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Sample records for acute limb ischemia

  1. Endovascular Management of Acute Limb Ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hynes, Brian G

    2011-09-14

    Despite major advances in pharmacologic and endovascular therapies, acute limb ischemia (ALI) continues to result in significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of ALI may be as high as 13-17 cases per 100,000 people per year, with mortality rates approaching 18% in some series. This review will address the contemporary endovascular management of ALI encompassing pharmacologic and percutaneous interventional treatment strategies.

  2. Outcomes of lower extremity bypass performed for acute limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Donald T; Patel, Virendra I; Judelson, Dejah R; Goodney, Philip P; McPhee, James T; Hevelone, Nathanael D; Cronenwett, Jack L; Schanzer, Andres

    2013-10-01

    Acute limb ischemia remains one of the most challenging emergencies in vascular surgery. Historically, outcomes following interventions for acute limb ischemia have been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine contemporary outcomes following lower extremity bypass performed for acute limb ischemia. All patients undergoing infrainguinal lower extremity bypass between 2003 and 2011 within hospitals comprising the Vascular Study Group of New England were identified. Patients were stratified according to whether or not the indication for lower extremity bypass was acute limb ischemia. Primary end points included bypass graft occlusion, major amputation, and mortality at 1 year postoperatively as determined by Kaplan-Meier life table analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to evaluate independent predictors of mortality and major amputation at 1 year. Of 5712 lower extremity bypass procedures, 323 (5.7%) were performed for acute limb ischemia. Patients undergoing lower extremity bypass for acute limb ischemia were similar in age (66 vs 67; P = .084) and sex (68% male vs 69% male; P = .617) compared with chronic ischemia patients, but were less likely to be on aspirin (63% vs 75%; P < .0001) or a statin (55% vs 68%; P < .0001). Patients with acute limb ischemia were more likely to be current smokers (49% vs 39%; P < .0001), to have had a prior ipsilateral bypass (33% vs 24%; P = .004) or a prior ipsilateral percutaneous intervention (41% vs 29%; P = .001). Bypasses performed for acute limb ischemia were longer in duration (270 vs 244 minutes; P = .007), had greater blood loss (363 vs 272 mL; P < .0001), and more commonly utilized prosthetic conduits (41% vs 33%; P = .003). Acute limb ischemia patients experienced increased in-hospital major adverse events (20% vs 12%; P < .0001) including myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure exacerbation, deterioration in renal function

  3. Acute limb ischemia in cancer patients: should we surgically intervene?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsang, Julian S

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events. Certain chemotherapeutic agents have also been associated with the development of thrombosis. Reported cases of acute arterial ischemic episodes in cancer patients are rare. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgery for acute limb ischemia associated with malignancy in a university teaching hospital over a 10-year period were identified. Patient demographics, cancer type, chemotherapy use, site of thromboembolism, treatment and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Four hundred nineteen patients underwent surgical intervention for acute arterial ischemia, 16 of these patients (3.8%) had associated cancer. Commonest cancer sites were the urogenital tract (n = 5) and the lungs (n = 5). Eight patients (50%) had been recently diagnosed with cancer, and four (25%) of these cancers were incidental findings after presentation with acute limb ischemia. Four patients (25%) developed acute ischemia during chemotherapy. The superficial femoral artery was the most frequent site of occlusion (50%), followed by the brachial (18%) and popliteal (12%) arteries. All patients underwent thromboembolectomy, but two (12%) patients subsequently required a bypass procedure. Six patients (37%) had limb loss, and in-patient mortality was 12%. Histology revealed that all occlusions were due to thromboembolism, with no tumor cells identified. At follow-up, 44% of patients were found to be alive after 1 year. CONCLUSION: Cancer and chemotherapy can predispose patients to acute arterial ischemia. Unlike other reports that view this finding as a preterminal event most appropriately treated by palliative measures, in this series, early diagnosis and surgical intervention enabled limb salvage and patient survival.

  4. Acute limb ischemia caused by incorrect deployment of a clip-based arterial closure device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dzieciuchowicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Failure of a vascular closure device most commonly results in a hemorrhage or pseudoaneurysm formation. In this paper a rare case of severe acute limb ischemia following incorrect deployment of a clip-based closure device (Starclose SE, Abbott Vascular in a 31-year-old woman is presented. Symptoms of acute limb ischemia occurred at the start of the ambulation, 6 h after completion of the procedure. Because of the severity of ischemia the patient was treated surgically, and limb perfusion was successfully restored. An attempt of closure of an inadvertently punctured narrow superficial femoral artery was identified as the cause of this complication.

  5. Aortic plaque rupture in the setting of acute lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2012-02-01

    Acute aortic plaque rupture is an uncommon cause of acute lower limb ischemia. The authors report sequence computed tomographic imaging of a distal aortic plaque rupture in a young man with bilateral lower limb complications. Clinical awareness, prompt recognition and imaging, and appropriate treatment of this uncommon condition are necessary to improve patient outcomes.

  6. Polyarteritis nodosa presenting as peripheral vascular disease and acute limb ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute limb ischemia and peripheral vascular disease (PVD are unusual presentations of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN. Here, we present a case with PVD of both lower limbs leading to foot claudication. Digital subtraction angiography showed narrowing, irregularity, and occlusion of both lower limb arteries with no involvement of the abdomen visceral arteries. Based on significant weight loss, diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg, myalgia, testicular pain, and angiographic abnormalities in medium-sized arteries, he was diagnosed as having PAN. He was treated with corticosteroid and bolus intravenous cyclophosphamide following which he had prompt and near-complete recovery of the symptoms without any tissue loss.

  7. Analysis of temporal dynamics in imagery during acute limb ischemia and reperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, John M.; Regan, John; Spain, Tammy A.; Caruso, Joseph D.; Rodriquez, Maricela; Luthra, Rajiv; Forsberg, Jonathon; Crane, Nicole J.; Elster, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion injuries present major challenges for both military and civilian medicine. Improved methods for assessing the effects and predicting outcome could guide treatment decisions. Specific issues related to ischemia and reperfusion injury can include complications arising from tourniquet use, such as microvascular leakage in the limb, loss of muscle strength and systemic failures leading to hypotension and cardiac failure. Better methods for assessing the viability of limbs/tissues during ischemia and reducing complications arising from reperfusion are critical to improving clinical outcomes for at-risk patients. The purpose of this research is to develop and assess possible prediction models of outcome for acute limb ischemia using a pre-clinical model. Our model relies only on non-invasive imaging data acquired from an animal study. Outcome is measured by pathology and functional scores. We explore color, texture, and temporal features derived from both color and thermal motion imagery acquired during ischemia and reperfusion. The imagery features form the explanatory variables in a model for predicting outcome. Comparing model performance to outcome prediction based on direct observation of blood chemistry, blood gas, urinalysis, and physiological measurements provides a reference standard. Initial results show excellent performance for the imagery-base model, compared to predictions based direct measurements. This paper will present the models and supporting analysis, followed by recommendations for future investigations.

  8. Persistent sciatic artery aneurysm: A rare cause of acute limb ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranay Pawar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent sciatic artery (PSA is a rare but pertinent clinical entity that may pose a threat to the viability of the lower extremity. The incidence of PSA has been estimated to be between 0.01% and 0.05%. PSAs are prone to high incidence of aneurysm formation, thrombosis, distal embolization, and rupture. Early detection of a PSA as the main vascular supply to the lower limb helps in early surgery and avoids potential severe complications such as limb ischemia. We report a case of a female patient who was diagnosed with a case of lumbar disc compression and sciatica but had a PSA aneurysm with thrombosis and distal embolization leading to acute limb ischemia.

  9. Bilateral Persistent Sciatic Arteries Complicated with Acute Left Lower Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Yin Wu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent sciatic artery (PSA is a rare congenital malformation. In the early embryonic stage, the sciatic artery is the major blood supply for the lower limb bulb and is later replaced by the iliofemoral artery as the limb develops. Its failure to regress, sometimes associated with femoral arterial hypoplasia, and therefore becoming the dominant inflow to the lower extremity is called PSA. This anomaly is often associated with a higher rate of aneurysm formation or thromboembolic complications causing lower extremity ischemia. Here, we describe a 79-year-old male patient who presented with acute left lower extremity ischemia. He was treated initially with conventional embolectomy through inguinal and popliteal incisions. The bilateral PSA with thrombosed aneurysms was not identified at first on computed tomographic angiography. It was later diagnosed intraoperatively due to the discontinuity of the superficial femoral artery and popliteal artery found with embolectomy catheter, and was managed successfully with ePTFE graft bypass. Careful interpretation of the imaging study may be helpful in preoperative diagnosis.

  10. Acute myocardial infarctation in patients with critical ischemia underwent lower limb revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esdras Marques Lins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the main cause of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD of the lower limbs. Patients with PAOD often also have obstructive atherosclerosis in other arterial sites, mainly the coronary arteries. This means that patients who undergo infrainguinal bypass to treat critical ischemia have a higher risk of AMI. There are, however, few reports in the literature that have assessed this risk properly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass to treat critical ischemia of the lower limbs caused by PAOD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 64 patients who underwent 82 infrainguinal bypass operations, from February 2011 to July 2012 were studied. All patients had electrocardiograms and troponin I blood assays during the postoperative period (within 72 hours. RESULTS: There were abnormal ECG findings and elevated blood troponin I levels suggestive of AMI in five (6% of the 82 operations performed. All five had conventional surgery. The incidence of AMI as a proportion of the 52 conventional surgery cases was 9.6%. Two patients died. CONCLUSION: There was a 6% AMI incidence among patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass due to PAOD. Considering only cases operated using conventional surgery, the incidence of AMI was 9.6%.

  11. Long-term primary patency prognostic factors after endovascular therapy for acute lower limb ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Di; Gu Jianping; Lou Wensheng; He Xu; Chen Liang; Chen Guoping; Su Haobo; Song Jinhua; Wang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess prognostic factors regarding long-term primary patency for patients who underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis and/or adjuvant endovascular techniques due to acute lower limb ischemia. Methods: Consecutive patients with ALI of the lower extremities treated via interventional methods between January 2005 and June 2010 were identified and reviewed (exclude patient suffered from aortic dissection involved artery of lower extremity or trauma). Analyze the potential variables with univariable analysis and only factors associated with long-term primary patency with a P value less than 0.1 in univariable analysis were introduced into the Cox regression mode. Total long-term primary patency and grouped primary patency were assessed using Kaplan-Meier estimation. Results: The analyzed dataset included 107 limbs treated in 101 patients presenting with ALI (class Ⅰ 15, class Ⅱ A 36, class Ⅱ B to Ⅲ 56, according to Rutherford classification). Eight nine limbs were enrolled in follow-up.The mean followup was 34 months (range: 1 to 53 months). Primary patency at 12, 24 and 36 months was 87%, 68% and 55%, respectively. Multivariable analyses identified patients presenting with diabetes mellitus (P=0.00), PAOD (P<0.02) and thrombolysis time (P<0.02) were associated with primary patency. Compare the patency rate of patients with different thrombolysis time, the results showed that the patency rate of the patients thrombolysis time less than 4 d was higher than those more than 4 c. Conclusions: Interventional therapy remains an effective treatment option for patients presenting with lower extremity ALI. Diabetes mellitus and PAOD negatively affect the rates of limb primary patency. Thrombolysis should be limited to <4 days. (authors)

  12. [Acute limb ischemia from the general surgeon's point of view. How much knowledge of vascular surgery is necessary?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, R; Weidenhagen, R; Hornung, H; Jauch, K W; Lauterjung, L

    2003-12-01

    The diagnosis of acute peripheral ischemia can be obtained based on clinical presentation, inspection, and palpation of the affected extremity. Unfractionated heparin as a single shot is immediately given followed by continuous infusion when diagnosis is clinically evident and contraindications are excluded. Thromboembolectomy using a Fogarty catheter is immediately performed in patients with evidence of arterial embolization and signs of advanced ischemia (TASC IIb/III) followed by intraoperative angiography. Patients with evidence of arterial thrombosis require urgent angiography followed by thrombectomy and probably subsequent endovascular or surgical interventions and vascular reconstruction. For patients with moderate ischemia (TASC IIa), initial diagnostic angiography is recommended followed by primary thrombectomy with subsequent intraoperative angiography and immediate endovascular or operative treatment of remaining vascular problems. As an alternative therapeutic option initial catheter-guided local thrombolysis can be performed in selected patients with the intention of subsequent limb revascularization or unmasking relevant vessel alterations leading to specific endovascular or surgically performed vascular reconstruction. Possible development of muscle ischemia because of increased compartment pressure should be considered and fasciotomy performed when indicated. Primary amputation of the severely ischemic limb after initial thrombectomy might be recommended in patients with life-threatening organ failure related to muscle necrosis.

  13. Cocaine-associated lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Chris G

    2011-07-25

    Cocaine-associated thrombosis has been reported in the literature with reports of vascular injuries to cardiac, pulmonary, intestinal, placental, and musculoskeletal vessels; however, injury of the pedal vessels is rare. We report on a 31-year-old man who presented 2 months following a cocaine binge with limb-threatening ischemia without an otherwise identifiable embolic source. Angiography confirmed extensive occlusive disease of the tibioperoneal vessels. The patient improved following therapy with heparin and a prostacyclin analogue. Cocaine-induced thrombosis should be considered in patients presenting with acute arterial insufficiency in the lower limb without any other identifiable cause.

  14. Risk Factors for Long-Term Mortality and Amputation after Open and Endovascular Treatment of Acute Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Elizabeth A; Chaer, Rabih A; Taha, Ashraf G; Marone, Luke K; Avgerinos, Efthymios; Makaroun, Michel S; Baril, Donald T

    2016-01-01

    Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is a highly morbid and fatal vascular emergency with little known about contemporary, long-term patient outcomes. The goal was to determine predictors of long-term mortality and amputation after open and endovascular treatment of ALI. A retrospective review of ALI patients at a single institution from 2005 to 2011 was performed to determine the impact of revascularization technique on 5-year mortality and amputation. For each main outcome 2 multivariable models were developed; the first adjusted for preoperative clinical presentation and procedure type, the second also adjusted for postoperative adverse events (AEs). A total of 445 limbs in 411 patients were treated for ALI. Interventions included surgical thrombectomy (48%), emergent bypass (18%), and endovascular revascularization (34%). Mean age was 68 ± 15 years, 54% were male, and 23% had cancer. Most patients presented with Rutherford classification IIa (54%) or IIb (39%). The etiology of ALI included embolism (27%), in situ thrombosis (28%), thrombosed bypass grafts (32%), and thrombosed stents (13%). Patients treated with open procedures had significantly more advanced ischemia and higher rates of postoperative respiratory failure, whereas patients undergoing endovascular interventions had higher rates of technical failure. Rates of postprocedural bleeding and cardiac events were similar between both treatments. Excluding Rutherford class III patients (n = 12), overall 5-year mortality was 54% (stratified by treatment, 65% for thrombectomy, 63% for bypass, and 36% for endovascular, P < 0.001); 5-year amputation was 28% (stratified by treatment, 18% for thrombectomy, 27% for bypass, and 17% for endovascular, P = 0.042). Adjusting for comorbidities, patient presentation, AEs, and treatment method, the risk of mortality increased with age (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04, P < 0.001), female gender (HR = 1.50, P = 0.031), cancer (HR = 2.19, P < 0.001), fasciotomy (HR = 1.69, P = 0.204) in

  15. Patient delay is the main cause of treatment delay in acute limb ischemia: an investigation of pre- and in-hospital time delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Louise Skovgaard; Nørgaard, Birgitte; Houlind, Kim Christian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: The prognosis of acute limb ischemia is severe, with amputation rates of up to 25% and in-hospital mortality of 9-15%. Delay in treatment increases the risk of major amputation and may be present at different stages, including patient delay, doctors´ delay and waiting time...... in the emergency department. It is important to identify existing problems in order to reduce time delay. The aim of this study was to collect data for patients with acute limb ischemia and to evaluate the time delay between the different events from onset of symptoms to specialist evaluation and further treatment...... (median (range)) was identified. From onset of symptoms to first contact with a doctor the time for all patients were 24 (0-1200) hours. Thirty patients needed immediate intervention. In the group of fourteen patients who had immediate operation, the median time from vascular evaluation...

  16. Bilateral Persistent Sciatic Arteries Complicated with Acute Left Lower Limb Ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hsuan-Yin Wu; Yu-Jen Yang; Chao-Han Lai; Jun-Neng Roan; Chwan-Yau Luo; Chung-Dann Kan

    2007-01-01

    Persistent sciatic artery (PSA) is a rare congenital malformation. In the early embryonic stage, the sciatic artery is the major blood supply for the lower limb bulb and is later replaced by the iliofemoral artery as the limb develops. Its failure to regress, sometimes associated with femoral arterial hypoplasia, and therefore becoming the dominant inflow to the lower extremity is called PSA. This anomaly is often associated with a higher rate of aneurysm formation or thromboembolic complicat...

  17. Peripheral Stent Thrombosis Leading to Acute Limb Ischemia and Major Amputation: Incidence and Risk Factors in the Aortoiliac and Femoropopliteal Arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Al-Lamki, Said A. M.; Parthipun, Aneeta; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Patel, Sanjay Dhanji; Paraskevopoulos, Ioannis; Zayed, Hany; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    PurposeTo report the real-world incidence and risk factors of stent thrombosis in the aortoiliac and femoropopliteal arteries in case of bare nitinol stent (BNS) or covered nitinol stent (CNS) placement from a single-centre retrospective audit.Materials and MethodsMedical records of consecutive patients treated with peripheral stent placement for claudication or critical limb ischemia were audited for definite stent thrombosis defined as imaging confirmed stent thrombosis that presented as acute limb-threatening ischemia. Cases were stratified between aortoiliac and femoropopliteal anatomy. Cox regression analysis was employed to adjust for baseline clinical and procedural confounders and identify predictors of stent thrombosis and major limb loss.Results256 patients (n = 277 limbs) were analysed over a 5-year period (2009–2014) including 117 aortoiliac stents (34 CNS; 12.8 ± 5.0 cm and 83 BNS; 7.8 ± 4.0 cm) and 160 femoropopliteal ones (60 CNS; 21.1 ± 11.0 cm and 100 BNS; 17.5 ± 11.9 cm). Median follow-up was 1 year. Overall stent thrombosis rate was 6.1% (17/277) after a median of 43 days (range 2–192 days) and affected almost exclusively the femoropopliteal segment (12/60 in the CNS cohort vs. 4/100 in the BNS; p = 0.001). Annualized stent thrombosis rates (per 100 person-years) were 12.5% in case of CNS and 1.4% in case of BNS (HR 6.3, 95% CI 2.4–17.9; p = 0.0002). Corresponding major amputations rates were 8.7 and 2.5%, respectively (HR 4.5, 95% CI 2.7–27.9; p = 0.0006). On multivariable analysis, critical leg ischemia and CNS placement were the only predictors of stent thrombosis. Diabetes, critical leg ischemia, femoropopliteal anatomy, long stents and CNS were independent predictors of major amputations.ConclusionsPlacement of long femoropopliteal covered nitinol stents is associated with an increased incidence of acute stent thrombosis and ensuing major amputation. Risks are significantly lower in the aortoiliac vessels

  18. Peripheral Stent Thrombosis Leading to Acute Limb Ischemia and Major Amputation: Incidence and Risk Factors in the Aortoiliac and Femoropopliteal Arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanos, Konstantinos, E-mail: katsanos@med.upatras.gr [King’s Health Partners, Department of Interventional Radiology, Imaging Sciences Division, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Al-Lamki, Said A. M. [The Royal Hospital, Department of Radiology (Oman); Parthipun, Aneeta [King’s Health Partners, Department of Interventional Radiology, Imaging Sciences Division, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Spiliopoulos, Stavros [ATTIKO Athens University Hospital, 2nd Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology Unit (Greece); Patel, Sanjay Dhanji [King’s Health Partners, Academic Department of Surgery, Cardiovascular Division, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Paraskevopoulos, Ioannis [King’s Health Partners, Department of Interventional Radiology, Imaging Sciences Division, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Zayed, Hany [King’s Health Partners, Academic Department of Surgery, Cardiovascular Division, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Diamantopoulos, Athanasios [King’s Health Partners, Department of Interventional Radiology, Imaging Sciences Division, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    PurposeTo report the real-world incidence and risk factors of stent thrombosis in the aortoiliac and femoropopliteal arteries in case of bare nitinol stent (BNS) or covered nitinol stent (CNS) placement from a single-centre retrospective audit.Materials and MethodsMedical records of consecutive patients treated with peripheral stent placement for claudication or critical limb ischemia were audited for definite stent thrombosis defined as imaging confirmed stent thrombosis that presented as acute limb-threatening ischemia. Cases were stratified between aortoiliac and femoropopliteal anatomy. Cox regression analysis was employed to adjust for baseline clinical and procedural confounders and identify predictors of stent thrombosis and major limb loss.Results256 patients (n = 277 limbs) were analysed over a 5-year period (2009–2014) including 117 aortoiliac stents (34 CNS; 12.8 ± 5.0 cm and 83 BNS; 7.8 ± 4.0 cm) and 160 femoropopliteal ones (60 CNS; 21.1 ± 11.0 cm and 100 BNS; 17.5 ± 11.9 cm). Median follow-up was 1 year. Overall stent thrombosis rate was 6.1% (17/277) after a median of 43 days (range 2–192 days) and affected almost exclusively the femoropopliteal segment (12/60 in the CNS cohort vs. 4/100 in the BNS; p = 0.001). Annualized stent thrombosis rates (per 100 person-years) were 12.5% in case of CNS and 1.4% in case of BNS (HR 6.3, 95% CI 2.4–17.9; p = 0.0002). Corresponding major amputations rates were 8.7 and 2.5%, respectively (HR 4.5, 95% CI 2.7–27.9; p = 0.0006). On multivariable analysis, critical leg ischemia and CNS placement were the only predictors of stent thrombosis. Diabetes, critical leg ischemia, femoropopliteal anatomy, long stents and CNS were independent predictors of major amputations.ConclusionsPlacement of long femoropopliteal covered nitinol stents is associated with an increased incidence of acute stent thrombosis and ensuing major amputation. Risks are significantly lower in the aortoiliac vessels

  19. Vascular access in critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Won Yu; Campia, Umberto; Ota, Hideaki; Didier, Romain J; Negi, Smita I; Kiramijyan, Sarkis; Koifman, Edward; Baker, Nevin C; Magalhaes, Marco A; Lipinski, Michael J; Escarcega, Ricardo O; Torguson, Rebecca; Waksman, Ron; Bernardo, Nelson L

    2016-01-01

    Currently, percutaneous endovascular intervention is considered a first line of therapy for treating patients with critical limb ischemia. As the result of remarkable development of techniques and technologies, percutaneous endovascular intervention has led to rates of limb salvage comparable to those achieved with bypass surgery, with fewer complications, even in the presence of lower rates of long-term patency. Currently, interventionalists have a multiplicity of access routes including smaller arteries, with both antegrade and retrograde approaches. Therefore, the choice of the optimal access site has become an integral part of the success of the percutaneous intervention. By understanding the technical aspects, as well as the advantages and limitations of each approach, the interventionalists can improve clinical outcomes in patients with severe peripheral arterial disease. This article reviews the access routes in critical limb ischemia, their advantages and disadvantages, and the clinical outcomes of each. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of lesion location on procedural and acute angiographic outcomes in patients with critical limb ischemia treated for peripheral artery disease with orbital atherectomy: A CONFIRM registries subanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S; Mustapha, Jihad; Beasley, Robert; Chopra, Paramjit; Das, Tony; Adams, George L

    2016-02-15

    This analysis compares the procedural and acute angiographic outcomes in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) treated with orbital atherectomy in above-the-knee (ATK)/popliteal (POP) lesions versus below-the-knee (BTK) lesions. Lesion location affects the procedural outcomes and the opportunity for limb salvage in patients with CLI suffering from peripheral artery disease (PAD). The CONFIRM registry series was analyzed and includes 1109 real-world patients (1544 lesions) suffering from CLI treated with orbital atherectomy. The rates of dissection, perforation, slow flow, vessel closure, spasm, embolism, and thrombus formation were compared between CLI patients with ATK/POP lesions and BTK lesions. Patients with ATK/POP lesions had a higher final residual stenosis (10 vs. 9%; P = 0.004) and use of more adjunctive therapies (e.g. balloons and stents; 1.3 vs. 1.1%; P atherectomy was successful in CLI patients regardless of lesion location. BTK lesions were associated with increased rates of perforation, slow flow and spasm which may be explained by more challenging procedural characteristics in these patients such as smaller vessel size and tortuosity. The higher incidence of emboli in ATK/POP lesions is most likely attributed to the higher prevalence of severe calcium observed in this cohort. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Optimal use of atherectomy in critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundback, John H; Herman, Kevin Chaim

    2014-09-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the most severe and debilitating form of peripheral arterial disease and is associated with high rates of limb loss and cardiovascular mortality. The unique physical environment of tibial occlusive disease underlying most CLI cases limits treatment options and long-term durability, with resulting frequent rates of persistent obstruction, restenosis, and reintervention. Atherectomy represents a potential strategy to improve acute and late results when treating patients with CLI. Available atherectomy devices each have specific performance characteristics, evidentiary rationale, and limitations that mandate a clear understanding of the optimal albeit evolving use of this category of interventional tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Use of the “Preclosure” Technique for Antegrade Aspiration Thrombectomy with Large Catheters in Acute Limb Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, C.; Pfiffner, R.; Husmann, M.; Pfammatter, T.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess retrospectively short- and mid-term outcomes of the use of a suture-mediated closure device to close the antegrade access in patients undergoing percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy with large catheters for acute leg ischemia. Between November 2005 and February 2010, a suture-mediated active closure system (ProGlide ® 6F, Abbott) was placed before arterial sheath (mean 9 F, range 6–12 F) introduction in 101 patients (74 men, 73 %, mean age 70.1 ± 12.6 years standard deviation). Data regarding mortality, complications, and factors contributing to vascular complications at the access site was collected for 6 month after the intervention to detect device-related problems. As a coincidence, 77 patients had follow-up visits for a duplex ultrasound. There were a total of 19 vascular complications (19 %) at the puncture site, all of which were of hemorrhagic nature and none of which consisted of vessel occlusion. Two major outcome complications (2 %) occurred. A retroperitoneal hematoma and a serious inguinal bleeding required additive treatment and did not result in permanent sequelae. Nine cases involved death of which eight were not attributable to the closure and one remained unclear. Successful closure was achieved in 95 patients (94 %); additional manual compression was sufficient in the majority of the remaining patients. Numerous factors contributing to vascular complications were encountered. With acceptable short- and mid-term outcomes, the “preclose” technique can be a reliable option for the closure of a large antegrade femoral access even for patients at a high risk of vascular complications, such as those undergoing aspiration thrombectomy.

  3. The Use of the 'Preclosure' Technique for Antegrade Aspiration Thrombectomy with Large Catheters in Acute Limb Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funke, C., E-mail: claas_funke@hotmail.com; Pfiffner, R. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Husmann, M. [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic of Angiology (Switzerland); Pfammatter, T. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to assess retrospectively short- and mid-term outcomes of the use of a suture-mediated closure device to close the antegrade access in patients undergoing percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy with large catheters for acute leg ischemia. Between November 2005 and February 2010, a suture-mediated active closure system (ProGlide{sup Registered-Sign} 6F, Abbott) was placed before arterial sheath (mean 9 F, range 6-12 F) introduction in 101 patients (74 men, 73 %, mean age 70.1 {+-} 12.6 years standard deviation). Data regarding mortality, complications, and factors contributing to vascular complications at the access site was collected for 6 month after the intervention to detect device-related problems. As a coincidence, 77 patients had follow-up visits for a duplex ultrasound. There were a total of 19 vascular complications (19 %) at the puncture site, all of which were of hemorrhagic nature and none of which consisted of vessel occlusion. Two major outcome complications (2 %) occurred. A retroperitoneal hematoma and a serious inguinal bleeding required additive treatment and did not result in permanent sequelae. Nine cases involved death of which eight were not attributable to the closure and one remained unclear. Successful closure was achieved in 95 patients (94 %); additional manual compression was sufficient in the majority of the remaining patients. Numerous factors contributing to vascular complications were encountered. With acceptable short- and mid-term outcomes, the 'preclose' technique can be a reliable option for the closure of a large antegrade femoral access even for patients at a high risk of vascular complications, such as those undergoing aspiration thrombectomy.

  4. Subanalysis of the CONFIRM Registries: Acute Procedural Outcomes in Claudicant and Critical Limb Ischemia Patients With Varying Levels of Calcification Treated for Peripheral Arterial Disease With Orbital Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, George L; Das, Tony; Lee, Michael S; Beasley, Robert; Mustapha, Jihad

    2015-11-01

    Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can be classified into groups based upon the severity of the disease using the Rutherford classification system. This analysis compares the procedural outcomes of PAD patients treated with orbital atherectomy stratified by Rutherford class (1-3 = intermittent claudication; 4-6 = critical limb ischemia [CLI]), and acute angiographic outcomes of these patients stratified by degree of lesion calcification. The CONFIRM registry series was analyzed and included 1697 patients with intermittent claudication (Rutherford class 1-3) and 1320 patients with CLI (Rutherford class 4-6) treated with orbital atherectomy. The composite rate of dissection, perforation, slow-flow, vessel closure, spasm, embolism, and thrombus formation was compared between claudicants and CLI patients with varying degrees of lesion calcification. Patients with CLI were older and had a higher prevalence of diabetes, coronary artery disease, and renal disease (Patherectomy resulted in similar low procedural complication rates in the CLI group compared with the claudicant group. These results suggest that orbital atherectomy is safe and effective for treating calcified lesions in high-risk patients with varying severity of PAD symptoms.

  5. Acute bowel ischemia: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Giuseppe; Scardapane, Arnaldo; Memeo, Maurizio; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Rotondo, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Acute bowel ischemia represents one of the most dramatic abdominal emergencies and, despite the fact it is more and more frequently observed in clinical practice, its mortality rate remains very high. In recent years Computed Tomography (CT) has proved to be a valid diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with acute abdominal syndrome and in the visualization of early signs of bowel ischemia. This paper reviews the aetiological and pathophysiological aspects as well as a broad spectrum of CT findings of this clinical condition

  6. Noninvasive Multimodal Imaging to Predict Recovery of Locomotion after Extended Limb Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Radowsky

    Full Text Available Acute limb ischemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality following trauma both in civilian centers and in combat related injuries. Rapid determination of tissue viability and surgical restoration of blood flow are desirable, but not always possible. We sought to characterize the response to increasing periods of hind limb ischemia in a porcine model such that we could define a period of critical ischemia (the point after which irreversible neuromuscular injury occurs, evaluate non-invasive methods for characterizing that ischemia, and establish a model by which we could predict whether or not the animal's locomotion would return to baselines levels post-operatively. Ischemia was induced by either application of a pneumatic tourniquet or vessel occlusion (performed by clamping the proximal iliac artery and vein at the level of the inguinal ligament. The limb was monitored for the duration of the procedure with both 3-charge coupled device (3CCD and infrared (IR imaging for tissue oxygenation and perfusion, respectively. The experimental arms of this model are effective at inducing histologically evident muscle injury with some evidence of expected secondary organ damage, particularly in animals with longer ischemia times. Noninvasive imaging data shows excellent correlation with post-operative functional outcomes, validating its use as a non-invasive means of viability assessment, and directly monitors post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. A classification model, based on partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA of imaging variables only, successfully classified animals as "returned to normal locomotion" or "did not return to normal locomotion" with 87.5% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity after cross-validation. PLSDA models generated from non-imaging data were not as accurate (AUC of 0.53 compared the PLSDA model generated from only imaging data (AUC of 0.76. With some modification, this limb ischemia model could also serve as a

  7. Treatment of critical lower limb ischemia using a hybrid technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wagner da Costa Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Critical ischemia of a lower limb is a condition that threatens its viability and must be treated promptly to avoid major amputation. Revascularization is the most effective treatment method and is performed using surgical or endovascular techniques. For patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms, combining these two approaches into a "hybrid technique" makes it possible to treat patients who could not be adequately treated by either technique in isolation. We report on a case of lower limb critical ischemia treated using a combination of surgery and endovascular techniques, in an application of the hybrid technique in a different arterial bed.

  8. Changes in functional status after treatment of critical limb ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans, Franceline Alkine; Met, Rosemarie; Koelemay, Mark J. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Legemate, Dink A.; Reekers, Jim A.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated changes in functional status with the Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS) and in quality of life with the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQol) in patients treated for critical limb ischemia (CLI). We conducted a prospective observational cohort

  9. Revascularization for acute mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryer, Evan J; Kalra, Manju; Oderich, Gustavo S; Duncan, Audra A; Gloviczki, Peter; Cha, Stephen; Bower, Thomas C

    2012-06-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) remains difficult to diagnose, carries a high rate of complications, and is associated with significant mortality. We evaluated our experience with AMI over the last 2 decades to evaluate changes in management and assess current outcomes. Data from consecutive patients who underwent arterial revascularization for AMI over a 20-year period (January 1990-January 2010) were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, treatment modalities, and outcomes over the last decade (2000-2010) were compared with those of the preceding decade (1990-1999) previously reported. Over the last 2 decades, 93 patients with AMI underwent emergency arterial revascularization. Forty-five patients were treated during the 1990s and 48 during the 2000s. The majority of these patients were transferred from outside facilities. Patient demographics and risk factors were similar between the 2 decades with the exception that the more contemporary patients were significantly older (65.1 ± 14 vs 71.3 ± 14; P = .04). Etiology remained constant between the groups with in situ thrombosis being the most common followed by arterial embolus. The majority of patients were treated with open revascularization. Endovascular therapy alone or as a hybrid procedure was used in 11 total patients, eight of which were treated in the last 10 years. The use of second-look laparotomy was much more liberal in the last decade (80% vs 48%; P = .003) Thirty-day mortality was 27% in the 1990s and 17% during the 2000s (P = 0.28). Major adverse events occurred in 47% of patients with no difference between decades. There was no significant difference in outcomes between open and endovascular revascularization. On univariate analysis, elevated SVS comorbidity score, congestive heart failure, and chronic kidney disease predicted early death, while a history of chronic mesenteric ischemia appeared protective. On multivariate analysis, no factor independently predicted perioperative

  10. Delivery of Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorates Ischemia Induced Limb Injury by Immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a major health burden in the world. Stem cell-based therapy has emerged as an attractive treatment option in regenerative medicine. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that stem cell-based therapy can ameliorate ischemia induced limb injury. Methods: We isolated mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placentas (PMSCs and intramuscularly transplanted them into injured hind limbs. Treatment with PMSCs reduced acute muscle fibers apoptosis induced by ischemia. Results: PMSC treatment significantly enhanced regeneration of the injured hind limb by reducing fibrosis and enhancing running capacity when the animals were subjected to treadmill training. Mechanistically, injected PMSCs can modulate acute inflammatory responses by reducing neutrophil and macrophage infiltration following limb ischemia. ELISA assays further confirmed that PMSC treatment can also reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, and enhance anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 at the injury sites. Conclusion: Taken together, our results demonstrated that PMSCs can be a potential effective therapy for treatment of PAD via immunomodulation.

  11. Management of Infrapopliteal Arterial Disease: Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Jihad A; Diaz-Sandoval, Larry J

    2014-10-01

    According to the TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus Document on Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease, "there is increasing evidence to support a recommendation for angioplasty in patients with critical limb ischemia and infrapopliteal artery occlusion." Management of infrapopliteal artery disease starts with diagnosis using modern preprocedural noninvasive and invasive imaging. Interventionalists need to learn the role of chronic total occlusion cap analysis and collateral zone recognition in angiosome-directed interventions for management of critical limb ischemia and be familiar with equipment and device selection and a stepwise approach for endovascular interventions. Interventionalists need to know which crossing tools to use to successfully cross-complex chronic total occlusion caps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using multimodal imaging techniques to monitor limb ischemia: a rapid noninvasive method for assessing extremity wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Rajiv; Caruso, Joseph D.; Radowsky, Jason S.; Rodriguez, Maricela; Forsberg, Jonathan; Elster, Eric A.; Crane, Nicole J.

    2013-03-01

    Over 70% of military casualties resulting from the current conflicts sustain major extremity injuries. Of these the majority are caused by blasts from improvised explosive devices. The resulting injuries include traumatic amputations, open fractures, crush injuries, and acute vascular disruption. Critical tissue ischemia—the point at which ischemic tissues lose the capacity to recover—is therefore a major concern, as lack of blood flow to tissues rapidly leads to tissue deoxygenation and necrosis. If left undetected or unaddressed, a potentially salvageable limb may require more extensive debridement or, more commonly, amputation. Predicting wound outcome during the initial management of blast wounds remains a significant challenge, as wounds continue to "evolve" during the debridement process and our ability to assess wound viability remains subjectively based. Better means of identifying critical ischemia are needed. We developed a swine limb ischemia model in which two imaging modalities were combined to produce an objective and quantitative assessment of wound perfusion and tissue viability. By using 3 Charge-Coupled Device (3CCD) and Infrared (IR) cameras, both surface tissue oxygenation as well as overall limb perfusion could be depicted. We observed a change in mean 3CCD and IR values at peak ischemia and during reperfusion correlate well with clinically observed indicators for limb function and vitality. After correcting for baseline mean R-B values, the 3CCD values correlate with surface tissue oxygenation and the IR values with changes in perfusion. This study aims to not only increase fundamental understanding of the processes involved with limb ischemia and reperfusion, but also to develop tools to monitor overall limb perfusion and tissue oxygenation in a clinical setting. A rapid and objective diagnostic for extent of ischemic damage and overall limb viability could provide surgeons with a more accurate indication of tissue viability. This may

  13. Is Atherectomy the Best First-Line Therapy for Limb Salvage in Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, Gabriel; Skelly, Christopher L.; Wahlgren, Carl-Magnus; Bassiouny, Hisham S.; Piano, Giancarlo; Shaalan, Wael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of atherectomy for limb salvage compared with open bypass in patients with critical limb ischemia. Methods Ninety-nine consecutive bypass and atherectomy procedures performed for critical limb ischemia between January 2003 and October 2006 were reviewed. Results A total of 99 cases involving TASC C (n = 43, 44%) and D (n = 56, 56%) lesions were treated with surgical bypass in 59 patients and atherectomy in 33 patients. Bypass and atherectomy achieved similar 1-year primary patency (64% vs 63%; P = .2). However, the 1-year limb salvage rate was greater in the bypass group (87% vs 69%; P = .004). In the tissue loss subgroup, there was a greater limb salvage rate for bypass patients versus atherectomy (79% vs 60%; P = .04). Conclusions Patients with critical limb ischemia may do better with open bypass compared with atherectomy as first-line therapy for limb salvage. PMID:19640919

  14. Advances in endovascular treatment of critical limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yan, Bryan P

    2011-04-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) represents the most severe clinical manifestation of peripheral arterial disease. In the absence of timely revascularization, CLI carries high risk of mortality and amputation. Over the past decade, endovascular revascularization has rapidly become the preferred primary treatment strategy for CLI, especially for the treatment of below-the-knee disease. Advances in percutaneous devices and techniques have expanded the spectrum of patients with CLI who are deemed candidates for revascularization. This review will focus on advances in endovascular options for the treatment of CLI, in particular for below-the-knee disease.

  15. Caffeine Mitigates Lung Inflammation Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion of Lower Limbs in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chi Chou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reperfusion of ischemic limbs can induce inflammation and subsequently cause acute lung injury. Caffeine, a widely used psychostimulant, possesses potent anti-inflammatory capacity. We elucidated whether caffeine can mitigate lung inflammation caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR of the lower limbs. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to receive IR, IR plus caffeine (IR + Caf group, sham-operation (Sham, or sham plus caffeine (n=12 in each group. To induce IR, lower limbs were bilaterally tied by rubber bands high around each thigh for 3 hours followed by reperfusion for 3 hours. Caffeine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection was administered immediately after reperfusion. Our histological assay data revealed characteristics of severe lung inflammation in the IR group and mild to moderate characteristic of lung inflammation in the IR + Caf group. Total cells number and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the IR group were significantly higher than those of the IR + Caf group (P<0.001 and P=0.008, resp.. Similarly, pulmonary concentrations of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity of the IR group were significantly higher than those of the IR + Caf group (all P<0.05. These data clearly demonstrate that caffeine could mitigate lung inflammation induced by ischemia-reperfusion of the lower limbs.

  16. Long-term results after primary infrapopliteal angioplasty for limb ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfke, H.; Marburg Univ.; Vannucchi, A.; Froelich, J.J.; Klinikum Bad Hersfeld; El-Sheik, M.; Wagner, H.J.; Vivantes-Klinikum im Friedrichshain

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the technical success rate, procedure-related complications, and clinical long-term results for patients who underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all patients who underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty to treat critical chronic limb ischemia or severe claudication from 1/1997 to 12/1999. We excluded patients with acute (< 2 weeks) limb ischemia. Procedure-related data were prospectively documented in a database and analyzed with a focus on the technical success rate and procedure-related complications. In addition all clinical documents were analyzed, and a follow-up examination was performed or telephone interviews were conducted with patients, relatives and referring doctors for follow-up. The primary end points were the limb salvage rate and patient survival rate. The secondary end points included the complication rate, technical success rate, and walking distance. Results: 112 patients with a mean age of 72 years (41 women, 71 men) underwent crural angioplasty on 121 limbs. Four patients suffered from severe claudication (Rutherford category 3) and all others had critical chronic limb ischemia (category 4 to 6). The complication rate was 2.7 %. The technical success rate was 92 %. The ankle brachial index increased from 0.59 to 0.88. The mean walking distance increased significantly from 52 ± 66 to 284 ± 346 meters at the time of follow-up. The limb salvage rate was 83.6 % after one year and 81.1 % after three years. The mean survival rate according to Kaplan-Meier was 79.4 %, 69.2 %, and 54.2 % at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Patients with at least one patent run-off vessel after angioplasty had a significantly better limb salvage rate. Diabetes was not a risk factor for limb salvage. Conclusion: Infrapopliteal angioplasty shows a high technical success rate with an acceptable complication rate. The clinical long-term success seems favorable if a least one open run-off vessel was

  17. Long-term results after primary infrapopliteal angioplasty for limb ischemia; Langzeitergebnisse nach Ballonangioplastie kruraler Arterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfke, H. [Klinikum Luedenscheid (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Vannucchi, A. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Froelich, J.J. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Klinikum Bad Hersfeld (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; El-Sheik, M.; Wagner, H.J. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Vivantes-Klinikum im Friedrichshain (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the technical success rate, procedure-related complications, and clinical long-term results for patients who underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all patients who underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty to treat critical chronic limb ischemia or severe claudication from 1/1997 to 12/1999. We excluded patients with acute (< 2 weeks) limb ischemia. Procedure-related data were prospectively documented in a database and analyzed with a focus on the technical success rate and procedure-related complications. In addition all clinical documents were analyzed, and a follow-up examination was performed or telephone interviews were conducted with patients, relatives and referring doctors for follow-up. The primary end points were the limb salvage rate and patient survival rate. The secondary end points included the complication rate, technical success rate, and walking distance. Results: 112 patients with a mean age of 72 years (41 women, 71 men) underwent crural angioplasty on 121 limbs. Four patients suffered from severe claudication (Rutherford category 3) and all others had critical chronic limb ischemia (category 4 to 6). The complication rate was 2.7 %. The technical success rate was 92 %. The ankle brachial index increased from 0.59 to 0.88. The mean walking distance increased significantly from 52 {+-} 66 to 284 {+-} 346 meters at the time of follow-up. The limb salvage rate was 83.6 % after one year and 81.1 % after three years. The mean survival rate according to Kaplan-Meier was 79.4 %, 69.2 %, and 54.2 % at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Patients with at least one patent run-off vessel after angioplasty had a significantly better limb salvage rate. Diabetes was not a risk factor for limb salvage. Conclusion: Infrapopliteal angioplasty shows a high technical success rate with an acceptable complication rate. The clinical long-term success seems favorable if a least one open run-off vessel was

  18. Microdialysis assessment of peripheral metabolism in critical limb ischemia after endovascular revascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Tozzi, Matteo; Muscianisi, Elisa; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Castelli, Patrizio

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Critical limb ischemia is a chronic pathologic condition defined by the lack of blood flow in peripheral circulation. Microdialysis is a well-known and sensitive method for the early detection of tissue ischemia. The aim of the present study was to use microdialysis in order to analyse cellular metabolism changes after peripheral endovascular revascularization. Methods Ten patients diagnosed with critical limb ischemia was enrolled. CMA 60 (CMA® - Solna, Sweden) catheter w...

  19. Administration of FTY720 during Tourniquet-Induced Limb Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Attenuates Systemic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Foster

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI of the extremities leads to local and systemic inflammatory changes which can hinder limb function and can be life threatening. This study examined whether the administration of the T-cell sequestration agent, FTY720, following hind limb tourniquet-induced skeletal muscle IRI in a rat model would attenuate systemic inflammation and multiple end organ injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 1 hr of ischemia via application of a rubber band tourniquet. Animals were randomized to receive an intravenous bolus of either vehicle control or FTY720 15 min after band placement. Rats (n=10/time point were euthanized at 6, 24, and 72 hr post-IRI. Peripheral blood as well as lung, liver, kidney, and ischemic muscle tissue was analyzed and compared between groups. FTY720 treatment markedly decreased the number of peripheral blood T cells (p<0.05 resulting in a decreased systemic inflammatory response and lower serum creatinine levels and had a modest but significant effect in decreasing the transcription of injury-associated target genes in multiple end organs. These findings suggest that early intervention with FTY720 may benefit the treatment of IRI of the limb. Further preclinical studies are necessary to characterize the short-term and long-term beneficial effects of FTY720 following tourniquet-induced IRI.

  20. Patterns of presentation and outcome in critical limb ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, S.; Imtiaz, N.; Kiani, F.; Malik, Z.U.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The threatened limb due to peripheral occlusive arterial disease, embolism or trauma requires early recognition and urgent treatment if the limb is to be saved. Objective: To determine the pattern of presentation and outcome of surgery in cases of critical limb ischemia. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at surgical ward, Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from Dec 2006 to Dec 2007. Subject and Methods: A sample size of 30 patients was taken by convenience sampling. Informed written consent was obtained from all patients. Patients suffering from rest pain with ischemia features, trophic lesions, extensive gangrene , ulcers and demonstrable presence of occlusive arterial disease were included in the study. Moribund patients, extensive cardiopulmonary disease or advanced malignancy were not included in the study. Results: Thirty patients were included in the study. The mean age was 56 +-13. There were 28 males (93.3%) and 2 females (6.7%). They were all married and belonged to middle and low middle social economic class. Out of 30, there were 2 (6.7%) cases of trauma while 28 (93.3%) had peripheral vascular involvement secondary to thromboembolism. Vessels involved were femoral artery in 9 (30%) cases, popliteal artery in 18 (60%) cases and brachial artery in 2 (6.7%) cases. Rest pain was present as a primary feature in all the patients (100%), while tissue loss or gangrene was seen in 22 (73.33%) cases. A total of 14 (46.7%) amputations, 6 (20%) bypass procedures, 4 (13.3%) lumbar sympathectomies, and 2 (6.7 %) embolectomies, were carried out, whereas 4 (13.3%) patients were managed conservatively. Of the patients having rest pain 46.7 % were amputated, whereas of patients having ischemic tissue loss 73.3% were amputated. 13 patients who underwent primary amputation had ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI less than 0.4 (86.7%). ABPI was more than 0.4 in 4 (13.3%) patients whereas it was less

  1. Review of the Latest Percutaneous Devices in Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Leila; Altin, Sophia Elissa; Attaran, Robert R; Mena-Hurtado, Carlos; Regan, Christopher J

    2018-04-14

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a terminal stage of peripheral arterial disease that, in the absence of intervention, may lead to lower extremity amputation or death. Endovascular interventions have become a first-line approach to the management of CLI and have advanced considerably within the past decade. This review summarizes the types of percutaneous devices and the techniques that are available for the management of CLI and the data supporting their use. These include devices that establish and maintain vessel patency, including percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, drug-coated balloons, bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents, bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, and atherectomy; devices that provide protection from embolization; and, cell-based therapies. Additionally, ongoing trials with important implications for the field are discussed.

  2. Review of the Latest Percutaneous Devices in Critical Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Haghighat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Critical limb ischemia (CLI is a terminal stage of peripheral arterial disease that, in the absence of intervention, may lead to lower extremity amputation or death. Endovascular interventions have become a first-line approach to the management of CLI and have advanced considerably within the past decade. This review summarizes the types of percutaneous devices and the techniques that are available for the management of CLI and the data supporting their use. These include devices that establish and maintain vessel patency, including percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, drug-coated balloons, bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents, bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, and atherectomy; devices that provide protection from embolization; and, cell-based therapies. Additionally, ongoing trials with important implications for the field are discussed.

  3. Norepinephrine stimulates mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells after limb ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: During several pathological processes such as cancer progression, thermal injury, wound healing and hindlimb ischemia, the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs mobilization was enhanced with an increase of sympathetic nerve activity and norepinephrine (NE secretion, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of NE on EPCs has less been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: EPCs from BMs, peripheral circulation and spleens, the VEGF concentration in BM, skeletal muscle, peripheral circulation and spleen and angiogenesis in ischemic gastrocnemius were quantified in mice with hindlimbs ischemia. Systemic treatment of NE significantly increased EPCs number in BM, peripheral circulation and spleen, VEGF concentration in BM and skeletal muscle and angiogenesis in ischemic gastrocnemius in mice with hind limb ischemia, but did not affair VEGF concentration in peripheral circulation and spleen. EPCs isolated from healthy adults were cultured with NE in vitro to evaluate proliferation potential, migration capacity and phosphorylations of Akt and eNOS signal moleculars. Treatment of NE induced a significant increase in number of EPCs in the S-phase in a dose-dependent manner, as well as migrative activity of EPCs in vitro (p<0.05. The co-treatment of Phentolamine, I127, LY294002 and L-NAME with NE blocked the effects of NE on EPCs proliferation and migration. Treatment with NE significantly increased phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS of EPCs. Addition of phentolamine and I127 attenuated the activation of Akt/eNOS pathway, but metoprolol could not. Pretreatment of mice with either Phentolamine or I127 significantly attenuated the effects of NE on EPCs in vivo, VEGF concentration in BM, skeletal muscle and angiogenesis in ischemic gastrocnemius, but Metoprolol did not. CONCLUSION: These results unravel that sympathetic nervous system regulate EPCs mobilization and their pro-angiogenic capacity via α adrenoceptor

  4. Decision-Making in Critical Limb Ischemia: A Markov Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Aaron J; Jain, C Charles; Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Dickinson, Mark W; Neilan, Anne M

    2017-11-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a feared complication of peripheral vascular disease that often requires surgical management and may require amputation of the affected limb. We developed a decision model to inform clinical management for a 63-year-old woman with CLI and multiple medical comorbidities, including advanced heart failure and diabetes. We developed a Markov decision model to evaluate 4 strategies: amputation, surgical bypass, endovascular therapy (e.g. stent or revascularization), and medical management. We measured the impact of parameter uncertainty using 1-way, 2-way, and multiway sensitivity analyses. In the base case, endovascular therapy yielded similar discounted quality-adjusted life months (26.50 QALMs) compared with surgical bypass (26.34 QALMs). Both endovascular and surgical therapies were superior to amputation (18.83 QALMs) and medical management (11.08 QALMs). This finding was robust to a wide range of periprocedural mortality weights and was most sensitive to long-term mortality associated with endovascular and surgical therapies. Utility weights were not stratified by patient comorbidities; nonetheless, our conclusion was robust to a range of utility weight values. For a patient with CLI, endovascular therapy and surgical bypass provided comparable clinical outcomes. However, this finding was sensitive to long-term mortality rates associated with each procedure. Both endovascular and surgical therapies were superior to amputation or medical management in a range of scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Revascularization and Muscle Adaptation to Limb Demand Ischemia in Diet Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albadawi, Hassan; Tzika, Aria; Rask-Madsen, Christian; Crowley, Lindsey M.; Koulopoulos, Michael W.; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Watkins, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and type 2 diabetes are major risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in humans which can result in lower limb demand ischemia and exercise intolerance. Exercise triggers skeletal muscle adaptation including increased vasculogenesis. The goal of this study was to determine whether demand ischemia modulates revascularization, fiber size, and signaling pathways in the ischemic hind limb muscles of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Materials and Methods DIO mice (n=7) underwent unilateral femoral artery ligation (FAL) and recovered for 2-weeks followed by 4-weeks with daily treadmill exercise to induce demand ischemia. A parallel sedentary ischemia group (n=7) had FAL without exercise. The contralateral limb muscles of sedentary ischemia served as control. Muscles were examined for capillary density, myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA), cytokine levels, and phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERK1/2. Results Exercise significantly enhanced capillary density (pdemand ischemia compared to sedentary ischemia. These findings coincided with a significant increase in G-CSF (pDemand ischemia increased the PGC1α mRNA (pdemands ischemia in the setting of DIO causes myofiber atrophy despite an increase in muscle capillary density. The combination of persistent increase in TNFα, lower VEGF and failure to increase PGC1α protein may reflect a deficient adaption to demand ischemia in DIO. PMID:27620999

  6. Acute mesenteric ischemia: a vascular emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Ernst; Rahmanian, Parwis B; Bücker, Arno; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Luther, Bernd

    2012-04-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is still fatal in 50% to 70% of cases. This consensus paper was written with the participation of physicians from all of the involved specialties for the purpose of improving outcomes. Mesenteric ischemia must be recognized as a vascular emergency requiring rapid and efficient clinical evaluation and treatment. We reviewed pertinent literature that was retrieved by a PubMed search on the terms "mesenteric ischemia" AND "arterial" OR "venous" OR "clinical presentation" OR "diagnosis" OR "therapy" OR "surgery" OR " interventional radiology." Our review also took account of the existing guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association. Intensive discussions among the participating physicians, representing all of the specialties involved in the management of mesenteric ischemia, led to the creation of this interdisciplinary paper. Biphasic contrast-enhanced computerized tomography is the diagnostic tool of choice for the detection of arterial or venous occlusion. If non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia is suspected, angiography should be performed, with the option of intraarterial pharmacotherapy to induce local vasodilation. Endovascular techniques have become increasingly important in the treatment of arterial occlusion. Embolic central mesenteric artery occlusion requires surgical treatment; surgery is also needed in case of peritonitis. Portal-vein thrombosis can be treated by local thrombolysis through a transhepatically placed catheter. This should be done within 3 to 4 weeks of the event to prevent later complications of portal hypertension. Rapid diagnosis (within 4 to 6 hours of symptom onset) and interdisciplinary cooperation in the provision of treatment are required if the poor outcome of this condition is to be improved.

  7. Balloon angioplasty of infrapopliteal artery in chronic lower limb ischemia with diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianbo; Zhao Jungong; Zhu Yueqi; Li Minghua; Cheng Yingsheng; Cheng Yongde; Wang Jue

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the technique, successful rate and perioperative complications together with the therapy and prevention of using PTA in treating diabetic patients with infrapopliteal arterial diseases. Methods: Angiographic and clinical data of 27 patients with diabetic lower limb ischemia treated by PTA from January 2006 to May 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Rutherf0rd-Becker categories and ankle- brachial index(ABI)were evaluated before and after the treatment. The effects were compared between different lesion types (stenosis or occlusion)and between different ways of balloon technique. The complications were also analyzed, together with the primary, discussion of the therapy and prevention. Results: 24 patients showed improvement of ischemic symptoms, and 3 cases fell in failure. The intra-procedural main complications included acute thrombosis, vascular wall perforation, distal emboli resulting from plaque falling off and dissection. There were statistically significant differences between the effects of two type lesions and between different balloon methods. Conclusions: 1. The condition of lower limb arteries should be assessed carefully before operation. 2. PTA shows safe and good clinical result and ought to be recommended in treating diabetic patients with peripheral arterial diseases, especially the lower extremity ischemia. (authors)

  8. Growing blood vessels to treat limb ischemia : studie in mice and man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, Vincent van

    2008-01-01

    Summary This thesis describes the efforts of increasing our knowledge and insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms of vascular growth, especially collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis), in limb ischemia with the aim of developing new strategies for therapeutic angiogenesis and

  9. Purine Metabolism in Acute Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Oreshnikov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of purine metabolism in clinically significant acute cerebral ischemia. Subjects and materials. Three hundred and fifty patients with the acutest cerebral ischemic stroke were examined. The parameters of gas and electrolyte composition, acid-base balance, the levels of malonic dialdehyde, adenine, guanine, hypox-anthine, xanthine, and uric acid, and the activity of xanthine oxidase were determined in arterial and venous bloods and spinal fluid. Results. In ischemic stroke, hyperuricemia reflects the severity of cerebral metabolic disturbances, hemodynamic instability, hypercoagulation susceptiility, and the extent of neurological deficit. In ischemic stroke, hyperuri-corachia is accompanied by the higher spinal fluid levels of adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine and it is an indirect indicator of respiratory disorders of central genesis, systemic acidosis, hypercoagulation susceptibility, free radical oxidation activation, the intensity of a stressor response to cerebral ischemia, cerebral metabolic disturbances, the depth of reduced consciousness, and the severity of neurological deficit. Conclusion. The high venous blood activity of xanthine oxidase in ischemic stroke is associated with the better neurological parameters in all follow-up periods, the better early functional outcome, and lower mortality rates. Key words: hyperuricemia, stroke, xanthine oxidase, uric acid, cerebral ischemia.

  10. [The physiopathology of critical ischemia of the lower limbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, S; Abrignani, M G; Liquori, M; Sangiorgi, G B; Strano, A

    1993-10-01

    Peripheral obstructive arterial disease (POAD) of the lower limbs is the third main complication of atherosclerosis, after coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease. In 15-20% of cases POAD have an unfavourable evolution toward critical leg ischemia (CLI). This clinical condition is characterized by the onset of rest pain and/or trophic cutaneous lesions until gangrene appears. In some cases amputation is needed. The pathophysiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of CLI were recently discussed in two Consensus Conferences held in Berlin in 1989 and in Rudesheim in 1991, with the elaboration of a final draft published on circulation. CLI appears when peripheral perfusion critically decreases due to macro and microcirculatory alterations. Atherosclerotic plaque is the primum movens, but often there are more plaques in sequence along the ilio-femoro-popliteal axis. The pathophysiological and clinical consequences are more severe if the stenosis is haemodynamically important, after a rapid progression of plaque growth or when thrombotic complications develop. The reduction in distal perfusion induces troubles in the microcirculation and an embalancement between the microvascular defense system (MDS) and the microvascular flow regulating system (MFRS) with endothelial dysfunction, platelet and leucocytes activation, worsening of blood viscosity due to the increase in fibrinogen levels and to the red cells deformability changes, activation of coagulation and impairment of fibrinolysis. So, a vicious circle appears with further worsening of distal perfusion and onset of trophic lesions. A further worsening of CLI can derive from local recurrent infections particularly frequent in diabetic patients.

  11. Sodium Hypochlorite-Modified Hemosorbents in the Treatment of Limb Ischemia-Reperfusion Syndrome: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Sergiyenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to enhance the efficiency of treatment for limb ischemia-reperfusion syndrome in an experiment, by using the modified hemosorbents that have oxidative properties.Materials and methods. The investigation was conducted on 94 mongrel male dogs divided into 3 groups: 1 intact animals (n=20; 2 animals treated with hemocarboperfusion on the standard sorbent CKH-1K (n=36; 3 animals received hemocarboperfusion on sodium hypochloride-modified sorbent CKH-1K (n=38. A model of acute ischemia-reperfusion syndrome was created by the method of V. D. Pasechnikov et al. Partial oxygen tension (pO2 was determined by pin polarography. The levels of vasoactive eicosanoids were measured by enzyme immunoassay.Results. In the animals with leg ischemia syndrome, there is a significant pO2 reduction in the muscles of the hip and shin, which does not completely recover after reperfusion. Standard CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion reduces pO2 as compared with the reperfusion period while the use of modified CKH-1K hemosorbent increased pO2 in the study hind limb muscles to the level observed in intact animals. The development of ischemia and reperfusion is accompanied by the elevated levels of inflammatory mediators that have vasoconstrictive properties (thromboxane B2, endothelin-1, leukotrienes C4/D4/E4 and the lower concentration of the vasodilator prostacyclin. Standard CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion results in a further increase in the concentrations of thromboxane B2 and leukotrienes C4/D4/E4, a decrease in the concentration of endothelin-1, and an elevation of the levels of prostacyclin and prostaglandin E2. When sodium hypochlorite-modified CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion is employed, the concentrations of thromboxane B2, endothelin-1, and leukotrienes C4/D4/E4 decrease, and the level of prostacyclin increases.Conclusion. Hemocarboperfusion used in the treatment of leg ischemia-reperfusion syndrome leads to restoration of tissue oxygenation and

  12. Intra-arterial Autologous Bone Marrow Cell Transplantation in a Patient with Upper-extremity Critical Limb Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madaric, Juraj; Klepanec, Andrej; Mistrik, Martin; Altaner, Cestmir; Vulev, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Induction of therapeutic angiogenesis by autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation has been identified as a potential new option in patients with advanced lower-limb ischemia. There is little evidence of the benefit of intra-arterial cell application in upper-limb critical ischemia. We describe a patient with upper-extremity critical limb ischemia with digital gangrene resulting from hypothenar hammer syndrome successfully treated by intra-arterial autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation.

  13. Effect of limb demand ischemia on autophagy and morphology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albadawi, Hassan; Oklu, Rahmi; Milner, John D; Uong, Thuy P; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Austen, William G; Watkins, Michael T

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes and peripheral arterial disease, which frequently leads to lower limb demand ischemia. Skeletal muscle autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis are important processes for proper oxidative capacity and energy metabolism, which are compromised in diabetes. This study compares autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, energy metabolism, and morphology in the hind limbs of obese diabetic mice subjected to demand or sedentary ischemia. Unilateral hind limb demand ischemia was created in a group of diet-induced obese mice after femoral artery ligation and 4 wk of daily exercise. A parallel group of mice underwent femoral artery ligation but remained sedentary for 4 wk. Hind limb muscles were analyzed for markers of autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, adenosine triphosphate, and muscle tissue morphology. At the end of the 4-wk exercise period, demand ischemia increased the autophagy mediator Beclin-1, but it did not alter the autophagy indicator, LC3B-II/I ratio, or markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, optic atrophy/dynamin-related protein. In contrast, exercise significantly increased the level of mitochondrial protein-succinate dehydrogenase subunit-A and reduced adipocyte accumulation and the percentage of centrally nucleated myofibers in the demand ischemia limb. In addition, demand ischemia resulted in decreased uncoupling protein-3 levels without altering muscle adenosine triphosphate or pS473-Akt levels. Limb demand ischemia markedly decreased adipocyte accumulation and enhanced muscle regeneration in obese mice, but it did not appear to enhance autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, energy metabolism, or insulin sensitivity. Future studies aimed at evaluating novel therapies that enhance autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis in diabetes with peripheral arterial disease are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Percutaneous treatment of critical lower limb ischemia in patients with obstruction of the crural arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkowski, A.; Rutkowski, D.; Poncyliusz, W.; Sienko, J.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the application of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the treatment of crural artery obstruction in patients with critical lower limb ischemia. In 17 patients, 24 PTAs of crural artery obstructions were performed. The clinical material consisted of 9 men and 8 women, whose mean age was 72 years (range 54-85 years). 11 patients were classified in clinical stage Fontaine IV, and 6 in stage III. The obstructions were from 3 to 21 cm (mean 6 cm). In 8 cases, PTA of the femoropopliteal segment was also carried out. The risk factors and comorbidities included diabetes 10 cases (58.8%), hypertension 9 cases (56%), ischemic heart disease 8 cases (50%), hyperlipidaemia 7 cases (43.8%), cerebrovascular diseases 3 cases (18.8%), and cigarette smoking 6 cases (37.5%). Technical success was defined as restoration of the artery along its whole length to the foot. Pain relief at rest and healing of trophic lesions at 30-day follow-up were recognized as a good outcome. Technical success was achieved in 12 patients (70.6%). In 2 cases the patency was only restored in the proximal part of the artery (12.5%). In 3 cases (17.6%) the procedure failed. In one case acute occlusion of the artery occurred. In 2 cases the obstruction was not successfully passed with a guidewire. In 4 cases hematoma was found at the puncture site, without clinical consequences. In 13 patients (76.4%) clinical success was achieved. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is an effective and relatively safe method of treatment of patients with critical limb ischemia caused by obstruction of the crural arteries. (author)

  15. Salvage of critical limb ischemia with the "trellis reserve'' of subintimal superficial femoral-popliteal artery occlusion: a new modality in managing critical limb ischemia--a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2005-01-01

    Subintimal angioplasty is a safe, effective, but nondurable procedure in treating long superficial femoral artery occlusions in patients with severe lower limb ischemia. The authors report a case of acute thrombosis that presented 16 weeks after subintimal angioplasty. The ;;Trellis\\'\\' percutaneous thrombolytic infusion system permitted a controlled site-specific infusion of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA). The unique design of the ;;Trellis\\'\\' allowed complete aspiration of thrombus and avoiding regional and systemic thrombolytic side effects. The ;;Trellis\\'\\' system is effective in percutaneous management of thrombotic lesions; however, intimal dissection may need to be addressed.

  16. Inferior knee arterial endoluminal angioplasty in treating severe lower limb ischemia though the DEEP balloon catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaoqin; Jiang Guomin; Zhao Jinwei; Chen Yaxian; Tian Feng; Wang Yun; Huang Wenhua; Ni Caifang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of inferior knee arterial endoluminal angioplasty for treating severe lower limb ischemia with the use of the DEEP balloon catheter. Methods: Eleven patients (17 limbs) with severe ischemia of lower extremities from August 2007 to April 2008 were retrospectively studied. All involved limbs suffered from rest pain including 6 limbs (6/17)complicated with ulcer, 2 (2/17) with toe gangrene or 3 (3/17)with both of the complaints. ABI (Ankle bxancial index) were 0.2-0.5 and 0.51-0.7 in 12 limbs and 5 limbs respectively, with average value 0.47. Results: The success rate of operation was 100% (17/17). Pain relieved obviously in 13 limbs (13/17) and reduced in 2 limbs (2/17). 2 limbs (2/17) still suffered from pain and underwent upper-knee amputation and other 2 with ulcerations(2/ 17)were healed. 3 (3/17) with toe gangrene underwent partial foot amputation, 1 with dried gangrene remained unchanged and the other was lost. Another one showed ulcer healed and toe was lost. Increase of ABI was more than 0.5 in 10 limbs(10/17) and 0.3-0.5 in 5 limbs(5/17) with average value of 0.83. 10 patients with sixteen limbs were followed up in an average period of 4.3 months (1-9 months). Of the 15 immediate pain-relieved limbs, 12(12/15) limbs remained free of pain and pain recurred in 3 other limbs; and 2 of them with pain-reduced after PTA again; the other 1 underwent amputation, Average value of ABI was 0.70. Conclusions: Inferior arterial endoluminal angioplasty for the treatment of severe limb ischemia with application of the DEEP balloon catheter show high successful rate and short-term encouraging clinical results but mid-term and long-terms follow up should be undertaken for further investigation. (authors)

  17. Mortality after major amputation in elderly patients with critical limb ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Klaphake (Sanne); de Leur, K. (Kevin); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); G.H. Ho (Gwan); H.G.W. de Groot (Hans); E.J. Veen (Eelco J.); H.J.M. Verhagen (Hence); L. van der Laan (Lyckle)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground: Owing to the aging population, the number of elderly patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) has increased. The consequence of amputation is immense. However, at the moment, information about the mortality after amputation in the elderly vascular patients is unknown.

  18. Persistent Sciatic Artery Aneurysm with Limb Ischemia: A Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Morisaki, Koichi; Yamaoka, Terutoshi; Iwasa, Kazuomi; Kuma, Sosei; Okazaki, Jin

    2017-01-01

    We report two cases of persistent sciatic artery (PSA) aneurysm with limb ischemia. Physicians who treat peripheral artery disease should be aware that PSA is a very rare congenital malformation of the lower extremities that is potentially hazardous, and that revascularization should be performed when a PSA aneurysm is treated.

  19. Sequential compression biomechanical device in patients with critical limb ischemia and nonreconstructible peripheral vascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2011-08-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients who are unsuitable for intervention face the dire prospect of primary amputation. Sequential compression biomechanical device (SCBD) therapy provides a limb salvage option for these patients. This study assessed the outcome of SCBD in severe CLI patients who otherwise would face an amputation. Primary end points were limb salvage and 30-day mortality. Secondary end points were hemodynamic outcomes (increase in popliteal artery flow and toe pressure), ulcer healing, quality-adjusted time without symptoms of disease or toxicity of treatment (Q-TwiST), and cost-effectiveness.

