WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute lead intoxication

  1. Successful treatment of extreme acute lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikler, J; Banovcin, P; Jesenak, M; Hamzikova, J; Statelova, D

    2009-03-01

    Severe acute lead intoxications are rare and are associated with accidental or purposeful ingestion. There were only few cases of severe to fatal poisonings reported in literature in children. We report a case of acute lead intoxication in a child with extremely high lead blood level of 20.4 micromol/L (422.7 microg/dL), who was treated with chelation and in whom significant organ dysfunction did not develop. Documented significant high level above 3.37 micromol/L (corresponding to 70 microg/dL) in this patient persisted for approximately 24 h. Adequate, single or combined chelatation therapy in early phase of acute lead poisoning is essential for the further patient's outcome.

  2. Neurological aspects of lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, H

    1980-05-08

    This study gives a survey over the medical and scientific literature on lead intoxications, which were published until 1979. Neurologic aspects are of particular interest. At present dramatic cases of lead intoxications occur only rarely. However, there are numerous studies about cases of chronical, partly subclinical intoxications. This chronical type of lead intoxication can become manifest clinically as relatively vague symptoms, for example vertigos, insomnia, headaches and weakness. Contrary to this, serious encephalopathies, even with fatal outcome, and polyneuropathies with typical paresis of the radial nerve are preferably observed in acute lead intoxications. Besides the numerous sources of intoxication, also the different opinions found in literature are discussed, concerning the effects of lead on the human body. The fact that there are differing opinions about the limiting value of the blood-lead level at which intoxication symptoms have to be expected, becomes apparent when the determined blood-lead level values are compared and evaluated. Besides the description of general intoxication effects, the discussion of the neurologic aspects found in literature - not only those concerning the central, but also the peripheral system - are preferably concerned. Reports about neuropsychical alterations due to lead exposure, which are mainly found in children, supplement the numerous descriptions of the macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the nervous system provoked by lead. Finally the therapeutic and prophylactic measures given in the literature are discussed.

  3. Blood, urine, and hair kinetic analysis following an acute lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, G; Keutgens, A; Schoofs, R; Kotolenko, S; Denooz, R; Charlier, C

    2011-01-01

    A case of lead exposure resulting from the accidental ingestion of a lead-containing solution is reported. Because of clinical management rapidly performed through chelation therapy by 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate sodium and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, blood lead levels of this 51-year-old patient were moderate (412.9 μg/L) and no clinical symptoms were observed. Numerous blood and urine samples were collected for kinetic analysis of lead elimination. However, we report the first case in which hair samples were analyzed to determine the excretion level of lead after acute intoxication.

  4. Acute lead intoxication in a female battery worker: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjichristodoulou Christos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lead is a significant occupational and environmental hazard. Battery industry is one of the settings related to lead intoxication. Published information on the use of oral chelating agents for the treatment of anaemia in the context of acute lead intoxication is limited. The patient was a 33 year immigrant female worker in a battery manufacture for 3 months. She complained for malaise that has been developed over the past two weeks. Pallor of skin and conjunctiva was the only sign found in physical examination. The blood test on admission revealed normochromic anaemia. Endoscopic investigation of the gastrointestinal system was negative for bleeding. The bone marrow biopsy was unrevealing. At baseline no attention has been paid to patient's occupational history. Afterwards the patient's occupational history has been re-evaluated and she has been screened for lead intoxication. The increased levels of the lead related biomarkers of exposure and effect confirmed the diagnosis. The patient received an oral chelating agent and an improvement in clinical picture, and levels of haematological and lead related biochemical parameters have been recorded. No side effect and no rebound effect were observed. This case report emphasizes the importance of the occupational history in the context of the differential diagnosis. Moreover, this report indicates that lead remains a significant occupational hazard especially in the small scale battery industry

  5. Acute lead intoxication in a female battery worker: Diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounias, George; Rachiotis, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-07-07

    Lead is a significant occupational and environmental hazard. Battery industry is one of the settings related to lead intoxication. Published information on the use of oral chelating agents for the treatment of anaemia in the context of acute lead intoxication is limited. The patient was a 33 year immigrant female worker in a battery manufacture for 3 months. She complained for malaise that has been developed over the past two weeks. Pallor of skin and conjunctiva was the only sign found in physical examination. The blood test on admission revealed normochromic anaemia. Endoscopic investigation of the gastrointestinal system was negative for bleeding. The bone marrow biopsy was unrevealing.At baseline no attention has been paid to patient's occupational history. Afterwards the patient's occupational history has been re-evaluated and she has been screened for lead intoxication. The increased levels of the lead related biomarkers of exposure and effect confirmed the diagnosis. The patient received an oral chelating agent and an improvement in clinical picture, and levels of haematological and lead related biochemical parameters have been recorded. No side effect and no rebound effect were observed. This case report emphasizes the importance of the occupational history in the context of the differential diagnosis. Moreover, this report indicates that lead remains a significant occupational hazard especially in the small scale battery industry.

  6. [Acute intoxication with fenspiride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Sein Anand, Jacek; Korolkiewicz, Roman

    2004-01-01

    According to the best of our knowledge this is the first publication in medical literature about the acute intoxication with fenspiride. The two cases of a young female patients, intoxicated with Eurespal, were described. The orthostatic hypotonia with the blood pressure about 105-115/70 mm Hg in the horizontal position and 70-80/40 mm Hg in the sitting position was dominating. The heart rate was 100-110/min. when lying and 130-140/min. when sitting. The main symptoms were probably caused by inhibition of alpha1 adrenergic receptors. Main clinical manifestations make us reconsider the opinion about safety of fenspiride especially after acute intoxication.

  7. Ultrastructural changes in lung tissue after acute lead intoxication in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynska, Katarzyna; Walski, Michał; Szereda-Przestaszewska, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicity of lead was studied in rats after an intraperitoneal administration of lead acetate at a dose of 25 mg/kg. Three consecutive days of treatment increased lead content in the whole blood to 2.1 µg/dl and in lung homogenate it attained 9.62 µg/g w.w. versus control values of 0.17 µg/dl and 0.78 µg/g w.w., respectively. At the ultrastructural level, the effects of lead toxicity were observed in lung capillaries, interstitium, epithelial cells and alveolar lining layer. Accumulation of aggregated platelets, leucocytic elements and monocytes was found within capillaries. Interstitium comprised a substantial number of collagen, elastin filaments and lipofibroblasts. Lamellar bodies of type II pneumocytes contained phospolipid lamellae, which stratified into an irregular arrangement. Pulmonary alveoli were filled with macrophages. The extracellular lining layer of lung alveoli was partially destroyed. This study provided evidence that acute lead intoxication affects the whole lung parenchyma and by impairing production of the surfactant might disturb the regular respiratory function.

  8. Rhabdomyolysis following acute alcohol intoxication.

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, S M; Winter, R J

    1995-01-01

    The case of a fit young man who developed rhabdomyolysis after a short period of immobilization following acute alcohol intoxication is described. Rhabdomyolysis should be considered in an intoxicated patient presenting with muscle tenderness, particularly after immobilization.

  9. Clozapine Intoxication Mimicking Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Villarreal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug prescribed for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The risk of adverse hematologic, cardiovascular, and neurologic effects has tempered its use, and reports of overdoses remain rare. We report a case of accidental acute clozapine intoxication in a clozapine-naïve patient, who presented with symptoms mimicking acute stroke and later developed status epilepticus. Clozapine intoxication is a rare presentation in the emergency department with potential for iatrogenic harm if not correctly identified.

  10. Intoxication for lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez, Ruben Dario; Tamayo, Margarita Maria

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of a hospitalized girl with bronchopneumonia, who needed mechanic ventilation. Also she had a developmental delay and Burtons border in gums. Radiological studies showed dense transverse metaphiseal bands in long bones and hyperdensity in basal ganglia. We found high serum lead levels

  11. Erythrocyte fluorescence and lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K G

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples from people exposed to inorganic lead were examined by fluorescence microscopy for excess erythrocyte porphyrin. With continued lead absorption, fluorescent erythrocytes appeared in the circulation of workers handling this metal or its compounds, and they progressively increased in number and brilliance. These changes ensued if the blood lead concentration was maintained above 2-42 mumol/l (50 mug/100 ml), and preceded any material fall in the haemoglobin value. At one factory, 62-5% of 81 symptomless workers showed erythrocyte fluorescence attributable to the toxic effects of lead. Excess fluorocytes were found in blood samples from a child with pica and three of her eight siblings. These four were subsequently shown to have slightly increased blood lead concentrations (2-03 to 2-32 mumol/l). Fluorescence microscopy for excess erythrocyte porphyrin is a sensitive method for the detection of chronic lead intoxication. A relatively slight increase in the blood lead is associated with demonstrabel changes in erythrocyte porphyrin content. The procedure requires little blood, and may be performed upon stored samples collected for lead estimation. The results are not readily influenced by contamination, and provide good confirmatory evidence for the absorption of biochemically active lead. PMID:963005

  12. Lead and zinc intoxication in companion birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Although the toxicity of lead and zinc to birds is widely recognized by veterinarians and bird owners, these metals are frequently found in the environments of pet and aviary birds, and intoxications are common. Clinical signs exhibited by intoxicated birds are often nonspecific, which makes early diagnosis difficult. Fortunately, lead and zinc analyses of whole blood and serum or plasma, respectively, are readily available and inexpensive; elevated concentrations can confirm intoxication. Once diagnosed, intoxication can be effectively treated by (1) preventing further exposure, (2) administering chelating drugs, and (3) providing symptomatic and supportive care.

  13. Chronic lead intoxication; Chronische Bleiintoxikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieseler, B.; Leng, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene; Lenz, S.; Schultz, C. [Klinikum Remscheid GmbH, Remscheid (Germany); Wilhelm, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    1999-02-01

    The case of a female 68 years old patient is described. Here, a chronic lead intoxication was diagnosed after a two year old medical history with increasing attacks of colic-like abdominal pain often described as life-threatening. After repeated hospitalizations and intensive search for the cause of the symptoms, porphyria and anemia was found to be a sign of a chronic lead poisoning. The blood lead concentrations were always about a level of 600 {mu}g/L. The source of exposure could not be found by now. Neither home inspection nor environmental investigations have shown a recent source of lead intake by the patient. However, a possible occupational source of lead exposure at a blast furnace was established by anamnesis for 1952 to 1962. Thus, osteoporosis induced lead mobilisation was suspected. Noticeable are the results of the six abdominal survey radiographies taken during hospitalization within one year; three radiographies were taken following clinical admission and three before discharge of the patient. In comparison, the course shows a chronic relapsing alimentary supply from metallic particles of unknown genesis. The patient was treated with the sodium salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propansulfonic acid (DMPS, Dimaval{sup TM}). She was free of complain afterwards. Following therapy, the blood lead concentrations fell under a level of 400 {mu}m/L, but after several weeks the lead level raised up to the original level of 600 {mu}g/L. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine 68jaehrige Patientin vorgestellt, bei der nach fast zweijaehriger Krankengeschichte, die gekennzeichnet war durch rezidivierende, teils als lebensbedrohlich geschilderte Bauchkoliken, eine chronische Bleiintoxikation diagnostiziert wurde. Erst nach wiederholten stationaeren Krankenhausaufenthalten mit intensiver Suche nach der Krankheitsursache wurden das Krankheitsbild und die Laborwerte durch Zusatzuntersuchungen ergaenzt, so dass sich in der festgestellten Porphyrie und Anaemie die Diagnose der

  14. Lead Intoxication in Children in Birmingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, P. R.; Astley, R.; Raine, D. N.

    1973-01-01

    Of 38 children investigated between 1966 and 1971 who had a blood lead concentration greater than 37 μg/100 ml eight had encephalopathy and one died; all these eight had a blood lead concentration of 99 μg/100 ml or above. Blood lead levels are related to haemoglobin concentrations and anaemia is common in children with blood lead concentrations of 37-60 μg/100 ml, levels previously accepted as harmless. Children with blood lead concentrations greater than 60 μg/100 ml show radiological evidence of lead intoxication, and treatment for this should be considered when blood lead concentration exceeds 37 μg/100 ml. Children presenting with unexplained encephalopathy should be radiographed for evidence of lead intoxication. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 1 PMID:4691065

  15. Chronic lead intoxication in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenaar, G

    1963-01-01

    Four calves born in the winter of 1961-1962 died on a farm after a disease which had run its course for periods ranging from six weeks to a few months. A calf had also died showing similar symptoms during the previous year. All calves showed identical symptoms. Initially, their liveliness diminished; subsequently, they drank less and showed signs of pica. They finally died after the disease had run its course for about six weeks. The last calf, born late in February 1962, was in poor health as early as May, improved slightly when it had been sent out to grass but died in September, having fallen ill again in August. Autopsy was performed on three calves; all three were affected with chronic interstitial nephritis and uraemic endocarditis of the left auricle was present as well. The results obtained on toxicological investigation were indicative of lead poisoning. The liver of the calf was found to contain two mg of lead per kg, the cortex of the kidney containing twenty-five mg of lead per kg. These figures did not provide direct evidence of lead poisoning, but in evaluating these figures the fact was taken into account that the calf had no longer been able to ingest any lead for several months. Meanwhile, it was found that the stock-owner had fitted an old painted door in the calf-shed, which door was constantly being licked by the calves. The paint contained 18.6% of lead. This finding was followed by examination of the liver of a calf that had died previously. It was found to contain 49.7 mg of lead per kg. Accordingly, the calves had been affected with a form of lead poisoning running a relatively slow course, as a result of which the animals had developed chronic interstitial nephritis. The calves eventually died from uraemia. 4 references.

  16. Correlation between some parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Waldron, H. A. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 195-199. Correlation between some parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication. Use has been made of data collected over a number of years from workers exposed to a lead hazard in a motor-car factory. The correlations between various parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication were computed, including blood and urine lead concentrations, urinary coproporphyrin, ALA and PBG concentrations, and haemoglobin concentration. In all, 15 correlation coefficients were calculated, of which only six showed a statistically significant result (i.e., Plead and urine lead (r = 0·38, Plead and coproporphyrin (r = 0·42, Plead and ALA (r = 0·43, Plead and PBG (r = 0·19, P<0·05). PMID:5572689

  17. Spontaneous bladder rupture in acute alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Barakat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder rupture is a rare condition that can be followed by an acute alcohol intoxication and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case diagnosed in a alcoholic young male who was admitted to our emergency room for epigastric pain. The case demonstrates the difficulties with diagnosis and the need for physicians who work in an emergency room to be aware of this condition.

  18. Intox, detox, antidotes - Evidence based diagnosis and treatment of acute intoxications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Andreas; Ebbecke, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Aim of this review is to describe the role of clinical toxicology in the context of acute medicine. A special focus is put on antidotes and important aspects of diagnosis and therapy of acute intoxications. The data of the annual report of GIZ-Nord Poisons Centre is analyzed concerning the following aspects: what intoxications are relevant in acute medicine, are there special aspects in therapy, e.g. antidotes, and what antidotes are relevant? More over intoxication-related fatalities are analyzed. In 2015 the poisons centre was consulted in 33,000 cases of acute intoxications. The most important groups are drugs (e.g. antidepressants, beta blockers and calcium channel blockers), chemical products (e.g. products containing surfactant, corrosive substances and toxic alcohols like methanol), plants and recreational drugs. Intoxications are relevant in acute medicine. Some substances can cause fatal intoxications. Important antidotes are naloxone for opiods, acetylcystein for paracetamol, fomepizole and ethanol for toxic alcohols and diazepam for intoxications caused by chloroquine. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Emergency Department Frequent Users for Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Lauren R; Martel, Marc L; Driver, Brian E; Reing, Mackenzie; Cole, Jon B

    2018-03-01

    A subset of frequent users of emergency services are those who use the emergency department (ED) for acute alcohol intoxication. This population and their ED encounters have not been previously described. This was a retrospective, observational, cohort study of patients presenting to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication between 2012 and 2016. We collected all data from the electronic medical record. Frequent users for alcohol intoxication were defined as those with greater than 20 visits for acute intoxication without additional medical chief complaints in the previous 12 months. We used descriptive statistics to evaluate characteristics of frequent users for alcohol intoxication, as well as their ED encounters. We identified 32,121 patient encounters. Of those, 325 patients were defined as frequent users for alcohol intoxication, comprising 11,370 of the encounters during the study period. The median maximum number of encounters per person for alcohol intoxication in a one-year period was 47 encounters (range 20 to 169). Frequent users were older (47 years vs. 39 years), and more commonly male (86% vs. 71%). Frequent users for alcohol intoxication had higher rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidities including liver disease, chronic kidney disease, ischemic vascular disease, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. In this study, we identified a group of ED frequent users who use the ED for acute alcohol intoxication. This population had higher rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidities compared to non-frequent users.

  20. Emergency Department Frequent Users for Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc L. Martel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A subset of frequent users of emergency services are those who use the emergency department (ED for acute alcohol intoxication. This population and their ED encounters have not been previously described. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cohort study of patients presenting to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication between 2012 and 2016. We collected all data from the electronic medical record. Frequent users for alcohol intoxication were defined as those with greater than 20 visits for acute intoxication without additional medical chief complaints in the previous 12 months. We used descriptive statistics to evaluate characteristics of frequent users for alcohol intoxication, as well as their ED encounters. Results: We identified 32,121 patient encounters. Of those, 325 patients were defined as frequent users for alcohol intoxication, comprising 11,370 of the encounters during the study period. The median maximum number of encounters per person for alcohol intoxication in a one-year period was 47 encounters (range 20 to 169. Frequent users were older (47 years vs. 39 years, and more commonly male (86% vs. 71%. Frequent users for alcohol intoxication had higher rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidities including liver disease, chronic kidney disease, ischemic vascular disease, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Conclusion: In this study, we identified a group of ED frequent users who use the ED for acute alcohol intoxication. This population had higher rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidities compared to non-frequent users.

  1. Acute intoxications in two university hospitals in Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute intoxications in two university hospitals in Burkina Faso. ... admitted to the emergency services of the two sole University Hospitals of Ouagadougou from July 1, ... followed by chemicals, animals' toxins, food, alcohol and addictive drugs.

  2. Experimental lead intoxication in dogs: a comparison of blood lead and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid following intoxication and chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R A; Selby, L A; Zumwalt, R W

    1978-01-01

    Intravenous lead administration to dogs produced an acute syndrome of lead intoxication charcterized by depression, vomiting, anorexia and weight loss. The effect of chelation therapy with calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate, penicillamine or both was determined by serially monitoring changes in blood lead and urine delta-aminolevulinic acid. Following therapy, blood lead values were significantly lower in chelated dogs than non-treated lead exposed dogs on days 7 and 10. Urine delta-aminolevulinic acid at day 7 was significantly higher in untreated lead exposed dogs than in other groups. There was no significant difference in blood lead or urine delta-aminolevulinic acid between lead intoxicated dogs which underwent the indicated chelation therapy protocols. There was, however, a trend for higher urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid excretion in those intoxicated dogs undergoing calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate therapy as opposed to those undergoing penicilamine therapy. There was no significant correlation between blood lead and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid previous to lead exposure. However, after lead exposure significant correlation was present at days 4, 7, 10 and 14. Certain lead exposed dogs following chelation therapy were noted to have normal blood lead levels but elevated urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid suggesting that blood lead does not always correlate with metabolic effects of lead in the body. Urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid was therefore recommended as an additional laboratory parameter which improved assessment of lead exposure in dogs, particularly in determining adequacy of chelation therapy. PMID:667707

  3. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Exacerbates Rhabdomyolysis-Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Pi; Lee, Chung-Jen; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Lee, Ru-Ping; Hsu, Bang-Gee

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic and nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis can lead to acute renal failure (ARF), and acute alcohol intoxication can lead to multiple abnormalities of the renal tubules. We examined the effect of acute alcohol intoxication in a rat model of rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Intravenous injections of 5 g/kg ethanol were given to rats over 3 h, followed by glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis. Biochemical parameters, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cre), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), were measured before and after induction of rhabdomyolysis. Renal tissue injury score, renal tubular cell expression of E-cadherin, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined. Relative to rats in the vehicle group, rats in the glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis group had significantly increased serum levels of BUN, Cre, GOT, GPT, and CPK, elevated renal tissue injury scores, increased expression of NF-κB and iNOS, and decreased expression of E-cadherin. Ethanol exacerbated all of these pathological responses. Our results suggest that acute alcohol intoxication exacerbates rhabdomyolysis-induced ARF through its pro-oxidant and inflammatory effects.

  4. Radioisotope examination of kidney function in lead intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimentova, G.; Buchancova, J.; Galikova, E.; Lepej, J.

    1982-01-01

    The renal function was assessed of 12 patients with professional lead intoxication by radioisotope examination methods. In six patients changes on the radionephrographic curve were observed, showing flattening and shift of the peak of the curve, and prolongation of the secretory and excretory phases. The phase scintiscan displayed a slowed down uptake of the radioactive substance and pathological persistance of activity in the kidneys. The impairment of renal functions proved to be reversible. The authors consider rad+oisotope examinations to be an appropriate approach permitting evaluation of renal functions during lead intoxication, as well as helping to assess the deployment of persons who had suffered from intoxication, to workplaces where there is danger of exposure to lead. (author)

  5. Acute brain herniation from lead toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Sheldon; Tarrago, Rod

    2006-12-01

    A 4-year-old black boy was admitted to the hospital with vomiting, low-grade fever, and dehydration that were thought to be caused by viral gastroenteritis. He proceeded over the next 12 hours to rapidly deteriorate with brain herniation leading to brain death. The ultimate cause of death was found to be acute lead intoxication from a swallowed foreign body.

