology, all centering on the basic technology of primary hydrogenation. Under Item (3), reactor materials, accessory materials, slurry pumps, etc., are to be experimentally manufactured and developed further. Under Item (4), data are to be collected on coal resources, coal quality, liquefaction characteristics, etc., during the process of technology development for liquefaction, etc. Furthermore, methods are to be established for the effective utilization of liquefaction products and for their optimum refining. (NEDO)

  18. Prognosis of Acute Kidney Injury and Hepatorenal Syndrome in Patients with Cirrhosis: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Allegretti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Acute kidney injury is a common problem for patients with cirrhosis and is associated with poor survival. We aimed to examine the association between type of acute kidney injury and 90-day mortality. Methods. Prospective cohort study at a major US liver transplant center. A nephrologist’s review of the urinary sediment was used in conjunction with the 2007 Ascites Club Criteria to stratify acute kidney injury into four groups: prerenal azotemia, hepatorenal syndrome, acute tubular necrosis, or other. Results. 120 participants with cirrhosis and acute kidney injury were analyzed. Ninety-day mortality was 14/40 (35% with prerenal azotemia, 20/35 (57% with hepatorenal syndrome, 21/36 (58% with acute tubular necrosis, and 1/9 (11% with other (p=0.04 overall. Mortality was the same in hepatorenal syndrome compared to acute tubular necrosis (p=0.99. Mortality was lower in prerenal azotemia compared to hepatorenal syndrome (p=0.05 and acute tubular necrosis (p=0.04. Ten participants (22% were reclassified from hepatorenal syndrome to acute tubular necrosis because of granular casts on urinary sediment. Conclusions. Hepatorenal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis result in similar 90-day mortality. Review of urinary sediment may add important diagnostic information to this population. Multicenter studies are needed to validate these findings and better guide management.

  19. Survey on peripheral techniques of brown coal liquefaction techniques; Kattan ekika gijutsu ni kansuru shuhen gijutsu no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-01

    Described herein are results of survey on brown coal liquefaction techniques and peripheral techniques, centered by COSTEAM process under development in USA, solubilization by alcohol and liquefaction and cracking with the aid of tetrahydroquinoline as the hydrogen donor under development in Japan, and low-temperature carbonization and new promising techniques. The COSTEAM process shows higher reaction rates, conversions and oil yields for brown coal liquefaction than the one using hydrogen gas. Some of the problems involved in this process high viscosity and oxygenated compound content of the product oil. The product oil is acceptable as fuel for power generating plants and can be produced at a moderate cost, but may be unsuitable as vehicle fuel. Coal liquefaction and solubilization processes are mainly represented by those which use hydrogen. The hydrogen cost, which is high, determines the product price. The processes which use alcohol or tetrahydroquinoline are still in the experimental stage. (NEDO)

  20. Numerical modeling of liquefaction-induced failure of geo-structures subjected to earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapti, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance of performance-based earthquake engineering analysis points out the necessity to assess quantitatively the risk of liquefaction. In this extreme scenario of soil liquefaction, devastating consequences are observed, e.g. excessive settlements, lateral spreading and slope instability. The present PhD thesis discusses the global dynamic response and interaction of an earth structure-foundation system, so as to determine quantitatively the collapse mechanism due to foundation's soil liquefaction. As shear band generation is a potential earthquake-induced failure mode in such structures, the FE mesh dependency of results of dynamic analyses is thoroughly investigated and an existing regularization method is evaluated. The open-source FE software developed by EDF R and D, called Code-Aster, is used for the numerical simulations, while soil behavior is represented by the ECP constitutive model, developed at Centrale-Supelec. Starting from a simplified model of 1D SH wave propagation in a soil column with coupled hydro-mechanical nonlinear behavior, the effect of seismic hazard and soil's permeability on liquefaction is assessed. Input ground motion is a key component for soil liquefaction apparition, as long duration of main shock can lead to important nonlinearity and extended soil liquefaction. Moreover, when a variation of permeability as function of liquefaction state is considered, changes in the dissipation phase of excess pore water pressure and material behavior are observed, which do not follow a single trend. The effect of a regularization method with enhanced kinematics approach, called first gradient of dilation model, on 1D SH wave propagation is studied through an analytical solution. Deficiencies of the use of this regularization method are observed and discussed, e.g. spurious waves apparition in the soil's seismic response. Next, a 2D embankment-type model is simulated and its dynamic response is evaluated in dry, fully drained

  1. Avascular necrosis ofbone following renal transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and avascular necrosis was reported in 1957 in a patient ... Onset of pain ranged from 2 months to 36 months .... and corticosteroid-induced diabetes); (iv) severe sec- ... reponed in the shoulder and elbow joints, i.e. humeral head, distal ...

  2. Aseptic necrosis of femoral head complicating thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzincolo, C.; Castaldi, G.; Scutellary, P.N.; Bariani, L.; Pinca, A.

    1986-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is described in 4 patients, selected from 280 patients with homozygous β-thalassemia (Cooley anemia). The incidence of the complication appears to be very high (14.5per mille) in thalassemia, compared to the general population. The possible mechanism are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Colonic ischemic necrosis following therapeutic embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, S.S.; Satchidanand, S.; Wesp, E.H.; State Univ. of New York, Buffalo

    1981-01-01

    Transcatheter embolization of the middle colic artery for diverticular bleeding was followed by ischemic necrosis in the transverse colon at the site of previous anastomosis and stricture formation. This is a potential complication of intra-arterial embolization for colonic bleeding. (orig.)

  4. Colonic ischemic necrosis following therapeutic embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, S S; Satchidanand, S; Wesp, E H

    1981-07-15

    Transcatheter embolization of the middle colic artery for diverticular bleeding was followed by ischemic necrosis in the transverse colon at the site of previous anastomosis and stricture formation. This is a potential complication of intra-arterial embolization for colonic bleeding.

  5. Development of delayed radiation necrosis. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, ShigFeki; Takagi, Terumasa [Meitetsu Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Shibata, Taichiro; Nagai, Hajime

    1983-04-01

    The authors discussed the developing process of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain from the case of a 42-year-old female who developed intracranial hypertension and left hemiparesis 5 and a half years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The initial sign of radiation necrosis was from a CT scan taken 3 and a half years after radiotherapy showing an irregular low density lesion in the right temporal lobe. CT scan 2 years later demonstrated displacement of the midline structures to the left and a larger low density lesion with partially high density in the right MCA territory that was enhanced with intravenous contrast medium. Recovery after a right temporal lobectomy and administration of steroid hormone were uneventful. Eight months later there were no signs of raised intracranial pressure nor of neurological deficits. Tissues obtained from the right temporal lobe at lobectomy revealed the characteristic changes of delayed radiation necrosis; a mixture of fresh, recent, and old vascular lesions in the same specimen. From these findings, it was speculated that delayed radiation necrosis might initially occur within several years after radiotherapy and might gradually take a progressive and extended course, even in cases whose clinical symptoms develop much later.