  20. Surgical Interventions for Organ and Limb Ischemia Associated With Primary and Secondary Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome With Arterial Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Carlos A; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Bermudez-Serrato, Karla; García-Alva, Ramón; Laparra-Escareno, Hugo; Torres-Machorro, Adriana; Lizola, Rene

    2017-11-01

    The association of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) and hypercoagulability is well known. Arterial compromise leading to ischemia of organs and/or limbs in patients with APS is uncommon, frequently unrecognized, and rarely described. We evaluated our institutional experience. Retrospective review was conducted. From August 2007 to September 2016, 807 patients with diagnosis of APS were managed in our Institution. Patients with primary and secondary APS who required interventions were examined. Demographics, comorbidities, manifestations, procedures, complications, and other factors affecting outcomes were recorded. Fourteen patients (mean age 35 years old, standard deviation ±14) were evaluated and treated by our service. Six (43%) of them had primary APS and 8 (57%) had secondary APS; 11 (79%) were female. Two (14%) experienced distal aorta and iliac arteries involvement, 3 (21%) visceral vessels disease, 2 (14%) in upper and 7 (50%) in the lower extremity vasculatures. Thirteen (93%) patients underwent direct open revascularization and 1 with hand ischemia (Raynaud disease) underwent sympathectomy. During the mean follow-up period of 48 months, reinterventions included a revision of the proximal anastomosis of an aortobifemoral bypass graft, 1 (7%) abdominal exploration for bleeding, 1 (7%) graft thrombectomy, and 4 (29%) amputations (2 below the knee, 1 above the knee, and 1 transmetatarsal). One (7%) death occurred secondary to sepsis in a patient who had acute mesenteric ischemia. Significant differences in clinical manifestations and outcomes were not observed among patients with primary and secondary APS. All patients remained on systemic anticoagulation. APS is a prothrombotic disorder that may lead to arterial involvement with less frequency than the venous circulation but has significant morbidity and limb loss rate. Arterial reconstruction seems feasible in an attempt to salvage organs and limbs; however, research is necessary to establish the

  1. Melatonin attenuates lung injury in a hind limb ischemia–reperfusion rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Takhtfooladi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the protective antioxidant effect of melatonin on lung injury as a remote organ after skeletal muscle ischemia–reperfusion in rats. Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three experimental groups: operated with no ischemia (Sham group, ischemia–reperfusion group and ischemia–reperfusion + melatonin group. Hind limb ischemia was induced by clamping the femoral artery. After 2 h ischemia, the clamp was removed and the animal underwent 24 h reperfusion. Rats in the ischemia–reperfusion + melatonin group received melatonin (10 mg/kg i.v., immediately before the clamp was removed. At the end of the trial, animals were euthanized and the lungs were removed for water content determination, histopathological and biochemical studies. Results: In the ischemia–reperfusion + melatonin group, tissues showed less intense histological abnormalities such as neutrophilic infiltration, intra-alveolar hemorrhage and edema compared with the ischemia–reperfusion group. Histopathologically, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05 between the two groups. The lung water content in the ischemia–reperfusion + melatonin group was significantly lower than the ischemia–reperfusion group (P < 0.05. Lung tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO level were significantly (P < 0.05 increased by ischemia–reperfusion. The increase in these parameters was reduced by melatonin.Comparing the ischemia–reperfusion + melatonin group with the sham group, no significant increase in all analyzed aspects of the research was observed. Conclusions: These findings suggest that melatonin has preventive effects in lung tissue injury after transient femoral artery occlusion. Keywords: Melatonin, Ischemia–reperfusion, Lung remote injury, Histopathology, Myeloperoxidase, Nitric oxide

  2. Popliteo-pedal bypass surgery for critical limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, D W

    2011-12-01

    Critical limb ischaemia due to distal arterial disease represents a significant challenge. Randomised controlled evidence suggests that open surgery may be superior to endovascular intervention but there is limited data on the specific clinical cohort with exclusively infra-popliteal disease.

  3. [Application of continuous renal replacement therapy in the treatment of myonephropathic metabolic syndrome caused by acute lower extremity ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianping; Wang, Tengke; Zhang, Jinglan

    2014-09-16

    To summarize the experiences of using continuous renal replacement therapy in the treatment of myonephropathic metabolic syndrome caused by acute lower limb ischemia. Retrospective study of patients diagnosed acute lower limb ischemia with surgical treatment between January 2008 and December 2013, among which 22 patients with myonephropathic metabolic syndrome received continuous renal replacement therapy. Summarize the change tendency of myoglobin, urine volume and serum creatinine levels during treatment and analysis the condition changes and prognosis of the patients. Among them, 2 patients were amputated and two died after surgery. The major causes of death were acute renal failure, metabolic acidosis, circulation failure and liver failure, etc. Myoglobin was significantly higher at Day 1 after surgery than that was before surgery (P metabolic syndrome, early targeted continuous renal replacement therapy may decrease the serum concentrations of myoglobin and CK, improve urine volume, maintain homeostasis, prevent renal function deterioration and improve the prognosis of patients. And it is highly recommended.

  4. Predictors for adverse outcome after iliac angioplasty and stenting for limb-threatening ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timaran, Carlos H; Stevens, Scott L; Freeman, Michael B; Goldman, Mitchell H

    2002-09-01

    The role of iliac artery angioplasty and stenting (IAS) for the treatment of limb-threatening ischemia is not defined. IAS has been used primarily for patients with disabling claudication. Because poorer results have been shown in patients with critical ischemia after iliac artery angioplasty, the purpose of this study was to estimate the influence of risk factors on the outcome of iliac angioplasty and stent placement in patients with limb-threatening ischemia. During a 5-year period (from 1996 to 2001), 85 iliac angioplasty and stent placement procedures (107 stents) were performed in 31 women and 43 men with limb-threatening ischemia. Patients with claudication were specifically excluded. The criteria prepared by the Ad Hoc Committee on Reporting Standards (Society for Vascular Surgery/International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery) were followed to define the variables. The TransAtlantic InterSociety Consensus classification was used to characterize the type of iliac lesions. Both univariate (Kaplan-Meier [KM]) and multivariate analyses (Cox proportional hazards model) were used to determine the association between variables, cumulative patency, limb salvage, and survival. Indications for iliac angioplasty with stenting were ischemic rest pain (56%) and tissue loss (44%). Primary stenting was performed in 36 patients (42%). Stents were placed selectively after iliac angioplasty mainly for residual stenosis or pressure gradient (43%). Overall, primary stent patency rate was 90% at 1 year, 74% at 3 years, and 69% at 5 years. Primary stent patency rate was significantly reduced in women compared with men (KM, log-rank test, P 1.6 mg/dL; KM, log-rank test, P IAS. Limb salvage, as shown in this study, is not affected by previous iliac stent failure.

  5. Ischemia modified albumin as laboratory marker of acute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Miličević

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Daily clinical practice still lacks a marker of acute myocardial ischemia as compared with markers ofmyocardial necrosis. Ischemia modifed albumin (IMA has recently been proposed as a useful biochemicaltool for detection of ischemia – it is a test which determines the inability of N-terminal end ofalbumin to bind cobalt during ischemia. A strong relation between IMA and early myocardial ischemiahas been shown by several studies, in most of which percutaneous coronary intervention was used asa model of myocardial ischemia, where this test showed high sensitivity. IMA values raise during nextfew minutes after the ischemia has occured, and return back to normal levels within next six hours, butthe precise dynamics of its rise and fall are still unknown. Beside defining etiology of acute or sub-acutechest pain in patients with inconclusive electrocardiogram (ECG, in patients with “silent” myocardialischemia with ischemic changes in ECG or in patients with non-ischemic ECG changes during cardiacstress test, this promising marker could also be used as the earliest biochemical indicator of early developmentof myocardial infarction. Relatively low organ-specificity is a limitation of this test, becauseIMA levels are also raised during different ischemic conditions and diseases of other organs. If thisproblem is taken into consideration, IMA test shows good results in diagnosing myocardial ischemiadue to its high sensitivity.

  6. Acute testicular ischemia caused by incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Robert C; Towbin, Alexander J

    2012-02-01

    Acute testicular ischemia caused by an incarcerated inguinal hernia usually affects infants. There are few reports of diagnosis using US, and the effect of long-standing reducible hernias on testicular growth in infants and children is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of testicular ischemia secondary to an incarcerated inguinal hernia at scrotal sonography and to determine the effect on testicular size at diagnosis. A hospital database was used to locate scrotal sonography examinations documenting an inguinal hernia, and images were reviewed for signs of testicular ischemia. Testicular volumes were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. A total of 147 patients were identified with an inguinal hernia (age 1 day to 23 years, average 6 years). Ten patients (6.8%) had associated testicular ischemia (age 3 weeks to 6 months, average 9 weeks) and showed a statistically significant increase in ipsilateral testicular size compared to the contralateral testicle (P = 0.012). Patients without testicular ischemia did not show a significant difference in testicular size, regardless of patient age. An incarcerated inguinal hernia should be considered as a cause of acute testicular ischemia in infants younger than 6 months of age.

  7. Saving the limb in diabetic patients with ischemic foot lesions complicated by acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Giacomo; Faglia, Ezio

    2014-12-01

    Ischemia and infection are the most important factors affecting the prognosis of foot ulcerations in diabetic patients. To improve the outcome of these patients, it is necessary to aggressively treat 2 important pathologies--namely, occlusive arterial disease affecting the tibial and femoral arteries and infection of the ischemic diabetic foot. Each of these 2 conditions may lead to major limb amputation, and the presence of both critical limb ischemia (CLI) and acute deep infection is a major risk factor for lower-extremity amputation. Thus, the management of diabetic foot ulcers requires specific therapeutic approaches that vary significantly depending on whether foot lesions are complicated by infection and/or ischemia. A multidisciplinary team approach is the key to successful treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer: ischemic diabetic foot ulcers complicated by acute deep infection pose serious treatment challenges because high levels of skill, organization, accuracy, and timing of intervention are required to maximize the chances of limb salvage: these complex issues are better managed by a multidisciplinary clinical group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  9. Nonoperative active management of critical limb ischemia: initial experience using a sequential compression biomechanical device for limb salvage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2008-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients are at high risk of primary amputation. Using a sequential compression biomechanical device (SCBD) represents a nonoperative option in threatened limbs. We aimed to determine the outcome of using SCBD in amputation-bound nonreconstructable CLI patients regarding limb salvage and 90-day mortality. Thirty-five patients with 39 critically ischemic limbs (rest pain = 12, tissue loss = 27) presented over 24 months. Thirty patients had nonreconstructable arterial outflow vessels, and five were inoperable owing to severe comorbidity scores. All were Rutherford classification 4 or 5 with multilevel disease. All underwent a 12-week treatment protocol and received the best medical treatment. The mean follow-up was 10 months (SD +\\/- 6 months). There were four amputations, with an 18-month cumulative limb salvage rate of 88% (standard error [SE] +\\/- 7.62%). Ninety-day mortality was zero. Mean toe pressures increased from 38.2 to 67 mm Hg (SD +\\/- 33.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 55-79). Popliteal artery flow velocity increased from 45 to 47.9 cm\\/s (95% CI 35.9-59.7). Cumulative survival at 12 months was 81.2% (SE +\\/- 11.1) for SCBD, compared with 69.2% in the control group (SE +\\/- 12.8%) (p = .4, hazards ratio = 0.58, 95% CI 0.15-2.32). The mean total cost of primary amputation per patient is euro29,815 ($44,000) in comparison with euro13,900 ($20,515) for SCBD patients. SCBD enhances limb salvage and reduces length of hospital stay, nonoperatively, in patients with nonreconstructable vessels.

  10. Metabolomic profiling to characterize acute intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel G Khadaroo

    Full Text Available Sepsis and septic shock are the leading causes of death in critically ill patients. Acute intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (AII/R is an adaptive response to shock. The high mortality rate from AII/R is due to the severity of the disease and, more importantly, the failure of timely diagnosis. The objective of this investigation is to use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis to characterize urine metabolomic profile of AII/R injury in a mouse model. Animals were exposed to sham, early (30 min or late (60 min acute intestinal ischemia by complete occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, followed by 2 hrs of reperfusion. Urine was collected and analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. Urinary metabolite concentrations demonstrated that different profiles could be delineated based on the duration of the intestinal ischemia. Metabolites such as allantoin, creatinine, proline, and methylamine could be predictive of AII/R injury. Lactate, currently used for clinical diagnosis, was found not to significantly contribute to the classification model for either early or late ischemia. This study demonstrates that patterns of changes in urinary metabolites are effective at distinguishing AII/R progression in an animal model. This is a proof-of-concept study to further support examination of metabolites in the clinical diagnosis of intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in patients. The discovery of a fingerprint metabolite profile of AII/R will be a major advancement in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of systemic injury in critically ill patients.

  11. Longitudinal outcomes after tibioperoneal angioplasty alone compared to tibial stenting and atherectomy for critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Shaun; Galiñanes, Edgar Luis; Dombrovskiy, Viktor Y; Vogel, Todd R

    2013-10-01

    There are limited data available evaluating longitudinal outcomes after tibioperoneal angioplasty (TA) alone compared to adjunctive tibial procedures including stenting and atherectomy. Using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services inpatient claims (2005-2007), patients evaluated TA only, TA plus stent placement (TA + S), and TA plus atherectomy (TA + A). A total of 2080 patients with critical limb ischemia underwent percutaneous tibioperoneal intervention for the indication of ulceration. Procedures included TA (56.3%), TA + S (16.2%), and TA + A (27.5%). Rates of amputation were not statistically different between the groups at 30, 90, and 365 days after the intervention. Mean total hospital charges were TA ($35,867), TA + A ($41,698; P = .0004), and TA + S ($51,040; P atherectomy for ulceration demonstrated no improvement in limb salvage. Future analysis of adjunctive tibioperoneal interventions is essential to temper cost, as they fail to improve long-term limb salvage.

  12. Update and validation of the Society for Vascular Surgery wound, ischemia, and foot infection threatened limb classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Joseph L

    2014-03-01

    The diagnosis of critical limb ischemia, first defined in 1982, was intended to delineate a patient cohort with a threatened limb and at risk for amputation due to severe peripheral arterial disease. The influence of diabetes and its associated neuropathy on the pathogenesis-threatened limb was an excluded comorbidity, despite its known contribution to amputation risk. The Fontaine and Rutherford classifications of limb ischemia severity have also been used to predict amputation risk and the likelihood of tissue healing. The dramatic increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the expanding techniques of arterial revascularization has prompted modification of peripheral arterial disease classification schemes to improve outcomes analysis for patients with threatened limbs. The diabetic patient with foot ulceration and infection is at risk for limb loss, with abnormal arterial perfusion as only one determinant of outcome. The wound extent and severity of infection also impact the likelihood of limb loss. To better predict amputation risk, the Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Guidelines Committee developed a classification of the threatened lower extremity that reflects these important clinical considerations. Risk stratification is based on three major factors that impact amputation risk and clinical management: wound, ischemia, and foot infection. This classification scheme is relevant to the patient with critical limb ischemia because many are also diabetic. Implementation of the wound, ischemia, and foot infection classification system in critical limb ischemia patients is recommended and should assist the clinician in more meaningful analysis of outcomes for various forms of wound and arterial revascularizations procedures required in this challenging, patient population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Divergent systemic and local inflammatory response to hind limb demand ischemia in wild-type and ApoE-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Robert S; Albadawi, Hassan; Robaldo, Alessandro; Peck, Michael A; Abularrage, Christopher J; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Lamuraglia, Glenn M; Watkins, Michael T

    2013-08-01

    We designed studies to determine whether the ApoE-/- phenotype modulates the local skeletal muscle and systemic inflammatory (plasma) responses to lower extremity demand ischemia. The ApoE-/- phenotype is an experimental model for atherosclerosis in humans. Aged female ApoE-/- and C57BL6 mice underwent femoral artery ligation, then were divided into sedentary and demand ischemia (exercise) groups on day 14. We assessed baseline and postexercise limb perfusion and hind limb function. On day 14, animals in the demand ischemia group underwent daily treadmill exercise through day 28. Sedentary mice were not exercised. On day 28, we harvested plasma and skeletal muscle from ischemic limbs from sedentary and exercised mice. We assayed muscle for angiogenic and proinflammatory proteins, markers of skeletal muscle regeneration, and evidence of skeletal muscle fiber maturation. Hind limb ischemia was similar in ApoE-/- and C57 mice before the onset of exercise. Under sedentary conditions, plasma vascular endothelial cell growth factor and interleukin-6, but not keratinocyte chemoattractant factor (KC) or macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), were higher in ApoE (P factor, KC, and MIP-2, but not IL-6, were lower in ApoE (P demand ischemia in the C57BL6 mice, compared with the ApoE-/- mice (P = 0.01). Demand limb ischemia in the ApoE-/- phenotype exacerbated the expression of select systemic cytokines in plasma and blunted indices of muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular imaging of the paracrine proangiogenic effects of progenitor cell therapy in limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jae Choon; Davidson, Brian P; Xie, Aris; Qi, Yue; Zha, Daogang; Belcik, J Todd; Caplan, Evan S; Woda, Juliana M; Hedrick, Catherine C; Hanna, Richard N; Lehman, Nicholas; Zhao, Yan; Ting, Anthony; Lindner, Jonathan R

    2013-02-12

    Stem cells are thought to enhance vascular remodeling in ischemic tissue in part through paracrine effects. Using molecular imaging, we tested the hypothesis that treatment of limb ischemia with multipotential adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) promotes recovery of blood flow through the recruitment of proangiogenic monocytes. Hind-limb ischemia was produced in mice by iliac artery ligation, and MAPCs were administered intramuscularly on day 1. Optical imaging of luciferase-transfected MAPCs indicated that cells survived for 1 week. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound on days 3, 7, and 21 showed a more complete recovery of blood flow and greater expansion of microvascular blood volume in MAPC-treated mice than in controls. Fluorescent microangiography demonstrated more complete distribution of flow to microvascular units in MAPC-treated mice. On ultrasound molecular imaging, expression of endothelial P-selectin and intravascular recruitment of CX(3)CR-1-positive monocytes were significantly higher in MAPC-treated mice than in the control groups at days 3 and 7 after arterial ligation. Muscle immunohistology showed a >10-fold-greater infiltration of monocytes in MAPC-treated than control-treated ischemic limbs at all time points. Intravital microscopy of ischemic or tumor necrosis factor-α-treated cremaster muscle demonstrated that MAPCs migrate to perimicrovascular locations and potentiate selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling. In vitro migration of human CD14(+) monocytes was 10-fold greater in response to MAPC-conditioned than basal media. In limb ischemia, MAPCs stimulate the recruitment of proangiogenic monocytes through endothelial activation and enhanced chemotaxis. These responses are sustained beyond the MAPC lifespan, suggesting that paracrine effects promote flow recovery by rebalancing the immune response toward a more regenerative phenotype.

  15. Innovations in the Endovascular Management of Critical Limb Ischemia: Retrograde Tibiopedal Access and Advanced Percutaneous Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Jihad A; Diaz-Sandoval, Larry J; Saab, Fadi

    2017-08-01

    Retrograde tibiopedal access and interventions have contributed to advance of endovascular techniques to treat critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients. This review encompasses the spectrum from advanced diagnostic imaging and technical therapeutic approaches for infrapopliteal occlusions, to a discussion of current standards and future directions. Contemporary studies of infrapopliteal angioplasty show suboptimal short-term and 1-year clinical outcomes. Comparative data is needed to shift the focus from PTA to disruptive treatment modalities that can further improve outcomes. Retrograde pedal access has emerged as an important tool to facilitate successfully percutaneous revascularization and limb salvage in patients with CLI. To efficiently approach the complexity of CLI, new thought processes are needed to change the reigning paradigms. Retrograde tibial-pedal access has shown improvement in the rate of successful revascularizations and is an important tool in the amputation-prevention armamentarium. Additional technologies may further improve success rates. Drug-eluting stents have shown better outcomes than PTA in patients with focal infrapopliteal lesions. Registry data have demonstrated the advantage of several atherectomy devices in the tibial arteries. More recently, bioresorbable vascular scaffolds have been used successfully, and further studies with drug-coated balloons are underway. Interventional operators are now even working in the inframalleolar space to reconstitute the plantar arch. Well-conducted studies are needed to generate high-quality evidence in the field of critical limb ischemia management.

  16. Sequential compression biomechanical device versus primary amputation in patients with critical limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tawfick, Wael A

    2013-10-01

    Introduction: Patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI), who are unsuitable for intervention, face the consequence of primary amputation. Sequential compression biomechanical device (SCBD) therapy provides a limb salvage option for these patients. Objectives: To assess the outcome of SCBD in patients with severe CLI who are unsuitable for revascularization. Primary end points were limb salvage and 30-day mortality. Methods: From 2005 to 2012, 189 patients with severe CLI were not suitable for revascularization. In all, 171 joined the SCBD program. We match controlled 75 primary amputations. Results: All patients were Rutherford category 4 or higher. Sustained clinical improvement was 68% at 1 year. Mean toe pressure increased from 19.9 to 35.42 mm Hg, P < .0001. Mean popliteal flow increased from 35.44 to 55.91 cm\\/sec, P < .0001. The 30-day mortality was 0.6%. Limb salvage was 94% at 5 years. Freedom from major adverse clinical events was 62.5%. All-cause survival was 69%. Median cost of managing a primary amputation patient is €29 815 compared to €3985 for SCBD. We treated 171 patients with artassist at a cost of €681 965. However, primary amputation for 75 patients cost €2 236 125. Conclusion: The SCBD therapy is a cost-effective and clinically effective solution in patients with CLI having no option of revascularization. It provides adequate limb salvage while providing relief of rest pain without any intervention.

  17. Myocyte specific overexpression of myoglobin impairs angiogenesis after hind-limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Surovi; Angelo, Michael; Li, Yongjun; Aldrich, Amy J; Odronic, Shelley I; Yan, Zhen; Stamler, Jonathan S; Annex, Brian H

    2008-12-01

    In preclinical models of peripheral arterial disease the angiogenic response is typically robust, though it can be impaired in conditions such as hypercholesterolemia and diabetes where the endothelium is dysfunctional. Myoglobin (Mb) is expressed exclusively in striated muscle cells. We hypothesized that myocyte specific overexpression of myoglobin attenuates ischemia-induced angiogenesis even in the presence of normal endothelium. Mb overexpressing transgenic (MbTg, n=59) and wild-type (WT, n=56) C57Bl/6 mice underwent unilateral femoral artery ligation/excision. Perfusion recovery was monitored using Laser Doppler. Ischemia-induced changes in muscle were assessed by protein and immunohistochemistry assays. Nitrite/nitrate and protein-bound NO, and vasoreactivity was measured. Vasoreactivity was similar between MbTg and WT. In ischemic muscle, at d14 postligation, MbTg increased VEGF-A, and activated eNOS the same as WT mice but nitrate/nitrite were reduced whereas protein-bound NO was higher. MbTg had attenuated perfusion recovery at d21 (0.37+/-0.03 versus 0.47+/-0.02, P<0.05), d28 (0.40+/-0.03 versus 0.50+/-0.04, P<0.05), greater limb necrosis (65.2% versus 15%, P<0.001), a lower capillary density, and greater apoptosis versus WT. Increased Mb expression in myocytes attenuates angiogenesis after hind-limb ischemia by binding NO and reducing its bioavailability. Myoglobin can modulate the angiogenic response to ischemia even in the setting of normal endothelium.

  18. Effect of limb ischemic preconditioning on myocardial apoptosis-related proteins in ischemia-reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    GAO, JIANZHI; ZHAO, LINJING; WANG, YONGLING; TENG, QINGLEI; LIANG, LIDONG; ZHANG, JINYING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of limb ischemic preconditioning (LIPC) on myocardial apoptosis in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI), as well as the regulation of caspase-3 and the B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) gene in LIPC. A total of 50 rats were divided randomly into 5 groups (n=10). Four rats in each group were drawn out for detection of apoptosis. The sham, MIRI and LIPC groups underwent surgery without additional treatment. In the LY294002 group, LY294002 pre...

  19. Thrombolytic therapy for critical limb ischemia in a Jehovah's Witness with severe anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Kauffman, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A patient's refusal to receive blood products can pose both clinical and ethical challenges to the surgeon. In this report, we review the case of a Jehovah's Witness presenting with critical lower limb ischemia and severe anemia for whom the decision of whether to perform thrombolytic therapy was complicated by his refusal to accept blood products. The case demonstrates that thrombolytic therapy can produce favorable results in severely anemic patients even when transfusion is not an option. We conclude that offering thrombolytic therapy in this context is a reasonable therapeutic option from both a clinical and ethical perspective.

  20. Acute hemifacial ischemia as a late complication of carotid stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Domanin, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about carotid artery stenting (CAS center primarily on procedural complications like acute occlusion, stroke, and long-term intrastent restenosis. External carotid artery (ECA thrombosis is observed during CAS follow-up, but it often remains asymptomatic or, at worst, results in jaw claudication. We report here a case of late occlusion of the ECA after CAS with symptoms of acute homolateral facial ischemia as well as pain, cyanosis, tongue numbness, and skin coldness. The patient was submitted to local thrombolysis and balloon angioplasty with regression of symptoms after recanalization. With this report, we add a caveat about blockage of the ECA ostium during CAS.

  1. Impact of Duplex arterial mapping on decision making in non-acute ischemic limb patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbadawy, A; Aly, H; Ibrahim, M; Bakr, H

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the impact of Duplex arterial mapping on decision making in non-acute ischemic limb patient group reporting pain onset between 15 days and 3 months. We prospectively evaluated patients presented with critical limb ischemia who reported pain onset of duration between 15 days and 3 months in one-year period. Our series included thirty cases (mean age=61.3 years old), as Duplex arterial mapping was the sole preoperative imaging tool performed in all of them. All patients, in whom duplex indicated thrombosis in long occluded segments, were candidates for fluoroscopically guided thrombectomy. When Duplex defined chronic arterial occlusions, patients underwent endovascular or bypass revascularisation procedures. Impact of Duplex wall interrogation on decision-making between the two groups (subacute and chronic) was measured. Duplex arterial mapping categorized correctly all 30 patients into either subacute ischemia with removable clot (N.=14) or chronic ischemia (N.=16). Fluoroscopic guided thrombectomy was performed in 14 cases when Duplex advised long occluded arterial segments as indicted by intact intima with echogenic thrombus inside. Bypass surgery was performed in 8 patients. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was done in 7 cases and thrombendartrectomy of common femoral artery in a single case. One-year patency rate in our series was 86.6%. It was 71.4% in thrombosis group. Limb salvage rate was 93.3%. Duplex arterial mapping could be used to differentiate the subacute ischemia with removable thrombus and chronic arterial occlusions guiding for the best revascularization procedure accordingly.

  2. Salutary Effects of Cepharanthine against Skeletal Muscle and Kidney Injuries following Limb Ischemia/Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang Kao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R causes oxidation and inflammation and subsequently induces muscle and kidney injuries. Cepharanthine, a natural plant alkaloid, possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. We elucidated the salutary effects of cepharanthine against muscle and kidney injuries following limb I/R. Adult male rats were randomized to receive I/R or I/R plus cepharanthine. I/R was achieved by applying tourniquet high around each thigh for 3 hours followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Cepharanthine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal was injected immediately before reperfusion. After euthanization, degrees of tissue injury, inflammation, and oxidation were examined. Our data revealed that the I/R group had significant increases in injury biomarker concentrations of muscle (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase and kidney (creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and kidney injury molecule-1. Histological assays revealed moderate muscle and kidney injury characteristics in the I/R group. The I/R group also had significant increases in concentrations of inflammatory molecules (interleukin-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and prostaglandin E2 and reactive nitrogen species (nitric oxide as well as lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde. Of note, these effects of limb I/R could be mitigated by cepharanthine. These data confirmed that cepharanthine attenuated muscle and kidney injuries induced by limb I/R. The mechanisms may involve its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative capacities.

  3. Augmentation of limb perfusion and reversal of tissue ischemia produced by ultrasound-mediated microbubble cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcik, J Todd; Mott, Brian H; Xie, Aris; Zhao, Yan; Kim, Sajeevani; Lindner, Nathan J; Ammi, Azzdine; Linden, Joel M; Lindner, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound can increase tissue blood flow, in part, through the intravascular shear produced by oscillatory pressure fluctuations. We hypothesized that ultrasound-mediated increases in perfusion can be augmented by microbubble contrast agents that undergo ultrasound-mediated cavitation and sought to characterize the biological mediators. Contrast ultrasound perfusion imaging of hindlimb skeletal muscle and femoral artery diameter measurement were performed in nonischemic mice after unilateral 10-minute exposure to intermittent ultrasound alone (mechanical index, 0.6 or 1.3) or ultrasound with lipid microbubbles (2×10(8) IV). Studies were also performed after inhibiting shear- or pressure-dependent vasodilator pathways, and in mice with hindlimb ischemia. Ultrasound alone produced a 2-fold increase (Pultrasound power. Ultrasound-mediated augmentation in flow was greater with microbubbles (3- and 10-fold higher than control for mechanical index 0.6 and 1.3, respectively; Pultrasound and microbubbles by 70% (Pultrasound and ultrasound with microbubbles. In mice with unilateral hindlimb ischemia (40%-50% reduction in flow), ultrasound (mechanical index, 1.3) with microbubbles increased perfusion by 2-fold to a degree that was greater than the control nonischemic limb. Increases in muscle blood flow during high-power ultrasound are markedly amplified by the intravascular presence of microbubbles and can reverse tissue ischemia. These effects are most likely mediated by cavitation-related increases in shear and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Effect of picroside II on hind limb ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kılıç Y

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yiğit Kılıç,1 Abdullah Özer,1 Tolga Tatar,1 Mustafa Hakan Zor,1 Mehmet Kirişçi,2 Hakan Kartal,3 Ali Doğan Dursun,4 Deniz Billur,5 Mustafa Arslan,6 Ayşegül Küçük7 1Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Gazi University Medical Faculty, Ankara, 2Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam Medical Faculty, Kahramanmaras, 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Ardahan State Hospital, Ardahan, 4Department of Physiology, Ankara University Medical Faculty, 5Department of Histology and Embryology, Ankara University Medical Faculty, 6Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation, Gazi University Medical Faculty, Ankara, 7Department of Physiology, Dumlupinar University Medical Faculty, Kütahya, Turkey Introduction: Many structural and functional damages are observed in cells and tissues after reperfusion of previously viable ischemic tissues. Acute ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury of lower extremities occurs especially when a temporary cross-clamp is applied to the abdominal aorta during aortic surgery. Research regarding the treatment of I/R injury has been increasing day-by-day. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of picroside II on skeletal muscle of rats experiencing simulated I/R.Materials and methods: Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats weighing between 210 and 300 g were used in this study. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each (control, I/R, control + picroside II, and I/R + picroside II. The infrarenal section of the abdominal aorta was occluded with an atraumatic microvascular clamp in I/R group. The clamp was removed after 120 minutes and reperfusion was provided for a further 120 minutes. Picroside II (10 mg kg–1 was administered intraperitoneally to the animals in control + picroside II and I/R + picroside II groups. At the end of the study, skeletal muscle tissue was obtained for the determination of total oxidant status (TOS and total antioxidant status (TAS levels

  5. Heme oxygenase-1 mediates the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on mitigating lung injury induced by lower limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tsui-Chin; Jan, Woan-Ching; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2011-05-15

    Lower limb ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) imposes oxidative stress, elicits inflammatory response, and subsequently induces acute lung injury. Ischemic preconditioning (IP), a process of transient I/R, mitigates the acute lung injury induced by I/R. We sought to elucidate whether the protective effects of IP involve heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Adult male rats were randomized to receive I/R, I/R plus IP, I/R plus IP plus the HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) (n = 12 in each group). Control groups were run simultaneously. I/R was induced by applying rubber band tourniquet high around each thigh for 3 h followed by reperfusion for 3 h. To achieve IP, three cycles of bilateral lower limb I/R (i.e., ischemia for 10 min followed by reperfusion for 10 min) were performed. IP was performed immediately before I/R. After sacrifice, degree of lung injury was determined. Histologic findings, together with assays of leukocyte infiltration (polymorphonuclear leukocytes/alveoli ratio and myeloperoxidase activity) and lung water content (wet/dry weight ratio), confirmed that I/R induced acute lung injury. I/R also caused significant inflammatory response (increases in chemokine, cytokine, and prostaglandin E(2) concentrations), imposed significant oxidative stress (increases in nitric oxide and malondialdehyde concentrations), and up-regulated HO-1 expression in lung tissues. IP significantly enhanced HO-1 up-regulation and, in turn, mitigated oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and acute lung injury induced by I/R. In addition, the protective effects of IP were counteracted by SnPP. The protective effects of IP on mitigating acute lung injury induced by lower limb I/R are mediated by HO-1. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety and efficacy of distal perfusion catheterization to prevent limb ischemia after common femoral artery cannulation for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Chang Ho; Seong, Nak Jong; Yoon, Chang Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cannula has the potential for obstructing flow to the lower limb, thus causing severe ischemia and possible limb loss. We evaluated the safety and clinical efficacy of percutaneous distal perfusion catheterization in preventing limb ischemia. Between March 2013 and February 2015, 28 patients with distal perfusion catheterization after ECMO were included in this retrospective study. The technical success was evaluated by Doppler ultrasound at the popliteal level after saline injection via distal perfusion catheter. Clinical success was assessed when at least one of the following conditions was met: restoration of continuous peripheral limb oximetry value or presence of distal arterial pulse on Doppler ultrasound evaluation or resolution of early ischemic sign after connecting the catheter with ECMO. Twenty-six patients with early ischemia were successfully cannulated with a distal perfusion catheter (92.8%). Clinical success was achieved in 12/28 (42.8%) patients; 8/10 (80.0%) patients with survival duration exceeding 7 days and 4/18 (22.2%) patients with survival duration less than 7 days, respectively. A percutaneous distal perfusion catheter placement was a feasible tool with safety and efficacy in preventing lower limb ischemia for patients with prolonged common femoral arterial cannulation for ECMO.

  7. Safety and efficacy of distal perfusion catheterization to prevent limb ischemia after common femoral artery cannulation for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Chang Ho; Seong, Nak Jong; Yoon, Chang Jin

    2016-01-01

    The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cannula has the potential for obstructing flow to the lower limb, thus causing severe ischemia and possible limb loss. We evaluated the safety and clinical efficacy of percutaneous distal perfusion catheterization in preventing limb ischemia. Between March 2013 and February 2015, 28 patients with distal perfusion catheterization after ECMO were included in this retrospective study. The technical success was evaluated by Doppler ultrasound at the popliteal level after saline injection via distal perfusion catheter. Clinical success was assessed when at least one of the following conditions was met: restoration of continuous peripheral limb oximetry value or presence of distal arterial pulse on Doppler ultrasound evaluation or resolution of early ischemic sign after connecting the catheter with ECMO. Twenty-six patients with early ischemia were successfully cannulated with a distal perfusion catheter (92.8%). Clinical success was achieved in 12/28 (42.8%) patients; 8/10 (80.0%) patients with survival duration exceeding 7 days and 4/18 (22.2%) patients with survival duration less than 7 days, respectively. A percutaneous distal perfusion catheter placement was a feasible tool with safety and efficacy in preventing lower limb ischemia for patients with prolonged common femoral arterial cannulation for ECMO

  8. Critical Limb Ischemia in Association with Charcot Neuroarthropathy: Complex Endovascular Therapy for Limb Salvage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palena, Luis Mariano; Brocco, Enrico; Manzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Charcot neuroarthropathy is a low-incidence complication of diabetic foot and is associated with ankle and hind foot deformity. Patients who have not developed deep ulcers are managed with offloading and supportive bracing or orthopedic arthrodesis. In patients who have developed ulcers and severe ankle instability and deformity, below-the-knee amputation is often indicated, especially when deformity and cutaneous involvement result in osteomyelitis. Ischemic association has not been described but can be present as a part of peripheral arterial disease in the diabetic population. In this extreme and advanced stage of combined neuroischemic diabetic foot disease, revascularization strategies can support surgical and orthopedic therapy, thus preventing osteomyelitis and leading to limb and foot salvage

  9. Critical Limb Ischemia in Association with Charcot Neuroarthropathy: Complex Endovascular Therapy for Limb Salvage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palena, Luis Mariano, E-mail: marianopalena@hotmail.com [Policlinico Abano Terme, Interventional Radiology Unit (Italy); Brocco, Enrico [Policlinico Abano Terme, Diabetic Foot Department, Foot and Ankle Clinic (Italy); Manzi, Marco [Policlinico Abano Terme, Interventional Radiology Unit (Italy)

    2013-05-09

    Charcot neuroarthropathy is a low-incidence complication of diabetic foot and is associated with ankle and hind foot deformity. Patients who have not developed deep ulcers are managed with offloading and supportive bracing or orthopedic arthrodesis. In patients who have developed ulcers and severe ankle instability and deformity, below-the-knee amputation is often indicated, especially when deformity and cutaneous involvement result in osteomyelitis. Ischemic association has not been described but can be present as a part of peripheral arterial disease in the diabetic population. In this extreme and advanced stage of combined neuroischemic diabetic foot disease, revascularization strategies can support surgical and orthopedic therapy, thus preventing osteomyelitis and leading to limb and foot salvage.

  10. Propionyl-L-carnitine improves endothelial function, microcirculation and pain management in critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, S; Zecchetto, S; Rigoni, A; Prior, M; Fondrieschi, L; Scuro, A; Rulfo, F; Arosio, E

    2012-10-01

    Chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a severe condition of hypo-perfusion of lower limbs, which is associated with inflammation and a pro-coagulative state. It is a disease at high risk of amputation and cardiovascular death. Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) is efficacious in improving pain free walking distance in peripheral arterial disease with claudication; it also exerts favorable effects on the arterial wall and on endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of PLC on microcirculation, endothelial function and pain relief in patients affected by CLI not suitable for surgical intervention. We enrolled 48 patients with CLI. Patients were randomized into two groups: the first group was treated with PLC, the second was treated with saline solution. All of them underwent the following tests: laser Doppler flowmetry at the forefoot at rest and after ischemia, trans cutaneous oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure at the forefoot at rest and after ischemia, endothelium dependent dilation of the brachial artery. All tests were repeated after treatments. Pain was assessed by visual analog pain scale. Endothelium dependent dilation increased after PLC (9.5 ± 3.2 vs 4.9 ± 1.4 %; p < 0.05). Post-ischemic peak flow with laser-Doppler flow increased after PLC. TcPO2 increased, while TcPCO2 decreased after PLC; CO2 production decreased after PLC. VAS showed a significant reduction in pain perception after active treatment. In CLI patients, PLC can improve microcirculation (post ischemic hyperemia, TcPO2 and TcPCO2 production). PLC also enhances endothelium dependent dilation and reduces analgesic consumption and pain perception.

  11. Microdialysis assessment of peripheral metabolism in critical limb ischemia after endovascular revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Matteo; Muscianisi, Elisa; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Castelli, Patrizio

    2009-12-31

    Critical limb ischemia is a chronic pathologic condition defined by the lack of blood flow in peripheral circulation. Microdialysis is a well-known and sensitive method for the early detection of tissue ischemia. The aim of the present study was to use microdialysis in order to analyse cellular metabolism changes after peripheral endovascular revascularization. Ten patients diagnosed with critical limb ischemia was enrolled. CMA 60 (CMA-Solna, Sweden) catheter with a 20 kDa cut-off was placed subcutaneously on the anterior aspect of the foot of both limbs. Samples were collected starting 12-hours before surgery and throughout the following 72-hours, using a CMA 600 (CMA-Solna, Sweden) microdialysis analyser. Technical revascularization was successful in all cases. The cannulation was well tolerated in all patients. The site of catheter insertion healed easily in few days without infective complications in any case. Two patients underwent major amputation. After revascularization, glucose showed a strong increase (mean, 5.86 +/- 1.52 mMol/L, p = .008). No restoration of the circadian rhythm was noted in patients who underwent major amputation. Glycerol concentration curves were not deductibles in both the ischemic and the control limbs (mean, 148.43 +/- 42.13 mMol/L vs 178.44 +/- 75.93 mMol/L, p = .348). Within the first 24-hours after revascularization, lactate concentration raised strongly (6.58 +/- 1.56 mMol/L, p = .002): thereafter, it immediately decreased to a concentration similar to the control level (1.71 +/- 1.69 mMol/L). In both patients who underwent major amputation, lactate did not show the typical peak of the successful revascularization. The trend of the lactate/pyruvate ratio after a brief initial decrease of the ratio increased again in both the patients who finally underwent amputation. Restoration of glucose and glycerol circadian rhythm, coupled with low lactate concentration and lactate/pyruvate ratio seemed to be linked to good surgical

  12. Diagnostic Value of Procalcitonin Levels in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Karaca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is a potentially fatal disease. Difficulties in diagnosis make it essential to find early biomarkers. Aims: This study investigated the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT levels in AMI. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In the experimental group, an experimental ischemia model was established by clamping the superior mesenteric artery from the aortic outflow tract. Blood and tissue specimens were collected from rats in the experimental mesenteric ischemia model at 30 min and 2 and 6 h, and these were compared with specimens from the respective control groups. PCT levels were compared at 30 min and 2 and 6 h. Results: PCT levels were 185.3 pg/mL in the control group and 219.3 pg/mL in the study group, 199.6 pg/mL in the control group and 243.9 pg/mL in the study group, and 201.9 pg/mL in the control group and 286.9 pg/mL in the study group, respectively, at 30 minute, 2 and 6 hours. Significant differences were determined between 6-h control group and ischemia group PCT levels (p=0.005. Conclusion: The absence of a significant increase in PCT levels in the early period, while a significant difference was detected in the later period (6 h, shows that PCT levels rise late in mesenteric ischemia and can be a marker in the late period.

  13. Nonlinear Dynamic Theory of Acute Cell Injuries and Brain Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Doaa; Anggraini, Fika; Degracia, Donald; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral ischemia in the form of stroke and cardiac arrest brain damage affect over 1 million people per year in the USA alone. In spite of close to 200 clinical trials and decades of research, there are no treatments to stop post-ischemic neuron death. We have argued that a major weakness of current brain ischemia research is lack of a deductive theoretical framework of acute cell injury to guide empirical studies. A previously published autonomous model based on the concept of nonlinear dynamic network was shown to capture important facets of cell injury, linking the concept of therapeutic to bistable dynamics. Here we present an improved, non-autonomous formulation of the nonlinear dynamic model of cell injury that allows multiple acute injuries over time, thereby allowing simulations of both therapeutic treatment and preconditioning. Our results are connected to the experimental data of gene expression and proteomics of neuron cells. Importantly, this new model may be construed as a novel approach to pharmacodynamics of acute cell injury. The model makes explicit that any pro-survival therapy is always a form of sub-lethal injury. This insight is expected to widely influence treatment of acute injury conditions that have defied successful treatment to date. This work is supported by NIH NINDS (NS081347) and Wayne State University President's Research Enhancement Award.

  14. Bone marrow stem cell injection for the treatment of critical limb ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunya Shindo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular reconstruction remains a treatment of choice for critical limb ischemia. Bypass surgery has been accepted as the most effective therapy to achieve increase of blood flow and cure the ischemic symptoms. On the other hand, continuous increase of the patients suffering diabetes mellitus enhances the increase of the number of the patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD. This tendency is also observed in Japan and expected to continue from now on. The reports of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan indicated that more than 6% of population was treated for diabetes mellitus and more than 12% of population was supposed to be diabetic in 2002.1 This report also gave a warning for rapid and continuous increase of the diabetic patients at present and in the future.? As is well known, diabetes mellitus is one of the strong risk factors to cause an arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO. Therefore, the patients with PAD will increase continuously and more severe ischemic limb will need to be treated. Moreover, diabetic macroangiopathy is characterized as showing diffuse stenosis and occlusion down to the foot arteries.2 Monckeberg’s medial calcification is also frequently observed in the ASO with diabetes mellitus.3 Therefore, along with the increase of the patients with PAD, the vascular reconstruction becomes technically demanding due to co-morbid diabetes with diffuse lesion and severe calcification. The patients, who show critical limb ischemia but are excluded from the operative candidate, are eventually performed major amputation. To prevent this disastrous sequel, therapeutic angiogenesis has been investigated.In 1996, Isner reported a new therapy to treat ischemic limb by using angiogenetic gene; vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF.4 Since then, angiogenetic therapy started to be investigated by using gene transfer with VEGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF5 or hepatic growth factor (HGF.6 Animal study showed increase of

  15. Wound healing of critical limb ischemia with tissue loss in patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yohsuke; Hirano, Keisuke; Yamawaki, Masahiro; Mori, Shinsuke; Shirai, Shigemitsu; Makino, Kenji; Tokuda, Takahiro; Takama, Takuro; Tsutumi, Masakazu; Sakamoto, Yasunari; Takimura, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Araki, Motoharu; Ito, Yoshiaki

    2017-06-01

    We assessed wound healing in patients on hemodialysis (HD) with critical limb ischemia (CLI). This study enrolled 267 patients (including 120 patients on HD and 147 patients not on HD) who underwent endovascular therapy (EVT) for CLI. The primary endpoint was wound-healing rate at two years. Secondary endpoints were time to wound healing, wound recurrence rate, and limb salvage at two years. The percentage of male and young patients was higher in the HD patients ( p healing rate was significantly lower in HD patients (79.5% vs. 92.4%, p healing was significantly longer in HD patients (median 132 days vs. 82 days, p = 0.005). Wound recurrence was observed more frequently in HD patients (25.0% vs. 10.2%, p = 0.007). Limb salvage (72.8% vs. 86.4%, p = 0.002) was significantly lower in HD patients. In a cox proportional hazard model, HD was an independent predictor of wound healing (risk ratio (RR), 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33-0.62; p healing, and wound recurrence.

  16. Early CT findings in acute middle cerebral artery ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.; Poniatowska, R.; Boguslawska, R.; Krawczyk, R.; Rejnowski, J.; Ryterski, J.; Tarrakowski, J.; Mendel, T.

    2004-01-01

    Stroke is characterized by a sudden onset of focal central neurological deficit, with symptoms lasting more than 24 hours, that can be fatal. The introduction of anti-coagulation treatments, together with continuous advances inneuroimaging techniques, have a positive impact, both on morbidity and mortality in stroke patients. It must be stressed, that 'therapeutic window' for fibrolytic treatment is up to 3 hours. The group consisted of 50 patients with clinical diagnosis of stroke, who met the following criteria: first ever, non-hemorrhagic stroke, middle cerebral artery territory involvement, first CT performed within 12 hours from the onset of symptoms, control CT, performed within 7 days, confirming signs of infarction in the distribution of middle cerebral artery. All CT were performed without contrast administration. First CT examinations were retrospectively studied for early evidence of ischemic changes, subsequently depicted as infarction in the control CT. Hyperdencemiddle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS), hypoattenuation of lentiform nucleus (ALN), loss of insular ribbon (LIR), hemispheric sulcus effacement (HES) were found as early abnormalities CT examinations continue to play a dominant role in the initial diagnosis of acute cerebral ischemia. Signs of early ischemia can be often detected within the first three hours from the onset, in the hyper acute phase. CT is used in evaluation of recent symptoms in acute phase and proper selection of patients for thrombolysis with significant therapeutic results. [author

  17. Acute mesenteric ischemia of arterial origin: importance of early revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumereau, F; Mucci, S; Le Naoures, P; Finel, J B; Hamy, A

    2015-02-01

    The goal of our study was to show that survival was better when early revascularization was performed rather than gastrointestinal resection in the management of acute mesenteric ischemia of arterial origin. The reports of patients managed in our center between January 2005 and May 2012 for acute mesenteric ischemia of arterial origin were analyzed retrospectively. Data on clinical, laboratory and radiologic findings, the interval before treatment, the operative findings and the surgical procedures were collected. Follow-up information included the postoperative course, and mortality at 48 h, 30 days and 1 year, the latter being compared between patients undergoing revascularization versus gastrointestinal resection. Of 43 patients treated during this period, 20 had gastrointestinal lesions deemed to be beyond all therapeutic resources, 13 were treated with gastrointestinal resection without revascularization, while 10 underwent early revascularization. There were no statistically significant differences found in the extent of involvement between the two groups (P=0.22). Mortality at 48 h, 30 days and 1 year was 8% (n=1), 30% (n=4) and 68% (n=8) in patients who underwent enterectomy vs. 0% (n=0), 0% (n=0) and 10% (n=1) in patients who underwent revascularization procedures. The difference at 1 year was statistically significant (P=0.02). At 1 year, two patients in the revascularized group had a short bowel syndrome vs. one in the non-revascularized group. Acute mesenteric ischemia of arterial origin is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Optimal management should include early revascularization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Time to Wound Healing and Major Adverse Limb Events in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia Treated with Endovascular Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Grant W; Salehi, Negar; Giglou, Pejman R; Kafa, Rami; Malik, Umair; Maier, Michael; Shishehbor, Mehdi H

    2016-10-01

    There are few studies that quantify the impact of time to wound healing on outcomes after endovascular revascularization of critical limb ischemia (CLI). In this retrospective study, 179 patients with CLI and tissue loss were assessed for adverse events after endovascular therapy. Associations between time to wound healing and outcomes were determined via Cox proportional hazards analysis. The long-term probability of events was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis. The primary end point was major adverse limb events (MALE-major amputation, surgical endarterectomy, or bypass). Secondary end points were major amputation, need for repeat endovascular therapy, and mortality. After multivariable adjustment for time-dependent wound healing, age, renal function, diabetes, and Rutherford class, independent predictors of MALE included the presence of an unhealed wound (hazard ratio [HR], 5.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.3-11.8; P wounds compared with healed wounds (log-rank P wounds healed within 4 months had a lower probability of MALE than patients who did not heal by 4 months (log-rank, P = 0.04). Unhealed wounds were also independently associated with major amputation (HR, 9.0; 95% CI, 2.6-31.1; P = 0.0004), and patients whose wounds healed by 3 months had less major amputation (log-rank, P = 0.04). Unhealed wounds were independently associated with increased risk of mortality (HR, 42.7; 95% CI, 5.7-319.0; P = 0.002) but not repeat revascularization. Unhealed wounds are an independent risk factor for MALE, major amputation, and mortality after endovascular treatment of CLI. Wound healing within 3 months is associated with less risk of major amputation, and within 4 months less risk of MALE. A focus should be on achieving wound healing as fast as possible in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Estradiol-induced, endothelial progenitor cell-mediated neovascularization in male mice with hind-limb ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruifrok, Willem-Peter T.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Iwakura, Atsushi; Silver, Marcy; Kusano, Kengo; Tio, Rene A.; Losordo, Douglas W.

    We investigated whether administration of estradiol to male mice augments mobilization of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and incorporation into foci of neovascularization after hind-limb ischemia, thereby contributing to blood flow restoration. Mice were randomized and

  20. pO2 and regional blood flow in a rabbit model of limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Oleg Y; Hou, Huagang; Grinberg, Stalina A; Moodie, Karen L; Demidenko, Eugene; Friedman, Bruce J; Post, Mark J; Swartz, Harold M

    2004-06-01

    Oxygen tension (pO2) in muscles and regional blood flow were measured in a rabbit model of limb ischemia. pO2 was measured repetitively by EPR oximetry with EMS char in four different muscle groups in the same animals. Blood flow in the same muscles at several time points was measured using microspheres. A linear mixed effects model was developed to analyze the data on pO2 and blood flow. The results suggest that while under normal conditions pO2 in muscles does not depend significantly on blood flow, immediately after arterial occlusion pO2 correlates linearly with blood flow. Within two weeks of occlusion the pO2 is recovered to 45% of baseline. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the applicability of EPR oximetry in animals larger than rodents.

  1. Balloon angioplasty of popliteal and crural arteries in elderly with critical chronic limb ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Eli; Siegel, Yoel; Avrahami, Ram; Bartal, Gabriel; Bachar, Gil N.; Belenky, Alexander

    2005-02-01

    Objective: Elderly patients with extensive infrainguinal peripheral vascular disease and critical chronic limb ischemia (CCLI) are poor surgical candidates. Our purpose was to evaluate angiographic and clinical results of popliteal, infrapopliteal, and multi-level disease percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in such patients. Design: Retrospective study of angiographic and clinical files in selected group. Materials and methods: Between 1996 and 2002, 38 elderly patients aged 80-94 years old (mean age 83.3) with critical leg ischemia were treated with PTA. All patients were at high surgical risk. 31/38 (81.5%) patients had chronic non-healing wounds, and 14/38 (37%) had multi-level disease of superficial femoral, popliteal and crural arteries. One hundred and two lesions were treated by angioplasty. Immediate angiographic and 1 year clinical results were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The overall procedural success rate was 32/38 (84.2%). There were three major complications (7.9%), but no deaths, and three technical failures, all were of infrapopliteal lesions. After 1 year, 27 patients could be followed, five patients died during the first year of unrelated causes. Twenty-three patients (85.2%), were clinically re-occluded within 1 year, but complete and partial wound healing was achieved in 80% (16/20) and rest pain improvement in 57% (4/7), so that overall limb salvage was 74% (20/27). Conclusions: Elderly patients with multi-level CCLI have a short patency term following angioplasty of 14.8% after 1 year. Nevertheless, this temporary vascular patency enables wound healing or improvement in 74% of these patients, thus such endovascular interventions are recommended in this age group.

  2. Balloon angioplasty of popliteal and crural arteries in elderly with critical chronic limb ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, Eli; Siegel, Yoel; Avrahami, Ram; Bartal, Gabriel; Bachar, Gil N.; Belenky, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Elderly patients with extensive infrainguinal peripheral vascular disease and critical chronic limb ischemia (CCLI) are poor surgical candidates. Our purpose was to evaluate angiographic and clinical results of popliteal, infrapopliteal, and multi-level disease percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in such patients. Design: Retrospective study of angiographic and clinical files in selected group. Materials and methods: Between 1996 and 2002, 38 elderly patients aged 80-94 years old (mean age 83.3) with critical leg ischemia were treated with PTA. All patients were at high surgical risk. 31/38 (81.5%) patients had chronic non-healing wounds, and 14/38 (37%) had multi-level disease of superficial femoral, popliteal and crural arteries. One hundred and two lesions were treated by angioplasty. Immediate angiographic and 1 year clinical results were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The overall procedural success rate was 32/38 (84.2%). There were three major complications (7.9%), but no deaths, and three technical failures, all were of infrapopliteal lesions. After 1 year, 27 patients could be followed, five patients died during the first year of unrelated causes. Twenty-three patients (85.2%), were clinically re-occluded within 1 year, but complete and partial wound healing was achieved in 80% (16/20) and rest pain improvement in 57% (4/7), so that overall limb salvage was 74% (20/27). Conclusions: Elderly patients with multi-level CCLI have a short patency term following angioplasty of 14.8% after 1 year. Nevertheless, this temporary vascular patency enables wound healing or improvement in 74% of these patients, thus such endovascular interventions are recommended in this age group

  3. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty combining intraarterial drug perfusion for the treatment of chronic lower limb ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuan; He Chunshui; Liao Huaqiang; Zeng Wei; Zhang Hongwei; Liu Yang; Mu Yan; Liao Huaqiang; Guan Yongsong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of balloon angioplasty in combination with intraarterial perfusion of vasoactive drugs in the treatment of chronic lower limb ischemia. Methods: A total of 21 patients were treated with percutaneous transfemoral or transaxillary approach of balloon dilatation of the occlusive arterial segments, and then followed by perfusion of urokinase, Lipo prostaglandin E 1 and ginkgo leaf injection, respectively, into the responsible arteries via the catheter. Postoperatively, some of the patients with tibioperoneal arteries occlusion were perfused with the same drugs into their diseased arterial segments, one time per day altogether 5-7 times, through the ipsilateral femoral arterial sheath reserved temporarily, and then followed by observation for improvement of ischemia, superficial ulceration and gangrenous change. Results: Of the 21 patients, 20 were successfully treated with percutaneous transluminal balloon dilation and arterial perfusion with a technical successful rate of 95.2% (20/21). Five of the total 20 were additionally treated with the same drugs perfusion 5-7 days through the retained sheath, showing well patency. No serious complications occurred and ischemic symptoms of limbs improved, such as rest pain, claudication and dermo temperature. During 2-7 months follow-up, healing of skin ulcer occurred in 4 patients and breakoff of necrotic digits in 2 with the surface wound healed. Necrotic toes in all patients were dehydrated with stopping of necrosis and without any amputation. Conclusions: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty combining intraarterial drug perfusion is safe and effective for promoting blood circulation with healing of ulceration and ceasing the development of lesions; with furthermore of maintaining the arterial patency through the retained vascular sheath for sustaining the drug plerfusion. (authors)

  4. Preventable Complications Driving Rising Costs in Management of Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Anahita; Desai, Sapan S; Patel, Bhavin; Seabrook, Gary R; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian; Rossi, Peter J; Malinowski, Michael; Lee, Cheong J

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify factors that drive increasing health-care costs associated with the management of critical limb ischemia in elective inpatients. Patients with a primary diagnosis code of critical limb ischemia (CLI) were identified from the 2001-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Demographics, CLI management, comorbidities, complications (bleeding, surgical site infection [SSI]), length of stay, and median in-hospital costs were reviewed. Statistical analysis was completed using Students' t-test and Mann-Kendall trend analysis. Costs are reported in 2011 US dollars corrected using the consumer price index. From 2001 to 2011, there were a total of 451,823 patients who underwent open elective revascularization as inpatients for CLI. Costs to treat CLI increased by 63% ($12,560 in 2001 to $20,517 in 2011, P cost of care. From 2001 to 2011, the number of patient comorbidities (7.56-12.40) and percentage of endovascular cases (13.4% to 27.4%) increased, accounting for a 6% annual increase in total cost despite decreased median length of stay (6 to 5 days). Patients who developed SSI had total costs 83% greater than patients without SSIs ($30,949 vs. $16,939; P costs 41% greater than nonbleeding patients ($23,779 vs. $16,821, P cost of CLI treatment is increasing and driven by rising endovascular use, SSI, and bleeding in the in-patient population. Further efforts to reduce complications in this patient population may contribute to a reduction in health care-associated costs of treating CLI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional Imaging of the Foot with Perfusion Angiography in Critical Limb Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl [AMC, Dept of Radiology (Netherlands); Koelemay, Mark J. W., E-mail: m.j.koelemaij@amc.uva.nl [AMC, Dept of Vascular Surgery (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A., E-mail: h.a.marquering@amc.uva.nl; Bavel, Ed T. van, E-mail: e.vanbavel@amc.uva.n [AMC, Dept of Biomedical Engineering and Physics (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTo report on the first clinical experience with perfusion angiography (PA) of the foot in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia.Materials and MethodsPA is a post-processing software algorithm and no extra digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has to be performed for this analysis. The data used to test the feasibility of PA were obtained from a consecutive group of 89 patients with CLI who were treated with standard below the knee angioplasty and 12 separate patients who were not suitable for endovascular revascularization.ResultsMotion artifacts in the dataset of the DSA made post-procedural analysis impossible in 10 % intervention. In the majority of patients (59/68) PA showed an increase in volume flow in the foot after successful angioplasty of the crural vessels. However, in 9/68 patients no increase was seen after successful angioplasty. With the use of a local administered competitive α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, it is also possible to test and quantify the capillary resistance index which is a parameter for the remaining functionality of the microcirculation in CLI patients.ConclusionPA might be used as a new endpoint for lower limb revascularization and can also be used to test the functionality the microcirculation to identify sub-types of patients with CLI. Clinical evaluation and standardization of PA is mandatory before introduction in daily practice.

  6. Silent ischemia in patients after the acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarzija, M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and importance of silent ischemia in patients (pts) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as well as to establish diagnostic and prognostic values of exercise stress test (EST), Holter (H) monitoring and thallium-201 (Tl) scintigraphy. All the tests were performed 2-4 months following the AMI. The criterion for diagnostic myocardial ischemia on EST and H is 1 mm or more of horizontal or down-sloping ST depression. Additional criteria for Holter imply that the ischemic episode should last one minute and be separated from other episodes by at least one minute. Planar thallium images were performed 5-10 minutes after the stress test; the delayed images were obtained after 3-6 hours. Visual and quantitative methods were employed in the analysis of Tl-scintigraphy. Scintigraphy was considered positive if exercise-induced perfusion defects showed redistribution. The study included 74 asymptomatic patients after the AMI. The patients were divided into two groups by results of quantitative Tl-scintigraphy: Group I - 44 pts with silent ischemia, Group II - 30 pts without ischemia. In Group I, out of 44 pts, 9 had a positive exercise stress test, 4 showed a painless ST depression on Holter and 7 had both tests positive, whereas 24 pts had only scintigraphy positive. In Group II one patient had positive EST and H. Sensitivity and specificity were determined by results of coronary arteriography performed on 33 pts: EST (Se=40%, Sp=80%), H (Se=21%, Sp=100%) and scintigraphy (Se=93%, Sp=80%). During the follow-up period lasting at least 12 months, in Group I 3 pts died, 1 developed a new myocardial infarction and 15 pts had painful ischemic occurrences. In Group II only 3 pts developed symptoms of angina pectoris. Tl-scintigraphy was the only non-invasive test showing significant correlation with the follow-up outcomes. The diagnostic and prognostic superiority of Tl-scintigraphy justifies its value as an initial

  7. Ghrelin, MicroRNAs, and Critical Limb Ischemia: Hungering for a Novel Treatment Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P. H. Neale

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical limb ischemia (CLI is the most severe manifestation of peripheral artery disease. It is characterized by chronic pain at rest, skin ulcerations, and gangrene tissue loss. CLI is a highly morbid condition, resulting in a severely diminished quality of life and a significant risk of mortality. The primary goal of therapy for CLI is to restore blood flow to the affected limb, which is only possible by surgery, but is inadvisable in up to 50% of patients. This subset of patients who are not candidates for revascularisation are referred to as “no-option” patients and are the focus of investigation for novel therapeutic strategies. Angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and vasculogenesis are the processes whereby new blood vessel networks form from the pre-existing vasculature and primordial cells, respectively. In therapeutic angiogenesis, exogenous stimulants are administered to promote angiogenesis and augment limb perfusion, offering a potential treatment option for “no option” patients. However, to date, very few clinical trials of therapeutic angiogenesis in patients with CLI have reported clinically significant results, and it remains a major challenge. Ghrelin, a 28-amino acid peptide, is emerging as a potential novel therapeutic for CLI. In pre-clinical models, exogenous ghrelin has been shown to induce therapeutic angiogenesis, promote muscle regeneration, and reduce oxidative stress via the modulation of microRNAs (miRs. miRs are endogenous, small, non-coding ribonucleic acids of ~20–22 nucleotides which regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by either translational inhibition or by messenger ribonucleic acid cleavage. This review focuses on the mounting evidence for the use of ghrelin as a novel therapeutic for CLI, and highlights the miRs which orchestrate these physiological events.

  8. Acute Limb Ischemia Masquerading as Stroke: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    unilateral loss of vision, no abnormal sensation and no facial deviation. A few hours later patient noticed a sharp pain ... sensation in both feet and was subsequently put on Neurovite; a cocktail of B vitamins but she is not on any ... place and person. Memory and intellect were preserved. The pupillary reflexes were normal.

  9. [Management of Acute Type A Dissection Complicated with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomonobu; Usui, Akihiko

    2017-07-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia as malperfusion syndrome associated with acute aortic dissection is a difficult situation. The incidence is approximately 3~4% in acute type A dissection. Traditionally, most of these patients underwent immediate simple central aortic repair expecting that mesenteric artery obstruction and intestinal ischemia would be resolved by simple central aortic repair. However, short term mortality has been reported very high in this strategy. With the aid of rapidly progressing imaging techniques and newer endovascular repair techniques, results seem to be improving in recent years. Newer management strategy include aggressive and patient specific revascularization to the mesenteric arteries, delayed central aortic repair, and meticulous intensive care. Diagnosis and management of this condition require high level of expertise. Cardiac surgeons, vascular surgeons, interventional radiologists, gastroenterologists, general surgeons, anesthesiologists, intensivists must corporate to save these patients' lives. Since this is a relatively rare condition, scientific evidence is insufficient to make robust recommendations. Further studies are warranted.

  10. The role of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase in beneficial effects of stem cells in hind limb ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Masoumy

    Full Text Available Ischemia-Reperfusion (IR injury of limb remains a significant clinical problem causing secondary complications and restricting clinical recovery, despite rapid restoration of blood flow and successful surgery. In an attempt to further improve post ischemic tissue repair, we investigated the effect of a local administration of bone marrow derived stem cells (BMDSCs in the presence or absence of immune-regulatory enzyme, IDO, in a murine model. A whole limb warm ischemia-reperfusion model was developed using IDO sufficient (WT and deficient (KO mice with C57/BL6 background. Twenty-four hours after injury, 5 × 105 cells (5×105 cells/200 µL of PBS solution BMDSCs (Sca1 + cells were injected intramuscularly while the control group received just the vehicle buffer (PBS. Forty-eight to seventy-two hours after limb BMDSC injection, recovery status including the ratio of intrinsic paw function between affected and normal paws, general mobility, and inflammatory responses were measured using video micrometery, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry techniques. Additionally, MRI/MRA studies were performed to further study the inflammatory response between groups and to confirm reconstitution of blood flow after ischemia. For the first time, our data, showed that IDO may potentially represent a partial role in triggering the beneficial effects of BMDSCs in faster recovery and protection against structural changes and cellular damage in a hind limb IR injury setting (P = 0.00058.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute stage of cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Sen; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Ihara, Ikuo

    1986-01-01

    The value of the nuclear magnetic resonance image (MRI) was investigated in the acute stage of experimental cerebral ischemia. The MRI system employed was designed for clinical use, and the superconducting magnet was operated at a field strength of 1.5 tesla. Ischemic insult was made by transorbital occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) permanently in 4 cats and temporarily in 2 cats. After MCA occlusion the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured on the affected cortex, and 5 cats with rCBF below 10 ml/100 g/min and one with rCBF over 15 ml/100 g/min were studied. In the permanent occlusion group, MRI was performed every 2 hours from 4 to 12 hours after MCA occlusion and another MRI was carried out 20 min after gadolinium-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) intravenous administration. The earliest changes were found 6 to 8 hours after MCA occlusion on the spin echo image (repetition time = 1.4 sec, echo time = 70 msec) in 3 cats with severe ischemia. It was postulated that the ischemic lesion could be depicted less than 6 hours on more T 2 -weighted images. The increased intensity area was markedly enhanced with Gd-DTPA 12 hours after occlusion. In the recirculation group, the increased intensity area was observed on enhanced MRI in a cat with recirculation as early as one hour after MCA occlusion, although it was not found on the plain MRI. In the other cat with recirculation after 2 hours' occlusion, definite lesion was found in all parameter images without enhancement. The results suggest that changes in cerebral ischemia can be obtained on the MRI earlier than X-ray computed tomography, and that it may be possible to determine the severity of the ischemic brain injury by the MRI findings. (author)

  12. Clinical effectiveness of percutaneous angioplasty for acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia: a six case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yu Min; Jo, Yun Ju; Ahn, Sang Bong; Son, Byoung Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan; Park, Young Sook; Bae, June Ho; Cho, Young Kwon

    2011-04-01

    Intestinal ischemia is divided into three categories, namely, acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI), chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI), and colonic ischemia. AMI can result from arterial or venous thrombi, emboli, and vasoconstriction secondary to low-flow states. It is an urgent condition which can result in high mortality rate. The predominant causative factor of CMI is stenosis or occlusion of the mesenteric arterial circulation, and it is characterized by postprandial abdominal pain and weight loss. Surgery is the treatment of choice for intestinal ischemia. However, it has been recently reported that percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement and/or thrombolysis is an effective therapy in various types of mesenteric ischemia. We report six cases of mesenteric ischemia which were successfully treated by percutaneous angioplasty, and review the literature from South Korea.

  13. Moderate Exercise Allows for shorter Recovery Time in Critical Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lejay

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how moderate exercise might allow for accelerated limb recovery in chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI remains to be determined. Chronic CLI was surgically induced in mice, and the effect of moderate exercise (training five times per week over a 3-week period was investigated. Tissue damages and functional scores were assessed on the 4th, 6th, 10th, 20th, and 30th day after surgery. Mice were sacrificed 48 h after the last exercise session in order to assess muscle structure, mitochondrial respiration, calcium retention capacity, oxidative stress and transcript levels of genes encoding proteins controlling mitochondrial functions (PGC1α, PGC1β, NRF1 and anti-oxidant defenses markers (SOD1, SOD2, catalase. CLI resulted in tissue damages and impaired functional scores. Mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity were decreased in the ischemic limb of the non-exercised group (Vmax = 7.11 ± 1.14 vs. 9.86 ± 0.86 mmol 02/min/g dw, p < 0.001; CRC = 7.01 ± 0.97 vs. 11.96 ± 0.92 microM/mg dw, p < 0.001, respectively. Moderate exercise reduced tissue damages, improved functional scores, and restored mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity in the ischemic limb (Vmax = 9.75 ± 1.00 vs. 9.82 ± 0.68 mmol 02/min/g dw; CRC = 11.36 ± 1.33 vs. 12.01 ± 1.24 microM/mg dw, respectively. Exercise also enhanced the transcript levels of PGC1α, PGC1β, NRF1, as well as SOD1, SOD2, and catalase. Moderate exercise restores mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity, and it has beneficial functional effects in chronic CLI, likely by stimulating reactive oxygen species-induced biogenesis and anti-oxidant defenses. These data support further development of exercise therapy even in advanced peripheral arterial disease.