  6. Acute alcohol intoxication impairs segmental body alignment in upright standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafstrom, A; Patel, M; Modig, F; Magnusson, M; Fransson, P A

    2014-01-01

    Balance control when standing upright is a complex process requiring input from several partly independent mechanisms such as coordination, feedback and feedforward control, and adaptation. Acute alcohol intoxication from ethanol is recognized as a major contributor to accidental falls requiring medical care. This study aimed to investigate if intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% blood alcohol concentration affected body alignment. Mean angular positions of the head, shoulder, hip, and knee were measured with 3D-motion analysis and compared with the ankle position in 25 healthy adults during standing with or without perturbations, and with eyes open or closed. Alcohol intoxication had significant effects on body alignment during perturbed and unperturbed stance, and on adaptation to perturbations. It induced a significantly more posterior alignment of the knees and shoulders, and a tendency for a more posterior and left deviated head alignment in perturbed stance than when sober. The impact of alcohol intoxication was most apparent on the knee alignment, where availability of visual information deteriorated the adaptation to perturbations. Thus, acute alcohol intoxication resulted in inadequate balance control strategies with increased postural rigidity and impaired adaptation to perturbations. These factors probably contribute to the increased risk of falling when intoxicated with alcohol.

  7. Catatonic syndrome associated with lead intoxication: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modabbernia, Mohammad Jafar; Mirsafa, Ali Reza; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Pilehroodi, Farhad; Shirazi, Maryam

    2009-08-11

    Little is known about catatonia associated with lead intoxication. A retired printing house worker man presented with one week history of refusal to eat and mutism. He was treated with possible diagnosis of catatonia with administration of Lorazepam 3 mg P.O. daily. Significant improvement occurred after 48 hours. In further examinations, there was no evidence of physical and mental disorders while impairment in neuropsychiatry test, identification of Dohle body, basophilic stippling and toxic granulation in peripheral blood smear and blood lead level of 12.8 mug/dl were recorded. Possibly, lead intoxication results in changes in neurotransmitter system that leads to catatonia. Lorazepam improves patient's condition through changes in this system.

  8. Effects of the Acute and Chronic Ethanol Intoxication on Acetate Metabolism and Kinetics in the Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Wu, Liang-Chih; Ke, Chien-Chih; Chang, Chi-Wei; Kuo, Jung-Wen; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Fu-Du; Yang, Bang-Hung; Tai, Hsiao-Ting; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2018-02-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) intoxication inhibits glucose transport and decreases overall brain glucose metabolism; however, humans with long-term EtOH consumption were found to have a significant increase in [1- 11 C]-acetate uptake in the brain. The relationship between the cause and effect of [1- 11 C]-acetate kinetics and acute/chronic EtOH intoxication, however, is still unclear. [1- 11 C]-acetate positron emission tomography (PET) with dynamic measurement of K 1 and k 2 rate constants was used to investigate the changes in acetate metabolism in different brain regions of rats with acute or chronic EtOH intoxication. PET imaging demonstrated decreased [1- 11 C]-acetate uptake in rat brain with acute EtOH intoxication, but this increased with chronic EtOH intoxication. Tracer uptake rate constant K 1 and clearance rate constant k 2 were decreased in acutely intoxicated rats. No significant change was noted in K 1 and k 2 in chronic EtOH intoxication, although 6 of 7 brain regions showed slightly higher k 2 than baseline. These results indicate that acute EtOH intoxication accelerated acetate transport and metabolism in the rat brain, whereas chronic EtOH intoxication status showed no significant effect. In vivo PET study confirmed the modulatory role of EtOH, administered acutely or chronically, in [1- 11 C]-acetate kinetics and metabolism in the rat brain. Acute EtOH intoxication may inhibit the transport and metabolism of acetate in the brain, whereas chronic EtOH exposure may lead to the adaptation of the rat brain to EtOH in acetate utilization. [1- 11 C]-acetate PET imaging is a feasible approach to study the effect of EtOH on acetate metabolism in rat brain. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Heme synthesis in the lead-intoxicated mouse embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, G B; Maes, J

    1978-02-01

    Incorporation of /sup 55/Fe and of (/sup 14/C) glycine was studied in control embryos and mothers and in those which had received lead in the diet from day 7 of pregnancy. Incorporation of Fe into heme of embryonic liver which increases markedly for controls on day 17 of pregnancy was depressed greatly and showed no such increase in lead-intoxicated embryos. These embryos were retarded in growth but had normal heme concentrations in body and liver. Incorporation of glycine into embryonic heme and proteins was not affected. Data on incorporation in the mothers are also presented. It is thought that the impaired synthesis of heme in lead-intoxicated embryos limits their body growth during the late phase of pregnancy.

  10. Misleading Gastrointestinal Symptoms: The Ongoing Story of Chronic Lead Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Guilherme; Lopes, Susana; Peixoto, Armando

    2016-10-01

    Inorganic lead intoxication has emerged as an important and challenging clinical problem owing to increased awareness of lead and enhanced surveillance of exposed individuals. However, recognition may not be very difficult when there is an obvious history of exposure. Our interest began a few years ago when we could trace an outbreak, following a patient who was admitted with colickly abdominal pain, convulsions, and coma. After that, 16 more cases were identified and characterized. All patients recovered completely after adequate chelation therapy. Although the clinical picture of lead intoxication is pleomorphic, the increased awareness of gastroenterologists in this subject may possibly bring chronically complaining difficult patients to an earlier, unexpected, and fairly treatable disease.

  11. The role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway in cardiotoxicity of acute lead intoxication in vivo and in vitro rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mushtaq A; Maayah, Zaid H; Bakheet, Saleh A; El-Kadi, Ayman O; Korashy, Hesham M

    2013-04-05

    ability of AhR antagonist, resveratrol, to significantly inhibit the Pb(2+)-modulated effect on β-MHC and α-MHC mRNAs. It was concluded that acute lead exposure induced cardiotoxicity through AhR/CYP1A1-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An acute oral intoxication with haloperidol decanoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Bart G J; Eck, Ruben J; Ter Maaten, Jan C; Touw, Daniël J

    2017-09-01

    Haloperidol decanoate is a typical antipsychotic drug used as maintenance therapy for schizophrenia and mood disorders formulated as an ester for intramuscular injection. Cases of oral haloperidol decanoate intoxications have not been described in literature. In this report, we present for the first time a case of an oral ingestion of haloperidol decanoate of a young woman who presented to the emergency department following an intentional oral ingestion of 1 ampoule of haloperidol decanoate 100mg. At presentation, she had a bilateral rest tremor of both hands and mild hypothermia. No other obvious signs of an intoxication were observed. She was treated with a single dose of activated charcoal and laxative and was admitted to the intensive care for rhythm monitoring and observation. During the night the QTc interval increased to 453ms, but stayed within the normal range. Haloperidol plasma levels increased as well, but also stayed within therapeutic ranges. These findings indicate that treatment with oral activated charcoal was sufficient to prevent any serious events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute Alcohol Intoxication: Differences in School Levels and Effects on Educational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Joris J.; Klerk, Frouktje Ade; Van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on adolescents' school performance. In the 2007-2015 period, 3,317 adolescents (ages 12 to 17 years) were treated for acute alcohol intoxication, and 37 adolescents were admitted to the hospital twice. Alcohol intoxication has an overrepresentation in "low" school levels. The…

  14. Acute Alcohol Intoxication : Differences in School Levels and Effects on Educational Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoof, Joris J.; Klerk, Frouktje Ade; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on adolescents' school performance. In the 2007–2015 period, 3,317 adolescents (ages 12 to 17 years) were treated for acute alcohol intoxication, and 37 adolescents were admitted to the hospital twice. Alcohol intoxication has an

  15. Lead intoxication in dogs: risk assessment of feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgåsen, Helga R; Ørnsrud, Robin; Knutsen, Helle K; Bernhoft, Aksel

    2016-07-25

    Expanding lead-based bullets, commonly used for hunting of big game, produce a scattering of lead particles in the carcass around the wound channel. Trimmings around this channel, which are sometimes fed to dogs, may contain lead particles. The aim of this study was to assess potential health effects of feeding dogs such trimmings. Lead ingestion most commonly causes gastrointestinal and neurological clinical signs, although renal, skeletal, haematological, cardiovascular and biochemical effects have also been reported. Experimental data indicate that a daily dose of around 1 mg lead as lead acetate/kg body weight for ten days may be considered as a Lowest Observed Effect Level in dogs. Acute toxicity documentation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicates 300 mg/kg body weight as the lowest dose of lead acetate causing death in dogs after oral ingestion. Our assessment suggests that dogs fed trimmings of lead-shot game may be affected by the amounts of lead present, and that even deadly exposure could occasionally occur. The intestinal absorption of lead from bullets was assumed to be 10-80 % of that of lead acetate, reflecting both the variability in particle size and uncertainty about the bioavailability of metallic lead in dogs. Despite data gaps, this study indicates that feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game may represent a risk of lead intoxication. More research is needed to assess the exact consequences, if lead-based bullets are still to be used. Meanwhile, we recommend that trimmings close to the wound channel should be made inaccessible to dogs, as well as to other domestic or wild animals.

  16. Hypothermia and acute alcohol intoxication in Dutch adolescents : The relationship between core and outdoor temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Claire J.; Van Hoof, Joris J.; van der Lely, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate hypothermia and its potential association with core and outdoor temperatures in adolescents suffering from acute alcohol intoxication. Methods: Data were derived from the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance System, which monitors alcohol intoxication among all Dutch adolescents.

  17. Lead intoxication under environmental hypoxia impairs oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrizzi, Antonela R; Fernandez-Solari, Javier; Lee, Ching M; Martínez, María Pilar; Conti, María Ines

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that chronic lead intoxication under hypoxic environment induces alveolar bone loss that can lead to periodontal damage with the subsequent loss of teeth. The aim of the present study was to assess the modification of oral inflammatory parameters involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis in the same experimental model. In gingival tissue, hypoxia increased inducible nitric oxid synthase (iNOS) activity (p lead decreased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content (p lead and PGE2 content was increased by both lead and hypoxia (p lead under hypoxic conditions. Results suggest a wide participation of inflammatory markers that mediate alveolar bone loss induced by these environmental conditions. The lack of information regarding oral health in lead-contaminated populations that coexist with hypoxia induced us to evaluate the alteration of inflammatory parameters in rat oral tissues to elucidate the link between periodontal damage and these environmental conditions.

  18. Chelation therapy in intoxications with mercury, lead and copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, yang; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Andersen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we provide an update of the appropriate use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications with compounds of mercury, lead and copper. The relatively new chelators meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate (DMPS) can effectively...... mobilize deposits of mercury as well as of lead into the urine. These drugs can be administered orally and have relatively low toxicity compared to the classical antidote dimercaptopropanol (BAL). d-Penicillamine has been widely used in copper overload, although 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid...

  19. Chronic lead intoxication affects glial and neural systems and induces hypoactivity in adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansar, Wafa; Ahboucha, Samir; Gamrani, Halima

    2011-10-01

    Lead is an environmental toxin and its effects are principally manifested in the brain. Glial and neuronal changes have been described during development following chronic or acute lead intoxication, however, little is known about the effects of chronic lead intoxication in adults. In this study we evaluated immunohistochemically the glial and dopaminergic systems in adult male Wistar rats. 0.5% (v/v) lead acetate in drinking water was administrated chronically over a 3-month period. Hypertrophic immunoreactive astrocytes were observed in the frontal cortex and other brain structures of the treated animals. Analysis of the astroglial features showed increased number of astrocyte cell bodies and processes in treated rats, an increase confirmed by Western blot. Particular distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity was observed within the blood vessel walls in which dense immunoreactive glial processes emanate from astrocytes. Glial changes in the frontal cortex were concomitant with reduced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neuronal processes, which seem to occur as a consequence of significantly reduced dopaminergic neurons within the nucleus of origin in the substantia nigra. These glial and neuronal changes following lead intoxication may affect animal behavior as evidenced by reduced locomotor activity in an open field test. These findings demonstrate that chronic lead exposure induces astroglial changes, which may compromise neuronal function and consequently animal behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effect of the chelator Zn-DTPA on the excretion of lead in lead intoxication mice detected with ICP-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Lu, Kai-zhi; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Qiong; Zeng, Yu-liang; Yin, Hong-jun; He, Xuan-hui; Tian, Ying; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2014-11-01

    To study the lead excretion effect of the chelator Zn-DTPA on the lead intoxication mice, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied to detect the lead content of biological samples. The acute lead intoxication mice model was established by injecting lead acetate intraperitoneally with the dose of 1 mg. Zn-DTPA was administered intraperitoneally to mice once daily for five consecutive days 4 h after intoxication. Control group, model group, combination of Zn-DTPA and Ca-DTPA group were evaluated at the same time. The urine was collected every day. The mice were sacrificed in batches in the 2rd, 4th, 6th day. Biological samples including urine, whole blood, femur and brain were prepared and nitrated. Lead concentration was detected by ICP-MS. The result showed that Zn-DTPA could increase lead content in urine markedly and reduce lead content in blood, femur and brain.

  1. Intranasal Fentanyl Intoxication Leading to Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzycki, Shannon; Yarema, Mark; Dunham, Michael; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Tremblay, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Increasing rates of opioid abuse, particularly fentanyl, may lead to more presentations of unusual effects of opioid toxicity. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a rare complication of fentanyl overdose. A 45-year-old male presented in hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage requiring intubation. Comprehensive drug screening detected fentanyl without exposure to cocaine. Further history upon the patient's recovery revealed exposure to snorted fentanyl powder immediately prior to presentation. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a potential, though rare, presentation of opioid intoxication. Recognition of less common complications of opioid abuse such as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is important in proper management of overdoses.

  2. Curative effects of Tiron on dogs with acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yumin; Zhao Xingcheng; You Zhanyun; Wang Lihua; Yin Xieyu

    1986-01-01

    It was reported that the tiron had good therapeutic effects on small animals with acute uranium intoxication. The tiron's therapeutic effects as a first aid on large animals (38 dogs) with acute uranium poisoning are reported in this paper. Indices reflecting its effect were as follows: excretion rate of uranium from the dogs, several appropriate biochemical tests, clinical manifestations, histo-pathological changes of kidney and liver, and also the mortality of dogs. The results showed that the tiron or a combination of tiron and NaHCO 3 has a good therapeutic effect as a first aid on the dogs receiving lethal dose of uranyl nitrate

  3. [Lead intoxication in a group of workers in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, R F; Felgenhauer, N; Eyer, F; Buters, J T; Zilker, T

    2009-12-01

    Seventeen East-European workers with a suspected lead-intoxication presented themselves to the Department of Toxicology. All of them had worked on the renovation of pylons of a high-tension line. The old paint, known to contain lead was removed with needle descalers. The patients had blood lead concentrations between 325 and 1124 microg/l, but no specific symptoms. The workers neglected the protective measures at their working-place. 12 of 17 workers had lead-concentrations above 400 microg/l (Reference lead-concentration above 700 microg/l were treated with the chelating agent meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) 3 x 200 mg/d for nine days. The patients with lead concentrations between 400 and 700 microg/l were treated which DMSA 3 x 100 mg/d. After the DMSA-treatment the lead-concentrations had dropped (p lead concentration in their blood due to occupational exposure. The high blood lead levels showed that the workers had not been protected adequately. This examplifies that occupational lead exposure still occurs, also in Germany. By patients with unspecific symptoms connected with lead exposure a biomonitoring for lead is necessary.

  4. Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on Empathic Neural Responses for Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions whether and how empathy for pain can be modulated by acute alcohol intoxication in the non-dependent population remain unanswered. To address these questions, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study design was adopted in this study, in which healthy social drinkers were asked to complete a pain-judgment task using pictures depicting others' body parts in painful or non-painful situations during fMRI scanning, either under the influence of alcohol intoxication or placebo conditions. Empathic neural activity for pain was reduced by alcohol intoxication only in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC. More interestingly, we observed that empathic neural activity for pain in the right anterior insula (rAI was significantly correlated with trait empathy only after alcohol intoxication, along with impaired functional connectivity between the rAI and the fronto-parietal attention network. Our results reveal that alcohol intoxication not only inhibits empathic neural responses for pain but also leads to trait empathy inflation, possibly via impaired top-down attentional control. These findings help to explain the neural mechanism underlying alcohol-related social problems.

  5. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Abu-Basha, Ehab A; Youssef, Salah A H; Amer, Aziza M; Murphy, Patricia A; Hauck, Catherine C; Gehring, Ronette; Hsu, Walter H

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 μg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin.

  6. Acute Intoxications Involving Synthetic Psychoactive Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Vasil'ev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a succinic acid derivate, a substrate metabolic agent cytoflavin in patients with acute poisoning with synthetic psychoactive drugs.Materials and methods. A retrospective evaluation of effectiveness of a combined intensive care treatment protocol for 622 patients with acute narcotic poisoning (methadone and synthetic cannabinoids was carried out. All patients were divided into two groups. The main group (112 patients, median age 38.2±12.0 years included patients who, in addition to the basic treatment, received cytoflavin by intravenous drop infusion, 20–40 ml diluted in 400–500 ml of 10% glucose, for 5 days. Patients of the reference group (510 subjects, median age 37.6±14.1 years received treatment according to the «classical scheme». In addition to conventional examination, all patients underwent duplex scanning of cerebral vessels, examination of changes in the cerebral blood circulation and electroencephalogram findings. The severity of somatic disorders was assessed using criteria of the Glasgow coma scale. The severity of the asthenic syndrome was assessed according to the MFI-20 scale.Results. Compared to patients who received a standard therapy, patients of the main group had a significantly more rapid recovery from coma (by 1.5-fold: 23.5±3.1 days, versus 15.1±3.0 days, respectively, P0.05; the duration of psychotic disorders was shorter (by 1.8-fold: 15.5±4.2 hours vs 8.3±2.5 hours., respectively, P0.05, and the intensity of asthenic syndrome (by 2.8-fold: 64.1±3.3 rel. units vs 23.0±4,9 rel. units, respectively, P0.05 was also lower.Conclusion. Inclusion of cytoflavin in a protocol of a complex treatment of patients with synthetic drugs poisoning increased the effectiveness of the therapy. Data demonstrate that inclusion of the drug can be recommended for treatment of acute synthetic narcotic poisoning. 

  7. Case report of acute vitamin D intoxication in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vitamin D intoxication represents a rare and potentially serious pathological condition caused by the excess of calcium and phosphorus. We are presenting an infant with vitamin D intoxication due to excessive daily administration, as well as therapeutic procedures that prevented its adverse effects. Case Outline. A 1.5-month-old female infant, born at term, exclusively breastfed and without any complaints and abnormalities of physical findings, was observed due to the data that during the preceding month, by her mother’s mistake, she had received about 200,000 IU of vitamin D3. Laboratory analyses showed a high serum level of 25(OHD (>400 nmol/L and calcium (2.72 mmol/L, lowered PTH (6.6 pg/ml and high urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (1.6, while other findings, including urotract ultrasonography image, were within normal limits. Treatment based on the discontinuation of vitamin D administration, infant’s forced water intake, as well as the application of 2-month prednisolone and 4-month phenobarbitone and furosemide, resulted in complete normalization of the laboratory indicators of vitamin D overdose, as well as the prevention of its adverse effects. Conclusion. By timely recognition and adequate treatment, including triple therapy with prednisolone, phenobarbitone and furosemide, adverse effects of acute vitamin D intoxication can be prevented.

  8. Changes is radioactive iodine metabolism in acute chemical intoxications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selyutitskij, G.V.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Volkova, N.V.; Zvonova, I.A.; Ostryakova, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the response of the endocrine system (iodine-absorbing and hormone-secreting fUnctions of the thyroid) as studied by the radioactive iodine test may be a reasonably versatile indicator of the response of the thyroid component of the endocrine system to acute intoxication of the organism. Trials of this test using seven chemical substances have confirmed that the radioiodine test is a sufficienty universal method to be used in setting sanitary and hygienic standards for permissible levels of chemical substances

  9. [Hospital morbidity and mortality of acute opiate intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larpin, R; Vincent, A; Perret, C

    1990-09-22

    The records of 188 consecutive patients admitted for acute opiate intoxication were analyzed retrospectively to evaluate the morbidity and mortality of opiates. The most frequently used of these drugs were heroin (127 cases) and methadone (41 cases). In 79 cases the opiate was associated with another psychodepressant, usually benzodiazepines, alcohol or barbiturates. Forty-seven percent of the patients were admitted in deep coma, with respiratory arrest in almost every case. The complications observed in 49 patients were: aspiration of gastric contents (n = 24), rhabdomyolysis (n = 22), often associated with myocarditis (n = 13), pulmonary edema (n = 16), convulsions (n = 10), left ventricular dysfunction (n = 5) and lesions of the peripheral nervous system (n = 4). All patients survived, except one who died of cardiac arrest before admission. It is concluded that acute opiate intoxication treated in hospital has an excellent prognosis for life provided no cardiac arrest occurs prior to admission. One quarter of the patients require prolonged stay in an intensive care unit because of complications. The other patients, even when deeply comatose on admission, spend less than 1 day in hospital owing to the specific antagonist available.