  6. Process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein nitrogen is separated from hydrogen via ammonia synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetka, Steven S.; Nazario, Francisco N.

    1982-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein bottoms residues are upgraded with a process wherein air is employed, the improvement wherein nitrogen buildup in the system is avoided by ammonia synthesis. In a preferred embodiment hydrogen from other portions of the liquefaction process will be combined with hydrogen produced as a result of the bottoms upgrading to increase the H.sub.2 :N.sub.2 ratio in the ammonia reactor.

  7. Avascular necrosis after chemotherapy for haematological malignancy in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, K H; Brockert, A-K; Mertens, R; Drescher, W

    2013-12-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a serious complication of high-dose chemotherapy for haematological malignancy in childhood. In order to describe its incidence and main risk factors and to evaluate the current treatment options, we reviewed 105 children with a mean age of 8.25 years (1 to 17.8) who had acute lymphoblastic or acute myeloid leukaemia, or a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Overall, eight children (7.6%) developed AVN after a mean of 16.8 months (8 to 49). There were four boys and four girls with a mean age of 14.4 years (9.8 to 16.8) and a total of 18 involved sites, 12 of which were in the femoral head. All these children were aged > nine years (p < 0.001). All had received steroid treatment with a mean cumulative dose of prednisone of 5967 mg (4425 to 9599) compared with a mean of 3943 mg (0 to 18 585) for patients without AVN (p = 0.005). No difference existed between genders and no thrombophilic disorders were identified. Their initial treatment included 11 core decompressions and two bipolar hip replacements. Later, two salvage osteotomies were done and three patients (four hips) eventually needed a total joint replacement. We conclude that AVN mostly affects the weight-bearing epiphyses. Its risk increases with age and higher steroid doses. These high-risk patients may benefit from early screening for AVN.

  8. Studies on characteristics of fluid dynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor; Sekitan ekika hanno tonai no ryudo tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakawaki, K.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tachikawa, N.; Moki, T.; Ishikawa, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To design the coal liquefaction reactor of large scale plant in future, it is important to understand characteristics of fluid dynamics within the coal liquefaction reactor. In this study, to measure the fluid dynamics of liquid phase within the coal liquefaction reactor operated under high temperature and high pressure coal liquefaction condition, neutron attenuating tracer (NAT) technique, one of the tracer test methods, was applied using 1 t/d coal treating PSU. The residence time of liquid phase within the reactor can be measured by utilizing property of neutron of being absorbed by materials. The tracer was injected at the inlets of first and third reactors, and the neutron was counted at each outlet. The concentration of tracer was derived from the discrete value, to determine the residence time distribution of liquid phase. The mean residence time of liquid phase in the single first reactor and in the total three reactors were prolonged under the severe operation conditions of liquefaction. The more severe the liquefaction operation condition was, the more active the mixing of liquid phase was in the first reactor. It was found that the progress of reaction was accelerated. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Survival of Legionella in earthquake-induced soil disturbance (liquefaction) in residential areas, Christchurch, New Zealand: implications for disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Frances F; Harte, David Jg

    2017-05-12

    To investigate a possible link between liquefaction dust exposure and the noticeable increase in legionellosis cases in response to major earthquakes in 2010 and 2011 that resulted in widespread soil disturbance (liquefaction) in parts of Christchurch, New Zealand. We culture tested liquefaction-affected soil for Legionella spp. in the six months following the first earthquake in 2010. Thirty silt samples were collected randomly from locations within Christchurch's metropolitan area that were affected by liquefaction. The samples were tested to determine the presence of Legionella using qualitative and quantitative methods. Liquefaction-affected soil samples from three sites were further subjected to particle size distribution analysis and determination of major oxides. A controlled field study was established using six silt samples and one control (commercial compost), seeded with a wild-type strain of Legionella bozemanae serogroup (sg) 1 and persistence monitored over a 60-day period by culturing for the presence of Legionella. Dry matter determinations were undertaken so that total Legionella could be calculated on a dry weight basis. Legionella bacteria were undetectable after day one in the silt samples. However, L. bozemanae sg1 was detected in the control sample for the entire study period. This study showed that the liquefaction-affected soil could not contribute directly to the observed increase in legionellosis cases after the earthquakes due to its inability to support growth and survival of the Legionella bacteria.

  10. Evaluation of liquefaction potential of soil based on standard penetration test using multi-gene genetic programming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muduli, Pradyut; Das, Sarat

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of liquefaction potential of soil based on standard penetration test (SPT) dataset using evolutionary artificial intelligence technique, multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP). The liquefaction classification accuracy (94.19%) of the developed liquefaction index (LI) model is found to be better than that of available artificial neural network (ANN) model (88.37%) and at par with the available support vector machine (SVM) model (94.19%) on the basis of the testing data. Further, an empirical equation is presented using MGGP to approximate the unknown limit state function representing the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) of soil based on developed LI model. Using an independent database of 227 cases, the overall rates of successful prediction of occurrence of liquefaction and non-liquefaction are found to be 87, 86, and 84% by the developed MGGP based model, available ANN and the statistical models, respectively, on the basis of calculated factor of safety (F s) against the liquefaction occurrence.

  11. Liquefaction induced by modern earthquakes as a key to paleoseismicity: A case study of the 1988 Saguenay event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, M.; Cowie, P.; Wolf, L.

    1992-01-01

    Liquefaction features, including sand dikes, sills, and sand-filled craters, that formed at different distances from the epicenter of the 1988 (Mw 5.9) Saguenay earthquake are compared with one another and with older features. Modern liquefaction features decrease in size with increasing distance from the Saguenay epicenter. This relationship suggests that the size of liquefaction features may be used to determine source zones of past earthquakes and to estimate attenuation of seismic energy. Pre-1988 liquefaction features are cross-cut by the 1988 features. Although similar in morphology to the modern features, the pre-1988 features are more weathered and considerably larger in size. The larger pre-1988 features are located in the Ferland area, whereas the smallest pre-1988 feature occurs more than 37 km to the southwest. This spatial distribution of different size features suggests that an unidentified earthquake source zone (in addition to the one that generated the Saguenay earthquake) may exist in the Laurentide-Saguenay region. Structural relationships of the liquefaction features indicate that one, possibly two, earthquakes induced liquefaction in the region prior to 1988. The age of only one pre-1988 feature is well-constrained at 340 ± 70 radiocarbon years BP. If the 1663 earthquake was responsible for the formation of this feature, this event may have been centered in the Laurentide-Saguenay region rather than in the Charlevoix seismic zone

  12. CT findings of acute cholecystitis and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespear, Jonathan S; Shaaban, Akram M; Rezvani, Maryam

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate the CT findings of acute cholecystitis and its complications. CT findings suggesting acute cholecystitis should be interpreted with caution and should probably serve as justification for further investigation with abdominal ultrasound. CT has a relatively high negative predictive value, and acute cholecystitis is unlikely in the setting of a negative CT. Complications of acute cholecystitis have a characteristic CT appearance and include necrosis, perforation, abscess formation, intraluminal hemorrhage, and wall emphysema.