  14. Gender-related differences in critical limb ischemia due to peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Prado dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mortality from cardiovascular disease has declined among men and increased among North American women. Recent studies have revealed differences between genders in the epidemiology of atherosclerotic disease. OBJECTIVE: To study possible differences between male and female patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI according to risk factors of atherosclerosis and clinical characteristics of lower limbs with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD. METHODS: The study included 171 male and female patients treated for CLI due to infrainguinal PAOD and compared clinical characteristics (Rutherford category and PAOD territory, risk factors for atherosclerosis (diabetes, age, smoking and hypertension and number of opacified arteries on digital angiograms of the leg. The EPI-INFO software was used for statistical analysis, and the level of significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: Mean age was 70 years, and 88 patients were men (52%. For most patients (both genders, Rutherford category was 5 (82 % of men and 70% of women; p=0.16. The group of women had higher mean age (73 vs. 67 years; p=0.0002 and greater prevalence of diabetes (66% vs. 45%; p=0.003 and hypertension (90% vs. 56%; p=0.0000001. Among men, the prevalence of smoking was higher (76% vs. 53%; p=0.0008. The analysis of digital angiograms revealed that opacification of only one artery in the leg was found for 74% of women (vs. 50% of men. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis and the characteristics of PAOD are different between male and female patients with CLI.

  15. The Olson method for detection of acute myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Thomas; Olson, Charles W; Swenne, Cees A; Man, Sumche; Pahlm, Olle

    An automated ECG-based method may provide diagnostic support in the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The Olson method has previously proved to accurately identify the culprit artery in patients with acute coronary occlusion. The Olson method was applied to 360 patients without acute myocardial ischemia and 52 patients with acute coronary occlusion. This study establishes the normal variation of the Olson wall scores in patients without acute myocardial ischemia, which provides the basis for implementation of the Olson method for triage of patients with acute coronary syndrome. All patients with acute occlusion had Olson wall scores above the upper limit of normal. The Olson method can be used for ischemia detection with very high sensitivity. Future studies are needed to explore specificity in patients with non-ischemic ST elevation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Atherectomy offers no benefits over balloon angioplasty in tibial interventions for critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Kevin E; Ahanchi, Sadaf S; Maurer, Christian A; Kim, Jung H; Chipman, Candice R; Panneton, Jean M

    2013-10-01

    Endovascular adjuncts, like atherectomy, were developed to improve outcomes of endovascular arterial interventions. The true impact of atherectomy on endovascular outcomes remains to be determined, and little data exist on the influence of atherectomy on tibial interventions. Our study compares early and late outcomes of tibial intervention with angioplasty vs atherectomy-assisted interventions. We completed a retrospective review of all tibial interventions between 2008 and 2010. Outcomes were analyzed using single and multivariate analysis, Cox regression, and Kaplan-Meier curves. Primary outcomes were primary, primary assisted, and secondary patency rates, as well as limb salvage and survival rates. Over a 2-year period, 480 tibial interventions were completed for 421 patients. Eighty-seven percent (n = 418) of interventions were performed for critical limb ischemia (CLI) and 13% (n = 62) for claudication. The CLI cohort of 418 interventions was analyzed. These patients had a mean age of 71 years with a mean follow-up time of 16 ± 15 months (range, 0-59 months). Of the 418 interventions, 339 underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA): 333 PTA alone, six PTA + stent. The remaining 79 interventions received atherectomy: 33 laser, 13 directional, and 33 orbital either alone or in conjunction with PTA (11 atherectomy only, 68 atherectomy + PTA). The groups did not differ significantly in terms of demographics, risk factors, or technical success. The atherectomy group had more TASC B lesions (54% vs 38%; P = .013), while the PTA-alone group had more TASC D lesions (25% vs 13%; P = .004). TASC A and C lesions did not differ significantly between the groups. No significant differences existed with respect to the early (30-day) outcomes of loss of patency (11% vs 13%; P = .699), complications (8% vs 13%; P = .292), or major amputation (17% vs 13%; P = .344) in the PTA-alone group vs the atherectomy-assisted group. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed no difference

  17. Limb myokymia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, J.W.; Allen, A.A.; Bastron, J.A.; Daube, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with myokymic discharges localized to limb muscles on needle electromyography had various neurologic lesions, both acute and chronic. Of the 38 patients, 27 had had previous radiation therapy and the clinical diagnosis of radiation-induced plexopathy, myelopathy, or both. For the remaining 11 patients, the diagnoses included multiple sclerosis, inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy, ischemic neuropathy, inflammatory myopathy, and chronic disorders of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The clinical presentations and results of local ischemia, peripheral nerve block, and percutaneous stimulation suggest that most limb myokymic discharges arise focally at the site of a chronic peripheral nerve lesion

  18. Results of Surgical Treatment of Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia and Stenotic Lesions of the Brachiocephalic Arteries

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    Alexei L. Charyshkin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the results of the surgical treatment for patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI and stenotic lesions of the brachiocephalic arteries. Methods and Results: We examined 72 patients (68/87.2% men and 4/7.3% women aged from 46 to 78 years (mean age, 62.2±4.3 years with CLI and stenotic lesions of the brachiocephalic arteries. Conservative treatment was performed in 17(23.6% patients and surgical treatment in 55(76.4%. It has been carried out 73 surgical operations: femoral popliteal bypass (5/6.8%, lumbar sympathectomy (4/5.5%, thrombectomy of occluded aortofemoral graft (2/2.7%, limb amputation (4/5.5%, iliofemoral bypass (4/5.5%, aortofemoral bifurcation bypass (10/13.1%, endovascular surgery (1/1.6%, limb amputation at thigh level - 4(5.5%, thrombectomy of occluded distal arteries (4/5.5%, femoro-femoral cross-over bypass (1/1.6%, resection of popliteal artery aneurysm and prosthesis of the popliteal artery (1/1.6%, semi-closed loop endarterectomy of occluded arteries of the lower limbs (8/10.9%, carotid endarterectomy (23/31.5%, and carotid-subclavian bypass (2/2.7%. After the surgical intervention, we observed the disappearance or reduction of pain, restoration of sensitivity and motor activity, and healing of trophic ulcers in 75% of patients. In the late postoperative period, we detected the progression of limb ischemia in 4(5.5% patients; in connection with that, we performed limb amputation at thigh level. Ischemic stroke with a lethal outcome developed in one patient (1.4%. Conclusion: In patients with multifocal atherosclerosis, multilevel reconstructive surgical interventions must be performed in stages, due to the high operational risk, and risk of complications, secondary amputations and lethality in the postoperative period.

  19. Assessment and diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, B.; Gieszczyk-Paraniak, B.; Gibinska, J.; Konopka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Acute bowel ischemia (ABT) is a life-threatening condition which most often effects elderly patients. It requires an intensive treatment and quick diagnosis. Unfortunately ABI manifested not only by specific but also various nonspecific clinical or laboratory finding. The radiological symptoms of the bowel ischemia are also differentiated and often nonspecific while the specific findings are rather uncommon.That is why the knowledge of the bowel ischemia pathogenesis and possible CT findings is so important for the correct diagnosis. The our paper, we present the radiological findings of the acute bowel ischemia based on the analysis of the patients' abdominal -CT examination. The purpose of our study is to MDCT in patients with acute bowel ischemia. The material of this study consists of four computer tomography examinations - three of those an angio-CT and one abdominal - in patients with acute abdomen symptoms. The result revealed the mesenteric thrombosis in two cases, and mesenteric artery stenosis in one case. In one case, the thrombus was present in the abdominal aorta. In conclusion, we claim that the MDCT should be the modality of choice for the diagnosis of the acute bowel ischemia. (author)

  20. Outcomes of Infrainguinal Revascularizations with Endovascular First Strategy in Critical Limb Ischemia

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    Jens, Sjoerd, E-mail: s.jens@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Conijn, Anne P., E-mail: a.p.conijn@amc.uva.nl; Frans, Franceline A., E-mail: f.a.frans@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Departments of Radiology and Surgery (Netherlands); Nieuwenhuis, Marieke B. B., E-mail: m.b.nieuwenhuis@amc.uva.nl; Met, Rosemarie, E-mail: rosemariemet@hotmail.com [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Koelemay, Mark J. W., E-mail: m.j.koelemaij@amc.uva.nl; Legemate, Dink A., E-mail: d.a.legemate@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Bipat, Shandra, E-mail: s.bipat@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to study the outcome of infrainguinal revascularization in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) in an institution with a preference towards endovascular intervention first in patients with poor condition, unfavourable anatomy for surgery, no venous material for bypass, and old age.MethodsA prospective, observational cohort study was conducted between May 2007 and May 2010 in patients presenting with CLI. At baseline, the optimal treatment was selected, i.e., endovascular or surgical treatment. In case of uncertainty about the preferred treatment, a multidisciplinary team (MDT) was consulted. Primary endpoints were quality of life and functional status 6 and 12 months after initial intervention, assessed by the VascuQol and AMC Linear Disability Score questionnaires, respectively.ResultsIn total, 113 patients were included; 86 had an endovascular intervention and 27 had surgery. During follow-up, 41 % underwent an additional ipsilateral revascularisation procedure. For the total population, and endovascular and surgery subgroups, the VascuQol sum scores improved after 6 and 12 months (p < 0.01 for all outcomes) compared with baseline. The functional status improved (p = 0.043) after 12 months compared with baseline for the total population. Functional status of the surgery subgroup improved significantly after 6 (p = 0.031) and 12 (p = 0.044) months, but not that of the endovascular subgroup.ConclusionsOverall, the strategy of performing endovascular treatment first in patients with poor condition, unfavourable anatomy for surgery, no venous material for bypass, and old age has comparable or even slightly better results compared with the BASIL trial and other cohort studies. All vascular groups should discuss whether their treatment strategy should be directed at treating CLI patients preferably endovascular first and consider implementing an MDT to optimize patient outcomes.

  1. Compared to Intermittant Claudication Critical Limb Ischemia Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Cytokines.

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    Juho Jalkanen

    Full Text Available Critical limb ischemia (CLI is the advanced stage of peripheral artery disease (PAD and associated with an extremely poor clinical outcome. In order to understand the possible role of circulating cytokines and poor outcome associated with CLI we compared the circulating cytokine profile of patients with CLI against patients with intermittent claudication (IC. The levels of 48 circulating cytokines were examined in 226 consecutive patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD admitted for elective, non-urgent, invasive treatment of IC or CLI. The PAD patient cohort was evenly distributed between subjects with IC (46.5% and CLI (53.5%. As accustomed in PAD, CLI was associated with higher age, chronic kidney disease and diabetes when compared to IC (P < 0.01 for all. In multivariable linear regression modeling taking into account the baseline differences between IC and CLI groups CLI was independently associated with elevated levels of a large number of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2Rα, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, G-CSF (P < 0.01 for all, and IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, bFGF, VEGF, SCGF-β (P < 0.05 for all. The current findings indicate that CLI is associated with a circulating cytokine profile, which resembles serious medical conditions such as severe pancreatitis, sepsis, or even cancer. Compared to IC, CLI is a systemic inflammatory condition, which may explain the extremely poor outcome associated with it.

  2. Cost-effectiveness in the contemporary management of critical limb ischemia with tissue loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshes, Neal R; Chambers, James D; Cohen, Joshua; Belkin, Michael

    2012-10-01

    The care of patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) and tissue loss is notoriously challenging and expensive. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of various management strategies to identify those that would optimize value to patients. A probabilistic Markov model was used to create a detailed simulation of patient-oriented outcomes, including clinical events, wound healing, functional outcomes, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) after various management strategies in a CLI patient cohort during a 10-year period. Direct and indirect cost estimates for these strategies were obtained using transition cost-accounting methodology. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), in 2009 U.S. dollars per QALYs, were calculated compared with the most conservative management strategy of local wound care with amputation as needed. With an ICER of $47,735/QALY, an initial surgical bypass with subsequent endovascular revision(s) as needed was the most cost-effective alternative to local wound care alone. Endovascular-first management strategies achieved comparable clinical outcomes but at higher cost (ICERs ≥$101,702/QALY); however, endovascular management did become cost-effective when the initial foot wound closure rate was >37% or when procedural costs were decreased by >42%. Primary amputation was dominated (less effectiveness and more costly than wound care alone). Contemporary clinical effectiveness and cost estimates show an initial surgical bypass is the most cost-effective alternative to local wound care alone for CLI with tissue loss and can be supported even in a cost-averse health care environment. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  3. [Application of Ischemia Modified Albumin for Acute Ischemic Heart Disease in Forensic Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Zhu, Z L; Zhu, N; Yu, H; Yue, Q; Wang, X L; Feng, C M; Wang, C L; Zhang, G H

    2017-10-01

    To explore the application value and forensic significance of ischemia modified albumin (IMA) in pericardial fluid to diagnose sudden cardiac death. IMA level in pericardial fluid was detected in acute ischemic heart disease group ( n =36), acute myocardial infarction group ( n =6), cardiomyopathy group ( n =4) and control group ( n =15) by albumin cobalt binding method. The levels of IMA were compared among these groups. The best cut-off IMA value was estimated and the sensitivity and specificity of acute myocardial ischemia group was distinguished from control group by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The IMA level in acute ischemic heart disease group was significantly higher than that of control group ( P 0.05). The cut-off value for the identification of acute myocardial ischemia which obtained by ROC analysis was 40.65 U/mL. And the sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing acute ischemia cardiac disease was 60.0% and 80.5%, respectively. The IMA value in pericardial fluid can be a reference marker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia, which also can provide objective basis for the forensic identification of sudden cardiac death. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  4. Role of ultrasound-guided continuous brachial plexus block in the management of neonatal ischemia in upper limb

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    Vrushali C Ponde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal upper limb ischemia due to accidental arterial damage remains a major concern, which can lead to devastating complications if untreated. The primary objective of this case report is to emphasize the role of continuous infraclavicular brachial plexus block, the issues related with block performance in an ischemic hand, and the importance of ultrasound guidance in this particular case scenario. A 1.1 kg infant suffered from distal forearm ischemia due to accidental arterial damage, which was treated with brachial plexus block. An ultrasound-guided single shot block with 0.5 mL/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine was followed by ultrasound-guided catheter placement in the target area. A continuous infusion of 0.03% of bupivacaine at the rate of 0.5 mL/kg/hr (approx. 0.15 mg/kg/h of bupivacaine was administered for 36 h. This treatment resulted in reversal of ischemia. Permanent ischemic damage was eventually confined to the tips of 4 fingers. We conclude that ultrasound-guided continuous infraclavicular block has a therapeutic role to play in the treatment of hand ischemia due to arterial damage and subsequent arterial spasm in neonates with added benefits.

  5. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine prevents oxidative stress and renal injury in hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, M A; Yalcin, S; Aydogan, H; Büyükfirat, E; Kücük, A; Kocarslan, S; Yüce, H H; Taskın, A; Aksoy, N

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin and dexmedetomidine have been shown to have protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury on various organs. However, their protective effects on kidney tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury remain unclear. We aimed to determine whether curcumin or dexmedetomidine prevents renal tissue from injury that was induced by hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Fifty rats were divided into five groups: sham, control, curcumin (CUR) group (200 mg/kg curcumin, n = 10), dexmedetomidine (DEX) group (25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, n = 10), and curcumin-dexmedetomidine (CUR-DEX) group (200 mg/kg curcumin and 25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine). Curcumin and dexmedetomidine were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the end of 4 h ischemia, just 5 min before reperfusion. The extremity re-perfused for 2 h and then blood samples were taken and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured, and renal tissue samples were histopathologically examined. The TAC activity levels in blood samples were significantly lower in the control than the other groups (p OSI were found to be significantly increased in the control group compared to others groups (p model.

  6. Early results from an angiosome-directed open surgical technique for venous arterialization in patients with critical lower limb ischemia

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    Kim Houlind

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with critical lower limb ischemia without patent pedal arteries cannot be treated by the conventional arterial reconstruction. Venous arterialization has been suggested to improve limb salvage in this subgroup of patients but has not gained wide acceptance. We report our early experience after implementing deep and superficial venous arterialization of the lower limb. Materials and methods: Ten patients with critical ischemia and without crural or pedal arteries available for conventional bypass surgery or angioplasty were treated with distal venous arterialization. Inflow was from the most distal unobstructed segment. Run-off was the dorsal pedal venous arch (n=5, the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the posterior tibial artery (n=3, or the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the common plantar artery (n=2 depending on the location of the ischemic lesion. Venous valves were destroyed using antegrade valvulotomes, guide wires, knob needles, or retrograde valvulotomes via an extra incision. Results: Seven of the operated limbs were amputated after 23 (1–256 days (median [range]. The main reasons for amputation were lack of healing of either the original wound, of incisional wounds on the foot, or persisting pain at rest. In three cases, the bypass was open at the time of amputation. Two patients experienced complete wound healing after 231 and 342 days, respectively. By the end of follow-up, the last patient was ambulating with slow wound healing but without pain 309 days after surgery. Conclusion: Venous arterialization may be used as a treatment of otherwise unsalveable limbs. The success rate is, however, limited. Technical optimization of the technique is warranted.

  7. Skin Perfusion Pressure Measurement to Assess Improvement in Peripheral Circulation after Arterial Reconstruction for Critical Limb Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshiko; Onozuka, Atsuko; Obitsu, Yukio; Komai, Hiroyoshi; Koizumi, Nobusato; Saiki, Naozumi; Shigematsu, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To assess the utility of skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measurement in evaluating the outcome of vascular constructions for critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients. Methods: We retrospectively studied 19 lower limbs in 18 patients who underwent arterial reconstruction for CLI from whom SPP measurements had been obtained pre- and postoperatively between 2008 and 2010. Six limbs whose ulcers had healed postoperatively were classified into group H, 7 limbs whose ulcers had not healed into group U, and 6 limbs without ulcers into group N. SPP values were compared among these groups. Results: The preoperative SPP values in all groups were <30 mmHg, without significant differences among the groups. The SPP values in groups H and N significantly improved after operation, and those in group U were significantly lower than those in the other groups. Conclusions: SPP measurement before and after arterial reconstruction is useful to assess improvement in tissue circulation and to predict the likelihood of wound healing. An SPP value ≥30 mmHg was considered necessary for wound healing, supporting the findings of the few reports in the literature on the usefulness of SPP for assessing vascular reconstruction effects on ulcer wound healing. PMID:23555459

  8. The Use of Below-Knee Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Arterial Occlusive Disease Causing Chronic Critical Limb Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefberg, Ann-Marie; Loerelius, Lars-Erik; Karacagil, Sadettin; Westman, Bo; Almgren, Bo; Berqgvist, David

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy, safety and long-term results of crural artery percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in limbs with chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI). Methods: Patients undergoing crural artery PTA due to CLI were followed at regular clinic visits with ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) measurements. PTA of the crural arteries was attempted either alone (n= 39) or in combination with PTA of the superficial and/or popliteal artery (n= 55) in 86 limbs (82 patients and 94 procedures) presenting with CLI. The ages of patients ranged from 37 to 94 years (mean 72 years). The indications for PTA were rest pain in 10 and ulcer/gangrene in 84 limbs.Results: A technically successful PTA with at least one crural level was achieved in 88% of cases (n= 83). Cumulative primary clinical success rates at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months were 55%, 51%, 36%, and 36%, respectively. Cumulative secondary clinical success and limb salvage rates at 36 months were 44% and 72%, respectively. Conclusion: PTA of the crural arteries might be considered the primary choice of treatment in patients with CLI and distal lesions with localized stenosis or segmental short occlusions

  9. Limb remote-preconditioning protects against focal ischemia in rats and contradicts the dogma of therapeutic time windows for preconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chuancheng; Gao, Xuwen; Steinberg, Gary K.; Zhao, Heng

    2009-01-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning is an emerging concept for stroke treatment, but its protection against focal stroke has not been established. We tested whether remote preconditioning, performed in the ipsilateral hind limb, protects against focal stroke and explored its protective parameters. Stroke was generated by a permanent occlusion of the left distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) combined with a 30 minute occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA) in male rats. Limb preconditioning was generated by 5 or 15 minute occlusion followed with the same period of reperfusion of the left hind femoral artery, and repeated for 2 or 3 cycles. Infarct was measured 2 days later. The results showed that rapid preconditioning with 3 cycles of 15 minutes performed immediately before stroke reduced infarct size from 47.7±7.6% of control ischemia to 9.8±8.6%; at 2 cycles of 15 minutes, infarct was reduced to 24.7±7.3%; at 2 cycles of 5 minutes, infarct was not reduced. Delayed preconditioning with 3 cycles of 15 minutes conducted 2 days before stroke also reduced infarct to 23.0 ±10.9%, but with 2 cycles of 15 minutes it offered no protection. The protective effects at these two therapeutic time windows of remote preconditioning are consistent with those of conventional preconditioning, in which the preconditioning ischemia is induced in the brain itself. Unexpectedly, intermediate preconditioning with 3 cycles of 15 minutes performed 12 hours before stroke also reduced infarct to 24.7±4.7%, which contradicts the current dogma for therapeutic time windows for the conventional preconditioning that has no protection at this time point. In conclusion, remote preconditioning performed in one limb protected against ischemic damage after focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:18201834

  10. Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidant Maintains Blood Flow, Mitochondrial Function, and Redox Balance in Old Mice Following Prolonged Limb Ischemia

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    Shunsuke Miura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a major factor in the decline of limb blood flow with ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS with regard to limb perfusion recovery in aging during ischemia. We performed femoral artery ligation in young and old mice with or without treatment with a scavenger of mitochondrial superoxide, MitoTEMPO (180 μg/kg/day, from pre-operative day 7 to post-operative day (POD 21 infusion using an implanted mini-pump. The recoveries of cutaneous blood flow in the ischemic hind limb were lower in old mice than in young mice but were improved in MitoTEMPO-treated old mice. Mitochondrial DNA damage appeared in ischemic aged muscles but was eliminated by MitoTEMPO treatment. For POD 2, MitoTEMPO treatment suppressed the expression of p53 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 and upregulated the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in ischemic aged skeletal muscles. For POD 21, MitoTEMPO treatment preserved the expression of PGC-1α in ischemic aged skeletal muscle. The ischemic soleus of old mice showed a lower mitochondrial respiratory control ratio in POD 21 compared to young mice, which was recovered in MitoTEMPO-treated old mice. Scavenging of mitochondrial superoxide attenuated mitochondrial DNA damage and preserved the mitochondrial respiration, in addition to suppression of the expression of p53 and preservation of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α in ischemic skeletal muscles with aging. Resolution of excessive mitochondrial superoxide could be an effective therapy to recover blood flow of skeletal muscle during ischemia in senescence.

  11. Danhong Promotes Angiogenesis in Diabetic Mice after Critical Limb Ischemia by Activation of CSE-H2S-VEGF Axis

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    Feng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate effect and mechanism of Danhong injection (DH on angiogenesis in the diabetic hind limb ischemia mouse model. Thirty diabetic hind limb ischemic model mice and ten normal mice, established by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ or PBS and ligation/excision of femoral artery, and then twenty diabetic hind limb ischemic model mice of all were evenly randomized to saline (control, n=10 and DH i.p. injection (2 mL/kg weight for 7 days, n=10 groups. Limb perfusion recovery and femoral blood hydrogen sulfide (H2S and vessel regeneration and lower limb vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE expression were evaluated during intervention and after euthanasia, respectively. DH i.p. increased ischemic limb perfusion and promoted collateral circulation generation without decreasing blood glucose level. Increased local CSE-H2S-VEGF expression contributed to beneficial effects of DH injection. In conclusion, activation of local CSE-H2S-VEGF axis might participate in proangiogenesis effects of DH injection in diabetic hind limb ischemia model mice, suggesting a potential therapy for diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia.

  12. Abdominal Aortic Dissection with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia in a Patient with Marfan Syndrome

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    Chii-Shyan Lay

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder of connective tissue, with various complications manifested primarily in the cardiovascular system. It potentially leads to aortic dissection and rupture, these being the major causes of death. We report a patient who complained of acute abdominal pain, which presented as acute mesenteric ischemia combined with abdominal aortic dissection. Echocardiography showed enlargement of the aortic root and mitral valve prolapse. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed acute mesenteric ischemia due to abdominal aortic dissection. Finally, the patient underwent surgery of aortic root replacement and had a successful outcome. Therefore, we suggest that for optimal risk assessment and monitoring of patients with Marfan syndrome, both aortic stiffness and the diameter of the superior mesenteric vein compared with that of the superior mesenteric artery are useful screening methods to detect acute mesenteric ischemia secondary to abdominal aortic dissection. Early diagnosis and early treatment can decrease the high mortality rate of patients with Marfan syndrome.

  13. Superiority of Transcutaneous Oxygen Tension Measurements in Predicting Limb Salvage After Below-the-Knee Angioplasty: A Prospective Trial in Diabetic Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redlich, Ulf; Xiong, Yan Y.; Pech, Maciej; Tautenhahn, Jörg; Halloul, Zuhir; Lobmann, Ralf; Adolf, Daniela; Ricke, Jens; Dudeck, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess postprocedural angiograms, the ankle–brachial index (ABI), and transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO 2 ) to predict outcome after infrageniculate angioplasty (PTA) in diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) scheduled for amputation. Materials and Methods: PTA was performed in 28 diabetic patients with CLI confined to infrapopliteal vessels. We recorded patency of crural vessels, including the vascular supply of the foot as well as the ABI and TcPO 2 of the foot. Results: Technical success rate was 92.9% (n = 26), and limb-salvage rate at 12 months was 60.7% (n = 17). The number of patent straight vessels above and below the level of the malleoli increased significantly in patients avoiding amputation. Amputation was unnecessary in 88.2% (n = 15) patients when patency of at least one tibial artery was achieved. In 72.7% (n = 8) of patients, patency of the peroneal artery alone was not sufficient for limb salvage. ABI was of no predictive value for limb salvage. TcPO 2 values increased significantly only in patients not requiring amputation (P = 0.015). In patients with only one tibial artery supplying the foot or only a patent peroneal artery in postprocedural angiograms, TcPO 2 was capable of reliably predicting the outcome. Conclusion: Below-the-knee PTA as an isolated part of therapy was effective to prevent major amputation in more than a half of diabetic patients with CLI. TcPO 2 was a valid predictor for limb salvage, even when angiographic outcome criteria failed.

  14. Effect of limb ischemic preconditioning on myocardial apoptosis-related proteins in ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAO, JIANZHI; ZHAO, LINJING; WANG, YONGLING; TENG, QINGLEI; LIANG, LIDONG; ZHANG, JINYING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of limb ischemic preconditioning (LIPC) on myocardial apoptosis in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI), as well as the regulation of caspase-3 and the B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) gene in LIPC. A total of 50 rats were divided randomly into 5 groups (n=10). Four rats in each group were drawn out for detection of apoptosis. The sham, MIRI and LIPC groups underwent surgery without additional treatment. In the LY294002 group, LY294002 preconditioning was administered 15 min before reperfusion. In the LY294002+LIPC group, following LIPC, LY294002 was administered 15 min before reperfusion. The relative expression of myocardial Bcl-2 and caspase-3 mRNA and the apoptotic index for each group were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL), respectively. The ultrastructure of the cardiac muscle tissues was observed by election microscopy. Compared with the sham group, the expression of caspase-3 mRNA in the MIRI group significantly increased (P<0.05) and the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA clearly decreased. Compared with the MIRI group, LIPC reduced the expression of caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the LY294002+LIPC group and the MIRI group. Compared with the sham group, the apoptotic index of myocardial cells in the MIRI group significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the MIRI group, LIPC significantly decreased the apoptotic index of myocardial cells (P<0.05) and LY294002 increased the apoptotic index of myocardial cells. Compared with the LIPC group, LY294002+LIPC significantly increased the apoptotic index of myocardial cells (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the LY294002+LIPC and MIRI groups. In conclusion, LIPC increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased caspase-3 mRNA and

  15. [Neurolitic block of the lumbar sympathetic chain improves chronic pain in a patient with critical lower limb ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto Junior, Elton Pereira de Sá; Nascimento, Jedson Dos Santos; de Castro, Anita Perpetua Carvalho Rocha

    Sympathectomy is one of the therapies used in the treatment of chronic obstructive arterial disease (COAD). Although not considered as first-line strategy, it should be considered in the management of pain difficult to control. This clinical case describes the evolution of a patient with inoperable COAD who responded properly to the lumbar sympathetic block. A female patient, afro-descendant, 69 years old, ASA II, admitted to the algology service due to refractory ischemic pain in the lower limbs. The patient had undergone several surgical procedures and conservative treatments without success. Vascular surgery considered the case as out of therapeutic possibility, unless limb amputation. At that time, sympathectomy was indicated. After admission to the operating room, the patient was monitored, positioned and sedated. The blockade was performed with the aid of radioscopy, bilaterally, at L2-L3-L4 right and L3 left levels. On the right side, at each level cited, 3mL of absolute alcohol with 0.25% bupivacaine were injected without vasoconstrictor, and on the left side only local anesthetic. The procedure was performed uneventfully. The patient was discharged with complete remission of the pain. Neurolitic block of the lumbar sympathetic chain is an effective and safe treatment option for pain control in patients with critical limb ischemia patients in whom the only possible intervention would be limb amputation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Practical importance and modern methods of the evaluation of skin microcirculation during chronic lower limb ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease and/or diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluz, J; Małecki, R; Adamiec, R

    2013-02-01

    Skin ischemia is one of the crucial phenomena during chronic lower limb ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease and/or diabetes. However, risk stratification for development of ischemic ulceration and/or skin necrosis in those patients is not easy, mostly due to the complex structure of the dermal vascular bed and limited possibilities for studying the skin capillaries in everyday practice. All definitions of critical limb ischemia thus far have considered mostly the clinical symptoms and the degree of macrocirculatory impairment. Despite the fact that the reduction of absolute dermal perfusion and improper distribution of perfusion in ischemic feet, primarily diminished perfusion or even a complete loss of blood flow in nutritional capillaries, rather than arterial occlusion per se, is the eventual reason for critical limb ischemia symptoms, the vessels of the microcirculation are not routinely assessed in clinical practice. Monitoring of microcirculatory parameters, as a part of integrated diagnostic approach, may have a considerable value in the evaluation of risk, progression of the disease and the effectiveness of therapeutic intervention in individual patients. Relative simplicity and availability of different non-invasive methods, including video capillaroscopy and laser Doppler fluxmetry, should constitute a premise to their wider application in clinical management of chronic limb ischemia.

  17. MAPC transplantation confers a more durable benefit than AC133+ cell transplantation in severe hind limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranguren, Xabier L; Pelacho, Beatriz; Peñuelas, Ivan; Abizanda, Gloria; Uriz, Maialen; Ecay, Margarita; Collantaes, María; Araña, Miriam; Beerens, Manu; Coppiello, Giulia; Prieto, Inés; Perez-Ilzarbe, Maitane; Andreu, Enrique J; Luttun, Aernout; Prósper, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for comparative studies to determine which cell types are better candidates to remedy ischemia. Here, we compared human AC133(+) cells and multipotent adult progenitor cells (hMAPC) in a mouse model reminiscent of critical limb ischemia. hMAPC or hAC133(+) cell transplantation induced a significant improvement in tissue perfusion (measured by microPET) 15 days posttransplantation compared to controls. This improvement persisted for 30 days in hMAPC-treated but not in hAC133(+)-injected animals. While transplantation of hAC133(+) cells promoted capillary growth, hMAPC transplantation also induced collateral expansion, decreased muscle necrosis/fibrosis, and improved muscle regeneration. Incorporation of differentiated hAC133(+) or hMAPC progeny into new vessels was limited; however, a paracrine angio/arteriogenic effect was demonstrated in animals treated with hMAPC. Accordingly, hMAPC-conditioned, but not hAC133(+)-conditioned, media stimulated vascular cell proliferation and prevented myoblast, endothelial, and smooth muscle cell apoptosis in vitro. Our study suggests that although hAC133(+) cell and hMAPC transplantation both contribute to vascular regeneration in ischemic limbs, hMAPC exert a more robust effect through trophic mechanisms, which translated into collateral and muscle fiber regeneration. This, in turn, conferred tissue protection and regeneration with longer term functional improvement. © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.

  18. Subintimal angioplasty for below-the-ankle arterial occlusion in diabetic patients with chronic critical limb ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ying; Zhu Yueqi; Zhao Jungong; Wang Jianbo; Tan Huaqiao; Cheng Yingsheng; Li Minghua; Wang Jue; Cheng Yongde

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of subintimal angioplasty (SA) for the treatment of below-the-arterial occlusion in diabetic patients with chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI). Methods: SA was adopted for 57 diseased lower limbs in 37 diabetic patients with chronic CLI and occlusive disease of the dorsalis pedis artery (DPA) and/or planter artery (PA), who were not suitable candidates for intraluminal angioplasty or bypass surgery. Of the total 57 diseased lower limbs, tissue loss was seen in 31 (54.4%) and pain was reported in 51 (89.5%). SA was carried out to create continuous arterial flow to the foot for limb salvage. Both before and after the procedure the clinical symptoms, DPA or PA pulse volume scores and ankle-brachial indexes (ABI) were determined in all patients, the results were compared and statistically analysed. During the follow-up period, the healing of the wound, the salvage of the diseased limb and the re-stenosis occurrence of the target vessels were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to evaluate limb salvage, survival rate and freedom from amputation. Results: A total of 66 below-the-ankle arterial lesions were detected in 57 affected limbs. Of the 66 lesions, SA was successfully performed in 55 (83.3%). Before SA the median pulse volume scores and ABIs were 0.33±0.54 and 0.31±0.19 respectively, which became 2.04±1.05 and 0.80±0.14 respectively after SA, the differences in both median pulse volume scores and ABI were statistically significant (P<0.01 for both). One patient (2.7%) died within 30 days after the procedure. Mild complications, such as bleeding, thrombosis or angiospasm etc. occurred in five patents (13.5%). Twelve months after SA. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the limb salvage rate was 94.6%, the freedom from amputation was 89.2% and the survival rate was 97.3%. Conclusion: SA of the dorsalis pedis artery and/or planter artery is an effective technique for lower limb salvage in diabetic

  19. TLR4 accessory molecule RP105 (CD180 regulates monocyte-driven arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius J N M Bastiaansen

    Full Text Available AIMS: We investigated the role of the TLR4-accessory molecule RP105 (CD180 in post-ischemic neovascularization, i.e. arteriogenesis and angiogenesis. TLR4-mediated activation of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes is crucial for effective neovascularization. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that RP105+ monocytes are present in the perivascular space of remodeling collateral arterioles. As RP105 inhibits TLR4 signaling, we hypothesized that RP105 deficiency would lead to an unrestrained TLR4-mediated inflammatory response and hence to enhanced blood flow recovery after ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: RP105-/- and wild type (WT mice were subjected to hind limb ischemia and blood flow recovery was followed by Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging. Surprisingly, we found that blood flow recovery was severely impaired in RP105-/- mice. Immunohistochemistry showed that arteriogenesis was reduced in these mice compared to the WT. However, both in vivo and ex vivo analyses showed that circulatory pro-arteriogenic Ly6Chi monocytes were more readily activated in RP105-/- mice. FACS analyses showed that Ly6Chi monocytes became activated and migrated to the affected muscle tissues in WT mice following induction of hind limb ischemia. Although Ly6Chi monocytes were readily activated in RP105-/- mice, migration into the ischemic tissues was hampered and instead, Ly6Chi monocytes accumulated in their storage compartments, bone marrow and spleen, in RP105-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: RP105 deficiency results in an unrestrained inflammatory response and monocyte over-activation, most likely due to the lack of TLR4 regulation. Inappropriate, premature systemic activation of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes results in reduced infiltration of Ly6Chi monocytes in ischemic tissues and in impaired blood flow recovery.

  20. Diagnostic imaging of limbs in children with acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yingru; Li Chenhui; Li Guo; Ye Wei; Huang Zhongkui; Long Liling; Luo Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate X-ray and MRI features of limbs in childhood acute leukemia. Methods: Thirteen children with acute leukemia in our pediatric hematology ward were recruited. All patients were pathologically diagnosed by bone marrow aspiration and complained of bone or joint pain in the first visit. Conventional X-ray and MRI examinations of algesic sites were performed before clinical treatment and after complete remission. MR images were obtained with SE-T 1 WI, SE-T 2 WI and T 2 WI-fat suppressed sequences and symmetrical bilateralism was requested while scanning. X-ray and MRI manifestations were evaluated and compared. Results: All 13 patients had received X-ray examinations. Among them, 6 had normal X-ray findings, whereas the other 7 (14 sites) showed various abnormalities including radiolucent metaphyseal bands (5 sites), periosteal reaction (3 sites), osteapenia (2 sites), mixed lesions (lysis- sclerosis, 1 site), and permeative pattern (3 sites). The number of patients for MRI examinations was 8 (11 sites). Among them, 6 (9 sites) showed bone marrow infiltration and bone marrow necrosis accompanied by normal X-ray findings, another 2 (2 sites) showed bone marrow infiltration associated with radiographic abnormalities of periosteal reaction and radiolucent metaphyseal bands. Four cases were followed up within 1 week when reached complete remission by chemotherapy. MR images features included reduced sizes of bone marrow infiltration lesions associated with increased signal intensity on T 1 WI, and disappearance of double-line sign on bone marrow necrosis accompanied by signal homogenization. However, the radiograph before and after treatment in the same cases did not differ significantly. Conclusions: MRI was earlier and more comprehensive in showing limbs bone marrow abnormality than radiogram in acute leukemia children with chief complaint of osteoarticular pains. MRI might be one of indicators in following up therapeutic effect for AL children with

  1. Transplantation of MSCs in combination with netrin-1 improves neoangiogenesis in a rat model of hind limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Yao, Dan; Ma, Jianhua; Zhu, Jian; Xu, Xianghong; Ren, Yunli; Ding, Xinsheng; Mao, Xiaoming

    2011-03-01

    Similar to the neural network, the vascular network is formed from central axial structures that send sprouts along predetermined trajectories to their distal destinations. Indeed, recent evidence indicates that neuronal guidance factors and their receptors function as angiogenic regulators. As neural guidance cues, netrin-1 is the most extensively studied gene in the field of angiogenesis. Despite achieving some advances in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in angiogenesis, there are still a certain number of patients who fail to respond to cell therapy. Thus, a novel therapeutic strategy to enhance the angiogenic property of transplanted cells is desirable. This study examined the impact of combined netrin-1 protein and MSC implantation on therapeutic angiogenesis in a rat model of hind limb ischemia. Hind limb ischemic rats (n = 24) were divided randomly into four groups (six rats per group): control group (0.05 mL saline); netrin-1 group (1 μg netrin-1 dissolved in 0.05 mL saline); MSC group (1 × 10(6) MSCs); and netrin-1/MSCs group (1 μg netrin-1 combined with MSCs). Netrin-1 and/or MSCs were injected directly into the muscle of the ischemic limb. Gross appearance of ischemic limb, collateral vessel formation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level were assessed 28 d after treatment. The results showed that pretreatment of MSCs with a recombinant netrin-1 protein markedly augmented the angiographic score and capillary density, improved function of the ischemic limb, and increased levels of VEGF in the plasma and damaged tissues. Further studies assaying the cell migration and network formation suggested that netrin-1 promoted MSC migration and enhanced its ability to participate in tube formation. These results demonstrated that transplantation of MSCs pretreated with netrin-1 protein significantly improved the therapeutic effect of MSCs and, therefore, may provide a novel therapeutic approach for ischemic disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  2. Dexamethasone Protects Against Tourniquet-Induced Acute Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Mouse Hindlimb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Corrick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extremity injuries with hemorrhage have been a significant cause of death in civilian medicine and on the battlefield. The use of a tourniquet as an intervention is necessary for treatment to an injured limb; however, the tourniquet and subsequent release results in serious acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in the skeletal muscle and neuromuscular junction (NMJ. Much evidence demonstrates that inflammation is an important factor to cause acute IR injury. To find effective therapeutic interventions for tourniquet-induced acute IR injuries, our current study investigated effect of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, on tourniquet-induced acute IR injury in mouse hindlimb. In C57/BL6 mice, a tourniquet was placed on unilateral hindlimb (left hindlimb at the hip joint for 3 h, and then released for 24 h to induce IR. Three hours of tourniquet and 24 h of release (24-h IR caused gastrocnemius muscle injuries including rupture of the muscle sarcolemma and necrosis (42.8 ± 2.3% for infarct size of the gastrocnemius muscle. In the NMJ, motor nerve terminals disappeared, and endplate potentials were undetectable in 24-h IR mice. There was no gastrocnemius muscle contraction in 24-h IR mice. Western blot data showed that inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-1β were increased in the gastrocnemius muscle after 24-h IR. Treatment with dexamethasone at the beginning of reperfusion (1 mg/kg, i.p. significantly inhibited expression of TNFα and IL-1β, reduced rupture of the muscle sarcolemma and infarct size (24.8 ± 2.0%, and improved direct muscle stimulation-induced gastrocnemius muscle contraction in 24-h IR mice. However, this anti-inflammatory drug did not improve NMJ morphology and function, and sciatic nerve-stimulated skeletal muscle contraction in 24-h IR mice. The data suggest that one-time treatment with dexamethasone at the beginning of reperfusion only reduced structural and functional impairments of the skeletal muscle but not the

  3. Fucoidan improves bioactivity and vasculogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in murine hind limb ischemia associated with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Ryu, Jung Min; Han, Yong-Seok; Zia, Mohammad Farid; Kwon, Hyog Young; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Ho Jae; Lee, Sang Hun

    2016-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease. Although mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of ischemic diseases associated with CKD, the associated pathophysiological conditions lead to low survival and proliferation of transplanted MSCs. To address these limitations, we investigated the effects of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, on the bioactivity of adipose tissue-derived MSCs and the potential of fucoidan-treated MSCs to improve neovascularization in ischemic tissues of CKD mice. Treatment of MSCs with fucoidan increased their proliferative potential and the expression of cell cycle-associated proteins, such as cyclin E, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 2, cyclin D1, and CDK4, via focal adhesion kinase and the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase-Akt axis. Moreover, fucoidan enhanced the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs through the ERK-IDO-1 signal cascade. Fucoidan was found to augment the proliferation, incorporation, and endothelial differentiation of transplanted MSCs at ischemic sites in CKD mice hind limbs. In addition, transplantation of fucoidan-treated MSCs enhanced the ratio of blood flow and limb salvage in CKD mice with hind limb ischemia. To our knowledge, our findings are the first to reveal that fucoidan enhances the bioactivity of MSCs and improves their neovascularization in ischemic injured tissues of CKD. In conclusion, fucoidan-treated MSCs may provide an important pathway toward therapeutic neovascularization in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. N-Acetylaspartate distribution in rat brain striatum during acute brain ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sager, T.N.; Laursen, H; Fink-Jensen, A

    1999-01-01

    Brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) can be quantified by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and is used in clinical settings as a marker of neuronal density. It is, however, uncertain whether the change in brain NAA content in acute stroke is reliably measured by 1H-MRS and how NAA......]e increased linearly to 4 mmol/L after 3 hours and this level was maintained for the next 4 h. From the change in in vivo recovery of the interstitial space volume marker [14C]mannitol, the relative amount of NAA distributed in the interstitial space was calculated to be 0.2% of the total brain NAA during...... normal conditions and only 2 to 6% during ischemia. It was concluded that the majority of brain NAA is intracellularly located during ischemia despite large increases of interstitial [NAA]. Thus, MR quantification of NAA during acute ischemia reflects primarily changes in intracellular levels of NAA...

  5. Long-Term Follow-up of the PADI Trial : Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty Versus Drug-Eluting Stents for Infrapopliteal Lesions in Critical Limb Ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreen, Marlon I; Martens, Jasper M; Knippenberg, Bob; van Dijk, Lukas C; De Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.; Vos, Jan Albert; de Borst, Gert Jan; Vonken, Evert-Jan P A; Bijlstra, Okker D; Wever, Jan J; Statius van Eps, Randolph G; Mali, Willem P Th M; van Overhagen, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes reported after treatment of infrapopliteal lesions with drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been more favorable compared with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with a bailout bare metal stent (PTA-BMS) through midterm follow-up in patients with critical limb ischemia.

  6. Comparison of the effect of stem cell therapy and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty on diabetic foot disease in patients with critical limb ischemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubský, M.; Jirkovská, A.; Bém, R.; Fejfarová, V.; Pagacová, L.; Němcová, A.; Sixta, B.; Chlupáč, J.; Peregrin, J. H.; Syková, Eva; Jude, E. B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 12 (2014), s. 1733-1738 ISSN 1465-3249 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) 00023001IKEM Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : critical limb ischemia * stem cell therapy * percutaneous transluminal angioplasty Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.293, year: 2014

  7. Diagnosis of acute ischemia using dual energy CT after mechanical thrombectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariani, Joanna; Cuvinciuc, Victor; Courvoisier, Delphine; Krauss, Bernhard; Mendes Pereira, Vitor; Sztajzel, Roman; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Vargas, Maria Isabel

    2016-10-01

    To assess the performance of dual energy unenhanced CT in the detection of acute ischemia after mechanical thrombectomy. Retrospective study, approved by the local institutional review board, including all patients that underwent intra-arterial thrombectomy in our institution over a period of 2 years. The presence of acute ischemia and hemorrhage was evaluated by three readers. Sensitivity and specificity of the non-contrast CT weighted sum image (NCCT) and the virtual non-contrast reconstructed image (VNC) were estimated and compared using generalized estimating equations to account for the non-independence of regions in each patient. 58 patients (27 women and 31 men; mean age 70.4 years) were included in the study, yielding 580 regions of interest. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting acute ischemia were higher for all readers when using VNC, with a significant increase in sensitivity for two readers (pVNC images were superior in the identification of acute ischemia in comparison with NCCT. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Direct Stenting in Patients with Acute Lower Limb Arterial Occlusions: Immediate and Long-Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanakis, Nikolaos [University of Crete Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Medical Imaging, University Hospital Heraklion (Greece); Kontopodis, Nikolaos [University of Crete Medical School, Vascular Surgery Unit, Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Heraklion (Greece); Peteinarakis, Ioannis; Kehagias, Elias [University of Crete Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Medical Imaging, University Hospital Heraklion (Greece); Ioannou, Christos V. [University of Crete Medical School, Vascular Surgery Unit, Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Heraklion (Greece); Tsetis, Dimitrios, E-mail: tsetis@med.uoc.gr [University of Crete Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Medical Imaging, University Hospital Heraklion (Greece)

    2017-02-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study is to accentuate the efficacy of direct stenting (stent placement without predilatation of the lesion) in patients with acute lower limb arterial ischemia (ALLI).Materials and MethodsBetween January 2010 and September 2015, 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) underwent direct stenting of acute arterial occlusions. All patients had contraindication for surgical revascularization or catheter-directed thrombolysis. According to SVS/ISCVS Classification, six patients had IIa and ten patients IIb ALLI. The occlusions were located in CIA, EIA, SFA, or popliteal artery. Mean follow-up time with clinical examination and color Duplex ultrasonography was 37.6 months (range 1–72). We analyzed the technical and clinical outcomes of the procedures, as well the complications and patency rates.ResultsTechnical success was achieved in all patients (16/16) and there was significant clinical improvement in 15 patients. There was neither distal embolization nor procedure-related complications. During the 6 years of follow-up, four patients died due to non-procedure-related causes and there were two minor and one major amputations. The primary patency rates and the amputation-free survival rates were 93.7 and 87% at 1 year, 75.2 and 71.2% at 3 years, and 75.2 and 62.3%, respectively, at 6 years.ConclusionsDirect stenting may be a valuable alternative procedure for acute arterial occlusions in selected cases with high technical success and significant clinical improvement.Level of EvidenceLevel 4, Case Series.

  9. Direct Stenting in Patients with Acute Lower Limb Arterial Occlusions: Immediate and Long-Term Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanakis, Nikolaos; Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Peteinarakis, Ioannis; Kehagias, Elias; Ioannou, Christos V.; Tsetis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this study is to accentuate the efficacy of direct stenting (stent placement without predilatation of the lesion) in patients with acute lower limb arterial ischemia (ALLI).Materials and MethodsBetween January 2010 and September 2015, 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) underwent direct stenting of acute arterial occlusions. All patients had contraindication for surgical revascularization or catheter-directed thrombolysis. According to SVS/ISCVS Classification, six patients had IIa and ten patients IIb ALLI. The occlusions were located in CIA, EIA, SFA, or popliteal artery. Mean follow-up time with clinical examination and color Duplex ultrasonography was 37.6 months (range 1–72). We analyzed the technical and clinical outcomes of the procedures, as well the complications and patency rates.ResultsTechnical success was achieved in all patients (16/16) and there was significant clinical improvement in 15 patients. There was neither distal embolization nor procedure-related complications. During the 6 years of follow-up, four patients died due to non-procedure-related causes and there were two minor and one major amputations. The primary patency rates and the amputation-free survival rates were 93.7 and 87% at 1 year, 75.2 and 71.2% at 3 years, and 75.2 and 62.3%, respectively, at 6 years.ConclusionsDirect stenting may be a valuable alternative procedure for acute arterial occlusions in selected cases with high technical success and significant clinical improvement.Level of EvidenceLevel 4, Case Series.

  10. Mid-Term Outcomes of Endovascular Treatment for TASC-II D Femoropopliteal Occlusive Disease with Critical Limb Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Blanco, Álvaro, E-mail: atorres658@yahoo.es; Edo-Fleta, Gemma; Gómez-Palonés, Francisco; Molina-Nácher, Vicente; Ortiz-Monzón, Eduardo [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, Department of Angiology, Endovascular and Vascular Surgery (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to assess the safety and midterm effectiveness of endovascular treatment in Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II (TASC-II) D femoropopliteal occlusions in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI).MethodsPatients with CLI who underwent endovascular treatment for TASC-D de novo femoropopliteal occlusive disease between September 2008 and December 2013 were selected. Data included anatomic features, pre- and postprocedure ankle-brachial index, duplex ultrasound, and periprocedural complications. Sustained clinical improvement, limb salvage rate, freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR), and freedom from target extremity revascularization (TER) were assessed by Kaplan–Meier estimation and predictors of restenosis/occlusion with Cox analysis.ResultsThirty-two patients underwent treatment of 35 TASC-D occlusions. Mean age was 76 ± 9. Mean lesion length was 23 ± 5 cm. Twenty-eight limbs (80 %) presented tissue loss. Seventeen limbs underwent treatment by stent, 13 by stent-graft, and 5 by angioplasty. Mean follow-up was 29 ± 20 months. Seven patients required major amputation and six patients died during follow-up. Eighteen endovascular and three surgical TLR procedures were performed due to restenosis or occlusion. Estimated freedom from TLR and TER rates at 2 years were 41 and 76 %, whereas estimated primary and secondary patency rates were 41 and 79 %, respectively.ConclusionsEndovascular treatment for TASC II D lesions is safe and offers satisfying outcomes. This patient subset would benefit from a minimally invasive approach. Follow-up is advisable due to a high rate of restenosis. Further follow-up is necessary to know the long-term efficacy of these procedures.

  11. Comparison of Low-Dose Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis with and without Pharmacomechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Lower Extremity Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sagar S; Ewing, Joseph A; Cooper, Emily; Chaves, Jose Mauro; Gray, Bruce H

    2018-01-01

    Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) and/or pharmacomechanical thrombectomy (PMT) can dissolve/remove thrombus; PMT alone, however, may require the adjunctive use of CDT. The aim of this study was to compare the use of CDT with and without PMT for the treatment of acute lower extremity ischemia (ALI). We retrospectively reviewed all patients with ALI who underwent CDT with or without PMT between January 2008 and April 2014 (n = 99). Patients with incomplete medical charts were excluded (n = 16). Remaining patients were divided into 2 cohorts: group 1 included patients who underwent PMT + CDT (n = 54); group 2 included those who underwent CDT alone (n = 29). Lesions were further characterized by anatomic location: iliac disease (n = 14), femoropopliteal disease (n = 53), tibial disease (n = 2), and multilevel disease (n = 14). Data collection included patient and limb characteristics, duration of treatment, complications, clinical outcomes, adjunctive interventions, and follow-up. No significant differences were seen between treatment groups in terms of patient characteristics, occlusion length and location, Rutherford class, median duration of ischemia time (P = 0.22), or mean lysis time (P = 0.58). Treatment groups were also similar with regard to outcomes, including periprocedure complications, patency, reintervention, limb salvage, and amputation-free survival. There was no different between PMT + CDT and CDT alone in terms of periprocedural complications or outcomes. In the quest to resolve ALI, initial thrombus extraction with PMT may not reduce the need, duration, or efficacy of CDT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Imaging of acute mesenteric ischemia using multidetector CT and CT angiography in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosow, David E; Sahani, Dushyant; Strobel, Oliver; Kalva, Sanjeeva; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Holalkere, Nagaraj S; Alsfasser, Guido; Saini, Sanjay; Lee, Susanna I; Mueller, Peter R; Fernández-del Castillo, Carlos; Warshaw, Andrew L; Thayer, Sarah P

    2005-12-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia, a frequently lethal disease, requires prompt diagnosis and intervention for favorable clinical outcomes. This goal remains elusive due, in part, to lack of a noninvasive and accurate imaging study. Traditional angiography is the diagnostic gold standard but is invasive and costly. Computed tomography (CT) is readily available and noninvasive but has shown variable success in diagnosing this disease. The faster scanning time of multidetector row CT (M.D.CT) greatly facilitates the use of CT angiography (CTA) in the clinical setting. We sought to determine whether M.D.CT-CTA could accurately demonstrate vascular anatomy and capture the earliest stages of mesenteric ischemia in a porcine model. Pigs underwent embolization of branches of the superior mesenteric artery, then imaging by M.D.CT-CTA with three-dimensional reconstruction protocols. After scanning, diseased bowel segments were surgically resected and pathologically examined. Multidetector row CT and CT angiography reliably defined normal and occluded mesenteric vessels in the pig. It detected early changes of ischemia including poor arterial enhancement and venous dilatation, which were seen in all ischemic animals. The radiographic findings--compared with pathologic diagnoses-- predicted ischemia, with a positive predictive value of 92%. These results indicate that M.D.CT-CTA holds great promise for the early detection necessary for successful treatment of acute mesenteric ischemia.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Allows the Evaluation of Tissue Damage and Regeneration in a Mouse Model of Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Zaccagnini

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides non-invasive, repetitive measures in the same individual, allowing the study of a physio-pathological event over time. In this study, we tested the performance of 7 Tesla multi-parametric MRI to monitor the dynamic changes of mouse skeletal muscle injury and regeneration upon acute ischemia induced by femoral artery dissection. T2-mapping (T2 relaxation time, diffusion-tensor imaging (Fractional Anisotropy and perfusion by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (K-trans were measured and imaging results were correlated with histological morphometric analysis in both Gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior muscles. We found that tissue damage positively correlated with T2-relaxation time, while myofiber regeneration and capillary density positively correlated with Fractional Anisotropy. Interestingly, K-trans positively correlated with capillary density. Accordingly, repeated MRI measurements between day 1 and day 28 after surgery in ischemic muscles showed that: 1 T2-relaxation time rapidly increased upon ischemia and then gradually declined, returning almost to basal level in the last phases of the regeneration process; 2 Fractional Anisotropy dropped upon ischemic damage induction and then recovered along with muscle regeneration and neoangiogenesis; 3 K-trans reached a minimum upon ischemia, then progressively recovered. Overall, Gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior muscles displayed similar patterns of MRI parameters dynamic, with more marked responses and less variability in Tibialis anterior. We conclude that MRI provides quantitative information about both tissue damage after ischemia and the subsequent vascular and muscle regeneration, accounting for the differences between subjects and, within the same individual, between different muscles.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Allows the Evaluation of Tissue Damage and Regeneration in a Mouse Model of Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccagnini, Germana; Palmisano, Anna; Canu, Tamara; Maimone, Biagina; Lo Russo, Francesco M; Ambrogi, Federico; Gaetano, Carlo; De Cobelli, Francesco; Del Maschio, Alessandro; Esposito, Antonio; Martelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides non-invasive, repetitive measures in the same individual, allowing the study of a physio-pathological event over time. In this study, we tested the performance of 7 Tesla multi-parametric MRI to monitor the dynamic changes of mouse skeletal muscle injury and regeneration upon acute ischemia induced by femoral artery dissection. T2-mapping (T2 relaxation time), diffusion-tensor imaging (Fractional Anisotropy) and perfusion by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (K-trans) were measured and imaging results were correlated with histological morphometric analysis in both Gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior muscles. We found that tissue damage positively correlated with T2-relaxation time, while myofiber regeneration and capillary density positively correlated with Fractional Anisotropy. Interestingly, K-trans positively correlated with capillary density. Accordingly, repeated MRI measurements between day 1 and day 28 after surgery in ischemic muscles showed that: 1) T2-relaxation time rapidly increased upon ischemia and then gradually declined, returning almost to basal level in the last phases of the regeneration process; 2) Fractional Anisotropy dropped upon ischemic damage induction and then recovered along with muscle regeneration and neoangiogenesis; 3) K-trans reached a minimum upon ischemia, then progressively recovered. Overall, Gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior muscles displayed similar patterns of MRI parameters dynamic, with more marked responses and less variability in Tibialis anterior. We conclude that MRI provides quantitative information about both tissue damage after ischemia and the subsequent vascular and muscle regeneration, accounting for the differences between subjects and, within the same individual, between different muscles.

  15. Amputation-Free Survival after Crural Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty for Critical Limb Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, M; Konge, L; Lönn, L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: To evaluate the amputation-free survival after below the knee percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in a consecutive group of patients with critical ischemia of the lower extremity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 70 consecutive patients with critical ischemia were treated......-up clinical examinations were performed within 6 weeks and after 1 year. All medical records were crosschecked with the national vascular registry ensuring a valid 1-year status in 97% of the patients. RESULTS: A total of 15 major amputations were performed during follow-up, with 11 amputations performed...... within the first year. Complications after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty were rare. Cumulative mortality after 1 and 2 years was 22% and 34%, respectively. Amputation-free survival at 1 and 2 years of follow-up was 68% and 58%, respectively. There were no association between known risk factors...

  16. Pretreatment with Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion Modulates Muscle Leukocyte Chemotaxis in Murine Model of Sublethal Lower Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ming Shih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a fish oil- (FO- based lipid emulsion on muscle leukocyte chemotaxis and inflammatory responses in a murine model of limb ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. Mice were assigned randomly to 1 sham (sham group, 2 ischemic groups, and 2 IR groups. The sham group did not undergo the ischemic procedure. The mice assigned to the ischemic or IR groups were pretreated intraperitoneally with either saline or FO-based lipid emulsion for 3 consecutive days. The IR procedure was induced by applying a 4.5 oz orthodontic rubber band to the left thigh above the greater trochanter for 120 min and then cutting the band to allow reperfusion. The ischemic groups were sacrificed immediately while the IR groups were sacrificed 24 h after reperfusion. Blood, IR-injured gastrocnemius, and lung tissues were collected for analysis. The results showed that FO pretreatment suppressed the local and systemic expression of several IR-induced proinflammatory mediators. Also, the FO-pretreated group had lower blood Ly6ChiCCR2hi monocyte percentage and muscle M1/M2 ratio than the saline group at 24 h after reperfusion. These findings suggest that FO pretreatment may have a protective role in limb IR injury by modulating the expression of proinflammatory mediators and regulating the polarization of macrophage.

  17. [The use of vascular prothesis Gore Viabahn in the managment of the lower limbs ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupka, Artur; Szyber, Przemysław Piotr; Skóra, Jan; Pawłowski, Stanisław

    2011-01-01

    The chronic lower limbs ischaemia is caused mainly by arteriosclerosis. After insufficient conservative treatment only the surgical intervention can salvage the limb. The revascularisation surgery can be performed by open surgery with implantation of the prosthetic bypass or by endovascular angioplasty with stent. This second method seems to be the best alternative for the patients with several concomitant systemic diseases. Nevertheless it is limited by presence of the long-distance arteriosclerotic lesions. The resolve of that problem is use of new generation of long endovascular covered stents. They can be succesfuly used in aorto-femoral and femoro-popliteal segment. Their efficiacy is simmilar to traditional prosthetic grafts.

  18. Ischemic preconditioning provides both acute and delayed protection against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jin Deok; Kim, Mihwa; D'Agati, Vivette D; Lee, H Thomas

    2006-11-01

    Acute as well as delayed ischemic preconditioning (IPC) provides protection against cardiac and neuronal ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. This study determined whether delayed preconditioning occurs in the kidney and further elucidated the mechanisms of renal IPC in mice. Mice were subjected to IPC (four cycles of 5 min of ischemia and reperfusion) and then to 30 min of renal ischemia either 15 min (acute IPC) or 24 h (delayed IPC) later. Both acute and delayed renal IPC provided powerful protection against renal IR injury. Inhibition of Akt but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation prevented the protection that was afforded by acute IPC. Neither extracellular signal-regulated kinase nor Akt inhibition prevented protection that was afforded by delayed renal IPC. Pretreatment with an antioxidant, N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine, to scavenge free radicals prevented the protection that was provided by acute but not delayed renal IPC. Inhibition of protein kinase C or pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins attenuated protection from both acute and delayed renal IPC. Delayed renal IPC increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as well as heat-shock protein 27 synthesis, and the renal protective effects of delayed preconditioning were attenuated by a selective inhibitor of iNOS (l-N(6)[1-iminoethyl]lysine). Moreover, delayed IPC was not observed in iNOS knockout mice. Both acute and delayed IPC were independent of A(1) adenosine receptors (AR) as a selective A(1)AR antagonist failed to block preconditioning and acute and delayed preconditioning occurred in mice that lacked A(1)AR. Therefore, this study demonstrated that acute or delayed IPC provides renal protection against IR injury in mice but involves distinct signaling pathways.

  19. Prognosis of critical limb ischemia patients with tissue loss after achievement of complete wound healing by endovascular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Norihiro; Hirano, Keisuke; Nakano, Masatsugu; Ito, Yoshiaki; Ishimori, Hiroshi; Yamawaki, Masahiro; Tsukahara, Reiko; Muramatsu, Toshiya

    2015-04-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients with tissue loss have been recognized to have a poor survival rate. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the prognosis of CLI patients with tissue loss improves after complete wound healing is achieved by endovascular therapy. We treated 187 CLI patients with tissue loss by endovascular therapy from April 2007 to December 2012. Among these patients, 113 patients who achieved complete wound healing were enrolled. The primary end point was survival rate at 3 years. The secondary end points were limb salvage rate and recurrence rate of CLI at 3 years. The mean follow-up period after achievement of complete wound healing was 32 ± 18 months. At 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years, the survival rates were 86%, 79%, and 74%; the limb salvage rates were 100%, 100%, and 100%; the recurrence rates of CLI were 2%, 6%, and 9%, respectively. On multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, age >75 years (hazard ratio, 3.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-8.24; P = .017) and nonambulatory status (hazard ratio, 2.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-5.65; P = .035) were identified as independent predictors of death for CLI patients with tissue loss even after complete wound healing was achieved. The Kaplan-Meier curve for the overall survival rate at 3 years showed that CLI patients of older age (>75 years) had a significantly decreased survival rate compared with CLI patients of younger age (≤75 years) (58% vs 87%; log-rank test, P wound healing was achieved. Nonambulatory status and age >75 years can serve as predictors of death even after complete wound healing is achieved. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.

  1. Obestatin Accelerates the Recovery in the Course of Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bukowczan

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have shown that obestatin exhibits protective and regenerative effects in some organs including the stomach, kidney, and the brain. In the pancreas, pretreatment with obestatin inhibits the development of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, and promotes survival of pancreatic beta cells and human islets. However, no studies investigated the effect of obestatin administration following the onset of experimental acute pancreatitis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obestatin therapy in the course of ischemia/reperfusion-induced pancreatitis. Moreover, we tested the influence of ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis and administration of obestatin on daily food intake and pancreatic exocrine secretion.Acute pancreatitis was induced by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion of the pancreas. Obestatin (8 nmol/kg/dose was administered intraperitoneally twice a day, starting 24 hours after the beginning of reperfusion. The effect of obestatin in the course of necrotizing pancreatitis was assessed between 2 and 14 days, and included histological, functional, and biochemical analyses. Secretory studies were performed on the third day after sham-operation or induction of acute pancreatitis in conscious rats equipped with chronic pancreatic fistula.Treatment with obestatin ameliorated morphological signs of pancreatic damage including edema, vacuolization of acinar cells, hemorrhages, acinar necrosis, and leukocyte infiltration of the gland, and led to earlier pancreatic regeneration. Structural changes were accompanied by biochemical and functional improvements manifested by accelerated normalization of interleukin-1β level and activity of myeloperoxidase and lipase, attenuation of the decrease in pancreatic DNA synthesis, and by an improvement of pancreatic blood flow. Induction of acute pancreatitis by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion significantly decreased daily food intake and

  2. Unilateral Renal Ischemia as a Model of Acute Kidney Injury and Renal Fibrosis in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedt, C W; Brainard, B M; Hinson, W; Brown, S A; Brown, C A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to define the acute and chronic effects of 1-hour unilateral in vivo renal ischemia on renal function and histology in cats. Twenty-one adult purpose-bred research cats were anesthetized, and 1 kidney underwent renal artery and vein occlusion for 1 hour. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations, urine protein:creatinine ratio, urine-specific gravity, glomerular filtration rate, hematocrit, platelet concentration and function, and white blood cell count were measured at baseline and variable time points after ischemia. Renal histopathology was evaluated on days 3, 6, 12, 21, 42, and 70 postischemia; changes in smooth muscle actin and interstitial collagen were examined. Following ischemia, whole animal glomerular filtration rate was significantly reduced (57% of baseline on day 6; P < .05). At the early time points, the ischemic kidneys exhibited severe acute epithelial necrosis accompanied by evidence of regeneration of tubules predominantly within the corticomedullary junction. At later periods, postischemic kidneys had evidence of tubular atrophy and interstitial inflammation with significantly more smooth muscle actin and interstitial collagen staining and interstitial fibrosis when compared with the contralateral control kidneys. This study characterizes the course of ischemic acute kidney injury in cats and demonstrates that ischemic acute kidney injury triggers chronic fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and tubular atrophy in feline kidneys. These late changes are typical of those observed in cats with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Multi-detector CT features of acute intestinal ischemia and their prognostic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2014-05-28

    Acute intestinal ischemia is an abdominal emergency occurring in nearly 1% of patients presenting with acute abdomen. The causes can be occlusive or non occlusive. Early diagnosis is important to improve survival rates. In most cases of late or missed diagnosis, the mortality rate from intestinal infarction is very high, with a reported value ranging from 60% to 90%. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is a fundamental imaging technique that must be promptly performed in all patients with suspected bowel ischemia. Thanks to the new dedicated reconstruction program, its diagnostic potential is much improved compared to the past and currently it is superior to that of any other noninvasive technique. The increased spatial and temporal resolution, high-quality multi-planar reconstructions, maximum intensity projections, vessel probe, surface-shaded volume rending and tissue transition projections make MDCT the gold standard for the diagnosis of intestinal ischemia, with reported sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 64%-93%, 92%-100%, 90%-100% and 94%-98%, respectively. MDCT contributes to appropriate treatment planning and provides important prognostic information thanks to its ability to define the nature and extent of the disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the diagnostic and prognostic role of MDCT in bowel ischemia with special regard to the state of art new reconstruction software.

  4. Effects of Chronic and Acute Zinc Supplementation on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyıldırım, Serhan; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Sahna, Engin; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-07-01

    The present study aims to explore the effects of chronic and acute zinc sulfate supplementation on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The study registered 50 adult male rats which were divided into five groups in equal numbers as follows: group 1, normal control; group 2, sham; group 3, myocardial ischemia reperfusion (My/IR): the group which was fed on a normal diet and in which myocardial I/R was induced; group 4, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + chronic zinc: (5 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate for 15 days); and group 5, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + acute zinc: the group which was administered 15 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate an hour before the operation and in which myocardial I/R was induced. The collected blood and cardiac tissue samples were analyzed using spectrophotometric method to determine levels of MDA, as an indicator of tissue injury, and GSH, as an indicator of antioxidant activity. The highest plasma and heart tissue MDA levels were measured in group 3 (p zinc administration and markedly by chronic zinc supplementation.

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen in skeletal muscle of rats submitted to total acute left hindlimb ischemia: A research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luis Gustavo Campos; Dalio, Marcelo Bellini; Joviliano, Edwaldo Edner; Feres, Omar; Piccinato, Carlos Eli

    2015-01-01

    Determine the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in skeletal muscle of rats submitted to total acute left hindlimb ischemia. An experimental study was designed using 48 Wistar rats divided into four groups (n = 12): Control; Ischemia (I)--total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes; Hyperbaric oxygen treatment during ischemia (HBO2)--total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes and hyperbaric oxygen during the first 90 minutes; Pre-treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (PHBO2)--90 minutes of hyperbaric oxygen treatment before total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes. Skeletal muscle injury was evaluated by measuring levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total creatine phosphokinase (CPK); muscular malondialdehyde (MDA), muscular glycogen, and serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA). AST was significantly higher in I, HBO2 and PHBO2 compared with control (P = .001). There was no difference in LDH. CPK was significantly higher in I, HBO2 and PHBO2, compared with control (p = .014). MDA was significantly higher in PHBO2, compared with other groups (p = .042). Glycogen was significantly decreased in I, HBO2 and PHBO2, compared with control (p < .001). Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in acute total hindlimb ischemia exerted no protective effect on muscle injury, regardless of time of application. When applied prior to installation of total ischemia, hyperbaric oxygen treatment aggravated muscle injury.