  10. The effect of lead intoxication on endocrine functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumouchtsis, K K; Doumouchtsis, S K; Doumouchtsis, E K; Perrea, D N

    2009-02-01

    Studies on the effects of lead on the endocrine system are mainly based on occupationally lead-exposed workers and experimental animal models. Although evidence is conflicting, it has been reported that accumulation of lead affects the majority of the endocrine glands. In particular, it appears to have an effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis causing blunted TSH, GH, and FSH/LH responses to TRH, GHRH, and GnRH stimulation, respectively. Suppressed GH release has been reported, probably caused by reduced synthesis of GHRH, inhibition of GHRH release or reduced somatotrope responsiveness. Higher levels of PRL in lead intoxication have been reported. In short-term lead-exposed individuals, high LH and FSH levels are usually associated to normal testosterone concentrations, whereas in long-term exposed individuals' low testosterone levels do not induce high LH and FSH concentrations. These findings suggest that lead initially causes some subclinical testicular damage, followed by hypothalamic or pituitary disturbance when longer periods of exposure take place. Similarly, lead accumulates in granulosa cells of the ovary, causing delays in growth and pubertal development and reduced fertility in females. In the parenchyma of adrenals histological and cytological changes are demonstrated, causing changes in plasma basal and stress-mediated corticosterone concentrations and reduced cytosolic and nuclear glucocorticoid receptor binding. Thyroid hormone kinetics are also affected. Central defect of the thyroid axis or an alteration in T4 metabolism or binding to proteins may be involved in derangements in thyroid hormone action. Lead toxicity involves alterations on calcitropic hormones' homeostasis, which increase the risk of skeletal disorders.

  11. Utilization of a Sobering Center for Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bernardin, Shannon; Carrico, Adam; Max, Wendy; Chapman, Susan

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to describe the population utilizing a sobering center for public alcohol intoxication and compare between single-visit users, repeat users, and high users. We conducted a secondary analysis of 1,271 adults cared for in a sobering center from July 2014 to June 2015. We divided the population into three groups-single use (one visit), repeat users (two to five visits), and high (six or more) users-and evaluated demographics, lifetime health diagnoses utilizing the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, rates of public service utilization including ambulance and emergency department, and related costs. The population was primarily male, middle-aged, and ethnically diverse. Compared to single-visit users (n = 869), repeat (n = 287) and high users (n = 115) were older, were more likely to be currently homeless, and had spent more time homeless. Repeat and high users had significantly higher rates of hypertension, liver disease, diabetes, depression, psychoses, and drug abuse diagnoses compared to single-visit users. In addition to sobering visits, utilization of ambulance and ED and related costs were significantly greater for the high users compared to repeat and single-visit users. From an overall heterogeneous population, more frequent utilizers of the sobering center, both high and repeat users compared to low users, had significantly greater prevalence of chronic disorders, service utilization, and homelessness. Findings indicate that a sobering center can have a prominent role in the care for those with acute alcohol intoxication, particularly those individuals with chronic public intoxication who are likewise homeless. Further longitudinal research could offer important insights as to the population served over time, investigating changes in utilization and efforts toward health and housing stabilization. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources.

  13. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulou Iakovina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well established that acetaminophen metabolism, particularly at high doses, produces reactive metabolites that may induce renal and hepatic toxicity. It is also plausible however, that such reactive species could instead alter renal peptide immunogenicity, thereby inducing AIN. In the following report, we review a possible mechanism for the acetaminophen-induced AIN observed in our patient and also discuss the potential involvement of acute alcohol ingestion in disease onset. The objective of our report is to increase awareness of healthcare professionals to the potential involvement of these commonly used agents in AIN pathogenesis.

  14. Temporomandibular joint dislocation due to acute propranolol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Aghabiklooei

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abbas Aghabiklooei1, Homan Elahi2, Babak Mostafazadeh31Department of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Firouzgar Hospital, Department of ENT, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Shaheed Beheshty University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ dislocation has not previously been reported as a complication of beta-blocker toxicity. We are reporting two cases of TMJ dislocation resulted from acute severe intoxication with pure propranolol (PPL for the first time. Bilateral TMJ dislocation happened in two patients who were admitted to intensive care unit with diagnosis of severe acute PPL toxicity. Clinical diagnosis of TMJ dislocation was obtained by physical examination. Successful reduction was performed for both patients without subsequent recurrence in two weeks following hospital discharge. Both of our subjects had no previous history of lower jaw dislocation. There was not any risk factor for dislocation such as convulsion during admission period, recent face trauma, or oral manipulation by the medical team. This study showed that TMJ dislocation may occur after severe acute PPL toxicity probably due to spastic contraction of the lateral pterygoid muscle. This is against previously mentioned hypothesis that stated masseteric muscles contraction as the main cause of a bilateral dislocated TMJ.Keywords: propranolol, toxicity, temporomandibular joint dislocation

  15. Is Central Europe Safe from Environmental Lead Intoxications? A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelclová, Daniela; Šťastná, Jana; Vlčková, Štěpánka; Vlček, Kamil; Urban, Michal; Laštovková, Andrea; Doležel, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    Preventive measures in Central Europe were successful in suppressing both occupational and environmental lead exposure so that they did not constitute a severe public health problem. However, rare lead intoxications still appear. We report on lead intoxication in four family members where the source was removed lead ceiling paint. The symptoms of the lead intoxication started several weeks after removal and the inhalational exposure to the minimum dust residues lasted for more than three months before the poisoning was diagnosed. Father developed anaemia and saturnine colics. He and his two daughters received antidotal treatment which had to be repeated in the children. Finally, all recovered completely.Lead intoxication may be easily overlooked due to the unspecific symptoms. It is necessary to think of this rare poisoning which may be caused by old paints, historical ceramics and lead shots, in addition to commercial products imported from abroad. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  16. Acute Alcohol Intoxication in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Characteristics, Recovery and Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, Myrthe; de Koning, Myrthe; van der Horn, Harm; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of sustaining mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), describe the characteristics of this intoxicated subgroup, and evaluate recovery and outcome in comparison to sober mTBI patients. Methods. Multicenter cohort

  17. Lead intoxication due to ayurvedic medications as a cause of abdominal pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Varun; Midha, Vandana; Mahajan, Ramit; Narang, Vikram; Wander, Praneet; Sood, Ridhi; Sood, Ajit

    2017-02-01

    Though a majority of cases of lead intoxication come from occupational exposures, traditional and folk remedies have also been reported to contain toxic amounts of lead. We present a large series of patients with lead poisoning due to intake of Ayurvedic medicines, all of whom presented with unexplained abdominal pain. This was a retrospective, observational case series from a tertiary care center in India. The charts of patients who underwent blood lead level (BLL) testing as a part of workup for unexplained abdominal pain between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. The patients with lead intoxication (BLLs >25 μg/dl) were identified and demographics, history, possible risk factors, clinical presentation and investigations were reviewed. Treatment details, duration, time to symptomatic recovery, laboratory follow-up and adverse events during therapy were recorded. BLLs were tested in 786 patients with unexplained abdominal pain and high levels were identified in 75 (9.5%) patients, of which a majority (73 patients, 9.3%) had history of Ayurvedic medication intake and only two had occupational exposure. Five randomly chosen Ayurvedic medications were analyzed and lead levels were impermissibly high (14-34,950 ppm) in all of them. Besides pain in abdomen, other presenting complaints were constipation, hypertension, neurological symptoms and acute kidney injury. Anemia and abnormal liver biochemical tests were observed in all the 73 patients. Discontinuing the Ayurvedic medicines and chelation with d-penicillamine led to improvement in symptoms and reduction in BLLs in all patients within 3-4 months. The patients presenting with severe recurrent abdominal pain, anemia and history of use of Ayurvedic medicines should be evaluated for lead toxicity. Early diagnosis in such cases can prevent unnecessary investigations and interventions, and permits early commencement of the treatment.

  18. Acute Intoxication by Transdermal Opium Application in Infants: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Sedighi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute opium intoxication is one of the most common causes of poisoning in children in Iran. Although most cases are accidental, traditional misuse of opium for symptomatic therapy of various childhood diseases also contributes to high rate of opium intoxication in Iran. Cases: Here, we report two cases of opium intoxication in infants resulted from transdermal application of opium on burned skin. To our knowledge this is the first case report of intoxication from transdermal misuse of opium. Conclusion: Health care providers should be aware about signs and symptoms of opium intoxication in children. Opium intoxication should be suspected in each child with history of a recent burn injury that presented with decreased level of consciousness.

  19. Effectiveness of chelation therapy with time after acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingo, J.L.; Ortega, A.; Llobet, J.M.; Corbella, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of increasing the time interval between acute uranium exposure and chelation therapy was studied in male Swiss mice. Gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) were administered ip at 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 24 hr after sc injection of 10 mg/kg of uranyl acetate dihydrate. Chelating agents were given at doses equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. Daily elimination of uranium into urine and feces was determined for 4 days after which time the mice were killed, and the concentration of uranium was measured in kidney, spleen, and bone. The excretion of uranium was especially rapid in the first 24 hr. Treatment with Tiron or gallic acid at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly increased the total excretion of the metal. In kidney and bone, only administration of Tiron at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium injection, or gallic acid at 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly reduced tissue uranium concentrations. Treatment at later times (4 to 24 hr) did not increase the total excretion of the metal and did not decrease the tissue uranium concentrations 4 days after uranyl acetate administration. The results show that the length of time before initiating chelation therapy for acute uranium intoxication greatly influences the effectiveness of this therapy

  20. [Evaluation of selected socioeconomic factors in patients with acute ethanol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is commonly overused psychoactive substance in Poland and all around the world. It causes addiction, which occurs as a result of its chronic administration. One of the main symptoms of addiction is hunger due to psychoactive substance that prevents interruption of its adoption and contributes to relapse drinking. Acute poisoning with ethyl alcohol and alcohol withdrawal syndrome are diseases causing a potential danger to life. The prevalence of use and abuse of alcoholic beverages is a potential risk, causing health problems, including permanent damage of the central and peripheral nervous system and socio-economic problems. The aim of this study is to analyze certain aspects of the socio-economic situation of the patients hospitalized in the Department of Toxicology in Raszeja City Hospital in Poznan due to acute ethanol intoxication or alcohol withdrawal syndrome in 2010. 299 patients history was evaluated, among which 161 were treated for acute intoxication with ethanol and 138 due to alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Objects of interest were elements of subjective tests including: marital status of patients, their education and professional activity and the problem of homelessness. The study group consisted of 299 patients in age from 16 to 77 years, hospitalized in the Department of Toxicology in Raszeja City Hospital in Poznan due to acute ethanol intoxication or alcohol withdrawal syndrome. It was found that the largest group consisted of patients remaining married (42.81%) and unmarried (30.43%). Alcohol abuse affects people of all levels of education. In the present study, most patients had a vocational education (37.79%) and medium (23.08%). Patients were analyzed in terms of economic activity, among which about 40% were unemployed. In the whole group more than 10% of those were homeless. Ethyl alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal represents a significant hazard. As a result of reliance, patients lose control of alcohol consumption and they

  1. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  2. Mass lead intoxication from informal used lead-acid battery recycling in dakar, senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefliger, Pascal; Mathieu-Nolf, Monique; Lociciro, Stephanie; Ndiaye, Cheikh; Coly, Malang; Diouf, Amadou; Faye, Absa Lam; Sow, Aminata; Tempowski, Joanna; Pronczuk, Jenny; Filipe Junior, Antonio Pedro; Bertollini, Roberto; Neira, Maria

    2009-10-01

    Between November 2007 and March 2008, 18 children died from a rapidly progressive central nervous system disease of unexplained origin in a community involved in the recycling of used lead-acid batteries (ULAB) in the suburbs of Dakar, Senegal. We investigated the cause of these deaths. Because autopsies were not possible, the investigation centered on clinical and laboratory assessments performed on 32 siblings of deceased children and 23 mothers and on 18 children and 8 adults living in the same area, complemented by environmental health investigations. All 81 individuals investigated were poisoned with lead, some of them severely. The blood lead level of the 50 children tested ranged from 39.8 to 613.9 microg/dL with a mean of 129.5 microg/dL. Seventeen children showed severe neurologic features of toxicity. Homes and soil in surrounding areas were heavily contaminated with lead (indoors, up to 14,000 mg/kg; outdoors, up to 302,000 mg/kg) as a result of informal ULAB recycling. Our investigations revealed a mass lead intoxication that occurred through inhalation and ingestion of soil and dust heavily contaminated with lead as a result of informal and unsafe ULAB recycling. Circumstantial evidence suggested that most or all of the 18 deaths were due to encephalopathy resulting from severe lead intoxication. Findings also suggest that most habitants of the contaminated area, estimated at 950, are also likely to be poisoned. This highlights the severe health risks posed by informal ULAB recycling, in particular in developing countries, and emphasizes the need to strengthen national and international efforts to address this global public health problem.

  3. Clinical Recommendations on Emergency Medical Care Rendering to Children with Acute Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Baranov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the issue of intoxication in children. Acute accidental intoxication appears to be especially relevant for pediatric practice. Drugs, various chemicals frequently used in everyday life and in farming, as well as animal poisons, including snake poisons, may have a toxic effect on children. Specialists of professional associations of physicians “Russian Society of Emergency Medicine” and pediatricians “Union of Pediatricians of Russia” formulated and briefly described the main causes of acute intoxication in children, clinical manifestations and the most significant laboratory indicators of toxic manifestations for various substances, as well as therapy principles and algorithms for such conditions in compliance with principles of the evidence-based medicine. The article presents pathognomonic symptoms and peculiarities of drug intoxication, provides a description of mediator symptoms of intoxication with various substances, as well as the symptoms that may indicate toxic effect. The article contains a description of principles of correction of vital body functions, measures for removing toxic substances from the body and information on the main antidotes. Special attention is given to the most frequent types of intoxication (with organic acids, lye, naphazoline, paracetamol, snake poisons [viper bite]. The article lists stage of medical care rendering to children suffering from acute intoxication and presents prognosis and further management of pediatric patients suffering from such conditions. 

  4. [Acute ethanol intoxication among children and adolescents. A retrospective analysis of 173 patients admitted to a university children hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöberl, S; Nickel, P; Schmutzer, G; Siekmeyer, W; Kiess, W

    2008-01-01

    In the last time the alcohol consumption among children and adolescents is a big theme in all kind of media. The ethanol consumption among children and adolescents has risen during the last years, but also new hazardous drinking patterns like "binge-drinking" are increasing. These drinking episodes are responsible for many hospital presentations of children and adolescents with acute ethanol intoxication. This study is a retrospective analysis of 173 patients admitted to the university children hospital of Leipzig due to acute ethanol intoxication during the period 1998-2004. Investigated parameters were: socio-demographic factors, clinical presentation and management as well as quantity and type of alcohol. During the years 1998-2004 the rate of alcohol intoxicated patients in this study increased, from 1998-2003 at about 171.4%. Totally 173 patients with an average age of 14.5 years were admitted to the university children hospital. There were significantly more boys than girls. The mean blood alcohol concentration of these patients was 1.77%. Some of the patients had severe symptoms. 62 were unconscious, 2 were in coma and at least 3 patients had to be ventilated. A difference between socioeconomic groups could be observed by comparing the different school types. 44.8% of the patients went to the middle school. Furthermore 17 patients of this study had mental disorders or psychosocial problems and were therefore in psychological or psychiatric treatment. In this study a significant influence of social classes or psychosocial problems on alcohol consumption such as binge-drinking leading to acute ethanol intoxication could not be found. Alarming is the increasing number of ethanol intoxicated patients, the young age, the high measured blood ethanol concentrations and the severe symptoms of these patients. This is the reason why early and intensive prevention strategies are required.

  5. Alcohol acute intoxication before sepsis impairs the wound healing of intestinal anastomosis: rat model of the abdominal trauma patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morais Pedro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Most trauma patients are drunk at the time of injury. Up to 2% of traumatized patients develop sepsis, which considerably increases their mortality. Inadequate wound healing of the colonic repair can lead to postoperative complications such as leakage and sepsis. Objective To assess the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on colonic anastomosis wound healing in septic rats. Methods Thirty six Wistar rats were allocated into two groups: S (induction of sepsis and AS (alcohol intake before sepsis induction. A colonic anastomosis was performed in all groups. After 1, 3 or 7 days the animals were killed. Weight variations, mortality rate, histopathology and tensile breaking strength of the colonic anastomosis were evaluated. Results There was an overall mortality of 4 animals (11.1%, three in the group AS (16.6% and one in the S group (5.5%. Weight loss occurred in all groups. The colon anastomosis of the AS group didn’t gain strength from the first to the seventh postoperative day. On the histopathological analysis there were no differences in the deposition of collagen or fibroblasts between the groups AS and S. Conclusion Alcohol intake increased the mortality rate three times in septic animals. Acute alcohol intoxication delays the acquisition of tensile strength of colonic anastomosis in septic rats. Therefore, acute alcohol intoxication before sepsis leads to worse prognosis in animal models of the abdominal trauma patients.

  6. Effects of Lead Intoxication on Intervertebral Disc (Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Ye. Maltseva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of experimental study of the effectы of lead intoxication on the intervertebral disc of laboratory rats. It was revealed that in lead intoxication degenerative disorders occur in all parts of the intervertebral disc of rats, affecting both the structure of the annulus fibrosus and the nucleus pulposus. At the same time degenerative changes of the annulus fibrosus can be expressed in disturbance of foliation, due to the appearance of cracks in plates and between them, banding of collagen fibers, reducing the density of fibrochondrocytes. In the nucleus pulposus fragmentation of syncytium structure occurs as well as disturbance of the interconnection between notochordal cells.

  7. Histomorphormetric studies on lactational lead intoxication in testes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... This research work was designed to investigate the impact of lactational lead exposure on ..... How did lead get into our gasoline:retrieved from www. ... Supplementation against Damage Caused by Lead in the Testes of Mice.

  8. An acute oral intoxication with haloperidol decanoate : A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, Bart G J; Eck, Ruben J; Ter Maaten, Jan C; Touw, Daniël J

    2017-01-01

    Haloperidol decanoate is a typical antipsychotic drug used as maintenance therapy for schizophrenia and mood disorders formulated as an ester for intramuscular injection. Cases of oral haloperidol decanoate intoxications have not been described in literature. In this report, we present for the first

  9. Effects of lead intoxication on intercellular junctions and biochemical alterations of the renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Moreno, L G; Quintanar-Escorza, M A; González, S; Mondragón, R; Cerbón-Solorzáno, J; Valdés, J; Calderón-Salinas, J V

    2009-10-01

    Lead intoxication is a worldwide health problem which frequently affects the kidney. In this work, we studied the effects of chronic lead intoxication (500 ppm of Pb in drinking water during seven months) on the structure, function and biochemical properties of rat proximal tubule cells. Lead-exposed animals showed increased lead concentration in kidney, reduction of calcium and amino acids uptake, oxidative damage and glucosuria, proteinuria, hematuria and reduced urinary pH. These biochemical and physiological alterations were related to striking morphological modifications in the structure of tubule epithelial cells and in the morphology of their mitochondria, nuclei, lysosomes, basal and apical membranes. Interestingly, in addition to the nuclei, inclusion bodies were found in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria. The epithelial cell structure modifications included an early loss of the apical microvillae, followed by a decrement of the luminal space and the respective apposition and proximity of apical membranes, resulting in the formation of atypical intercellular contacts and adhesion structures. Similar but less marked alterations were observed in subacute lead intoxication as well. Our work contributes in the understanding of the physiopathology of lead intoxication on the structure of renal tubular epithelial cell-cell contacts in vivo.