  13. Geological occurrence response to trace elemental migration in coal liquefaction based on SPSS: take no. 11 coalbed in Antaibao mine for example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Qin, Yong; Yang, Weifeng

    2013-03-01

    Coal liquefaction is an adoptable method to transfer the solid fossil energy into liquid oil in large scale, but the dirty material in which will migrate to different step of liquefaction. The migration rule of some trace elements is response to the react activity of macerals in coal and the geological occurrence of the element nature of itself. In this paper, from the SPSS data correlation analysis and hierarchical clustering dendrogram about the trace elements with macerals respond to coal liquefaction yield, it shows the trace elements in No.11 Antaibao coal seam originated from some of lithophile and sulphophle elements. Correlation coefficient between liquefaction yield of three organic macerals and migration of the elements in liquefaction residue indicated that the lithophile are easy to transfer to residue, while sulphophle are apt to in the liquid products. The activated macerals are response to sulphophle trace elements. The conclusion is useful to the coal blending and environmental effects on coal direct liquefaction.

  14. Re-Condensation and Liquefaction of Helium and Hydrogen Using Coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Coolers are used to cool cryogen free devices at temperatures from 5 to 30 K. Cryogen free cooling involves a temperature drop within the device being cooled and between the device and the cooler cold heads. Liquid cooling with a liquid cryogen distributed over the surface of a device combined with re-condensation can result in a much lower temperature drop between the cooler and the device being cooled. The next logical step beyond simple re-condensation is using a cooler to liquefy the liquid cryogen in the device. A number of tests of helium liquefaction and re-condensation of helium have been run using a pulse tube cooler in the drop-in mode. This report discusses the parameter space over which re-condensation and liquefaction for helium and hydrogen can occur.

  15. Liquefaction of Warukin Formation Coal, Barito Basin, South Kalimantan on Low Pressure and Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Nursanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research focusing on the quality of coal in Warukin Formation has been conducted in coal outcrops located on Tabalong area, particularly in 3 coal seams, namely Wara 120 which consists of low rank coal (lignite. Meanwhile, coals in seam Tutupan 210 and Paringin 712 are medium rank coal (sub-bituminous. Coal liquefaction is conducted in an autoclave on low pressure and temperature. Pressure during the process is 14 psi and temperature is 120oC. Catalyst used are alumina, hydrogen donor NaOH and water solvent. Liquefaction is conducted in three times variables of 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. This process shows following yield : Wara seam 120: 25.37% - 51.27%; Tutupan seam 210: 3.02%-15.45% and seam Paringin 712:1.99%-11.95%. The average result of yield shows that coals in seam Wara has higher yield conversion than coals in seam Tutupan and Paringin.

  16. Fractional Multistage Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass and Catalytic Conversion into Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortright, Randy [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Rozmiarek, Robert [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Dally, Brice [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Holland, Chris [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-08-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an improved multistage process for the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass to serve as a new front-end, deconstruction process ideally suited to feed Virent’s well-proven catalytic technology, which is already being scaled up. This process produced water soluble, partially de-oxygenated intermediates that are ideally suited for catalytic finishing to fungible distillate hydrocarbons. Through this project, Virent, with its partners, demonstrated the conversion of pine wood chips to drop-in hydrocarbon distillate fuels using a multi-stage fractional conversion system that is integrated with Virent’s BioForming® process. The majority of work was in the liquefaction task and included temperature scoping, solvent optimization, and separations.

  17. Determination of soil liquefaction characteristics by large-scale laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    The testing program described in this report was carried out to study the liquefaction behavior of a clean, uniform, medium sand. Horizontal beds of this sand, 42 inches by 90 inches by 4 inches were prepared by pluviation with a special sand spreader, saturated, and tested in a shaking table system designed for this program, which applied a horizontal cyclic shear stress to the specimens. Specimen size was selected to reduce boundary effects as much as possible. Values of pore pressures and shear strains developed during the tests are presented for sand specimens at relative densities of 54, 68, 82, and 90 percent, and the results interpreted to determine the values of the stress ratio causing liquefaction at the various relative densities

  18. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1993-02-01

    This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275[degrees]C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

  19. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1993-02-01

    This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275{degrees}C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

  20. A preliminary analysis of floating production storage and offloading facilities with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Carranza-Sánchez, Yamid Alberto; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) plants are facilities used in upstream petroleum processing. They have gained interest because they are more flexible than conventional plants and can be used for producing oil and gas in deep-water fields. In general, gas export is challenging...... because of the lack of infrastructure in remote locations. The present work investigates the possibility of integrating liquefaction processes on such facilities, considering two mixed-refrigerant and two expansion-based processes suitable for offshore applications. Two FPSO configurations are considered...... in this work, and they were suggested by Brazilian operators for fields processing natural gas with moderate to high content of carbon dioxide. The performance of the combined systems is analysed by conducting energy and exergy analyses. The integration of gas liquefaction results in greater power consumption...

  1. Liquefaction of lignohemicellulosic waste by processing with carbon monoxide and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Saied, H

    1977-09-01

    The liquefaction of lignohemicellulosic waste by processing with carbon monoxide and water for 10 minutes at 250/sup 0/-440/sup 0/C and 40 to 70 atm initial pressure in a rocking autoclave produced benzene-soluble heavy oil in yields up to 80%. High conversion and yields were favored by high thermal stress, short reaction times, and sufficient hydrogen to prevent radical recombination in the critical liquefaction stages. The addition of sodium or calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, iron oxide, etc. in small amounts gave good oil yields under less severe conditions. Lignins from rice straw, bagasse, and other grasses gave higher yields than the woody lignin obtained from cotton stalks. In products obtained by liquefying black liquor lignohemicellulose from an Eyptian rice straw pulping plant, the hydrogen-carbon atomic ratio was 1.0 to 1.3:1.