  6. Modulation of macrophage activation state protects tissue from necrosis during critical limb ischemia in thrombospondin-1-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Bréchot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macrophages, key regulators of healing/regeneration processes, strongly infiltrate ischemic tissues from patients suffering from critical limb ischemia (CLI. However pro-inflammatory markers correlate with disease progression and risk of amputation, suggesting that modulating macrophage activation state might be beneficial. We previously reported that thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1 is highly expressed in ischemic tissues during CLI in humans. TSP-1 is a matricellular protein that displays well-known angiostatic properties in cancer, and regulates inflammation in vivo and macrophages properties in vitro. We therefore sought to investigate its function in a mouse model of CLI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a genetic model of tsp-1(-/- mice subjected to femoral artery excision, we report that tsp-1(-/- mice were clinically and histologically protected from necrosis compared to controls. Tissue protection was associated with increased postischemic angiogenesis and muscle regeneration. We next showed that macrophages present in ischemic tissues exhibited distinct phenotypes in tsp-1(-/- and wt mice. A strong reduction of necrotic myofibers phagocytosis was observed in tsp-1(-/- mice. We next demonstrated that phagocytosis of muscle cell debris is a potent pro-inflammatory signal for macrophages in vitro. Consistently with these findings, macrophages that infiltrated ischemic tissues exhibited a reduced postischemic pro-inflammatory activation state in tsp-1(-/- mice, characterized by a reduced Ly-6C expression and a less pro-inflammatory cytokine expression profile. Finally, we showed that monocyte depletion reversed clinical and histological protection from necrosis observed in tsp-1(-/- mice, thereby demonstrating that macrophages mediated tissue protection in these mice. CONCLUSION: This study defines targeting postischemic macrophage activation state as a new potential therapeutic approach to protect tissues from necrosis and promote tissue

  7. Imaging of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Using Multidetector CT and CT Angiography in a Porcine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Rosow, David E.; Sahani, Dushyant; Strobel, Oliver; Kalva, Sanjeeva; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Holalkere, Nagaraj S.; Alsfasser, Guido; Saini, Sanjay; Lee, Susanna I.; Mueller, Peter R.; Castillo, Carlos Fernández-del; Warshaw, Andrew L.; Thayer, Sarah P.

    2005-01-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia, a frequently lethal disease, requires prompt diagnosis and intervention for favorable clinical outcomes. This goal remains elusive due, in part, to lack of a noninvasive and accurate imaging study. Traditional angiography is the diagnostic gold standard but is invasive and costly. Computed tomography (CT) is readily available and noninvasive but has shown variable success in diagnosing this disease. The faster scanning time of multidetector row CT (M.D.CT) greatly f...

  8. Predictive value of skin perfusion pressure after endovascular therapy for wound healing in critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Makoto; Nakamura, Masato; Nagashima, Yoshinori; Sugi, Kaoru

    2014-10-01

    To determine the predictive value of skin perfusion pressure (SPP) for wound healing after endovascular therapy (EVT). Between May 2004 and March 2011, 113 consecutive patients (84 men; mean age 71.5±12.5 years) with CLI (123 limbs) underwent successful balloon angioplasty ± stenting (flow from >1 vessel to the foot without bypass) and were physically able to undergo SPP measurement before and within 48 hours after EVT. The status of wound healing was recorded over a mean follow-up of 17.4±12.4 months. The wound healing rate was 78.9% (97 limbs of 89 patients). SPP values after EVT were significantly higher in these patients than in the 24 patients (26 limbs) without wound healing (44.2±15.6 mmHg vs. 27.5±10.4 mmHg, pwound healing had an area under the curve of 0.81 (95% CI 0.723 to 0.899, pwound healing was 30 mmHg, with a sensitivity of 81.4% and a specificity of 69.2%. Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated SPP after EVT to be an independent predictor of wound healing (pwound healing with SPP values >30 mmHg, 40 mmHg, and 50 mmHg were 69.8%, 86.3%, and 94.5%, respectively. SPP after EVT is an independent predictor of wound healing in patients with CLI. In our study, an SPP value of 30 mmHg was shown to be the best cutoff for prediction of wound healing after EVT.

  9. Use of the Boomerang catalyst advantage closure device to facilitate complex multistaged percutaneous revascularization procedures for the treatment of critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Joel A; Casserly, Ivan P

    2009-07-01

    An increasing spectrum of complex peripheral arterial disease may be successfully treated using percutaneous revascularization techniques. A pair of challenging peripheral revascularization procedures in patients with critical limb ischemia is presented, where an array of interventional tools and techniques were required, and the off-label use of the Boomerang catalyst system closure device was important in managing a variety of complex arterial access issues and ultimately allowing procedural success. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Subacute anterior spinal cord ischemia with lower limb monoplegia: a clinical dilemma and challenging scenario.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waters, Peadar S

    2012-12-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with crescendo right lower limb monoplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging depicted anterior spinal artery syndrome with an 8.5 cm Crawford type II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). A staged hybrid procedure was performed, following which she had total exclusion of her TAAA and full resolution of her monoplegia. Clinical presentations of TAAAs can be diverse and require detailed clinical knowledge and lateral thinking to unearth unorthodox presentations. This erratic presentation of a TAAA with anterior spinal artery syndrome outlines particular challenges with management and portrays the need for tailored utilization of contemporary techniques to deal with the growing complexity of TAAAs.

  11. Acute limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function in the leg of aged humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Steven A; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy N; Cramer, Matthew N; Kouda, Ken; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-01-01

    Local heating of an extremity increases blood flow and vascular shear stress throughout the arterial tree. Local heating acutely improves macrovascular dilator function in the upper limbs of young healthy adults through a shear stress-dependent mechanism but has no such effect in the lower limbs of this age group. The effect of acute limb heating on dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the lower limbs of aged adults is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute lower limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the leg vasculature of aged adults. Nine young and nine aged adults immersed their lower limbs at a depth of ~33 cm into a heated (~42°C) circulated water bath for 45 min. Before and 30 min after heating, macro (flow-mediated dilation)- and microvascular (reactive hyperemia) dilator functions were assessed in the lower limb, following 5 min of arterial occlusion, via Doppler ultrasound. Compared with preheat, macrovascular dilator function was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.6) but was improved in aged adults (P = 0.04). Similarly, microvascular dilator function, as assessed by peak reactive hyperemia, was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.1) but was improved in aged adults (P lower limb heating improves both macro- and microvascular dilator function in an age dependent manner. We demonstrate that lower limb heating acutely improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the leg in aged adults. These findings provide evidence for a potential therapeutic use of chronic lower limb heating to improve vascular health in primary aging and various disease conditions. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Postural control strategies during single limb stance following acute lateral ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-06-01

    Single-limb stance is maintained via the integration of visual, vestibular and somatosensory afferents. Musculoskeletal injury challenges the somatosensory system to reweight distorted sensory afferents. This investigation supplements kinetic analysis of eyes-open and eyes-closed single-limb stance tasks with a kinematic profile of lower limb postural orientation in an acute lateral ankle sprain group to assess the adaptive capacity of the sensorimotor system to injury. Sixty-six participants with first-time acute lateral ankle sprain completed a 20-second eyes-open single-limb stance task on their injured and non-injured limbs (task 1). Twenty-three of these participants successfully completed the same 20-second single-limb stance task with their eyes closed (task 2). A non-injured control group of 19 participants completed task 1, with 16 completing task 2. 3-dimensional kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle joints, as well as associated fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path were determined for each limb during these tasks. Between trial analyses revealed significant differences in stance limb kinematics and fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path for task 2 only. The control group bilaterally assumed a position of greater hip flexion compared to injured participants on their side-matched "involved"(7.41 [6.1°] vs 1.44 [4.8]°; η(2)=.34) and "uninvolved" (9.59 [8.5°] vs 2.16 [5.6°]; η(2)=.31) limbs, with a greater fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path (involved limb=1.39 [0.16°] vs 1.25 [0.14°]; uninvolved limb=1.37 [0.21°] vs 1.23 [0.14°]). Bilateral impairment in postural control strategies present following a first time acute lateral ankle sprain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Validation of the Society for Vascular Surgery's objective performance goals for critical limb ischemia in everyday vascular surgery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodney, Philip P; Schanzer, Andres; Demartino, Randall R; Nolan, Brian W; Hevelone, Nathanael D; Conte, Michael S; Powell, Richard J; Cronenwett, Jack L

    2011-07-01

    To develop standardized metrics for expected outcomes in lower extremity revascularization for critical limb ischemia (CLI), the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) has developed objective performance goals (OPGs) based on aggregate data from randomized trials of lower extremity bypass (LEB). It remains unknown, however, if these targets can be achieved in everyday vascular surgery practice. We applied SVS OPG criteria to 1039 patients undergoing 1039 LEB operations for CLI with autogenous vein (excluding patients on dialysis) within the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE). Each of the individual OPGs was calculated within the VSGNE dataset, along with its surrounding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and compared to published SVS OPGs using χ(2) comparisons and survival analysis. Across most risk strata, patients in the VSGNE and SVS OPG cohorts were similar (clinical high-risk [age >80 years and tissue loss]: 15.3% VSGNE; 16.2% SVS OPG; P = .58; anatomic high risk [infrapopliteal target artery]: 57.8% VSGNE; 60.2% SVS OPG; P = .32). However, the proportion of VSGNE patients designated as conduit high-risk (lack of single-segment great saphenous vein) was lower (10.2% VSGNE; 26.9% SVS OPG;P Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrocardiographic scores of severity and acuteness of myocardial ischemia predict myocardial salvage in patients with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakhri, Yama; Sejersten, Maria; Schoos, Mikkel Malby

    2018-01-01

    inferior infarct locations. METHODS: In STEMI patients, the severity and acuteness scores were obtained from the admission ECG. Based on the ECG patients were assigned with severe or non-severe ischemia and acute or non-acute ischemia. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed 2-6days after primary...

  15. [Effectiveness of various dopamine doses in acute myocardial ischemia complicated by cardiogenic shock (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipshidze, N N; Korotkov, A A; Marsagishvili, L A; Prigolashvili, T Sh; Bokhua, M R

    1981-06-01

    The effect of various doses of dopamine on the values of cardiac contractile and hemodynamic function under conditions of acute two-hour ischemia complicated by cardiogenic shock was studied in 27 experiments on dogs. In a dose of 5 microgram/kg/min dopamine caused an optimum increase in cardiac productive capacity, reduction of peripheral resistance, adequate increase in coronary circulation and decrease in ST segment depression on the ECG. Infusion of 10 microgram/kg/min dopamine usually caused myocardial hyperfunction with an increase in total peripheral resistance and cardiac performance. Maximum dopamine doses (10 microgram/kg/min and more) were effective in the areactive form of cardiogenic shock. In longterm dopamine infusion it is necessary to establish continuous control over the hemodynamic parameters and the ECG to prevent aggravation of ischemia and for stage-by-stage reduction of the drug concentration and determination of the minimum maintenance dose.

  16. Initial results from an agressive roentgenological and surgical approach to acute mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boley, S J; Sprayregan, S; Siegelman, S S; Veith, F J

    1977-12-01

    The 70% to 80% mortality rate of patients with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) has remained unchanged over the past 40 years. We report here the initial results using an aggressive approach to this problem. This included the earlier and more liberal use of angiography in patients at risk and the intra-arterial infusion of papaverine for the relief of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) vasoconstriction in both nonocclusive and occlusive forms of AMI. Of the first 50 patients managed by this approach, 35 (70%) had AMI demonstrated by SMA angiography, Nineteen (54%) of these 35 patients survived, including nine of 15 patients with nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, seven of 16 with SMA embolus, two of three patients with SMA thrombosis, and the one patient with mesenteric venous thrombosis. Seventeen of the 19 survivors lost no bowel or had excision of less than 3 feet of small intestine.

  17. Improved CT-detection of acute bowel ischemia using frequency selective non-linear image blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Sven; Esser, Michael; Thaiss, Wolfgang; Boesmueller, Hans; Ditt, Hendrik; Nikolau, Konstantin; Horger, Marius

    2017-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) as a fast and reliable diagnostic technique is the imaging modality of choice for acute bowel ischemia. However, diagnostic is often difficult mainly due to low attenuation differences between ischemic and perfused segments. To compare the diagnostic efficacy of a new post-processing tool based on frequency selective non-linear blending with that of conventional linear contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) image blending for the detection of bowel ischemia. Twenty-seven consecutive patients (19 women; mean age = 73.7 years, age range = 50-94 years) with acute bowel ischemia were scanned using multidetector CT (120 kV; 100-200 mAs). Pre-contrast and portal venous scans (65-70 s delay) were acquired. All patients underwent surgery for acute bowel ischemia and intraoperative diagnosis as well as histologic evaluation of explanted bowel segments was considered "gold standard." First, two radiologists read the conventional CECT images in which linear blending was adapted for optimal contrast, and second (three weeks later) the frequency selective non-linear blending (F-NLB) image. Attenuation values were compared, both in the involved and non-involved bowel segments creating ratios between unenhanced and CECT. The mean attenuation difference between ischemic and non-ischemic wall in the portal venous scan was 69.54 HU (reader 2 = 69.01 HU) higher for F-NLB compared with conventional CECT. Also, the attenuation ratio between contrast-enhanced and pre-contrast CT data for the non-ischemic walls showed significantly higher values for the F-NLB image (CECT: reader 1 = 2.11 (reader 2 = 3.36), F-NLB: reader 1 = 4.46 (reader 2 = 4.98)]. Sensitivity in detecting ischemic areas increased significantly for both readers using F-NLB (CECT: reader 1/2 = 53%/65% versus F-NLB: reader 1/2 = 62%/75%). Frequency selective non-linear blending improves detection of bowel ischemia compared with conventional CECT by increasing

  18. Clinical Outcome Following Infra-Inguinal Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasy for Critical Limb Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsagas, Miltiadis I.; Rivera, Marco A.; Tran, Tan; Mitchell, Adam; Robless, Peter; Davies, Alun H.; Geroulakos, George

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and durability of infra-inguinal PTA in patients with CLI, in terms of clinical outcome. Design:Retrospective study of 50 consecutive patients with CLI that were exclusively treated by infra-inguinal PTA. Methods: The indications for intervention were rest pain in seven (14%) patients,non-healing ulcers in 27 (54%), and gangrenous lesions in 16 (32%).Thirty-three (66%) of these patients presented with a single arterial lesion, and the remaining 17 (34%) with multilevel arterial lesions.Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess survival, patency,limb-salvage rates, and amputation-free survival. Results: A total of 67 endovascular procedures were performed and 59 (88.1%) of them were considered to be technically successful. The median follow-up period was 12 months (interquartilerange: 17 months). The 30-day mortality was 4%, while the cumulative survival rates at 12, 24, and 36 months were 73%, 67%, and 59%,respectively. The cumulative primary patency rates at 12 and 24 months were 63% and 52%, respectively, and remained unchanged thereafter.The estimated secondary patency rate was 72% at 36 months. There was only one below-knee amputation in the patients that were treated exclusively with infra-inguinal PTA. The cumulative amputation-free survival at the same period was estimated at 60%. Conclusions: Infra-inguinal PTA had a good early and late outcome in this series of patients with a limited life expectancy.These results are comparable to historical results of surgical revascularization in the treatment of CLI. There is need for a randomized study to determine the primary optimal interventional approach for patients with CLI

  19. Quantified kidney echogenicity in mice with renal ischemia reperfusion injury: evaluation as a noninvasive biomarker of acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Shinya; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Maemura, Kentaro; Otsuki, Yoshinori

    2017-09-01

    The purpose is to evaluate quantified kidney echogenicity as a biomarker for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) and predicting progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Two separate protocols of murine models of IRI were used: (1) 10, 30, and 40 min of bilateral ischemia duration and (2) 45 and 60 min of unilateral ischemia duration. Renal echogenicity was measured with ultrasound and compared with serum creatinine or urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) at various timepoints after IRI. In mice subjected to 10, 30, and 40 min of bilateral ischemia, renal echogenicity increased about 2 h after IRI for all ischemia times, earlier than serum creatinine or urine NGAL. In those subjected to 45 and 60 min of unilateral ischemia, 60 min of unilateral ischemia, which represents atrophic changes 28 days after IRI, resulted in a sustained high level of echogenicity and was significantly different 24 h after IRI, while 45 min of unilateral ischemia resulted in trivial levels of histological damage 28 days after IRI. Renal echogenicity might have the potential to be a biomarker for the early diagnosis of AKI and the prognosis of CKD.

  20. Prior failed ipsilateral percutaneous endovascular intervention in patients with critical limb ischemia predicts poor outcome after lower extremity bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Brian W.; De Martino, Randall R.; Stone, David H.; Schanzer, Andres; Goodney, Philip P.; Walsh, Daniel W.; Cronenwett, Jack L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although open surgical bypass remains the standard revascularization strategy for patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI), many centers now perform peripheral endovascular intervention (PVI) as the first-line treatment for these patients. We sought to determine the effect of a prior ipsilateral PVI (iPVI) on the outcome of subsequent lower extremity bypass (LEB) in patients with CLI. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis of all patients undergoing infrainguinal LEB between 2003 and 2009 within hospitals comprising the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) was performed. Primary study endpoints were major amputation and graft occlusion at 1 year postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital major adverse events (MAE), 1-year mortality, and composite 1-year major adverse limb events (MALE). Event rates were determined using life table analyses and comparisons were performed using the log-rank test. Multivariate predictors were determined using a Cox proportional hazards model with multilevel hierarchical adjustment. Results Of 1880 LEBs performed, 32% (n = 603) had a prior infrainguinal revascularization procedure (iPVI, 7%; ipsilateral bypass, 15%; contralateral PVI, 3%; contralateral bypass, 17%). Patients with prior iPVI, compared with those without a prior iPVI, were more likely to be women (32 vs 41%; P = .04), less likely to have tissue loss (52% vs 63%; P = .02), more likely to require arm vein conduit (16% vs 5%; P = .001), and more likely to be on statin (71% vs 54%; P = .01) and beta blocker therapy (92% vs 81%; P = .01) at the time of their bypass procedure. Other demographic factors were similar between these groups. Prior PVI or bypass did not alter 30-day MAE and 1-year mortality after the index bypass. In contrast, 1-year major amputation and 1-year graft occlusion rates were significantly higher in patients who had prior iPVI than those without (31% vs 20%; P = .046 and 28% vs 18%; P = .009), similar to patients who

  1. The role of amputation as an outcome measure in cellular therapy for critical limb ischemia: implications for clinical trial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl Gregory J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells have been ascribed an important therapeutic role in No-Option Critical limb Ischemia (NO-CLI. One primary endpoint for evaluating NO-CLI therapy is major amputation (AMP, which is usually combined with mortality for AMP-free survival (AFS. Only a trial which is double blinded can eliminate physician and patient bias as to the timing and reason for AMP. We examined factors influencing AMP in a prospective double-blinded pilot RCT (2:1 therapy to control of 48 patients treated with site of service obtained bone marrow cells (BMAC as well as a systematic review of the literature. Methods Cells were injected intramuscularly in the CLI limbs as either BMAC or placebo (peripheral blood. Six month AMP rates were compared between the two arms. Both patient and treating team were blinded of the assignment in follow-up examinations. A search of the literature identified 9 NO-CLI trials, the control arms of which were used to determine 6 month AMP rates and the influence of tissue loss. Results Fifteen amputations occurred during the 6 month period, 86.7% of these during the first 4 months. One amputation occurred in a Rutherford 4 patient. The difference in amputation rate between patients with rest pain (5.6% and those with tissue loss (46.7%, irrespective of treatment group, was significant (p = 0.0029. In patients with tissue loss, treatment with BMAC demonstrated a lower amputation rate than placebo (39.1% vs. 71.4%, p = 0.1337. The Kaplan-Meier time to amputation was longer in the BMAC group than in the placebo group (p = 0.067. Projecting these results to a pivotal trial, a bootstrap simulation model showed significant difference in AFS between BMAC and placebo with a power of 95% for a sample size of 210 patients. Meta-analysis of the literature confirmed a difference in amputation rate between patients with tissue loss and rest pain. Conclusions BMAC shows promise in improving AMP

  2. Three-Dimensional Rotational Angiography of the Foot in Critical Limb Ischemia: A New Dimension in Revascularization Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jens, Sjoerd, E-mail: s.jens@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Lucatelli, Pierleone, E-mail: pierleone.lucatelli@gmail.com [' Sapienza' University of Rome, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy); Koelemay, Mark J. W., E-mail: m.j.koelemaij@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A., E-mail: h.a.marquering@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the additional value of three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) of the foot compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Technique. For 3DRA, the C-arm was placed in the propeller position with the foot in an isocentric position. The patient's unaffected foot was positioned in a footrest outside the field of view. For correct timing of 3DRA, the delay from contrast injection in the popliteal artery at the level of knee joint to complete pedal arterial enhancement was assessed using DSA. With this delay, 3DRA was started after injection of 15 ml contrast. Imaging of the 3DRA could directly be reconstructed and visualized.Materials and MethodsPatients undergoing 3DRA of the foot were prospectively registered. DSA and 3DRA images were scored separately for arterial patency and presence of collaterals. Treatment strategies were proposed based on DSA with and without the availability of 3DRA. Results. Eleven patients underwent 3DRA of the foot. One 3DRA was not included because the acquisition was focused on the heel instead of the entire foot. Diagnostic quality of 3DRA was good in all ten patients. 3DRA compared with DSA showed additional patent arteries in six patients, patent plantar arch in three patients, and collaterals between the pedal arteries in five patients. Additional information from 3DRA resulted in a change of treatment strategy in six patients. Conclusion, 3DRA of the foot contains valuable additional real-time information to better guide peripheral vascular interventions in patients with CLI and nonhealing tissue lesions.

  3. AMS INSIGHT--absorbable metal stent implantation for treatment of below-the-knee critical limb ischemia: 6-month analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiers, Marc; Peeters, Patrick; D'Archambeau, Olivier; Hendriks, Jeroen; Pilger, Ernst; Düber, Christoph; Zeller, Thomas; Gussmann, Andreas; Lohle, Paul N M; Minar, Erich; Scheinert, Dierk; Hausegger, Klaus; Schulte, Karl-Ludwig; Verbist, Jürgen; Deloose, Koen; Lammer, J

    2009-05-01

    Endoluminal treatment of infrapopliteal artery lesions is a matter of controversy. Bioabsorbable stents are discussed as a means to combine mechanical prevention of vessel recoil with the advantages of long-term perspectives. The possibility of not having a permanent metallic implant could permit the occurrence of positive remodeling with lumen enlargement to compensate for the development of new lesions. The present study was designed to investigate the safety of absorbable metal stents (AMSs) in the infrapopliteal arteries based on 1- and 6-month clinical follow-up and efficacy based on 6-month angiographic patency. One hundred seventeen patients with 149 lesions with chronic limb ischemia (CLI) were randomized to implantation of an AMS (60 patients, 74 lesions) or stand-alone percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA; 57 patients, 75 lesions). Seven PTA-group patients "crossed over" to AMS stenting. The study population consisted of patients with symptomatic CLI (Rutherford categories 4 and 5) and de novo stenotic (>50%) or occlusive atherosclerotic disease of the infrapopliteal arteries who presented with a reference diameter of between 3.0 and 3.5 mm and a lesion length of <15 mm. The primary safety endpoint was defined as absence of major amputation and/or death within 30 days after index intervention and the primary efficacy endpoint was the 6-month angiographic patency rate as confirmed by core-lab quantitative vessel analysis. The 30-day complication rate was 5.3% (3/57) and 5.0% (3/60) in patients randomized for PTA alone and PTA followed by AMS implantation, respectively. On an intention-to-treat basis, the 6-month angiographic patency rate for lesions treated with AMS (31.8%) was significantly lower (p = 0.013) than the rate for those treated with PTA (58.0%). Although the present study indicates that the AMS technology can be safely applied, it did not demonstrate efficacy in long-term patency over standard PTA in the infrapopliteal vessels.

  4. Infrapopliteal calcification patterns in critical limb ischemia: diagnostic, pathologic and therapeutic implications in the search for the endovascular holy grail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Jihad A; Diaz-Sandoval, Larry J; Saab, Fadi

    2017-06-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) represents the terminal stage of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is characterized by multilevel and multivessel disease. Amongst patients with infrainguinal disease, approximately one third have predominantly isolated infrapopliteal disease and the remaining two thirds, a combination of femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal disease. Isolated infrapopliteal disease is mainly seen in the elderly, diabetic, or dialysis-dependent patients. These patients have higher risk of amputation and shorter amputation-free survival. Infrapopliteal disease presents with either complex high-grade calcified tandem lesions in multiple vessels or with long chronic total occlusion (CTO) segments with plaques characterized by higher calcium and lower fibro-fatty content than the inflow vessels, as arterial calcium deposition increases as we progress distally in the arterial tree. Vascular calcification occurs in both intima and media. Intimal calcification leads to development of calcified atheroma and occlusive lesions. Medial calcification leads to stiffening and decrease in arterial wall elasticity and compliance leading to atherosclerosis, reduced perfusion, and PAD, increasing cardiovascular mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease. This article attempts to review the implications of the diverse pathologic patterns of calcium distribution in infrapopliteal vessels of CLI patients, on the diagnostic modalities, technological developments, and the evolution of therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes among these patients. A critical analysis of the currently available data is provided, pointing to the surprising omission on the role of calcium on outcomes, and future directions are discussed. Is infrapopliteal calcium a roadblock or the avenue towards new paths? Necessity remains the mother of invention.

  5. Three-Dimensional Rotational Angiography of the Foot in Critical Limb Ischemia: A New Dimension in Revascularization Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jens, Sjoerd; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Koelemay, Mark J. W.; Marquering, Henk A.; Reekers, Jim A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the additional value of three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) of the foot compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Technique. For 3DRA, the C-arm was placed in the propeller position with the foot in an isocentric position. The patient’s unaffected foot was positioned in a footrest outside the field of view. For correct timing of 3DRA, the delay from contrast injection in the popliteal artery at the level of knee joint to complete pedal arterial enhancement was assessed using DSA. With this delay, 3DRA was started after injection of 15 ml contrast. Imaging of the 3DRA could directly be reconstructed and visualized.Materials and MethodsPatients undergoing 3DRA of the foot were prospectively registered. DSA and 3DRA images were scored separately for arterial patency and presence of collaterals. Treatment strategies were proposed based on DSA with and without the availability of 3DRA. Results. Eleven patients underwent 3DRA of the foot. One 3DRA was not included because the acquisition was focused on the heel instead of the entire foot. Diagnostic quality of 3DRA was good in all ten patients. 3DRA compared with DSA showed additional patent arteries in six patients, patent plantar arch in three patients, and collaterals between the pedal arteries in five patients. Additional information from 3DRA resulted in a change of treatment strategy in six patients. Conclusion, 3DRA of the foot contains valuable additional real-time information to better guide peripheral vascular interventions in patients with CLI and nonhealing tissue lesions.

  6. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Christopher J; Lynch, Joan; Harris, Ian A; Richardson, Martin D; Brand, Caroline; Lowe, Adrian J; Sugrue, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a serious and not uncommon complication of limb trauma. The condition is a surgical emergency, and is associated with significant morbidity if not managed appropriately. There is variation in management of acute limb compartment syndrome in Australia. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma were developed in accordance with Australian National Health and Medical Research Council recommendations. The guidelines were based on critically appraised literature evidence and the consensus opinion of a multidisciplinary team involved in trauma management who met in a nominal panel process. Recommendations were developed for key decision nodes in the patient care pathway, including methods of diagnosis in alert and unconscious patients, appropriate assessment of compartment pressure, timing and technique of fasciotomy, fasciotomy wound management, and prevention of compartment syndrome in patients with limb injuries. The recommendations were largely consensus based in the absence of well-designed clinical trial evidence. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma have been developed that will support consistency in management and optimize patient health outcomes.

  7. Accuracy of multidetector row computed tomography for the diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in a non-selected study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, Walter; Hauser, Andreas; Steinbrich, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of multidetector row computed tomography for the prospective diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in the daily clinical routine was analyzed. Two hundred ninety-one consecutive patients with an acute or subacute abdomen, examined by MDCT over a time period of 5 months, were included in the study. All original CT diagnoses made during the daily routine by radiological generalists were compared to the final diagnoses made by using all available medical information from endoscopies, surgical interventions, autopsies and follow-up. Finally, all CT examinations of patients with an initial CT diagnosis or a final diagnosis of bowel ischemia were reread by a radiologist specialized in abdominal imaging in order to analyze the CT findings and the reasons for initially false negative or false positive CT readings. Twenty-four patients out of 291 (8.2%) had acute bowel ischemia. The age of affected patients ranged from 50 to 94 years (mean age: 75.7 years). Eleven patients were male, and 13 female. Reasons for acute bowel ischemia were: arterio-occlusive (n=11), non-occlusive (n=5), strangulation (n=2), over-distension (n=3) and radiation (n=3). The prospective sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of MDCT for the diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in the daily routine were 79.17, 98.51, 90.48 and 98.15%. MDCT reaches a similarly high sensitivity in diagnosing acute bowel as angiography. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being helpful in most of its clinical differential diagnoses and of being less invasive with the consecutive possibility of being used earlier in the diagnostic process with all the resulting positive effects on the patients prognosis. Therefore, nowadays MDCT should probably be used as the first step imaging modality of choice in patients with suspected acute bowel ischemia. (orig.)

  8. MR perfusion/diffusion-weighted imaging of acute ischemia in an animal model with PET correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickens, D.R.; Dawson, R.C.; Votaw, J.R.; Lorenz, C.H.; Holburn, G.E.; Price, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates acute cerebral ischemia in an animal model with MR perfusion/diffusion-sensitive pulse sequences and to compare the results with PET regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements. An embolizing agent was injected into the proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) of a dog, and this was followed by DSA. Next, the animal was imaged in a 1.5-T MR system with perfusion/diffusion-sensitive spin-echo pulse sequence. Then, PET imaging was performed with H 2 O 15 at corresponding levels of the brain

  9. Single-cell resolution mapping of neuronal damage in acute focal cerebral ischemia using thallium autometallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöber, Franziska; Baldauf, Kathrin; Ziabreva, Iryna; Harhausen, Denise; Zille, Marietta; Neubert, Jenni; Reymann, Klaus G; Scheich, Henning; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Schröder, Ulrich H; Wunder, Andreas; Goldschmidt, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal damage shortly after onset or after brief episodes of cerebral ischemia has remained difficult to assess with clinical and preclinical imaging techniques as well as with microscopical methods. We here show, in rodent models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), that neuronal damage in acute focal cerebral ischemia can be mapped with single-cell resolution using thallium autometallography (TlAMG), a histochemical technique for the detection of the K(+)-probe thallium (Tl(+)) in the brain. We intravenously injected rats and mice with thallium diethyldithiocarbamate (TlDDC), a lipophilic chelate complex that releases Tl(+) after crossing the blood-brain barrier. We found, within the territories of the affected arteries, areas of markedly reduced neuronal Tl(+) uptake in all animals at all time points studied ranging from 15 minutes to 24 hours after MCAO. In large lesions at early time points, areas with neuronal and astrocytic Tl(+) uptake below thresholds of detection were surrounded by putative penumbral zones with preserved but diminished Tl(+) uptake. At 24 hours, the areas of reduced Tl(+)uptake matched with areas delineated by established markers of neuronal damage. The results suggest the use of (201)TlDDC for preclinical and clinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of hyperacute alterations in brain K(+) metabolism and prediction of tissue viability in cerebral ischemia.

  10. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asl, Adel Haghighi Khiabanian [Department of Pathobiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahzamani, Mehran [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh, E-mail: dr-ashrafzadeh@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Amin [Department of Surgery, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khansari, Mohammadreza [Department of Physiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model.

  11. Depolarization changes during acute myocardial ischemia by evaluation of QRS slopes: standard lead and vectorial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel; Ringborn, Michael; Laguna, Pablo; Pahlm, Olle; Pueyo, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with acute coronary syndromes can be improved by adding information from the depolarization phase (QRS complex) to the conventionally used ST-T segment changes. In this study, ischemia-induced changes in the main three slopes of the QRS complex, upward ( ℑ(US)) and downward ( ℑ(DS) ) slopes of the R wave as well as the upward ( ℑ(TS)) slope of the terminal S wave, were evaluated as to represent a robust measure of pathological changes within the depolarization phase. From ECG recordings both in a resting state (control recordings) and during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-induced transmural ischemia, we developed a method for quantification of ℑ(US), ℑ(DS), and ℑ(TS) that incorporates dynamic ECG normalization so as to improve the sensitivity in the detection of ischemia-induced changes. The same method was also applied on leads obtained by projection of QRS loops onto their dominant directions. We show that ℑ(US), ℑ(DS), and ℑ(TS) present high stability in the resting state, thus providing a stable reference for ischemia characterization. Maximum relative factors of change ( ℜ(ℑ)) during PCI were found in leads derived from the QRS loop, reaching 10.5 and 13.7 times their normal variations in the control for ℑ(US) and ℑ(DS), respectively. For standard leads, the relative factors of change were 6.01 and 9.31. The ℑ(TS) index presented a similar behavior to that of ℑ(DS). The timing for the occurrence of significant changes in ℑ(US) and ℑ(DS) varied with lead, ranging from 30 s to 2 min after initiation of coronary occlusion. In the present ischemia model, relative ℑ(DS) changes were smaller than ST changes in most leads, however with only modest correlation between the two indices, suggesting they present different information about the ischemic process. We conclude that QRS slopes offer a robust tool for evaluating depolarization changes during myocardial ischemia.

  12. Comparison of orbital atherectomy plus balloon angioplasty vs. balloon angioplasty alone in patients with critical limb ischemia: results of the CALCIUM 360 randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, Nicolas W; Lam, Russell; Mustapha, Jihad; Ellichman, Jonathan; Aggarwala, Gaurav; Rivera, Ernesto; Niazi, Khusrow; Balar, Nilesh

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the role of orbital atherectomy in calcified infrapopliteal arteries in patients with critical limb ischemia compared to balloon angioplasty (BA) alone. A randomized multicenter study was undertaken to evaluate short and 1-year outcomes in 50 patients (32 men; mean age 71 years, range 40-90) with confirmed calcified lesions using 1∶1 randomization to the Diamondback 360° Orbital Atherectomy System followed by BA vs. BA alone. All patients had severe (≥50% stenosis) peripheral artery disease (Rutherford classification 4-6) in the popliteal, tibial, and/or peroneal arteries. The primary endpoint was defined as restoration of a normal lumen (residual stenosis ≤30%) with no bailout stenting or dissection types C through F. Scheduled follow-up visits were conducted according to a common protocol at 1, 6, and 12 months. Procedural success was 93.1% (27/29 lesions) for atherectomy + BA patients and 82.4% (28/34 lesions) for BA alone (p = 0.27). Bailout stenting was needed in 2 (6.9%) of the 29 atherectomy + BA lesions and in 5 (14.3%) of the 35 BA-treated lesions (p = 0.44). At 1 year, there were no amputations in either group related to the index procedure. Estimates for freedom from target vessel revascularization and all-cause mortality were 93.3% and 100% in the atherectomy + BA group vs. 80.0% (p = 0.14) and 68.4% (p = 0.01) in the BA group, respectively. Proportional hazard models evaluating survival time vs. status of residual stenosis determined a hazard ratio for major adverse events of 5.6 for patients with an acute post-procedure residual stenosis >30% (p = 0.01). Debulking with orbital atherectomy appeared to increase the chance of reaching a desirable angioplasty result, with less acute need for bailout stenting and a higher procedure success. A negative association between procedure success and risk of serious adverse outcomes should encourage larger confirmatory studies.

  13. Putative role of ischemic postconditioning in a rat model of limb ischemia and reperfusion: involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T. [Department of Anesthesiology, Shuyang People' s Hospital, JiangSu (China); Zhou, Y.T. [Department of General Surgery, Shuyang People' s Hospital, JiangSu (China); Chen, X.N. [Institute of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, LanZhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Zhu, A.X. [Department of Pharmacy, Shuyang People' s Hospital, JiangSu (China)

    2014-07-25

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is one of the most potent angiogenic growth factors. It improves angiogenesis and tissue perfusion in ischemic skeletal muscle. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that ischemic postconditioning is effective for salvaging ischemic skeletal muscle resulting from limb ischemia-reperfusion injury, and that the mechanism involves expression of HIF-1α. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=36 each): sham-operated (group S), hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion (group IR), and ischemic postconditioning (group IPO). Each group was divided into subgroups (n=6) according to reperfusion time: immediate (0 h, T{sub 0}), 1 h (T{sub 1}), 3 h (T{sub 3}), 6 h (T{sub 6}), 12 h (T{sub 12}), and 24 h (T{sub 24}). In the IPO group, three cycles of 30-s reperfusion and 30-s femoral aortic reocclusion were carried out before reperfusion. At all reperfusion times (T{sub 0}-T{sub 24}), serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, as well as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations, were measured in rats after they were killed. Histological and immunohistochemical methods were used to assess the skeletal muscle damage and HIF-1α expression in skeletal muscle ischemia. In groups IR and IPO, serum LDH and CK activities and TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations were all significantly increased compared to group S, and HIF-1α expression was up-regulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In group IPO, serum LDH and CK activities and TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were significantly decreased, IL-10 concentration was increased, HlF-1α expression was down-regulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the pathological changes were reduced compared to group IR. The present study suggests that ischemic postconditioning can reduce skeletal muscle damage caused by limb ischemia-reperfusion and that its mechanisms may be related to the involvement of HlF-1α in the limb ischemia-reperfusion injury

  14. Acute mesenteric ischemia: guidelines of the World Society of Emergency Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Miklosh; Kashuk, Jeffry; Moore, Ernest E; Kluger, Yoram; Biffl, Walter; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Ben-Ishay, Offir; Rubinstein, Chen; Balogh, Zsolt J; Civil, Ian; Coccolini, Federico; Leppaniemi, Ari; Peitzman, Andrew; Ansaloni, Luca; Sugrue, Michael; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Fraga, Gustavo P; Catena, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is typically defined as a group of diseases characterized by an interruption of the blood supply to varying portions of the small intestine, leading to ischemia and secondary inflammatory changes. If untreated, this process will eventuate in life threatening intestinal necrosis. The incidence is low, estimated at 0.09-0.2% of all acute surgical admissions. Therefore, although the entity is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, diligence is always required because if untreated, mortality has consistently been reported in the range of 50%. Early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention are the cornerstones of modern treatment and are essential to reduce the high mortality associated with this entity. The advent of endovascular approaches in parallel with modern imaging techniques may provide new options. Thus, we believe that a current position paper from World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) is warranted, in order to put forth the most recent and practical recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of AMI. This review will address the concepts of AMI with the aim of focusing on specific areas where early diagnosis and management hold the strongest potential for improving outcomes in this disease process. Some of the key points include the prompt use of CT angiography to establish the diagnosis, evaluation of the potential for revascularization to re-establish blood flow to ischemic bowel, resection of necrotic intestine, and use of damage control techniques when appropriate to allow for re-assessment of bowel viability prior to definitive anastomosis and abdominal closure.

  15. Identification of Reversible Disruption of the Human Blood-Brain Barrier Following Acute Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Alexis N; Dias, Christian; Leigh, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Animal models of acute cerebral ischemia have demonstrated that diffuse blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption can be reversible after early reperfusion. However, irreversible, focal BBB disruption in humans is associated with hemorrhagic transformation in patients receiving intravenous thrombolytic therapy. The goal of this study was to use a magnetic resonance imaging biomarker of BBB permeability to differentiate these 2 forms of BBB disruption. Acute stroke patients imaged with magnetic resonance imaging before, 2 hours after, and 24 hours after treatment with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator were included. The average BBB permeability of the acute ischemic region before and 2 hours after treatment was calculated using a T2* perfusion-weighted source images. Change in average permeability was compared with percent reperfusion using linear regression. Focal regions of maximal BBB permeability from the pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging were compared with the occurrence of parenchymal hematoma (PH) formation on the 24-hour magnetic resonance imaging scan using logistic regression. Signals indicating reversible BBB permeability were detected in 18/36 patients. Change in average BBB permeability correlated inversely with percent reperfusion (P=0.006), indicating that early reperfusion is associated with decreased BBB permeability, whereas sustained ischemia is associated with increased BBB disruption. Focal regions of maximal BBB permeability were significantly associated with subsequent formation of PH (P=0.013). This study demonstrates that diffuse, mild BBB disruption in the acutely ischemic human brain is reversible with reperfusion. This study also confirms prior findings that focal severe BBB disruption confers an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation in patients treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Predictive ability of the Society for Vascular Surgery Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) classification system following infrapopliteal endovascular interventions for critical limb ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Darling (Jeremy); J.C. McCallum (John C.); P.A. Soden (Peter A.); Meng, Y. (Yifan); Wyers, M.C. (Mark C.); Hamdan, A.D. (Allen D.); H.J.M. Verhagen (Hence); M.L. Schermerhorn (Marc)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Lower Extremity Guidelines Committee has composed a new threatened lower extremity classification system that reflects the three major factors that impact amputation risk and clinical management: Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI).

  17. Effect of Low Level Ionizing Radiation on Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Atherosclerotic Patients with Lower Limb Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, E.F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the developed world (Williamson et al., 2012). Coronary artery disease (CAD) or atherosclerotic heart disease is a chronic life-threatening disease, which characterized by reducing blood supply to the heart as a result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries supplying the myocardium. Progressive atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries may lead to intimal thickening and eventual artery occlusion. Coronary artery occlusion can cause acute myocardial ischemia as a result of reduced oxygen supply or increased oxygen demand (Luthje and Andreas, 2008). Convincing evidence indicates that atherosclerosis is associated with endothelial dysfunction at the early stage of the disease process (Chiang et al., 2012). The endothelium is a dynamic cell layer that represents a physiological barrier between circulating blood and the surrounding tissues. Impaired endothelial function is a critical event in the initiation of atherosclerotic plaque development and thus may lead to vasoconstriction, vascular smooth muscle proliferation, hypercoagulability, thrombosis, and eventually, adverse cardiovascular events (Berger and Lavie, 2011). Asahara et al., (1997) described endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in human peripheral blood. EPC are immature endothelial circulating cells mobilized from the bone marrow. These cells are involved in Introduction and aim of the work repairing the damaged endothelium and in facilitating neovascularization after ischemia (Rouhl et al., 2008). The role of EPC in health and disease is not understood completely. Most studies of healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) report that the number and function of circulating EPC decrease with age and with the presence of classical vascular risk factors (Fadini et al., 2007). Recent studies suggested that EPCs play an important role in the risk of vascular

  18. Predictive value of upper-limb accelerometry in acute stroke with hemiparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebruers, Nick; Truijen, Steven; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how well early activity measurements by accelerometers predict recovery after stroke. First, we assessed the predictive value of accelerometer-based measurements of upper-limb activity in patients with acute stroke with a hemiplegic arm. Second, we established the

  19. Protease-activated receptor (PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in collateral formation and anti-inflammatory monocyte polarization in a mouse hind limb ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G van den Hengel

    Full Text Available AIMS: In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis, mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. METHODS AND RESULTS: PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-, PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/- and wild-type (WT mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. CONCLUSION: PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD patients.

  20. An ischemia-guided approach for risk stratification in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepine, C J

    2000-12-28

    The optimal management approach for patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes continues to be an issue of debate. An ischemia-guided strategy appears to be effective as an alternative to either a very conservative "wait-and-see" approach or a very aggressive routine revascularization approach. The need for another approach is supported by the lack of conclusive evidence-based results favoring an early routine invasive treatment strategy. In the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) IIIB trial, there were no differences in the incidence of death or myocardial infarction (MI) between patients treated with an early invasive approach and those treated with a conservative approach to treatment. Significantly worse outcomes were shown in patients assigned to an early invasive strategy in the Veterans Affairs Non-Q-Wave Infarction Strategies in Hospital (VANQWISH) trial at 1-year follow-up (111 clinical events in the invasive group vs 85 in the conservative group; p = 0.05). Registry information, including that from the Organization to Assess Strategies for Ischemic Syndromes (OASIS), which included approximately 8,000 patients with unstable angina or suspected MI, has even suggested an excess hazard with a routine invasive approach. Patients with non-ST-segment elevation MI observed in the Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries in Acute Coronary Syndromes (GUSTO)-IIB and Platelet IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy (PURSUIT) trials also fared better with an ischemia-guided strategy. Even the recent FRagmin and Fast Revascularization during InStability in Coronary artery disease (FRISC II) trial investigators had to be very selective relative to eliminating high-risk patients in the first week and treating with intense anti-ischemic therapy and 5-7 days of low-molecular-weight heparin therapy to show an advantage for assigned revascularization. A careful clinical evaluation with

  1. Combined stent placement and high dose PGE1 drip infusion for chronic occlusion of the superficial femoral artery as a modality to salvage chronic critical limb ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Ichiro [Department of Radiology, Miyakonojo Medical Association Hospital, 5822-3 Oiwadacho, Miyakonojo 885-0062 (Japan)], E-mail: iku-i@fk.enjoy.ne.jp; Hirai, Toshinori [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University (Japan); Ishii, Akihiko [Department of Radiology, Miyakonojo Medical Association Hospital, 5822-3 Oiwadacho, Miyakonojo 885-0062 (Japan); Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University (Japan)

    2008-04-15

    Purpose: To assess the initial effect, short-term patency, and limb salvage rates of combined stent placement and high-dose prostaglandin E-1 (PGE1) drip infusion for chronic occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Materials and methods: A total of 15 arteriosclerotic occlusive lesions of the SFA were treated in 11 consecutive patients (mean age: 78.4 years old). All cases were of category 4 or 5, based on the criteria of the Society of Vascular Surgery and Intermittent Society for Cardiovascular Surgery (SVC/ISCVS). In all cases a self-expandable stainless steel stent was implanted. PGE1 treatment was started 3-5 days before stent placement and continued for 7-10 days after the intervention. The technical success, limb salvage outcomes, patency rates, and complications were examined. Results: In all cases, the technical success rate of the procedure was 100%. After stent implantation, the clinical status of all cases was improved by at least +2, and major amputation was not required in any cases. The 12-month primary, secondary patency rates, and limb salvage rate were 57%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: Combined stent placement and high-dose PGE1 drip infusion is a treatment of choice for salvaging the lower limb of a patient with chronic critical ischemia.

  2. Acute retinal ischemia caused by controlled low ocular perfusion pressure in a porcine model. Electrophysiological and histological characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Maria Voss; Warfvinge, Karin; Scherfig, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish, and characterize a porcine model of acute, controlled retinal ischemia. The controlled retinal ischemia was produced by clamping the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in the left eye to 5 mm Hg for 2 h. The OPP was defined as mean arterial blood pressure...... of the amplitudes obtained in the experimental, left eye, and the control, right eye. Quantitative histology was performed to measure the survival of ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells 2-6 weeks after the ischemic insult. An OPP of 5 mm Hg for 2h induced significant reductions in the amplitudes...... the ischemic insult. This model seems to be suitable for investigations of therapeutic initiatives in diseases involving acute retinal ischemia....

  3. Infiltration of plasma rich in growth factors enhances in vivo angiogenesis and improves reperfusion and tissue remodeling after severe hind limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pelacho, Beatriz; Prado, Roberto; Aguirre, José Javier; Sánchez, Mikel; Padilla, Sabino; Aranguren, Xabier L; Abizanda, Gloria; Collantes, María; Hernandez, Milagros; Perez-Ruiz, Ana; Peñuelas, Ivan; Orive, Gorka; Prosper, Felipe

    2015-03-28

    PRGF is a platelet concentrate within a plasma suspension that forms an in situ-generated fibrin-matrix delivery system, releasing multiple growth factors and other bioactive molecules that play key roles in tissue regeneration. This study was aimed at exploring the angiogenic and myogenic effects of PRGF on in vitro endothelial cells (HUVEC) and skeletal myoblasts (hSkMb) as well as on in vivo mouse subcutaneously implanted matrigel and on limb muscles after a severe ischemia. Human PRGF was prepared and characterized. Both proliferative and anti-apoptotic responses to PRGF were assessed in vitro in HUVEC and hSkMb. In vivo murine matrigel plug assay was conducted to determine the angiogenic capacity of PRGF, whereas in vivo ischemic hind limb model was carried out to demonstrate PRGF-driven vascular and myogenic regeneration. Primary HUVEC and hSkMb incubated with PRGF showed a dose dependent proliferative and anti-apoptotic effect and the PRGF matrigel plugs triggered an early and significant sustained angiogenesis compared with the control group. Moreover, mice treated with PRGF intramuscular infiltrations displayed a substantial reperfusion enhancement at day 28 associated with a fibrotic tissue reduction. These findings suggest that PRGF-induced angiogenesis is functionally effective at expanding the perfusion capacity of the new vasculature and attenuating the endogenous tissue fibrosis after a severe-induced skeletal muscle ischemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Attenuation of hind-limb ischemia in mice with endothelial-like cells derived from different sources of human stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Hon Lai

    Full Text Available Functional endothelial-like cells (EC have been successfully derived from different cell sources and potentially used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases; however, their relative therapeutic efficacy remains unclear. We differentiated functional EC from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-EC, human embryonic stem cells (hESC-EC and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-EC, and compared their in-vitro tube formation, migration and cytokine expression profiles, and in-vivo capacity to attenuate hind-limb ischemia in mice. Successful differentiation of BM-EC was only achieved in 1/6 patient with severe coronary artery disease. Nevertheless, BM-EC, hESC-EC and hiPSC-EC exhibited typical cobblestone morphology, had the ability of uptaking DiI-labeled acetylated low-density-lipoprotein, and binding of Ulex europaeus lectin. In-vitro functional assay demonstrated that hiPSC-EC and hESC-EC had similar capacity for tube formation and migration as human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC and BM-EC (P>0.05. While increased expression of major angiogenic factors including epidermal growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor and stromal derived factor-1 were observed in all EC cultures during hypoxia compared with normoxia (P<0.05, the magnitudes of cytokine up-regulation upon hypoxic were more dramatic in hiPSC-EC and hESC-EC (P<0.05. Compared with medium, transplanting BM-EC (n = 6, HUVEC (n = 6, hESC-EC (n = 8 or hiPSC-EC (n = 8 significantly attenuated severe hind-limb ischemia in mice via enhancement of neovascularization. In conclusion, functional EC can be generated from hECS and hiPSC with similar therapeutic efficacy for attenuation of severe hind-limb ischemia. Differentiation of functional BM-EC was more difficult to achieve in patients with cardiovascular diseases, and hESC-EC or iPSC-EC are readily available as "off-the-shelf" format for the treatment

  5. Attenuation of Hind-Limb Ischemia in Mice with Endothelial-Like Cells Derived from Different Sources of Human Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau-Chi; Ng, Joyce H. L.; Au, Ka-Wing; Wong, Lai-Yung; Siu, Chung-Wah; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2013-01-01

    Functional endothelial-like cells (EC) have been successfully derived from different cell sources and potentially used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases; however, their relative therapeutic efficacy remains unclear. We differentiated functional EC from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-EC), human embryonic stem cells (hESC-EC) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-EC), and compared their in-vitro tube formation, migration and cytokine expression profiles, and in-vivo capacity to attenuate hind-limb ischemia in mice. Successful differentiation of BM-EC was only achieved in 1/6 patient with severe coronary artery disease. Nevertheless, BM-EC, hESC-EC and hiPSC-EC exhibited typical cobblestone morphology, had the ability of uptaking DiI-labeled acetylated low-density-lipoprotein, and binding of Ulex europaeus lectin. In-vitro functional assay demonstrated that hiPSC-EC and hESC-EC had similar capacity for tube formation and migration as human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC) and BM-EC (P>0.05). While increased expression of major angiogenic factors including epidermal growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor and stromal derived factor-1 were observed in all EC cultures during hypoxia compared with normoxia (P<0.05), the magnitudes of cytokine up-regulation upon hypoxic were more dramatic in hiPSC-EC and hESC-EC (P<0.05). Compared with medium, transplanting BM-EC (n = 6), HUVEC (n = 6), hESC-EC (n = 8) or hiPSC-EC (n = 8) significantly attenuated severe hind-limb ischemia in mice via enhancement of neovascularization. In conclusion, functional EC can be generated from hECS and hiPSC with similar therapeutic efficacy for attenuation of severe hind-limb ischemia. Differentiation of functional BM-EC was more difficult to achieve in patients with cardiovascular diseases, and hESC-EC or iPSC-EC are readily available as “off-the-shelf” format for the treatment of

  6. Neuro-Glio-Vascular Complexes of the Brain After Acute Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Stepanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to compare the structural and functional state of neuro-glio-vascular microstructural complexes of the somatosensory cortex (SSC, CA1 of the hippocampus and amygdala of the brain of white rats under normal conditions and after acute ischemia caused by a 20-minute occlusion of common carotid arteries.Materials and methods. In this experiment, neurons, astrocytes, endotheliocytes, pericytes, basal membrane of the microvessels were studied in the normal (n=5 and the reperfusion period (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, n=30 using electron and fluorescence microscopy (DAPI staining. The morphometric analysis was carried out using the ImageJ 1.46 software.Results. During the recovery period after ischemia was noted reactive (edema-swelling, tinctorial properties of cells and compensatory-restoration (hyperplasia, hypertrophy, proliferation, increased transcytosis changes in neuro-glia-vascular complexes. After ischemia, the number of neurons decreased (by 8.7%—55,3%, and the glial cell count 2—3 fold increased. Increasing neuroglial index (NGI was accompanied by: 1 the emergence of microvessels with numerous branched processes of pericytes, 2 the complication of the spatial organization of basal membranes, and 3 the structural features of activation of transcytosis processes (large number of caveolae, smooth and clathrin vesicles, large vesicles in pericytes and endothelial cells.Conclusion.These findings indicate the compensatory-restoration changes in the components of neuro-gliovascular complexes SSC, CA1 of the hippocampus and amygdala of white rat’s brain after a 20-minute occlusion of the common carotid arteries. The most complete implementation of mechanisms for the protection and repair of damaged neurons occurs in the SSC and amygdala exhibiting high NGI values.

  7. Unilateral Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion as a Robust Model for Acute to Chronic Kidney Injury in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Le Clef

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is an underestimated, yet important risk factor for development of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Even after initial total recovery of renal function, some patients develop progressive and persistent deterioration of renal function and these patients are more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Animal models are indispensable for unravelling the mechanisms underlying this progression towards CKD and ESRD and for the development of new therapeutic strategies in its prevention or treatment. Ischemia (i.e. hypoperfusion after surgery, bleeding, dehydration, shock, or sepsis is a major aetiology in human AKI, yet unilateral ischemia-reperfusion is a rarely used animal model for research on CKD and fibrosis. Here, we demonstrate in C57Bl/6J mice, by both histology and gene expression, that unilateral ischemia-reperfusion without contralateral nephrectomy is a very robust model to study the progression from acute renal injury to long-term tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, i.e. the histopathological hallmark of CKD. Furthermore, we report that the extent of renal fibrosis, in terms of Col I, TGFβ, CCN2 and CCN3 expression and collagen I immunostaining, increases with increasing body temperature during ischemia and ischemia-time. Thus, varying these two main determinants of ischemic injury allows tuning the extent of the long-term fibrotic outcome in this model. Finally, in order to cover the whole practical finesse of ischemia-reperfusion and allow model and data transfer, we provide a referenced overview on crucial technical issues (incl. anaesthesia, analgesia, and pre- and post-operative care with the specific aim of putting starters in the right direction of implementing ischemia in their research and stimulate them, as well as the community, to have a critical view on ischemic literature data.

  8. I-FABP as biomarker for the early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia and resultant lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel G Khadaroo

    Full Text Available Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is a life-threatening condition that can result in multiple organ injury and death. A timely diagnosis and treatment would have a significant impact on the morbidity and mortality in high-risk patient population. The purpose of this study was to investigate if intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP and α-defensins can be used as biomarkers for early AMI and resultant lung injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intestinal ischemia by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. A time course of intestinal ischemia from 0.5 to 3 h was performed and followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Additional mice were treated with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC at 300 mg/kg given intraperitoneally prior to reperfusion. AMI resulted in severe intestinal injury characterized by neutrophil infiltrate, myeloperoxidase (MPO levels, cytokine/chemokine levels, and tissue histopathology. Pathologic signs of ischemia were evident at 1 h, and by 3 h of ischemia, the full thickness of the intestine mucosa had areas of coagulative necrosis. It was noted that the levels of α-defensins in intestinal tissue peaked at 1 h and I-FABP in plasma peaked at 3 h after AMI. Intestinal ischemia also resulted in lung injury in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with NAC decreased the levels of intestinal α-defensins and plasma I-FABP, as well as lung MPO and cytokines. In summary, the concentrations of intestinal α-defensins and plasma I-FABP predicted intestinal ischemia prior to pathological evidence of ischemia and I-FABP directly correlated with resultant lung injury. The antioxidant NAC reduced intestinal and lung injury induced by AMI, suggesting a role for oxidants in the mechanism for distant organ injury. I-FABP and α-defensins are promising biomarkers, and may guide the treatment with antioxidant in early intestinal and distal organ injury.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide reduces neutrophil recruitment in hind-limb ischemia-reperfusion injury in an L-selectin and ADAM-17 dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Carissa J.; Reiffel, Alyssa J.; Chintalapani, Sathvika; Kim, Minsoo; Spector, Jason A.; King, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Reperfusion following ischemia leads to neutrophil recruitment injured tissue. Selectins and β2 integrins regulate neutrophil interaction with the endothelium during neutrophil rolling and firm adhesion. Excessive neutrophil infiltration into tissue is thought to contribute to IRI damage. NaHS mitigates the damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). This study's objective was to determine the effect of hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) on neutrophil adhesion receptor expression. Methods Human neutrophils were either left untreated or incubated in 20 μM NaHS, and/or 50 μg/mL pharmacological ADAM-17 inhibitor TAPI-0; activated by IL-8, fMLP, or TNF-α; and labeled against PSGL-1, LFA-1, Mac-1 α, L-selectin and β2 integrin epitopes CBRM1/5 or KIM127 for flow cytometry. Cohorts of 3 C57BL/6 mice received an intravenous dose of saline vehicle, or 20 μM NaHS with or without 50 μg/mL TAPI-0 before unilateral tourniquet induced hind-limb ischemia for 3 hours followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. Bilateral gastrocnemius muscles were processed for histology before neutrophil infiltration quantification. Results NaHS treatment significantly increased L-selectin shedding from human neutrophils following activation by fMLP and IL-8 in an ADAM-17 dependent manner. Mice treated with NaHS to raise bloodstream concentration by 20 μM prior to ischemia or reperfusion showed a significant reduction in neutrophil recruitment into skeletal muscle tissue following tourniquet-induced hindlimb IRI. Conclusions NaHS administration results in the downregulation of L-selectin expression in activated human neutrophils. This leads to a reduction in neutrophil extravasation and tissue infiltration and may partially account for the protective effects of NaHS seen in the setting of IRI. PMID:23446563

  10. Is prolonged cold ischemia a contraindication to using kidneys from acute kidney injury donors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Giuseppe; Khan, Muhammad A; El-Hennawy, Hany; Farney, Alan C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Reeves-Daniel, Amber; Gautreaux, Michael D; Doares, William; Kaczmorski, Scott; Stratta, Robert J

    2018-03-01

    To determine the impact of prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) on the outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) renal grafts, we therefore performed a single-center retrospective analysis in adult patients receiving kidney transplantation (KT) from AKI donors. Outcomes were stratified according to duration of CIT. A total of 118 patients receiving AKI grafts were enrolled. Based on CIT, patients were stratified as follows: (i) 20 hours (P = NS). In the nine patients with CIT >40 hours, the 4-year DCGS rate was 100%. We conclude that prolonged CIT in AKI grafts may not adversely influence outcomes and so discard of AKI kidneys because of projected long CIT is not warranted when donors are wisely triaged. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Assessment of ischemia in acute central retinal vein occlusion from inner retinal reflectivity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browning DJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available David J Browning, Omar S Punjabi, Chong Lee Department of Ophthalmology, Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Associates, P.A., Charlotte, NC, USA Purpose: To determine the relationship between different spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT signs of retinal ischemia in acute central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO and whether they predict anterior segment neovascularization (ASNV.Design: Retrospective, observational study.Subjects: Thirty-nine consecutive patients with acute CRVO and 12 months of follow-up.Methods: We graded baseline SD-OCTs for increased reflectivity of the inner retina, loss of definition of inner retinal layers, presence of a prominent middle-limiting membrane (p-MLM sign, and presence of paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM. Graders were masked with respect to all clinical information.Results: The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs of grading–regrading by graders 1 and 2 were 0.8104, 95% confidence interval (CI (0.6686, 0.8956, and 0.7986, 95% CI (0.6475, 0.8892, respectively. The intragrader coefficients of repeatability (COR for graders 1 and 2 were 0.94 and 0.92, respectively. The ICC of graders 1 compared with 2 was 0.8039, 95% CI (0.6544, 0.8916. The intergrader COR was 0.80. SD-OCT grades of baseline ischemia were not associated with baseline visual acuity (VA, central subfield mean thickness (CSMT, or relative afferent pupillary defect; 12-month VA, CSMT, change in VA, change in CSMT, number of antivascular endothelial growth factor injections or corticosteroid injections, or proportion of eyes developing ASNV. SD-OCT grades of ischemia did not correlate with the proportion of eyes having the p-MLM sign or PAMM. PAMM and p-MLM are milder signs of ischemia than increased reflectivity of the inner retinal layers. Eyes with PAMM can evolve, losing PAMM and gaining the p-MLM sign.Conclusion: Grading of ischemia from SD-OCT in acute CRVO was repeatable within graders and reproducible across

  12. Acute mesenteric ischemia and hepatic infarction after treatment of ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, Shinobu; Murasawa, Shingo; Yamagata, Satoshi; Kageyama, Kazunori; Nigawara, Takeshi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kimura, Daisuke; Tsushima, Takao; Sakamoto, Yoshiyuki; Hakamada, Kenichi; Terui, Ken; Daimon, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Cushing's syndrome and excess exogenous glucocorticoids have an increased risk for venous thromboembolism, as well as arterial thrombi. The patients are at high risk of thromboembolic events, especially during active disease and even in cases of remission and after surgery in Cushing's syndrome and withdrawal state in glucocorticoid users. We present a case of Cushing's syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting lung carcinoid tumor. Our patient developed acute mesenteric ischemia after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery despite administration of sufficient glucocorticoid and thromboprophylaxis in the perioperative period. In addition, our patient developed hepatic infarction after surgical resection of the intestine. Then, the patient was supported by total parenteral nutrition. Our case report highlights the risk of microthrombi, which occurred in our patient after treatment of ectopic Cushing's syndrome. Guidelines on thromboprophylaxis and/or antiplatelet therapy for Cushing's syndrome are acutely needed. The present case showed acute mesenteric thromboembolism and hepatic infarction after treatment of ectopic Cushing's syndrome.Patients with Cushing's syndrome are at increased risk for thromboembolic events and increased morbidity and mortality.An increase in thromboembolic risk has been observed during active disease, even in cases of remission and postoperatively in Cushing's syndrome.Thromboprophylaxis and antiplatelet therapy should be considered in treatment of glucocorticoid excess or glucocorticoid withdrawal.

  13. S3226, a novel NHE3 inhibitor, attenuates ischemia-induced acute renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hropot, M; Juretschke, H P; Langer, K H; Schwark, J R

    2001-12-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) remains a major problem in clinical nephrology characterized by sudden loss of the kidney function due to ischemia, trauma, and/or nephrotoxic drugs. The current therapy of ARF is symptomatic with mortality rates exceeding 50%. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an intravenous infusion of S3226 (3-[2-(3-guanidino-2-methyl-3-oxopropenyl)-5-methyl-phenyl]-N-isopropylidene-2-methyl-acrylamide dihydrochloride), a selective Na+/H+ exchange subtype 3 (NHE3) blocker, in ischemia-induced ARF in rats. In a second series of experiments cytosolic pH (pHi) changes in the kidney during ARF were continuously measured by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). ARF was induced by bilateral occlusion of renal arteries for 40 minutes in three groups of anaesthetized Wistar rats. Control rats (N = 12) were infused with saline (6.25 mL/kg over 30 min) before occlusion and the compound groups (each N = 12) were infused with S3226 at a dose of 20 mg/kg over 30 minutes either before initiation of ischemia or immediately after release of clamps. Plasma creatinine (PCr), creatinine clearance (CCr), urine volume, sodium, and potassium excretion were determined up to seven days after release of clamps. In the second series of experiments in anaesthetized rats the left kidney was exposed by flank incision and fixed in a non-magnetic device. An inflatable cuff was positioned around the pedicle to induce ischemia without removing animals from the magnet. A double-tuned 1H-31P home-built surface coil was placed above the exposed kidney for the detection of pHi. At day 1 after ischemia CCr in the control group was significantly lower as compared to S3226-treated animals (control 0.30 +/- 0.05 vs. before 0.90 +/- 0.26 and reperfusion 0.83 +/- 0.15 mL/min/kg, respectively). PCr increased from 18 +/- 0.1 micromol/L before occlusion to 245 +/- 7 micromol/L in the control. The increase in PCr was significantly lower in the S3226 treated

  14. Effect of acute irradiation on the development of limbs in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajtova, V [Institut fuer Normale Anatomie der Hochschule fuer Veterinaermedizin, Kosice, Czechoslovakia; Horak, J

    1976-01-01

    The effect of acute irradiation on the limb development in sheep was studied. The pelvic area of a pregnant sheep was irradiated locally on the 28th, 29th and 30th days after fertilization. The fetus was removed on the 15th day after irradiation and treated histologically. A single exposure with 250 R (higher exposures killed the fetus) was found to cease the limb development on the 28th day after irradiation (the critical period of the sheep limb development), to induce persistence of the intermedial ray on the 29th and 30th days, an early disappearance of the side finger rays, an early disappearance, fusion or deformation of some carpal and tarsal elements on the 29th and the 30th days after irradiation.

  15. The effect of acute irradiation on the development of limbs in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajtova, V.; Horak, J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of acute irradiation on the limb development in sheep was studied. The pelvic area of a pregnant sheep was irradiated locally on the 28th, 29th and 30th days after fertilization. The fetus was removed on the 15th day after irradiation and treated histologically. A single exposure with 250 R (higher exposures killed the fetus) was found to cease the limb development on the 28th day after irradiation (the critical period of the sheep limb development), to induce persistence of the intermedial ray on the 29th and 30th days, an early disappearance of the side finger rays, an early disappearance, fusion or deformation of some carpal and tarsal elements on the 29th and the 30th days after irradiation. (author)

  16. Prevention of subsequent exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia by emergency coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction: comparison with intracoronary streptokinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, A.Y.; Lai, P.; Juni, J.E.; Bourdillon, P.D.; Walton, J.A. Jr.; Laufer, N.; Buda, A.J.; Pitt, B.; O'Neill, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and intracoronary streptokinase in preventing exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia, 28 patients presenting within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction were prospectively randomized. Of these, 14 patients were treated with emergency angioplasty and 14 patients received intracoronary streptokinase. Recatheterization and submaximal exercise thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography were performed before hospital discharge. Periinfarct ischemia was defined as a reversible thallium defect adjacent to a fixed defect assessed qualitatively. Successful reperfusion was achieved in 86% of patients treated with emergency angioplasty and 86% of patients treated with intracoronary streptokinase (p = NS). Residual stenosis of the infarct-related coronary artery shown at predischarge angiography was 43.8 +/- 31.4% for the angioplasty group and 75.0 +/- 15.6% for the streptokinase group (p less than 0.05). Of the angioplasty group, 9% developed exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia compared with 60% of the streptokinase group (p less than 0.05). Thus, patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with emergency angioplasty had significantly less severe residual coronary stenosis and exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia than did those treated with intracoronary streptokinase. These results suggest further application of coronary angioplasty in the management of acute myocardial infarction

  17. Hyperoxic preconditioning fails to confer additional protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in acute diabetic rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkhalili, Khalil; Hajizadeh, Sohrab; Akbari, Zahra; Dehaj, Mansour Esmaili; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Alizadeh, Alimohammad

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies show that detrimental effects of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury can be attenuated by hyperoxic preconditioning in normal hearts, however, there are few studies about hyperoxia effects in diseased myocardium. The present study was designed to assess the cardioprotective effects of hyperoxia pretreatment (≥ 95 % O2) in acute diabetic rat hearts. Normal and one week acute diabetic rats were either exposed to 60 (H60) and 180 (H180) min of hyperoxia or exposed to normal atmospheric air (21 % O2). Then hearts were isolated immediately and subjected to 30 min of regional ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Infarct size, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, enzymes release and ischemia induced arrhythmias were determined. Heart of diabetic control rats had less infarct size and decreased LDH and CK-MB release compared to normal hearts. 60 and 180 min of hyperoxia reduced myocardial infarct size and enzymes release in normal hearts. 180 min of hyperoxia also decreased cardiomyocytes apoptosis in normal state. On the other hand, protective values of hyperoxia were not significantly different in diabetic hearts. Moreover, hyperoxia reduced severity of ventricular arrhythmias in normal rat hearts whereas; it did not confer any additional antiarrhythmic protection in diabetic hearts. These findings suggest that diabetic hearts are less susceptible to ischemia-induced arrhythmias and infarction. Hyperoxia greatly protects rat hearts against I/R injury in normal hearts, however, it could not provide added cardioprotective effects in acute phase of diabetes.