  10. Chronic Lead Intoxication From Eating Wild-Harvested Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenz, Eric J; Parry, Gareth J

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine if conversion from eating wild game harvested with lead-based ammunition to nonlead-based ammunition results in lower blood lead levels. Supersonic injection of toxin-leeching frangible projectiles into food is intuitively bad. As much as 95% of the ~13.7 million hunters in the United States choose shrapnel-inducing lead bullets to kill game; in addition, not harvesting meat is an incarcerable crime. A lead ammunition ban on certain federal lands was recently rescinded and the National Rifle Association refutes any risk from eating lead bullet-harvested game. A patient subsisting solely on lead-shot meat was converted to non-lead ammunition and his blood lead level tracked. Concomitant with his conversion to nonlead ammunition, a controlled experiment was performed using the patient's bullets to determine his daily lead intake from lead-shot meat. While eating lead-shot meat, the patient was consuming 259.3 ± 235.6 µg of lead daily and his blood lead level was 74.7 µg/dL. Conversion to nonlead ammunition was associated with a reduced blood lead level. Unsafe blood lead levels can occur from eating game harvested with lead ammunition. Physicians should warn hunting patients of this potential risk and counsel them about the availability of nonlead ammunition alternatives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lead intoxication: a summary of the clinical presentation among Thai patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Suwansaksri, Jamsai

    2006-08-01

    Lead is an important toxic metal found in industrial communities. Due to the industrialization in the recent decade in Thailand, lead intoxication as a toxicant-related disorder becomes a new public health problem. A retrospective study on clinical presentation of hospitalized patients with diagnosis of lead intoxication during year 1990-1999 in King Chulalongkorn Memorial hospital, the largest Thai Red Cross Society Hospital, was performed. All 14 cases diagnosed with lead intoxication were identified in our series. Average age of the subjects was 25.55 +/- 21.93 years old. Male predominance was detected in our series (male:female = 12:2). Two main groups of subjects as; (1) childhood aged below 10 years old (male:female = 4:2) and (2) adult aged between 24 and 60 years old (n = 8, all male), can be identified. For the first group, the clinical presentations were convulsion (n = 3), unexplained anemia (n = 1), attention deficit (n = 1) and asymptomatic (n = 1), respectively. All of the subjects in this group presented the history of living at the old battery plant area. Five of the six cases came from the same village. For the second group, the clinical presentations were unexplained abdominal pain (n = 5), chronic renal failure (n = 1), unexplained anemia (n = 1) and asymptomatic (n = 1), respectively. Most of the subjects (75%) in this group presented the history of working in the battery plant for more than 10 years. Another case presented the history of gunshot and residual bullet in the bone marrow. The other one left is an interesting case with the history of prolonged usage of ritual pill and holy paper incineration. Like other studies, battery plant had strong relation with the lead intoxication. Although the total identified cases are rather few, there may be more undetected asymptomatic lead intoxication cases in the community. Specific control of lead resulted from battery plant and monitoring of the workers as public health strategies are still

  12. An Investigation of an Acute Pesticide Intoxication Outbreak; the Vali Saim COTUR RBPES, Kahramanmaras, May 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Yildirim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In this study, it is aimed to explain the causes of the pesticid intoxication occured in the Vali Saim COTUR Regional Boarding Primary Education School in Karacasu district of the province of Kahramanmaras in May, 2008 and what have been done after the intoxication. METHODS: In the study is an investigation of outbreak. In the study used to face-to-face interviews with patients, parents of patients, menagers and teachers of school and the records of the health foundations and school and the laboratory works. RESULTS: Cases of acute pesticide intoxication first began appearing on 5 May 2008. During the course of the pesticide intoxication 51 cases were determined, though there were no fatalities. All cases are students of the Vali Saim COTUR RBPES. It has 1695 students. All cases, 35 (68.6% were females and 16 (31.4% males, and median age 11 (min=8, max=14. Intoxication was highest level as 84.3% in cases at the age of 11. The cause of the intoxication was agriculture medicine (pesticide contamination of the school’s drinking water. CONCLUSION: In order to prevent pesticide poisoning, it is necessary to be very careful with pesticide application especially in rural areas. Substances that are least toxic to human and environment, and are licenced and most effective to pests must be used, sensitive people, especially children, must be kept away. More attempts should be made for raising the awereness of zone managers and farmers in order to prevent intoxications. Even if there is important improvement in intoxication management, the most effective method is prevention of poisoning. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 199-206

  13. A safe strategy to decrease fetal lead exposure in a woman with chronic intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiba, Adi; Hu, Howard; Zheng, Amin; Kales, Stefanos N

    2010-08-01

    During pregnancy skeletal lead is mobilized by maternal bone turnover and can threaten fetal development. The exact strategy suggested to women of childbearing age, who were chronically exposed to lead, and, thus, have high bone lead burden, is not well established. We describe 4 years of follow-up of a 29-year-old woman with chronic lead intoxication. We (a) advised her to delay conception until 'toxicological clearance', (b) treated her with multiple courses of lead chelator, DMSA, and (c) prescribed oral calcium. Patient had low blood lead and protoporphyrin level during pregnancy until delivery. Delaying conception, lead chelation, and calcium supplementation can decrease fetal exposure.

  14. Acute alcohol intoxication in patients with mild traumatic brain injury : Characteristics, recovery, and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, Myrthe E.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; van der Horn, Harm J.; Roks, C.M.A.A.; Yilmaz, Tansel; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial number of patients (30% to 50%) sustains a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) while they are under the influence of alcohol. An acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of injury has been subject of research in severe TBI, but little is known about the relation between AAI and

  15. Acute Alcohol Intoxication in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury : Characteristics, Recovery, and Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, Myrthe E.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; van der Horn, Harm; Roks, Gerwin; Yilmaz, Tansel; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial number of patients (30% to 50%) sustains a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) while they are under the influence of alcohol. An acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of injury has been subject of research in severe TBI, but little is known about the relation between AAI and

  16. Bayesian pharmacokinetics of lithium after an acute self-intoxication and subsequent haemodialysis: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, Thomas; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Otten, Hans M. M. B.; Meesters, Eelco W.; van Kan, Hendrikus J. M.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of a 39-year-old male with bipolar affective disorder who was admitted to hospital with an intentional acute lithium intoxication resulting in renal insufficiency. The patient had previously been treated with lithium, risperidone, fluoxetine and lorazepam, and successfully titrated

  17. Effect of Chronic Lead Intoxication on Risky Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mohammadyar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With industrialization of human societies, pollutants like lead have entered in the life cycle, causing harmful effects on body organs. No sufficient studies have been done on the effects of pollutants on behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of lead on some measurable behaviors of an animal model. Methods: Forty eight male adult mice were divided into 4 groups of 12 each. Lead acetate was added at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, or 500 ppm to the drinking water of the animals for 4 weeks (28 days. On day 29, animals were placed on an Elevated Plus maze (EPM for 5 min and the time in sec spent was measured on closed arms, open arms and the end 1/3rd of the open arms. Increased time on open arms, particularly the end 1/3rd was considered to reflect an enhanced risk-accepting behavior. Results: In this study, it was shown that lead exposure caused an increased number of entrance (P=0.006 and time spent (P=0.034 by mice on open arms of the EPM. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of lead acetate and those two effects. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that lead poisoning may decrease normal anxiety in mice and increase risky behavior in this species. Clinical studies on human subjects with risky behavior are strongly suggested in order to find a possible relation between chronic exposures to lead as well as plasma concentration of lead with the extent of this kind of behavior.

  18. Lead intoxication: clinic and diagnostic evaluation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Riera Nora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, poor nutrition, environmental and social injustice prevailing in Latin America are factorsthat determine the action of pollutants on children. Lead poisoning and pollution constitute apublic health problem throughout the world. Lead affects multiple organs: nervous system particularly,hematopoietic, renal, endocrine, bone and others. Objective: to assess clinical, biochemicaland vascular effects in children exposed to known source of lead. Materials and methods: Sevenchildren with defined source lead exposure were studied, general and specific lead laboratorywere made. Endothelial function and electrocardiographic parameters were assessed. Statistic:descriptive. Results: Age average was 6,2 years (DE± 1, 6, average haematocrit 31% (DE±0,02;hemoglobin average 10,2 g/dl (DE± 0,78. 100% presented hypochromia, microcitosis, anemiaand marked anisocytosis. Lead average: 37,9 ug/dl (DE±6,22, ALA-D average: 8,9 U/L (DE±4,5.No changes were found in lipid profile and kidney function. All presented microalbuminuriaand endothelial dysfunction. Conclusion: These results show the effects of environmental leadexposure that can result in children not occupationally exposed.

  19. Humic Acids as Therapeutic Compounds in Lead Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempaská, Klára; Vaško, Ladislav; Vašková, Janka

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of lead and its compounds is well known, causing anemia by inhibiting the synthesis of porphyrins. The neurotoxic effects, particularly in the young, alter the structure of cell membranes and DNA. Chronic exposure to lead has adverse effects on the body by disrupting the mechanisms of energy production and tissue damage, in particular in its links with thiol groups and competition for binding sites with zinc. This review is therefore a description of the mechanism of lead toxicity as well as of possible interventions for the detoxification of the body. Part of the clinical intervention is the provision of chelates that form insoluble complexes with lead and eliminate the load in tissues. Most of these chelating agents have a number of side effects. It is therefore not surprising that active compounds with distinctive antioxidant and chelating properties are being sought after. The possibility of administering lower amounts, and the corresponding decrease in side effects, would be important for clinical practice. Both prospective studies and our initial studies on humic acids have highlighted positive effects based on their antioxidant and chelating properties.

  20. Somatomedin activity before and after chelation therapy in lead-intoxicated children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohn, R.D.; Hill, J.R.; Shelton, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Somatomedin activity was measured in 21 lead-intoxicated children to determine whether plumbism interferes with the processes of statural (bone) growth. Somatomedin activity was measured both by the rabbit coastal cartilage bioassay and by radioimmunoassay of somatomedin-C. Compared to values in normal children, both the bioassay and radioimmunoassay somatomedin activity was increased. The degree of body lead burden was so extensive that the 21 study children required chelation therapy. Following EDTA or BAL + EDTA chelation therapy, the overall somatomedin activity of these children with plumbism further increased significantly. In contrast, measures of body lead burden--including blood lead levels--decreased after treatment in all lead-intoxicated youngsters. We conclude that plumbism is associated with increased somatomedin activity. Hence the increased somatomedin activity may explain why clinical experience fails to find any long-term deleterious effect of saturnism on statural (bone) growth. Possible mechanisms underlying the increased somatomedin activity in the lead-intoxicated children remain to be defined

  1. Pathobiological and Behavioral Effects of Lead Intoxication in the Infant Rhesus Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. R.; McWey, P. J.; Suomi, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    When infant rhesus monkeys were exposed to lead via the addition of lead acetate (0.5–9 mg/kg body weight) to their formula or by the consumption of lead particles from lead-based surrogate mothers, they developed symptoms of lead intoxication within 6 weeks. Seizures, muscular tremors, and altered social interaction were the predominant changes. Visual impairment was also apparent in the more severely affected animals. In the animals showing obvious symptoms lead levels varied between 300 to 500 μg/100 ml of blood. Even in those animals having blood lead levels below 100 μg, hyperactivity and insomnia were observed. When the exposure to lead was eliminated, seizures subsided and visual impairment was reduced; however, the abnormal social interaction persisted. These animals also experienced a gradual decline in hematocrit and hemoglobin values during the period of examination. Liver and kidney biopsies obtained from these lead-exposed animals revealed characteristic intranuclear inclusions. When adolescent and adult monkeys were exposed to doses of lead acetate similar to those employed in the infant experiments, lead levels in excess of 200 μg/100 ml of blood were recorded. However, there were no obvious behavioral abnormalities observed. There were, however, numerous lead inclusion bodies in kidney biopsy specimens from these animals. These data suggest that, like man, the infant nonhuman primate is much more susceptible to lead intoxication than is the adult. The clinical and behavioral changes recorded in these infant rhesus monkeys suggest their use as an experimental model to evaluate lead intoxication. ImagesFIGURE 6. PMID:4208658

  2. ACUTE EXOGENOUS INTOXICATIONS WITH ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES: DURATION OF THE HOSPITAL TREATMENT AND CLINICAL CRITERIA FOR PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Several criteria have been suggested to estimate the intoxication severity, yet so far no system of clinical criteria has been developed to determine the duration of hospitalisation. The forecast is linked to the influence of the extended corrected QT interval and GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale on the frequency of the developing acute pulmonary insufficiency and lethality. The average duration of hospital treatment is also crucial. First of all, it is determined by the intoxication severity and lasts from 3 to 26 days. The aim of this study is to develop an individual forecast about the duration of hospitalisation for patients suffering from acute exogenous intoxication with organophosphorus pesticides (OPP. Materials/Methods: The subjects are 160 patients. We use statistical regression analysis to study the significance of 5 of the most typical clinical indicators of organophosphorus intoxication on the duration of hospitalisation: type of conscience, presence of spasms, pulmonary oedema, shock and multi-organ insufficiency syndrome (MOIS. To forecast the treatment length, we obtain simplified mathematical expressions in the form of score estimates. Results: The significance of the clinical indicators “MOIS”, “conscience” and “spasm” has been confirmed. A forecast matrix that gives the opportunity to forecast the personal duration of hospital treatment for each patient has been built.

  3. The effects of acute alcohol intoxication on the cognitive mechanisms underlying false facial recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloff, Melissa F; Flowe, Heather D

    2016-06-01

    False face recognition rates are sometimes higher when faces are learned while under the influence of alcohol. Alcohol myopia theory (AMT) proposes that acute alcohol intoxication during face learning causes people to attend to only the most salient features of a face, impairing the encoding of less salient facial features. Yet, there is currently no direct evidence to support this claim. Our objective was to test whether acute alcohol intoxication impairs face learning by causing subjects to attend to a salient (i.e., distinctive) facial feature over other facial features, as per AMT. We employed a balanced placebo design (N = 100). Subjects in the alcohol group were dosed to achieve a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.06 %, whereas the no alcohol group consumed tonic water. Alcohol expectancy was controlled. Subjects studied faces with or without a distinctive feature (e.g., scar, piercing). An old-new recognition test followed. Some of the test faces were "old" (i.e., previously studied), and some were "new" (i.e., not previously studied). We varied whether the new test faces had a previously studied distinctive feature versus other familiar characteristics. Intoxicated and sober recognition accuracy was comparable, but subjects in the alcohol group made more positive identifications overall compared to the no alcohol group. The results are not in keeping with AMT. Rather, a more general cognitive mechanism appears to underlie false face recognition in intoxicated subjects. Specifically, acute alcohol intoxication during face learning results in more liberal choosing, perhaps because of an increased reliance on familiarity.

  4. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  5. Acute wood or coal exposure with carbon monoxide intoxication induces sister chromatid exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, S.; Vatansever, S.; Cefle, K.; Palanduz, S.; Guler, K.; Erten, N.; Erk, O.; Karan, M.A.; Tascioglu, C. [University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey). Istanbul Faculty of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effect of acute overexposure to combustion products originating from coal or wood stoves in patients presenting with acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The authors analyzed the frequency of sister chromatid exchange and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 20 consecutive patients without a history of smoking or drug use who had been treated in the Emergency Care Unit of Istanbul Medical Faculty due to acute carbon monoxide intoxication. All of these cases were domestic accidents due to dysfunctioning coal or wood stoves. The results were compared with a control group of 20 nonsmoking, nondrug-using healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and absence of other chemical exposure. It was concluded that acute exposure to combustion products of wood or coal is genotoxic to DNA. Potential causes of genotoxicity include known mutagenic compounds present in coal or wood smoke and ash, oxygen radicals formed during combustion, as well as hypoxic and reperfusion injury mechanisms initiated by carbon monoxide intoxication.

  6. Prophylactic Role of Spermine in Rats Intoxicated With Lead and/or Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habieb, M.E.; Mohamed, M.A.; Hawas, A.M.; Abu-Khudir, R.; Mohamed, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of spermine, a natural polyamine against toxicity of lead and /or gamma irradiation in male rats. Eight groups of rats were used in this study (control, irradiated group (6 GY), lead (40 mg/kg bw), spermine (10 mg/kg bw), lead plus irradiation, irradiation plus spermine, lead plus spermine, irradiation plus lead co-treated with spermine) for consecutive 14 days. Blood samples were used for complete blood count (CBC) and glucose 6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) levels. Moreover, malondialdhyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), metallothionein (MT) levels and catalase (CAT) activity were investigated in liver, kidney and brain. G6PD activity significantly decreased post exposure to lead and /or gamma irradiation. Hepatic, renal and brain MDA, GSH, MT and CAT were significantly increased in lead intoxicated group, while GSH, MT and CAT activity were significantly decreased in gamma-irradiated group. Spermine administration alleviated changes in CBC, G6PD, MDA, MT and CAT to normal control levels, but with significant increase in G6PD activity and platelets count. In conclusion, spermine acts as an antioxidant and plays a prophylactic role against intoxication with lead and/or gamma irradiation exposure.

  7. ACUTE NARCOTIC DRUG INTOXICATIONS: ETIOLOGY, SEX/AGE DISTRIBUTION AND CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Poisoning with drugs is a serious medical and social problem worldwide. Retrospective analysis of acute poisoning with narcotic drugs had been performed in Varna region for 25 years (1991-2015. Material and Methods: The number of patients received hospital treatment after poisonings with narcotic substances was 677, which represented 3.9% of all acute exogenous intoxications. Results: Narcotic poisonings were more common in men – 546 (80.6%, than in women – 131 (19.4 %. The ratio male/ female was 4.17:1. The largest number of intoxications were in the age group up to 24 years – 1123 (66%, and only 2.65% of patients were over 45 years. Death was registered in 6 (0.9% patients.

  8. Seizures in patients with acute pesticide intoxication, with a focus on glufosinate ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S; Kim, D E; Park, S Y; Gil, H W; Hong, S Y

    2018-04-01

    The incidence and clinical aspects of seizures remain to be elucidated in patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The present study included subjects who ingested pesticide with the intention of committing suicide and were treated at Soonchunhyang University Hospital (Cheonan, Korea) between January 2011 and December 2014. We analyzed the incidence and characterized the type and frequency of seizure, from the medical records of 464 patients with acute pesticide intoxication, according to the pesticide class. The effect of seizure on the clinical outcome was assessed. The incidence of seizure was 31.5% in patients who ingested glufosinate ammonium {2-amino-4-[hydroxyl (methyl) phosphinoyl] butyrate; ammonium DL-homoalanin-4-yl (methyl) phosphinate}, followed by those who ingested pyrethroid (5.9%) or glycine derivatives (5.4%). All of the seizures developed between 12 and 24 h of pesticide ingestion and had ceased by 72 h after seizure initiation, following treatment with antiseizure medication. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures were the most commonly observed (85.7% of the cases). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the effect of seizure on mortality was not statistically significant. In conclusion, glufosinate ammonium herbicide is the most common seizurogenic pesticide class. Seizure itself was not a risk factor for mortality in patients with acute glufosinate ammonium intoxication.

  9. Influence of experimental distemper infection on the distribution of lead in dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.J.; Marshall, A.J.; McLeod, S.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of experimental canine distemper infection to mobilize body lead deposits has been studied in Beagle dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate. For comparative purposes dogs were included which had either received lead only or distemper only or remained undosed. It was found that in dogs predosed with lead, distemper infection resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in blood and urine; this coincided with the peak body temperatures reached on the third day post infection. It was also found that the lead content of the liver and bone of these dogs was considerably higher than that of dogs receiving lead alone; at the same time bone phosphorus showed a marked decrease while bone calcium values remained similar to undosed controls.

  10. Role of ascorbic acid supplement in reducing oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in lead intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Y.; Hussain, M.M.; Aleem, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to measure the oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in lead intoxicated sprague dawley rats with and without supplementation of ascorbic acid. Study Design: Randomized Control Trial. Place of Study: Physiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi. (From Oct 2007 to Sep 2008) Material and Methods: One hundred and five male rats (age, 90-120 days; weight 200 - 250 gm) were divided into three groups each having 35 rats. Rats of group 1 and group 2 were given weekly injections of sodium acetate (10 mg /kg body weight) and lead acetate (10 mg /kg body weight) respectively, whereas rats of group 3 were administered lead acetate(10 mg /kg body weight) through weekly injections and ascorbic acid in drinking water (500 mg/l). After 6 weeks, 4 ml of blood was drawn from each rat by cardiac puncture. The blood was allowed to clot and serum was separated for estimation of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels on spectrophotometer; and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels on Merck Micorlab 200. Results: Lead intoxication of rats revealed that serum MDA levels were raised to 7.8 +- 0.48 micro mol/l (control, 3.2 +-0.39 micro mol/l), ALT levels to 76.26 +- 5.88 IU/l (control, 44.1 +- 3.26) and AST levels to 258.06 +- 13.30 IU/l (control, 156.2 +- 4.97). Ascorbic acid supplementation significantly lowered serum MDA levels (3.8 +- 0.34 micro mol/l), ALT levels (52.26 +-4.57 IU/l) and AST levels (188.13 +- 12.91 IU/l). Conclusion: Ascorbic acid supplementation ameliorates lead intoxication probably by reducing the oxidative stress, thus preventing the development of hepatotoxicity, but this amelioration is not equal to the control. (author)

  11. Toxicoproteomic assessment of liver responses to acute pyrrolizidine alkaloid intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Khan, Imran; Lu, Cheng; Lu, Yao; Wong, Wing-Yan; Chan, Wood-Yee; Wendy Hsiao, Wen-Luan; Lin, Ge

    2018-04-03

    A toxicoproteomic study was performed on liver of rats treated with retrorsine (RTS), a representative hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid at a toxic dose (140 mg/kg) known to cause severe acute hepatotoxicity. By comparing current data with our previous findings in mild liver lesions of rats treated with a lower dose of RTS, seven proteins and three toxicity pathways of vascular endothelial cell death, which was further verified by observed sinusoidal endothelial cell losses, were found uniquely associated with retrorsine-induced hepatotoxicity. This toxicoproteomic study of acute pyrrolizidine alkaloid intoxication lays a foundation for future investigation to delineate molecular mechanisms of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced hepatotoxicity.

  12. Selection of micronutrients used along with DMSA in the treatment of moderately lead intoxicated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yingjun [China Medical University, Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Yu, Fei; Zhi, Xuping; An, Li; Yang, Jun [China Medical University, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Jin, Yaping; Lu, Chunwei; Li, Gexin [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the optimum combination of micronutrients used with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in the treatment of moderately lead-intoxicated mice. Experiment was carried out based on the orthogonal design L{sub 8}(2{sup 7}) setting six factors with two different levels of each, and eight groups of mice were needed. Mice were exposed to lead by drinking water contaminated with 0.1% lead acetate for four consecutive weeks, and then supplemented by gavage with different combinations of micronutrients with and without DMSA as designed in the orthogonal table. Lead levels in blood, liver, kidney, brain and bone and activities of blood {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) were analyzed after cessation of supplementation. The results suggested that DMSA was the only factor which could decrease significantly lead levels in blood, liver, kidney and bone; calcium and ascorbic acid were the notable factors decreasing lead levels in blood, liver, kidney, bone and brain; zinc and calcium were the notable factors reversing the lead-inhibited activities of blood ALAD; taurine was the notable factor decreasing lead levels in kidney and brain; and thiamine was the notable factor decreasing lead levels in brain. The lowest lead level in blood, liver, kidney and bone was shown in the mice supplemented with combination of calcium and ascorbic acid along with DMSA. In conclusion, the optimum combination of micronutrients used with DMSA suggested in present study was calcium and ascorbic acid, which seemed to potentiate the chelating efficacy of DMSA in the treatment of moderately lead intoxicated mice. (orig.)