  2. RESEARCH ON THE DEGREE OF SATURATION INVESTIGATION BY THE SAMPLING OF THE SAND FOR LIQUEFACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Nao; Ohuchi, Masatoshi; Sakai, Katsuo; Nishigaki, Makoto

    The liquefaction countermeasure technical method, whereby the liquefaction strength is enhanced by making sand deposit in the state of unsaturation, is currently under study. The author et al have suggested a simple method of verifying the persistence of residual air using the undisturbed sample under ordinary temperature and sampling underground water; and have actually implemented the method in the adjacent ground with the foundation of viaduct pneumatic caisson where the leaked air during the construction was considered to have been trapped. We demonstrated the method of correcting the influence of the pressure of sampling specimen as well as of the dissolved air, and studied the precision of required degree of saturation. As the result, it has been shown that the residual air entrapped in the sand deposit is sustainable for as long time as about 28 years.

  3. Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading in Oceano, California, during the 2003 San Simeon Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.; Di Alessandro, Carola; Boatwright, John; Tinsley, John C.; Sell, Russell W.; Rosenberg, Lewis I.

    2004-01-01

    The December 22, 2003, San Simeon, California, (M6.5) earthquake caused damage to houses, road surfaces, and underground utilities in Oceano, California. The community of Oceano is approximately 50 miles (80 km) from the earthquake epicenter. Damage at this distance from a M6.5 earthquake is unusual. To understand the causes of this damage, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted extensive subsurface exploration and monitoring of aftershocks in the months after the earthquake. The investigation included 37 seismic cone penetration tests, 5 soil borings, and aftershock monitoring from January 28 to March 7, 2004. The USGS investigation identified two earthquake hazards in Oceano that explain the San Simeon earthquake damage?site amplification and liquefaction. Site amplification is a phenomenon observed in many earthquakes where the strength of the shaking increases abnormally in areas where the seismic-wave velocity of shallow geologic layers is low. As a result, earthquake shaking is felt more strongly than in surrounding areas without similar geologic conditions. Site amplification in Oceano is indicated by the physical properties of the geologic layers beneath Oceano and was confirmed by monitoring aftershocks. Liquefaction, which is also commonly observed during earthquakes, is a phenomenon where saturated sands lose their strength during an earthquake and become fluid-like and mobile. As a result, the ground may undergo large permanent displacements that can damage underground utilities and well-built surface structures. The type of displacement of major concern associated with liquefaction is lateral spreading because it involves displacement of large blocks of ground down gentle slopes or towards stream channels. The USGS investigation indicates that the shallow geologic units beneath Oceano are very susceptible to liquefaction. They include young sand dunes and clean sandy artificial fill that was used to bury and convert marshes into developable lots. Most of

  4. Coupling hydrothermal liquefaction and anaerobic digestion for energy valorization from model biomass feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posmanik, Roy; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Kim, Andrew H; Usack, Joseph G; Tester, Jefferson W; Angenent, Largus T

    2017-06-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction converts food waste into oil and a carbon-rich hydrothermal aqueous phase. The hydrothermal aqueous phase may be converted to biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Here, the feasibility of coupling hydrothermal liquefaction and anaerobic digestion for the conversion of food waste into energy products was examined. A mixture of polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids, representing food waste, underwent hydrothermal processing at temperatures ranging from 200 to 350°C. The anaerobic biodegradability of the hydrothermal aqueous phase was examined through conducting biochemical methane potential assays. The results demonstrate that the anaerobic biodegradability of the hydrothermal aqueous phase was lower when the temperature of hydrothermal processing increased. The chemical composition of the hydrothermal aqueous phase affected the anaerobic biodegradability. However, no inhibition of biodegradation was observed for most samples. Combining hydrothermal and anaerobic digestion may, therefore, yield a higher energetic return by converting the feedstock into oil and biomethane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Method for controlling boiling point distribution of coal liquefaction oil product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-12-21

    The relative ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate produced in a coal liquefaction process is continuously controlled by automatically and continuously controlling the ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in a liquid solvent used to form the feed slurry to the coal liquefaction zone, and varying the weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the liquid solvent inversely with respect to the desired weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the distillate fuel oil product. The concentration of light distillate and heavy distillate in the liquid solvent is controlled by recycling predetermined amounts of light distillate and heavy distillate for admixture with feed coal to the process in accordance with the foregoing relationships.

  6. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 1996 Annual Summary of Coal Liquefaction and Gasification; 1996 nendo new sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gasuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    In reference to the results of the research and development under the fiscal 1996 New Sunshine Project, a report was summed up on coal liquefaction and coal gasification. As to the R and D of coal liquefaction technology, researches were conducted on liquefaction characteristics and engineering properties by coal kind, catalysts for coal liquefaction, liquefaction reaction of coal and reformation utilization of the liquefied products, liquefaction reaction mechanism and coking mechanism, solubility of coal in solvent and catalytic reaction mechanism, solvent reaction mechanism by hydrogen donor solvent, etc. Concerning the R and D of coal gasification technology, made were the basic study of eco-technology adaptable gasification technology and the study of coal gasification enhancing technology. Further, as to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, carried out were the study in pilot plants and the support study of pilot plants. Additionally, R and D were done of the basic technology of coal liquefaction such as upgrading technology and environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction technology, and of coal hydrogasification technology. 3 refs., 81 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Predicted Liquefaction in the Greater Oakland and Northern Santa Clara Valley Areas for a Repeat of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction due to a repeat of the 1868 (M6.7-7.0) earthquake on the southern segment of the Hayward Fault were calculated for two areas along the margin of San Francisco Bay, California: greater Oakland and the northern Santa Clara Valley. Liquefaction is predicted to be more common in the greater Oakland area than in the northern Santa Clara Valley owing to the presence of 57 km2 of susceptible sandy artificial fill. Most of the fills were placed into San Francisco Bay during the first half of the 20th century to build military bases, port facilities, and shoreline communities like Alameda and Bay Farm Island. Probabilities of liquefaction in the area underlain by this sandy artificial fill range from 0.2 to ~0.5 for a M7.0 earthquake, and decrease to 0.1 to ~0.4 for a M6.7 earthquake. In the greater Oakland area, liquefaction probabilities generally are less than 0.05 for Holocene alluvial fan deposits, which underlie most of the remaining flat-lying urban area. In the northern Santa Clara Valley for a M7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m (the historically shallowest water level), liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For a M6.7 earthquake, probabilities are greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. Areas with high probabilities in the Santa Clara Valley are underlain by latest Holocene alluvial fan levee deposits where liquefaction and lateral spreading occurred during large earthquakes in 1868 and 1906. The liquefaction scenario maps were created with ArcGIS ModelBuilder. Peak ground accelerations first were computed with the new Boore and Atkinson NGA attenuation relation (2008, Earthquake Spectra, 24:1, p. 99-138), using VS30 to account for local site response. Spatial liquefaction probabilities were then estimated using the predicted ground motions

  8. Indirect Liquefaction of Biomass to Transportation Fuels Via Mixed Oxygenated Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C.D.