  18. Safety and Effectiveness of Bone Marrow Cell Concentrate in the Treatment of Chronic Critical Limb Ischemia Utilizing a Rapid Point-of-Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Ponemone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical limb ischemia (CLI is the end stage of lower extremity peripheral vascular disease (PVD in which severe obstruction of blood flow results in ischemic rest pain, ulcers and/or gangrene, and a significant risk of limb loss. This open-label, single-arm feasibility study evaluated the safety and therapeutic effectiveness of autologous bone marrow cell (aBMC concentrate in revascularization of CLI patients utilizing a rapid point-of-care device. Seventeen (17 no-option CLI patients with ischemic rest pain were enrolled in the study. Single dose of aBMC, prepared utilizing an intraoperative point-of-care device, the Res-Q™ 60 BMC system, was injected intramuscularly into the afflicted limb and patients were followed up at regular intervals for 12 months. A statistically significant improvement in Ankle Brachial Index (ABI, Transcutaneous Oxygen Pressure (TcPO2, mean rest pain and intermittent claudication pain scores, wound/ ulcer healing, and 6-minute walking distance was observed following aBMC treatment. Major amputation-free survival (mAFS rate and amputation-free rates (AFR at 12 months were 70.6% and 82.3%, respectively. In conclusion, aBMC injections were well tolerated with improved tissue perfusion, confirming the safety, feasibility, and preliminary effectiveness of aBMC treatment in CLI patients.

  19. Long term effects of below-the-knee angioplasty in diabetic patients with critical ischemia of lower limbs referred to Sina Hospital during 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarghandi, Mohammad-Reza; Nazari, Iraj; Taghavi, Morteza; Rashidi, Abbas; Dardashti, Sanaz Karimi; Sadid, Donya; Esmaili, Leyli; Mahmoodi, Seyed Mostafa; Mousavi, Masood

    2015-03-01

    Despite significant advances in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers and below-the-knee critical ischemia, there are ongoing efforts to achieve a method with low complication, high success rate and persistence of long-term effects. The aim of the study was to examine the outcome of angioplasty in patients with below-the-knee critical ischemia referred to Hospital. This semi-experimental study conducted on diabetics patients treated with PTA (Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty) with critical ischemia of lower limbs referred to Sina Hospital. After discharge, the patients were followed weekly for the first month and then monthly up to 12 months. The procedure short-term effects were examined through evaluation of wound healing as well as patients' recovery and pain relief, after one month. Given the distribution type, parametric and non-parametric test were used to compare the results before and after treatment. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between variables. Twenty four patients participated in this study. The mean ankle-brachial index (ABI) at baseline was 0.55 ± 0.17. A month after angioplasty, the index increased statistically significant to 0.93 ± 0.16. The mean health score expressed by the patients at baseline was 5.48 ± 1.39. A month after angioplasty, it was significantly increased (6.32 ± 1.24). The mean pain score before enrollment was 6.68 ± 2.52 (according to VAS scale). There was a significant decrease over time (3.45 ± 1.13). The overall mean score of all patients at Rutherford Classification was 3.88 ± 0.63 at baseline. During the 1st month and 6th month follow-up, it was changed to Class 0 that was statistically significant in the first month. This study represents the mid-term outcomes of PTA. Although PTA treatment was associated with improved pain scores, satisfaction with health, classification of limb ischemia and diabetic foot ulcers, the effects only remain short-term and mid-term. However

  20. Midterm Outcomes From a Pilot Study of Percutaneous Deep Vein Arterialization for the Treatment of No-Option Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Steven; Tan, Yih Kai; Schreve, Michiel A; Ferraresi, Roberto; Varcoe, Ramon L; Schmidt, Andrej; Scheinert, Dierk; Mustapha, Jihad A; Lim, Darryl M; Ho, Derek; Tang, Tjun Y; Alexandrescu, Vlad-Adrian; Mutirangura, Pramook

    2017-10-01

    To report the initial clinical experience with percutaneous deep vein arterialization (PDVA) to treat critical limb ischemia (CLI) via the creation of an arteriovenous fistula. Seven patients (median age 85 years; 5 women) with CLI and no traditional endovascular or surgical revascularization options (no-option CLI) were recruited in a pilot study to determine the safety of PDVA. All patients were diabetic; 4 had Rutherford category 6 ischemia. Six were classified at high risk of amputation based on the Society for Vascular Surgery WIfI (wound, ischemia, and foot infection) classification. The primary safety endpoints were major adverse limb events and major adverse coronary events through 30 days and serious adverse events through 6 months. Secondary objectives included clinical efficacy based on outcome measures including thermal measurement, transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen (TcPO 2 ), clinical improvement at 6 months, and wound healing. The primary safety endpoints were achieved in 100% of patients, with no deaths, above-the-ankle amputations, or major reinterventions at 30 days. The technical success rate was 100%. Two myocardial infarctions occurred within 30 days, each with minor clinical consequences. All patients demonstrated symptomatic improvement with formation of granulation tissue, resolution of rest pain, or both. Complete wound healing was achieved in 4 of 7 patients and 5 of 7 patients at 6 and 12 months, respectively, with a median healing time of 4.6 months (95% confidence interval 84-192). Median postprocedure peak TcPO 2 was 61 mm Hg compared to a preprocedure level of 8 mm Hg (p=0.046). At the time of wound healing, 4 of 5 of patients achieved TcPO 2 levels of >40 mm Hg. There were 2 major amputations, 1 above the knee after PDVA thrombosis and 1 below the knee for infection. Three patients died of causes unrelated to the procedure or study device at 6, 7, and 8 months, respectively. Limb salvage was 71% at 12 months. PDVA is an

  1. Ten-year technical and clinical outcomes in TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus II infrainguinal C/D lesions using duplex ultrasound arterial mapping as the sole imaging modality for critical lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate duplex ultrasound arterial mapping (DUAM) as the sole imaging modality when planning for bypass surgery (BS) and endovascular revascularization (EvR) in patients with critical limb ischemia for TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II C\\/D infrainguinal lesions.

  2. Significance of the determination of doppler sonography haemodynamic indices for the assessment of distal perfusion in patients with critical ischemia of lower limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čizmić Milica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The perfusion of tissue, especially the muscles of the lower limbs (LL, implies the blood flow that carries enough nutrition, energy materials and oxygen. The aim of this study was to determine whether the decreased Doppler sonography parameters, resistance index (RI, and pulsatility index (PI were significant as indicators of irreversible ischemia of LL. Methods. In 40 patients (mean age 66±14.9 years, 21% women and 79% men with the signs of critical ischemia of LL, Lariche-Fontaine class III and IV, we performed contrast angiography of the LL arteries, and perfusion scintigraphy of LL using, thallium-201, while we performed Doppler sonography to determine resistance index (RI, as well as pulsatility index (PI. After that, all the patients were treated with vasodilatation using Bergmann's solution within a 10-day period. Following that, all the patients underwent the determination of haemodynamic indices RI and PI applying the methods of Doppler sonography. The obtained values of RI and PI indices revealed no clinical recovery which suggested the irreversibility of critical ischemia (unsuccessful therapy in 100% of the patients, and clinical recovery which suggested the reversibility of the disease (unsuccessful therapy in 80% of the patients. Results. The obtained values of PI = 0-0.3 and RI = 0-0.25 for the examined LL arteries were the indicators of irreversible ischemia. A significant correlation between the values of RI in the distal parts of a. tibialis anterior and posterior was proved, as well as between the decreased perfusion of LL determined by tallium-201 (p < 0.05, r = 0.43, and a tibialis anterior (p = 0.05, r = 0.38. There was, however, no statistically significant correlation between the angiographic values and perfusion scintigraphy of LL. Conclusion. The obtained values of haemodynamic RI and PI indices should be a novel approach for introducing a new criteria for the assessment of reversible and irreversible

  3. Pharmacologicalmodification of thegabaergicsystem as a potentialvariant of cerebral protection in acute cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Володимирович Тихоновський

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the possible impact of some derivatives of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, piracetam, picamilon and Krebs cycle intermediates - succinate (as sodium salt on the pathobiochemical changes in the central nervous system, that occur under experimental playing of acute ischemic tissue damage of the cerebrum.Research methods: The study was conducted in 96 rats Wistar, who were on a standardized vivarium diet. Cerebral ischemia was caused by bond of the unilateral common carotid artery. All drugs were administered intraperitoneally once daily for 4 days after modeling of an acute cerebral ischemia after which animals were withdrawn from experiment. In the brain tissues concentrations of pyruvic, izocitric, dairy and apple acids were determined. The activity of antioxidant enzymes: catalase and superoxide dysmutaza. In addition, the brain tissues the contents of lipid peroxidation products were evaluated – diene conjugates and malonic dialdehyde. Level of brain energy production was judged by the content of the adenylic nucleotide and also phosphocreatine . The degree of destruction of the brain cells was assessed by activity of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase in the blood and brain fraction of the creatine phosphokinase.Research results: As a result of studies, on the 4th day of ischemia a significant carbohydrate metabolism is detected, which is reflected in the sharp strengthening of anaerobic glycolysis and reduced activity of the Krebs cycle reactions, as evidenced by a significant increase in quantity of lactate and decrease in quantity of malate, isocitrate and pyruvate.A sharp strengthening of anaerobic glycolysis results in the accumulation of oxidized products and intermediates especially the latter product – lactic acid. Metabolic acidosis develops against the background of energy failure, which leads to activation of lipid peroxidation reactions. Courses appointment of the cyclic derivatives of GABA piracetam

  4. Combined therapy for critical limb ischemia: biomimetic PLGA microcarriers potentiates the pro-angiogenic effect of adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoareau, Laurence; Fouchet, Florian; Planesse, Cynthia; Mirbeau, Sophie; Sindji, Laurence; Delay, Emmanuel; Roche, Régis; Montero-Menei, Claudia N; Festy, Franck

    2018-04-14

    We propose a regenerative solution in the treatment of critical limb ischemia. Poly-lactic/glycolic acid (PLGA) microcarriers were prepared and coated with laminin to be sterilized through γ-irradiation of 25 kGy at low temperature. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells were extracted through enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice underwent arteriotomy and received an administration of SVF cells combined or not with biomimetic microcarriers. Functional evaluation of the ischemic limb was then reported and tissue reperfusion was evaluated through fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). Microcarriers were stable and functional after γ-irradiation until at least 12 months storage. Mice which received an injection of SVF cells in the ischemic limb have 22 % of supplementary blood supply within this limb 7 days after surgery compared to vehicle, whereas no difference was observed at day 14. With the combined therapy, the improvement of blood flow is significantly higher compared to vehicle, of about 31 % at day 7 and of about 11 % at day 14. Injection of SVF cells induces a significant 27 % decrease of necrosis compared to vehicle. This effect is more important when SVF cells were mixed with biomimetic microcarriers: - 37% compared to control. Although SVF cells injection leads to a non-significant 22 % proprioception recovery, the combined therapy induces a significant recovery of about 27 % compared to vehicle. We show that the combination of SVF cells from adipose tissue with laminin-coated PLGA microcarriers is efficient for CLI therapy in a diabetic mouse model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor attenuates ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou-Chin Lan

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (IR-induced acute lung injury (ALI is implicated in several clinical conditions including lung transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, re-expansion of collapsed lung from pneumothorax or pleural effusion and etc. IR-induced ALI remains a challenge in the current treatment. Carbonic anhydrase has important physiological function and influences on transport of CO2. Some investigators suggest that CO2 influences lung injury. Therefore, carbonic anhydrase should have the role in ALI. This study was undertaken to define the effect of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide (AZA, in IR-induced ALI, that was conducted in a rat model of isolated-perfused lung with 30 minutes of ischemia and 90 minutes of reperfusion. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 6 per group: sham, sham + AZA 200 mg/kg body weight (BW, IR, IR + AZA 100 mg/kg BW, IR + AZA 200 mg/kg BW and IR+ AZA 400 mg/kg BW. IR caused significant pulmonary micro-vascular hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension, neutrophilic sequestration, and an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Increases in carbonic anhydrase expression and perfusate pCO2 levels were noted, while decreased Na-K-ATPase expression was noted after IR. Administration of 200mg/kg BW and 400mg/kg BW AZA significantly suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-17 and attenuated IR-induced lung injury, represented by decreases in pulmonary hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension and neutrophilic sequestration. AZA attenuated IR-induced lung injury, associated with decreases in carbonic anhydrase expression and pCO2 levels, as well as restoration of Na-K-ATPase expression.

  6. Role of TRPV1 channels in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 -positive sensory nerves are widely distributed in the kidney, suggesting that TRPV1-mediated action may participate in the regulation of renal function under pathophysiological conditions. Stimulation of TRPV1 channels protects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced acute kidney injury (AKI. However, it is unknown whether inhibition of these channels is detrimental in AKI or not. We tested the role of TRPV1 channels in I/R-induced AKI by modulating these channels with capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist, capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist and using Trpv1-/- mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 25 min of renal ischemia and 24 hrs of reperfusion. Mice were pretreated with capsaicin (0.3 mg/kg body weight or capsazepine (50 mg/kg body weight. Capsaicin ameliorated the outcome of AKI, as measured by serum creatinine levels, tubular damage,neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL abundance and Ly-6B.2 positive polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells in injured kidneys. Neither capsazepine nor deficiency of TRPV1 did deteriorate renal function or histology after AKI. Measurements of endovanilloids in kidney tissue indicate that 20-hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid (20-HETE or epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs are unlikely involved in the beneficial effects of capsaicin on I/R-induced AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of TRPV1 channels ameliorates I/R-induced AKI, but inhibition of these channels does not affect the outcome of AKI. Our results may have clinical implications for long-term safety of renal denervation to treat resistant hypertension in man, with respect to the function of primary sensory nerves in the response of the kidney to ischemic stimuli.

  7. Allogeneic transplantation of programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO) improves angiogenesis and tissue recovery in critical limb ischemia (CLI): a translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Rouven; Hummitzsch, Lars; Heß, Katharina; Albrecht, Martin; Zitta, Karina; Rusch, Rene; Sarras, Beke; Bayer, Andreas; Cremer, Jochen; Faendrich, Fred; Groß, Justus

    2018-04-27

    Employing growth factor-induced partial reprogramming in vitro, peripheral human blood monocytes can acquire a state of plasticity along with expression of various markers of pluripotency. These so-called programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO) hold great promise in regenerative therapies. The aim of this translational study was to explore and exploit the functional properties of PCMO for allogeneic cell transplantation therapy in critical limb ischemia (CLI). Using our previously described differentiation protocol, murine and human monocytes were differentiated into PCMO. We examined paracrine secretion of pro-angiogenic and tissue recovery-associated proteins under hypoxia and induction of angiogenesis by PCMO in vitro. Allogeneic cell transplantation of PCMO was performed in a hind limb ischemia mouse model in comparison to cell transplantation of native monocytes and a placebo group. Moreover, we analyzed retrospectively four healing attempts with PCMO in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD; Rutherford classification, stage 5 and 6). Statistical analysis was performed by using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test or the Student's t test, p < 0.05. Cell culture experiments revealed good resilience of PCMO under hypoxia, enhanced paracrine release of pro-angiogenic and tissue recovery-associated proteins and induction of angiogenesis in vitro by PCMO. Animal experiments demonstrated significantly enhanced SO 2 saturation, blood flow, neoangiogenesis and tissue recovery after treatment with PCMO compared to treatment with native monocytes and placebo. Finally, first therapeutic application of PCMO in humans demonstrated increased vascular collaterals and improved wound healing in patients with chronic CLI without exaggerated immune response, malignant processes or extended infection after 12 months. In all patients minor and/or major amputations of the lower extremity could be avoided. In summary, PCMO improve angiogenesis and tissue recovery in chronic

  8. Thrombolysis for acute lower limb arterial embolism in patients with recent cerebral embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Tongguo; Guo Zhi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of catheter-directed thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA)for acute limb embolism in patients with recent cerebral embolism. Methods: Eight patients with atrial fibrillation history happened to suffer acute limb embolism after recent cerebral embolism. The affected arteries included 2 left common iliac arteries, 4 femoral arteries (3 left, 1 right), 2 right popliteal arteries. Catheter-directed thrombolysis with rt-PA was applied with bolus administration plus continuous perfusion. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with balloon dilatation was applied in 3 patients, and one stent placement in one patient. Results: The mean duration of continuous perfusion was 3.6 hours and the mean dose of rt-PA administered was 23.6 mg (range, 20-28 mg)with complete recanalization rate of 100%. Clinical complete relief rate was 7/8 with one patient suffering from rest pain due to distal occlusion of anterior/posterior tibial artery. The complications included hematoma at puncture site (6/8), bleeding around the vascular sheath (2/8)and hematuria (1/8). NO intracerebral hemorrhage was found on CT scans after the thrombolysis. During follow up of 3-6 months, no recurrent embolism or thrombosis occurred in the limbs except one patient with recurrent cerebral embolism and died. Conclusions: Catheter-directed thrombolysis with rt-PA is probably to be a safe and effective method for acute limb embolism in patients with recent cerebral embolism and atrial fibrillation history. (authors)

  9. Acute Effect of Static Stretching on Lower Limb Movement Performance by Using STABL Virtual Reality System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Mariam A; Muaidi, Qassim I

    2017-07-17

    The effect of acute static stretch (ASS) on the lower limb RT has been recently questioned to decrease the risk of falling and injuries in situations requiring a rapid reaction, as in the cases of balance disturbance. The main purpose of this study was to detect the effect of ASS on the lower limb RT by using virtual reality device. Two Group Control Group design. Research laboratory. The control and experimental groups were formed randomly from sixty female university students. Each participant in the experimental group was tested before and after ASS for the quadriceps, hamstrings and planter flexor muscles, and compared with the control group with warming-up exercise only. The stretching program involved warming-up in the form of circular running inside the lab for 5 minutes followed by stretching of each muscle group thrice, to the limit of discomfort of 45 s, with resting period of 15s between stretches. The measurements included the RT of the dominant lower extremity by using the dynamic stability program, STABL Virtual Reality System (Model No. DIZ 2709, Motek Medical and Force Link Merged Co., Amsterdam). There was statistically significant reduction (F = 162, P= .00) in post-test RT between the two groups, and significant decrease in RT after stretching, in the experimental group (7.5%) (P= .00). ASS of the lower limb muscles tends to decrease the lower limb RT and improve movement performance.

  10. Acute myocardial ischemia after aortic valve replacement: A comprehensive diagnostic evaluation using dynamic multislice spiral computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembcke, Alexander [Department of Radiology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: alexander.lembcke@gmx.de; Hein, Patrick A. [Department of Radiology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Enzweiler, Christian N.H. [Department of Radiology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, Udo [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Klessen, Christian [Department of Radiology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Dohmen, Pascal M. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    We describe the case of a 72-year-old man presenting with endocarditis and clinical signs of acute myocardial ischemia after biological aortic valve replacement. A comprehensive cardiac dynamic multislice spiral computed tomography demonstrated: (1) an endocarditic vegetation of the aortic valve; (2) a subvalvular leakage feeding a paravalvular pseudoaneurysm based on an aortic root abscess with subsequent compromise of the systolic blood flow in the left main coronary artery and the resulting myocardial perfusion deficit.

  11. Acute myocardial ischemia after aortic valve replacement: A comprehensive diagnostic evaluation using dynamic multislice spiral computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembcke, Alexander; Hein, Patrick A.; Enzweiler, Christian N.H.; Hoffmann, Udo; Klessen, Christian; Dohmen, Pascal M.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the case of a 72-year-old man presenting with endocarditis and clinical signs of acute myocardial ischemia after biological aortic valve replacement. A comprehensive cardiac dynamic multislice spiral computed tomography demonstrated: (1) an endocarditic vegetation of the aortic valve; (2) a subvalvular leakage feeding a paravalvular pseudoaneurysm based on an aortic root abscess with subsequent compromise of the systolic blood flow in the left main coronary artery and the resulting myocardial perfusion deficit

  12. Revascularization for critical limb ischemia using the SpiderFX embolic protection device in the below-the-knee circulation: initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Thomas J; Piechowiak, Rachel L; Patel, Rahul S; Fischman, Aaron M; Nowakowski, F Scott; Kim, Edward; Ellozy, Sharif H; Faries, Peter L; Lookstein, Robert A

    2014-10-01

    To examine the safety and efficacy of the SpiderFX embolic protection device (EPD) in the below-the-knee (BTK) circulation in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). A single-center retrospective review was performed to identify patients with CLI and single-vessel runoff in whom the SpiderFX EPD was used in the BTK circulation. Technical success and device-related complications were the primary endpoints. Retrieval of macroscopic debris in the EPD, 1-year freedom from major adverse limb events (MALEs), and 30-day perioperative death were also evaluated. A major amputation, surgical bypass, endovascular thrombectomy, or endovascular thrombolysis was considered a MALE. Thirty-six patients (21 men; mean age, 75.8 y) treated between 2008 and 2013 had endovascular revascularization with use of the SpiderFX EPD in the BTK circulation. The SpiderFX EPD was successfully deployed in all cases; the technical success rate of revascularization was 100%. Two minor and zero major complications were observed related to the SpiderFX. Two MALEs, a major amputation and a subsequent surgical bypass, were observed in the cohort. All MALEs occurred within 1 year of treatment (1-y freedom from MALE rate, 90%). Debris was retrieved in the SpiderFX device in 47% of patients. The use of the SpiderFX EPD in the BTK circulation in patients with CLI is safe and frequently retrieves debris. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Duplex Scanning in the Selection of Patients with Critical Lower-Limb Ischemia for Infrainguinal Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefberg, Anne-Marie; Karacagil, Sadettin; Hellberg, Anders; Bostroem, Annika; Ljungman, Christer; Ostholm, Goerel

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of duplex scanning in the selection of patients with critical lower-limb ischemia (CLI) for infrainguinal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA).Methods: One hundred and sixty-two limbs with CLI (150 patients) that underwent duplex scanning within 3 months prior to conventional diagnostic angiography (n = 88) or infrainguinal PTA (n = 74) were retrospectively studied. The findings obtained from duplex scanning and angiography were analyzed in a masked fashion by two different investigators.Results: The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of duplex scanning in the selection of patients for infrainguinal PTA were 86%, 84%, 89%, 86%, and 87% respectively. Forty-two procedures (57%) were performed at multiple arterial segments. The accuracy of duplex scanning in the selection of femoropopliteal and crural lesions for PTA was over 85%. However, the sensitivity of duplex scanning in the selection of popliteal and crural lesions for PTA was 49% and 38% respectively, compared with 80% for superior femoral artery lesions. In 39% of patients who were correctly selected for PTA, duplex scanning misdiagnosed one of the multiple lesions treated by PTA.Conclusion: Duplex scanning can safely be used for the selection of patients for infrainguinal PTA. The sensitivity of duplex scanning in the selection of lesions for PTA was less satisfactory in the popliteal and crural arteries compared with the femoropopliteal arteries

  14. Predictors of delayed wound healing after endovascular therapy of isolated infrapopliteal lesions underlying critical limb ischemia in patients with high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, T; Iida, O; Takahara, M; Soga, Y; Yamauchi, Y; Hirano, K; Kawasaki, D; Fujihara, M; Utsunomiya, M; Tazaki, J; Yamaoka, T; Shintani, Y; Suematsu, N; Suzuki, K; Miyashita, Y; Tsuchiya, T; Uematsu, M

    2015-05-01

    Acceptable limb salvage rates underlie the widespread use of endovascular therapy (EVT) for patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) secondary to isolated infrapopliteal lesions; however, post-EVT delayed wound healing remains a challenge. Predictors of delayed wound healing and their use in risk stratification of EVT in patients with CLI due to isolated infrapopliteal lesions are explored. This was a retrospective multicenter study. 871 consecutive critically ischemic limbs were studied. There was tissue loss in 734 patients (age: 71 ± 10 years old; 71% male) who had undergone EVT between April 2004 and December 2012. The wound healing rate after EVT was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The association between baseline characteristics and delayed wound healing was assessed by the Cox proportional hazard model. Diabetes mellitus and regular dialysis were present in 75% (553/734) and 64% (476/734) of patients, respectively; 67% of limbs (585/871) had Rutherford class 5 CLI; 8% (67/871) of wounds were located in the heel only; 25% (219/871) of limbs had Rutherford 6 (involving not only the heel); and 42% (354/871) of wounds were complicated by infection. The rate of freedom from major amputation at 1 year reached 88%, whereas the wound healing rate was 67%. Median time to wound healing was 146 days. By multivariate analysis, non-ambulatory status (hazard ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-1.91) serum albumin wound infection (HR 1.24; 95% CI 1.03-1.50), EVT not based on angiosome concept (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.06-1.55), and below the ankle (BTA) 0 vessel runoff after EVT (HR 1.45; 95% CI 1.14-1.86) were independent predictors of delayed wound healing. Non-ambulatory status, low albumin level, Rutherford 6 (not only heel), wound infection, indirect intervention, and poor BTA runoff were independent predictors for delayed wound healing after EVT in patients with CLI secondary to infrapopliteal lesions, and their use in risk stratification allows

  15. The Use of the Profunda Femoral Artery as the Sole Target Vessel to Bypass Aortoiliac Disease in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia and Concomitant Unreconstructable Infrainguinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Lioudaki, Stella; Chronis, Christos; Kalogerakos, Paris; Lazopoulos, George; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Ioannou, Christos V

    2018-04-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) often results from multilevel occlusive disease. There are occasions where a patent profunda femoral artery (PFA) is the only target artery that can be used as outflow during reconstruction to bypass aortoiliac disease (AOID), with no further option for infrainguinal revascularization. We aim to report results of the use of PFA as the sole target vessel for the treatment of these patients. This is a retrospective, single-center study including CLI patients treated during 36 months. All procedures were included regardless of inflow site. The outcomes examined were hemodynamic improvement, clinical status change, amputation-free and overall survival, and patency of the prosthesis. Univariate analysis was performed to identify possible predictors of adverse outcomes. Twenty-three patients and 27 limbs were included (2 female, mean age 70.6). Sixteen limbs presented rest pain and 11 tissue loss. Inflow was obtained from the axillary (n = 9), contralateral femoral (n = 8), abdominal aorta (n = 2), thoracic aorta (n = 1), ipsilateral external iliac (n = 2), and contralateral external iliac artery (n = 1). Immediately postoperatively ankle-brachial index significantly increased from 0.15 (0-0.5) to 0.50 (0.25-0.9), (P-value limbs presented clinical improvement (3 minimally, 18 moderately, and 3 markedly improved) and 3 presented no change. During a mean follow-up of 15.8 (2-36) months, we recorded 4 deaths and 4 major amputations. Mean predicted overall survival and amputation-free survival were 29.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 24.5-35.1) and 26.5 months (95% CI 21.1-31.8), respectively. Predicted primary patency was 76% at 3 years. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations only between bypass patency and limp loss (P-value = 0.021). In the presence of CLI due to AOID and unreconstructable infrainguinal disease, the use of PFA as the sole target vessel during bypass is associated with significant rates of clinical

  16. Rationale and design of the SAIL trial for intramuscular injection of allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells in no-option critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnand, Joep G J; Teraa, Martin; Gremmels, Hendrik; van Rhijn-Brouwer, Femke C C; de Borst, Gert J; Verhaar, Marianne C

    2018-02-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) represents the most severe form of peripheral artery disease and has an immense impact on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. A considerable proportion of CLI patients are ineligible for revascularization, leaving amputation as the only option. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), because of their vasculoregenerative and immunomodulatory characteristics, have emerged as a potential new treatment. The primary objective of this trial is to investigate whether intramuscular administration of allogeneic bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs is safe and potentially effective. The SAIL (allogeneic mesenchymal Stromal cells for Angiogenesis and neovascularization in no-option Ischemic Limbs) trial is a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial to investigate the effect of allogeneic BM-MSCs in patients with CLI who are not eligible for conventional revascularization. A total of 66 patients will be included and randomized (1:1) to undergo 30 intramuscular injections with either BM-MSCs (5 × 10 6 MSCs per injection) or placebo in the ischemic lower extremity. Primary outcome, that is, therapy success, a composite outcome consisting of mortality, limb status, clinical status, and changes in pain score, will be assessed at 6 months. All study-related procedures will take place in the University Medical Center Utrecht in The Netherlands. If our results indicate that intramuscular allogeneic BM-MSC therapy for CLI is safe and potentially effective, this will have important consequences for treatment of patients with CLI. A large multicenter clinical trial with longer follow-up focusing on hard end points should then be initiated to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endovascular Therapy as a Primary Revascularization Modality in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kärkkäinen, Jussi M.; Lehtimäki, Tiina T.; Saari, Petri; Hartikainen, Juha; Rantanen, Tuomo; Paajanen, Hannu; Manninen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate endovascular therapy (EVT) as the primary revascularization method for acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI).MethodsA retrospective review was performed on all consecutive patients treated for AMI during a 5-year period (January 2009 to December 2013). EVT was attempted in all patients referred for emergent revascularization. Surgical revascularization was performed selectively after failure of EVT. Patient characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcomes were studied. Failures and complications of EVT were recorded.ResultsFifty patients, aged 79 ± 9 years (mean ± SD), out of 66 consecutive patients with AMI secondary to embolic or thrombotic obstruction of the superior mesenteric artery were referred for revascularization. The etiology of AMI was embolism in 18 (36 %) and thrombosis in 32 (64 %) patients. EVT was technically successful in 44 (88 %) patients. Mortality after successful or failed EVT was 32 %. The rates of emergency laparotomy, bowel resection, and EVT-related complication were 40, 34, and 10 %, respectively. Three out of six patients with failure of EVT were treated with surgical bypass. EVT failure did not significantly affect survival.ConclusionsEVT is feasible in most cases of AMI, with favorable patient outcome and acceptable complication rate

  18. Endovascular Therapy as a Primary Revascularization Modality in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kärkkäinen, Jussi M., E-mail: jkarkkai@gmail.com [Kuopio University Hospital, Heart Center (Finland); Lehtimäki, Tiina T., E-mail: tiina.lehtimaki@kuh.fi; Saari, Petri, E-mail: petri.saari@kuh.fi [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology (Finland); Hartikainen, Juha, E-mail: juha.hartikainen@kuh.fi [Kuopio University Hospital, Heart Center (Finland); Rantanen, Tuomo, E-mail: tuomo.rantanen@kuh.fi; Paajanen, Hannu, E-mail: hannu.paajanen@kuh.fi [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery (Finland); Manninen, Hannu, E-mail: hannu.manninen@kuh.fi [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology (Finland)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeTo evaluate endovascular therapy (EVT) as the primary revascularization method for acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI).MethodsA retrospective review was performed on all consecutive patients treated for AMI during a 5-year period (January 2009 to December 2013). EVT was attempted in all patients referred for emergent revascularization. Surgical revascularization was performed selectively after failure of EVT. Patient characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcomes were studied. Failures and complications of EVT were recorded.ResultsFifty patients, aged 79 ± 9 years (mean ± SD), out of 66 consecutive patients with AMI secondary to embolic or thrombotic obstruction of the superior mesenteric artery were referred for revascularization. The etiology of AMI was embolism in 18 (36 %) and thrombosis in 32 (64 %) patients. EVT was technically successful in 44 (88 %) patients. Mortality after successful or failed EVT was 32 %. The rates of emergency laparotomy, bowel resection, and EVT-related complication were 40, 34, and 10 %, respectively. Three out of six patients with failure of EVT were treated with surgical bypass. EVT failure did not significantly affect survival.ConclusionsEVT is feasible in most cases of AMI, with favorable patient outcome and acceptable complication rate.

  19. The use of intraperitoneal xenon for early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharagozloo, F.; Bulkley, G.B.; Zuidema, G.D.; O'Mara, C.S.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated the technique of intraperitoneal use of xenon Xe 133, previously described for the diagnosis of early intestinal strangulation obstruction in rats and dogs, for the recognition of acute mesenteric vascular occlusion in these animals. 133 Xe was injected intraperitoneally into five groups of six rats: control, sham operation, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) ligation, superior mesenteric vein ligation, and portal vein ligation. Residual gamma-activity was monitored by external counting and camera imaging. At 30 minutes after injection, the activity was significantly higher in the rats from the three groups with vascular ligation than in the control and sham operation animals (P less than 0.001). gamma-Camera images reflected these findings, with positive images only in the rats that underwent vascular ligation. ''Blinded'' readings of the 30 sets of scans confirmed the diagnostic accuracy of the images. Results were essentially the same in a second series of experiments in eight control dogs and six dogs with balloon occlusion of the SMA. Concentrations of isotope in ischemic intestine ranged from 10(3) to 10(5) times the levels in adjacent normal bowel. These levels and the positive images appeared early, prior to the development of tissue necrosis. The intraperitoneal use of 133 Xe therefore continues to show promise for the recognition of patients with early intestinal ischemia

  20. The use of intraperitoneal xenon for early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, F.; Bulkley, G.B.; Zuidema, G.D.; O' Mara, C.S.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-04-01

    We evaluated the technique of intraperitoneal use of xenon Xe 133, previously described for the diagnosis of early intestinal strangulation obstruction in rats and dogs, for the recognition of acute mesenteric vascular occlusion in these animals. /sup 133/Xe was injected intraperitoneally into five groups of six rats: control, sham operation, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) ligation, superior mesenteric vein ligation, and portal vein ligation. Residual gamma-activity was monitored by external counting and camera imaging. At 30 minutes after injection, the activity was significantly higher in the rats from the three groups with vascular ligation than in the control and sham operation animals (P less than 0.001). gamma-Camera images reflected these findings, with positive images only in the rats that underwent vascular ligation. ''Blinded'' readings of the 30 sets of scans confirmed the diagnostic accuracy of the images. Results were essentially the same in a second series of experiments in eight control dogs and six dogs with balloon occlusion of the SMA. Concentrations of isotope in ischemic intestine ranged from 10(3) to 10(5) times the levels in adjacent normal bowel. These levels and the positive images appeared early, prior to the development of tissue necrosis. The intraperitoneal use of /sup 133/Xe therefore continues to show promise for the recognition of patients with early intestinal ischemia.

  1. Whole brain CT perfusion in acute anterior circulation ischemia: coverage size matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmer, B.J.; Rijkee, M.; Walderveen, M.A.A. van; Niesten, J.M.; Velthuis, B.K.; Wermer, M.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare infarct core volume on whole brain CT perfusion (CTP) with several limited coverage sizes (i.e., 3, 4, 6, and 8 cm), as currently used in routine clinical practice. In total, 40 acute ischemic stroke patients with non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CTP imaging of anterior circulation ischemia were included. Imaging was performed using a 320-multislice CT. Average volumes of infarct core of all simulated partial coverage sizes were calculated. Infarct core volume of each partial brain coverage was compared with infarct core volume of whole brain coverage and expressed using a percentage. To determine the optimal starting position for each simulated CTP coverage, the percentage of infarct coverage was calculated for every possible starting position of the simulated partial coverage in relation to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in Acute Stroke Triage (ASPECTS 1) level. Whole brain CTP coverage further increased the percentage of infarct core volume depicted by 10 % as compared to the 8-cm coverage when the bottom slice was positioned at the ASPECTS 1 level. Optimization of the position of the region of interest (ROI) in 3 cm, 4 cm, and 8 cm improved the percentage of infarct depicted by 4 % for the 8-cm, 7 % for the 4-cm, and 13 % for the 3-cm coverage size. This study shows that whole brain CTP is the optimal coverage for CTP with a substantial improvement in accuracy in quantifying infarct core size. In addition, our results suggest that the optimal position of the ROI in limited coverage depends on the size of the coverage. (orig.)

  2. Whole brain CT perfusion in acute anterior circulation ischemia: coverage size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmer, B.J. [Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Postbus 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rijkee, M.; Walderveen, M.A.A. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Niesten, J.M.; Velthuis, B.K. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wermer, M.J.H. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Our aim was to compare infarct core volume on whole brain CT perfusion (CTP) with several limited coverage sizes (i.e., 3, 4, 6, and 8 cm), as currently used in routine clinical practice. In total, 40 acute ischemic stroke patients with non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CTP imaging of anterior circulation ischemia were included. Imaging was performed using a 320-multislice CT. Average volumes of infarct core of all simulated partial coverage sizes were calculated. Infarct core volume of each partial brain coverage was compared with infarct core volume of whole brain coverage and expressed using a percentage. To determine the optimal starting position for each simulated CTP coverage, the percentage of infarct coverage was calculated for every possible starting position of the simulated partial coverage in relation to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in Acute Stroke Triage (ASPECTS 1) level. Whole brain CTP coverage further increased the percentage of infarct core volume depicted by 10 % as compared to the 8-cm coverage when the bottom slice was positioned at the ASPECTS 1 level. Optimization of the position of the region of interest (ROI) in 3 cm, 4 cm, and 8 cm improved the percentage of infarct depicted by 4 % for the 8-cm, 7 % for the 4-cm, and 13 % for the 3-cm coverage size. This study shows that whole brain CTP is the optimal coverage for CTP with a substantial improvement in accuracy in quantifying infarct core size. In addition, our results suggest that the optimal position of the ROI in limited coverage depends on the size of the coverage. (orig.)

  3. Arctigenin: A two-edged sword in ischemia/reperfusion induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feng; Xia, Xin-Xin; Dou, Meng; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Xue, Wu-Jun; Ding, Xiao-Ming; Zheng, Jin; Ding, Chen-Guang; Tian, Pu-Xun

    2018-04-27

    Arctigenin (ATG) is one of the main active substances in fruit derived from Arctium lappa L. Previous studies have reported that ATG have antitumor, neuroprotective, antioxidant, antifibrosis and anti-inflammatory functions. However, the actions of ATG in kidney with acute injury following ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) is still uncertain. In our study, mice were subjected to kidney I/R by having the kidney pedicles clamped and administered with vehicle or ATG (1, 3 or 9 mg/kg/d) via oral gavage for 7 consecutive days prior to I/R. Notably, ATG aggravated kidney I/R injury with the concentration increases. Multiple biochemical assays and histological examination showed ATG significantly alleviated the inflammatory response as reflected by a decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokine, TLR4/MyD88, and NF-κB, along with the infiltration of CD68 + macrophage and CD11b + Gr1 + neutrophil in the kidneys. Meanwhile, ATG alleviated I/R-induced oxidative stress proved by increasing kidney manganese superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity but reducing levels of malonaldehyde and inducible nitric oxide synthase. On the contrary, apoptosis was significantly increased in kidneys of ATG-treated mice compared with vehicle-treated controls, especially in tubular cells. There were increased numbers of TUNEL positive cells and increased Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved-caspase-3, and cleaved-caspase-9 expression. The current study demonstrates that pretreatment of ATG aggravates I/R induced acute kidney injury by increasing apoptosis of tubular cells despite reducing infiltrating inflammatory cells and proinflammatory cytokine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Therapeutic Effect of Low Doses of Acenocoumarol in the Course of Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Warzecha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular activation of coagulation is observed in acute pancreatitis and is related to the severity of this inflammation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of acenocoumarol therapy on the course of acute pancreatitis induced in male rats by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion. Acenocoumarol at a dose of 50, 100, or 150 µg/kg/dose was administered intragastrically once a day, starting the first dose 24 h after the initiation of pancreatic reperfusion. Results: Histological examination showed that treatment with acenocoumarol reduces pancreatic edema, necrosis, and hemorrhages in rats with pancreatitis. Moreover, the administration of acenocoumarol decreased pancreatic inflammatory infiltration and vacuolization of pancreatic acinar cells. These findings were accompanied with a reduction in the serum activity of lipase and amylase, concentration of interleukin-1β, and plasma d-Dimer concentration. Moreover, the administration of acenocoumarol improved pancreatic blood flow and pancreatic DNA synthesis. Acenocoumarol given at a dose of 150 µg/kg/dose was the most effective in the treatment of early phase acute pancreatitis. However later, acenocoumarol given at the highest dose failed to exhibit any therapeutic effect; whereas lower doses of acenocoumarol were still effective in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Conclusion: Treatment with acenocoumarol accelerates the recovery of ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.

  5. Protective effect of active perfusion in porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zanxiang; Mao, Zhifu; Dong, Shengjun; Liu, Baohui

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates associated with off-pump coronary artery bypass (CAB) are relatively high, as the majority of patients requiring CAB are at a high risk for cardiac events. The present study aimed to establish porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia, and evaluate the protective role of shunt and active perfusion. A total of 30 pigs were randomly assigned to five groups, as follows: i) Sham (control); ii) A1 (shunt; stenosis rate, 55%); iii) A2 (shunt; stenosis rate, 75%); iv) B1 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 55%); and v) B2 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 75%) groups. Aortic pressure (P0), left anterior descending coronary pressure (P1), and coronary effective perfusion pressure (P1/P0) were measured. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cardiac troponin (cTnI), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and caspase-3 were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or western blotting. The myocardial apoptosis rate was determined using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Ischemia models with stenosis rates of 55 and 75% were successfully constructed following suturing of the descending artery. Compared with the control, the 55 and 75% stenosis groups demonstrated significantly decreased P1/P0, increased expression levels of TNF-α, cTnI, CK-MB, IL-6, IL-10 and caspase-3, an increased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and a decreased expression level of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. At 30 min following successful establishment of the model (ST segment elevation to 1 mm), group B demonstrated significantly increased P1/P0, decreased expression levels of TNF-α, cTnI, CK-MB, IL-6, IL-10 and caspase-3, a decreased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and an increased expression level of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. Furthermore, the current study indicated that active perfusion was more efficacious in maintaining myocardial perfusion and alleviating

  6. Pathophysiology of brain ischemia as it relates to the therapy of acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A

    1990-01-01

    Current knowledge of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, summarized in the present study, predicts that neurological deficits caused by moderate ischemia (flows in the penumbral range between 23 and 10 ml/100 g/min) are reversible provided flow is restored within 3-4 h of onset. It also...

  7. Dynamics of markers of markers of acute kidney injury when using epidural block during resection under warm ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the time course of changes in the early biomarkers of acute kidney injury in patients with clinically localized cancer during partial nephrectomy, as electively indicated, under thermal ischemia with prior epidural block.Materials and methods. To analyze the nephroprotective effect of an epidural block in kidney resection with warm ischemia, markers of acute kidney injury (cystatin C, interleukin 18, NGAL, L-FABP and KIM-1 were studied by ELISA in the blood and urine of 35 patients with local cancer with an epidural block (main group and 37 patients with local cancer without an epidural block (control group before surgery and 40 min after its beginning and on days 1 and 3 of the postoperative period. All patients were divided into 2 groups by the levels of cystatin C in the blood serum: 1000 ng/ml and lower, and over 1000 ng/ml.Results. Epidural block during the perioperative period in kidney resection with warm ischemia for patients with local cancer had an obvious nephroprotective effect allowing maintaining the initial renal functional parameters, in contrast to the standard disease management.

  8. Free Radical Damage in Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: An Obstacle in Acute Ischemic Stroke after Revascularization Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shuo Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ischemic stroke is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and endovascular thrombectomy are the main revascularization therapies for acute ischemic stroke. However, ischemia-reperfusion injury after revascularization therapy can result in worsening outcomes. Among all possible pathological mechanisms of ischemia-reperfusion injury, free radical damage (mainly oxidative/nitrosative stress injury has been found to play a key role in the process. Free radicals lead to protein dysfunction, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation, resulting in cell death. Additionally, free radical damage has a strong connection with inducing hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema, which are the major complications of revascularization therapy, and mainly influencing neurological outcomes due to the disruption of the blood-brain barrier. In order to get a better clinical prognosis, more and more studies focus on the pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical neuroprotective therapies against free radical damage. This review discusses the pathological mechanisms of free radicals in ischemia-reperfusion injury and adjunctive neuroprotective therapies combined with revascularization therapy against free radical damage.

  9. Endovascular diagnostics and treatment of stenosis, acute thrombosis and chronic occlusion of arteries and upper limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, I.; Zechirov, B.; Stanoev, D.; Velikov, C.; Smilkova, D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Diseases of the upper limb arteries are significantly rarer than those of the lower limbs but they are not causes and due to the lack of diagnostic algorithms are often missed. the symptoms are not typical except for those in acute thrombosis. The complaints in acute thrombosis is strong, sudden pain in the limb or part of it, bruising or paleness of the ischemic area and a lack of pulsation. Diagnosis is fairly easy – clinical events, difference in blood pressure or a lack of blood pressure in the affected limb, a total lack of blood pressure or a difference in the pressure in the left and right arm. Then complaints in stenosis and chronic occlusions is significantly less pronounced and is expressed as weakness in the affected limb, heaviness, bluish or paleness. If the proximal segments are affected Still’s syndrome is often observed. The complaints is not decisive for diagnosis. A difference in blood pressure of more than 20 mm Hg and an echodoppler examination of the arteries are the main criteria for directing the patients for angiography. Contrast CT and MRT are not used often. treatment is vascular surgery and endovascular. In acute thrombosis priority takes vascular surgery through extraction of the thrombi with Fogerty catheters, and in chronical stenosis and occlusions – dilation and stenting. Clinical cases: Case 1 – Revascularization of artery brachialis, radialis and ulnaris after acute occlusion L.Y., 77 years old. Complains of sharp pain and bruising of right forearm since two hours before hospitalization. A lack of blood flow was identified using palpation and echodoppler. After a diagnostic angiography , thrombaspiration was undertaken, through a leading catheter, recovering blood flow in both arteries and stenting of the proximal segment of artery radialis. Case 2: Revascularization of Trunkus brachiocefalicus K.P., 65 years old. Suffering from bradypsychia for several months. Bradypsychia becomes worse after manual labor

  10. Acute administration of n-3 rich triglyceride emulsions provides cardioprotection in murine models after ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirpoli, Hylde; Abdillahi, Mariane; Quadri, Nosirudeen; Ananthakrishnan, Radha; Wang, Lingjie; Rosario, Rosa; Zhu, Zhengbin; Deckelbaum, Richard J; Ramasamy, Ravichandran

    2015-01-01

    Dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We questioned whether acute administration of n-3 rich triglyceride (TG) emulsions could preserve cardiac function and decrease injury after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) insult. We used two different experimental models: in vivo, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), and ex-vivo, C57BL/6 murine hearts were perfused using Langendorff technique (LT). In the LAD model, mice treated with n-3 TG emulsion (1.5 g/kg body weight), immediately after ischemia and 1 h later during reperfusion, significantly reduced infarct size and maintained cardiac function (plevels, as a marker of injury, were significantly reduced by n-3 TG emulsion. To investigate the mechanisms by which n-3 FAs protects hearts from I/R injury, we investigated changes in key pathways linked to cardioprotection. In the ex-vivo model, we showed that n-3 FAs increased phosphorylation of AKT and GSK3β proteins (plevel and reduced an autophagy marker, Beclin-1 (pGSK3β inhibitor plus n-3 TG significantly inhibited LDH release. We conclude that acute n-3 TG injection during reperfusion provides cardioprotection. This may prove to be a novel acute adjunctive reperfusion therapy after treating patients with myocardial infarction.

  11. H₂S protecting against lung injury following limb ischemia-reperfusion by alleviating inflammation and water transport abnormality in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qi Ying Chun; Chen, Wen; Li, Xiao Ling; Wang, Yu Wei; Xie, Xiao Hua

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effect of H₂S on lower limb ischemia-reperfusion (LIR) induced lung injury and explore the underlying mechanism. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, IR group, IR+ Sodium Hydrosulphide (NaHS) group and IR+ DL-propargylglycine (PPG) group. IR group as lung injury model induced by LIR were given 4 h reperfusion following 4 h ischemia of bilateral hindlimbs with rubber bands. NaHS (0.78 mg/kg) as exogenous H₂S donor and PPG (60 mg/kg) which can suppress endogenous H₂S production were administrated before LIR, respectively. The lungs were removed for histologic analysis, the determination of wet-to-dry weight ratios and the measurement of mRNA and protein levels of aquaporin-1 (AQP₁), aquaporin-5 (AQP₅) as indexes of water transport abnormality, and mRNA and protein levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR₄), myeloid differentiation primary-response gene 88 (MyD88) and p-NF-κB as indexes of inflammation. LIR induced lung injury was accompanied with upregulation of TLR₄-Myd88-NF-κB pathway and downregulation of AQP1/AQP₅. NaHS pre-treatment reduced lung injury with increasing AQP₁/AQP₅ expression and inhibition of TLR₄-Myd88-NF-κB pathway, but PPG adjusted AQP₁/AQP₅ and TLR4 pathway to the opposite side and exacerbated lung injury. Endogenous H₂S, TLR₄-Myd88-NF-κB pathway and AQP₁/AQP₅ were involved in LIR induced lung injury. Increased H₂S would alleviate lung injury and the effect is at least partially depend on the adjustment of TLR₄-Myd88-NF-κB pathway and AQP₁/AQP₅ expression to reduce inflammatory reaction and lessen pulmonary edema. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  12. Successful Thrombolysis and Spasmolysis of Acute Leg Ischemia after Accidental Intra-arterial Injection of Dissolved Flunitrazepam Tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeleff, B.; Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.-M.; Bellemann, N.; Hyhlik-Duerr, A.; Weber, M.-A.; Boeckler, D.; Kauczor, H.-U.

    2011-01-01

    A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding the management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

  13. Incidence of upper limb oedema in patients with acute hemiparetic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebruers, Nick; Truijen, Steven; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2011-01-01

     Assessment of the incidence of upper limb oedema in an acute care setting by means of clinical and volumetric evaluation.  Patients with acute hemiparetic stroke were recruited from 2006 until 2009 (n = 125). Baseline measurements consisted of the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, Fugl-Meyer Assessment Arm Section and demographic characteristics. Oedema assessment was performed at 7 days after inclusion and at 1 month and 3 months follow-up. A standardised water displacement method (objective measurement) was used to define oedema and was compared to data from visual inspection and palpation (subjective measurement).  In literature, the incidence of upper limb oedema ranges from 16-83%, defined by a variety of definitions. Oedema incidence in this study was defined by strict criteria using water displacement and ranged from 9-13.9%, while the incidence of oedema defined by visual inspection and palpation ranged from 6-18.5% during the different stages of follow-up. The agreement (Kappa) between both measurements ranged from 0.23-0.38, which is not more than 'moderate' but comparable to the agreement of 0.34 found in literature.  An objective and subjective assessment of oedema was used; the agreement between both methods was only moderate. The incidence of oedema found in this study is lower than the incidences found in literature.

  14. Planned second-look laparoscopy in the management of acute mesenteric ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanar, Hakan; Taviloglu, Korhan; Ertekin, Cemalettin; Ozcinar, Beyza; Yanar, Fatih; Guloglu, Recep; Kurtoglu, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of second-look laparoscopy in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI). METHODS: Between January 2000 and November 2005, 71 patients were operated for the treatment of AMI. The indications for a second-look were low flow state, bowel resection and anastomosis or mesenteric thromboembolectomy performed during the first operation. Regardless of the clinical course of patients, the second-look laparoscopic examination was performed 72 h post-operatively at the bed side in the ICU or operating room. RESULTS: The average time of admission to the hospital after the initiation of symptoms was 3 d (range, 5 h-9 d). In 14 patients, laparotomy was performed. In 11 patients, small and/or large bowel necrosis was detected and initial resection and anastomosis were conducted. A low flow state was observed in two patients and superior mesenteric artery thromboembolectomy with small bowel resection was performed in one patient. In 13 patients, a second-look laparoscopic examination revealed normal bowel viability, but in one patient, intestinal necrosis was detected. In two of the patients, a third operation was necessary to correct anastomotic leakage. The overall complication rate was 42.8%, and in-hospital mortality rate was 57.1% (n = 6). CONCLUSION: Second-look laparoscopy is a minimally invasive, technically simple procedure that is performed for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. The simplicity and ease of this method may encourage wider application to benefit more patients. However, the timing of a second-look procedure is unclear particularly in a patient with anastomosis. PMID:17659674

  15. Combination of autologous transplantation of G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Panax notoginseng saponins in the treatment of unreconstructable critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuchun; Jiang, Liping; Wang, Xuemei; Yin, Fengling; Li, Guixin; Feng, Xueqiang; Wang, Kai; Sun, Shunji

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the efficacy and safety of the combination of autologous transplantation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) and Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) in the treatment of unreconstructable critical limb ischemia (CLI). We performed an open-label, parallel-group, single-center, randomized clinical trial in this study. A total of 52 patients were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups (the PBMNC + PNS group and the PBMNC group) in a 1:1 ratio. Evaluation variables, including changes in the ankle-brachial index (ABI) of ischemic limbs, ulcer area, severity of rest pain, transcutaneous oxygen pressure (T(C)PO2), and 6-min walk distance from baseline to week 8 and 16, as well as angiographic scores for new collateral vessel formation at week 16, were used to compare the benefits of these 2 treatment approaches. After 16 weeks of treatment, improvement in ABI, T(C)PO2, and 6-min walk distance was significantly better in the PBMNC + PNS group. In addition, the combination of PBMNC transplantation and PNS administration yielded a greater reduction in ulcer area and severity of rest pain than did PBMNC transplantation alone. The proportion of patients experiencing any adverse event was similar between both treatment groups. Adverse events caused by PBMNC transplantation or PNS were generally mild and no serious adverse events occurred throughout the entire period of study. A combination of PNS and PBMNC transplantation appears to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with unreconstructable CLI. This combination may have great potential advantages in comparison with PBMNC transplantation alone and might constitute a novel therapeutic option for unreconstructable CLI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and validation of a new scoring system to predict wound healing after endovascular therapy in critical limb ischemia with tissue loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Norihiro; Hirano, Keisuke; Nakano, Masatsugu; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Tsukahara, Reiko; Ito, Yoshiaki; Ishimori, Hiroshi; Yamawaki, Masahiro; Araki, Motoharu; Takimura, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Yasunari

    2015-02-01

    To develop a scoring system to predict wound healing in critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients treated with endovascular therapy (EVT). Between July 2007 and January 2013, 184 patients (118 men; mean age 73.0 years) with CLI (217 limbs) and tissue loss underwent EVT. From this cohort 236 separate wounds were divided into development (n = 118) and validation (n = 118) groups. Predictors of wound healing were identified using multivariable analysis. Each predictor was assigned a score based on its regression coefficient, and total scores were calculated, ranging from 0 to 1 for low risk up to ≥ 4 for high risk of a nonhealing wound. The performance of the scoring system in the prediction of wound healing was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. By multivariable analysis, a University of Texas grade ≥ 2 (HR 0.524, 95% CI 0.288-0.951, p = 0.034), an infected wound (HR 0.497, 95% CI 0.276-0.894, p = 0.020), dependence on hemodialysis (HR 0.459, 95% CI 0.259-0.814, p = 0.008), no visible blood flow to the wound (HR 0.343, 95% CI 0.146-0.802, p = 0.014), and major tissue loss (HR 0.322, 95% CI 0.165-0.630, p = 0.001) predicted a non-healing wound. The 1-year rates of wound healing in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 94.6%, 67.6%, and 9.1%, respectively, in the development group (p wound healing in CLI patients after endovascular revascularization and is potentially helpful in deciding if additional adjuncts or revascularization should be considered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) Rehabilitation in Patients with Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Toshiyasu; Abe, Hiroshi; Samura, Kazuhiro; Hamada, Omi; Nonaka, Masani; Iwaasa, Mitsutoshi; Higashi, Toshio; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Shiota, Etsuji; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Inoue, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of hybrid assistive limb (HAL) rehabilitation in the acute phase of stroke remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients with acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) who were treated with or without HAL rehabilitation. Among 270 patients with acute ICH from 2009 to 2014, 91 patients with supratentorial ICH were included in this retrospective study. Of these, 14 patients (HAL group) received HAL rehabilitation at approximately 1 week after ICH occurrence, while the remaining 77 patients received usual rehabilitation without HAL (N-HAL group). We obtained various patient data from the hospitals where the patients were moved to for further rehabilitation. Statistical comparisons were performed for the characteristics of the ICH patients, and outcomes between the HAL and N-HAL groups. There were no differences in outcomes between the HAL and N-HAL groups. However, patients with right ICH in the HAL group exhibited a significant association with a functional independence measure (FIM) score of ≥ 110 compared with patients in the N-HAL group (HAL group: 81.8%, N-HAL group: 43.9%, P = 0.04). In patients with right ICH, HAL rehabilitation was associated with improved outcomes as evaluated by the FIM score. Thus, HAL rehabilitation may improve outcomes of acute ICH in appropriately selected patients.

  18. Gram-scale production of plasmid pUDK-HGF with current good manufacturing practices for gene therapy of critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, ChunSheng; Cheng, XiaoChen; Lu, YuXin; Wu, ZuZe; Zhang, QingLin

    2016-11-16

    The demand of a plasmid encoding human hepatocyte growth factor gene (pUDK-HGF) in large quantities at high purity and concentration has increased for gene therapy of critical limb ischemia (CLI) in clinical trials. In this article, we produced pUDK-HGF in compliance with current good manufacturing practices at gram scale. The process included a 50-L batch fermentation, continuous alkaline lysis, and integrated three-step chromatography on Sepharose 6 Fast Flow, PlasmidSelect Xtra, and Source 15Q. The production process has been scaled up to yield 4.24 ± 0.41 g of pharmaceutical pUDK-HGF from 1.0 kg bacterial cell paste and the overall yield reached range from 58.37 to 66.70%. The final pUDK-HGF product exhibited high purity with supercoiled percentage of > 95.8% and undetectable residual RNA, contaminated protein, and bacterial endotoxin. The phase I clinical study indicates that intramuscular injection of pUDK-HGF is safe, well tolerated, and may provide symptomatic relief to CLI patients. These results show that our manufacturing process of pUDK-HGF is efficient in producing pharmaceutical-grade plasmid DNA and is safe for clinical applications.

  19. Cool excimer laser-assisted angioplasty (CELA) and tibial balloon angioplasty (TBA) in management of infragenicular arterial occlusion in critical lower limb ischemia (CLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sherif; Tawfick, Wael; Hynes, Niamh

    2013-04-01

    We aim to compare cool excimer laser-assisted angioplasty (CELA) versus tibial balloon angioplasty (TBA) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) with tibial artery occlusive disease. The primary end point is sustained clinical improvement (SCI) and amputation-free survival (AFS). The secondary end points are binary restenosis, target extremity revascularization (TER), and cost-effectiveness. From June 2005 to October 2010, 1506 patients were referred with peripheral vascular disease and 572 with CLI. A total of 80 patients underwent 89 endovascular revascularizations (EVRs) for tibial occlusions, 47 using TBA and 42 using CELA. All patients were Rutherford category 4 to 6. Three-year SCI was enhanced with CELA (81%) compared to TBA (63.8%; P = .013). Three-year AFS significantly improved with CELA (95.2%) versus TBA (89.4%; P = .0165). Three-year freedom from TER was significantly improved with CELA (92.9%) versus 78.7% TBA (P = .026). Three-year freedom from MACE was comparable in both the groups (P = .455). Patients with CELA had significantly improved quality time without symptoms of disease or toxicity of treatment (Q-TWiST) at 3 years (10.5 months; P = .048) with incremental cost of €2073.19 per quality-adjusted life year gained. Tibial EVR provides exceptional outcome in CLI. The CELA has superior SCI, AFS, and freedom from TER, with improved Q-TWiST and cost-effectiveness.

  20. The influence of patients' nutritional status on the prevalence, course and treatment outcomes of lower limb ischemia: an overview of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychalska-Zwolińska, Marta; Zwoliński, Tomasz; Anaszewicz, Marzena; Budzyński, Jacek

    2018-04-01

    The association of lower limb ischemia (LLI) with disturbances in nutritional status, in respect to over- or undernutrition, is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to present the current state of knowledge on this issue. Systematic review of papers published between 2006 and 2018. The literature shows inconclusive evidence regarding the impact of nutritional status on the risk, course, prognosis and outcomes of conservative and invasive treatment of LLI. The majority of publications available demonstrate greater LLI prevalence in overweight and obese patients, a worse prognosis both in malnourished and severely obese patients, poorer outcomes of invasive treatment in underweight patients, and better results for endovascular and surgical treatment in patients with overweight and class I obesity, although without such a relationship for conservative therapy. Possible explanations linking nutritional status and LLI seem to be: the endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine activity of adipose tissue, a decrease in physical activity, and the effect of diet-dependent comorbidities, e.g. diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. There is a growing body of evidence concerning an association between LLI and patients' nutritional status. A so-called "obesity paradox" or "BMI paradox" seems to exist among patients with LLI and mainly concerns outcomes of endovascular and surgical treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical importance of body composition, the distribution and endocrine activity of adipose tissue, and the effect of weight reduction and/or nutritional support in the LLI patient group.

  1. Superficial femoral artery TASC D Registry: twelve-month effectiveness analysis of the Pulsar-18 SE nitinol stent in patients with critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, M; Stahlhoff, W; Boese, D

    2013-08-01

    Single center observational study analyzing the primary patency rate and freedom from target lesions revascularization rate of the Pulsar-18 nitinol stent after recanalization of long superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusions (TASC D) in 22 patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Between 1/2011 and 7/2011, 22 consecutive patients (9 male, 13 female) with chronic total occlusions (CTO) of the femoro-popliteal arteries presenting with CLI (17 patients with Rutherford 4 score, and 5 patients with Rutherford 5 score) were enrolled and successfully recanalized using the Pulsar-18 self-expanding (SE) nitinol stent (BIOTRONIK AG, Buelach, Switzerland). Primary patency at 12 months was defined as no binary restenosis (>50%) on Duplex ultrasound (PSVRPulsar-18 SE nitinol stent was 77% with a per protocol restenosis in 5 of 22 patients. Seventeen patients showed a walking capacity on treadmill test >300 meters (Rutherford II). Two patients with a documented restenosis were Rutherford, these patients were treated conservatively. Three patients with restenosis and a Rutherford III score were scheduled for an endovascular target lesion revascularization leading to a freedom from target lesion revascularization rate of 86%. Endovascular intervention of long SFA occlusions using subintimal or intraluminal recanalization technique with implantation of the Pulsar-18 SE nitinol stent in CLI patients is safe and clinically effective with a primary patency rate after 12 months of 77% and a freedom from target lesion revascularization rate of 86%.

  2. Acute administration of n-3 rich triglyceride emulsions provides cardioprotection in murine models after ischemia-reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hylde Zirpoli

    Full Text Available Dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We questioned whether acute administration of n-3 rich triglyceride (TG emulsions could preserve cardiac function and decrease injury after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R insult. We used two different experimental models: in vivo, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD, and ex-vivo, C57BL/6 murine hearts were perfused using Langendorff technique (LT. In the LAD model, mice treated with n-3 TG emulsion (1.5 g/kg body weight, immediately after ischemia and 1 h later during reperfusion, significantly reduced infarct size and maintained cardiac function (p<0.05. In the LT model, administration of n-3 TG emulsion (300 mg TG/100 ml during reperfusion significantly improved functional recovery (p<0.05. In both models, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels, as a marker of injury, were significantly reduced by n-3 TG emulsion. To investigate the mechanisms by which n-3 FAs protects hearts from I/R injury, we investigated changes in key pathways linked to cardioprotection. In the ex-vivo model, we showed that n-3 FAs increased phosphorylation of AKT and GSK3β proteins (p<0.05. Acute n-3 TG emulsion treatment also increased Bcl-2 protein level and reduced an autophagy marker, Beclin-1 (p<0.05. Additionally, cardioprotection by n-3 TG emulsion was linked to changes in PPARγ protein expression (p<0.05. Rosiglitazone and p-AKT inhibitor counteracted the positive effect of n-3 TG; GSK3β inhibitor plus n-3 TG significantly inhibited LDH release. We conclude that acute n-3 TG injection during reperfusion provides cardioprotection. This may prove to be a novel acute adjunctive reperfusion therapy after treating patients with myocardial infarction.

  3. β2-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated HIF-1α Upregulation Mediates Blood Brain Barrier Damage in Acute Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyun Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB within the thrombolytic time window is an antecedent event to intracerebral hemorrhage in ischemic stroke. Our recent studies showed that 2-h cerebral ischemia induced BBB damage in non-infarcted area and secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 accounted for this disruption. However, the factors that affect MMP-2 secretion and regulate BBB damage remains unknown. Since hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α was discovered as a mater regulator in hypoxia, we sought to investigate the roles of HIF-1α in BBB damage as well as the factors regulating HIF-1α expression in the ischemic brain. in vivo rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD models were used to mimic ischemia. Pretreatment with HIF-1α inhibitor YC-1 significantly inhibited 2-h MCAO-induced BBB damage, which was accompanied by suppressed occludin degradation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF mRNA upregulation. Interestingly, β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR antagonist ICI 118551 attenuated ischemia-induced BBB damage by regulating HIF-1α expression. Double immunostaining showed that HIF-1α was upregulated in ischemic neurons but not in astrocytes andendothelial cells. Of note, HIF-1α inhibition with inhibitor YC-1 or siRNA significantly prevented OGD-induced VEGF upregulation as well as the secretion of VEGF and MMP-2 in neurons. More importantly, blocking β2-AR with ICI 118551 suppressedHIF-1α upregulation in ischemic neurons and attenuated occludin degradation induced by the conditioned media of OGD-treatedneurons. Taken together, blockade of β2-AR-mediated HIF-1α upregulation mediates BBB damage during acute cerebral ischemia. These findings provide new mechanistic understanding of early BBB damage in ischemic stroke and may help reduce thrombolysis-related hemorrhagic complications.

  4. Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Acute Injury and Neuroinflammation in Brain Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicita Pedata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular concentration of adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia. Adenosine A2A receptor is expressed in neurons and glial cells and in inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes. Recently, adenosine A2A receptor emerged as a potential therapeutic attractive target in ischemia. Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, that is, microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Proinflammatory cytokines, which upregulate cell adhesion molecules, exert an important role in promoting recruitment of leukocytes that in turn promote expansion of the inflammatory response in ischemic tissue. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. A2A receptors present on central cells and on blood cells account for important effects depending on the time-related evolution of the pathological condition. Evidence suggests that A2A receptor antagonists provide early protection via centrally mediated control of excessive excitotoxicity, while A2A receptor agonists provide protracted protection by controlling massive blood cell infiltration in the hours and days after ischemia. Focus on inflammatory responses provides for adenosine A2A receptor agonists a wide therapeutic time-window of hours and even days after stroke.