  13. PROTEOSE INTOXICATIONS AND INJURY OF BODY PROTEIN : V. THE INCREASE IN NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN OF THE BLOOD IN ACUTE INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES AND ACUTE INTOXICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, J V; Whipple, G H

    1918-08-01

    Sterile abscess formation in the dog is accompanied by a large increase in output of urinary nitrogen and also by a small but definite increase in the blood non-protein nitrogen. All this nitrogenous material of course is derived from body protein injury and autolysis. Septic inflammation in the dog (pleurisy, pneumonia, peritonitis, etc.) likewise shows a distinct rise in the blood non-protein nitrogen. This rise is not often so great as that frequently observed in the intoxication of intestinal obstruction. Many acute infections in man (septicemia, peritonitis, pneumonia, etc.) show a definite rise in the non-protein nitrogen and urea nitrogen of the blood; some cases show a very great rise above normal (over 100 mg. of non-protein nitrogen per 100 cc. of blood). There may be no anatomical change in the kidney beyond the familiar picture of cloudy swelling. This does not exclude the possibility of some transient functional derangement of the kidney epithelium. Certain obscure intoxications in man may show a considerable rise in the non-protein nitrogen of the blood, indicating a large amount of protein disintegration. These findings must be taken into account in any clinical analysis and interpretation of high non-protein nitrogen of the blood in pathological conditions.

  14. A study on the porphirin metabolism in rats in conditions of acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhirusev, S.; Pavlova, V.; Mikhajlov, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The changes of urine porphyrin content are studied in albino rats with experimental acute uranium intoxication (single intraperitoneal injection of uranyl acetate, 7.0 mg/kg bodyweight). The observations have been conducted in the course of 10 days. It is found that both in control and in treated animals the urine is practically free from uroporphyrin. The delta-aminolevulinic acid content varied within broad limits, but the differences from control animals is statistically insignificant. A significant increase in urine porphobilinogen is observed, with a maximum on the second and eigth day after treatment. Coproporphyrin was significantly reduced since the first day of the experiment. All these changes seem to be due to impaired excretory capacity of the kidneys against the background of developing nitrogen retention and overall intoxication of the animal organism. Another possible explanation is that uranyl acetate inhibits some enzymes responsible for the transformation of porphobilinogen into uroporphyrin. (Ch.K.)

  15. Vitamin-E reduces the oxidative damage on delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase induced by lead intoxication in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Ramirez, A; Cerbón-Solórzano, J; Maldonado-Vega, M; Quintanar-Escorza, M A; Calderón-Salinas, J V

    2007-09-01

    Lead intoxication induces oxidative damage on lipids and proteins. In the present paper we study in vivo and in vitro the antioxidant effect of vitamin-E and trolox, on the oxidative effects of lead intoxication in rat erythrocytes. Vitamin-E simultaneously administered to erythrocytes treated with lead was capable to prevent the inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase activity and lipid oxidation. Partial but important protective effects were found when vitamin-E was administered either after or before lead exposure in rats. In vitro, the antioxidant trolox protected delta-ALA-D activity against damage induced by lead or menadione. These results indicate that vitamin-E could be useful in order to protect membrane-lipids and, notably, to prevent protein oxidation produced by lead intoxication.

  16. Morphology of embryonic liver under the influence of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harets V.I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological state of embryonic liver under the influence of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication was studied. We found that values of the hepatofetal index in the groups Pb+Ag and Pb+Au had significant differences as compared to the group exposed to lead intoxication, but did not differ significantly from the control group and made up 0,086±0,001 and 0,083±0,001, respectively. Value of the relative area of blood vessels in groups Pb+Ag and Pb+Au was 13.08±0.53% and 16.83±0.53%, respectively, which had no significant difference as compared to control group, but differed from the value of lead intoxication group. Under the influence of silver citrate on a background of lead intoxication the relative area of hematopoietic cells was 52,5±0,95%; this indicates to modification action of silver on haematopoiesis. Thus, injection of silver and gold citrates prevents negative effect of lead on morphometric parameters of embryonic liver, relative area of blood vessels and hematopoietic cells. Experiment results showed protective effect of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication during hepatogenesis.

  17. Polypharmacy May Be the Cause of Acute Lithium Intoxication at the Second Day of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tursun Irfan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is frequently used as a mood stabilizer in patients with mood disorders. Lithium has a narrow therapeutic index and high toxicity. Predisposing factors for intoxication are advanced age, diet disturbances, comorbid medical conditions affecting heart, kidneys or central nervous system and polypharmacy. CASE REPORT: Here we present a case of a 74-year-old woman with a history of Parkinson’s disease, hypertension and bipolar disorder. She was using quetiapine, valsartan with hydrochlorothiazide and levodopa with carbidopa. She presented with altered mental status and muscle rigidity. The patient was admitted with acute lithium intoxication after her second dose of treatment. Blood lithium level increased to 3.58 mEq/L. The woman was hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Intensive Care Unit. With hydration, her symptoms resolved and her lithium level returned to normal after 118 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Prescribing physicians and emergency room physicians should be aware of conditions which may cause a decreased threshold for intoxication.

  18. Acute fish liver intoxication induced blisters formation and generalized skin peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Lu, Chun-Wei; Chung, Wen-Hung; Ho, Hsin-Chun

    2018-02-01

    Acute fish liver intoxication, including hypervitaminosis A and hypervitaminosis D, may result from the ingestion of certain fish livers. The typical symptoms of hypervitaminosis A include nausea, headache, blurred vision, and cutaneous manifestations, such as flushing, vesicles formation, and desquamation. Hypervitaminosis D may result in hypercalcemia. We report a case of acute fish liver intoxication with systemic and cutaneous manifestations. A 63-year-old male presented to the clinic with generalized desquamation and multiple clear-fluid filled flaccid vesicles after eating approximately two fist-sized portions (about 300-400 g) of cooked seerfish (Scomberomorus spp.) liver. Laboratory examination showed a high serum level of vitamin A and D, and hypercalcemia. Fish liver consumption from particular fish may result in acute hypervitaminosis A and D. In patients with skin detachment or blister formation, headache, drowsiness, and other symptoms and signs consistent with hypervitaminosis A and/or hypercalcemia, a history of fish intake should be sought, and a serum level of vitamin A and D should be measured.

  19. [Can one talk of benzodiazepine "drunkenness"? About acute benzodiazepine intoxication, without suicidal or mortiferous tendencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menecier, P; Texier, M A; Las, R; Ploton, L

    2012-02-01

    of reward systems of the brain, and can tend to be limited to a search for pleasure. Moreover, "drunkenness" may be considered as a leak, a regression or a kind of renouncement. It may sometimes be a search for sedation, for conscious sleep, or to avoid reality. And, finally, "drunkenness" may be suicidal. Since the launch of benzodiazepines on the market during the sixties, their prescription has developed, making them so readily available in France that they are nearly as easy to obtain as alcohol. The widespread diffusion of these psychoactive substances, obtained with or without medical prescription, renders them one of the principle means of chemically modulating thought and consciousness that has become accessible to all. One of the first reasons for this is the easy and wide prescription of these drugs by almost all practitioners. Choosing between benzodiazepines or alcohol (or associating both substances) is not fortuitous. Besides intoxication with pharmacological drugs, whether voluntary or otherwise, medication overdose and iatrogenic effects, there is an incidence of a substantial use of over the counter psychoactive drugs in order to trigger other effects than suicide or self-harm. This use of pharmacological drugs, sometimes referred to as "entertaining", can lead to massive intake with dramatic behavioural response. Is it then possible to use the same term "drunkenness" for a pharmacological drug-induced state as for a state provoked by other psychoactive substances with addictive potential ? The clinical presentation of benzodiazepine "drunkenness" resembles the pharmacological effects of these drugs. If we link alcoholic and benzodiazepine "drunkenness", we can draw a parallel between the properties, the action mechanisms, the effects and the risks incurred by the consumption of these two classes of psychotropics. The similarities concern the existence of a preclinical phase, of the same biochemical or neurophysiological basis, of the same

  20. Disturbed sensorimotor and electrophysiological patterns in lead intoxicated rats during development are restored by curcumin I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Benammi

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is one of the most significant health problem of environmental origin. It is known to cause different damages in the central and peripheral nervous system which could be represented by several neurophysiological and behavioral symptoms. In this study we firstly investigated the effect of lead prenatal exposure in rats to (3g/L, from neonatal to young age, on the motor/sensory performances, excitability of the spinal cord and gaits during development. Then we evaluated neuroprotective effects of curcumin I (Cur I against lead neurotoxicity, by means of grasping and cliff avoidance tests to reveal the impairment of the sensorimotor functions in neonatal rats exposed prenatally to lead. In addition, extracellular recordings of motor output in spinal cord revealed an hyper-excitability of spinal networks in lead treated rats. The frequency of induced fictive locomotion was also increased in treated rats. At the young age, rats exhibited an impaired locomotor gait. All those abnormalities were attenuated by Cur I treatment at a dose of 16g/kg. Based on our finding, Cur I has shown features of a potent chemical compound able to restore the neuronal and the relative locomotor behaviors disturbances induced by lead intoxication. Therefore, this chemical can be recommended as a new therapeutic trial against lead induced neurotoxicity.

  1. Morphology of embryonic liver under the influence of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Harets V.I.; Shatorna V.F.; Belska Iu.O.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological state of embryonic liver under the influence of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication was studied. We found that  values of the hepatofetal index in the groups Pb+Ag and Pb+Au had significant differences as compared to the group exposed to lead intoxication, but did not differ significantly from the control group and made up 0,086±0,001 and 0,083±0,001, respectively. Value of the relative area of blood vessels in groups Pb+Ag and Pb+Au was 13.08±0.53% and...

  2. Acute Cerebellitis Following Opium Intoxication: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firozeh Hosseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Acute cerebellitis (AC is a rare potentially life-threatening condition in children. Some viral infections, vaccines and neuroimmunologic disorders are the most common causes of AC. Opium poisoning is an unusual cause of this condition. Case presentation A 2-year-old girl was referred with loss of consciousness. She was ataxic just a few minutes after opium ingestion and after 1 hour, she became unconscious. We only found pinpoint pupils. After naloxone drip, her condition had been better but she was still obtunded and her urine was positive for opium products (morphine. MRI of the brain showed marked bilateral cerebellar swelling that respond to high-dose steroid dramatically. Conclusion This case shows that opium intoxication should be considered as a rare cause of acute cerebellitis in children.

  3. Effects of a chronic lead intoxication on the pathophysiological changes in the digestive system and interactions of lead with trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dobrakowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead compounds are still the most dangerous poisons. The effects of lead intoxication occur mainly as a result of environmental exposure through lead paints, dust, soil, potable water. Pathophysiology of lead poisoning is still poorly understood, especially gastrointestinal and hepatological aspects. In consequence, the aim of the paper is to present the most important data concerning the effects of chronic lead exposure on the digestive system and the interactions between lead and selected trace elements.

  4. Acute carbon monoxide intoxication : the relation between MR findings and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jin Bae; Jeong, Hae Woong; Kim, Ki Nam; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Chang Soo

    1999-01-01

    To analyse MR findings of various involving sites and the relation between such findings and clinical outcome, the authors retrospectively reviewed MR images of acute carbon monoxide intoxication. In 12 patients, MR images obtained from several hours to 12 days after acute carbon monoxide intoxication were reviewed. The images were analysed with regard to involved sites, symmetricity, signal intensity, and the presence or absence of hemorrhage, and the relationship between MR findings and clinical outcome; the presence of delayed encephalopathy was then determined. The globus pallidus(n=9), white matter(n=3), [centrum semiovale(n=2), periventricular white matter(n=1)] and gyrus(n=6) [inferior temporal gyrus(n=2), cingulate gyrus(n=1), precentral gyrus(n=1), hippocampal gyrus(n=1), parahippocampal gyrus(n=1)] were typically involved, and there was also involvenent of the corpus callosum(n=3), thalamus(n=2) and midbrain(n=2). All lesions of the globus pallidus, thalamus, midbrain and temporal lobe were bilaterally symmetric. In all these cases, subtle or prominent low signal intensity was seen on spin-echo T1WI, and high signal intensity on PDWI and T2WI. Some lesions of the globus pallidus(n=1), thalamus(n=1) and midbrain(n=1) were associated with hemorrhage, which occurred during the early subacute stage and was seen on high/low signal intensity T1/T2WI images. Acute cerebral(n=1) and cerebellar(n=1) infarctions were also seen. Cerebral white matter involvement correlated with poor clinical outcome, and in two cases, delayed encephalopathy developed. In these cases of acute carbon monoxide intoxication, the globus pallidus, white matter, cortex and hippocampus were frequently involved, and there was also involvement of various sites such as the corpus callosum, thalamus and midbrain. Lesions of the temporal lobe, thalamus and midbrain were bilaterally symmetric. The involvement of cerebral white matter and the presence of delayed encephalopathy can influence

  5. Lead Intoxication Synergies of the Ethanol-Induced Toxic Responses in Neuronal Cells--PC12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Tripathi, V K; Jahan, S; Agrawal, M; Pandey, A; Khanna, V K; Pant, A B

    2015-12-01

    Lead (Pb)-induced neurodegeneration and its link with widespread neurobehavioral changes are well documented. Experimental evidences suggest that ethanol could enhance the absorption of metals in the body, and alcohol consumption may increase the susceptibility to metal intoxication in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism of ethanol action in affecting metal toxicity in brain cells is poorly understood. Thus, an attempt was made to investigate the modulatory effect of ethanol on Pb intoxication in PC12 cells, a rat pheochromocytoma. Cells were co-exposed to biological safe doses of Pb (10 μM) and ethanol (200 mM), and data were compared to the response of cells which received independent exposure to these chemicals at similar doses. Ethanol (200 mM) exposure significantly aggravated the Pb-induced alterations in the end points associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. The finding confirms the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress, and impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential, which subsequently facilitate the translocation of triggering proteins between cytoplasm and mitochondria. We further confirmed the apoptotic changes due to induction of mitochondria-mediated caspase cascade. These cellular changes were found to recover significantly, if the cells are exposed to N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a known antioxidant. Our data suggest that ethanol may potentiate Pb-induced cellular damage in brain cells, but such damaging effects could be recovered by inhibition of ROS generation. These results open up further possibilities for the design of new therapeutics based on antioxidants to prevent neurodegeneration and associated health problems.

  6. Immunomodulatory and antioxidant protective effect of Sarcocornia perennis L. (swampfire) in lead intoxicated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Manel; Hamed, Houda; Akrouti, Amel; Christian, Magné; Ksouri, Riadh; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2017-11-01

    Lead (Pb) is a very toxic metal present in the environment, causing disturbances of several functions. Preventive or curative effects of halophytic plants against these disorders may be a promising and safe therapeutic strategy. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate in vivo immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects of Sarcocornia perennis extract (Sp) against lead toxicity in rats. Groups of six animals each were treated with plant extract (via food), 6 g/L lead acetate (via drinking water) or a combination of both. At the end of the three-week period, rat exposure to lead caused reduction of liver weight but an increase of that of kidney. Moreover, lead intoxication-induced oxidative stress manifested by significant increases of inflammatory cytokines (except IL-10) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS), compared with the control group. Meanwhile, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and glutathione levels (GSH), as well as antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were decreased. Considering liver and renal markers, lead treatment induced a significant increase in the activities of aminotransferases (AST, ALT), and in the levels of urea, creatinine and phosphorous, whereas total plasma protein, albumin and calcium levels were significantly decreased. S. perennis extract alone did not induce any significant changes in hepatic or renal markers, whereas the antioxidant markers were significantly increased. S. perennis supplementation significantly reduced the lead-induced elevation of serum IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TBARS but increased the IL-10 and antioxidant enzyme activities. Overall, plant components ameliorated hepatorenal damages caused by lead.

  7. Study on alkaline and acid phosphatase activity in acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokova, N.V.; Pavlova, V.B.; Stancheva, Yu.A.; Khadzhirusev, S.B.; Kiradzhiev, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    The protective potential of diethyl barbituric acid sodium salt is studied, in comparison with that of acetazolamide, on kidneys under acute uranium intoxication. Experiments involved rats given intraperitoneal injections with uranyl acetate on 12 successive days up to a total dose of 0.5, 2.0 or 7.0 mg/kg. The resulting effects are measured by chemical assays of serum and urine for alkaline and acid phosphatase and histochemical assays for phosphatase activities in kidneys, kinetics being followed over a 30-day period after total dose administration. Protection of kidneys from toxic uranium effects was found to be of about the same degree with sodium diethyl barbiturate as with acetazolamide. (A.B.)

  8. MR imaging of brain tissue changes in acute and chronic solvent intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, P.A.; Nilsen, G.; Kvaerness, J.

    1988-01-01

    Acute and chronic intoxication with solvents is found both as an occupational hazard and as self-inflicted in addicts to solvent. Objective demonstration of such brain tissue changes is difficult with conventional imaging methods, and in most cases findings are negative. In a preliminary study, the brains of eight patients (aged 28-62 years) exposed to aggressive solvents for 1-27 years were examined with magnetic resonance imaging. All of the patients showed brain atrophy of varying extent, and seven of eight patients (all except the youngest and least exposed) had brain lesions that somewhat resembled dymyelinating changes (focal and confluent periventricular and deep white matter lesions, brain stem and cerebellar lesions); one patient showed cloudy, poorly defined lesions

  9. Motor performance during and following acute alcohol intoxication in healthy non-alcoholic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Buch; Jakobsen, Johannes Klitgaard; Andersen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has adverse effects on skeletal muscle, and reduced muscle strength is frequently seen in chronic alcoholics. In this study the acute effects of moderate alcohol intoxication on motor performance was evaluated in 19 non-alcoholic healthy subjects (10 women, 9 men......). A randomised double-blinded placebo controlled design was applied to subjects receiving alcohol in juice and pure juice at two separate test periods. Isokinetic and isometric muscle strength and endurance were determined before, during, 24 and 48 h after the ingestion of alcohol in juice and juice (placebo......). To detect a reduced activation of the central motor pathways superimposed external electrical stimulations during voluntary contractions were applied. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured to detect any alcohol-induced changes in sarcolemmal integrity. No change was seen in isokinetic as well as in isometric...

  10. Role of ascorbic acid supplement in amelioration of anaemia in lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Yasir; Farooq, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Aamir

    2016-09-01

    To assess anaemia and oxidative stress in rats that were injected lead and to evaluate the possible effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on these parameters. This randomised control trial study was conducted at the Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from October 2007 to September 2008, and comprised Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into three groups. The rats in Group 1 were given weekly injections of sodium acetate, and rats of Group 2 and 3 were given weekly injections of lead acetate. Ascorbic acid was supplemented in the drinking water of rats of Group 3. At the end of six weeks, terminal sampling was done and blood obtained was used to assess the serum malondialdehyde levels and red cell parameters. Of the 105 rats, each group had 35(33.33%). The overall mean age was 105±15 days and the mean weight was 225±25gm. The mean malondialdehyde level was 3.2±0.39 µmol /L in Group 1, 7.8±0.48 in Group 2 and 3.8±0.34 in Group 3 (plead intoxication.

  11. Analysis of the hematological and biochemical parameters related to lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Hınç; Keten, Alper; Karacaoğlu, Emre; Tutkun, Engin; Akçan, Ramazan

    2012-11-01

    In parallel with industrial advancements, number of the occupational diseases secondary to chemical exposure is increasing. The chemical agents in the work places affect various organ and tissue systems, leading to chronic diseases. In this study, the cases diagnosed with occupational disease due to exposure to lead were studied and importance of the environmental forensic sciences on this issue was emphasized. A hundred and ninety patients diagnosed with occupational disease related to lead intoxication in Ankara Occupational Diseases Hospital between 01/01/2009 and 31/12/2009 were included in the study. Twenty cases were used as the controls. Sociodemographic characteristics, serum chemical parameters and hematological parameters of the patients were retrospectively assessed. Mean age of the cases included in the study was 35.3±8.69. Hemoglobin (Hb) (p=0.018) and Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (plead exposure than in the controls. Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) was significantly lower in the patients with lead exposure than in the controls (p=0.002), whereas alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was found higher (plead exposure than in the control group (p=0.01), while Thyrotrophin-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were lower (plead (Pb) was correlated positively with ALP values and negatively with Hb, MCV and TSH. Considering its effects on the biochemical and hematological parameters, a detailed investigation should be carried out in the cases with lead exposure, which occupies an important place among the occupational diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients.