    2016-11-14

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis of four emerging conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The processing steps include: biomass-to-syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation.

  9. Conceptual design of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction and biogas plant for sustainable bioenergy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Rudra, Souman; Toor, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Initial process studies carried out in Aspen Plus on an integrated thermochemical conversion process are presented herein. In the simulations, a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) plant is combined with a biogas plant (BP), such that the digestate from the BP is converted to a biocrude in the HTL...... grid or for CHP. An estimated 62–84% of the biomass energy can be recovered in the biofuels....

  10. Shear wave velocity-based evaluation and design of stone column improved ground for liquefaction mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanguo; Sun, Zhengbo; Chen, Jie; Chen, Yunmin; Chen, Renpeng

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation and design of stone column improvement ground for liquefaction mitigation is a challenging issue for the state of practice. In this paper, a shear wave velocity-based approach is proposed based on the well-defined correlations of liquefaction resistance (CRR)-shear wave velocity ( V s)-void ratio ( e) of sandy soils, and the values of parameters in this approach are recommended for preliminary design purpose when site specific values are not available. The detailed procedures of pre- and post-improvement liquefaction evaluations and stone column design are given. According to this approach, the required level of ground improvement will be met once the target V s of soil is raised high enough (i.e., no less than the critical velocity) to resist the given earthquake loading according to the CRR- V s relationship, and then this requirement is transferred to the control of target void ratio (i.e., the critical e) according to the V s- e relationship. As this approach relies on the densification of the surrounding soil instead of the whole improved ground and is conservative by nature, specific considerations of the densification mechanism and effect are given, and the effects of drainage and reinforcement of stone columns are also discussed. A case study of a thermal power plant in Indonesia is introduced, where the effectiveness of stone column improved ground was evaluated by the proposed V s-based method and compared with the SPT-based evaluation. This improved ground performed well and experienced no liquefaction during subsequent strong earthquakes.

  11. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Lignin: Biomass Pretreatment Severity Affects Lignin Valorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads M.; Djajadi, Demi T.; Torri, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    Alkalinehydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of lignin-rich enzymatichydrolysis residues (EnzHR) from wheat straw and Miscanthusx giganteus was performed at 255, 300, and 345 °C to investigate valorization of this side-stream from second-generation bioethanol production. The EnzHR were from biomass...... contributed with additional chemical information as well as confirming trends seen from quantified monomers. This work is relevant for future lignin valorization in biorefineries based on current second-generation bioethanol production....

  12. Combined hydrothermal liquefaction and catalytic hydrothermal gasification system and process for conversion of biomass feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2017-09-12

    A combined hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system and process are described that convert various biomass-containing sources into separable bio-oils and aqueous effluents that contain residual organics. Bio-oils may be converted to useful bio-based fuels and other chemical feedstocks. Residual organics in HTL aqueous effluents may be gasified and converted into medium-BTU product gases and directly used for process heating or to provide energy.

  13. Development of 1-D Shake Table Testing Facility for Liquefaction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unni, Kartha G.; Beena, K. S.; Mahesh, C.

    2018-04-01

    One of the major challenges researchers face in the field of earthquake geotechnical engineering in India is the high cost of laboratory infrastructure. Developing a reliable and low cost experimental set up is attempted in this research. The paper details the design and development of a uniaxial shake table and the data acquisition system with accelerometers and pore water pressure sensors which can be used for liquefaction studies.

  14. NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION UNITS ON THE BASE OF EXPANDER NITROGEN CYCLES

    OpenAIRE

    Кузьменко, И. Ф.; Передельский, В. А.; Довбиш, А. Л.

    2014-01-01

    It is necessary to create large-capacity LNG-units for natural gas peaks consumption shaving and also to expand liquefied natural gas (LNG) marketing. It is proposed to create such natural gas liquefaction units with the use of outer nitrogen cryogenic thermodynamic cycles. It is necessary to use turboexpander-compressor sets (TECS) in them for maximizing cycles efficiency. Different technological schemes of LNG-units including nitrogen cryogenic units with TECS from one to four have been exa...

  15. Study on hydrogen transfer in coal liquefaction by tritium and carbon-14 tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitoh, Osamu; Kabe, Toshiaki; Kabe, Yaeko.

    1985-01-01

    For the analysis of mechanism of hydrogenation and cracking of coal, the liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal using tritium labeled gaseous hydrogen and tritium labeled tetralin with small amounts of carbon-14 labeled naphthalene has been studied. Taiheiyo coal(25g) was thermally decomposed in tetralin or naphthalene solvent(75g) at 400--440 0 C under the initial hydrogen pressure of 5.9MPa for 30min with Ni-Mo-Al 2 O 3 catalyst(0--5g). The reaction mixture in an autoclave was separated by filtration, distillation and solvent extraction. Produced gas, oils and the solvent were analyzed by gas chromatography. The tritium and carbon-14 contents of separated reaction products were measured with a liquid scintilation counter to study the hydrogen transfer mechanism. The distribution of reaction products and the amount of hydrogen transfer from gas or solvent to the products were also determined. In hydrogen donor solvent such as tetralin, the coal liquefaction yield was independent from the catalyst, but the catalyst was effective in hydrocracking of preasphaltene and asphaltene. In naphthalene solvent, the coal liquefaction reaction hardly occured in the absence of the catalyst, because hydrogen transfer from both the solvent and gaseous hydrogen was scarce. Tritium distribution in the reaction products showed that complicated hydrogen exchange reactions between gaseous hydrogen, coal liquids and solvent came out by the presence of coal liquids and catalyst. The very small amounts of carbon-14 transferred to the liquefaction products showed that carbon exchange or transfer between solvent and coal did not take place. (author)

  16. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  17. Conceptual study of hydrogen donor solvent in the NEDOL coal liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzu, M.; Onozaki, M.; Oi, S. [Mitsui SRC Co Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    A 150 ton/day coal liquefaction pilot plant (PP) of the NEDOL process, supported by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), was operated successfully for a total of 269 days at Kashima, Japan. With a great number of data obtained through the operation, the design procedure for the NEDOL process was studied. Middle and heavy oils from the coal employed were recycled as a hydrogen-donor solvent after hydrotreatment over Ni Mo/gamma-Al2O{sub 3} in a trickle bed reactor. The hydrogen donating ability of the solvent was high enough to obtain higher oil yield (50-58 wt%) at the aromaticity of ca. 0.45. Life expectancy of solvent hydrotreatment catalyst, requisite to the hydrotreater design, was estimated under PP operating conditions. In addition, physical properties of the solvent required for process design were determined, and hydrodynamics in the liquefaction bubble column reactors were examined. Taking the obtained hydrodynamics and thermal behavior into consideration, a design procedure of the liquefaction bubble column reactors was establsihed using a process simulator (CARD) validated by the product yields of PP. The simulation including distillation and solvent hydrotreatment showed that the content of heavy oil fraction (b.p. 350 - 538{degree} C) in the solvent was a determinant factor in the design of a large scale plant based on the NEDOL process.