  5. Chymase mediates injury and mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes during acute ischemia/reperfusion in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junying; Wei, Chih-Chang; Hase, Naoki; Shi, Ke; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Litovsky, Silvio H; Powell, Pamela C; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Ferrario, Carlos M; Rab, Andras; Aban, Inmaculada; Collawn, James F; Dell'Italia, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs because the acute increase in oxidative/inflammatory stress during reperfusion culminates in the death of cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is no drug utilized clinically that attenuates I/R injury in patients. Previous studies have demonstrated degranulation of mast cell contents into the interstitium after I/R. Using a dog model of I/R, we tested the role of chymase, a mast cell protease, in cardiomyocyte injury using a specific oral chymase inhibitor (CI). 15 adult mongrel dogs had left anterior descending artery occlusion for 60 min and reperfusion for 100 minutes. 9 dogs received vehicle and 6 were pretreated with a specific CI. In vivo cardiac microdialysis demonstrated a 3-fold increase in interstitial fluid chymase activity in I/R region that was significantly decreased by CI. CI pretreatment significantly attenuated loss of laminin, focal adhesion complex disruption, and release of troponin I into the circulation. Microarray analysis identified an I/R induced 17-fold increase in nuclear receptor subfamily 4A1 (NR4A1) and significantly decreased by CI. NR4A1 normally resides in the nucleus but can induce cell death on migration to the cytoplasm. I/R caused significant increase in NR4A1 protein expression and cytoplasmic translocation, and mitochondrial degradation, which were decreased by CI. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a high concentration of chymase within cardiomyocytes after I/R. In vitro, chymase added to culture HL-1 cardiomyocytes entered the cytoplasm and nucleus in a dynamin-dependent fashion, and promoted cytoplasmic translocation of NR4A1 protein. shRNA knockdown of NR4A1 on pre-treatment of HL-1 cells with CI significantly decreased chymase-induced cell death and mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of an orally active CI during I/R are mediated in the cardiac interstitium as well as within the cardiomyocyte due to a heretofore-unrecognized chymase

  6. Chymase mediates injury and mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes during acute ischemia/reperfusion in the dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Zheng

    Full Text Available Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury occurs because the acute increase in oxidative/inflammatory stress during reperfusion culminates in the death of cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is no drug utilized clinically that attenuates I/R injury in patients. Previous studies have demonstrated degranulation of mast cell contents into the interstitium after I/R. Using a dog model of I/R, we tested the role of chymase, a mast cell protease, in cardiomyocyte injury using a specific oral chymase inhibitor (CI. 15 adult mongrel dogs had left anterior descending artery occlusion for 60 min and reperfusion for 100 minutes. 9 dogs received vehicle and 6 were pretreated with a specific CI. In vivo cardiac microdialysis demonstrated a 3-fold increase in interstitial fluid chymase activity in I/R region that was significantly decreased by CI. CI pretreatment significantly attenuated loss of laminin, focal adhesion complex disruption, and release of troponin I into the circulation. Microarray analysis identified an I/R induced 17-fold increase in nuclear receptor subfamily 4A1 (NR4A1 and significantly decreased by CI. NR4A1 normally resides in the nucleus but can induce cell death on migration to the cytoplasm. I/R caused significant increase in NR4A1 protein expression and cytoplasmic translocation, and mitochondrial degradation, which were decreased by CI. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a high concentration of chymase within cardiomyocytes after I/R. In vitro, chymase added to culture HL-1 cardiomyocytes entered the cytoplasm and nucleus in a dynamin-dependent fashion, and promoted cytoplasmic translocation of NR4A1 protein. shRNA knockdown of NR4A1 on pre-treatment of HL-1 cells with CI significantly decreased chymase-induced cell death and mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of an orally active CI during I/R are mediated in the cardiac interstitium as well as within the cardiomyocyte due to a heretofore

  7. Extract of grapefruit-seed reduces acute pancreatitis induced by ischemia/reperfusion in rats: possible implication of tissue antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, A; Warzecha, Z; Konturek, S J; Ceranowicz, P; Dembinski, M; Pawlik, W W; Kusnierz-Cabala, B; Naskalski, J W

    2004-12-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been shown to exert antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity possibly due to the presence of naringenin, the flavonoid with cytoprotective action on the gastric mucosa. No study so far has been undertaken to determine whether this GSE is also capable of preventing acute pancreatic damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), which is known to result from reduction of anti-oxidative capability of pancreatic tissue, and whether its possible preventive effect involves an antioxidative action of this biocomponent. In this study carried out on rats with acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis induced by 30 min partial pancreatic ischemia followed by 6 h of reperfusion, the GSE or vehicle (vegetable glycerin) was applied intragastrically in gradually increasing amounts (50-500 microl) 30 min before I/R. Pretreatment with GSE decreased the extent of pancreatitis with maximal protective effect of GSE at the dose 250 microl. GSE reduced the pancreatitis-evoked increase in serum lipase and poly-C specific ribonuclease activity, and attenuated the marked fall in pancreatic blood flow and pancreatic DNA synthesis. GSE administered alone increased significantly pancreatic tissue content of lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkens, and when administered before I/R, GSE reduced the pancreatitis-induced lipid peroxidation. We conclude that GSE exerts protective activity against I/R-induced pancreatitis probably due to the activation of antioxidative mechanisms in the pancreas and the improvement of pancreatic blood flow.

  8. Effects of standard ethanolic extract from Erythrina velutina in acute cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisca Taciana Sousa; de Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Ximenes, Naiara Coelho; Almeida, Anália Barbosa; Cabral, Lucas Moraes; Patrocínio, Cláudio Felipe Vasconcelos; Silva, Aline Holanda; Leal, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira; Honório Júnior, José Eduardo Ribeiro; Macedo, Danielle; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to verify a possible neuroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Erythrina velutina (EEEV). Male Swiss mice were submitted to transient cerebral ischemia by occlusion of both carotid arteries for 30 min and treated for 5 days with EEEV (200 or 400 mg/kg) or Memantine (MEM) 10 mg/kg, with initiation of treatment 2 or 24 h after Ischemia. On the 6th day after the induction of ischemia, the animals were submitted to evaluation of locomotor activity and memory and then sacrificed. The brains were dissected for the removal of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST) for determination of amino acid concentrations. In the step down and Y-maze tests, ischemia caused damage to the animals and treatment with EEEV or MEM reversed this effect. The animals submitted to ischemia also showed memory deficit in the object recognition test, an effect that was reverted by EEEV400 and MEM10. Amino acid dosage showed an increase in excitatory amino acid concentrations in the PFC of the ischemic animals and this effect was reversed by the treatment with EEEV400/24H. Regarding the inhibitory amino acids, ischemia caused an increase of taurine in the PFC while treatment with MEM10/24H or EEEV400/24H reversed this effect. In HC, an increase in excitatory amino acids was also observed in ischemiated animals having treatment with EEEV200/2H or EEEV400/24H reversed this effect. Similar effect was also observed in the same area in relation to the inhibitory amino acids with treatment with MEM10/24H or EEEV400/24H. In the ST, ischemia was also able to cause an increase in excitatory amino acids that was reversed more efficiently by the treatments with MEM10/24H and EEEV200. Also in this area, an increase of taurine and GABA was observed and only the treatment with EEEV200/2H showed a reversion of this effect. In view of these findings, EEEV presents a neuroprotective effect possibly due to its action on amino acid

  9. Global Ischemia ECG pattern for diagnosis of acute left main occlusion: prevalence and associated mortality in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stengaard, Carsten; Sørensen, Jacob Thorsted; Andersen, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    .J. Terkelsen2, 1Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Department of medicine and Cardiology A - Aarhus - Denmark, 2Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Department of Cardiology - Aarhus - Denmark, 3Aalborg University, Department of Health Science and Technology - Aalborg - Denmark, 4Tampere University Hospital...... ischemia ECG pattern (GIP) has been proposed for diagnosis of acute left main stem (LM) occlusion. The GIP is defined by ST-elevation of 1mm in lead aVR and ST-depression of 0.5mm in seven or more ECG leads. Previous studies focus on the sensitivity of GIP in patients with confirmed LM occlusion. We...

  10. Protein-energy malnutrition developing after global brain ischemia induces an atypical acute-phase response and hinders expression of GAP-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shari E; Figley, Sarah A; Schreyer, David J; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common post-stroke problem. PEM can independently induce a systemic acute-phase response, and pre-existing malnutrition can exacerbate neuroinflammation induced by brain ischemia. In contrast, the effects of PEM developing in the post-ischemic period have not been studied. Since excessive inflammation can impede brain remodeling, we investigated the effects of post-ischemic malnutrition on neuroinflammation, the acute-phase reaction, and neuroplasticity-related proteins. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to global forebrain ischemia using the 2-vessel occlusion model or sham surgery. The sham rats were assigned to control diet (18% protein) on day 3 after surgery, whereas the rats exposed to global ischemia were assigned to either control diet or a low protein (PEM, 2% protein) diet. Post-ischemic PEM decreased growth associated protein-43, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein-25 immunofluorescence within the hippocampal CA3 mossy fiber terminals on day 21, whereas the glial response in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions was unaltered by PEM. No systemic acute-phase reaction attributable to global ischemia was detected in control diet-fed rats, as reflected by serum concentrations of alpha-2-macroglobulin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, and albumin. Acute exposure to the PEM regimen after global brain ischemia caused an atypical acute-phase response. PEM decreased the serum concentrations of albumin and haptoglobin on day 5, with the decreases sustained to day 21. Serum alpha-2-macroglobulin concentrations were significantly higher in malnourished rats on day 21. This provides the first direct evidence that PEM developing after brain ischemia exerts wide-ranging effects on mechanisms important to stroke recovery.

  11. Study of the stability of packaging and storage conditions of human mesenchymal stem cell for intra-arterial clinical application in patient with critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Martín, Patricia; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Soria, Bernat; Calpena-Campmany, Ana C; Clares-Naveros, Beatriz

    2014-04-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study, we developed and characterized an intra-arterial cell suspension containing human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for the treatment of CLI. Equally, the stability of cells was studied in order to evaluate the optimal conditions of storage that guarantee the viability from cell processing to the administration phase. Effects of various factors, including excipients, storage temperature and time were evaluated to analyze the survival of hMSCs in the finished medicinal product. The viability of hMSCs in different packaging media was studied for 60 h at 4 °C. The best medium to maintain hMSCs viability was then selected to test storage conditions (4, 8, 25 and 37 °C; 60 h). The results showed that at 4 °C the viability was maintained above 80% for 48 h, at 8 °C decreased slightly, whereas at room temperature and 37 °C decreased drastically. Its biocompatibility was assessed by cell morphology and cell viability assays. During stability study, the stored cells did not show any change in their phenotypic or genotypic characteristics and physicochemical properties remained constant, the ability to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes and sterility requirements were also unaltered. Finally, our paper proposes a packing media composed of albumin 20%, glucose 5% and Ringer's lactate at a concentration of 1×10(6) cells/mL, which must be stored at 4 °C as the most suitable to maintain cell viability (>80%) and without altering their characteristics for more than 48 h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography in critical limb ischemia: performance of quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) and TSE-based subtraction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altaha, Mustafa A. [University Health Network, Department of Medical Imaging, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jaskolka, Jeffrey D.; Tan, Kongteng; Menezes, Ravi J. [University Health Network, Department of Medical Imaging, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Rick, Manuela; Schmitt, Peter [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Wintersperger, Bernd J. [University Health Network, Department of Medical Imaging, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Toronto General Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic performance of non-contrast-enhanced 2D quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) and 3D turbo spin-echo (TSE)-based subtraction magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the assessment of peripheral arteries in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Nineteen consecutive patients (74 % male, 72.8 ± 9.9 years) with CLI underwent 2D QISS and 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA at 1.5 T. Axial-overlapping QISS MRA (3 mm/2 mm; 1 x 1 mm{sup 2}) covered from the toes to the aortic bifurcation while coronal 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA (1.3 x 1.2 x 1.3 mm{sup 3}) was restricted to the calf only. MRA data sets (two readers) were evaluated for stenosis (≥50 %) and image quality. Results were compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Two hundred and sixty-seven (267) segments were available for MRA-DSA comparison, with a prevalence of stenosis ≥50 % of 41.9 %. QISS MRA was rated as good to excellent in 79.5-96.0 % of segments without any nondiagnostic segments; 89.8-96.1 % of segments in 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA were rated as nondiagnostic or poor. QISS MRA sensitivities and specificities (segmental) were 92 % and 95 %, respectively, for reader one and 81-97 % for reader two. Due to poor image quality of 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA, diagnostic performance measures were not calculated. QISS MRA demonstrates excellent diagnostic performance and higher robustness than 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA in the challenging patient population with CLI. (orig.)

  13. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography in critical limb ischemia: performance of quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) and TSE-based subtraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaha, Mustafa A.; Jaskolka, Jeffrey D.; Tan, Kongteng; Menezes, Ravi J.; Rick, Manuela; Schmitt, Peter; Wintersperger, Bernd J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic performance of non-contrast-enhanced 2D quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) and 3D turbo spin-echo (TSE)-based subtraction magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the assessment of peripheral arteries in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Nineteen consecutive patients (74 % male, 72.8 ± 9.9 years) with CLI underwent 2D QISS and 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA at 1.5 T. Axial-overlapping QISS MRA (3 mm/2 mm; 1 x 1 mm 2 ) covered from the toes to the aortic bifurcation while coronal 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA (1.3 x 1.2 x 1.3 mm 3 ) was restricted to the calf only. MRA data sets (two readers) were evaluated for stenosis (≥50 %) and image quality. Results were compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Two hundred and sixty-seven (267) segments were available for MRA-DSA comparison, with a prevalence of stenosis ≥50 % of 41.9 %. QISS MRA was rated as good to excellent in 79.5-96.0 % of segments without any nondiagnostic segments; 89.8-96.1 % of segments in 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA were rated as nondiagnostic or poor. QISS MRA sensitivities and specificities (segmental) were 92 % and 95 %, respectively, for reader one and 81-97 % for reader two. Due to poor image quality of 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA, diagnostic performance measures were not calculated. QISS MRA demonstrates excellent diagnostic performance and higher robustness than 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA in the challenging patient population with CLI. (orig.)

  14. Systemic lupus erythematosus flare up as acute spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage with bilateral lower limb paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is an uncommon complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Solitary association of fatal spinal SAH as a complication of SLE, has not been encountered much in literature although coexisting acute cerebral and spinal SAH have been associated with SLE. We present a 39-year old female with initial diagnosis of SLE eight years ago who suddenly developed a productive cough, acute abdomen and paralysis of the lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed thoracic spinal SAH with varying degrees of thoracic spinal cord compression. The hemorrhage was total evacuated via surgery. She regained normal function of her lower limbers after the operation with no further neurological complications. One of the rare but fatal complications of SLE is solitary spinal SAH without cranial involvement. The best and most appropriate management of this kind of presentation is surgical decompression of the hematoma with total hemostasis. The cause of hemorrhage should be identified intra-operatively and treated appropriately.

  15. Acute stress exposure preceding transient global brain ischemia exacerbates the decrease in cortical remodeling potential in the rat retrosplenial cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuna, Nobuo; Yamashita, Akiko; Eriguchi, Takashi; Oshima, Hideki; Suma, Takeshi; Sakatani, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Yoshino, Atsuo; Katayama, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Doublecortin (DCX)-immunoreactive (-ir) cells are candidates that play key roles in adult cortical remodeling. We have previously reported that DCX-ir cells decrease after stress exposure or global brain ischemia (GBI) in the cingulate cortex (Cg) of rats. Herein, we investigate whether the decrease in DCX-ir cells is exacerbated after GBI due to acute stress exposure preconditioning. Twenty rats were divided into 3 groups: acute stress exposure before GBI (Group P), non-stress exposure before GBI (Group G), and controls (Group C). Acute stress or GBI was induced by a forced swim paradigm or by transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, respectively. DCX-ir cells were investigated in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and retrosplenial cortex (RS). The number of DCX-ir cells per unit area (mm(2)) decreased after GBI with or without stress preconditioning in the ACC and in the RS (ANOVA followed by a Tukey-type test, P<0.001). Moreover, compared to Group G, the number in Group P decreased significantly in RS (P<0.05), though not significantly in ACC. Many of the DCX-ir cells were co-localized with the GABAergic neuronal marker parvalbumin. The present study indicates that cortical remodeling potential of GABAergic neurons of Cg decreases after GBI, and moreover, the ratio of the decrease is exacerbated by acute stress preconditioning in the RS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute swelling of the limbs: magnetic resonance pictorial review of fascial and muscle signal changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revelon, Geraldine [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Rahmouni, Alain [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Jazaerli, Nedal [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Godeau, Bertrand [Department of Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Chosidow, Olivier [Department of Dermatology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Authier, Jerome [Department of Pathology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Mathieu, Didier [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Roujeau, Jean-Claude [Department of Dermatology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France); Vasile, Norbert [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Marechal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94000 Creteil (France)

    1999-04-01

    Objective: This pictorial review analyzes the magnetic resonance (MR) fascial/muscular changes in 69 patients referred as emergencies with acute swelling of the limbs (ASL) from various causes. Methods and material: A prospective MR imaging (MRI) study of 69 patients referred as emergencies for ASL was performed. Our population consisted of 45 patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis, and pyomyositis), six patients with soft-tissue inflammatory diseases (dermatomyositis, graft-versus-host disease), 11 patients with acute deep venous thrombosis, three patients with rhabdomyolysis, one patient with acute denervation and three other patients with rare diseases. Hematomas, tumorous or infectious bone involvement and soft-tissue tumors were excluded. All studies included spin echo T1-weighted images and spin echo T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced spin echo T1-weighted images were obtained when an abscess was suspected on T2-weighted images. Selective fat-saturated T1- and T2-weighted sequences were also used. MRI analysis was performed to obtain a compartmentalized anatomical approach according to the location of signal abnormalities in subcutaneous fat, superficial and deep fascia and muscle. Results: In all patients with ASL, MRI demonstrated soft-tissue abnormalities involving subcutaneous fat, superficial fascia, deep fascia, or muscle. Although MR findings were non-specific, MRI appears sensitive for detecting subtle fascial and muscle signal changes. Conclusions: In skin and soft-tissue infections, MRI can be helpful for therapeutic management by determining the depth of soft-tissue involvement, particularly within fasciae and muscles, which is partly related to the severity of cellulitis with severe systemic manifestations. MRI can also aid the surgeon in diagnosing abscesses. In inflammatory diseases, MRI can determine the best site for biopsy and also monitor therapeutic response.

  17. Effects of Acute Systemic Hypoxia and Hypercapnia on Brain Damage in a Rat Model of Hypoxia-Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchao Yang

    Full Text Available Therapeutic hypercapnia has the potential for neuroprotection after global cerebral ischemia. Here we further investigated the effects of different degrees of acute systemic hypoxia in combination with hypercapnia on brain damage in a rat model of hypoxia and ischemia. Adult wistar rats underwent unilateral common carotid artery (CCA ligation for 60 min followed by ventilation with normoxic or systemic hypoxic gas containing 11%O2,13%O2,15%O2 and 18%O2 (targeted to PaO2 30-39 mmHg, 40-49 mmHg, 50-59 mmHg, and 60-69 mmHg, respectively or systemic hypoxic gas containing 8% carbon dioxide (targeted to PaCO2 60-80 mmHg for 180 min. The mean artery pressure (MAP, blood gas, and cerebral blood flow (CBF were evaluated. The cortical vascular permeability and brain edema were examined. The ipsilateral cortex damage and the percentage of hippocampal apoptotic neurons were evaluated by Nissl staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL assay as well as flow cytometry, respectively. Immunofluorescence and western blotting were performed to determine aquaporin-4 (AQP4 expression. In rats treated with severe hypoxia (PaO2 50 mmHg, hypercapnia protected against these pathophysiological changes. Moreover, hypercapnia treatment significantly reduced brain damage in the ischemic ipsilateral cortex and decreased the percentage of apoptotic neurons in the hippocampus after the CCA ligated rats were exposed to mild or moderate hypoxemia (PaO2 > 50 mmHg; especially under mild hypoxemia (PaO2 > 60 mmHg, hypercapnia significantly attenuated the expression of AQP4 protein with brain edema (p < 0.05. Hypercapnia exerts beneficial effects under mild to moderate hypoxemia and augments detrimental effects under severe hypoxemia on brain damage in a rat model of hypoxia-ischemia.

  18. Serial Holter ST-segment monitoring after first acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence, variability, and long-term prognostic importance of transient myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J

    1998-01-01

    Based on serial Holter monitoring performed 7 times within 3 years after a first acute myocardial infarction, we assessed the prevalence, variability and long-term clinical importance of transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) defined as episodes of ambulatory ST-segment depression. In all, 121...... consecutive male patients variability was found within and between patients...

  19. Evidence that estrogen receptors play a limited role in mediating enhanced recovery of bile flow in female rats in the acute phase of liver ischemia reperfusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Heleen A. H.; Ponds, Fraukje A. M.; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Morphett, Arthur; Padbury, Robert T. A.; Barritt, Greg J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Female patients exhibit better survival and less hepatic damage from ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury following surgery. However, the effects of sex and estrogens on liver function in the acute phase of IR are not well understood. Objective. The aim was to investigate this question.

  20. The TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Fang, E-mail: fhua2@emory.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, Brain Research Laboratory, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365B Clifton Road, Suite 5100, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Wang, Jun; Sayeed, Iqbal; Ishrat, Tauheed; Atif, Fahim; Stein, Donald G. [Department of Emergency Medicine, Brain Research Laboratory, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365B Clifton Road, Suite 5100, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2009-12-18

    TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TRIF) is an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. Activation of TRIF leads to the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). While studies have shown that TLRs are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and in neuroprotection against ischemia afforded by preconditioning, little is known about TRIF's role in the pathological process following cerebral I/R. The present study investigated the role that TRIF may play in acute cerebral I/R injury. In a mouse model of cerebral I/R induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we examined the activation of NF-{kappa}B and IRF3 signaling in ischemic cerebral tissue using ELISA and Western blots. Neurological function and cerebral infarct size were also evaluated 24 h after cerebral I/R. NF-{kappa}B activity and phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) increased in ischemic brains, but IRF3, inhibitor of {kappa}B kinase complex-{epsilon} (IKK{epsilon}), and TANK-binding kinase1 (TBK1) were not activated after cerebral I/R in wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, TRIF deficit did not inhibit NF-{kappa}B activity or p-I{kappa}B{alpha} induced by cerebral I/R. Moreover, although cerebral I/R induced neurological and functional impairments and brain infarction in WT mice, the deficits were not improved and brain infarct size was not reduced in TRIF knockout mice compared to WT mice. Our results demonstrate that the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for the activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling and brain injury after acute cerebral I/R.

  1. The TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Fang; Wang, Jun; Sayeed, Iqbal; Ishrat, Tauheed; Atif, Fahim; Stein, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TRIF) is an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. Activation of TRIF leads to the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). While studies have shown that TLRs are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and in neuroprotection against ischemia afforded by preconditioning, little is known about TRIF's role in the pathological process following cerebral I/R. The present study investigated the role that TRIF may play in acute cerebral I/R injury. In a mouse model of cerebral I/R induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we examined the activation of NF-κB and IRF3 signaling in ischemic cerebral tissue using ELISA and Western blots. Neurological function and cerebral infarct size were also evaluated 24 h after cerebral I/R. NF-κB activity and phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappa B (IκBα) increased in ischemic brains, but IRF3, inhibitor of κB kinase complex-ε (IKKε), and TANK-binding kinase1 (TBK1) were not activated after cerebral I/R in wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, TRIF deficit did not inhibit NF-κB activity or p-IκBα induced by cerebral I/R. Moreover, although cerebral I/R induced neurological and functional impairments and brain infarction in WT mice, the deficits were not improved and brain infarct size was not reduced in TRIF knockout mice compared to WT mice. Our results demonstrate that the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for the activation of NF-κB signaling and brain injury after acute cerebral I/R.

  2. Effect of Diclofenac with B Vitamins on the Treatment of Acute Pain Originated by Lower-Limb Fracture and Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Ponce-Monter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of diclofenac, for the treatment of acute pain originated by lower-limb fracture and surgery, with that of diclofenac plus B vitamins. This was a single-center, prospective, randomized, and double-blinded clinical trial. Patients with lower-limb closed fractures rated their pain on a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS. Patients were then randomized to receive diclofenac or diclofenac plus B vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin intramuscularly twice daily. Patient evaluations of pain intensity were recorded throughout two periods: twenty-four hours presurgery and twenty-four hours postsurgical. One hundred twenty-two patients completed the study. The subjects' assessments of limb pain on the VAS showed a significant reduction from baseline values regardless of the treatment group. Diclofenac plus B vitamins combination was more effective to reduce the pain than diclofenac alone. The results showed that the addition of B vitamins to diclofenac increased its analgesic effect. The novelty of this paper consists in that diclofenac and diclofenac plus B vitamins were useful for treatment of acute pain originated by lower-limb fracture and surgery.

  3. Acute manic episode is associated with an increased risk of lower limb edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Eldar; Krivoy, Amir; Shoval, Gal; Valevski, Avi; Weizman, Abraham; Fischel, Tsvi

    2013-12-02

    Lower limb edema (LLE) was suggested to be associated with the use of psychotropic drugs among patients suffering from severe mental illnesses; however no direct mechanism was found. Therefore, we examined the association between the occurrence of LLE and acute untreated episode leading to hospitalization. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using medical charts of 2529 patients admitted to Geha Mental Health Center between 2002 and 2012. Incident cases of LLE, demographic and clinical data were retrieved. Admission clinical status was modeled as three non-overlapping groups of patients: (i) Patients with a non-affective psychosis (NAP) episode (n = 1563), (ii) patients with a manic episode (n = 366), and (iii) patients with a depressive episode (n = 600). We performed a logistic regression analysis with LLE as the dependent variable controlling for the demographic and clinical variables that may be associated with LLE. LLE was diagnosed in 3.8% (n = 95) of the study population. The rate of LLE was 3-fold higher (χ(2) = 51.9, df = 2, p<0.001) in patients admitted with a manic episode (n = 38; 10.4%) compared to patients admitted with a NAP episode (n = 41; 2.6%) and patients admitted with a depressive episode (n = 16; 2.7%). Manic episode was associated with an increased risk for LLE compared to depressive episode (OR 8.72, 95% CI: 3.53-21.52, p<0.001) or NAP episode (OR 3.96, 95% CI: 2.16-7.26, p<0.001) after controlling for relevant confounders. Acute manic episode, leading to hospitalization, is associated with an increased risk of LLE, compared to NAP or depressive episode, suggesting causal relationship between mood and fluid imbalance. Yet, future prospective studies are needed to rule out the contribution of physical agitation and lithium treatment. © 2013.

  4. [Brain protection against cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Previous clinical trials failed to show the benefit of several potentially protective drugs in acute ischemic stroke. However, there would be three main approaches for brain protection against stroke. The first is to develop a novel thrombolytic agent which is more efficient and safer than alteplase. Tenecteplase and desmoteplase are in progress as a new thrombolytic drug. The second strategy is to augment collateral circulation through leptomeningeal anastomosis. Administration of G-CSF could enhance arteriogenesis, but it takes several days to develop functional collateral. For this purpose, partial aortic balloon clumping or stimulation of pterygopalatine ganglion may be promising. The third one is to protect neurovascular unit against reperfusion injury. Brain hypothermia is the most effective strategy in experimental ischemia, and the clinical trial for hypothermia combined with thrombolysis therapy is in progress. Activation of endogenous protective response, as presented by ischemic tolerance, has focused on remote ischemic conditioning. Although the precise mechanisms of remote preconditioning remain unclear, intermittent limb ischemia is a safe approach. Remote ischemic conditioning is now investigated in acute patients with thrombolysis therapy.

  5. A pro-angiogenic degradable Mg-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) implant combined with rhbFGF in a rat limb ischemia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hanmei; Lv, Feng; Liu, Tianjun

    2017-12-01

    Site-specific controlled release of exogenous angiogenic growth factors, such as recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF), has become a promising approach to improve peripheral vascular disease. Here, we have developed an implant composed of spiral magnesium (Mg) and a coating made using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with encapsulated rhbFGF (Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF). The encapsulated protein could release continually for 4weeks with well preserved bioactivity. We compared the angiogenic effect produced by Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF with that of a PLGA implant loaded with rhbFGF (PLGA-rhbFGF). The incorporation of Mg in the implant raised the microclimate pH in the polymer, which preserved the stability of rhbFGF. Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF exhibited advantages over PLGA-rhbFGF implant in terms of a cytocompatibility evaluation. An in vivo angiogenesis test further confirmed the efficacy of released rhbFGF. HE, CD31 and α-SMA staining revealed that the controlled release of rhbFGF from the Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF implant was superior in promoting angiogenesis compared with that of the PLGA-rhbFGF implant. Four weeks post-implantation, the capillary density of the Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the PLGA-rhbFGF, control and the normal group (pspiral magnesium and a coating made using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with encapsulated rhbFGF (Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF). The preparation method does not involve any complex processes and results in a high encapsulation efficiency (approximately 100%). The degradation of metal Mg raise the microclimate pH in the PLGA polymer, which could well preserve the bioactivity of rhbFGF incorporated in the implant. Mg-PLGA-based, sustained local delivery of rhbFGF promotes post-ischemic angiogenesis and blood flow recovery in rat limb ischemic model. This work marks the first report for controlled release of rhbFGF in combination with metal Mg, and suggests potential therapeutic usefulness of Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF for tissue ischemia

  6. Acute Testicular Ischemia following Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Identified in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Finnerty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR is perhaps the most widely utilized surgical procedure for patients with large abdominal aortic aneurysms. This procedure is minimally invasive and reduces inpatient hospitalization requirements. The case involves a 72-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with right testicular ischemia two days following EVAR. Given the minimal inpatient hospitalization associated with this procedure, emergency physicians are likely to encounter associated complications. Ischemic and thromboembolic events following EVAR are extremely rare but require prompt vascular surgery intervention to minimize morbidity and mortality.

  7. Effect of infliximab on acute hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Karabicak, Ilhan; Kesicioglu, Tugrul; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Ozer, Ender; Arslan, Zakir; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of infliximab (IFX) against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IFX. IFX was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg for three days before I/R. Rat livers were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 90 h of reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured in the serum. The liver was removed to evaluate the histopathologic changes. The I/R group had a significant increase in AST, ALT, MDA, and TNF-α levels, and a decrease in GSH-Px activity compared with the sham group. The use of IFX significantly reduced the ALT, AST, MDA and TNF-α levels and significantly increased GSH-Px activity. IFX attenuated the histopathologic changes. IFX has a protective effect on liver I/R injury. This liver protective effect may be related to antioxidant and anti-TNF-α effects. We propose that, for the relief of liver injury subsequent to transplantation, liver resection, trauma, and shock, tentative treatments can be incorporated with IFX, which is already approved for clinical use.

  8. Hematological and hemostaseological alterations after warm and cold limb ischemia-reperfusion in a canine model Alterações hematológicas e hemostaseológicas após isquemia-reperfusão morna e fria de membro inferior em modelo canino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Szokoly

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Acute ischemia-reperfusion (I/R of extremities means serious challenge in the clinical practice. Furthermore, the issue of preventive cooling is still controversial. In this canine model we investigated whether limb I/R -with or without cooling- has an influence on hematological and hemostaseological factors. METHODS: Femoral vessels were exposed and clamped for 3 hours. After release the clamps, 4-hour reperfusion was secured. The same procedures with cooling using ice bags, as well as warm and cold sham-operations were performed. Before operations, from the excluded limb by the end of ischemia, during the reperfusion, and for 5 postoperative days afterwards blood samples were collected for testing hematological and blood coagulation parameters. RESULTS: After I/R activated partial thromboplastin time was elongated on 2nd-4th postoperative days. The highest values were on the 2nd day in cold I/R group, accompanied by increased prothrombin time values. The hematological parameters and fibrinogen level showed non-specific changes. In excluded ischemic limb the blood composition showed controversial data. Cold ischemia induced larger alterations, however platelet count, hematocrit changed more expressly in warm ischemia. CONCLUSION: These results indicate the risk of coagulopathy following limb I/R on early post-eventually days, which risk is higher in the case of cold I/R.OBJETIVO: Isquemia-Reperfusão aguda (I/R de extremidades representa um desafio sério na prática clínica. Além disso, o tema de prevenção pelo resfriamento é ainda controverso. Nesse modelo canino, investigou-se se I/R de membros -com ou sem resfriamento- tem influência nos fatores hematológicos e hemostaseológicos. MÉTODOS: Os vasos femorais foram expostos e clampeados por 3 horas. Após liberação dos clampes, foi realizada a reperfusão por 4-horas. Os mesmos procedimentos com e sem resfriamento usando bolsas de gelo, assim como operações simuladas com

  9. Conventional alpha beta (αβ) T cells do not contribute to acute intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Feng, Xiaoyan; Vieten, Gertrud; Dippel, Stephanie; Imvised, Tawan; Gueler, Faikah; Ure, Benno M; Kuebler, Jochen F; Klemann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is associated with significant patient mortality and morbidity. The complex cascade of IRI is incompletely understood, but inflammation is known to be a key mediator. In addition to the predominant innate immune responses, previous research has also indicated that αβ T cells contribute to IRI in various organ models. The aim of this study was to clarify the role αβ T cells play in IRI to the gut. Adult wild-type (WT) and αβ T cell-deficient mice were subjected to acute intestinal IRI with 30min ischemia followed by 4h reperfusion. The gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured by qPCR, and the influx of leukocyte subpopulations in the gut was assessed via flow cytometry and histology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum were measured, and transaminases were assessed as an indicator of distant organ IRI. Intestinal IRI led to an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut tissue and an influx of leukocytes that predominantly consisted of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, intestinal IRI increased serum IL-6, TNF-α, and ALT/AST levels. The αβ T cell-deficient mice did not exhibit a more significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut or serum following IR than the WT mice. There was also no difference between WT- and αβ T cell-deficient mice in terms of neutrophil infiltration or macrophage activation. Furthermore, the increase in transaminases was equal in both groups indicating that the level of distant organ injury was comparable. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that αβ T cells play a key role in IRI. In the gut, however, αβ T cells are not pivotal in the first hours following acute IRI as deficiency does not impact cytokine production, neutrophil recruitment, macrophage activation, or distant organ injury. Thus, αβ T cells may be considered innocent bystanders during the acute phase of intestinal IRI.

  10. Conventional alpha beta (αβ T cells do not contribute to acute intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI is associated with significant patient mortality and morbidity. The complex cascade of IRI is incompletely understood, but inflammation is known to be a key mediator. In addition to the predominant innate immune responses, previous research has also indicated that αβ T cells contribute to IRI in various organ models. The aim of this study was to clarify the role αβ T cells play in IRI to the gut.Adult wild-type (WT and αβ T cell-deficient mice were subjected to acute intestinal IRI with 30min ischemia followed by 4h reperfusion. The gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured by qPCR, and the influx of leukocyte subpopulations in the gut was assessed via flow cytometry and histology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum were measured, and transaminases were assessed as an indicator of distant organ IRI.Intestinal IRI led to an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut tissue and an influx of leukocytes that predominantly consisted of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, intestinal IRI increased serum IL-6, TNF-α, and ALT/AST levels. The αβ T cell-deficient mice did not exhibit a more significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut or serum following IR than the WT mice. There was also no difference between WT- and αβ T cell-deficient mice in terms of neutrophil infiltration or macrophage activation. Furthermore, the increase in transaminases was equal in both groups indicating that the level of distant organ injury was comparable.An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that αβ T cells play a key role in IRI. In the gut, however, αβ T cells are not pivotal in the first hours following acute IRI as deficiency does not impact cytokine production, neutrophil recruitment, macrophage activation, or distant organ injury. Thus, αβ T cells may be considered innocent bystanders during the acute phase of intestinal IRI.

  11. Feasibility and safety of early lower limb robot-assisted training in sub-acute stroke patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Geroin, Christian; Tomelleri, Christopher; Maddalena, Isacco; Kirilova Dimitrova, Eleonora; Picelli, Alessandro; Smania, Nicola; Waldner, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    So far, the development of robotic devices for the early lower limb mobilization in the sub-acute phase after stroke has received limited attention. To explore the feasibility of a newly robotic-stationary gait training in sub-acute stroke patients. To report the training effects on lower limb function and muscle activation. A pilot study. Rehabilitation ward. Two sub-acute stroke inpatients and ten age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Healthy controls served as normative data. Patients underwent 10 robot-assisted training sessions (20 minutes, 5 days/week) in alternating stepping movements (500 repetitions/session) on a hospital bed in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Feasibility outcome measures were compliance, physiotherapist time, and responses to self-report questionnaires. Efficacy outcomes were bilateral lower limb muscle activation pattern as measured by surface electromyography (sEMG), Motricity Index (MI), Medical Research Council (MRC) grade, and Ashworth Scale (AS) scores before and after training. No adverse events occurred. No significant differences in sEMG activity between patients and healthy controls were observed. Post-training improvement in MI and MRC scores, but no significant changes in AS scores, were recorded. Post-treatment sEMG analysis of muscle activation patterns showed a significant delay in rectus femoris offset (P=0.02) and prolonged duration of biceps femoris (P=0.04) compared to pretreatment. The robot-assisted training with our device was feasible and safe. It induced physiological muscle activations pattern in both stroke patients and healthy controls. Full-scale studies are needed to explore its potential role in post-stroke recovery. This robotic device may enrich early rehabilitation in subacute stroke patients by inducing physiological muscle activation patterns. Future studies are warranted to evaluate its effects on promoting restorative mechanisms involved in lower limb recovery after stroke.

  12. Acute sleep deprivation preconditions the heart against ischemia/ reperfusion injury: the role of central GABA-A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Hoda; Imani, Alireza; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Riahi, Esmail; Badavi, Mohammad; Shakoori, Abbas; Rastegar, Tayebeh; Aghajani, Marjan; Rajani, Sulail Fatima

    2017-11-01

    Central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission modulates cardiovascular functions and sleep. Acute sleep deprivation (ASD) affects functions of various body organs via different mechanisms. Here, we evaluated the effect of ASD on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), and studied the role of GABA-A receptor inhibition in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) by assessing nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress. The CeA in sixty male Wistar rats was cannulated for saline or bicuculline (GABA-A receptor antagonist) administration. All animals underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion (ischemia), followed by 2 hr reperfusion (IR). The five experimental groups (n=12) included are as follows: IR: received saline; BIC+IR: received Bicuculline; MLP+IR: received saline, followed by the placement of animals in an aquarium with multiple large platforms; ASD+IR: underwent ASD in an aquarium with multiple small platforms; and BIC+ASD+IR: received bicuculline prior to ASD. Bicuculline administration increased the malondialdehyde levels and infarct size, and decreased the NO metabolites levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas in comparison to IR group. ASD reduced malondialdehyde levels and infarct size and increased NO metabolites, corticosterone levels and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas as compared to the IR group. Levels of malondialdehyde were increased while levels of NO metabolites, corticosterone and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas were reduced in the BIC+ASD+IR as compared to the ASD+IR group. Blockade of GABA-A receptors in the CeA abolishes ASD-induced cardioprotection by suppressing oxidative stress and NO production.

  13. Acute sleep deprivation preconditions the heart against ischemia/ reperfusion injury: the role of central GABA-A receptors

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    Hoda Parsa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurotransmission modulates cardiovascular functions and sleep. Acute sleep deprivation (ASD affects functions of various body organs via different mechanisms. Here, we evaluated the effect of ASD on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI, and studied the role of GABA-A receptor inhibition in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA by assessing nitric oxide (NO and oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: The CeA in sixty male Wistar rats was cannulated for saline or bicuculline (GABA-A receptor antagonist administration. All animals underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion (ischemia, followed by 2 hr reperfusion (IR. The five experimental groups (n=12 included are as follows: IR: received saline; BIC+IR: received Bicuculline; MLP+IR: received saline, followed by the placement of animals in an aquarium with multiple large platforms; ASD+IR: underwent ASD in an aquarium with multiple small platforms; and BIC+ASD+IR: received bicuculline prior to ASD. Results: Bicuculline administration increased the malondialdehyde levels and infarct size, and decreased the NO metabolites levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas in comparison to IR group. ASD reduced malondialdehyde levels and infarct size and increased NO metabolites, corticosterone levels and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas as compared to the IR group. Levels of malondialdehyde were increased while levels of NO metabolites, corticosterone and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas were reduced in the BIC+ASD+IR as compared to the ASD+IR group. Conclusion: Blockade of GABA-A receptors in the CeA abolishes ASD-induced cardioprotection by suppressing oxidative stress and NO production.

  14. Ischemia-reperfusion rat model of acute pancreatitis: protein carbonyl as a putative early biomarker of pancreatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanaider, Alberto; de Carvalho, Thales Penna; de Oliveira Coelho, Simone; Renteria, Juan Miguel; Eleuthério, Elis Cristina Araújo; Castelo-Branco, Morgana Teixeira Lima; Madi, Kalil; Baetas-da-Cruz, Wagner; de Souza, Heitor Siffert Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disorder that can affect adjacent and/or remote organs. Some evidence indicates that the production of reactive oxygen species is able to induce AP. Protein carbonyl (PC) derivatives, which can also be generated through oxidative cleavage mechanisms, have been implicated in several diseases, but there is little or no information on this biomarker in AP. We investigated the association between some inflammatory mediators and PC, with the severity of ischemia-reperfusion AP. Wistar rats (n = 56) were randomly assigned in the following groups : control; sham, 15- or 180-min clamping of splenic artery, with 24 or 72 h of follow-up. The relationships between serum level of PC and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) to myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in tissue homogenates and to cytokines in culture supernatants of pancreatic samples were analyzed. MPO activity was related to the histology scores and increased in all clamping groups. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 were higher in the 180-min groups. Significant correlations were found between MPO activity and the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β. PC levels increased in the 15-min to 24-h group. TBARS levels were not altered substantially. MPO activity and TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations in pancreatic tissue are correlated with AP severity. Serum levels of PC appear to begin to rise early in the course of the ischemia-reperfusion AP and are no longer detected at later stages in the absence of severe pancreatitis. These data suggest that PC can be an efficient tool for the diagnosis of early stages of AP.

  15. Extraction of long-chain fatty acids in isolated rat heart during acute low-flow ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, W S; Fischer, S; Ernst, N; Munz, D L

    2001-07-01

    Although beta-oxidation of fatty acids is suppressed rapidly during ischemia, the behavior of fatty acid extraction at different flow rates is incompletely understood. This study assessed the relationship between flow and extraction of (123)I-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in the isolated heart model, especially at low flow. Isolated hearts from male Wistar rats (n = 15) were subjected to retrograde perfusion with constant flow (Krebs Henseleit solution containing 10 mmol/L glucose). A latex balloon in the left ventricle allowed isovolumetric contractions and ventricular pressure measurements. The extraction of (123)I-IPPA was assessed with the indicator dilution technique and (99m)Tc-albumin as the intravascular reference. The flow was either increased from the control flow (8 mL/min) until 300% or reduced until 10%. (123)I-IPPA extraction was measured three times before and 10 min after flow alteration. The tracer uptake was estimated from the product of net extraction and flow. The mean (123)I-IPPA extraction at the control flow (third measurement) was 51.6% +/- 2.8%. Between flow rates of approximately 25% and 300%, (123)I-IPPA extraction increased exponentially at decreasing flow rates. At flow rates < or =25% of the control flow, (123)I-IPPA extraction was exponentially higher than predicted. (123)I-IPPA uptake and flow changed largely in parallel. During low flow, the rate-pressure product showed the expected decline (perfusion-contraction matching). The extraction of (123)I-IPPA is preserved and slightly increased (relative to flow) during acute low-flow ischemia.

  16. Endogenous EGF as a potential renotrophic factor in ischemia-induced acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaudies, R P; Nonclercq, D; Nelson, L; Toubeau, G; Zanen, J; Heuson-Stiennon, J A; Laurent, G

    1993-09-01

    The time course for the increases in soluble renal epidermal growth factor (EGF) after ischemia has been established. These elevated levels of EGF have been compared with the degree of tissue injury as well as the extent of cell proliferation in the recovering tissue. Levels of soluble immunoreactive EGF (irEGF) in control animals were 9.74 +/- 1.1 ng/g wet wt (n = 4-8 for all values) and rose to 83.9 +/- 30 ng/g within 12 h after injury. Soluble irEGF content peaked at 88.8 +/- 15 ng/g at 24 h postinjury and returned to control values by 72 h. We previously reported that trypsin digestion of crude renal membranes (CRM) generates rat EGF that is indistinguishable from that isolated from the submandibular gland. Initial levels of trypsin-releasable membrane-associated irEGF were 439 +/- 26 ng/g. These levels fell to 46.6 +/- 9.6 ng/g at 48 h after injury. The total renal EGF demonstrated an 80% decline 48 h after injury but returned to 50% of the initial values after 72 h representing significant new synthesis of EGF-containing proteins between 48 and 72 h postinjury. Immunohistochemical staining of kidney paraffin sections for EGF immunoreactivity demonstrated staining intensities that paralleled the amount of irEGF in the trypsin-digested CRM fraction, suggesting that the membrane-associated irEGF is the predominant form detected by this technique. Regenerative hyperplasia subsequent to tubular insult was monitored by immunostaining nuclei of S phase cells after pulse labeling with the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. Cell proliferation was particularly prominent in the outer stripe of outer medulla of kidneys exposed to ischemia and reached a maximum (19-fold higher than the baseline value) 48 h after reperfusion. Renal cell turnover returned to control values by day 7. The observation that the peak in soluble EGF levels (24 h) precedes the peak in tubular regeneration (48 h) by 24 h is consistent with the hypothesis that EGF is one of the mitogenic

  17. The Society for Vascular Surgery lower extremity threatened limb classification system based on Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) correlates with risk of major amputation and time to wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Luke X; Branco, Bernardino C; Armstrong, David G; Mills, Joseph L

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the new Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) classification system correlates with important clinical outcomes for limb salvage and wound healing. A total of 201 consecutive patients with threatened limbs treated from 2010 to 2011 in an academic medical center were analyzed. These patients were stratified into clinical stages 1 to 4 on the basis of the SVS WIfI classification. The SVS objective performance goals of major amputation, 1-year amputation-free survival (AFS) rate, and wound healing time (WHT) according to WIfI clinical stages were compared. The mean age was 58 years (79% male, 93% with diabetes). Forty-two patients required major amputation (21%); 159 (78%) had limb salvage. The amputation group had a significantly higher prevalence of advanced stage 4 patients (P healing. As the clinical stage progresses, the risk of major amputation increases, 1-year AFS declines, and WHT is prolonged. We further demonstrated benefit of revascularization to improve WHT in selected patients, especially those in stage 3. Future efforts are warranted to incorporate the SVS WIfI classification into clinical decision-making algorithms in conjunction with a comorbidity index and anatomic classification. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Characteristics of antiischemic and nootropic properties of ademol in a rat model of acute brain ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodakivs'kyĭ, O A

    2013-01-01

    In experiments with the rat model of acute disorder of encephalic circulation (bilateral carotid occlusion) it was found that introduction of derivate of adamantan 1-adamantiloxy-3-morfolino-2 propanol (under conventional name ademol) in the dose 2 mg/kg intraabdominal in treatment regimen (in an hour after reconstruction of insult and further 1 time every 24 hours during 21 days) was accompanied by a recovery of mnemotropic properties and is more effective than cytikolin, resulting in a decreased lethality and neurological deficiency in acute and recovery periods of insults. The data received proved the usefulness of development of ademol based cerebroprotective remedy.

  19. Acute torsion and ischemia of the appendix in a young child

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    Dhruvin H. Hirpara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Torsion of the vermiform appendix is a rare diagnosis; its clinical and radiographic presentation can mimic that of acute appendicitis. We report the case of a two-year-old boy presenting with a one day history of lower abdominal pain and serial ultrasound examinations suspicious for atypical acute appendicitis. Operative findings revealed a necrotic and engorged appendix with a 720° clockwise torsion at its base. Final pathology was consistent with ischemic necrosis in the setting of lymphoid hyperplasia. A brief update on the current body of literature regarding pediatric torsion of the vermiform appendix is provided. Keywords: Appendicitis, Volvulus, Torsion

  20. Acute myocardial ischemia: magnetic resonance contrast enhancement with gadolinium-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, M.T.; Higgins, C.B.; Ehman, R.L.; Revel, D.; Sievers, R.; Brasch, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) was used to improve the diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance (MR) in detecting early ischemia, before the onset of infarction. Following one minute of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, 9 dogs were intraveneously injected with either 0.5 mM/kg of Gd-DTPA (6 dogs) or normal saline (3 dogs). There was no visible difference in intensity or alterations in magnetic relaxation times between normal and ischemic myocardium in the control (saline-injected) animals. The Gd-DTPA-injected dogs had a well-defined segment of high intensity representing the ischemic myocardium in the anterior wall of the left ventricle. Both T1 and T2 were significantly shortened in the normal myocardium of the Gd-DTPA animals, but relatively greater T2 relaxation rate enhancement resulted in reduced intensity of normal myocardium, thus increasing contrast with ischemic myocardium. It is concluded that Gd-DTPA has the potential to expand the sensitivity and diagnostic utility of MR in the study of occlusive coronary artery disease

  1. Prevention of neural hypersensitivity after acute upper limb burns: Development and pilot of a cortical training protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Dale; Zorzi, Lisa M; Wand, Ben M; Brockman, Nathalie; Griggs, Carolyn; Clifford, Matthew; Wood, Fiona

    2011-06-01

    Acute burn patients suffer pain and secondary hyperalgesia. This alters movement patterns and impairs function. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment are limited and lack rigorous testing and evidence for use. The treatment in this case series was designed to direct conscious attention to, and normalise sensation of, the injured limb in pain free way. The aim of the study was to describe a cortical training programme (CTP) in acute upper limb burn patients and to investigate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of the protocol. The study is a descriptive case series (n=6). Study tasks engaged sensory and motor nerves to influence the perception of the injured area. Visual and tactile inputs to maintain and, or normalise the homuncular map were central to the intervention. One patient, who commenced the study without resting pain, responded negatively. The remaining five patients had reduced pain and fear avoidance behaviours with associated improvement in arm function. The CTP approach is safe and feasible for use with acute burn patients where pain is reported at rest. Comparative studies are required to determine the relative efficacy of the program to usual interventions and the patients who may benefit from the technique. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. High Homocysteine and Blood Pressure Related to Poor Outcome of Acute Ischemia Stroke in Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Sun, Wenjie; Xu, Tan; Tong, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), blood pressure (BP) and poor outcome at hospital discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients, and if high Hcy increases the risk of poor outcome based on high BP status in a northern Chinese population. Methods Between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013, a total of 3695 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited from three hospitals in northern Chinese cities. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all subjects. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 or death. The association between homocysteine concentration, admission blood pressure, and risk of poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke was analyzed by using multivariate non-conditional logistic regression models. Results Compared with those in the lowest quartile of Hcy concentration in a multivariate-adjusted model, those in the highest quartile of Hcy concentration had increased risk of poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke, (OR = 1.33, P<0.05). The dose-response relationship between Hcy concentration and risk of poor outcome was statistically significant (p-value for trend  = 0.027). High BP was significantly associated with poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95%CI, 1.19–1.74). Compared with non-high BP with nhHcy, in a multivariate-adjusted model, the ORs (95% CI) of non-high BP with hHcy, high BP with nhHcy, and high BP with hHcy to poor outcome were 1.14 (0.85–1.53), 1.37 (1.03–1.84) and 1.70 (1.29–2.34), respectively. Conclusion The present study suggested that high plasma Hcy and blood pressure were independent risk factors for prognosis of acute ischemic stroke, and hHcy may further increase the risk of poor outcome among patients with high blood pressure. Additionally, the results indicate that high Hcy with high BP may cause increased susceptibility

  3. Effects of motor imagery combined with functional electrical stimulation on upper limb motor function of patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-feng LIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effects of motor imagery (MI combined with the third generation functional electrical stimulation (FES on upper limb motor function in acute ischemic stroke patients with hemiplegia.  Methods Forty acute ischemic stroke patients, within 48 h of onset, were randomly divided into FES group (N = 20 and combination group (FES combined with motor imagery, N = 20. All patients received basic routine rehabilitation training, for example, good limb positioning, accepting braces, balance training and training in the activities of daily living (ADL. FES group received the third generation FES therapy and the combination group also received motor imagery for 2 weeks. All of the patients were assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT and active range of motion (AROM of wrist dorsiflexion before and after 2 weeks of treatment.  Results After 2 weeks of treatment, the 2 groups had significantly higher FMA score, ARAT score and AROM of wrist dorsiflexion than that in pre-treatment (P = 0.000, for all. Besides, the FMA score (t = - 2.528, P = 0.016, ARAT score (t = - 2.562, P = 0.014 and AROM of wrist dorsiflexion (t = - 2.469, P = 0.018 in the combination group were significantly higher than that in the FES group. There were interactions of treatment methods with observation time points (P < 0.05, for all.  Conclusions Motor imagery combined with the third generation FES can effectively promote the recovery of upper limb motor function and motion range of wrist dorsiflexion in patients with acute ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.03.008

  4. Mechanism of Mitochondrial Connexin43′s Protection of the Neurovascular Unit under Acute Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

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    Shuai Hou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We observed mitochondrial connexin43 (mtCx43 expression under cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury, analyzed its regulation, and explored its protective mechanisms. Wistar rats were divided into groups based on injections received before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. Cerebral infarction volume was detected by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolim chloride staining, and cell apoptosis was observed by transferase dUTP nick end labeling. We used transmission electron microscopy to observe mitochondrial morphology and determined superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and malondialdehyde (MDA content. MtCx43, p-mtCx43, protein kinase C (PKC, and p-PKC expression were detected by Western blot. Compared with those in the IR group, cerebral infarction volumes in the carbenoxolone (CBX and diazoxide (DZX groups were obviously smaller, and the apoptosis indices were down-regulated. Mitochondrial morphology was damaged after I/R, especially in the IR and 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5-HD groups. Similarly, decreased SOD activity and increased MDA were observed after MCAO; CBX, DZX, and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA reduced mitochondrial functional injury. Expression of mtCx43 and p-mtCx43 and the p-Cx43/Cx43 ratio were significantly lower in the IR group than in the sham group. These abnormalities were ameliorated by CBX, DZX, and PMA. MtCx43 may protect the neurovascular unit from acute cerebral IR injury via PKC activation induced by mitoKATP channel agonists.

  5. Carbon monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 (CORM-2 attenuates acute hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

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    Zhang Weihui

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/Ri is a serious complication occurring during liver surgery that may lead to liver failure. Hepatic I/Ri induces formation of reactive oxygen species, hepatocyte apoptosis, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which together causes liver damage and organ dysfunction. A potential strategy to alleviate hepatic I/Ri is to exploit the potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of carbon monoxide (CO by application of so-called CO-releasing molecules (CORMs. Here, we assessed whether CO released from CORM-2 protects against hepatic I/Ri in a rat model. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 10. Sham group underwent a sham operation and received saline. I/R group underwent hepatic I/R procedure by partial clamping of portal structures to the left and median lobes with a microvascular clip for 60 minutes, yielding ~70% hepatic ischemia and subsequently received saline. CORM-2 group underwent the same procedure and received 8 mg/kg of CORM-2 at time of reperfusion. iCORM-2 group underwent the same procedure and received iCORM-2 (8 mg/kg, which does not release CO. Therapeutic effects of CORM-2 on hepatic I/Ri was assessed by measuring serum damage markers AST and ALT, liver histology score, TUNEL-scoring of apoptotic cells, NFkB-activity in nuclear liver extracts, serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Results A single systemic infusion with CORM-2 protected the liver from I/Ri as evidenced by a reduction in serum AST/ALT levels and an improved liver histology score. Treatment with CORM-2 also up-regulated expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, down-regulated caspase-3 activation, and significantly reduced the levels of apoptosis after I/Ri. Furthermore, treatment with CORM-2 significantly inhibited the activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB as measured in

  6. T1-mapping for assessment of ischemia-induced acute kidney injury and prediction of chronic kidney disease in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueper, Katja; Gutberlet, Marcel; Wacker, Frank; Hartung, Dagmar [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Medical School, REBIRTH Cluster of Excellence, Hannover (Germany); Peperhove, Matti; Tewes, Susanne; Barrmeyer, Amelie [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Rong, Song [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Zunyi Medical College, Laboratory of Organ Transplantation, Zunyi (China); Gerstenberg, Jessica; Haller, Herman; Gueler, Faikah [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Mengel, Michael [University of Alberta, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Edmonton (Canada); Meier, Martin [Hannover Medical School, REBIRTH Cluster of Excellence, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Medical School, Institute for Animal Science, Hannover (Germany); Chen, Rongjun [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Zhejiang University, The Kidney Disease Center of the First Affiliated Hospital, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-09-15

    To investigate whether T1-mapping allows assessment of acute kidney injury (AKI) and prediction of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in mice. AKI was induced in C57Bl/6N mice by clamping of the right renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI, n = 26) or 45 min (severe AKI, n = 23). Sham animals served as controls (n = 9). Renal histology was assessed in the acute (day 1 + day 7; d1 + d7) and chronic phase (d28) after AKI. Furthermore, longitudinal MRI-examinations (prior to until d28 after surgery) were performed using a 7-Tesla magnet. T1-maps were calculated from a fat-saturated echoplanar inversion recovery sequence, and mean and relative T1-relaxation times were determined. Renal histology showed severe tubular injury at d1 + d7 in both AKI groups, whereas, at d28, only animals with prolonged 45-min ischemia showed persistent signs of AKI. Following both AKI severities T1-values significantly increased and peaked at d7. T1-times in the contralateral kidney without AKI remained stable. At d7 relative T1-values in the outer stripe of the outer medulla were significantly higher after severe than after moderate AKI (138 ± 2 % vs. 121 ± 3 %, p = 0.001). T1-elevation persisted until d28 only after severe AKI. Already at d7 T1 in the outer stripe of the outer medulla correlated with kidney volume loss indicating CKD (r = 0.83). T1-mapping non-invasively detects AKI severity in mice and predicts further outcome. (orig.)

  7. T1-mapping for assessment of ischemia-induced acute kidney injury and prediction of chronic kidney disease in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, Katja; Gutberlet, Marcel; Wacker, Frank; Hartung, Dagmar; Peperhove, Matti; Tewes, Susanne; Barrmeyer, Amelie; Rong, Song; Gerstenberg, Jessica; Haller, Herman; Gueler, Faikah; Mengel, Michael; Meier, Martin; Chen, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether T1-mapping allows assessment of acute kidney injury (AKI) and prediction of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in mice. AKI was induced in C57Bl/6N mice by clamping of the right renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI, n = 26) or 45 min (severe AKI, n = 23). Sham animals served as controls (n = 9). Renal histology was assessed in the acute (day 1 + day 7; d1 + d7) and chronic phase (d28) after AKI. Furthermore, longitudinal MRI-examinations (prior to until d28 after surgery) were performed using a 7-Tesla magnet. T1-maps were calculated from a fat-saturated echoplanar inversion recovery sequence, and mean and relative T1-relaxation times were determined. Renal histology showed severe tubular injury at d1 + d7 in both AKI groups, whereas, at d28, only animals with prolonged 45-min ischemia showed persistent signs of AKI. Following both AKI severities T1-values significantly increased and peaked at d7. T1-times in the contralateral kidney without AKI remained stable. At d7 relative T1-values in the outer stripe of the outer medulla were significantly higher after severe than after moderate AKI (138 ± 2 % vs. 121 ± 3 %, p = 0.001). T1-elevation persisted until d28 only after severe AKI. Already at d7 T1 in the outer stripe of the outer medulla correlated with kidney volume loss indicating CKD (r = 0.83). T1-mapping non-invasively detects AKI severity in mice and predicts further outcome. (orig.)

  8. Changes in metabolic profiles during acute kidney injury and recovery following ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingqing; Xiao, Xiao; Fogle, Paul; Dong, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Changes of metabolism have been implicated in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). However, a global analysis of the metabolic changes in renal IRI is lacking and the association of the changes with ischemic kidney injury and subsequent recovery are unclear. In this study, mice were subjected to 25 minutes of bilateral renal IRI followed by 2 hours to 7 days of reperfusion. Kidney injury and subsequent recovery was verified by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen measurements. The metabolome of plasma, kidney cortex, and medulla were profiled by the newly developed global metabolomics analysis. Renal IRI induced overall changes of the metabolome in plasma and kidney tissues. The changes started in renal cortex, followed by medulla and plasma. In addition, we identified specific metabolites that may contribute to early renal injury response, perturbed energy metabolism, impaired purine metabolism, impacted osmotic regulation and the induction of inflammation. Some metabolites, such as 3-indoxyl sulfate, were induced at the earliest time point of renal IRI, suggesting the potential of being used as diagnostic biomarkers. There was a notable switch of energy source from glucose to lipids, implicating the importance of appropriate nutrition supply during treatment. In addition, we detected the depressed polyols for osmotic regulation which may contribute to the loss of kidney function. Several pathways involved in inflammation regulation were also induced. Finally, there was a late induction of prostaglandins, suggesting their possible involvement in kidney recovery. In conclusion, this study demonstrates significant changes of metabolome kidney tissues and plasma in renal IRI. The changes in specific metabolites are associated with and may contribute to early injury, shift of energy source, inflammation, and late phase kidney recovery.

  9. Acute Ischemia Induced by High-Density Culture Increases Cytokine Expression and Diminishes the Function and Viability of Highly Purified Human Islets of Langerhans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate E; Kelly, Amy C; Min, Catherine G; Weber, Craig S; McCarthy, Fiona M; Steyn, Leah V; Badarinarayana, Vasudeo; Stanton, J Brett; Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Strop, Peter; Gruessner, Angelika C; Lynch, Ronald M; Limesand, Sean W; Papas, Klearchos K

    2017-11-01

    Encapsulation devices have the potential to enable cell-based insulin replacement therapies (such as human islet or stem cell-derived β cell transplantation) without immunosuppression. However, reasonably sized encapsulation devices promote ischemia due to high β cell densities creating prohibitively large diffusional distances for nutrients. It is hypothesized that even acute ischemic exposure will compromise the therapeutic potential of cell-based insulin replacement. In this study, the acute effects of high-density ischemia were investigated in human islets to develop a detailed profile of early ischemia induced changes and targets for intervention. Human islets were exposed in a pairwise model simulating high-density encapsulation to normoxic or ischemic culture for 12 hours, after which viability and function were measured. RNA sequencing was conducted to assess transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression. Islet viability after acute ischemic exposure was reduced compared to normoxic culture conditions (P < 0.01). Insulin secretion was also diminished, with ischemic β cells losing their insulin secretory response to stimulatory glucose levels (P < 0.01). RNA sequencing revealed 657 differentially expressed genes following ischemia, with many that are associated with increased inflammatory and hypoxia-response signaling and decreased nutrient transport and metabolism. In order for cell-based insulin replacement to be applied as a treatment for type 1 diabetes, oxygen and nutrient delivery to β cells will need to be maintained. We demonstrate that even brief ischemic exposure such as would be experienced in encapsulation devices damages islet viability and β cell function and leads to increased inflammatory signaling.

  10. Acute mesenteric ischemia and duodenal ulcer perforation: a unique double pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Lois

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute mesenteric ischaemia and duodenal perforation are surgical emergencies with serious consequences. Patients presenting with acute mesenteric ischaemia alone face a high mortality rate as high as 60% whereas those presenting with peptic ulcer perforation the mortality rates range from 6-14%. There are very few reported cases of patients presenting with this dual pathology. Case presentation We report a unique case of a 53 year old Italian lady who presented with acute mesenteric ischaemia and duodenal perforation. This is the first report of massive bowel ischaemia and duodenal perforation with no apparent underlying common pathophysiology leading to this presentation. Conclusion Early management in the intensive care unit and appropriate surgical intervention maximised the patient’s chances of survival despite the poor prognosis associated with her dual pathology. The rare pathology of the patient described can be explained by two possible hypotheses: peptic ulcer disease causing duodenal ulceration, which precipitated ischaemic infarction of the small bowel. The second hypothesis is the patient developed a stress related ulcer following ischaemic bowel infarction secondary to arterial thrombosis.

  11. Kinematic measures for upper limb motor assessment during robot-mediated training in patients with severe sub-acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, Christophe; Courtial, Ophélie; Grosmaire, Anne Gaelle

    2016-01-01

    Kinematic assessments are increasingly used as motor outcome measures during upper limb robot-assisted training, in addition to clinical scales. However, their relevance has not been evaluated much. Thirty-eight patients with severe sub-acute stroke (age 56 ± 17 [19-87] years; time since stroke, 55 ± 22 days) carried out 16 sessions (average 3/week, 35 ± 15 days) of upper limb robot-assisted training combined with standard therapy. Pre/post motor performance was evaluated using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale, Motor Status Scale (MSS) and kinematic measures. Motor outcomes were compared and relationships between clinical and kinematic outcomes were analyzed. All clinical and kinematic outcomes improved after training (p kinematic measures were strongly correlated with clinical scores. Correlations between clinical and kinematic changes were moderate (r = -0.65 for change in FM Proximal score and change in accuracy measure). However, smoothness and accuracy indicators were shown to be responsive measures. This study demonstrated that baseline kinematic measures and their pre/post training changes were significantly correlated with clinical motor outcome measures. However, even if kinematic measures are valid for the evaluation of motor impairment we cannot propose to substitute common clinical measures of motor function which also evaluate functional abilities of the upper limb.

  12. Clinical manifestation as acute coronary syndrome without electrocardiographically ischemia: a clue for aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Yi Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aortic dissection is a critical condition requiring immediate assessment and management. Clinical presentation is commonly associated with severe chest pain and high blood pressure. However, misdiagnosis is frequent because of various features. We presented a case of 51-year-old woman who complained of dyspnea for 3 d after she experienced back pain for one week. She was presented with severe respiration distress with impending respiration failure on arrival to our hospital. Her chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly with acute pulmonary edema. The laboratory data revealed elevated cardiac enzyme and electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia. She was hospitalized under the initial diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The patient remained hemodynamically stable, and experienced one episode of chest discomfort. After electrocardiography, she was found with bigeminy ventricular premature beats without ST-T change. Follow-up cardiac enzyme demonstrated progressive declined. Cardiac catheterization was performed on the third day of admission, and coronary angiography revealed large intimal flap on aortic root with bilateral coronary artery involvement. Surgical management was arranged after immediate chest computed tomography study.

  13. Lower limb edema after arterial reconstruction, a comparison with lymph, reconstruction and DVT edema by RI scintigram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojiro, M.; Takenosita, M.; Toshinaga, R.; Shimazu, H.; Nakajo, M.; Iwasita, S.

    1991-01-01

    Postoperative lower limb edema after arterial-reconstruction is common complication. However the precise mechanism of this process is not fully understood. In order to investigate this pathogenesis, it was studied whether the postoperative edema was affected by the various types of reconstruction, the materials, the degree of preoperative ischemia and the grade of improvement of ankle pressure index (API) after reconstruction retrospectively. Furthermore, by pertechnetate anion the difference of scintigraph pattern was studied in the lower limb and was compared with postoperative edema, lymph edema and acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with swelling limb. (author). 4 refs.; 2 figs

  14. Local fibrinolytic therapy for patients with cerebral embolism and reversibility of cerebral ischemia in ultra-acute stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Takayuki

    1993-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine candidates for fibrinolytic therapy in cerebral embolism. Forty-three patients were examined by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 99m c-d, hexamethyl-propylene-amine oxime (HM-PAO) or N-isopropyl p[ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) just before and after intra-arterial local fibrinolytic therapy. Regional cerebellar ratio (R/Ce) and asymmetry index (AI) were calculated just before the treatment (n=9). Quantitative analysis was performed after the treatment (n=all). SPECT images taken within 24 hours after the treatment fell into three patters: normal perfusion, hypoperfusion, and hyperperfusion. Patients showing normal perfusion pattern after complete recanalization developed no or smaller infarction on CT scans. However, patients showing either hypoperfusion or hyperperfusion developed large infarction. Regions with R/Ce ratio of 0.3 or smaller and/or AI of 1.5 or greater were irreversible, which was associated with cerebral infarction regardless of the duration of ischemia. On the other hand, regions with R/Ce of 0.5 or greater or AI of 1.2 or smaller were reversible with no association of infarction. Intra-arterial local fibrinolytic therapy seems to be helpful for patients with slight reduction of regional cerebral blood flow (i.e., R/Ce>0.5, AI 1.5). These findings indicate that SPECT is capable of determining reversibility of ischemic region, thereby contributing to better management of patients with acute cerebral embolism. (N.K.)

  15. Sarpogrelate hydrochloride, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine(2A) antagonist, augments autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell implantation-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Yukihito; Miyazaki, Masanori; Goto, Chikara; Sanada, Hiroaki; Sueda, Taijiro; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a combination of bone marrow mononuclear cell (BM-MNC) implantation and sarpogrelate, a selective 5-HT(2A) antagonist, on endothelial function in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). We evaluated the leg blood flow (LBF) responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside before and after BM-MNC implantation in 16 patients with CLI. We divided patients with CLI into 2 groups: those cotreated with sarpogrelate orally for 12 weeks (sarpogrelate group, n = 8) and those who remained on conventional therapy (control group, n = 8). LBF was measured by strain gauge plethysmography. BM-MNC implantation improved ankle brachial pressure index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, and pain-free walking time. There was no significant difference in these parameters between the 2 groups. Before BM-MNC implantation, LBF responses to ACh were similar in the sarpogrelate group and control group. Twelve weeks of BM-MNC implantation enhanced LBF responses to ACh in the sarpogrelate and control groups. After 12 weeks of BM-MNC implantation, LBF response to ACh was significantly greater in the sarpogrelate group than in the control group. BM-MNC implantation did not alter the LBF responses to sodium nitroprusside in either group. These findings suggest that BM-MNC implantation improved not only limb ischemic symptoms but also endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with CLI. A combination of BM-MNC implantation and sarpogrelate had a more beneficial effect on vascular function in these patients.