  13. Acute metformin intoxication: 2012 experience of Emergency Departement of Lodi, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquistapace, Giulia; Rossi, Marco; Garbi, Mara; Cosci, Pablo; Canetta, Ciro; Manelli, Anna; Ricevuti, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Background: Metformin is a biguanide antihyperglycemic agent that decreases insulin resistance. It is removed through renal mechanisms and its clearance is reduced in renal failure. Metformin ingestion should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with metabolic acidosis and increased lactate level. Hemodialysis and continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) are both efficient methods to treat metformin intoxication and correct metabolic abnormalities. Patient 1: A 63-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented to emergency department (ED) of Lodi (Italy) for dyspnea. He also reported having diarrhea for 10 days. Initial investigations revealed metabolic acidosis with hyperlactatemia and hypoglycemia (54 mg/dL), metformin concentration was 41 μg/mL (normal value <4 μg/mL). His hemodynamic condition became rapidly unstable and hypotension worsened despite CVVH being performed. Death occurred in 24 h. Patient 2: A 76-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented to ED of Lodi for dyspnea. He referred a recent surgery amputation of the left foot's fifth phalanx for osteomyelitis, in levofloxacin therapy. Initial investigations revealed metabolic acidosis with hyperlactatemia and severe hypoglycemia (20 mg/dL). Two hemodialysis sessions were performed with complete normalization of the serum concentration of metformin. In our two cases the genesis of metformin intoxication was clear, powered by acute renal failure, but less obvious was the etiology of acute renal damage responsible for metformin accumulation. Damage due to renal hypoperfusion or the direct toxic effect of metformin should be considered. Additionally, for the second patient, we can also hypothesize that interstitial nephritis was exacerbated by levofloxacin.

  14. Selenium intoxication with selenite broth resulting in acute renal failure and severe gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element in human and animal nutrition. It is also widely utilized in industrial processes. Reports of acute selenium toxicity in humans are rare. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who consumed about 100 mL of liquid selenite broth and presented with severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hematemesis and acute renal failure (ARF. The serum selenium level was significantly increased. Gastro-duodenoscopy revealed severe corrosive gastritis. Renal biopsy showed features of acute tubular necrosis (ATN, affecting primarily the proximal tubules. The patient was managed with gastric lavage, blood transfusions, infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP and platelet concentrates and hemo-dialysis. The patient was discharged five weeks after admission and her renal functions reco-vered completely by eight weeks after admission. She continues to be on regular follow-up for any possible sequelae of mucosal corrosive damage. This case highlights a case of selenium intoxication from selenite broth resulting in ARF and corrosive gastritis. The recovery was complete.

  15. Lead intoxication induces noradrenaline depletion, motor nonmotor disabilities, and changes in the firing pattern of subthalamic nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbar, M; Delaville, C; De Deurwaerdère, P; Benazzouz, A; Lakhdar-Ghazal, N

    2012-05-17

    Lead intoxication has been suggested as a high risk factor for the development of Parkinson disease. However, its impact on motor and nonmotor functions and the mechanism by which it can be involved in the disease are still unclear. In the present study, we studied the effects of lead intoxication on the following: (1) locomotor activity using an open field actimeter and motor coordination using the rotarod test, (2) anxiety behavior using the elevated plus maze, (3) "depression-like" behavior using sucrose preference test, and (4) subthalamic nucleus (STN) neuronal activity using extracellular single unit recordings. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once a day with lead acetate or sodium acetate (20 mg/kg/d i.p.) during 3 weeks. The tissue content of monoamines was used to determine alteration of these systems at the end of experiments. Results show that lead significantly reduced exploratory activity, locomotor activity and the time spent on the rotarod bar. Furthermore, lead induced anxiety but not "depressive-like" behavior. The electrophysiological results show that lead altered the discharge pattern of STN neurons with an increase in the number of bursting and irregular cells without affecting the firing rate. Moreover, lead intoxication resulted in a decrease of tissue noradrenaline content without any change in the levels of dopamine and serotonin. Together, these results show for the first time that lead intoxication resulted in motor and nonmotor behavioral changes paralleled by noradrenaline depletion and changes in the firing activity of STN neurons, providing evidence consistent with the induction of atypical parkinsonian-like deficits. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute heroin intoxication in a baby chronically exposed to cocaine and heroin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichini Simona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute intoxication with drugs of abuse in children is often only the tip of the iceberg, actually hiding chronic exposure. Analysis using non-conventional matrices such as hair can provide long-term information about exposure to recreational drugs. Case presentation We report the case of a one-month-old Caucasian boy admitted to our pediatric emergency unit with respiratory distress and neurological abnormalities. A routine urine test was positive for opiates, suggesting an acute opiate ingestion. No other drugs of misuse, such as cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines or derivatives, were detected in the baby's urine. Subsequently, hair samples from the baby and the parents were collected to evaluate the possibility of chronic exposure to drug misuse by segmental analysis. Opiates and cocaine metabolites were detected in hair samples from the baby boy and his parents. Conclusions In light of these and previous results, we recommend hair analysis in babies and children from risky environments to detect exposure to heroin and other drug misuse, which could provide the basis for specific social and health interventions.

  17. Comparative assessment of the effects of salinomycin and monensin on the biodistribution of lead and some essential metal ions in mice, subjected to subacute lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Juliana; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Dimova, Donika; Pavlova, Ekaterina; Arpadjan, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present a comparative assessment of the effects of two polyether ionophorous antibiotics (monensin and salinomycin) on the concentrations of lead (Pb), cooper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in the kidneys, spleen, liver and brain of Pb-intoxicated animals. Our data demonstrated that the intoxication of ICR male mice with Pb salt resulted in a significant accumulation of Pb in all studied organs of the mice compared to the untreated control animals. The biodistribution of the toxic metal was in the order kidneys>spleen>liver>brain. The treatment of the Pb-intoxicated animals with tetraethylammonium salts of monensic and salinomycinic acids significantly decreased the concentration of the toxic metal ion compared to the toxic control. The effect varied in the interval 38% (for kidneys) to 52% (for brain) compared to the toxic control group (Pb). The tetraethylammonium salt of salinomycinic acid was more effective in reducing the Pb concentration in the brain of the Pb-treated mice compared to monensin. Pb-intoxication did not affect significantly the Zn endogenous concentration compared to the normal values. The treatment of ICR male mice with Pb-salt decreased the Cu concentration in the spleen and increased the Cu concentration in the liver compared to the untreated control animals. The detoxification of the Pb-intoxicated mice with tetraethylammonium salts of salinomycinic and monensic acids restored the Cu concentration in the spleen, but did not affect the Cu levels in the liver. The Pb-intoxication of the ICR mice resulted in a significant decrease of the Fe-concentration in the spleen and liver compared to the untreated control animals. The administration of the tetraethylammonium salts of salinomycinic and monensic acids to the Pb-treated animals restored the levels of Fe in both organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive deficits in adult rats by lead intoxication are related with regional specific inhibition of cNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arenas, Guadalupe; Ramírez-Amaya, Victor; Balderas, Israela; Sandoval, Jimena; Escobar, Martha L; Ríos, Camilo; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-02-04

    It is well known that lead can affect several cognitive abilities in developing animals. In this work, we investigate the effects of different sub-chronic lead doses (0, 65, 125, 250 and 500 ppm of lead acetate in their drinking water for 14 days) in the performance of male adult rats in a water maze, cue maze and inhibitory avoidance tasks. We found that the acquisition of these tasks was not affected by lead, however, the highest dosage of lead (500 ppm) impaired memory consolidation in spatial and inhibitory avoidance tasks, but not in cue maze task while the 250 ppm dose only affected retrieval of spatial memory. Additionally, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induction in the perforant path after exposing adult rats to different doses of lead was studied. LTP induction was affected in a dose-dependent manner, and treatments of 250 and 500 ppm completely blocked LTP. We investigated the effects of lead intoxication on the activity of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) in different brain regions of adult animals. The activity of cNOS was significantly inhibited in the hippocampus and cerebellum but not in the frontal cortex and brain stem, although lead had accumulated in all brain regions. These results suggest that lead intoxication can impair memory in adult animals and this impairment might be related with region-specific effects on cNOS activity.

  19. [A case of favourable outcome of severe acute intoxication with an animal poison after a bite by the monocled cobra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanov, G A; Batotsyrenkov, B V; Lodiagin, A N; Andrianov, A Iu; Kuznetsov, O A; Loladze, A T; Baranov, D V

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a case of severe acute intoxication with an animal poison after a bite by the monocled cobra. Combined treatment including artificial lung ventilation, infusion-detoxication and desensitizing (hormonal) therapy, hemosorption, correction of metabolic disorders with cytoflavin, antibacterial therapy had positive effect on the patient's condition and ensured the favourable outcome ofpotentially lethal poisoning without the use ofa specific anti-snake venom serum.

  20. A study of the alkaline and acid phosphatase activities in acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokova, N.; Pavlova, V.; Stancheva, Yu.; Khadzhirusev, S.; Kiradzhiev, G.

    1975-01-01

    Comparative study of the ability of the sodium salt of diethylbarbituric acid and acetazolamide to protect the kidneys is conducted under conditions of acute uranium intoxication in rats. The parameters studied are alkaline and acid phosphatase activities in the serum and urine and phosphatase activity in the kidneys (histochemically as described by Gomori) followed up until the 30th day after the total uranyl acetate dose was reached (2 or 7 mg per kg bodyweight). Either compound exerted only minor effect on serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Sodium diethylbarbiturate induced distinct fluctuations in urinary alkaline phosphatase activity throughout the entire study period, but the differences never reached statistical significance. Acetazolamide caused essential decrease in urinary alkaline phosphatase activity. In either case renal tissue protection from the action of the uranyl ion may be suggested. This assumption is supported by the histochemical analysis. The compounds appeared to have no effect on serum acid phosphatase activity which showed high variability both in control and in treated rats. (Ch.K.)

  1. The study of the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of bones of Catla catla due to lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, P L R M; Krishnakumar, N; Vadivelu, M; Vijayasundaram, V

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of lead-intoxicated bones of Catla catla at subchronic (15.5 ppm) exposure, and also to determine whether the effects of Pb intoxication can be reversed with the chelating agent meso 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on the bones of freshwater fingerlings Catla catla by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic absorption spectrophotometer techniques. The FT-IR spectra of the lead-exposed bones show significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to lead exposure. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the lead-exposed bones were less than those of the control group, and there was an increase in the mineral contents of the bones after DMSA treatment. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the subchronic lead exposure results in severe loss of bone minerals. The overall decrease in the FT-IR band intensity of Pb-exposed bones relative to the control indicates a decrease in the biochemical constituents like proteins and lipids. The increase in the band intensity after treatment with chelating agent DMSA indicates increased biochemical constituents, showing that the subchronic effects of lead can be reversed by DMSA. The amide I bands observed at 1654 cm(-1) in the present study suggest that the protein is dominated by alpha-helical structure.

  2. Content of carbon monoxide in the tissues of rats intoxicated with carbon monoxide in various conditions of acute exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokal, J.A.; Majka, J.; Palus, J.

    1984-12-01

    Tissue carbon monoxide (CO) content was investigated in rats severely intoxicated with CO under various exposure conditions: 1% CO for 4 min, 0.4% CO for 40 min and 0.12% CO for 12 h. Extravascular CO was determined in the heart and skeletal muscles immediately after termination of exposure, and carboxymyoglobin (MbCO) percent saturation was calculated. Total brain CO was estimated immediately after termination of exposure and after the time periods of restitution. After the same exposure conditions, MbCO percent saturation was higher in the heart than in skeletal muscle. In both types of muscle, saturation on myoglobin (Mb) with CO depended on blood carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) level and not on the duration of exposure. The time course of CO elimination was the same for blood and brain, irrespective of CO exposure conditions. The results obtained showed that acute CO intoxication induced by long duration exposures did not involve CO accumulation in the tissues.

  3. The influence of antioxidants 'TIOFAN' and 'FANTOX 11-1' on physiological growth of broilers in conditions of intoxication with lead and cadmium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, Yu.I.; Bokova, T.I.; Kandalintseva, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of research is to study the influence of antioxidants 'TIOFAN' and 'FANTOX 11-1' on physiological growth of broilers in conditions of intoxication with lead and cadmium salts. The growth and development of bird in conditions of intoxication with heavy metals and by using of antioxidants as detoxicant is studied. The biochemical blood values on application of antioxidants and without them in conditions of intoxication are determined. The most effective preparation raising of birds productivity and it's optimal concentration is established.

  4. Bioprotective effect of zinc in macro- and nanoaquachelate form on embryonal development of rats in conditions of lead intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beletskaya E.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of studied influence of low doses of lead and zinc (nanozinc on embryonal development in a la¬boratory experiment on rats. Negative influence of lead on pregnancy of laboratory animals, manifested in violation of the physiological dynamics of the rectal temperature and decrease in body weight gain was revealed. Embryotoxic effect of low doses of lead results in increased fetal mortality by 2.16 times compared to the control group of animals, de¬terioration of the morphometric indices of fetuses, violation of placentogenesis. Simultaneous injections of zinc on back¬ground of lead intoxication causes a protective effect on the body of pregnant rats and embryonal development of the offspring, more pronounced for zinc citrate, received by using aquananotehnology, as compared to zinc chloride. Thus, by morphometry indices, male fetuses were more sensitive to prenatal lead exposure in comparison to female fetuses.

  5. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheshchevik, V.T.; Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.; Reiter, R.J.; Prokopchik, N.I.; Zavodnik, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p 4 displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl 4 , reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage. Highlights: ► After 30-day chronic CCl 4 intoxication mitochondria displayed considerable changes. ► The functional parameters of mitochondria were similar to the control values. ► Melatonin + succinate + flavonoids prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure damage. ► The above complex enhanced regenerative processes in the liver.

  6. Acute and chronic lead poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosif, C

    1966-02-01

    Three cases of acute plumbism in cows are detailed: one of a six-year-old cow who accidentally ate about 100 gm. of lead (in 1956); the second of a 12-year-old cow who accidentally ate a packet containing about 100 gm. of lead used in painting; and the third of a three-week-old heifer who licked a freshly painted bucket. Route of exposure to lead can be gastrointestinal following deposition of lead fumes (lead oxide, sulfide, and sulfate) on pasturage and in exposed drinking water, or respiratory following the inhalation of such fumes. The presence of CO/sub 2/ in the respiratory tract is thought to provide a favorable situation for the dissolution of lead and the formation of soluble lead complexes. One author has calculated that 12% of respired lead is absorbed into the organism, while only 1-2% of ingested lead is absorbed.

  7. Primary Screening for Proteins Differentially Expressed in the Myocardium of a Rat Model of Acute Methamphetamine Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of myocardial injury induced by the cardiovascular toxicity of methamphetamine (MA has been shown to depend on alterations in myocardial proteins caused by MA. Primary screening of the expression of myocardial proteins in a rat model of MA intoxication was achieved by combining two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses, which revealed a total of 100 differentially expressed proteins. Of these, 13 displayed significantly altered expression. Moreover, Western blotting and real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of several relative proteins demonstrated that acute MA intoxication lowers protein expression and mRNA transcription of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 10. In contrast, MA intoxication elevated the protein expression and mRNA transcription of heat shock protein family B (small member 1. By combining behavioral assessments of experimental rat models with the histological and pathological changes evident in cardiomyocytes, a mechanism accounting for MA myocardial toxicity was suggested. MA alters the regulation of gene transcription and the subsequent expression of certain proteins that participate in myocardial respiration and in responding to oxidative stress, resulting in myocardial dysfunction and structural changes that affect the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

  8. Acute hyperventilation leading to hypocalcaemia during spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Acute hyperventilation leading to hypocalcaemia during spinal anaesthesia his chest was clear. Trousseau's sign2 was noticed on the left hand, where the sphygmomanometer cuff was placed and inflated for mea- surement. A blood sample for the measurement of ionized calcium and blood gases was drawn. An infusion of ...

  9. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshchevik, V.T. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Reiter, R.J. [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States); Prokopchik, N.I. [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus); Zavodnik, I.B., E-mail: zavodnik_il@mail.ru [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  10. Alteration of glutamate/GABA balance during acute alcohol intoxication in rats: effect of Xingnaojing injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingjing; Yao, Limei; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Shi, Si; Cai, Qingyan; Chen, Dingsheng; Li, Weirong; Wang, Qi

    2015-05-26

    Xingnaojing Injection (XNJI) is a modern Chinese formula came from famous Chinese medicine An Gong Niu Huang Pill. XNJI has been used for treatment of cerebral diseases and stroke in China, and is approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China for the treatment of acute alcohol intoxication (AAI). XNJI belongs to the ethnopharmacological family of medicines. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the XNJI effect on AAI. To investigate the effects of XNJI on glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and related receptor in lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of AAI rat. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with microdialysis probes in LHA. Rats were randomly divided into control, model, 1.36mg/kg XNJI, 0.68mg/kg XNJI and 0.34mg/kg XNJI groups. During microdialysis, baseline samples were collected from 1h to 2.5h; thereafter, the rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of 52% ethanol, 5.2g/kg, or saline for control group. Twenty minutes later, three doses of XNJI was given by unilateral injection respectively, while saline for control and model groups, and samples were collected for the next 4h. The extracellular glutamate and GABA levels were measured in the LHA by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLU). The expression levels of related receptors N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NR) subunit NR2A, NR2B and GABAA were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Ethanol (5.2g/kg) significantly decreased the extracellular levels of glutamate and increased extracellular GABA in LHA. On the other hand ethanol significantly decreased NR2A and NR2B mRNAs expression, and increase GABAA mRNA expression. XNJI could increase the extracellular level of glutamate and decrease that of GABA; moreover, induced an increase in NR2A and NR2B mRNA expression, and a decrease in GABAA mRNA expression in LHA. The current changes in glutamate, GABA and mRNA expressions of related

  11. Combined subchronic fluoride-lead intoxication and its attenuation with the help of a complex of bioprotectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsnelson, B A; Privalova, L I; Kireyeva, Y P; Yeremenko, O S; Sutunkova, M P; Valamina, I E; Varaksin, A N; Panov, V G; Kazmer, J I

    2012-01-01

    Combined toxicity of lead and fluoride has been studied insufficiently, and there is no known information about attempts to inhibit it with any bioprotectors. Lead acetate and sodium fluoride, administered separately or in combination, were injected i.p. to rats at isoeffective sublethal doses 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Some of the rats were exposed to the same combination against the background of oral administration of a bioprotector complex (BPC) comprising pectin, glutamate, and multivitamin/multimineral preparations. Following exposure, functional and biochemical indices and histopathological examinations of the femur of exposed and control rats were evaluated for signs of toxicity. We have shown that with regard to a number of effects on the organism level the combined toxicity of lead and fluoride may be evaluated as additive or even superadditive, but lead reduces fluoride accumulation in the bone, and pathological changes in the bone tissue proved to be less marked for combined exposure compared with separate exposures. The BPC has been demonstrated to attenuate a range of the combined harmful effects of lead and fluoride, including those on the bone tissue. In spite of the fact that fluoride and lead may reciprocally attenuate their harmful effects on the bone tissue in case of combined exposure, they prove to be more toxic for soft tissues just in combination than when administered separately. The development of combined intoxication may be substantially inhibited by means of the tested set of innocuous biologically active agents.

  12. Alternative drugs go global: possible lead and/ or mercury intoxication from imported natural health products and a need for scientifically evaluated poisoning monitoring from environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Baur, Xaver; Harth, Volker; Hahn, Axel

    2016-01-01

    With increases in globalization, cultural remedies from Chinese, Ayurvedic, Arab and other traditions have become more available to international consumers, offering unfamiliar "Natural Health Products" (NHP), used as alternative medicine or supplementary medicine. Contamination with toxic ingredients including lead, mercury, arsenic, and other toxic elements has been documented in several of these products from various parts of the globe, particularly from some parts of Asia and the Orient. We have been following this development in the last 6 years and have analyzed n  = 20 such products (60 analyses) from patients with intoxication symptoms in a pilot study, showing alarming high concentrations of mercury and/or lead (the first one in "therapeutic" doses). 82 % of the studied NHP contained lead concentrations above the EU limit for dietary supplements. 62 % of the samples exceeded the limit values for mercury. Elevated blood lead and mercury levels in patients along with clinical intoxication symptoms corroborate the causal assumption of intoxication (s). We present one detailed clinical case report of severe lead and mercury intoxications and give an overview about blood concentration related symptoms and signs of n  = 41 case reports of mercury intoxications of the German monitoring BfR-DocCenter. For NHP there is evidence on a distinct toxicological risk with alarming low awareness for a possible intoxication which prevents potentially life-saving diagnostic steps in affected cases. In many cases patients do not communicate the events to their physicians or the local health authority so that case reports (e.g. the BfR-DocCentre) are missing. Thus, there is an urgent need to raise awareness and to initiate more suitable monitory systems (e.g. National Monitoring of Poisonings) and control practice protecting the public.