  18. Techno-economic Analysis of Acid Gas Removal and Liquefaction for Pressurized LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Seo, Y. K.; Chang, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    This study estimated the life cycle cost (LCC) of an acid gas removal and a liquefaction processes for Pressurized LNG (PLNG) production and compared the results with the cost of normal LNG production. PLNG is pressurized LNG that is liquefied at a higher pressure and temperature than normal LNG. Due to the high temperature, the energy for liquefaction is reduced. The allowable CO2 concentration in PLNG is increased up to 3 mol% when the product pressure 25 bar. An amine process with 35 wt% of diethanolamine (DEA) aqueous solution and a nitrogen expansion cycle were selected for the acid gas removal and the liquefaction processes, respectively. Two types of CO2 concentration in the feed gas were investigated to analyze their impacts on the acid gas removal unit. When the CO2 concentration was 5 mol%, the acid gas removal unit was required for both LNG and PLNG production. However, the acid gas removal unit was not necessary in PLNG when the concentration was 0.5 mol% and the pressure was higher than 15 bar. The results showed that the LCC of PLNG was reduced by almost 35% relative to that of LNG when the PLNG pressure was higher than 15 bar.

  19. Assessment of wood liquefaction in acidified ethylene glycol using experimental design methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezzoug, S.A. [Universite de La Rochelle, Lab. de Maitrise des Technologies Agro-Industrielles, La Rochelle, 17 (France); Capart, R. [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Dept. de Genie Chimique, Compiegne, 60 (France)

    2003-03-01

    The liquefaction of milled wood (Pinus pinaster) was effected in ethylene glycol acidified with small quantities of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence upon the liquefaction yield of the three operating variables, the maximal temperature (150-280 deg C), the reaction time at maximal temperature (20-60 min) and the amount of added H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (0-1.5% on dry wood). The individual effects, as well as the interactions between operating variables, are investigated by using an experimental design methodology. From a Pareto chart, it appears that the most significant effects are clearly those of the maximum temperature and the interaction between acidity and temperature. Such effects can be graphically verified through response surfaces and contour line plots. From a regression analysis, the conversion rate of wood into liquid is simply expressed as a function of the operating variables by a polynomial containing quadratic terms. A statistical model seems particularly appropriate in the case of complex and multi-components, as wood, a kinetic model is nevertheless proposed for the liquefaction of micro-crystalline cellulose. This model accounts for the formation of a carbonaceous solid residue from the liquid product. Such an unwanted phenomenon obviously results in a lower yield in liquid product. (Author)

  20. Role of expanders in helium liquefaction cycles: Parametric studies using Collins cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Rijo Jacob; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2011-01-01

    Large scale helium liquefaction/refrigeration plant is a key subsystem of fusion devices. Performance of these plants is dependent on a number of geometric and operating parameters of its constituting components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expanders, valves, etc. Expander has been chosen as the subject matter of analyses in the present study. As the sensible cold of helium vapor is lost in liquefiers, the expanders in liquefaction cycles have to provide more refrigeration than those in refrigeration cycles. The expander parameters such as rate of mass flow, operating pressure, inlet temperature, etc. are inter-dependent, and hence, it is difficult to predict the system behavior with variation of a particular parameter. This necessitates the use of process simulators. Parametric studies have been performed on Collins helium liquefaction cycle using Aspen HYSYS. Collins cycle has all the basic characteristics of a large-scale helium liquefier and the results of this study may be extrapolated to understand the behavior of large scale helium liquefiers. The study shows that the maximum liquid production is obtained when 80% of the compressor flow is diverted through the expanders and it is equally distributed between the two expanders. The relationships between the liquid production and the isentropic efficiency of expanders are almost linear and both the higher and lower temperature expanders exhibit similar trends.

  1. Role of expanders in helium liquefaction cycles: Parametric studies using Collins cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Rijo Jacob, E-mail: rijojthomas@gmail.com [Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan [Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2011-06-15

    Large scale helium liquefaction/refrigeration plant is a key subsystem of fusion devices. Performance of these plants is dependent on a number of geometric and operating parameters of its constituting components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expanders, valves, etc. Expander has been chosen as the subject matter of analyses in the present study. As the sensible cold of helium vapor is lost in liquefiers, the expanders in liquefaction cycles have to provide more refrigeration than those in refrigeration cycles. The expander parameters such as rate of mass flow, operating pressure, inlet temperature, etc. are inter-dependent, and hence, it is difficult to predict the system behavior with variation of a particular parameter. This necessitates the use of process simulators. Parametric studies have been performed on Collins helium liquefaction cycle using Aspen HYSYS. Collins cycle has all the basic characteristics of a large-scale helium liquefier and the results of this study may be extrapolated to understand the behavior of large scale helium liquefiers. The study shows that the maximum liquid production is obtained when 80% of the compressor flow is diverted through the expanders and it is equally distributed between the two expanders. The relationships between the liquid production and the isentropic efficiency of expanders are almost linear and both the higher and lower temperature expanders exhibit similar trends.

  2. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  3. Producing Lignin-Based Polyols through Microwave-Assisted Liquefaction for Rigid Polyurethane Foam Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Liang Xue

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lignin-based polyols were synthesized through microwave-assisted liquefaction under different microwave heating times (5–30 min. The liquefaction reactions were carried out using polyethylene glycol (PEG-400/glycerol as liquefying solvents and 97 wt% sulfur acid as a catalyst at 140 °C. The polyols obtained were analyzed for their yield, composition and structural characteristics using gel permeation chromatography (GPC, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra. FT-IR and NMR spectra showed that the liquefying solvents reacted with the phenol hydroxyl groups of the lignin in the liquefied product. With increasing microwave heating time, the viscosity of polyols was slightly increased and their corresponding molecular weight (MW was gradually reduced. The optimal condition at the microwave heating time (5 min ensured a high liquefaction yield (97.47% and polyol with a suitable hydroxyl number (8.628 mmol/g. Polyurethane (PU foams were prepared by polyols and methylene diphenylene diisocyanate (MDI using the one-shot method. With the isocyanate/hydroxyl group ([NCO]/[OH] ratio increasing from 0.6 to 1.0, their mechanical properties were gradually increased. This study provided some insight into the microwave-assisted liquefied lignin polyols for the production of rigid PU foam.