  16. Effect of acute augmented feedback on between limb asymmetries and eccentric knee flexor strength during the Nordic hamstring exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade J. Chalker

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Hamstring strain injuries (HSI are one of the most prevalent and serious injuries affecting athletes, particularly those in team ball sports or track and field. Recent evidence demonstrates that eccentric knee flexor weakness and between limb asymmetries are possible risk factors for HSIs. While eccentric hamstring resistance training, e.g. the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE significantly increases eccentric hamstring strength and reduces HSI risk, little research has examined whether between limb asymmetries can be reduced with training. As augmented feedback (AF can produce significant acute and chronic increases in muscular strength and reduce injury risk, one way to address the limitation in the eccentric hamstring training literature may be to provide athletes real-time visual AF of their NHE force outputs with the goal to minimise the between limb asymmetry. Methods Using a cross over study design, 44 injury free, male cricket players from two skill levels performed two NHE sessions on a testing device. The two NHE sessions were identical with the exception of AF, with the two groups randomised to perform the sessions with and without visual feedback of each limb’s force production in real-time. When performing the NHE with visual AF, the participants were provided with the following instructions to ‘reduce limb asymmetries as much as possible using the real-time visual force outputs displayed in front them’. Between limb asymmetries and mean peak force outputs were compared between the two feedback conditions (FB1 and FB2 using independent t-tests to ensure there was no carryover effect, and to determine any period and treatment effects. The magnitude of the differences in the force outputs were also examined using Cohen d effect size. Results There was a significant increase in mean peak force production when feedback was provided (mean difference, 21.7 N; 95% CI [0.2–42.3 N]; P = 0.048; d = 0.61 and no significant

  17. Algorithm for the automatic computation of the modified Anderson-Wilkins acuteness score of ischemia from the pre-hospital ECG in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakhri, Yama; Sejersten-Ripa, Maria; Schoos, Mikkel Malby

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acuteness score (based on the modified Anderson-Wilkins score) estimates the acuteness of ischemia based on ST-segment, Q-wave and T-wave measurements obtained from the electrocardiogram (ECG) in patients with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). The score (range 1 (least...... the acuteness score. METHODS: We scored 50 pre-hospital ECGs from STEMI patients, manually and by the automated algorithm. We assessed the reliability test between the manual and automated algorithm by interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot. RESULTS: The ICC was 0.84 (95% CI 0.......72-0.91), PECGs, all within the upper (1.46) and lower (-1.12) limits...

  18. The effects of intermittent negative pressure on the lower extremities' peripheral circulation and wound healing in four patients with lower limb ischemia and hard-to-heal leg ulcers: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundby, Øyvind H; Høiseth, Lars Ø; Mathiesen, Iacob; Jørgensen, Jørgen J; Sundhagen, Jon O; Hisdal, Jonny

    2016-10-01

    Peripheral circulation is severely compromised in the advanced stages of peripheral arterial disease. Recently, it was shown that the application of -40 mmHg intermittent negative pressure (INP) to the lower leg and foot enhances macro- and microcirculation in healthy volunteers. In this case report, we describe the effects of INP treatment on four patients with lower limb ischemia and hard-to-heal leg and foot ulcers. We hypothesized that INP therapy may have beneficial hemodynamic and clinical effects in the patients. Four patients (age range: 61-79 years) with hard-to-heal leg and foot ulcers (6-24 months) and ankle-brachial pressure indices of ≤0.60 on the affected side were included. They were treated with an 8-week intervention period of -40 mmHg INP (10 sec negative pressure and 7 sec atmospheric pressure) on the lower limbs. A custom-made vacuum chamber was used to apply INP to the affected lower leg and foot for 2 h per day. After 8 weeks of INP therapy, one ulcer healed completely, while the other three ulcers were almost completely healed. These cases suggest that INP may facilitate wound healing. The theoretical foundation is that INP assists wound healing by improving blood flow to the small blood vessels in the affected limb, increasing the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the cells. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  19. Radial forearm free flap morbidity: A rare case of a normal preoperative arteriogram and acute intraoperative hand ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Bruner, Terrence W; Hanasono, Matthew M; Skoracki, Roman J

    2011-01-01

    The radial forearm free flap is ideal for reconstructive microsurgery due to its thin, pliable fasciocutaneous tissue, reliable anatomy and ease and simplicity of flap elevation. However, one of the major complications is hand ischemia due to sacrifice of the radial artery, although it is a rare occurrence. A case involving a 73-year-old man who developed intraoperative hand ischemia after elevation of a radial forearm free flap is presented.

  20. Treatment with intramuscular vascular endothelial growth factor gene compared with placebo for patients with diabetes mellitus and critical limb ischemia : A double-blind randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumanto, YH; Van Weel, [No Value; Mulder, NH; Smit, AJ; Van den Dungen, JJAM; Hooymans, JMM; Sluiter, WJ; Tio, RA; Quax, PHA; Gans, ROB; Dullaart, RPF; Hospers, GAP

    Despite advances in revascularization techniques, limb salvage and relief of pain cannot be achieved in many diabetic patients with diffuse peripheral vascular disease. Our objective was to determine the effect of intramuscular administration of phVEGF(165) (vascular endothelial growth factor

  1. Poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 expression is related to cold ischemia, acute tubular necrosis, and delayed renal function in kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco O'Valle

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Cold ischemia time especially impacts on outcomes of expanded-criteria donor (ECD transplantation. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury produces excessive poly[ADP-Ribose] Polymerase-1 (PARP-1 activation. The present study explored the hypothesis that increased tubular expression of PARP-1 contributes to delayed renal function in suboptimal ECD kidney allografts and in non-ECD allografts that develop posttransplant acute tubular necrosis (ATN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nuclear PARP-1 immunohistochemical expression was studied in 326 paraffin-embedded renal allograft biopsies (193 with different degrees of ATN and 133 controls and in murine Parp-1 knockout model of IR injury. RESULTS: PARP-1 expression showed a significant relationship with cold ischemia time (r coefficient = 0.603, time to effective diuresis (r = 0.770, serum creatinine levels at biopsy (r = 0.649, and degree of ATN (r = 0.810 (p = 0.001, Pearson test. In the murine IR model, western blot showed an increase in PARP-1 that was blocked by Parp-1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemical study of PARP-1 in kidney allograft biopsies would allow early detection of possible delayed renal function, and the administration of PARP-1 inhibitors may offer a therapeutic option to reduce damage from IR in donor kidneys by preventing or minimizing ATN. In summary, these results suggest a pivotal role for PARP-1 in the ATN of renal transplantation. We propose the immunohistochemical assessment of PARP-1 in kidney allograft biopsies for early detection of a possible delayed renal function.

  2. Tailor-made rehabilitation approach using multiple types of hybrid assistive limb robots for acute stroke patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Takashi; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Saita, Kazuya; Hyakutake, Koichi; Watanabe, Junko; Shiota, Etsuji; Inoue, Tooru

    2016-01-01

    This article investigated the feasibility of a tailor-made neurorehabilitation approach using multiple types of hybrid assistive limb (HAL) robots for acute stroke patients. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent rehabilitation using the HAL robots. The Brunnstrom stage, Barthel index (BI), and functional independence measure (FIM) were evaluated at baseline and when patients were transferred to a rehabilitation facility. Scores were compared between the multiple-robot rehabilitation and single-robot rehabilitation groups. Nine hemiplegic acute stroke patients (five men and four women; mean age 59.4 ± 12.5 years; four hemorrhagic stroke and five ischemic stroke) underwent rehabilitation using multiple types of HAL robots for 19.4 ± 12.5 days, and 14 patients (six men and eight women; mean age 63.2 ± 13.9 years; nine hemorrhagic stroke and five ischemic stroke) underwent rehabilitation using a single type of HAL robot for 14.9 ± 8.9 days. The multiple-robot rehabilitation group showed significantly better outcomes in the Brunnstrom stage of the upper extremity, BI, and FIM scores. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first pilot study demonstrating the feasibility of rehabilitation using multiple exoskeleton robots. The tailor-made rehabilitation approach may be useful for the treatment of acute stroke.

  3. A qualitative study of patient experience of an open fracture of the lower limb during acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, E; Achten, J; Lamb, S E; Willett, K; Costa, M L

    2018-04-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to explore the patients' experience of recovery from open fracture of the lower limb in acute care. Patients and Methods A purposeful sample of 20 participants with a mean age of 40 years (20 to 82) (16 males, four females) were interviewed a mean of 12 days (five to 35) after their first surgical intervention took place between July 2012 and July 2013 in two National Health Service (NHS) trusts in England, United Kingdom. The qualitative interviews drew on phenomenology and analysis identified codes, which were drawn together into categories and themes. Results The findings identify the vulnerability of the patients expressed through three themes; being emotionally fragile, being injured and living with injury. The participants felt a closeness to death and continued uncertainty regarding loss of their limb. They experienced strong emotions while also trying to contain their emotions for the benefit of others. Their sense of self changed as they became a person with visible wounds, needed intimate help, and endured pain. When ready, they imagined what it would be like to live with injury. Conclusion Recovery activities require an increased focus on emotional wellbeing. Surgeons are aware of the need for clinical expertise and for adequate pain relief but may not be as aware that their patients require support regarding their body image and help to imagine their future life. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:522-6.

  4. The acute effect of match play on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility in elite youth football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, M; Thorborg, K; Pizzari, T

    2017-01-01

    . Competitive football match play has a significant acute and transient effect on isometric hamstring strength and associated pain levels during resisted knee flexion in male international youth players. Range of motion measures appear to remain relatively unaffected by match play. Isometric hamstring strength......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of competitive football match play on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility. Fifteen male international youth football players were included. Hamstring strength and associated pain ratings, ankle dorsiflexion, hip extension, knee extension...... and flexion range of motion were evaluated immediately post-match and at intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h post-match. Strength significantly reduced post-match (P

  5. Success of free flap anastomoses performed within the zone of trauma in acute lower limb reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendon, Charlotte L; Giele, Henk P

    2016-07-01

    Traditionally, in free flap cover of lower limb injuries, every attempt is made to perform anastomoses proximal to the zone of injury. We report on the success of anastomoses within the zone of trauma, at the level of the fracture, avoiding further dissection and exposure. The records of free flap reconstructions for fractures of the lower extremity at a tertiary trauma centre between 2004 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 48 lower limb fractures required free flap reconstruction, performed at 28 days post injury (0-275 days). Anastomoses were proximal (21), distal (5) or within the zone of trauma (22). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in return to theatre, revision of anastomosis or flap survival between groups. Of the 22 performed within the zone of injury, five returned to theatre but only two for revision of anastomosis and 20 (91%) of these flaps survived. Of the 48 free flaps, arterial anastomoses were end to end in 34 (71%) and end to side in 14 (30%). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in return to theatre, revision of anastomosis or flap survival between the end-to-end and end-to-side groups. There was a tendency for arterial anastomoses to be performed end to end outside the zone of trauma (23/26) compared to within the zone of trauma (11/22). Our data suggest that free flap anastomoses can be performed safely in the zone of trauma in lower limb injuries. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Successful medical management of acute mesenteric ischemia due to superior mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis in a 27-year-old man with protein S deficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, N P; Sah, D N; Bhandari, R S

    2017-11-09

    Acute mesenteric ischemia poses a diagnostic challenge due to nonspecific clinical clues and lack of awareness owing to its rarity. Ischemia due to mesenteric venous thrombosis has a good prognosis compared to arterial cause and can be managed conservatively with early diagnosis. The portomesenteric venous system is an unusual site of thrombosis in patients with protein S deficiency, and its thrombosis is an uncommon cause of acute mesenteric ischemia. We present a case of a 27-year-old Mongolian man who presented with acute abdominal pain increasing in severity, and refractory to repeated attempts at treatment with a misdiagnosis of acute peptic ulcer disease. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of his abdomen detected complete occlusion of the superior mesenteric vein, an extension of acute thrombus into the portal vein, and ischemic mid-jejunal loops. Early diagnosis and immediate anticoagulation with continuous intravenous infusion of unfractionated heparin prevented subsequent consequences. On further workup, our patient was diagnosed with isolated protein S deficiency. We started lifelong thromboprophylaxis with warfarin to prevent recurrence and our patient was asymptomatic on the latest follow-up 5 months after discharge. Despite accurate detection of acute mesenteric ischemia by contrast-enhanced computed tomography, high index of suspicion is indispensable for its early diagnosis. Early diagnosis and immediate anticoagulation will prevent subsequent complications and need for surgical intervention. Young patients without known risk factors presenting with venous thrombosis in atypical sites should be investigated for prothrombotic diseases.

  7. Trends in the incidence, treatment, and outcomes of acute lower extremity ischemia in the United States Medicare population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Donald T; Ghosh, Kaushik; Rosen, Allison B

    2014-09-01

    Acute lower extremity ischemia (ALI) is a common vascular surgery emergency associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to assess contemporary trends in the incidence of ALI, the methods of treatment, and the associated mortality and amputation rates in the U.S. Medicare population. This was an observational study using Medicare claims data between 1998 and 2009. Outcomes examined included trends in the incidence of ALI; trends in interventions for ALI; and trends in amputation, mortality, and amputation-free survival rates. Between 1998 and 2009, the incidence of hospitalization for ALI decreased from 45.7 per 100,000 to 26.0 per 100,000 (P for trend < .001). The percentage of patients undergoing surgical intervention decreased from 57.1% to 51.6% (P for trend < .001), whereas the percentage of patients undergoing endovascular interventions increased from 15.0% to 33.1% (P for trend < .001). In-hospital mortality rates decreased from 12.0% to 9.0% (P for trend < .001), whereas 1-year mortality rates remained stable at 41.0% and 42.5% (P for trend not significant). In-hospital amputation rates remained stable at 8.1% and 6.4% (P for trend not significant), whereas 1-year amputation rates decreased from 14.8% to 11.0% (P for trend < .001). In-hospital amputation-free survival after hospitalization for ALI increased from 81.2% to 85.4% (P for trend < .001); however, 1-year amputation-free survival remained unchanged. Between 1998 and 2009, the incidence of ALI among the U.S. Medicare population declined significantly, and the percentage of patients treated with endovascular techniques markedly increased. During this time, 1-year amputation rates declined. Furthermore, although in-hospital mortality rates declined after presentation with ALI, 1-year mortality rates remained unchanged. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Limb Remote Ischemic Postconditioning Reduces Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting NADPH Oxidase Activation and MyD88-TRAF6-P38MAP-Kinase Pathway of Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangling Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Limb remote ischemic postconditioning (LRIP has been confirmed to reduce the ischemia-reperfusion injury but its mechanisms are still not clear. This study clarified the mechanism of LRIP based on the nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase and Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88-Tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6-P38 pathway of neutrophils. Rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO model was used in this study. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was carried out by MCAO 1.5 h followed by 24 h reperfusion. LRIP operation was performed to the left femoral artery at 0, 1 or 3 h after reperfusion. Behavioral testing, including postural reflex test, vibrissae-elicited forelimb placing test and tail hang test, showed that LRIP operated at 0 h of reperfusion could significantly ameliorate these behavioral scores. Pathological examinations, infarct size, Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity showed that LRIP operated at 0 h of reperfusion could significantly ameliorate the pathological scores, reduce the infarct size and MPO activity in the brain and increase the MPO activity in the left leg. By using Neutrophil counting, immunofluorescence and real-time PCR techniques, we found that LRIP operated at 0 h of reperfusion could reduce neutrophil counts in the peripheral blood and downregulate the activation of neutrophil in the peripheral blood and rat brain. Western blots revealed that MyD88, TRAF6, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK in neutrophils and the phosphorylation of p47phox (Ser 304 and Ser 345 in neutrophil could be downregulated by LRIP. Our study suggests that LRIP inhibits the number and activation of neutrophils in the rat brain and peripheral blood linked to down-regulating the activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils by MyD88/TRAF6/p38-MAPK pathway.

  9. Calidad de vida en pacientes con isquemia crónica de miembros inferiores tratados con células madre adultas Quality of life in patients with chronic lower limb ischemia treated with adult stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Alfonso-Simón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo una evaluación de la calidad de vida en 45 pacientes mayores de 60 años con isquemia arterial crónica de miembros inferiores; de ellos, 34 con isquemia severa y 11 con pie diabético isquémico, también con lesiones severas. A todos se les habían implantado en el miembro inferior afectado, células mononucleares derivadas de la médula ósea movilizadas a la sangre periférica con factor estimulador de colonias de granulocitos. Para la evaluación de la calidad de vida se seleccionó el cuestionario SF-36, que centra su contenido en 2 áreas: el estado funcional y el bienestar emocional. En todos los casos se manifestó una mala calidad de vida preimplante. La mejoría fue evidente a partir del sexto mes después de la terapia celular. Los casos con un año de evolución habían logrado una buena calidad de vida. La mayor parte de los pacientes que evolucionaron satisfactoriamente pudieron incorporarse a las actividades sociales y laborales, lo que con anterioridad no les era posible.An assessment of the quality of life in 45 patients older than 60 years with chronic arterial ischemia of the lower limbs was conducted. Out of them, 34 had severe ischemia, and 11 had ischemic diabetic foot, as well as severe injuries. All had been implanted mononuclear cells in the affected lower limb, which derived from the bone marrow, and mobilized to the peripheral blood with granulocyte colony stimulating factor. For assessing quality of life, SF-36 questionnaire was selected, which focuses its content on two areas: functional status and emotional well being. All cases showed poor quality of life before implantation. Improvement was evident on the sixth month after cell therapy. Cases with a year of evolution had achieved good quality of life. Most of the patients, who had successful outcomes, could join social activities and employment, which was previously not possible.

  10. Hand Passive Mobilization Performed with Robotic Assistance: Acute Effects on Upper Limb Perfusion and Spasticity in Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Gobbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This single arm pre-post study aimed at evaluating the acute effects induced by a single session of robot-assisted passive hand mobilization on local perfusion and upper limb (UL function in poststroke hemiparetic participants. Twenty-three patients with subacute or chronic stroke received 20 min passive mobilization of the paretic hand with robotic assistance. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS was used to detect changes in forearm tissue perfusion. Muscle tone of the paretic UL was assessed by the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS. Symptoms concerning UL heaviness, joint stiffness, and pain were evaluated as secondary outcomes by self-reporting. Significant (p=0.014 improvements were found in forearm perfusion when all fingers were mobilized simultaneously. After the intervention, MAS scores decreased globally, being the changes statistically significant for the wrist (from 1.6±1.0 to 1.1±1.0; p=0.001 and fingers (from 1.2±1.1 to 0.7±0.9; p=0.004. Subjects reported decreased UL heaviness and stiffness after treatment, especially for the hand, as well as diminished pain when present. This study supports novel evidence that hand robotic assistance promotes local UL circulation changes, may help in the management of spasticity, and acutely alleviates reported symptoms of heaviness, stiffness, and pain in subjects with poststroke hemiparesis. This opens new scenarios for the implications in everyday clinical practice. Clinical Trial Registration Number is NCT03243123.

  11. Hand Passive Mobilization Performed with Robotic Assistance: Acute Effects on Upper Limb Perfusion and Spasticity in Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Massimiliano; Gaffurini, Paolo; Vacchi, Laura; Lazzarini, Sara; Villafane, Jorge; Orizio, Claudio; Negrini, Stefano; Bissolotti, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    This single arm pre-post study aimed at evaluating the acute effects induced by a single session of robot-assisted passive hand mobilization on local perfusion and upper limb (UL) function in poststroke hemiparetic participants. Twenty-three patients with subacute or chronic stroke received 20 min passive mobilization of the paretic hand with robotic assistance. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to detect changes in forearm tissue perfusion. Muscle tone of the paretic UL was assessed by the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Symptoms concerning UL heaviness, joint stiffness, and pain were evaluated as secondary outcomes by self-reporting. Significant ( p = 0.014) improvements were found in forearm perfusion when all fingers were mobilized simultaneously. After the intervention, MAS scores decreased globally, being the changes statistically significant for the wrist (from 1.6 ± 1.0 to 1.1 ± 1.0; p = 0.001) and fingers (from 1.2 ± 1.1 to 0.7 ± 0.9; p = 0.004). Subjects reported decreased UL heaviness and stiffness after treatment, especially for the hand, as well as diminished pain when present. This study supports novel evidence that hand robotic assistance promotes local UL circulation changes, may help in the management of spasticity, and acutely alleviates reported symptoms of heaviness, stiffness, and pain in subjects with poststroke hemiparesis. This opens new scenarios for the implications in everyday clinical practice. Clinical Trial Registration Number is NCT03243123.

  12. Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News Strict Gun Laws Spare Young Lives: Study 'Smart Dresser' Might Help Alzheimer's Patients Clothe Themselves AHA: ...

  13. Electrical somatosensory stimulation followed by motor training of the paretic upper limb in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaziani, Emma; Couppé, Christian; Henkel, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    functioning is most pronounced during the first 4 weeks post stroke, there are few studies investigating the effect of rehabilitation during this critical time window. The purpose of this trial is to determine the effect of electrical somatosensory stimulation (ESS) initiated in the acute stroke phase...

  14. Atrial myxoma-related embolism resulting in acute limb ischaemia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although atrial myxomas are uncommon, a thorough investigation of patients presenting with acute peripheral ischaemic .... reported.[9] Large left atrial tumours impairing intracardiac blood flow can ... In the case described here, obstruction of the mitral valve by the myxoma ... operation, preventing histological confirmation.

  15. High risk of rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury after traumatic limb compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Hsuan; Huang, Shih-Tsai; Liu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Lee-Wei; Yang, Kuo-Chung; Hsu, Kuei-Chang; Lin, Cheng-Ta; Ho, Yen-Yi

    2015-05-01

    Rhabdomyolysis often occurs after traumatic compartment syndrome, and high morbidity and mortality have been reported with the acute kidney injury that develops subsequently. We focused on the risk factors for rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in patients with traumatic compartment syndrome. We also analyzed the relation between renal function and rhabdomyolysis in these patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted from January 2006 to March 2012. Inpatients with traumatic compartment syndrome were included. We evaluated patients' demographics, history of illicit drugs use or alcohol consumption, mechanism of injury, symptoms, serum creatine kinase levels, and kidney function. A total of 52 patients with a mean age of 40.9 years were included; 23 patients had rhabdomyolysis (44.2%), of which 9 patients developed acute kidney injury (39.1%). Significant predictive factors for rhabdomyolysis were history of illicit drugs or alcohol use (P=0.039; odds ratio, 5.91) and ischemic injury (P=0.005). We found a moderate correlation between serum creatine kinase levels and serum creatinine levels (R=0.57; PRhabdomyolysis was a predisposing factor for acute kidney injury (P=0.011; odds ratio, 8.68). Four patients with rhabdomyolysis required a short period of renal replacement therapy. A high percentage of patients with traumatic compartment syndrome developed rhabdomyolysis (44.2%). Patients with rhabdomyolysis had a higher possibility of developing acute kidney injury (39.1%), and rhabdomyolysis was correlated to renal function. Early diagnosis, frequent monitoring, and aggressive treatment are suggested once compartment syndrome is suspected. The overall prognosis is good with early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  16. [Intramuscular injection of lentivirus-mediated EPAS1 gene improves hind limb ischemia and its mechanism in a rat model of peripheral artery vascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihong; Gu, Hongbin; Yang, Fan; Xie, Huajie; Sheng, Lei; Li, Mingfei

    2017-11-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of over-expressed endothelial Per-Arnt-Sim domain protein 1 (EPAS1) on peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a rat model. Methods PAD rat model was established by external iliac artery ligation followed by lentivirus-mediated EPAS1 gene injection into rat right adductor magnus. The models were evaluated by quantitative analysis of gait disturbance. The changes of blood flow in the posterior extremity of the rats were detected using laser Doppler. The expressions of EPAS1, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNAs were tested by real-time quantitative PCR. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results Compared with lenti-EGFP group, rat hind limb function and circulation got recovered obviously 7 days after lenti-EPAS1 injection. The mRNA expressions of EPAS1, HGF, bFGF, and VEGF were up-regulated in the lenti-EPAS1-treated sites.The expression of αSMA showed an obvious increase in the lenti-EPAS1-treated muscles. Conclusion Over-expressed lenti-EPAS1 can promote angiogenesis via the up-regulation of EPAS1-related angiogenic factors in the muscles of the affected hind limb and reduce gait disturbance.

  17. Acute impact of intermittent pneumatic leg compression frequency on limb hemodynamics, vascular function, and skeletal muscle gene expression in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Ryan D; Roseguini, Bruno T; Thyfault, John P; Crist, Brett D; Laughlin, M H; Newcomer, Sean C

    2012-06-01

    The mechanisms by which intermittent pneumatic leg compression (IPC) treatment effectively treats symptoms associated with peripheral artery disease remain speculative. With the aim of gaining mechanistic insight into IPC treatment, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of IPC frequency on limb hemodynamics, vascular function, and skeletal muscle gene expression. In this two study investigation, healthy male subjects underwent an hour of either high-frequency (HF; 2-s inflation/3-s deflation) or low-frequency (LF; 4-s inflation/16-s deflation) IPC treatment of the foot and calf. In study 1 (n = 11; 23.5 ± 4.7 yr), subjects underwent both HF and LF treatment on separate days. Doppler/ultrasonography was used to measure popliteal artery diameter and blood velocity at baseline and during IPC treatment. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and peak reactive hyperemia blood flow (RHBF) were determined before and after IPC treatment. In study 2 (n = 19; 22.0 ± 4.6 yr), skeletal muscle biopsies were taken from the lateral gastrocnemius of the treated and control limb at baseline and at 30- and 150-min posttreatment. Quantitative PCR was used to assess mRNA concentrations of genes associated with inflammation and vascular remodeling. No treatment effect on vascular function was observed. Cuff deflation resulted in increased blood flow (BF) and shear rate (SR) in both treatments at the onset of treatment compared with baseline (P < 0.01). BF and SR significantly diminished by 45 min of HF treatment only (P < 0.01). Both treatments reduced BF and SR and elevated oscillatory shear index compared with baseline (P < 0.01) during cuff inflation. IPC decreased the mRNA expression of cysteine-rich protein 61 from baseline and controls (P <0 .01) and connective tissue growth factor from baseline (P < 0.05) in a frequency-dependent manner. In conclusion, a single session of IPC acutely impacts limb hemodynamics and skeletal muscle gene expression in a frequency

  18. Myocardial and Peripheral Ischemia Causes an Increase in Circulating Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A in Non-atherosclerotic, Non-heparinized Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen, Lasse Bach; Poulsen, Christian Bo; Shim, Jeong; Bek, Marie; Jacobsen, Kevin; Conover, Cheryl A; Bentzon, Jacob Fog; Oxvig, Claus

    2015-12-01

    The usefulness of circulating pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as a biomarker for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is widely debated. We used the pig as a model to assess PAPP-A dynamics in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Induction of myocardial ischemia by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery caused a systemic rise in PAPP-A. However, the ischemic myocardium was excluded as the source of PAPP-A. Interestingly, induction of ischemia in peripheral tissues by ligation of the left femoral artery caused a systemic rise in PAPP-A originating from the left hind limb. This is the first study to demonstrate PAPP-A elevations in the absence of atherosclerosis or heparin during myocardial ischemia. Our findings thus add to the current discussion of the usefulness of PAPP-A as a biomarker for ACS.

  19. Limb ischemia, an alarm signal to a thromboembolic cascade - renal infarction and nephrectomy followed by surgical suppression of the left atrial appendage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraşca, Cosmin; Borda, Angela; Incze, Alexandru; Caraşca, Emilian; Frigy, Attila; Suciu, HoraŢiu

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 55-year-old male with mild hypertension and brief episodes of paroxysmal self-limiting atrial fibrillation (AF) since 2010. Despite a small cardioembolic risk score, CHA2DS2-Vasc=1 (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age=75, Diabetes melitus, prior Stroke), the patient is effectively anticoagulated using acenocumarol. In December 2014, he showed signs of plantar transitory ischemia, for which he did not address the doctor. In early January 2015, he urgently presented at the hospital with left renal pain, caused by a renal infarction, diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) angiography. Left nephrectomy was performed with pathological confirmation. He was discharged with effective anticoagulation treatment. Within the next two weeks, he suffered a transitory ischemic event and a stroke, associated with right sided hemiparesis. On admission, AF was found and converted to sinus rhythm with effective anticoagulation - international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.12. Transthoracic echocardiography detected no pathological findings. Transesophageal echocardiography showed an expended left atrial appendage (LAA) with a slow blood flow (0.2 m÷s) and spontaneous echocontrast. Considering these clinical circumstances, surgical LAA suppression was decided on as a last therapeutic resort. Postoperative evolution was favorable; the patient is still free of ischemic events, one year post-intervention. Some morphological and hemodynamic characteristics of LAA may add additional thromboembolic risk factors, not included in scores. Removing them by surgical LAA suppression may decrease the risk of cardioembolic events. Intraoperative presence of thrombus makes it an indisputable proof.

  20. Micro-lightguide spectrophotometry for tissue perfusion in ischemic limbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Pyndt; Schroeder, Torben V

    2012-01-01

    To validate micro-lightguide spectrophotometry (O2C) in patients with lower limb ischemia and to compare results with those obtained from toe blood pressure.......To validate micro-lightguide spectrophotometry (O2C) in patients with lower limb ischemia and to compare results with those obtained from toe blood pressure....

  1. Different dose-dependent effects of hydrogen sulfide on ischemia-reperfusion induced acute kidney injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Azizi

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that different doses of Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS can play diverse role in renal ischemia reperfusion injury. However, NaHS in the low-doses could protect the kidney from the RIR injury, in a higher dose NaHS exaggerated the renal function by increases plasma creatinine and BUN. Therefore, determining of the therapeutic doses of NaHS may be important in the protection of kidney from the RIR injury.

  2. Protective effects of phosphodiesterase-4-specific inhibitor rolipram on acute ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadov, Emin; Aridogan, Ibrahim Atilla; Izol, Volkan; Acikalin, Arbil; Abat, Deniz; Tuli, Abdullah; Bayazit, Yildirim

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the effect of Rolipram, a phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor, on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats. Thirty rats were divided into 5 different groups of 6 rats. Nothing was done to the control group. In the second group, the renal pedicle was clamped for 30 minutes. In the third group, 1 mg/kg of Rolipram was given by intraperitoneal injection 30 minutes before clamping. The fourth group received the same injection when the clamp was placed, as did the fifth group 30 minutes after the clamp was opened. Clamping time was set at 30 minutes. Twenty-four hours later, nephrectomy was performed in all the groups. Half of each kidney was examined histopathologically. Levels of biochemical agents, such as malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, were measured in the other half. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly decreased and reached control levels in the group in which Rolipram was administered 30 minutes after reperfusion (P = .07). The catalase and superoxide dismutase activities obtained from renal homogentisates of the ischemia groups were evaluated; there were striking increases in tissue levels of these 2 enzymes in the groups in which Rolipram was administered during ischemia and 30 minutes after ischemia (P < .001). Histopathologically, there was no significant difference in inflammation between the Rolipram-administrated groups compared with group 1 (control) and group 2 (IRI). Tubular necrosis and apoptosis was significantly lower in group 5 than the other groups, except group 1 (P < .001). We suggest that in surgical procedures that can lead to renal IRI, the administration of Rolipram can decrease oxidative renal tissue damage and the severe deterioration of renal function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mesenteric Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Toohey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This simulation session is appropriate for emergency medicine residents at any level or medical students. Introduction: Mesenteric ischemia is a rare, but serious cause of abdominal pain. Practitioners must recognize the diagnosis quickly. The clinical course rapidly advances from bowel ischemia to infarction, sepsis, and frequently death. Mesenteric ischemia accounts for approximately 1% of all ED cases of abdominal pain in the elderly, but the mortality is as high as 93%. Objectives: At the end of this simulation session, the learner will: 1 Recognize signs and symptoms of mesenteric ischemia; 2 order appropriately imaging and labs in the workup of an elderly patient with abdominal pain; 3 manage a patient with mesenteric ischemia, a rare, but serious cause of abdominal pain in the elderly; 4 discuss anchoring bias, specifically related to patients referred to the ED with an established diagnosis by outside specialists. Methods: This educational session is a high-fidelity simulation.

  4. DIGE proteome analysis reveals suitability of ischemic cardiac in vitro model for studying cellular response to acute ischemia and regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Haas

    Full Text Available Proteomic analysis of myocardial tissue from patient population is suited to yield insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms taking place in cardiovascular diseases. However, it has been limited by small sized biopsies and complicated by high variances between patients. Therefore, there is a high demand for suitable model systems with the capability to simulate ischemic and cardiotoxic effects in vitro, under defined conditions. In this context, we established an in vitro ischemia/reperfusion cardiac disease model based on the contractile HL-1 cell line. To identify pathways involved in the cellular alterations induced by ischemia and thereby defining disease-specific biomarkers and potential target structures for new drug candidates we used fluorescence 2D-difference gel electrophoresis. By comparing spot density changes in ischemic and reperfusion samples we detected several protein spots that were differentially abundant. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and ESI-MS the proteins were identified and subsequently grouped by functionality. Most prominent were changes in apoptosis signalling, cell structure and energy-metabolism. Alterations were confirmed by analysis of human biopsies from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.With the establishment of our in vitro disease model for ischemia injury target identification via proteomic research becomes independent from rare human material and will create new possibilities in cardiac research.

  5. Lower limb dynamics vary in shod runners who acutely transition to barefoot running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D; Powers, Christopher M; Salem, George J

    2016-01-25

    Relative to traditional shod rear-foot strike (RFS) running, habituated barefoot running is associated with a forefoot-strike (FFS) and lower loading rates. Accordingly, barefoot running has been purported to reduce lower-extremity injury risk. Investigations, however, indicate that novice barefoot runners may not innately adopt a FFS. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine lower-extremity dynamics of habitually shod runners who acutely transition to barefoot running. 22 recreational RFS runners were included in this investigation. This laboratory controlled study consisted of two visits one-week apart, examining habitually shod, then novice barefoot running. Foot-strike patterns and loading rates were determined using motion analysis and force plates, and joint energy absorption was calculated using inverse dynamics. Of the 22 runners, 8 maintained a RFS, 9 adopted a MFS, and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. All runners demonstrated a reduction in knee energy absorption when running barefoot; MFS and FFS runners also demonstrated a significant increase in ankle energy absorption. Runners who maintained a RFS presented with loading rates significantly higher than traditional shoe running, whereas FFS runners demonstrated a significant reduction in loading rate. Mid-foot strikers did not demonstrate a significant change in loading rate. These results indicate that habitually shod RFS runners demonstrate a variety of foot-strike and lower-extremity dynamic responses during the acute transition to barefoot running. Accordingly, explicit instruction regarding foot-strike patterns may be necessary if transitioning to barefoot. Long-term prospective studies are required in order to determine the influence of FFS barefoot running on injury rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transient myocardial ischemia after a first acute myocardial infarction and its relation to clinical characteristics, predischarge exercise testing and cardiac events at one-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1993-01-01

    recording 11 +/- 5 days after AMI 23 patients (19%) had 123 ischemic episodes (group 1), whereas 100 patients demonstrated no ischemia (group 2). Exercise-induced ST-segment depression was more prevalent in group 1 (83%) than in group 2 (47%) (p ... as judged from a shorter exercise duration before significant ST-segment depression (5.5 +/- 2.4 vs 7.7 +/- 4.1 minutes; p depression on exercise testing (4.1 +/- 2.6 vs 2.6 +/- 1.6 mm; p exercise test results revealed an impaired hemodynamic......The relation between early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST-segment monitoring, clinical characteristics, predischarge maximal exercise testing and cardiac events was determined in 123 consecutive men (age 55 +/- 8 years) with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). During 36 hours of ambulatory...

  7. Evaluation of acute ischemia in pre-procedure ECG predicts myocardial salvage after primary PCI in STEMI patients with symptoms >12hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakhri, Yama; Busk, Martin; Schoos, Mikkel Malby

    2016-01-01

    -presenters). The Anderson-Wilkin's score (AW-score) estimates the acuteness of myocardial ischemia from the electrocardiogram (ECG) in STEMI patients. We hypothesized that the AW-score is superior to symptom duration in identifying substantial salvage potential in late-presenters. METHODS: The AW-score (range 1......-4) was obtained from the pre-pPCI ECG in 55 late-presenters and symptoms 12-72 hours. Myocardial perfusion imaging was performed to assess area at risk before pPCI and after 30days to assess myocardial salvage index (MSI). We correlated both the AW-score and pain-to-balloon with MSI and determined the salvage...

  8. Renoprotective effect of paricalcitol via a modulation of the TLR4-NF-κB pathway in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Won, E-mail: maestro97@hanmail.net; Kim, Sun Chul, E-mail: linefe99@hanmail.net; Ko, Yoon Sook, E-mail: rainboweyes@hanmail.net; Lee, Hee Young, E-mail: cell1023@hanmail.net; Cho, Eunjung, E-mail: icdej@naver.com; Kim, Myung-Gyu, E-mail: gyu219@hanmail.net; Jo, Sang-Kyung, E-mail: sang-kyung@korea.ac.kr; Cho, Won Yong, E-mail: wonyong@korea.ac.kr; Kim, Hyoung Kyu, E-mail: hyoung@korea.ac.kr

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Paricalcitol. • Attenuation of renal inflammation. • Modulation of TLR4-NF-κB signaling. - Abstract: Background: The pathophysiology of ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is thought to include a complex interplay between vascular endothelial cell dysfunction, inflammation, and tubular cell damage. Several lines of evidence suggest a potential anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D in various kidney injury models. In this study, we investigated the effect of paricalcitol, a synthetic vitamin D analog, on renal inflammation in a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Paricalcitol was administered via intraperitoneal (IP) injection at 24 h before ischemia, and then I/R was performed through bilateral clamping of the renal pedicles. Twenty-four hours after I/R, mice were sacrificed for the evaluation of injury and inflammation. Additionally, an in vitro experiment using HK-2 cells was also performed to examine the direct effect of paricalcitol on tubular cells. Results: Pre-treatment with paricalcitol attenuated functional deterioration and histological damage in I/R induced AKI, and significantly decreased tissue neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and the levels of chemokines, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). It also decreased IR-induced upregulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB. Results from the in vitro study showed pre-treatment with paricalcitol suppressed the TNF-α-induced depletion of cytosolic IκB in HK-2 cells. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that pre-treatment with paricalcitol has a renoprotective effect in ischemic AKI, possibly by suppressing TLR4-NF-κB mediated inflammation.

  9. Intranasal Ketamine Administration for Narcotic Dose Decrement in Patients Suffering from Acute Limb Trauma in Emergency Department: a Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadshahi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: pain management is an important and challenging issue in emergency medicine. Despite the conduct of several studies on this topic, pain is still handled improperly in many cases. Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of low-dose IN ketamine administration in reducing the need for opiates in patients in acute pain resulting from limb injury. Method: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to assess the possible effect of low-dose intranasal (IN ketamine administration in decreasing patients' narcotic need. Patients in emergency department suffering from acute isolated limb trauma were included. One group of patients received 0.5 mg/kg intravenous morphine sulfate and 0.02 ml/kg IN ketamine. The other group received the same dose of morphine sulfate and 0.02 ml/kg IN distilled water. Pain severity was measured using the 11 points numerical rating scale at 0, 10, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Results: Ninety-one patients with mean age of 31.62 ± 9.13 years were enrolled (54.9% male. The number of requests for supplemental medication was significantly lower in patients who received ketamine (12 patients (30% than those who received placebo (27 patients (67.5% (p = 0.001. Conclusion: It is likely that low-dose IN ketamine is effective in reducing the narcotic need of patients suffering from acute limb trauma.

  10. Insights from computational modeling in inflammation and acute rejection in limb transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Wolfram

    Full Text Available Acute skin rejection in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA is the major obstacle for wider adoption in clinical practice. This study utilized computational modeling to identify biomarkers for diagnosis and targets for treatment of skin rejection. Protein levels of 14 inflammatory mediators in skin and muscle biopsies from syngeneic grafts [n = 10], allogeneic transplants without immunosuppression [n = 10] and allografts treated with tacrolimus [n = 10] were assessed by multiplexed analysis technology. Hierarchical Clustering Analysis, Principal Component Analysis, Random Forest Classification and Multinomial Logistic Regression models were used to segregate experimental groups. Based on Random Forest Classification, Multinomial Logistic Regression and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis models, IL-4, TNF-α and IL-12p70 were the best predictors of skin rejection and identified rejection well in advance of histopathological alterations. TNF-α and IL-12p70 were the best predictors of muscle rejection and also preceded histopathological alterations. Principal Component Analysis identified IL-1α, IL-18, IL-1β, and IL-4 as principal drivers of transplant rejection. Thus, inflammatory patterns associated with rejection are specific for the individual tissue and may be superior for early detection and targeted treatment of rejection.

  11. Use of isovolemic hemodilution in the management of arterial ischemia in patients with polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, D M; Buchbinder, D; Balko, A; Karmody, A M; Leather, R P

    1981-08-01

    The management of patients with both polycythemia and limb-threatening ischemia presents many difficulties because in this population, vascular surgical procedures carry a particularly high incidence of hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications. We evaluated the use of acute isovolemic hemodilution in 12 polycythemic patients who required urgent surgery due to severe ischemia and threatened limb loss. Within 48 hours, blood was withdrawn in units of 500 ml and simultaneously replaced with 1,500 ml of lactated Ringer's solution until a hematocrit of 35 to 40 percent was achieved. After hemodilution, two patients had such a marked improvement that no further therapeutic measures were required immediately. Four patients showed definite improvement in pulmonary vascular resistance tracings and segmental Doppler pressures, but ischemia was not fully ameliorated. These patients together with the remaining six patients underwent vascular surgery within 1 to 14 days after hemodilution. A hematocrit of 32 to 40 percent was maintained during the perioperative period. All arterial reconstructions were successfully completed and there were no perioperative failures. No pulmonary emboli, myocardial infarctions, or deaths occurred in this period. These results indicate that in polycythemic patients, urgent vascular surgery can be performed more safely with the concomitant use of acute isovolemic hemodilution.

  12. Normal distribution and medullary-to-cortical shift of Nestin-expressing cells in acute renal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patschan, D; Michurina, T; Shi, H K; Dolff, S; Brodsky, S V; Vasilieva, T; Cohen-Gould, L; Winaver, J; Chander, P N; Enikolopov, G; Goligorsky, M S

    2007-04-01

    Nestin, a marker of multi-lineage stem and progenitor cells, is a member of intermediate filament family, which is expressed in neuroepithelial stem cells, several embryonic cell types, including mesonephric mesenchyme, endothelial cells of developing blood vessels, and in the adult kidney. We used Nestin-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice to characterize its expression in normal and post-ischemic kidneys. Nestin-GFP-expressing cells were detected in large clusters within the papilla, along the vasa rectae, and, less prominently, in the glomeruli and juxta-glomerular arterioles. In mice subjected to 30 min bilateral renal ischemia, glomerular, endothelial, and perivascular cells showed increased Nestin expression. In the post-ischemic period, there was an increase in fluorescence intensity with no significant changes in the total number of Nestin-GFP-expressing cells. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy performed before and after ischemia ruled out the possibility of engraftment by the circulating Nestin-expressing cells, at least within the first 3 h post-ischemia. Incubation of non-perfused kidney sections resulted in a medullary-to-cortical migration of Nestin-GFP-positive cells with the rate of expansion of their front averaging 40 microm/30 min during the first 3 h and was detectable already after 30 min of incubation. Explant matrigel cultures of the kidney and aorta exhibited sprouting angiogenesis with cells co-expressing Nestin and endothelial marker, Tie-2. In conclusion, several lines of circumstantial evidence identify a sub-population of Nestin-expressing cells with the mural cells, which are recruited in the post-ischemic period to migrate from the medulla toward the renal cortex. These migrating Nestin-positive cells may be involved in the process of post-ischemic tissue regeneration.

  13. Circadian variation of transient myocardial ischemia in the early out-of-hospital period after first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1991-01-01

    with a peak activity occurring in the evening hours (p less than 0.01). Thus, 43% of ischemic episodes and 42% of ischemic time occurred between 6 P.M. and 12 midnight. The characteristics of morning and evening episodes were similar, except for the heart rate at maximal ST-segment depression, which...... was significantly higher during morning episodes (p less than 0.02). Patients with transient myocardial ischemia had a diurnal distribution similar to the circadian variation displayed during ischemic activity. Thus, 16 of the 21 patients had ischemic episodes from 6 P.M. to 12 midnight versus 10 patients from 6 A...

  14. Dynamics of cognitive disturbances in rats with acute cerebral ischemia on the background of introduction of 0.9 % solution NaCl

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    Андрій Ігорович Семененко

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For today there are no clear recommendations on infusion therapy at the disease and injuries of brain, and infusion preparations are commonly used empirically. Within the framework of the complex study of an influence of the different infusion remedies on brain at an experimental ischemia of brain, an aim of this work is to investigate how the 0,9 % solution of NaCl influences on the dynamics of cognitive functions and neurological status of the rats with an acute cerebral ischemia at the course medical introduction into an animal organism.Methods. Experiments were carried out on 60 white rats-males. An acute disturbance of cerebral blood circulation (ADCBC was modeled by means of the two-sided dressing of internal carotid arteries. The 0,9 % solution of NаСІ was injected intravenously in catheterized thigh vein 2,5 ml/kg 2 times/day (5 ml/kg for a day. The first introduction was carried out in 30 minutes after ADCBC and then every day in 12 hours during 7 days. The control groups consist of intact rats that received 0,9 % NаСІ and animals with a model ischemia without treatment.Neurological deficiency in animals was defined on the scale stroke-index McGrow C. P. The dynamics of position-finding activity was assessed in experiment “an open field”. An assessment of animal capacity to training and memorization of an aversive stimulus was studied in the test of conditioned response of passive avoidance. The results were processed using the program StatPlus 2009.Results. The study showed that bilateral carotid occlusion in rats without treatment is followed not only by the high animal lethality but also by the development of a hard neurological symptomatology and then by essential disturbance of mnestic functions in animals that survived during the recovery period of model insult (р<0,01.The study of lethality dynamics, neurological status, behavioral responses in rats with ADCBC on the model of bilateral carotid occlusion showed that the

  15. Perioperative factors affecting the occurrence of acute complex regional pain syndrome following limb bone fracture surgery: data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitani, Masahiko; Yasunaga, Hideo; Uchida, Kanji; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Nakamura, Masaya; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Matsuda, Shinya; Yamada, Yoshitsugu

    2014-07-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) describes a broad spectrum of symptoms that predominantly localize to the extremities. Although limb fracture is one of the most frequently reported triggering events, few large-scale studies have shown the occurrence of and factors associated with CRPS following limb fracture. This study aimed to show the occurrence and identify of those factors. Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database, we identified 39 patients diagnosed with CRPS immediately after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for limb fracture from a cohort of 185 378 inpatients treated with ORIF between 1 July and 31 December of each year between 2007 and 2010. Patient and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, fracture site, duration of anaesthesia and use of regional anaesthesia were investigated by logistic regression analyses to examine associations between these factors and the in-hospital occurrence of CRPS after ORIF. The occurrence of CRPS was relatively high in fractures of the distal forearm, but low in fractures of the lower limb and in patients with multiple fractures. Generally females are considered to be at high risk of CRPS; however, we found a comparable number of male and female patients suffering from CRPS after ORIF for limb fracture. In terms of perioperative factors, a longer duration of anaesthesia, but not regional anaesthesia, was significantly associated with a higher incidence of CRPS. Although a limited number of CRPS patients were analysed in this study, reduced operative time might help to prevent the development of acute CRPS following limb fracture. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Acute and long-term adverse effects of postoperative irradiation on limb function of combined modality limb sparing therapy for extermity of soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinski, B.; Dymek, P.; Walasek, T.; Pecak, M.; Rogowska, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to focus on the aspect of functional outcome for early and late normal tissues damage for patients undergoing postoperative radiotherapy after limb preservation surgery for extremity soft tissues sarcoma (ESTS). The review of the literature suggests that approximately 50% of patients with ESTS have significant impairments, but synthesis of the results is difficult because of the heterogeneity of outcomes used to evaluate function. Future studies require the use of standardized definitions, and reliable and functional outcome measures. (author)

  17. Arterial mapping of lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna Allen, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    A bibliographic review is realized in the arterial mapping of lower limbs by ultrasonographic. The physical properties of the Doppler effect applied to diagnostic ultrasound are described. The anatomical characteristics of the general arterial system and specifically of the lower limbs arterial system are mentioned. Pathologies of the ischemic arterial disease of lower limbs are explained. The study characteristics of lower limbs arterial mapping are documented to determine its importance as appropriate method for the assessment of lower limb ischemia. An adequate arterial mapping of lower limbs is recognized in atherosclerotic ischemic disease as a reliable initial method alternative to arteriography. Arteriography is considered as reference pattern for therapeutic decision making in patients with critical ischemia of the lower limbs. Non-invasive methods to assess the arterial system of lower limbs has evidenced the advantages of the arterial mapping with Doppler, according to the consulted literature. The combination morphological and hemodynamic information has been possible and a map of the explored zone is made. The arterial mapping by ultrasonography has offered similar reliability to angiography [es

  18. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of infliximab on acute lung injury in a rat model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, Ahmet; Kanter, Mehmet; Guzel, Aygul; Pergel, Ahmet; Erboga, Mustafa

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of infliximab on acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R and I/R+ infliximab; each group contain 10 animals. Sham group animals underwent laparotomy without I/R injury. After I/R groups animals underwent laparotomy, 1 h of superior mesenteric artery ligation were followed by 1 h of reperfusion. In the infliximab group, 3 days before I/R, infliximab (3 mg/kg) was administered by intravenously. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and lung tissues samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no more biochemical and histopathological changes on intestinal I/R injury in rats by infliximab treatment have been reported. Infliximab treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue malondialdehyde levels and increased of reduced superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities in lung tissues samples. Intestinal I/R caused severe histopathological injury including edema, hemorrhage, increased thickness of the alveolar wall and a great number of inflammatory cells that infiltrated the interstitium and alveoli. Infliximab treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury. Furthermore, there is a significant reduction in the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase and arise in the expression of surfactant protein D in lung tissue of acute lung injury induced by intestinal I/R with infliximab therapy. It was concluded that infliximab treatment might be beneficial in acute lung injury, therefore, shows potential for clinical use. Because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, infliximab pretreatment may have protective effects in acute lung injury induced by intestinal I/R.

  19. Anti-human tissue factor antibody ameliorated intestinal ischemia reperfusion-induced acute lung injury in human tissue factor knock-in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859 were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v. attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies.

  20. Upper-limb robot-assisted therapy in rehabilitation of acute stroke patients: focused review and results of new randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Stefano; Armani, Mario; Rosati, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    The successful motor rehabilitation of stroke patients requires early intensive and task-specific therapy. A recent Cochrane Review, although based on a limited number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), showed that early robotic training of the upper limb (i.e., during acute or subacute phase) can enhance motor learning and improve functional abilities more than chronic-phase training. In this article, a new subacute-phase RCT with the Neuro-Rehabilitation-roBot (NeReBot) is presented. While in our first study we used the NeReBot in addition to conventional therapy, in this new trial we used the same device in substitution of standard proximal upper-limb rehabilitation. With this protocol, robot patients achieved similar reductions in motor impairment and enhancements in paretic upper-limb function to those gained by patients in a control group. By analyzing these results and those of previous studies, we hypothesize a new robotic protocol for acute and subacute stroke patients based on both treatment modalities (in addition and in substitution).

  1. Effects of valproic acid and dexamethasone administration on early bio-markers and gene expression profile in acute kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat.

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    Ryan W Speir

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR causes acute kidney injury (AKI with high mortality and morbidity. The objective of this investigation was to ameliorate kidney IR injury and identify novel biomarkers for kidney injury and repair. Under general anesthesia, left renal ischemia was induced in Wister rats by occluding renal artery for 45 minutes, followed by reperfusion and right nephrectomy. Thirty minutes prior to ischemia, rats (n = 8/group received Valproic Acid (150 mg/kg; VPA, Dexamethasone (3 mg/kg; Dex or Vehicle (saline intraperitoneally. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 24 or 120 h post-IR. Plasma creatinine (mg/dL at 24 h was reduced (P<0.05 in VPA (2.7±1.8 and Dex (2.3±1.2 compared to Vehicle (3.8±0.5 group. At 3 h, urine albumin (mg/mL was higher in Vehicle (1.47±0.10, VPA (0.84±0.62 and Dex (1.04±0.73 compared to naïve (uninjured/untreated control (0.14±0.26 group. At 24 h post-IR urine lipocalin-2 (μg/mL was higher (P<0.05 in VPA, Dex and Vehicle groups (9.61-11.36 compared to naïve group (0.67±0.29; also, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1; ng/mL was higher (P<0.05 in VPA, Dex and Vehicle groups (13.7-18.7 compared to naïve group (1.7±1.9. Histopathology demonstrated reduced (P<0.05 ischemic injury in the renal cortex in VPA (Grade 1.6±1.5 compared to Vehicle (Grade 2.9±1.1. Inflammatory cytokines IL1β and IL6 were downregulated and anti-apoptotic molecule BCL2 was upregulated in VPA group. Furthermore, kidney DNA microarray demonstrated reduced injury, stress, and apoptosis related gene expression in the VPA administered rats. VPA appears to ameliorate kidney IR injury via reduced inflammatory cytokine, apoptosis/stress related gene expression, and improved regeneration. KIM-1, lipocalin-2 and albumin appear to be promising early urine biomarkers for the diagnosis of AKI.

  2. Local lysis with Alteplase for the treatment of acute embolic leg ischemia following the use of the Duett trademark closure device: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, K.; Buecker, A.; Wingen, M.; Tacke, J.; Wein, B.; Guenther, R.W.; Janssens, U.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze retrospectively the result of the alteplase lysis therapy of embolic complications following the use of the Duett closure device. Methods and Materials: For 3.5 years, the Duett closure device was used in 1,398 angiographies to close the femoral puncture site. The Duett device consists of a balloon and a liquid procoagulant containing collagen and thrombin, which is injected into the puncture tract under endovascular balloon protection of the arterial puncture site. In 9 patients (0.64%), the procoagulant was incidentally injected into the femoral artery causing acute leg ischemia. Eight patients received local lysis therapy with alteplase via a contralateral femoral access. One patient underwent surgery. On average, 21 mg alteplase (4-35 mg) were administered within 14 h (4-21 h). The course of the lysis was followed angiographyically and clinically. All patients were inteerviewed by telephone 23 months (4-35 months) later.Results: In 3 patients, lysis was complete. In 5 patients, only little thrombotic material remained. In all patients, symptoms of ischemia resolved completely within the first hours after initiation of lysis. In 5 cases, bleeding occurred at the puncture site closed with the Duett device during lysis, including development of a false aneurysm in 2 cases. Complications led to premature termination (n=2) or interruption of the lysis (n=3). All complications were treated conservatively. Clinically, long-term sequelae were paresthesia and hypoesthesia in the lower leg and foot in 2 patients treated with lysis, and in the patient who underwent surgery. (orig.) [de

  3. Molecular MRI of Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis with Simultaneous Delayed Enhancement MRI Distinguishes Apoptotic and Necrotic Myocytes In Vivo: Potential for Midmyocardial Salvage in Acute Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnovik, David E.; Garanger, Elisabeth; Aikawa, Elena; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Figuiredo, Jose-Luiz; Dai, Guangping; Reynolds, Fred; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Weissleder, Ralph; Josephson, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Background A novel dual contrast molecular MRI technique to image both cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis and necrosis in-vivo within 4-6 hours of ischemia is presented. The technique utilizes the annexin-based nanoparticle AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 (apoptosis) and simultaneous delayed enhancement (DE) imaging with a novel gadolinium chelate, Gd-DTPA-NBD (necrosis). Methods and Results Mice with transient coronary ligation were injected intravenously at the onset of reperfusion with AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 (n=7) or the control probe Inact_CLIO-Cy5.5 (n=6). T2* weighted MR images (9.4 Tesla) were acquired within 4-6 hours of reperfusion. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between injured and uninjured myocardium was measured. The mice were then injected with Gd-DTPA-NBD and DE imaging was performed within 10-30 minutes. Uptake of AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 was most prominent in the midmyocardium and was significantly greater than that of Inact_CLIO-Cy5.5 (CNR 8.82 +/− 1.5 versus 3.78 +/− 1.1, p DTPA-NBD. Wall thickening was significantly reduced in segments with DE and/or transmural accumulation of AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 (p DTPA-NBD confirmed the presence of large numbers of apoptotic but potentially viable CMs (AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 positive, Gd-DTPA-NBD negative) in the midmyocardium. Conclusions A novel technique to image CM apoptosis and necrosis in-vivo within 4-6 hours of injury is presented, and reveals large areas of apoptotic but viable myocardium in the midmyocardium. Strategies to salvage the numerous apoptotic but potentially viable CMs in the midmyocardium in acute ischemia should be investigated. PMID:19920044

  4. Ergotamine-induced upper extremity ischemia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Gun [Bundang CHA General Hospital, Pochon (China); Shin, Sung Wook [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    Ergotamine-induced limb ischemia is an extremely rare case. We present a case of a 64-year-old man, who developed ischemia on the right upper extremity due to long-term use of Ergot for migraine headache. Angiography revealed diffused, smooth, and tapered narrowing of the brachial artery. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous nitroprusside.

  5. Perfusion measurements of the brain: using dynamic CT for the quantitative assessment of cerebral ischemia in acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, Ernst; Koenig, Matthias

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Perfusion CT has been successfully used as a functional imaging technique for the differential diagnosis of patients with hyperacute stroke. We investigated to what extent this technique can also be used for the quantitative assessment of cerebral ischemia. Methods and material: We studied linearity, spatial resolution and noise behaviour of cerebral blood flow (CBF) determination with computer simulations and phantom measurements. Statistical ROI based analysis of CBF images of a subset of 38 patients from a controlled clinical stroke study with currently more than 75 patients was done to check the power of relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values to predict definite infarction and ischemic penumbra. Classification was performed using follow-up CT and MR data. Results: Absolute CBF values were systematically underestimated, the degree depended on the cardiac output of the patients. Phantom measurements and simulations indicated very good linearity allowing reliable calculation of rCBF values. Infarct and penumbra areas in 19 patients receiving standard heparin therapy had mean rCBF values of 0.19 and 0.62, respectively. The corresponding values for 19 patients receiving local intraarterial fibrinolysis were 0.18 and 0.57. The difference between infarct and penumbra values was highly significant (P<0.0001) in both groups. No penumbra area was found with an rCBF value of less than 0.20. While in the heparin group only 25% of all areas with an rCBF between 0.20 and 0.35 survived, in the fibrinolytic group 61% of these areas could be saved (P<0.05). Conclusion: Perfusion CT is a fast and practical technique for routine clinical application. It provides substantial and important additional information for the selection of the optimal treatment strategy for patients with hyperacute stroke. Relative values of cerebral blood flow discriminate very well between areas of reversible and irreversible ischemia; an rCBF value of 0.20 appears to be a definite lower

  6. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Valenzuela, Scott K. Lynn, Lisa R. Mikelson, Guillermo J. Noffal, Daniel A. Judelson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m. On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern –forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS] x 2 (Group – PFFG, PRFG mixed model ANOVAs (p < 0.05 were run on speed, active peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF, peak early stance and mid stance sagittal ankle moments, sagittal plane hip and knee moments, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, and sagittal plane hip and knee ROM. There were no significant interactions or between group differences for any of the measured variables. Within subject effects demonstrated that the RFS condition had significantly lower (VGRF (RFS = 2.58 ± .21 BW, FFS = 2.71 ± 0.23 BW, dorsiflexion moment (RFS = -2.6 1± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, FFS = -3.09 ± 0.32 Nm·kg-1, and dorsiflexion range of motion (RFS = 17.63 ± 3.76°, FFS = 22.10 ± 5.08°. There was also a significantly higher peak plantarflexion moment (RFS = 0.23 ± 0.11 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 0.01 ± 0.01 Nm·kg-1, peak knee moment (RFS = 2.61 ± 0.54 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 2.39 ± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, knee ROM (RFS = 31.72 ± 2.79°, FFS = 29.58 ± 2.97°, and hip ROM (RFS = 42.72 ± 4.03°, FFS = 41.38 ± 3.32° as compared with the FFS condition. This research suggests that acute changes in foot strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait.

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijen, P.C. van.

    1991-01-01

    In-vivo proton and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to detect changes in cerebral metabolism during ischemia and other types of metabolic stress. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in an animal model to observe morphological alterations during focal cerebral ischemia. Spectroscopy was performed in animal models with global ischemia, in volunteers during hyperventilation and pharmaco-logically altered cerebral perfusion, and in patients with acute and prolonged focal cerebral ischemia. (author). 396 refs.; 44 figs.; 14 tabs

  8. Changing circadian variation of transient myocardial ischemia during the first year after a first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1992-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 123 men (aged 55 +/- 8 years) with a recent first acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 24-hour ambulatory ST-segment monitoring was performed early after discharge (day 11 +/- 5), 6 months (day 185 +/- 6) and 1 year (day 368 +/- 8) after AMI. No difference in the prevalen...

  9. Pulmonary Morphological Changes in the Simulation and Treatment of Lower Limb Ischemic and Perfusion Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Sergiyenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate pulmonary morphological changes in animals with limb ischemic and reperfusion lesions, which were treated with hemocarboperfusion on sodium hypochlorite-modified sorbents.Materials and methods. The investigation was conducted on 94 mature mongrel male dogs with 4-hour limb ischemia and subsequent reperfusion. Limb ischemia was induced by applying a tourniquet to the isolated vascular fascicle of an experimental limb proximal to the origin of the deep artery of the thigh. Following 4 hours, reperfusion was made, by removing the tourniquet. Three hours of the initiation of reperfusion, one-hour hemocarboperfusion was performed thrice for 72 hours. Lung biopsy samples were used for morphological studies. Morphological changes were evaluated, by employing the hematoxylin- and eosin-stained semifine sections. The visceral histological pattern was assessed by a light trinocular microscope (OLYMPUS, Japan (microscope objective 10.Results. The development of 4-hour limb ischemia is accompanied by significant microcirculatory disorders in the lungs that exhibit dyscirculatory and dystrophic processes concurrent with the signs of tissue dyscomplexation without the signs of an inflammatory reaction. In the reperfusion period, there was a significant progression of lung tissue morphological changes corresponding to the pattern of phase 2 respiratory distress syndrome. Sodium hypochlorite-modified CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion resulted in a virtually complete restoration of the lung architectonics in the presence of insignificant microcirculato-ry and ventilatory disorders. After standard hemocarboperfusion, the lung tissue may be defined as a slightly reduced pattern of acute pulmonary lesion.Conclusion. Sodium hypochlorite-modified CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion is an effective technique in abolishing ischemic and reperfusion lesions. 

  10. UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS combined with spike-in method for plasma metabonomics analysis of acute myocardial ischemia rats and pretreatment effect of Danqi Tongmai tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bingpeng; Deng, Yanping; Hou, Jinjun; Bi, Qirui; Yang, Min; Jiang, Baohong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2015-02-01

    Undoubtedly, metabonomics can reveal the comprehensive efficacies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae and its complex mechanism at the molecular biological level. In this study, an attempt was made to address the pretreatment effect of a TCM formula. In this case, as a critical point, we should first know how to really reflect the various endogenous metabolites in a disease status before a TCM formula is employed in a therapeutic procedure. Here, we explored an approach that combined high resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry with a spike-in method to characterize endogenous metabolites in acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) rats. As a result, 19 potential biomarkers in rat plasma were identified and 10 related disturbed pathways were perturbed in the early stages of AMI development. Subsequently, the metabonomics method was applied to investigate the pretreatment effect of the TCM formula named the Danqi Tongmai tablet (DQTM). The results revealed that the DQTM pretreatment could reduce the AMI injury and partially regulate the perturbed TCA cycle and amino and nucleotide metabolism, which were presumable related to energy metabolism and myocardial cells apoptosis/necrosis. In conclusion, UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS combined with a spike-in method were successfully applied to the metabonomics analysis of DQTM, which demonstrated that not only a comprehensive metabolic profile in the early stages of AMI development was achieved, but also that the underlying holistic efficacies were assessed and it was helpful to understand the possible mechanism of pretreatment with DQTM.

  11. Recurrent ischemia across the spectrum of acute coronary syndromes: prevalence and prognostic significance of (re-)infarction and ST-segment changes in a large contemporary registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Andrew T; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Fitzgerald, Gordon; Feldman, Laurent J; Eagle, Kim A; Gore, Joel M; Anderson, Frederick A; López-Sendón, Jose; Gurfinkel, Enrique P; Brieger, David; Goodman, Shaun G

    2010-11-05

    There are limited recent data on the prevalence and potentially different adverse impact of the various types of recurrent ischemia (RI) in unselected patients with acute coronary syndromes(ACS). We examined the clinical features and treatment associated with, and the differential prognostic impact of, the various types of RI in unselected patients across the broad spectrum of ACS in the contemporary era. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) was a prospective, multinational registry of patients hospitalized for ACS. Data were collected on standardized case report forms. Of the 29,400 ACS patients enrolled in May 2000-March 2007, 21% developed RI; 2.4%, 4.9%, and 16% had myocardial (re-)infarction [(re-)MI], RI with ST-segment changes, and RI without ST-segment changes (not mutually exclusive), respectively. Rates of in-hospital mortality and complications, and 6-month mortality were significantly higher among patients with RI compared to those without; the rates were highest for patients who developed (re-)MI, followed by those with RI and ST-segment changes. After adjusting for other validated prognosticators in the GRACE risk score, all three types of RI retained an independent association with both higher in-hospital and post-discharge 6-month mortality. Early revascularization was associated with lower in-hospital mortality only in the group with (re-)MI (P for interaction=0.003). Despite the current use of intensive medical therapies, RI remains a common and serious consequence across the spectrum of ACS. Different types of RI confer a variable adverse prognostic impact. Re-MI is associated with the worst outcome, which appears to be mitigated by early revascularization. Our findings underscore the persistent need to improve the treatment of ACS. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ischemia-modified albumin levels in the prediction of acute critical neurological findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

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    Murat Daş

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA levels in patients with carbon monoxide (CO poisoning were higher compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. In addition, the study sought to determine if there was a correlation between serum IMA levels and carboxyhemoglobin (COHB levels and other critical neurological findings (CNFs. In this prospective study, the IMA levels of 100 patients with CO poisoning and 50 control individuals were compared. In addition, the IMA and COHB levels were analyzed according to absence or presence CNFs in patients with CO poisoning. The levels of IMA (mg/dL on admittance, and during the 1st hour and 3rd hour, in patients with CO poisoning (49.90 ± 35.43, 30.21 ± 14.81, and 21.87 ± 6.03 were significantly higher, compared with the control individuals (17.30 ± 2.88. The levels of IMA in the 6th hour were not higher compared with control individuals. The levels of IMA on admittance, and during the 1st hour, 3rd hour, and 6th hour, and COHB (% levels in patients who had CNFs were higher compared with IMA levels and COHB levels in patients who had no CNFs (p < 0.001. However, when the multivariate model was created, it was observed that IMA level on admittance was a poor indicator for prediction of CNFs (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.08. We therefore concluded that serum IMA levels could be helpful in the diagnosis of CO poisoning. However, we believe that IMA levels cannot be used to predict which patients will develop CNFs due to CO poisoning.

  13. Chinese Medicine Injection Qingkailing for Treatment of Acute Ischemia Stroke: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafeng Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Qingkailing (QKL injection was a famous traditional Chinese patent medicine, which was extensively used to treat the acute stages of cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the quantity, quality and overall strength of the evidence on QKL in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Methods. An extensive search was performed within MEDLINE, Cochrane, CNKI, Vip and Wan-Fang up to November 2011. Randomized controlled trails (RCTs on QKL for treatment of acute stroke were collected, irrespective of languages. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards, and RevMan5 was used for data analysis. Results. 7 RCTs (545 patients were included and the methodological quality was evaluated as generally low. The pooled results showed that QKL combined with conventional treatment was more effective in effect rate, and the score of MESSS and TNF-α level compared with conventional treatment alone, but there was no significant difference in mortality of two groups. Only one trial reported routine life status. There were four trials reported adverse events, and no obvious adverse event occurred in three trials while one reported adverse events described as eruption and dizziness.

  14. Lower-limb hot-water immersion acutely induces beneficial hemodynamic and cardiovascular responses in peripheral arterial disease and healthy, elderly controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kate N; van Rij, André M; Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D

    2017-03-01

    Passive heat induces beneficial perfusion profiles, provides substantive cardiovascular strain, and reduces blood pressure, thereby holding potential for healthy and cardiovascular disease populations. The aim of this study was to assess acute responses to passive heat via lower-limb, hot-water immersion in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy, elderly controls. Eleven patients with PAD (age 71 ± 6 yr, 7 male, 4 female) and 10 controls (age 72 ± 7 yr, 8 male, 2 female) underwent hot-water immersion (30-min waist-level immersion in 42.1 ± 0.6°C water). Before, during, and following immersion, brachial and popliteal artery diameter, blood flow, and shear stress were assessed using duplex ultrasound. Lower-limb perfusion was measured also using venous occlusion plethysmography and near-infrared spectroscopy. During immersion, shear rate increased ( P Lower-limb blood flow increased significantly in both groups, as measured from duplex ultrasound (>200%), plethysmography (>100%), and spectroscopy, while central and peripheral pulse-wave velocity decreased in both groups. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by 22 ± 9 mmHg (main effect P lower 3 h afterward. In PAD, popliteal shear profiles and claudication both compared favorably with those measured immediately following symptom-limited walking. A 30-min hot-water immersion is a practical means of delivering heat therapy to PAD patients and healthy, elderly individuals to induce appreciable systemic (chronotropic and blood pressure lowering) and hemodynamic (upper and lower-limb perfusion and shear rate increases) responses. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Hemorheological changes in ischemia-reperfusion: an overview on our experimental surgical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Norbert; Furka, Istvan; Miko, Iren

    2014-01-01

    Blood vessel occlusions of various origin, depending on the duration and extension, result in tissue damage, causing ischemic or ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Necessary surgical clamping of vessels in vascular-, gastrointestinal or parenchymal organ surgery, flap preparation-transplantation in reconstructive surgery, as well as traumatological vascular occlusions, all present special aspects. Ischemia and reperfusion have effects on hemorheological state by numerous ways: besides the local metabolic and micro-environmental changes, by hemodynamic alterations, free-radical and inflammatory pathways, acute phase reactions and coagulation changes. These processes may be harmful for red blood cells, impairing their deformability and influencing their aggregation behavior. However, there are still many unsolved or non-completely answered questions on relation of hemorheology and ischemia-reperfusion. How do various organ (liver, kidney, small intestine) or limb ischemic-reperfusionic processes of different duration and temperature affect the hemorheological factors? What is the expected magnitude and dynamics of these alterations? Where is the border of irreversibility? How can hemorheological investigations be applied to experimental models using laboratory animals in respect of inter-species differences? This paper gives a summary on some of our research data on organ/tissue ischemia-reperfusion, hemorheology and microcirculation, related to surgical research and experimental microsurgery.