  13. Metalloproteinase Inhibition Protects against Reductions in Circulating Adrenomedullin during Lead-induced Acute Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Regina A; Mendes, Gabryella; Possomato-Vieira, Jose S; Gonçalves-Rizzi, Victor Hugo; Kushima, Hélio; Delella, Flavia K; Dias-Junior, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    Intoxication with lead (Pb) results in increased blood pressure by mechanisms involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Recent findings have revealed that MMP type two (MMP-2) seems to cleave vasoactive peptides. This study examined whether MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels/activities increase after acute intoxication with low lead concentrations and whether these changes were associated with increases in blood pressure and circulating endothelin-1 or with reductions in circulating adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Here, we expand previous findings and examine whether doxycycline (a MMPs inhibitor) affects these alterations. Wistar rats received intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1st dose 8 μg/100 g of lead (or sodium) acetate, a subsequent dose of 0.1 μg/100 g to cover daily loss and treatment with doxycycline (30 mg/kg/day) or water by gavage for 7 days. Similar whole-blood lead levels (9 μg/dL) were found in lead-exposed rats treated with either doxycycline or water. Lead-induced increases in systolic blood pressure (from 143 ± 2 to 167 ± 3 mmHg) and gelatin zymography of plasma samples showed that lead increased MMP-9 (but not MMP-2) levels. Both lead-induced increased MMP-9 activity and hypertension were blunted by doxycycline. Doxycycline also prevented lead-induced reductions in circulating adrenomedullin. No significant changes in plasma levels of endothelin-1 or CGRP were found. Lead-induced decreases in nitric oxide markers and antioxidant status were not prevented by doxycycline. In conclusion, acute lead exposure increases blood pressure and MMP-9 activity, which were blunted by doxycycline. These findings suggest that MMP-9 may contribute with lead-induced hypertension by cleaving the vasodilatory peptide adrenomedullin, thereby inhibiting adrenomedullin-dependent lowering of blood pressure. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  14. Assessment of the Amount of Hepatohistopatological and Enzymatic Changes after Chronic Lead Intoxication In Utero and Throughout Life in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Mohammadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In order to evaluate the functional changes of liver after lead intoxication, activity of enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, as well as pathological changes of the liver were assessed in the present study.Methods: Male and female Albino Rats (40 in total in five 8-rat groups were exposed to 0, 5, 10, 15, and 40mg lead acetate dissolved in 1 liter drinking water, from the onset of embryonic life to 16th week of life. At the end of 16th week, the animals were anesthetized with chloroform, and blood sampling from heart was performed. After serum separation for biochemical analysis, liver was taken out and fixed in 15% formalin for histopathological studies. Activity of ALT, AST, and ALP, as well as lead concentration of the serum samples were measured using spectrophotometrical method and graphite furnace atomic absorption, respectively. The tissue sections were histologically studied under light microscopy after staining by hematoxylin/eosin. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's test, and p<0.05 was considered significant.Results: In this study, liver enzymes activities had direct relation with the serum lead concentration, and showed a significant increase compared to the control groups. Histological changes were observed as inflammation, lymphocyte infiltration to liver tissue, and liver cells necrosis.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, long-time exposure to lead results in dose- and time-dependent liver injury.

  15. Acute cadmium intoxication induces alpha-class glutathione S-transferase protein synthesis and enzyme activity in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalino, Elisabetta; Sblano, Cesare; Calzaretti, Giovanna; Landriscina, Clemente

    2006-01-01

    Acute cadmium intoxication affects glutathione S-transferase (GST) in rat liver. It has been found that 24 h after i.p. cadmium administration to rats, at a dose of 2.5 mg CdCl 2 kg -1 body weight, the activity of this enzyme in liver cytosol increased by 40%. A less stimulatory effect persisted till 48 h and thereafter the enzyme activity normalized. Since, GST isoenzymes belong to different classes in mammalian tissues, we used quantitative immunoassays to verify which family of GST isoenzymes is influenced by this intoxication. Only alpha-class glutathione S-transferase (α-GST) proteins were detected in rat liver cytosol and their level increased by about 25%, 24 h after cadmium treatment. No pi-GST isoforms were found in liver cytosol from either normal or cadmium-treated rats. Co-administration of actinomycin D with cadmium normalized both the protein level and the activity of α-GST, suggesting that some effect occurs on enzyme transcription of these isoenzymes by this metal. On the other hand, it seems unlikely that the stimulatory effect is due to the high level of peroxides caused by lipid peroxidation, since Vitamin E administration strongly reduced the TBARS level, but did not cause any GST activity decrease

  16. Lead line in rodents: an old sign of lead intoxication turned into a new method for environmental surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Fellipe Augusto Tocchini; Ramos, Junia; Kawakita, Erika R Hashimoto; Bilal, Alina S; de Sousa, Frederico B; Swaim, William D; Issa, Joao P Mardegan; Gerlach, Raquel F

    2016-11-01

    The "lead line" was described by Henry Burton in 1840. Rodents are used as sentinels to monitor environmental pollution, but their teeth have not been used to determine lead. To determine whether lead deposits can be observed in the teeth of lead-exposed animals, since the gingival deposits known as "lead line" would likely have a correlate in the calcified tissue to which the gums are opposed during life. Male Wistar rats were exposed to lead in the drinking water (30 mg/L) since birth until 60 days-old. Molars and the incisors of each hemimandible were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on regular and backscattered electrons (BSE) mode. Elements were determined using electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Clean cervical margins were observed on control teeth, as opposed to the findings of extensive deposits on lead-exposed animals, even in hemimandibles that had been exhumed after being buried for 90 days. BSE/EDS indicated that those deposits were an exogenous material compatible with lead sulfite. Presence of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, carbon, lead, and oxygen is presented. Lead-exposed animals presented marked root resorption. The lead deposits characterized here for the first time show that the "lead line" seen in gums has a calcified tissue counterpart, that is detectable post-mortem even in animals exposed to a low dose of lead. This is likely a good method to detect undue lead exposure and will likely have wide application for pollution surveillance using sentinels.

  17. Intoxication from an accidentally ingested lead shot retained in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Per; Gerhardsson, Lars

    2005-04-01

    A 45-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Occupational and Environmental Health in January 2002 because of increased blood lead concentrations of unknown origin. She suffered from malaise, fatigue, and diffuse gastrointestinal symptoms. She had a blood lead level of 550 microg/L (normal range lead, and no potential lead sources, such as food products or lead-glazed pottery, could be identified. Her food habits were normal, but she did consume game occasionally. Clinical examination, including standard neurologic examination, was normal. No anemia was present. Laboratory tests showed an increased excretion of lead in the urine, but there were no signs of microproteinuria. An abdominal X ray in October 2002 revealed a 6-mm rounded metal object in the colon ascendens. Before the object could be further localized, the patient contracted winter vomiting disease (gastroenteritis) and the metal object was spontaneously released from the colon during a diarrhea attack. The object was a lead shot pellet, possibly but not normally used in Sweden for hunting wild boar or roe deer. Blood lead levels slowly decreased. Nine months later the patient's blood lead levels were almost normal (approximately 70 microg/L) and her symptoms had almost completely disappeared. In this case, a rare source of lead exposure was found. In investigations of blood lead elevations of unknown origin, we recommend abdominal X ray in parallel with repeated blood lead determinations.

  18. Encephalopathy in acute liver failure resulting from acetaminophen intoxication: new observations with potential therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusilow, Saul W; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2011-11-01

    Hyperammonemia is a major contributing factor to the encephalopathy associated with liver disease. It is now generally accepted that hyperammonemia leads to toxic levels of glutamine in astrocytes. However, the mechanism by which excessive glutamine is toxic to astrocytes is controversial. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence that glutamine-induced osmotic swelling, especially in acute liver failure, is a contributing factor: the osmotic gliopathy theory. The object of the current communication is to present evidence for the osmotic gliopathy theory in a hyperammonemic patient who overdosed on acetaminophen. Case report. Johns Hopkins Hospital. A 22-yr-old woman who, 36 hrs before admission, ingested 15 g acetaminophen was admitted to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. She was treated with N-acetylcysteine. Physical examination was unremarkable; her mental status was within normal limits and remained so until approximately 72 hrs after ingestion when she became confused, irritable, and agitated. She was intubated, ventilated, and placed on lactulose. Shortly thereafter, she was noncommunicative, unresponsive to painful stimuli, and exhibited decerebrate posturing. A clinical diagnosis of cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure was made. She improved very slowly until 180 hrs after ingestion when she moved all extremities. She woke up shortly thereafter. Despite the fact that hyperammonemia is a major contributing factor to the encephalopathy observed in acute liver failure, the patient's plasma ammonia peaked when she exhibited no obvious neurologic deficit. Thereafter, her plasma ammonia decreased precipitously in parallel with a worsening neurologic status. She was deeply encephalopathic during a period when her liver function and plasma ammonia had normalized. Plasma glutamine levels in this patient were high but began to normalize several hours after plasma ammonia had returned to normal. The patient only started to recover as her plasma glutamine began

  19. Acute alcohol intoxication, diffuse axonal injury and intraventricular bleeding in patients with isolated blunt traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Hidetoshi; Shinoda, Masaki; Fujii, Motoharu; Takahashi, Osamu; Murakata, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    The influence of blood alcohol level (BAL) on outcome remains unclear. This study investigated the relationships between BAL, type and number of diffuse axonal injury (DAI), intraventricular bleeding (IVB) and 6-month outcome. This study reviewed 419 patients with isolated blunt traumatic brain injury. First, it compared clinical and radiological characteristics between patients with good recovery and disability. Second, it compared BAL among DAI lesions. Third, it evaluated the correlation between the BAL and severity of IVB, number of DAI and corpus callosum injury lesions. Regardless of BAL, older age, male gender, severe Glasgow Coma Scale score (injury lesions. Acute alcohol intoxication was not associated with type and number of DAI lesion, IVB and disability. This study suggested that a specific type of traumatic lesion, specifically lesion on genu of corpus callosum and IVB, might be more vital for outcome.

  20. Diagnosing and quantification of acute alcohol intoxication. Comparison of dual-energy CT with biochemical analysis. Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkusuz, H.; Abbas Raschidi, B.; Keese, D.; Kromen, W.; Bauer, R.W.; Vogl, T.J.; Namgaladze, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the correlation between fat content of an acute alcohol intoxication and the difference of computer tomography attenuation value in dual-energy CT in comparison to biochemical triglyceride analysis and to evaluate qualitatively the value of DECT in the diagnosis of fatty liver caused by ethanol-dosage in rats. Materials and Methods: DECT at 140 kV and 80 kV was performed on 20 rats before and two days after the administration of 3 ml of 50 % ethanol. The CT attenuation value in the livers at 140 kV, 80 kV and the differences between them in Hounsfield units (ΔH) were collected. Parts of the liver (100 mg) were measured in biochemical triglyceride analysis as the reference standard. A blood sample was also taken to measure specific liver enzymes. Results: Linear correlation between biochemical triglyceride analysis and CT density of ΔH was found (r = 0.949). 140 kV attenuation data were between 44 HU and 61.3 HU, 80 kV attenuation data were between 58.4 HU and 64.7 HU, and ΔH data were between 3.4 HU and 14.4 HU (p ≤ 0.037). The biochemical triglyceride analysis data were between 7.1 mg/g and 41.1 mg/g. The hepatic enzymes serum aspartate (ASAT) aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) were elevated in all rats. ASAT correlated directly with ΔHU (r = -0.86). Conclusion: DECT provides a non-invasive method to determine and evaluate hepatic fat content after acute alcohol intoxication. It provides the possibility to detect and quantify the hepatic fat content of liver graft. (orig.)

  1. Effects of chronic lead intoxication on rat serotoninergic system and anxiety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansar, Wafa; Bouyatas, My Mustapha; Ahboucha, Samir; Gamrani, Halima

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lead exposure has been shown to produce behavioral disturbances in human and animal models. These disturbances are associated with alterations in monoaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS), some of which have been attributed to serotonin (5-HT). This study was undertaken to investigate the chronic effects of lead exposure on the serotoninergic system in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the consequences of its toxicity on rat behavior. Adult male Wistar rats were chronically exposed for 3 months to 0.5% lead acetate in drinking water. The serotoninergic system was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and the anxiety behavior was assessed by the light/dark box test. The results show that chronic lead exposure induces a significant increase of blood and brain lead levels in treated rats compared with controls. The density of the immunoreactive serotoninergic cell bodies was significantly higher in treated rats in all parts of the DRN. Assessment of animal behavior using the light/dark box test showed that lead-treated rats spent significantly more time in the light chamber compared with controls (P=0.001). These findings suggest that lead exposure may possibly induce increased anxiety as a consequence of changes in neuronal 5-HT content in the DRN. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental canine distemper infection as a means of demonstrating latent effects of subacute lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.J.; McLeod, S.

    1976-01-01

    Observations on the response of the body to experimental infection with distemper virus in dogs previously dosed subacutely with lead have demonstrated a latent effect of lead on several body systems. Effects which indicated a relationship to earlier treatment with lead included evidence for stimulation of haemoglobin synthesis, changes to red blood cells resulting in increased destruction, increased vulnerability of the parenchymatous cells of the liver to damage, reduction in the weight of the skeleton and thyroid, an increase in weight of the thymus and brain and histopathological changes in the thymus. 21 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Cerebrospinal Fluid Indices in Acute Drug Intoxication; Do They Predict the Patients’ Outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Farsinejad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In some intoxicated patients, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is examined due to the prolonged loss of consciousness, focal neurologic findings, and fever of unknown origin. We aimed to evaluate the probable relationship between the different toxicity causes and the CSF indices in poisoned patients and determine if they could predict the patients’ outcome. Methods: All patients who had been admitted to the toxicology intensive care unit of Loghman-Hakim hospital between March 2006 and March 2011 and had undergone lumbar puncture (LP were included into this retrospective study. The patients’ demographic data and results of CSF evaluation (level of glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, protein, and white blood cells in CSF fluid were evaluated. The data was analyzed using SPSS software version 17. Results: A total of 111 patients were evaluated. Mean age of the patients was 37±15 years. Thirteen (11.7% had deceased. No relation was found between the cause of poisoning (medication involved and the changes in CSF indices. A statistically significant difference was found between the survivors and non-survivors in terms of CSF protein, LDH, and WBC. However, such a difference was not detected between these two groups regarding CSF glucose. Conclusion: In intoxicated patients with prolonged decreased level of consciousness or prolonged fever, early evaluation of CSF can help early diagnosis of complications such as meningitis and prompt treatment. Also, high level of protein, LDH, and WBC in the CSF can predict higher mortality rates in these patients.

  4. Lead Intoxication On Protein Fractions, Testicular Tissues And Ameliorative Effect Of ANTOX On Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSANIN, M.M.; EL-MAHDY, A.A.; ZAKI, Z.T.; EMARAH, E.A.M.; HUSSEIN, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Lead (heavy metal) was given as lead acetate for two groups of adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus) in drinking water at dose level of 100 mg/litre for 3 and 6 weeks to evaluate its toxic effects on protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis technique, serum testosterone using radioimmunoassay and histological investigation of the testis of male rats.Administration of 100 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 3 and 6 weeks induced fluctuated changes in serum total proteins, protein fractions and significant decrease in serum testosterone hormone.Histopathological examination showed cellular changes and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules after 3 and 6 weeks of administration of lead acetate.The treatment of rats with antox (10 mg/kg) during the experimental period caused improvement in protein fraction and testosterone level, and the testes sections appeared more or less normal.

  5. Barbiturate intoxication and overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... users who do not know these combinations can lead to coma or death Experienced users who use them on purpose to alter their consciousness Symptoms Symptoms of barbiturate intoxication and overdose include: Altered level of consciousness Difficulty ...

  6. [Comparative characteristics of lead and cadmium intoxication in the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchina, T Ia; Korchin, V I

    2011-01-01

    The Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District (KMAD) occupies a prominent place in the economy of Russia in oil and gas production and energy generation. The development of hydrocarbon raw material extraction in the district does great damage to the environment and nature. This results in the accumulation of toxic chemical elements in man. The levels of lead, cadmium, calcium, and zinc were measured in the hair of indigenous and non-indigenous populations of the district. High lead and cadmium and low calcium and zinc concentration were found in indigenous adults and children in the KMAD.

  7. [The morphofunctional state of the bone marrow in lead and zinc intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimtseva, T M; Pashkevich, I A; Salmina, A B

    2006-01-01

    The nucleolus is a compulsory nuclear structure of all cells of eukaryotes. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nuclei show the functional activity of a cell, the rate of its synthesis of RNA and portents, and its metabolic state. Heavy metals (zinc chloride and lead acetate) were comparatively investigated for their effects on the nucleolar apparatus of bone marrow cells in in vivo experiments. Zinc chloride and lead acetate were ascertained to damage the nucleolar apparatus of cells, thus decreasing their transcriptional activity or irreversibly damaging them.

  8. Total gastrectomy due to ferric chloride intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, A Mesut; Abramson, Leonardo; Vera, Raúl A; Duza, Guillermo E; Palermo, Mariano

    2015-09-01

    The ferric chloride intoxication is frequently caused by accident. Its toxicity is generally underrated, which can lead to fatal evolution or irreversible consequences. In this case, the caustic condition of the substance is related to the toxic properties of iron. A 36-year-old male patient arrives by ambulance indicating sensory deterioration. He presents erosive injuries in the buccal cavity and in the oropharynx, brownish teeth and metabolic acidosis. Toxicology tests and ferritin blood dosage are requested, which show a result from 1400 mg/dl. The symptoms are interpreted as acute iron intoxication. Due to the unfavorable evolution of his condition, an abdominal and pelvic CT scan are performed, which show extensive pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. An exploratory laparotomy, a total gastrectomy with esophagostomy and feeding jejunostomy, washing and drainage due to perforated gastric necrosis caused by caustic ingestion are performed. In our country, there is a high rate of intoxication caused by iron compounds, although it is not statistically measured. Nevertheless, the ferric chloride intoxication is extremely infrequent. The ingestion of this product leads to complications, which are associated with the iron concentration and its condition as a caustic agent. The surgical indications in the presence of intoxication caused by iron compounds are: stomach evacuation of iron, gastric necrosis, perforation or peritonitis and stenosis. Early or prophylactic gastrectomy is contraindicated. However, if complications that require immediate surgical intervention arise, there should be no hesitation and the corresponding procedure should be performed.

  9. Vitamin E modifies the ultrastructure of testis and epididymis in mice exposed to lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Mohamed A; Tariq, Saeed; Adeghate, Ernest

    2013-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is known to cause abnormal function of several systems including the male reproductive system, where it has been shown to reduce sperm count. In order to examine the morphological basis of the reduction in sperm count and a possible effect of vitamin E, lead acetate (1 mg/kg body weight) was given to control and vitamin E-treated mice daily, intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. The testis and body of epididymis of the mice were subjected to electron microscopy study. Pb caused degenerative changes in spermatids inducing vacuolization and a reduction in the number of cytoplasmic organelles in Leydig cells. Pb also destroyed the stereocilia of epididymal epithelium. The addition of vitamin E ameliorated the severity of these morphological changes. In conclusion, Pb-induced reduction in sperm count may be due to changes in the ultrastructure of spermatids, epididymal epithelia and Leydig cells. These changes can be reduced by vitamin E. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcium and magnesium content in hard tissues of rats under condition of subchronic lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Tatjana; Vujanovic, Dragana; Dozic, Ivan; Petkovic-Curcin, Aleksandra

    2008-03-01

    Lead manifests toxic effects in almost all organs and tissues, especially in: the nervous system, hematopoietic system, kidney and liver. This metal has a special affinity for deposition in hard tissue, i.e., bones and teeth. It is generally believed that the main mechanism of its toxicity relies on its interaction with bioelements, especially with Ca and Mg. This article analyses the influence of Pb poisoning on Ca and Mg content in hard tissues, (mandible, femur, teeth and skull) of female and young rats. Experiments were carried out on 60 female rats, AO breed, and on 80 of their young rats (offspring). Female rats were divided into three groups: the first one was a control group, the second one received 100 mg/kg Pb2+ kg b.wt. per day in drinking water, the third one received 30 mg/kg Pb(2+) kg b.wt. per day in drinking water. Young rats (offspring) were divided into the same respective three groups. Lead, calcium and magnesium content in hard tissues (mandible, femur, teeth-incisors and skull) was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry in mineralized samples. There was a statistically significant Pb deposition in all analyzed female and young rat hard tissues. Ca and Mg contents were significantly reduced in all female and young rat hard tissues. These results show that Pb poisoning causes a significant reduction in Ca and Mg content in animal hard tissues, which is probably the consequence of competitive antagonism between Pb and Ca and Mg.

  11. An acute case of intoxication with cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in recreational water in Salto Grande Dam, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannuzzi, Leda; Sedan, Daniela; Echenique, Ricardo; Andrinolo, Dario

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms and hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) usually occur in summer, constituting a sanitary and environmental problem in Salto Grande Dam, Argentina. Water sports and recreational activities take place in summer in this lake. We reported an acute case of cyanobacterial poisoning in Salto Grande dam, Argentina, which occurred in January 2007. Accidentally, a young man was immersed in an intense bloom of Microcystis spp. A level of 48.6 μg·L(-1) of microcystin-LR was detected in water samples. Four hours after exposure, the patient showed nausea, abdominal pain and fever. Three days later, dyspnea and respiratory distress were reported. The patient was hospitalized in intensive care and diagnosed with an atypical pneumonia. Finally, a week after the exposure, the patient developed a hepatotoxicosis with a significant increase of hepatic damage biomarkers (ALT, AST and γGT). Complete recovery took place within 20 days. This is the first study to show an acute intoxication with microcystin-producing cyanobacteria blooms in recreational water.

  12. Oxidative damage in liver after perinatal intoxication with lead and/or cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massó, Elvira Luján; Corredor, Laura; Antonio, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Lead acetate (300 mg Pb/L) and/or cadmium acetate (10mg Cd/L) in blood and liver were administrated as drinking water to pregnant Wistar rats from day 1 of pregnancy to parturition (day 0) or until weaning (day 21), to investigate the toxic effects in blood and in the liver. Both metals produced mycrocitic anaemia in the pups as well as oxidative damage in the liver, as suggested by the significant increase in TBARS production and the high catalase activity. Moreover, intense alkaline and acid phosphatase activity, used as biomarkers of liver adaptation to damaging factors, was observed. In addition, the toxikinetics are different for Pb and Cd: while Cd is a hepatotoxic from day 0, Pb is not until day 21. Finally, simultaneous perinatal administration of both metals seems to protect, at least, in the liver TBARS production against the toxicity produced by Cd or Pb separately.