  4. Fiscal 1995 report. Liquefaction key technology subcommittee; 1995 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The subcommittee held the 1st meeting in September 1955 and the 2nd in March 1996, when fiscal 1995 research plans and research results were introduced and deliberated. In the study for designing a high-dispersion catalyst and the elucidation of the mechanism of activity expression, catalysts of highly dispersed iron supported on the brown coal surface in various ways were compared with each other in terms of liquefaction activity. Furthermore, geometric changes in the iron catalyst during the sulfurizing process were examined using the XRD (X-ray diffraction) and TEM (transient electromagnetic) methods. An improved catalyst was found to achieve a liquefaction yield near the Yallourn coal liquefaction limit in a high boiling solvent system. Concerning the study of coal oil product applications and refining technologies, reports were delivered on research results relating to the problem of blocking to occur during naphtha fraction refining and measures therefor, inhibition of active metal geometric changes during reaction, methods for separating hetero-compounds from coal oil and application thereof, and so forth. (NEDO)

  5. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  6. Thermodynamic design of hydrogen liquefaction systems with helium or neon Brayton refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Ryu, Ki Nam; Baik, Jong Hoon

    2018-04-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out for the design of hydrogen liquefaction systems with helium (He) or neon (Ne) Brayton refrigerator. This effort is motivated by our immediate goal to develop a small-capacity (100 L/h) liquefier for domestic use in Korea. Eight different cycles are proposed and their thermodynamic performance is investigated in comparison with the existing liquefaction systems. The proposed cycles include the standard and modified versions of He Brayton refrigerators whose lowest temperature is below 20 K. The Brayton refrigerator is in direct thermal contact with the hydrogen flow at atmospheric pressure from ambient-temperature gas to cryogenic liquid. The Linde-Hampson system pre-cooled by a Ne Brayton refrigerator is also considered. Full cycle analysis is performed with the real properties of fluids to estimate the figure of merit (FOM) under an optimized operation condition. It is concluded that He Brayton refrigerators are feasible for this small-scale liquefaction, because a reasonably high efficiency can be achieved with simple and safe (low-pressure) operation. The complete cycles with He Brayton refrigerator are presented for the development of a prototype, including the ortho-to-para conversion.

  7. Rotating disk atomization of Gd and Gd-Y for hydrogen liquefaction via magnetocaloric cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinger, Tyler [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-12-17

    In order to enable liquid hydrogen fuel cell technologies for vehicles the cost of hydrogen liquefaction should be lowered. The current method of hydrogen liquefaction is the Claude cycle that has a figure of merit (FOM) of 0.3-0.35. New magnetocaloric hydrogen liquefaction devices have been proposed with a FOM>0.5, which is a significant improvement. A significant hurdle to realizing these devices is the synthesis of spherical rare earth based alloy powders of 200μm in diameter. In this study a centrifugal atomization method that used a rotating disk with a rotating oil quench bath was developed to make gadolinium and gadolinium-yttrium spheres. The composition of the spherical powders included pure Gd and Gd0.91Y0.09. The effect of atomization parameters, such as superheat, melt properties, disk shape, disk speed, and melt system materials and design, were investigated on the size distribution and morphology of the resulting spheres. The carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen impurity levels also were analyzed and compared with the magnetic performance of the alloys. The magnetic properties of the charge material as well as the resulting powders were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The saturation magnetization and Curie temperature were the target properties for the resulting spheres. These values were compared with measurements taken on the charge material in order to investigate the effect of atomization processing on the alloys.

  8. Characteristics of the products of hydrothermal liquefaction combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rundong; Xie, Yinghui; Yang, Tianhua; Li, Bingshuo; Zhang, Yang; Kai, Xingping

    2016-01-01

    The integration utilization of fermentation residues from cellulosic bio-ethanol has attracted a great deal of attention to balance the total cost of bio-ethanol production while simultaneously dealing with bio-ethanol wastewater. A process of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of intact materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol in a batch reactor was proposed. The effects of the reaction temperature and time on the liquefaction characteristics were examined. The optimum condition for liquefaction fermentation residues was 370 °C (21.25 MPa) and 30 min with a bio-oil yield of 40.79 wt%. GC-MS results indicated that the major chemical species in the bio-oil were phenols, ketones, long-chain hydrocarbons and fatty acids. Supercritical conditions (375 °C, 23.50 MPa) was favored for the low-molecular-weight species formation compared to subcritical conditions (370 °C, 21.25 MPa), as some long-chain species decreased. This work thus can provide a novel idea for bio-oil production from HTL of cellulosic bio-ethanol fermentation residues. - Highlights: • Bio-oil production via HTL combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process was proposed. • Optimum condition for HTL of materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol was 370 °C and 30 min. • Bio-oil contained higher content of hydrocarbons and lower contents of organic acids.

  9. Regulated necrosis and its implications in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Toshihiko; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Uemura, Koichi

    2015-07-03

    Recent research developments have revealed that caspase-dependent apoptosis is not the sole form of regulated cell death. Caspase-independent, but genetically regulated, forms of cell death include pyroptosis, necroptosis, parthanatos, and the recently discovered ferroptosis and autosis. Importantly, regulated necrosis can be modulated by small molecule inhibitors/activators, confirming the cell autonomous mechanism of these forms of cell death. The success of small molecule-mediated manipulation of regulated necrosis has produced great changes in the field of cell death research, and has also brought about significant changes in the fields of pharmacology as well as toxicology. In this review, we intend to summarize the modes of regulated cell death other than apoptosis, and discuss their implications in toxicology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Case of Unresectable Rectal Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nassif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Necrosis of the rectum is an uncommon finding due to abundant collateral vasculature. Its management remains challenging, without clear consensus in the literature. Case Report. We describe a case of a 53-year-old woman with multiple medical comorbidities that presented in septic shock and hematochezia. Colonoscopy revealed ischemic colitis. Conservative management was instituted. At two weeks, she presented evidence of peritonitis. Exploratory laparotomy revealed extensive necrosis of the left colon and rectum. Due to dense inflammation, resection was deemed unsafe. Therefore, a transverse ostomy with mucosal fistula was preformed. Multiple drains were left in place. The patient healed uneventfully. Conclusion. This case illustrates that, if extensive dissection of the distal colon and rectum is unsafe due to the patient's critical condition or technical feasibility, then a diverting ostomy of the proximal viable bowel along with a mucus fistula and good drainage of the abdomen represents an acceptable alternative.