  16. Global Ischemia ECG pattern for diagnosis of acute left main occlusion: prevalence and associated mortality in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stengaard, Carsten; Sørensen, Jacob Thorsted; Andersen, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    , Department of Cardiology, Heart Center - Tampere - Finland, 5Duke University Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology - Durham - United States of America, Topic(s): Infarction acute phase STEMI Citation: European Heart Journal ( 2011 ) 32 ( Abstract Supplement ), 1054 Purpose: A global...... occlusion of 4.3%. Mortality in patients with GIP was significantly higher compared to patients without GIP (preports...

  17. Leukocytic Response and Peripheral Venous Blood Lymphocyte Apoptosis as a Marker of Tissue Ischemia in Acute Massive Blood Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Borovkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the level of peripheral venous blood lymphocyte apoptosis and intraoperative hypoxia in victims with acute massive blood loss. Subjects and methods. Twenty-two patients with open and close chest and abdominal traumas complicated by acute massive blood loss were examined. All the patients were emergently operated on to stop bleeding. Tissue metabolism was evaluated from gases, acid-base parameters, and plasma lactate, glucose, potassium, and sodium levels. Apoptosis of mononuclear cells was studied and dead leukocytes were counted using flow cytometry. Results. Preoperatively, the victims were found to have venous hypoxemia, hyperlactatemia, hyperglycemia, moderate leukocytosis, and higher dead leukocyte counts. There were also raised counts of lymphocytes coming into the process of apoptosis. A significant relationship was found between monocyte counts and hypoxia values. At the end of surgery, oxygen balance values became stable and exerted an effect on the count of leukocytes, the relative level of granulocytes, the relative and absolute counts of dead and damaged leukocytes, and the concentration of lymphocytes in the victims’ venous blood during the early stages of apoptosis, as evidenced by nonlinear regression models. Conclusion. The indicators of immunocompetent cell apoptosis and the count of venous blood dead leukocytes along with lactate levels and venous hypoxemia parameters reflect the degree of tissue hypoxia and may be used as specific markers.

  18. Plastic Change along the Intact Crossed Pathway in Acute Phase of Cerebral Ischemia Revealed by Optical Intrinsic Signal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intact crossed pathway via which the contralesional hemisphere responds to the ipsilesional somatosensory input has shown to be affected by unilateral stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the plasticity of the intact crossed pathway in response to different intensities of stimulation in a rodent photothrombotic stroke model. Using optical intrinsic signal imaging, an overall increase of the contralesional cortical response was observed in the acute phase (≤48 hours after stroke. In particular, the contralesional hyperactivation is more prominent under weak stimulations, while a strong stimulation would even elicit a depressed response. The results suggest a distinct stimulation-response pattern along the intact crossed pathway after stroke. We speculate that the contralesional hyperactivation under weak stimulations was due to the reorganization for compensatory response to the weak ipsilateral somatosensory input.

  19. Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Necrotizing Acute Pancreatitis Complicated by Perforated Ileum Due to Nonocclusive Mesenteric Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia López-Cuenca

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing acute pancreatitis is the most severe form of pancreatitis, and it is a potentially life-threatening condition. Its diagnosis and severity are based on radiological signs. Although computed tomography is the most used imaging tool, ultrasound can be a quick and useful technique in emergency and intensive care scenarios. The use of abdominal ultrasound is generally limited to ruling out cholecystitis. Bowel gas can limit the accuracy of pancreatic imaging. When the pancreas is visualized, ultrasound can reveal pancreatic enlargement, echotextural changes, and peripancreatic fluid. We present a patient with necrotizing pancreatitis who developed peritonitis due to ileal perforation, where the use of ultrasound as a bedside imaging technique was very useful.

  20. A single intracoronary injection of midkine reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury in swine hearts: a novel therapeutic approach for acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaaki eIshiguro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Several growth factors are effective for salvaging myocardium and limiting infarct size in experimental studies with small animals. Their benefit in large animals and feasibility in clinical practice remains to be elucidated. We investigate the cardioprotective effect of midkine (MK in swine subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. I/R was created in swine by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion for 45 min using a percutaneous over-the-wire balloon catheter. MK protein was injected as a bolus through the catheter at the initiation of reperfusion (midkine injected group; MKT. Saline was injected in controls (CONT. Survival rate 24h after I/R was significantly higher in MKT than in CONT, whereas infarct size/area at risk was almost 5 times smaller. Echocardiography in MKT revealed a significantly higher percent wall thickening of the interventricular septum, a higher % fractional shortening and a lower E/e’ compared with CONT. LV catheterization in MKT showed a lower LVEDP, and a higher dP/dtmax compared with CONT. TUNEL-positive myocytes and CD45-positive cell infiltration in the peri-infarct area were significantly less in MKT than in CONT. Here, we showed that a single intracoronary injection of MK protein in swine hearts at the onset of reperfusion dramatically reduces infarct size and mortality and ameliorates systolic/diastolic LV function. This beneficial effect is associated with a reduction of apoptotic and inflammatory reactions. MK application during percutaneous coronary intervention may become a promising adjunctive therapy in acute coronary syndromes.

  1. Unusual presentation of aortic dissection: Post-coital acute paraplegia with renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinith P Galabada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old chronic smoker who presented with acute paraplegia occurring during coitus and subsequently developed acute renal failure (ARF requiring dialysis. He had absent peripheral pulses in the lower limbs with evidence of acute ischemia. Doppler study showed dissecting aneurysm of thoracic aorta, thrombotic occlusion of the distal aorta from L1 level up to bifurcation and occlusion of the right renal artery by a thrombus that was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. He was not subjected to any vascular intervention as his lower limbs were not salvageable due to delay in the diagnosis. Post-coital aortic dissection and aortic dissection presenting with acute paraplegia and ARF are very rare. This is probably the first case report with post-coital acute aortic dissection presenting with paraplegia and ARF. This case emphasizes the importance of a careful examination of peripheral pulses in patients presenting with ARF and paraplegia.

  2. Clinical factors useful for the differentiation of acute arterial embolism from acute arterial thrombosis of the lower extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Caifeng; Gu Jianping; Lou Wensheng; He Xu; Chen Liang; Chen Guoping; Su Haobo; Song Jinhua; Wang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical factors useful for the differentiation of acute arterial embolism from acute arterial thrombosis in patients with acute lower extremity ischemia. Methods: A total of 73 patients with acute arterial embolism or acute arterial thrombosis of lower extremity, who were admitted to the hospital during the period from May 2005 to June 2010, were enrolled in the study. Depending on the DSA findings, the patients were divided into arterial embolism group (n=52) and arterial thrombosis group (n=21). The clinical data, including general information, the onset of the disease, the obstructed sites, the condition of the diseased limb, the clinical manifestations and the severity of ischemia, were retrospectively analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: The acute arterial embolism occurred usually on the iliofemoral artery (χ 2 =5.44, P 2 =4.15, P 2 =9.42, P 2 =18.10, P 2 =10.01, P 2 =5.44, P 2 =12.37, P 2 =7.96, P = 8.18, P 2 =14.00, P 2 =4.24, P<0.05) was only seen in patients with acute arterial embolism. Conclusion: The clinical factors helpful for differentiating acute arterial embolism from acute arterial thrombosis include: clinical manifestations (dyskinesia, impaired sensation and peripheral pulse condition of the healthy limb), the obstructed sites, the history of intermittent claudication and previous arterial embolism, the severity of ischemia, and the high-risk factors of the peripheral vascular disease (atrial fibrillation, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smoking habit). (authors)

  3. Cellular infiltrates and injury evaluation in a rat model of warm pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putte, BP; Kesecioglu, J; Hendriks, JMH; Persy, VP; van Marck, E; Van Schil, PEY; De Broe, ME

    Introduction Beside lung transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass, isolated lung perfusion and sleeve resection result in serious pulmonary ischemia - reperfusion injury, clinically known as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Very little is known about cells infiltrating the lung during ischemia -

  4. Remote Ischemic Postconditioning (RIPC) of the Upper Arm Results in Protection from Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Following Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) for Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bangming; Wang, Haipeng; Zhang, Chi; Xia, Ming; Yang, Xiangjun

    2018-02-19

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPC) of the upper arm on protection from cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty patients with STEMI were randomized into two groups: primary PCI (N=44) and primary PCI+RIPC (N=36). RIPC consisted of four cycles of 5 minutes of occlusion and five minutes of reperfusion by cuff inflation and deflation of the upper arm, commencing within one minute of the first PCI balloon dilatation. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected before PCI and at 0.5, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after PCI. Levels of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), serum creatinine (Cr), nitric oxide (NO), and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) were measured. The rates of acute kidney injury (AKI) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated. RESULTS Patients in the primary PCI+RIPC group, compared with the primary PCI group, had significantly lower peak CK-MB concentrations (PPCI in patients with acute STEMI might provide cardiac and renal protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury via the actions of SDF-1α, and NO.

  5. Determinants of midterm functional outcomes, wound healing, and resources used in a hospital-based limb preservation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Bala; Ahmed, Ayman; Wu, Bian; Causey, Marlin W; Gasper, Warren J; Vartanian, Shant M; Reyzelman, Alexander M; Hiramoto, Jade S; Conte, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess midterm functional status, wound healing, and in-hospital resource use among a prospective cohort of patients treated in a tertiary hospital, multidisciplinary Center for Limb Preservation. Data were prospectively gathered on all consecutive admissions to the Center for Limb Preservation from July 2013 to October 2014 with follow-up data collection through January 2016. Limbs were staged using the Society for Vascular Surgery Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) threatened limb classification scheme at the time of hospital admission. Patients with nonatherosclerotic vascular disorders, acute limb ischemia, and trauma were excluded. The cohort included 128 patients with 157 threatened limbs; 8 limbs with unstageable disease were excluded. Mean age (±standard deviation [SD]) was 66 (±13) years, and median follow-up duration (interquartile range) was 395 (80-635) days. Fifty percent (n = 64/128) of patients were readmitted at least once, with a readmission rate of 20% within 30 days of the index admission. Mean total number of admissions per patient (±SD) was 1.9 ± 1.2, with mean (±SD) cumulative length of stay (cLOS) of 17.1 (±17.9) days. During follow-up, 25% of limbs required a vascular reintervention, and 45% developed recurrent wounds. There was no difference in the rate of readmission, vascular reintervention, or wound recurrence by initial WIfI stage (P > .05). At the end of the study period, 23 (26%) were alive and nonambulatory; in 20%, functional status was missing. On both univariate and multivariate analysis, end-stage renal disease and prior functional status predicted ability to ambulate independently (P wound healing. Direct hospital (inpatient) cost per limb saved was significantly higher in stage 4 patients (P wound healing, or wound recurrence. Patients presenting with limb-threatening conditions require significant inpatient care, have a high frequency of repeated hospitalizations, and are at

  6. Acute compartment syndrome caused by uncontrolled hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Anar; Amin, Hari; Salzman, Matthew; Morgan, Farah

    2017-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure exceeding perfusion pressure in a closed compartment resulting in nerve and muscle ischemia. Common precipitating causes are crush injuries, burns, substance abuse, osseous or vascular limb trauma. This is a case of 42year old female with history of hypothyroidism who presented to emergency room with acute onset of severe pain and swelling in right lower extremity. Physical examination was concerning for acute compartment syndrome of right leg which was confirmed by demonstration of elevated compartmental pressures. No precipitating causes were readily identified. Further laboratory testing revealed uncontrolled hypothyroidism. Management included emergent fasciotomy and initiating thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents a rare association between acute compartment syndrome and uncontrolled hypothyroidism. We also discuss the pathogenesis of compartment syndrome in hypothyroid patients and emphasize the importance of evaluating for less common causes, particularly in setting of non-traumatic compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Frequency of cancer in patients operated on for acute peripheral arterial thrombosis and the impact on prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolajsen, Chalotte Winther; Dickenson, Maja Holch; Budtz-Lilly, Jacob; Eldrup, Nikolaj

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about acute peripheral arterial thrombosis in patients with concomitant cancer. Small studies suggest that revascularization in this patient group is associated with thrombosis and increased risk of amputation and death. We investigated the frequency of cancer in patients operated on for acute peripheral arterial thrombosis and the long-term risk of amputation, mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke in a national cohort. This was a prospective case/noncase study comprising all Danish citizens undergoing vascular surgery for acute arterial thrombosis from 1986 to 2012 with up to 26 years of follow-up. A total of 7840 patients were treated surgically for acute arterial thrombosis; 2384 (30.4%) were previously diagnosed with cancer or developed cancer during the observation period. Risk of amputation was not significantly different in patients with or without cancer, except in patients with cancer diagnosed <24 months before acute limb ischemia (hazard ratio, 2.0). Mortality was significantly greater in all patients having or developing cancer within 24 months after surgery (hazard ratio, 1.2-2.2). The frequencies of myocardial infarction and stroke were similar to those among patients without cancer. One of five patients operated on for acute limb ischemia has a diagnosis of cancer, and a further 3.4% will develop cancer within 24 months. The data further show that patients with acute limb ischemia and concomitant cancer can be successfully revascularized and that the majority of these patients preserve their limb. Cancer should therefore not contravene interventional treatment. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Kevin A; Lynn, Scott K; Mikelson, Lisa R; Noffal, Guillermo J; Judelson, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of foot strike patterns and converted foot strike patterns on lower limb kinematics and kinetics at the hip, knee, and ankle during a shod condition. Subjects were videotaped with a high speed camera while running a 5km at self-selected pace on a treadmill to determine natural foot strike pattern on day one. Preferred forefoot group (PFFG, n = 10) and preferred rear foot group (PRFG, n = 11) subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m). On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern -forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS]) x 2 (Group - PFFG, PRFG) mixed model ANOVAs (p strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait. Key pointsFootstrike pattern changes should be individually considered and implemented based on individual histories/abilitiesForefoot strike patterns increase external dorsiflexion momentsRearfoot strike patterns increase external knee flexion momentsRecreational shod runners are able to mimic habitual mechanics of different foot strike patterns.

  9. Intermittent peripheral tissue ischemia during coronary ischemia reduces myocardial infarction through a KATP-dependent mechanism: first demonstration of remote ischemic perconditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Rahbek; Smerup, M; Konstantinov, I E

    2006-01-01

    . Intermittent limb ischemia during myocardial ischemia reduces MI, preserves global systolic and diastolic function, and protects against arrhythmia during the reperfusion phase through a K(ATP) channel-dependent mechanism. Understanding this process may have important therapeutic implications for a range...

  10. Fibroblast growth factor-1 improves cardiac functional recovery and enhances cell survival after ischemia and reperfusion: a fibroblast growth factor receptor, protein kinase C, and tyrosine kinase-dependent mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmen, Meindert; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.; de Windt, Leon J.; Willems, Jodil; Dassen, Willem R. M.; Heeneman, Sylvia; Zimmermann, Rene; van Bilsen, Marc; Doevendans, Pieter A.

    2004-01-01

    We sought to investigate the role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 during acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. The FGFs display cardioprotective effects during ischemia and reperfusion. We investigated FGF-1-induced cardioprotection during ischemia and reperfusion and the intracellular

  11. Sustained benefit of temporary limited reperfusion in skeletal muscle following ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.J.; Cambria, R.; Kerr, J.; Hobson, R.W. II

    1990-01-01

    Limiting the rate of reperfusion blood flow following prolonged ischemia in skeletal muscle has been shown beneficial. However, the persistence of this benefit with reinstitution of normal blood flow remains undefined. We investigated the role of temporary limited reperfusion on ischemia-reperfusion injury in an isolated gracilis muscle model in six anesthetized dogs. Both gracilis muscles were subjected to 6 hr of ischemia followed by 2 hr of reperfusion. Reperfusion blood flow was limited for the first hour in one gracilis muscle to its preischemic rate followed by a second hour of normal reperfusion (LR/NR). The contralateral muscle underwent 2 hr of normal reperfusion (NR/NR). Muscle injury was quantified by technetium-99m pyrophosphate (TcPyp) uptake and by histochemical staining using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) with planimetry of the infarct size. Capillary permeability was evaluated by muscle weight gain. Results are reported as the mean +/- SEM. These data demonstrate a sustained benefit from temporary limited reperfusion. This methodology should be considered in the surgical management of the acutely ischemic limb

  12. Limb anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurrieri, Fiorella; Kjær, Klaus Wilbrandt; Sangiorgi, Eugenio

    2002-01-01

    of limb development has been conserved for more than 300 millions years, with all the necessary adaptive modifications occurring throughout evolution, we also take into consideration the evolutionary aspects of limb development in terms of genetic repertoire, molecular pathways, and morphogenetic events....

  13. Structural adaptation to ischemia in skeletal muscle: effects of blockers of the renin-angiotensin system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheidegger, K. J.; Nelissen-Vrancken, M. H.; Leenders, P. J.; Daemen, M. J.; Smits, J. F.; Wood, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the effects of long-term treatment with blockers of the renin-angiotensin system on capillarization and growth of fibers in ischemic hind-limb muscles and in muscles under normal growth conditions. Ischemia was induced by partial ligation of the left common iliac artery. Ischemia

  14. Analysis of 1,338 Patients with Acute Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) Supports the Inadequacy of the Term "Proximal DVT".

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maeseneer, M G R; Bochanen, N; van Rooijen, G; Neglén, P

    2016-03-01

    For decades acute lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has been subdivided into distal DVT (isolated to the calf veins) and proximal DVT (extending above calf vein level). The aim of this study was to analyse the anatomical site and extent of thrombus in a large cohort of patients with acute DVT. A retrospective analysis of all patients aged >18 years, presenting with unilateral DVT according to duplex ultrasound investigation was performed at the University Hospital of Antwerp, Belgium (1994-2012). The anatomical site and extent of thrombus was registered and subdivided into five segments: calf veins (segment 1), popliteal vein (segment 2), femoral vein (segment 3), common femoral vein (segment 4), and iliac veins, with or without inferior vena cava (segment 5). The median age of the 1,338 patients (50% male) included was 62 years (range 18-98 years). Left sided DVT was predominant (57%). DVT was limited to one segment in 443 patients, of whom 370 had DVT isolated to the calf veins (28% of total cohort). In 968 patients with what was previously called "proximal DVT", the median number of affected segments was three (range 1-5 segments). In this group iliofemoral DVT (at least involving segment four and/or five) was present in 506 patients (38% of total cohort), whereas the remaining patients had femoropopliteal DVT (at least in segment two and/or three but not in four or five). Iliofemoral DVT without thrombus in segments one and two was present in 160 patients (12% of total cohort). This study illustrates the large diversity of thrombus distribution in patients previously described as having "proximal DVT". Therefore, this term should be abandoned and replaced with iliofemoral and femoropopliteal DVT. Patients with iliofemoral DVT (38%) could be considered for early clot removal; 12% of all patients with DVT would be ideal candidates for such intervention. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lower-limb MRI in the staging and re-staging of osteonecrosis in paediatric patients affected by acute lymphoblastic leukaemia after therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ippolito, D.; Masetto, A.; Franzesi, C.T.; Bonaffini, P.A.; Sironi, S. [University of Milano-Bicocca Milan, School of Medicine, Monza (Italy); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, H. San Gerardo, Monza (Italy); Sala, A.; Biondi, A. [University of Milano-Bicocca Milan, School of Medicine, Monza (Italy); H. San Gerardo, Department of Paediatric Haematology, Monza (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    To assess the diagnostic value of MRI examination in detecting and monitoring osteonecrotic lesions (ON) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) after chemotherapy (CHT) and/or bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Seventy-three patients (37 males, mean age 12.4 years old) with ALL after treatment underwent a lower-limb MR examination between November 2006 and March 2012. In 47 there was clinical suspicion of ON, 26 were asymptomatic. Studies were performed with a 1 T and a 1.5 T scanner, acquiring short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and T1-weighted sequences in coronal plane from the hips to the ankles. The average acquisition time was 18 min. Considering baseline and follow-up examinations, the overall number of MRI studies was 195. Fifty-four of 73 patients showed ON at MRI study, with an overall number of 323 ON (89 involving articular surface, 24 with joint deformity, JD). Twenty-five of 47 symptomatic patients showed subchondral ON lesions, 11 developed JD. Three of 26 asymptomatic patients showed subchondral bone ON at baseline examination but no JD at follow-up. Twenty-two of 28 BMT, 32/45 CHT patients developed ON. Our MRI protocol proved to be feasible in evaluating ON in paediatric patients. Studies should be addressed only to symptomatic patients. (orig.)

  16. Lower-limb MRI in the staging and re-staging of osteonecrosis in paediatric patients affected by acute lymphoblastic leukaemia after therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolito, D.; Masetto, A.; Franzesi, C.T.; Bonaffini, P.A.; Sironi, S.; Sala, A.; Biondi, A.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of MRI examination in detecting and monitoring osteonecrotic lesions (ON) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) after chemotherapy (CHT) and/or bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Seventy-three patients (37 males, mean age 12.4 years old) with ALL after treatment underwent a lower-limb MR examination between November 2006 and March 2012. In 47 there was clinical suspicion of ON, 26 were asymptomatic. Studies were performed with a 1 T and a 1.5 T scanner, acquiring short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and T1-weighted sequences in coronal plane from the hips to the ankles. The average acquisition time was 18 min. Considering baseline and follow-up examinations, the overall number of MRI studies was 195. Fifty-four of 73 patients showed ON at MRI study, with an overall number of 323 ON (89 involving articular surface, 24 with joint deformity, JD). Twenty-five of 47 symptomatic patients showed subchondral ON lesions, 11 developed JD. Three of 26 asymptomatic patients showed subchondral bone ON at baseline examination but no JD at follow-up. Twenty-two of 28 BMT, 32/45 CHT patients developed ON. Our MRI protocol proved to be feasible in evaluating ON in paediatric patients. Studies should be addressed only to symptomatic patients. (orig.)

  17. Lower-limb MRI in the staging and re-staging of osteonecrosis in paediatric patients affected by acute lymphoblastic leukaemia after therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, D; Masetto, A; Franzesi, C Talei; Bonaffini, P A; Sala, A; Biondi, A; Sironi, S

    2016-04-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of MRI examination in detecting and monitoring osteonecrotic lesions (ON) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) after chemotherapy (CHT) and/or bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Seventy-three patients (37 males, mean age 12.4 years old) with ALL after treatment underwent a lower-limb MR examination between November 2006 and March 2012. In 47 there was clinical suspicion of ON, 26 were asymptomatic. Studies were performed with a 1 T and a 1.5 T scanner, acquiring short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and T1-weighted sequences in coronal plane from the hips to the ankles. The average acquisition time was 18 min. Considering baseline and follow-up examinations, the overall number of MRI studies was 195. Fifty-four of 73 patients showed ON at MRI study, with an overall number of 323 ON (89 involving articular surface, 24 with joint deformity, JD). Twenty-five of 47 symptomatic patients showed subchondral ON lesions, 11 developed JD. Three of 26 asymptomatic patients showed subchondral bone ON at baseline examination but no JD at follow-up. Twenty-two of 28 BMT, 32/45 CHT patients developed ON. Our MRI protocol proved to be feasible in evaluating ON in paediatric patients. Studies should be addressed only to symptomatic patients.

  18. Evaluation of the gender difference in the protective effects of ischemic postconditioning on ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Mahmoudi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies indicate that gender differences exist in tolerance of the kidney to ischemia reperfusion (IR injury. Recently, postconditioning (POC, induction of brief repetitive periods of IR, has been introduced to reduce the extent of the damage to the kidney. This method was shown to attenuate renal IR injury by modifying oxidative stress and reducing lipid peroxidation. Considering the gender effect on the results of several treatment methods, in this study, we investigated the impact of gender on the protective effect of POC on the rat kidney.Methods: In this study, after right nephrectomy, 48 male and female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 8 rats: In IR group, with the use of bulldog clamp, 45 minutes of left renal artery ischemia was induced followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. In the sham group, all of the above surgical procedures were applied except that IR was not induced. In the POC group, after the induction of 45 minutes ischemia, 4 cycles of 10 seconds of intermittent ischemia and reperfusion were applied before restoring of blood to the kidney. 24 hours later, serum and renal tissue samples were collected for renal functional monitoring and oxidative stress evaluation.Results: Postconditioning attenuated renal dysfunction considering the significant decrease in plasma creatinine and BUN compared with IR group only in male rats (P<0.05. Also, POC attenuated oxidative stress in male rats’ kidney tissues as demonstrated by a significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA level and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity (P<0.05. In female rats, there were no changes in functional markers and oxidative stress status in POC group compared to IR group. Conclusion: Considering gender difference, POC had protective effect against IR injury by attenuating functional and oxidative stress markers in male rat kidneys. This protective effect was not seen in female rats.

  19. Limb Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in amputation. Injuries, including from traffic accidents and military combat Cancer Birth defects Some amputees have phantom pain, which is the feeling of pain in the missing limb. Other physical problems include surgical complications and skin problems, if you ...

  20. Protective effect of salvianolic acid B against intestinal ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transplantation, strangulated hernias due to gastric barrier ... using pentabarbital sodium at the dose of 50 ..... prevents iodinated contrast media-induced acute renal injury in rats via ... mesenchymal stem cells reduce rat intestinal ischemia-.

  1. MicroRNA-381 Favors Repair of Nerve Injury Through Regulation of the SDF-1/CXCR4 Signaling Pathway via LRRC4 in Acute Cerebral Ischemia after Cerebral Lymphatic Blockage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Min Piao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Acute cerebral ischemia is a manifestation of cerebral vascular insufficiency and has a high mortality. However, the therapy for acute cerebral ischemia is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the effect of microRNA-381 (miR-381 on the repair of nerve injury in rats with acute cerebral ischemia after cerebral lymphatic blockage (CLB by targeting leucine-rich repeat C4 protein (LRRC4 through the Stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXC chemokine receptor-4 signaling pathway. Methods: Rat models of CLB and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO were established, and 56 Wistar rats were divided into sham, MCAO, CLB + MCAO, CLB + MCAO + miR-381 inhibitor, CLB + MCAO + miR-381 mimic, CLB + MCAO + AMD3100 and CLB + MCAO + miR-381 mimic + AMD3100 groups. Modified neurological severity score (mNSS was used to determine nerve injury, TTC staining to measure infarction volume, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL staining and flow cytometry to evaluate cell apoptosis, immunofluorescence to measure BrdU-positive cell number, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to determine contents of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-10 (IL-10, nerve growth factor (NGF and neurite outgrowth inhibitor -A (Nogo-A, Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and Western blotting to evaluate expression of miR-381, LRRC4, SDF-1, CXCR4, pERK, Slit2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Results: LRRC4 was a target gene of miR-381. Compared with the results in the CLB + MCAO group, mNSS, infarction volume, apoptosis rate and TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and Nogo-A contents as well as LRRC4 expression in the CLB + MCAO + miR-381 inhibitor and CLB + MCAO + AMD3100 groups were increased (those in the CLB + MCAO + AMD3100 group > those in the CLB + MCAO + miR-381 mimic + AMD3100 group, while BrdU-positive cell number, contents of NGF and

  2. Zoledronate inhibits ischemia-induced neovascularization by impairing the mobilization and function of endothelial progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hung Tsai

    . These findings suggest that administration of zoledronate should be withheld in patients with ischemic events such as acute limb ischemia.

  3. Extent and distribution of skeletal muscle necrosis after graded periods of complete ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, R.; Lindsay, T.; Walker, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The management of an acutely ischemic extremity requires knowledge of the response of skeletal muscle (the largest component of the lower limb) to prolonged periods of complete normothermic ischemia. We have used the canine gracilis muscle model to evaluate the extent and distribution of ischemic necrosis after 3 and 5 hours of ischemia and 48 hours of reperfusion. Each muscle was cut into six slices, and the extent and distribution of postischemic necrosis identified by means of nitroblue tetrazolium staining and 99mTc pyrophosphate uptake. After 3, 4, and 5 hours of ischemia the extent of necrosis was 2.0% +/- 0.9%, 30.3% +/- 6.0%, and 90.1% +/- 3.5% (mean +/- SEM), respectively. A statistically significant correlation exists between the extent of necrosis and the uptake of 99mTc pyrophosphate uptake per gram of tissue (y = 1574.9x - 8.4, r = 0.84, p less than 0.001). Most necrosis was centrally located and found in the thickest portion of the muscle. We conclude that there is a graded response in the extent of skeletal muscle necrosis related to the length of ischemic stress rather than an ''all-or-none'' phenomenon. This central distribution of necrosis makes the usual external evaluation of ischemic damage clinically unreliable. In addition, since there was no enveloping fascia in this model, a compartment release alone may not prevent the development of skeletal muscle necrosis. This knowledge of the response of skeletal muscle to ischemia may lead to an improved clinical approach to an extremity suffering a prolonged ischemic insult

  4. Renal ischemia reperfusion causes brain hippocampus oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The acute kidney injury (AKI) may do damage to remote organs. Objective of the study is to investigate effect of seaweed extract (SE) on brain oxidative damage in kidney ischemia/reperfusion rats. Material and Methods: Animals were randomly divided into five groups. SE pre-fed to rats. Results: Kidney I/R ...

  5. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower extremity ischaemia. Acute lower limb ischaemia is a surgical emergency. ... is ~1.5 cases per 10 000 persons per year. Acute ischaemia ... Table 2. Clinical features discriminating embolic from thrombotic ALEXI. Clinical features.

  6. Rat Experimental Model of Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: An Ethical Approach to Set up the Analgesic Management of Acute Post-Surgical Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, Maria Chiara; Tolva, Valerio; Casana, Renato; Gnecchi, Massimiliano; Vanoli, Emilio; Spazzolini, Carla; Roughan, John; Calvillo, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Rationale During the past 30 years, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rodents became one of the most commonly used model in cardiovascular research. Appropriate pain-prevention appears critical since it may influence the outcome and the results obtained with this model. However, there are no proper guidelines for pain management in rats undergoing thoracic surgery. Accordingly, we evaluated three analgesic regimens in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study was strongly focused on 3R’s ethic principles, in particular the principle of Reduction. Methods Rats undergoing surgery were treated with pre-surgical tramadol (45 mg/kg intra-peritoneal), or carprofen (5 mg/kg sub-cutaneous), or with pre-surgical administration of carprofen followed by 2 post-surgery tramadol injections (multi-modal group). We assessed behavioral signs of pain and made a subjective evaluation of stress and suffering one and two hours after surgery. Results Multi-modal treatment significantly reduced the number of signs of pain compared to carprofen alone at both the first hour (61±42 vs 123±47; pCarprofen alone was more effective at the second hour post-surgery when signs of pain reduced to 74±24 from 113±40 in the first hour (pcarprofen and tramadol groups, respectively (pcarprofen and tramadol was more effective in preventing pain during the second hour after surgery compared with both tramadol or carprofen. Our results suggest that the combination of carprofen and tramadol represent the best therapy to prevent animal pain after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. We obtained our results accordingly with the ethical principle of Reduction. PMID:24756074

  7. Management of the multiple limb amputee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J H; Jones, L E; Cornet, J; Cittarelli, T

    2002-09-10

    Multiple limb amputations involving at least one upper extremity are very uncommon. The amputation of both an upper and lower limb is even more uncommon. Due to the rarity of these amputations therapists are uncertain regarding the most appropriate treatment methods. While the majority of the protocols used for single limb amputations are appropriate for these multiple limb amputees, there are differences. Loss of multiple limbs creates a problem of overheating for the individual. Loss of an arm and leg results in difficulty donning the prostheses and difficulty using crutches and parallel bars during mobilization. A review is given of 16 multiple limb amputees seen in our rehabilitation centre in the last 15 years. Return to work was seen in one third and was not related to the number of the amputations. A higher proportion of these multiple limb amputations occur through alcoholism or attempted suicide behaviour than occurs with either single upper limb amputations or lower limb amputations. This existing behaviour can create a management problem for the rehabilitation team during rehabilitation. Guidelines as to appropriate prosthetic and preprosthetic care are provided to assist the practitioner who has the acute and long term care of these patients. All multiple limb amputees should be referred to a specialized rehabilitation centre to discuss prosthetic options and long term rehabilitation requirements. This paper does not discuss bilateral lower limb amputations when not combined with an upper limb amputation.

  8. Rat experimental model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury: an ethical approach to set up the analgesic management of acute post-surgical pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Ciuffreda

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: During the past 30 years, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rodents became one of the most commonly used model in cardiovascular research. Appropriate pain-prevention appears critical since it may influence the outcome and the results obtained with this model. However, there are no proper guidelines for pain management in rats undergoing thoracic surgery. Accordingly, we evaluated three analgesic regimens in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study was strongly focused on 3R's ethic principles, in particular the principle of Reduction. METHODS: Rats undergoing surgery were treated with pre-surgical tramadol (45 mg/kg intra-peritoneal, or carprofen (5 mg/kg sub-cutaneous, or with pre-surgical administration of carprofen followed by 2 post-surgery tramadol injections (multi-modal group. We assessed behavioral signs of pain and made a subjective evaluation of stress and suffering one and two hours after surgery. RESULTS: Multi-modal treatment significantly reduced the number of signs of pain compared to carprofen alone at both the first hour (61±42 vs 123±47; p<0.05 and the second hour (43±21 vs 74±24; p<0.05 post-surgery. Tramadol alone appeared as effective as multi-modal treatment during the first hour, but signs of pain significantly increased one hour later (from 66±72 to 151±86, p<0.05. Carprofen alone was more effective at the second hour post-surgery when signs of pain reduced to 74±24 from 113±40 in the first hour (p<0.05. Stress behaviors during the second hour were observed in only 20% of rats in the multimodal group compared to 75% and 86% in the carprofen and tramadol groups, respectively (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-modal treatment with carprofen and tramadol was more effective in preventing pain during the second hour after surgery compared with both tramadol or carprofen. Our results suggest that the combination of carprofen and tramadol represent the best therapy to prevent animal pain after

  9. A New Therapeutic Modality for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of Pitavastatin Induces Cardioprotection from Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Activation of PI3K/Akt Pathway and Anti-Inflammation in a Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Nagaoka

    Full Text Available There is an unmet need to develop an innovative cardioprotective modality for acute myocardial infarction (AMI, for which the effectiveness of interventional reperfusion therapy is hampered by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. Pretreatment with statins before ischemia is shown to reduce MI size in animals. However, no benefit was found in animals and patients with AMI when administered at the time of reperfusion, suggesting insufficient drug targeting into the IR myocardium. Here we tested the hypothesis that nanoparticle-mediated targeting of pitavastatin protects the heart from IR injury.In a rat IR model, poly(lactic acid/glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle incorporating FITC accumulated in the IR myocardium through enhanced vascular permeability, and in CD11b-positive leukocytes in the IR myocardium and peripheral blood after intravenous treatment. Intravenous treatment with PLGA nanoparticle containing pitavastatin (Pitavastatin-NP, 1 mg/kg at reperfusion reduced MI size after 24 hours and ameliorated left ventricular dysfunction 4-week after reperfusion; by contrast, pitavastatin alone (as high as 10 mg/kg showed no therapeutic effects. The therapeutic effects of Pitavastatin-NP were blunted by a PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, but not by a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A. Pitavastatin-NP induced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β, and inhibited inflammation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the IR myocardium.Nanoparticle-mediated targeting of pitavastatin induced cardioprotection from IR injury by activation of PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibition of inflammation and cardiomyocyte death in this model. This strategy can be developed as an innovative cardioprotective modality that may advance currently unsatisfactory reperfusion therapy for AMI.

  10. Is the 6-minute pegboard and ring test valid to evaluate upper limb function in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisberto RM

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosimeire Marcos Felisberto,1 Cassia Fabiane de Barros,1 Kelly Cristina Albanezi Nucci,1 Andre Luis Pereira de Albuquerque,1 Elaine Paulin,2 Christina May Moran de Brito,1 Wellington Pereira Yamaguti1 1Hospital Sírio-Libanês, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil Background: The 6-minute pegboard and ring test (6-PBRT is a useful test for assessing the functional capacity of upper limbs in patients with stable COPD. Although 6-PBRT has been validated in stable patients, the possibility of a high floor effect could compromise the validity of the test in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to verify the convergent validity of 6-PBRT in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary hospital. Patients who were hospitalized due to AECOPD and healthy elderly participants, voluntarily recruited from the community, were considered for inclusion. All participants underwent a 6-PBRT. Isokinetic evaluation to measure the strength and endurance of elbow flexors and extensors, handgrip strength (HGS, spirometry testing, the modified Pulmonary Functional Status Dyspnea Questionnaire (PFSDQ-M, the COPD assessment test (CAT, and symptoms of dyspnea and fatigue were all measured as comparisons for convergent validity. Good convergent validity was considered if >75% of these hypotheses could be confirmed (correlation coefficient>0.50. Results: A total of 17 patients with AECOPD (70.9±5.1 years and forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] of 41.8%±17.9% of predicted and 11 healthy elderly subjects were included. The HGS showed a significant strong correlation with 6-PBRT performance (r=0.70; p=0.002. The performance in 6-PBRT presented a significant moderate correlation with elbow flexor torque peak (r=0.52; p=0.03 and elbow extensor torque peak (r=0.61; p=0.01. The total muscular work of the 15

  11. The protective effect of cilostazol on isolated rabbit femoral arteries under conditions of ischemia and reperfusion: the role of the nitric oxide pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana R.G.A. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The clinical significance of ischemia/reperfusion of the lower extremities demands further investigation to enable the development of more effective therapeutic alternatives. This study investigated the changes in the vascular reactivity of the rabbit femoral artery and nitric oxide metabolites under partial ischemia/ reperfusion conditions following cilostazol administration. METHODS: Ischemia was induced using infrarenal aortic clamping. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: Control 90 minutes, Ischemia/Reperfusion 90/60 minutes, Control 120 minutes, Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 minutes, Cilostazol, Cilostazol before Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 minutes, and Ischemia 120 minutes/Cilostazol/ Reperfusion 90 minutes. Dose-response curves for sodium nitroprusside, acetylcholine, and the calcium ionophore A23187 were obtained in isolated femoral arteries. The levels of nitrites and nitrates in the plasma and skeletal muscle were determined using chemiluminescence. RESULTS: Acetylcholine-and A23187-induced relaxation was reduced in the Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 group, and treatment with cilostazol partially prevented this ischemia/reperfusion-induced endothelium impairment. Only cilostazol treatment increased plasma levels of nitrites and nitrates. An elevation in the levels of nitrites and nitrates was observed in muscle tissues in the Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90, Cilostazol/Ischemia/Reperfusion, and Ischemia/ Cilostazol/Reperfusion groups. CONCLUSION: Hind limb ischemia/reperfusion yielded an impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of the femoral artery. Furthermore, cilostazol administration prior to ischemia exerted a protective effect on endotheliumdependent vascular reactivity under ischemia/reperfusion conditions.

  12. Superior mesenteric arterial branch occlusion causing partial jejunal ischemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van De Winkel Nele

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ischemic bowel disease comprises both mesenteric ischemia and colonic ischemia. Mesenteric ischemia can be divided into acute and chronic ischemia. These are two separate entities, each with their specific clinical presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. However, diagnosis may be difficult due to the vague symptomatology and subtle signs. Case presentation We report the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with abdominal discomfort, anorexia, melena and fever. A physical examination revealed left lower quadrant tenderness and an irregular pulse. Computed tomography of her abdomen as well as computed tomography enterography, enteroscopy, angiography and small bowel enteroclysis demonstrated an ischemic jejunal segment caused by occlusion of a branch of the superior mesenteric artery. The ischemic segment was resected and an end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The diagnosis of segmental small bowel ischemia was confirmed by histopathological study. Conclusion Mesenteric ischemia is a pathology well-known by surgeons, gastroenterologists and radiologists. Acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia are two separate entities with their own specific clinical presentation, radiological signs and therapeutic modalities. We present the case of a patient with symptoms and signs of chronic mesenteric ischemia despite an acute etiology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report presenting a case of acute mesenteric ischemia with segmental superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  13. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Methods Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (pkefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (pkefir group compared with ischemia group (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (pkefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future. PMID:26113960

  14. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-05-01

    The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (pkefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (pkefir group compared with ischemia group (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (pkefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future.

  15. Myocardial ischemia and angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwyn, A.P.; Fox, K.M.; Jonathan, A.; Lavender, P.; Watson, I.

    1981-01-01

    Ambulatory monitoring of ST segment changes was performed in 60 patients presenting with angina, positive ECG stress tests and coronary artery disease, 85% of ischemic ECG events were asymptomatic, 37% occurred with no increase in heart rate and 15% of episodes either lasted 20 minutes or more or fluctuated in severity. A controlled pilot study in ten patients showed depression. Radionuclide studies in 50 patients with angina and coronary artery disease have shown that stress (i.e., atrial pacing) produced different patterns of disturbed regional myocardial perfusion related to the patient's exercise capacity and eventually leading to a decrease in regional myocardial perfusion during the ischemic episode. ST segment depression appeared only after the decrease in regional myocardial perfusion. These findings combined with past research suggest that patients with angina and coronary artery disease can suffer frequent asymptomatic disturbances of the regional myocardial perfusion. The frequency of these episodes and the time course for the recovery of the metabolic consequences mean that segments of ventricular myocardium may be constantly abnormal. The relative importance of changes in coronary tone and malfunction of platelets in the diseased coronary tree needs to be examined in clinical research. Pilot studies of antiplatelet agents have shown a significant beneficial effect on episodes of ischemia occurring at night and those occurring without any increase in heart rate. The techniques and observations in these patients with coronary artery disease all suggest that acute transient regional myocardial ischemia is caused by a variety of mechnisms. Further research using objective methods is required to discover the causes of ischemia and to rationalize treatment. (orig./MG) [de

  16. TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages regulate revascularization of the ischemic limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish S; Smith, Alberto; Nucera, Silvia; Biziato, Daniela; Saha, Prakash; Attia, Rizwan Q; Humphries, Julia; Mattock, Katherine; Grover, Steven P; Lyons, Oliver T; Guidotti, Luca G; Siow, Richard; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Egginton, Stuart; Waltham, Matthew; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele; Modarai, Bijan

    2013-06-01

    A third of patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) will eventually require limb amputation. Therapeutic neovascularization using unselected mononuclear cells to salvage ischemic limbs has produced modest results. The TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs) are a myeloid cell subset known to be highly angiogenic in tumours. This study aimed to examine the kinetics of TEMs in patients with CLI and whether these cells promote neovascularization of the ischemic limb. Here we show that there are 10-fold more circulating TEMs in CLI patients, and removal of ischemia reduces their numbers to normal levels. TEM numbers in ischemic muscle are two-fold greater than normoxic muscle from the same patient. TEMs from patients with CLI display greater proangiogenic activity than TIE2-negative monocytes in vitro. Using a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia, lentiviral-based Tie2 knockdown in TEMs impaired recovery from ischemia, whereas delivery of mouse macrophages overexpressing TIE2, or human TEMs isolated from CLI patients, rescued limb ischemia. These data suggest that enhancing TEM recruitment to the ischemic muscle may have the potential to improve limb neovascularization in CLI patients. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  17. Preinfarct Health Status and the Use of Early Invasive Versus Ischemia-Guided Management in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qintar, Mohammed; Smolderen, Kim G; Chan, Paul S; Gosch, Kensey L; Jones, Philip G; Buchanan, Donna M; Girotra, Saket; Spertus, John A

    2017-10-01

    Early invasive management improves outcomes in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The association between preinfarct health status and the selecting patients for early invasive management is unknown. The Prospective Registry Evaluating outcomes after Myocardial Infarctions: Events and Recovery and Translational Research Investigating Underlying disparities in acute Myocardial infarction Patients' Health status are consecutive US multicenter registries, in which the associations between preinfarct angina frequency and quality of life (both assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire on admission) and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score and referral to early invasive management (coronary angiography within 48 hours) were evaluated using Poisson regression, after adjusting for site, demographics, and clinical and psychosocial variables. Of 3,768 patients with NSTEMI, 2,182 (57.9%) patients were referred for early invasive treatment. Patients with excellent, good, or very good baseline angina-specific quality of life, respectively, were more likely to receive early angiography, even after adjustment, as compared with patients reporting poor baseline quality of life because of angina (62.1.0%, 60.9%, 59.6%, vs 51.2%; adjusted relative risk [RR] = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.16; RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.27; RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.31, respectively). Finally, patients with a GRACE score in the highest risk decile (199.5 to management. Further work is needed to understand the role of preinfarct health status and in-hospital treatment strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictive ability of the Society for Vascular Surgery Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) classification system after first-time lower extremity revascularizations

    OpenAIRE

    Darling, Jeremy; McCallum, John C.; Soden, Peter A.; Guzman, R.J. (Raul J.); Wyers, M.C. (Mark C.); Hamdan, A.D. (Allen D.); Verhagen, Hence; Schermerhorn, Marc

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective:__ The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Wound, Ischemia and foot Infection (WIfI) classification system was proposed to predict 1-year amputation risk and potential benefit from revascularization. Our goal was to evaluate the predictive ability of this scale in a real-world selection of patients undergoing a first-time lower extremity revascularization for chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). __Methods:__ From 2005 to 2014, 1336 limbs underwent a first-time ...

  19. Unilateral Partial Nephrectomy with Warm Ischemia Results in Acute Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1-Alpha (HIF-1α and Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4 Overexpression in a Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Zhang

    Full Text Available Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R during partial nephrectomy (PN contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI, which is inaccurately assessed using existent clinical markers of renal function. We evaluated I/R-related changes in expression in hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, within kidney tissue and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL in a porcine model of PN.Three adult pigs each underwent unilateral renal hilar cross clamping for 180 min followed by a 15 min reperfusion. The contralateral kidney served as control. Biopsies of clamped kidneys were obtained at baseline (time 0, every 60 min during the hypoxic phase, and post-reperfusion. Control kidneys were biopsied once at 180 min. Peripheral blood was sampled at time 0, every 30 min during the hypoxic phase, and post-reperfusion. HIF-1α and TLR4 expression in kidney tissue and PBL were analyzed by Western blotting. I/R-related histological changes were assessed.Expression of HIF-1α in clamped kidneys and PBL was below detection level at baseline, rising to detectable levels after 60 min of hypoxia, and continuing to rise throughout the hypoxic and reperfusion phases. Expression of TLR-4 in clamped kidneys followed a similar trend with initial detection after 30-60 min of hypoxia. Control kidneys exhibited no change in HIF-1α or TLR-4 expression. I/R-related histologic changes were minimal, primarily mild tubular dilatation.In a porcine model of PN, HIF-1α and TLR4 exhibited robust, I/R-related increases in expression in kidney tissue and PBL. Further studies investigating these molecules as potential markers of AKI are warranted.

  20. Facilitated beam-walking recovery during acute phase by kynurenic acid treatment in a rat model of photochemically induced thrombosis causing focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Hideki; Suzuki, Masahiko; Sakuma, Mio; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi

    We previously demonstrated the presence of activated areas in the non-injured contralateral sensorimotor cortex in addition to the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex of the area surrounding a brain infarction, using a rat model of focal photochemically induced thrombosis (PIT) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using this model, we next applied gene expression profiling to screen key molecules upregulated in the activated area. RNA was extracted from the ipsilateral and contralateral sensorimotor cortex to the focal brain infarction and from the sham controlled cortex, and hybridized to gene-expression profiling arrays containing 1,322 neurology-related genes. Results showed that glycine receptors were upregulated in both the ipsilateral and contralateral cortex to the focal ischemic lesion. To prove the preclinical significance of upregulated glycine receptors, kynurenic acid, an endogenous antagonist to glycine receptors on neuronal cells, was administered intrathecally. As a result, the kynurenic acid significantly improved behavioral recovery within 10 days from paralysis induced by the focal PIT (p beam walking. These results suggest that intrathecal administration of a glycine receptor antagonist may facilitate behavioral recovery during the acute phase after brain infarction. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Reduced microvascular volume and hemispherically deficient vasoreactivity to hypercapnia in acute ischemia: MRI study using permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, J Y; Shim, Woo H; Cho, Gyunggoo; Fan, Xiang; Kwon, Seon J; Kim, Jeong K; Dai, George; Wang, Xiaoying; Kim, Young R

    2015-06-01

    Vasoreactivity to hypercapnia has been used for assessing cerebrovascular tone and control altered by ischemic stroke. Despite the high prognostic potential, traits of hypercapnia-induced hemodynamic changes have not been fully characterized in relation with baseline vascular states and brain tissue damage. To monitor cerebrovascular responses, T2- and T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were acquired alternatively using spin- and gradient-echo echo plannar imaging (GESE EPI) sequence with 5% CO2 gas inhalation in normal (n=5) and acute stroke rats (n=10). Dynamic relative changes in cerebrovascular volume (CBV), microvascular volume (MVV), and vascular size index (VSI) were assessed from regions of interest (ROIs) delineated by the percent decrease of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The baseline CBV was not affected by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) whereas the baseline MVV in ischemic areas was significantly lower than that in the rest of the brain and correlated with ADC. Vasoreactivity to hypercapnic challenge was considerably attenuated in the entire ipsilesional hemisphere including normal ADC regions, in which unsolicited, spreading depression-associated increases of CBV and MVV were observed. The lesion-dependent inhomogeneity in baseline MVV indicates the effective perfusion reserve for accurately delineating the true ischemic damage while the cascade of neuronal depolarization is probably responsible for the hemispherically lateralized changes in overall neurovascular physiology.

  2. Rate of spontaneous voiding recovery after acute urinary retention due to bed rest in the hospital setting in a non-urological population clinical study of the relationship between lower limbs and bladder function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To understand the clinical relationship between lower limbs functions and the recovery of spontaneous voiding after an acute urinary retention (AUR in older patients admitted to hospitals for non-urological causes using clinical parameters. Materials and Methods 56 adult patients (32 men; mean age: 77.9 ± 8.3 and 24 women; mean age 82.1 ± 4.6 with AUR were prospectively followed with validated Physical Performance Mobility Exam (PPME instrument to evaluate the relationship between the recovery of mobility capacity and spontaneous voiding. After a short period of permanent bladder drainage patients started CIC along evaluation by PPME during hospitalization and at 7, 15, 30 60, 90, and 180 days of discharge. Mann-Whitney U, chi-square test and ANOVA tests were used. Results All patients were hospitalized for at least 15 days (Median 26.3 ± 4.1 days. Progressive improvement on mobility scale measured by PPME was observed after leaving ICU and along the initial 7 days of hospitalization but with a deterioration if hospitalization extends beyond 15 days (p<0.03. Prolonged hospital stay impairs mobility in all domains (p<0.05 except step-up and transfer skills (p<0.02 although a recovery rate on spontaneous voiding persistented. Restoration of spontaneous voiding was accompanied by improvement on mobility scale (p<0.02. Recovery of spontaneous voiding was markedly observed after discharging the hospital. All patients recovered spontaneous voiding until 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions Recovery to spontaneous voiding after acute urinary retention in the hospital setting may be anticipated by evaluation of lower limbs function measured by validated instruments.

  3. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion...... in the penumbra is recruited in the infarction process leading to a progressive growth of the infarct. The penumbra hence constitutes an important target for pharmacological treatment because of the existence of a therapeutic time window during which treatment with neuroprotective compounds may prevent...

  4. Low free triiodothyronine levels predict symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and worse short-term outcome of thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemia stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Mingjing; Fang, Min; Liu, Xueyuan

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether thyroid hormones level on admission in patients with ischemic stroke, treated with intravenous recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator (rtPA), was associated with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) and worse outcomes at 3 months.Patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) receiving intravenous rtPA thrombolytic treatment on our stroke unit between January 2015 and June 2016 were included in this study. Serum-free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), total triiodothyronine (tT3), total thyroxine (tT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were detected on admission. The endpoints were sICH, and poor functional outcomes at 3 and 6 months.In all, 159 patients (106 males; mean age 65.36 ± 10.02 years) were included. FT3 was independently associated with sICH (odds ratio [OR] 0.204, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.065-0.642) and poor outcomes at 3 months (OR 0.396, 95% CI 0.180-1.764). The cut-off values of fT3 for sICH was 3.54 pg/mL (sensitivity 83%; specificity 83%; area under the curve 0.88). FT3 values ≤3.54 pg/mL increased risk for sICH by 3.16-fold (95% CI 0.75-1.0) compared with fT3 values >3.54 pg/mL.Low fT3 levels at admission were independently associated with sICH and worse outcomes at 3 months in AIS patients receiving rtPA thrombolytic therapy.

  5. Effects of dexmedetomidine on renal tissue after lower limb ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meral Erdal Erbatur

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... dexmedetomidine-treated group, TBARS, NOS, CAT, and GST levels were significantly lower than those measured in ... hypertension, ischemic heart disease, nephropathy, .... Mechanisms responsible for increased inflammatory response in ..... intestinal lipid peroxidation does not minimize mor- phologic ...

  6. Effects of dexmedetomidine on renal tissue after lower limb ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Libyan Journal of Medicine ... tubular dilatation (TD), vascular vacuolization and hypertrophy (VVH), tubular cell degeneration and necrosis (TCDN), tubular hyaline cylinder (THC), leucocyte infiltration (LI), and tubular cell spillage (TCS) in Group DM-I/R were significantly increased when compared with the control group.

  7. Migraine and ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wammes-van der Heijden, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    An association between migraine and ischemic events, especially ischemic stroke, has been debated for many years. Whether migraine is a risk factor for ischemic events or ischemia triggers migraine, or both, is still unclear. This thesis explores different relationships between migraine and

  8. Use of Tourniquets and their Effects on Limb Function in the Modern Combat Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    pressure by tightening a tourniquet, the pressure can soon damage nerves (>500 mm Hg) while remaining ineffective. Many tourniquet manufacturers are unaware...testing, and clinical use.2,57 TOURNIQUET USE, TISSUE ISCHEMIA, AND LIMB FUNCTION Skin , bone, tendon, fat, fascia, joints, and vessels tolerate ischemia...injury in a combat support hospital: results of a case control study. J Trauma 2008;64(Suppl 2):S99–106 [discussion: S106–7]. 21. Bellamy RF . The

  9. ACUTE EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT WARM-UP PROTOCOLS ON FLEXIBILITY AND LOWER LIMB EXPLOSIVE PERFORMANCE IN MALE AND FEMALE HIGH LEVEL ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charilaos Tsolakis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of two different warm-up protocols on lower limb power and flexibility in high level athletes. Twenty international level fencers (10 males and 10 females performed two warm-up protocols that included 5-min light jogging and either short (15s or long (45s static stretching exercises for each of the main leg muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstrings and triceps surae, followed by either 3 sets of 3 (short stretching treatment, or 3 sets of 5 tuck jumps (long stretching treatment, in a randomized crossover design with one week between treatments. Hip joint flexion was measured with a Lafayette goniometer before and after the 5-min warm-up, after stretching and 8 min after the tuck jumps, while counter movement jump (CMJ performance was evaluated by an Ergojump contact platform, before and after the stretching treatment, as well as immediately after and 8 minutes after the tuck jumps. Three way ANOVA (condition, time, gender revealed significant time (p < 0.001 and gender (p < 0.001 main effects for hip joint flexion, with no interaction between factors. Flexibility increased by 6. 8 ± 1.1% (p < 0.01 after warm-up and by another 5.8 ± 1.6% (p < 0.01 after stretching, while it remained increased 8 min after the tuck jumps. Women had greater ROM compared with men at all time points (125 ± 8° vs. 94 ± 4° p<0.01 at baseline, but the pattern of change in hip flexibility was not different between genders. CMJ performance was greater in men compared with women at all time points (38.2 ± 1.9 cm vs. 29.8 ± 1.2 cm p < 0.01 at baseline, but the percentage of change CMJ performance was not different between genders. CMJ performance remained unchanged throughout the short stretching protocol, while it decreased by 5.5 ± 0.9% (p < 0.01 after stretching in the long stretching protocol However, 8 min after the tuck jumps, CMJ performance was not different from the baseline value (p = 0.075. In conclusion, lower limb power may

  10. Effect of acute inspiratory muscle exercise on blood flow of resting and exercising limbs and glucose levels in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Ana Paula dos Santos; Antunes, Cristiano Fetter; Figueira, Franciele Ramos; de Castro, Marina Axmann; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of inspiratory loading on blood flow of resting and exercising limbs in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Ten diabetic patients without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DM), 10 patients with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DM-CAN) and 10 healthy controls (C) were randomly assigned to inspiratory muscle load of 60% or 2% of maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) for approximately 5 min, while resting calf blood flow (CBF) and exercising forearm blood flow (FBF) were measured. Reactive hyperemia was also evaluated. From the 20 diabetic patients initially allocated, 6 wore a continuous glucose monitoring system to evaluate the glucose levels during these two sessions (2%, placebo or 60%, inspiratory muscle metaboreflex). Mean age was 58 ± 8 years, and mean HbA1c, 7.8% (62 mmol/mol) (DM and DM-CAN). A PImax of 60% caused reduction of CBF in DM-CAN and DM (Pexercise was blunted during 60% of PImax in DM-CAN and DM, and augmented in C (Pexercise that recruits the diaphragm can abruptly reduce glucose levels.

  11. Manipulations of core temperatures in ischemia-reperfusion lung injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung; Huang, Kun-Lun; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Ching-Wang; Tsai, Shih-Hung; Chu, Shi-Jye

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect of various core temperatures on acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in our isolated rabbit lung model. Typical acute lung injury was successfully induced by 30 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion observation. The I/R elicited a significant increase in pulmonary arterial pressure, microvascular permeability (measured by using the capillary filtration coefficient, Kfc), Delta Kfc ratio, lung weight gain and the protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Mild hypothermia significantly attenuated acute lung injury induced by I/R, all parameters having decreased significantly (p<0.05); conversely, mild hyperthermia did not further exacerbate acute lung injury. These experimental data suggest that mild hypothermia significantly ameliorated acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rabbits.

  12. Nifedipine for angina and acute myocardial ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul); J.W. de Jong (Jan Willem); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the mechanisms believed to be responsible for myocardial ischaemia and the mode of action of calcium antagonist drugs. The clinical management of patients with myocardial ischaemia is discussed in the context of current knowledge about patho-physiology and drug action.

  13. Limb Remote Ischemic Conditioning: Mechanisms, Anesthetics, and the Potential for Expanding Therapeutic Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gangling; Thakkar, Mrugesh; Robinson, Christopher; Doré, Sylvain

    2018-01-01

    Novel and innovative approaches are essential in developing new treatments and improving clinical outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a series of mechanical interruptions in blood flow of a distal organ, following end organ reperfusion, shown to significantly reduce infarct size through inhibition of oxidation and inflammation. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is what ultimately leads to the irreversible brain damage and clinical picture seen in stroke patients. There have been several reports and reviews about the potential of RIC in acute ischemic stroke; however, the focus here is a comprehensive look at the differences in the three types of RIC (remote pre-, per-, and postconditioning). There are some limited uses of preconditioning in acute ischemic stroke due to the unpredictability of the ischemic event; however, it does provide the identification of biomarkers for clinical studies. Remote limb per- and postconditioning offer a more promising treatment during patient care as they can be harnessed during or after the initial ischemic insult. Though further research is needed, it is imperative to discuss the importance of preclinical data in understanding the methods and mechanisms involved in RIC. This understanding will facilitate translation to a clinically feasible paradigm for use in the hospital setting. PMID:29467715

  14. Bacterial signatures in thrombus aspirates of patients with lower limb arterial and venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhitov, Damir; Tuomisto, Sari; Martiskainen, Mika; Korhonen, Janne; Pessi, Tanja; Salenius, Juha-Pekka; Suominen, Velipekka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Karhunen, Pekka J; Oksala, Niku

    2018-06-01

    Increasing data supports the role of bacterial inflammation in adverse events of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In our previous research, DNA of bacterial species found in coronary artery thrombus aspirates and ruptured cerebral aneurysms were mostly of endodontic and periodontal origin, where Streptococcus mitis group DNA was the most common. We hypothesized that the genomes of S mitis group could be identified in thrombus aspirates of patients with lower limb arterial and deep venous thrombosis. Thrombus aspirates and control blood samples taken from 42 patients with acute or acute-on-chronic lower limb ischemia (Rutherford I-IIb) owing to arterial or graft thrombosis (n = 31) or lower limb deep venous thrombosis (n = 11) were examined using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect all possible bacterial DNA and DNA of S mitis group in particular. The samples were considered positive, if the amount of bacterial DNA in the thrombus aspirates was 2-fold or greater in comparison with control blood samples. In the positive samples the mean difference for the total bacterial DNA was 12.1-fold (median, 7.1), whereas the differences for S mitis group DNA were a mean of 29.1 and a median of 5.2-fold. Of the arterial thrombus aspirates, 57.9% were positive for bacterial DNA, whereas bacterial genomes were found in 75% of bypass graft thrombosis with 77.8% of the prosthetic grafts being positive. Of the deep vein thrombus aspirates, 45.5% contained bacterial genomes. Most (80%) of bacterial DNA-positive cases contained DNA from the S mitis group. Previous arterial interventions were significantly associated with the occurrence of S mitis group DNA (P = .049, Fisher's exact test). This is the first study to report the presence of bacterial DNA, predominantly of S mitis group origin, in the thrombus aspirates of surgical patients with lower limb arterial and deep venous thrombosis, suggesting their possible role in the pathogenesis of

  15. Gene expression in cerebral ischemia: a new approach for neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Mónica; Arenillas, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is one of the strongest stimuli for gene induction in the brain. Hundreds of genes have been found to be induced by brain ischemia. Many genes are involved in neurodestructive functions such as excitotoxicity, inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis. However, cerebral ischemia is also a powerful reformatting and reprogramming stimulus for the brain through neuroprotective gene expression. Several genes may participate in both cellular responses. Thus, isolation of candidate genes for neuroprotection strategies and interpretation of expression changes have been proven difficult. Nevertheless, many studies are being carried out to improve the knowledge of the gene activation and protein expression following ischemic stroke, as well as in the development of new therapies that modify biochemical, molecular and genetic changes underlying cerebral ischemia. Owing to the complexity of the process involving numerous critical genes expressed differentially in time, space and concentration, ongoing therapeutic efforts should be based on multiple interventions at different levels. By modification of the acute gene expression induced by ischemia or the apoptotic gene program, gene therapy is a promising treatment but is still in a very experimental phase. Some hurdles will have to be overcome before these therapies can be introduced into human clinical stroke trials. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Filho, Moyses de Oliveira; Figueiredo, Geraldo L.; Simoes, Marcus V.; Pyntia, Antonio O.; Marin Neto, Jose Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is multifactorial and explains the occurrence of angina, in about 50% of patients. The pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia may be explained by the increase of the ventricular mass and relative paucity of the coronary microcirculation; the elevated ventricular filling pressures and myocardial stiffness causing a compression of the coronary microvessels; the impaired coronary vasodilator flow reserve caused by anatomic and functional abnormalities; and the systolic compression of epicardial vessel (myocardial bridges). Myocardial ischemia must be investigated by perfusion scintigraphic methods since its presence influences the prognosis and has relevant clinical implications for management of patients. Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and documented myocardial ischemia usually need to undergo invasive coronary angiography to exclude the presence of concomitant atherosclerotic coronary disease. (author)

  17. Autophagy and Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cursio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver ischemia-reperfusion (I-R injury occurs during liver resection, liver transplantation, and hemorrhagic shock. The main mode of liver cell death after warm and/or cold liver I-R is necrosis, but other modes of cell death, as apoptosis and autophagy, are also involved. Autophagy is an intracellular self-digesting pathway responsible for removal of long-lived proteins, damaged organelles, and malformed proteins during biosynthesis by lysosomes. Autophagy is found in normal and diseased liver. Although depending on the type of ischemia, warm and/or cold, the dynamic process of liver I-R results mainly in adenosine triphosphate depletion and in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leads to both, a local ischemic insult and an acute inflammatory-mediated reperfusion injury, and results finally in cell death. This process can induce liver dysfunction and can increase patient morbidity and mortality after liver surgery and hemorrhagic shock. Whether autophagy protects from or promotes liver injury following warm and/or cold I-R remains to be elucidated. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge in liver I-R injury focusing on both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of liver autophagy following warm and/or cold liver I-R.

  18. Periodic limb movements during sleep in stroke/TIA: Prevalence, course, and cardiovascular burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Mauro; Fanfulla, Francesco; Ferri, Raffaele; Miano, Silvia; Haba-Rubio, Josè; Heinzer, Raphael; Horvath, Thomas; Proserpio, Paola; Young, Peter; Moschovitis, Giorgio; Seiler, Andrea; Cereda, Carlo; Nobili, Lino; Wiest, Roland; Ott, Sebastian R; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2018-05-08

    To define the prevalence, time course, and associated factors of periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA. Patients enrolled in the prospective Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Transient Ischemia Attack (TIA)/Ischemic Stroke and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Treatment Efficacy (SAS-CARE) study underwent a double polysomnographic investigation in the acute and chronic phases after stroke/TIA, together with a MRI brain scan and a 24-hour blood pressure evaluation. The prevalence of PLMS in patients was compared with that in a matched sample of randomly selected healthy controls from the HypnoLaus cohort. One hundred sixty-nine recordings were performed in the acute phase and 191 after 3 months (210 recordings were obtained from the same 105 patients in both phases) and were compared to those of 162 controls. The mean number of PLMS per hour and the percentage of participants with a PLMS index >10 and >15 per hour were similar between patients and controls. PLMS remained stable from the acute to the chronic phase after stroke. Factors positively associated with PLMS were age, body mass index, and history of hypertension. Blood pressure over 24 hours and the burden of cerebrovascular damage were similar between the groups with PLMS and without PLMS. PLMS are equally frequent in patients with stroke/TIA and the general population. The absence of higher blood pressure values and of a greater vascular brain damage found in patients with PLMS compared to those without PLMS might be due to a greater use of antihypertensive medication among patients with PLMS, which corresponds to a higher prevalence of previous diagnosis of hypertension in these patients. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Ischemia-infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Stroke is a non-specific term indicting an acute neurologic event. While arteriosclerosis is by far the leading cause of stroke, acute neurologic events can also result from hemorrhage secondary to rupture of an aneurysm or bleeding from an AVM. Less common causes of stroke include bleeding into metastatic or primary tumors or, even less commonly, subdural hematomas. Since arteriosclerotic strokes usually involve a known vascular distribution, they are generally distinguishable from strokes due to other causes by either CT or MRI. The use of CT or MRI is indicated in the acute setting since subsequent treatment, such as anticoagulation or surgical decompression, may depend on the findings of hemorrhage and mass effect from the imaging study. Unfortunately, when an arteriosclerotic etiology of stroke has been determined, the degree of abnormality on MRI or CT may not correlate well with the degree of clinical impairment

  20. Evaluation of outcome in Mesenteric Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Shams Vahdati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is an infrequent but a complicated life threatening condition. It is the leading causes of mortality with the rate of 60-100%. The purpose of our study is to investigate demographic outcomes of the patients referred to the emergency department of Imam Reza hospital with the diagnosis of AMI. Methods and materials: All patients with the diagnosis of AMI from March 2014 to March 2016 who were referred to emergency department of Imam Reza hospital, were studied. Demographic characteristics (age, sex, the period from symptom onset till laparotomy, risk factors and the last outcomes of patients were noted in the check lists for each patient. P value less than 0.05 was determined as significant. Results: from 111 patients, 76 cases (68.8% were male, 35 cases (31.5% were female. Chief complaint of all patients was stomachache. Period of arriving to the emergency room in 5 cases (4.5% was 1-6 hours, in 3 cases (2.7% was 6-12 hours, and in 103 cases (92.8% has taken more than 12 hours. In 55 cases (49.5%, there was a significant relationship between clinical signs and physical examination findings, whereas in 56 cases (50.5% there was no relation. In our study 42 cases (37.8% were treated, whereas the morbidity and mortality rate were respectively 7 (6.3% and 62 (55.9%. According to the results of our study the most important finding was pain which was disproportionate to physical examination findings (P value< 0.052. Conclusion: Acute mesenteric ischemia is a severe and progressive disease so early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are very important. One of the main reasons of higher mortality rate in AMI is difficulty in early diagnosis, before necrosis occurrence. Major factor that determines the survival rate is the accurate diagnosis before necrosis and peritonitis happens.