  11. Surgical Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jens; Uhl, Waldemar; Büchler, Markus W.

    2003-10-01

    Patients with predicted severe necrotizing pancreatitis as diagnosed by C-reactive protein (>150 mg/L) and/or contrast-enhanced computed tomography should be managed in the intensive care unit. Prophylactic broad-spectrum antibiotics reduce infection rates and survival in severe necrotizing pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic sphincterotomy is a causative therapy for gallstone pancreatitis with impacted stones, biliary sepsis, or obstructive jaundice. Fine needle aspiration for bacteriology should be performed to differentiate between sterile and infected pancreatic necrosis in patients with sepsis syndrome. Infected pancreatic necrosis in patients with clinical signs and symptoms of sepsis is an indication for surgery. Patients with sterile pancreatic necrosis should be managed conservatively. Surgery in patients with sterile necrosis may be indicated in cases of persistent necrotizing pancreatitis and in the rare cases of "fulminant acute pancreatitis." Early surgery, within 14 days after onset of the disease, is not recommended in patients with necrotizing pancreatitis. The surgical approach should be organ-preserving (debridement/necrosectomy) and combined with a postoperative management concept that maximizes postoperative evacuation of retroperitoneal debris and exudate. Minimally invasive surgical procedures have to be regarded as an experimental approach and should be restricted to controlled trials. Cholecystectomy should be performed to avoid recurrence of gallstone-associated acute pancreatitis.

  12. Avascular necrosis of bone complicating corticosteroid replacement therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, P L; Corbett, M

    1983-01-01

    Two patients who developed widespread severe avascular necrosis of bone while on steroid replacement therapy are described. One, a diabetic, underwent yttrium-90 pituitary ablation for retinopathy and developed avascular necrosis within 18 months of starting prednisolone. The other, who had Addison's disease, developed avascular necrosis within 14 months of starting cortisol replacement therapy. Both cases came to bilateral total hip replacement.

  13. Integrated management of sunflower necrosis disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shirshikar S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower necrosis disease (SND) is a new threat for sunflower cultivation in India. The disease was observed during 1997 in Karnataka, a major sunflower growing state of India. Later, its occurrence was reported from almost all sunflower growing states of India, posing threat to sunflower cultivation. Presently no reliable resistant sources are available. The disease being viral in nature is very much difficult to combat by single approach. At Oilseeds Research Station, Latur (M.S.), India, ...

  14. Maxillary Necrosis: A Sequelae of Fungal Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Anbarasi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis is designated to a variety of bone diseases having inflammation as a common denominator. Persistent infection progresses to inflammation of marrow space, haversian system and periostium of affected region. Thrombosis of endothelial vessels cause necrosis and sequestrum formation. Both pyogenic and nonpyogenic infections of jaw lead to this condition. Immunosuppressed patients are more prone to mycelial infections, whereas their occurrence in immunocompetent individuals are highly unusual.

  15. [Avascular necrosis of the femoral head].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porubský, Peter; Trč, Tomáš; Havlas, Vojtěch; Smetana, Pavel

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in adults is not common, but not too rare diseases. In orthopedic practice, it is one of the diseases that are causing implantation of hip replacement at a relatively early age. In the early detection and initiation of therapy can delay the implantation of prosthesis for several years, which is certainly more convenient for the patient and beneficial. This article is intended to acquaint the reader with the basic diagnostic procedures and therapy.

  16. Paraneoplastic digital necrosis associated with rectum carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic vascular pathologies are rare in daily practice. There is limited data about this phenomenon. Patient with a diagnosis of metastatic rectum carcinoma presented with digital necrosis. The work up for vascular and rheumatological pathology was inconclusive. Lesions progressively improved with steroid therapy. Paraneoplastic vascular lesions are rare in oncology practice. Our case points out important parts of a rare clinical entity. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 391-392

  17. Closed reduction of slipped capital femoral epiphysis: high-risk factor for avascular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Toshio; Nakagawa, Keisuke; Wada, Mayuko; Moriyama, Michiko

    2015-07-01

    How should we treat acute/unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) without the development of avascular necrosis (AVN)? To answer this question, we investigated the risk factors of AVN development after SCFE. Seventy-six hips of 64 patients were classified using two kinds of classification systems, Loder's classification based on instability and the conventional classification based on the duration of symptom, because both classifications are related to AVN development. Of 21 unstable SCFEs, seven hips developed AVN. Of 35 hips defined as acute or acute on chronic, nine hips developed AVN. Two stable SCFEs of Loder's classification developed AVN, one was acute and the other was acute on chronic. No hips of chronic SCFE developed AVN. The factor that had influenced AVN development was only closed reduction, whether purposefully or inadvertently, in an acute or unstable SCFE. On the basis of the findings of this study, one should not embark on any modality of closed reduction for an unstable or acute form of SCFE, as there is a high risk for occurrence of AVN. For the same reason, a traction table should not be used for SCFE fixation, so as to avoid an inadvertent reduction or force that can lead to AVN.

  18. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  19. Bladder necrosis: 'A man without a bladder'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosschieter, Judith; Oudshoorn, Frederik H K; Meuleman, Eric J H; Nieuwenhuijzen, Jakko A

    2018-02-17

    Since the use of antibiotics, bladder necrosis has become a rare condition. We report a case of bladder necrosis in a 90-year-old man following urinary retention. After insertion of a transurethral catheter (TUC), 2 L of urine was evacuated. In the following days, the TUC became intermittently blocked. Adequate bladder drainage could not be obtained despite intensive rinsing and placement of a suprapubic catheter. On surgical exploration necrosis of almost the entire bladder wall, except for the trigone, was encountered. Surgical debridement of the non-viable bladder wall without opening the abdominal cavity was conducted, and a TUC was placed in the Retzius cavity to ensure evacuation of urine. Since the patient was haemodynamically unstable, construction of a urinary diversion was waived and urinary drainage of the Retzius cavity by the TUC was accepted, resulting in adequate urinary drainage without compromising renal function. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Partial avascular necrosis after talar neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Nina; Schuberth, John M

    2010-09-01

    Recently, it has been shown that avascular necrosis of the talus can occur in only a portion of the talar body. There is little information regarding the geographic location of the avascular segment and the clinical significance of an incomplete avascular process. Seven patients with partial avascular necrosis after Hawkins type II or III fracture dislocations were evaluated with magnetic resonance scans. The precise anatomic location of the avascular segment was determined and assigned to a specific quadrant of the talar body. The operative exposure, incidence of collapse, and time to operative intervention was recorded. The avascular segment of the talar body was located predominantly in the anterior lateral and superior portion in six of the seven patients. Collapse occurred in three of the patients in the area of avascular process. There were no observable trends with regard to operative exposure, Hawkins classification, incidence of collapse, or time to operative intervention to the location of the avascular segment. Partial avascular necrosis can occur after fracture dislocation of the talus. The predominant location of the avascular segment was the anterior lateral and superior portion of the talar body. This observation corresponds to regional damage to the blood supply of the talus and may help clarify the pathogenesis of partial avascular process.