  13. Lead intoxication and knee osteoarthritis after a gunshot: long-term follow-up case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Vinicius Schott; de Araújo, Gabriel Costa Serrão; Bruno, Felipe Motta Moreira

    2013-06-24

    This case is of a man who suffered gunshots and developed saturnism. Projectiles were removed from the abdomen, but one was left in the knee for 14 years. The patient presented with weight loss, headaches, loss of sight, tiredness, cramps, painful joints and trembling. We identified ataxic movements such as intense trembling of the limbs and anaemia. The abdominal pain caused eight internments in different hospitals, and the patient always received the diagnosis of intestinal subocclusion. We removed the bullet and did a wide synovectomy. The patient did not receive a clinical treatment with chelates. The symptoms of lead poisoning ceased, but he developed knee osteoarthritis, during the 7 years of follow-up.

  14. From the Cover: 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone Rescues Lead-Induced Impairment of Vesicular Release: A Novel Therapeutic Approach for Lead Intoxicated Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei; McGlothan, Jennifer L; Miry, Omid; Stansfield, Kirstie H; Loth, Meredith K; Stanton, Patric K; Guilarte, Tomás R

    2018-01-01

    Childhood lead (Pb2+) intoxication is a public health problem of global proportion. Lead exposure during development produces multiple effects on the central nervous system including impaired synapse formation, altered synaptic plasticity, and learning deficits. In primary hippocampal neurons in culture and hippocampal slices, Pb2+ exposure inhibits vesicular release and reduces the number of fast-releasing sites, an effect associated with Pb2+ inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated trans-synaptic Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling. The objective of this study was to determine if activation of TrkB, the cognate receptor for BDNF, would rescue Pb2+-induced impairments of vesicular release. Rats were chronically exposed to Pb2+ prenatally and postnatally until 50 days of age. This chronic Pb2+ exposure paradigm enhanced paired-pulse facilitation of synaptic potentials in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus, a phenomenon indicative of reduced vesicular release probability. Decreased vesicular release probability was confirmed by both mean-variance analysis and direct 2-photon imaging of vesicular release from hippocampal slices of rats exposed to Pb2+in vivo. We also found a Pb2+-induced impairment of calcium influx in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synaptic terminals. Intraperitoneal injections of Pb2+ rats with the TrkB receptor agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (5 mg/kg) for 14-15 days starting at postnatal day 35, reversed all Pb2+-induced impairments of presynaptic transmitter release at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. This study demonstrates for the first time that in vivo pharmacological activation of TrkB receptors by small molecules such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone can reverse long-term effects of chronic Pb2+ exposure on presynaptic terminals, pointing to TrkB receptor activation as a promising therapeutic intervention in Pb2+-intoxicated children. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of

  15. Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on automated processing: evidence from the double-step paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstius, Christian; Radach, Ralph; Lang, Alan R

    2012-02-01

    Reflexive and voluntary levels of processing have been studied extensively with respect to possible impairments due to alcohol intoxication. This study examined alcohol effects at the 'automated' level of processing essential to many complex visual processing tasks (e.g., reading, visual search) that involve ongoing modifications or reprogramming of well-practiced routines. Data from 30 participants (16 male) were collected in two counterbalanced sessions (alcohol vs. no-alcohol control; mean breath alcohol concentration = 68 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL). Eye movements were recorded during a double-step task where 75% of trials involved two target stimuli in rapid succession (inter-stimulus interval [ISI]=40, 70, or 100 ms) so that they could elicit two distinct saccades or eye movements (double steps). On 25% of trials a single target appeared. Results indicated that saccade latencies were longer under alcohol. In addition, the proportion of single-step responses and the mean saccade amplitude (length) of primary saccades decreased significantly with increasing ISI. The key novel finding, however, was that the reprogramming time needed to cancel the first saccade and adjust saccade amplitude was extended significantly by alcohol. The additional time made available by prolonged latencies due to alcohol was not utilized by the saccade programming system to decrease the number of two-step responses. These results represent the first demonstration of specific alcohol-induced programming deficits at the automated level of oculomotor processing.

  16. Acute unintentional intoxication with paraffin in a 25-year old patient - clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibishev, Andon; Simonovska, Natasa

    2014-08-01

    "Fire-breathing" or "fire-eating" is a special kind of street art where the acts are always stunning, spectacular and amazing. People exhibiting this kind of show are professionals, not rare amateurs, who use different kind of fuels, usually hydrocarbons, in order to produce a pillar of fire. Intoxications caused by ingestion or inhalation of liquid paraffin, used as a fuel while performing, are numerous and various. We present a clinical case report of a 25-year old, previously healthy, amateur "fire-breather". During October, 2010 this young men arrived at the Emergency Unit of the University Clinic for toxicology and Urgent Internal Medicine in a severe clinical condition, after his unsuccessful attempt to perform real "fire-breathing". He had fever, strong headaches, mild abdominal and chest pain and he also had difficulties breathing and persistent dry cough. The patient was extremely dyspneic with peripheral cyanosis and shortness of breath. "Fire-breathers" must be viewed as a population at risk of paraffin-induced pneumonia, which has low mortality rate, but still is related with numerous and various chronic complications. Our patient was first in a life threatening, extremely serious clinical condition which was urgently treated with appropriate vigorous and effective therapy. This therapeutic protocol led to successful full recovery of these young men, who luckily didn't exhibit any chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vito, Stephen T.; Austin, Adam T.; Banks, Christopher N.; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A.; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Rogawski, Michael A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA A R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA A R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA A R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor alters

  18. Liver, plasma and erythrocyte levels of thiamine and its phosphate esters in rats with acute ethanol intoxication: a comparison of thiamine and benfotiamine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Vannucchi, Helio; Jordao, Alceu Afonso

    2013-03-12

    Thiamine and benfotiamine are vitamin B1 and pro-vitamin B1 substances, respectively. Vitamin B1 plays an essential role in energy metabolism, and its deficiency leads to neurologic and cardiovascular pathologies, as seen in alcoholics. This study presents new data about the effects of thiamine hydrochloride or benfotiamine treatment given to rats with acute alcohol intoxication, on the distribution of thiamine and its phosphate esters in liver, plasma and erythrocytes. The treatments were effective in increasing thiamine levels in plasma, erythrocytes and liver cells. The benfotiamine-treated group had its total plasma thiamine increased by 100%. In erythrocytes, thiamine levels were 4- and 25-fold higher in the groups treated with thiamine and benfotiamine, respectively, compared with the untreated groups. Liver thiamine was increased by 60% in the treated groups compared with the untreated groups. Thus, we verified the high bioavailability especially of benfotiamine within 6h of ethanol administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Possible protective role of elderberry fruit lyophilizate against selected effects of cadmium and lead intoxication in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Aneta; Sikora, Elżbieta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Borczak, Barbara; Czech, Tomasz

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was the investigation whether the administration of the elderberry fruit lyophilizate under exposure to cadmium(Cd) and (Pb) lead may protect against some effects of their toxic action in Wistar rats. Rats were fed with diets containing Cd (Cd 0.025 mg/kg b.m.) or Pb (Pb 0.025 mg /kg b.m.) with the addition of the freeze-dried elderberry fruits (BEF) in the amount of 5 %. BEF added to the diet with Cd significantly decreased the activity of AST and ALT compared to the rats fed with the control diet with Cd (C + Cd). Activity of glutathione peroxidase was significantly higher in the blood of rats fed with BEF diet compared with animals fed with BEF + Cd, BEF + Pb, and C + Pb diets. Addition of BEF to the diets with Cd or Pb significantly decreased the uric acid concentration compared to the level of this parameter in the serum of animals fed with control diets containing Cd or Pb. The level of the Cd significantly decreased in the livers of rodents fed with BEF + Cd diet as compared to the concentration of this metal in the livers of rats fed with C + Cd diet. Elderberry fruit lyophilizate did not protect against the increased concentration of Cd or Pb in kidneys and bones of experimental rats; however, it improved the function of livers and kidneys, especially of rats intoxicated with Cd.

  20. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter G; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Pbetel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pbetel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  1. Characterization of the Psychological, Physiological and EEG Profile of Acute Betel Quid Intoxication in Naïve Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter G.; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Pchewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C) in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pincreased arousal (Pchewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug. PMID:21909371

  2. Relationship between exposure duration, carboxyhemoglobin, blood glucose, pyruvate and lactate and the severity of intoxication in 39 cases of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokal, J.A.; Kralkowska, E.

    1985-08-01

    The relationship between exposure duration, COHb, blood glucose, pyruvate and lactate and the severity of intoxication was investigated in a group of 39 cases of acute CO poisoning treated in the Clinical Toxicology Center in Lodz, Poland. On the basis of clinical criteria the patients were classified into cases of mild, moderate, severe and very severe CO poisoning. COHb and carbohydrate metabolites were estimated in venous blood taken immediately after admission of the patient to hospital prior to treatment. The severity of intoxication did not correlate with blood COHb; variation in exposure duration seems to be responsible for this phenomenon. Severe and very severe poisonings were associated with longer exposures and were accompanied by a markedly higher blood lactate level, compared to mild and moderate cases. Blood pyruvate depended less than lactate on the severity of intoxication. Blood glucose depended neither on exposure duration nor on the severity of intoxication. Among the carbohydrate metabolic parameters studied, blood lactate determination can be helpful in the evaluation of the severity of CO poisoning in man.

  3. Protective effect of treatment with thiamine or benfotiamine on liver oxidative damage in rat model of acute ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Deminice, Rafael; Jordão, Alceu Afonso

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible beneficial effects of treatment with thiamine or benfotiamine in an animal model of acute ethanol intoxication. Thirty male Wistar rats were separated at random into three groups of 10 animals each: Ethanol (E), Ethanol treated with thiamine (T) and Ethanol treated with benfotiamine (BE). Rats were gavaged with single dose of ethanol (5g/kg, 40% v:v). After 30min of ethanol gavage the animals were treated with thiamine or benfotiamine. Six hours after first gavage, the animals were euthanized and blood and liver samples were collected for ethanol and oxidative stress biomarkers quantification. Serum ethanol levels were higher in animals treated with thiamine or benfotiamine while hepatic alcohol levels were higher in animals of the group treated with benfotiamine comparing to controls or thiamine treated groups. The lipid peroxidation biomarkers were diminished for the groups treated with thiamine or benfotiamine comparing to E animals. Concerning protein oxidative damage parameters, they were enhanced for animals treated with benfotiamine in relation to other groups. In conclusion, the treatment with thiamine or benfotiamine even 30min after the massive dose of ethanol has proven to be beneficial against liver damage. Improved results were obtained with benfotiamine in relation to oxidative damage from aqueous compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the effect of patterns of cocaine and alcohol use on the risk of adverse acute cocaine intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Brugal, M Teresa; Barrio, Gregorio; Castellano, Yolanda; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Espelt, Albert; Bravo, M Jose; de la Fuente, Luis

    2012-06-01

    Although, in the laboratory, most acute adverse effects of cocaine are dose-dependent and alcohol potentiates some of these effects, there are few observational studies, and scarce awareness that the risk of acute cocaine intoxication (ACI) can increase as the amounts of cocaine and alcohol consumed increase. Our objectives were to assess if the risk of ACI increases with the level cocaine use, both in chronic and binge use; and also to determine whether it increases when a cocaine binge is combined with binge drinking or with regular excessive drinking. Hypotheses were evaluated using logistic regression and case-crossover analyses in a sample of 720 young regular cocaine users who did not regularly use heroin, recruited at drug scenes in 2004-2006. All data on ACI, predictor and confounding variables were obtained through a computer-assisted personal interview. The annual prevalence of ACI was 21%. In the last year 10.3% of the participants reported cocaine binges (≥ 0.5 g in 4 h). ACI risk increased considerably in the 4 h following a cocaine binge (odds ratio = 34.6; 95% confidence interval 11.5-170.8). Also, it increased with increases in the average level of cocaine used over a long period and when users regularly drank excessively. Finally, the results suggest that the high risk of ACI associated with cocaine binge may increase even more when combined with binge drinking. Awareness of the dose-dependent effect of cocaine on ACI risk, as well as the possible synergistic effect of alcohol, ought to be incorporated into preventive and care strategies. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Assessment of Health Care and Economic Costs Due to Episodes of Acute Pesticide Intoxication in Workers of Rural Areas of the Coquimbo Region, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Santana, Muriel; Iglesias-Guerrero, Juan; Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Scheepers, Paul T J

    2014-12-01

    The increase in agricultural activity that Chile experienced in the past 20 years resulted in a boost in the use of pesticides. Despite pesticides' productivity benefits, they caused health problems such as the increased frequency of episodes of acute poisoning, which constitutes a relevant problem in terms of occupational health. The Chilean authorities require several preventive measures at workplaces, which are not always implemented, increasing the risk of intoxications in farmers. So far in Chile, there are no studies concerning the public health care expenses associated with acute work-related pesticide intoxications. From the societal perspective, there are costs involved if the worker needs to take sick leave and families incur costs to take care of their sick members. This study aimed to determine the costs associated with health care services used by people who suffered from work-related acute pesticide poisoning, as well as the economic costs for the families of the workers involved, and finally the costs of these episodes for the employer/industrial sector. This study considered a 3-year period (January 2009 to December 2011). Three sources of data were reviewed: reported cases at the Regional Health Authority, for the profile of the intoxications; registers of patients attended in public hospitals, for data on costs of health care services; and public information of living conditions nationwide. The overall costs of a single case depend on the severity of intoxication, days of sick leave, and type of health care needed. Most cases (77%) would be ambulatory and would be assisted at an emergency room, with an average cost of US $330 per case. Those cases that might need hospitalization (23%) and, therefore, more days off work have an average cost of US $1158 per case. Taking into account the number of patients reported each year in the country, the cost per annum would be about US $185,000, but considering the underreporting of intoxications and

  6. Cytokine Changes following Acute Ethanol Intoxication in Healthy Men: A Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudan Prasad Neupane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a known modulator of the innate immune system. Owing to the absence of human studies, alcohol’s effect on circulating cytokine profile remains unclear. We investigated the effect of acute high dose alcohol consumption on systemic cytokine release. After an overnight fasting, alcohol-experienced healthy male volunteers (N=20 aged 25–45 years were given oral ethanol in the form of vodka (4.28 mL/kg which they drank over a period of 30 minutes reaching peak blood alcohol concentration of 0.12% (SD 0.028. Blood samples were obtained prior to alcohol intake as well as 2, 7, and 12 hours thereafter. Serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and TNF-α were determined by the multibead-based assay. Baseline cytokine levels were not related to BMI, hepatic parameters, electrolytes, glucose, or morning cortisol levels. Within 2 hours of alcohol intake, levels of IL-1Ra were elevated and remained so throughout the assessment period (p for trend = 0.015. In contrast, the levels of the chemokine MCP-1 dropped acutely followed by steadily increasing levels during the observation period (p<0.001. The impact of sustained elevated levels of MCP-1 even after the clearance of blood alcohol content deserves attention.

  7. Effect of acute and delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cyanide whole blood levels during acute cyanide intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, P; Jansen, E C; Hilsted, Linda Maria

    2011-01-01

    and the subsequent formation of cyanocobalamin measured by a spectrophotometer. Results showed that whole-blood-cyanide concentration in Group 1 controls and acute HBO2 initially rose and then fell towards zero. In rats treated with delayed HBO2, the reduction in whole-blood-cyanide concentration was significantly...

  8. Acute hyperventilation leading to hypocalcaemia during spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common cause of hypocalcaemia under general anaesthesia is acute mechanical hyperventilation, but hypocalcaemia during spinal anaesthesia has not been reported. This case report describes the development of hypocalcaemia due to hyperventilation in a patient undergoing appendicectomy under spinal ...

  9. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Osborne

    Full Text Available Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm and elevated face temperature (0.7°C (P<0.001 above the effects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (P<0.05 and perceived increased arousal (P<0.01 and perceived decreased ability to think (P<0.05 in 31 subjects. The EEG spectral profile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05 relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  10. Opioid intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... easily result in intoxication. The provider prescribes a sleep medicine (sedative) in addition to the opioid. The provider ... an opioid with certain other drugs, such as sleep medicines or alcohol Taking the opioid in ways not ...

  11. Marijuana intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... drugs that have more serious side effects than marijuana. These side effects may include: Sudden high blood pressure with headache ...

  12. Lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J A

    1952-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead poisoning of cattle herds via ingestion are reported, and reference is made to several other incidents of lead in both humans and animals. The quantity of lead which was found in the livers of the dead cows varied from 6.5 to 19 mg/kg, while 1160 mg/kg of lead in the liver was found for a young cow which was poisoned experimentally with 5 gms of lead acetate per day; hence, there appears to be great variability in the amounts deposited that can lead to intoxication and death. No evidence was found for a lead seam around the teeth, prophyrinuria, or basophil granules in the erythrocytes during acute or chronic lead poisoning of cattle or horses examined. Reference is made to attempts of finding the boundary line between increased lead absorption and lead intoxication in humans, and an examination of 60 laborers in an offset-printing office containing a great deal of inhalable lead (0.16 to 1.9 mg/cu m air) is reviewed. Physical deviation, basophylic granulation of erythrocytes, increased lead content of the urine, and porphyrinuria only indicate an increased absorption of lead; the use of the term intoxication is justified if, in addition, there are complaints of lack of appetite, constipation, fatigue, abdominal pain, and emaciation.

  13. How CAGE, RAPS4QF and AUDIT can help practitioners for patients admitted with acute alcohol intoxication in emergency departments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges eBrousse

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To help clinicians to identify the severity of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD from optimal thresholds found for recommended scales. Especially, taking account of the high prevalence of alcohol dependence among patients admitted to the Emergency Department (ED for acute alcohol intoxication (AAI, we propose to define thresholds of severity of dependence based on the AUDIT score.Methods: All patients admitted to the ED with AAI (blood alcohol level >0.8g/L, in a two-month period, were assessed using the CAGE, RAPS-QF and AUDIT, with the alcohol dependence/abuse section of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI used as the gold standard. To explore the relation between the AUDIT and the MINI the sum of the positive items on the MINI (dependence as a quantitative variable and as an ordinal parameter were analyzed. From the threshold score (TS found for each scale we proposed intervals of severity of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs. Results: The mean age of the sample (122 males, 42 females was 46 years. Approximately 12 % of the patients were identified with alcohol abuse and 78 % with dependence (DSM-IV. Cut points were determined for the AUDIT in order to distinguish mild and moderate dependence from severe dependence. A strategy of intervention based on levels of severity of AUD was proposed. Conclusion: Different thresholds proposed for the CAGE, RAPS4-QF and AUDIT could be used to guide the choice of intervention for a patient: brief intervention, brief negotiation interviewing or longer more intensive motivational intervention.

  14. Inhaled mycotoxins lead to acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, N; Guarnieri, A; Garosi, G; Sacchi, G; Mangiarotti, A M; Di Paolo, M

    1994-01-01

    Mysterious deaths of archeologists after opening Egyptian tombs have been suspected, but never proved, to be secondary to inhalation of mycotoxin. We observed a case of acute renal failure (ARF) due to inhalation of ochratoxin A produced by a mould of the species Aspergillus ochraceus. After working 8 h in a granary closed for several months, a farmer and his wife suffered respiratory distress; the woman developed non-oliguric ARF and biopsy revealed tubulonecrosis. A strain of Aspergillus ochraceus producing ochratoxin was isolated from the wheat.

  15. Brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (¹⁸FDG PET) in patients with acute thallium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C H; Lin, K J; Wang, H M; Kuo, H C; Chuang, W L; Weng, Y H; Shih, T S; Huang, C C

    2013-03-01

    Thallium toxicity induces cellular injury through impaired Na-K-ATPase activity. The aim of this study was to investigate functional imaging and the long-term clinical-imaging correlations of thallium toxicity. We measured thallium concentrations in blood, urine, stools, and hair of a 48-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man (patients 1 and 2) in the first 3 months after exposure to thallium containing water, and studied their neuropsychological functions. Using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) scans, we examined the brain involvement and correlated the image findings with the clinical presentations. On the 1st, 30th, and 61st days after exposure, the thallium concentrations in patient 1 were 2056, 311, and 7.5 μg/L in the blood, and 11400, 4570, and 36.4 μg/L in the urine. The concentrations in patient 2 were 956, 235, and 15.6 μg/L in the blood, and 11900, 2670, and 101 μg/L in the urine. On the 40th, 50th and 89th days after exposure, the thallium concentration in the stools were 21.6, 3.6, and 0.35 μg/g in patient 1, and 22.2, 3.2, and 0.37 μg/g in patient 2. Executive function, perceptual motor speed, and learning memory were initially abnormal but recovered particularly within the first year. The first (18)FDG PET studies of both patients disclosed a decreased uptake of glucose metabolism in the cingulate gyrus, bilateral frontal, and parietal lobes 2-5 months after exposure. The follow-up (18)FDG PET scan of patient 2 revealed a partial recovery. This study indicates that damage to the central nervous system after acute thallium poisoning may be reversible after a long-term follow-up. Brain (18)FDG PET demonstrated the brain involvement and was correlated with cognitive impairment.

  16. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vito, Stephen T., E-mail: stvito@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Austin, Adam T., E-mail: aaustin@ucdavis.edu [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Banks, Christopher N., E-mail: Christopher.Banks@oehha.ca.gov [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Inceoglu, Bora, E-mail: abinceoglu@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bruun, Donald A., E-mail: dabruun@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zolkowska, Dorota, E-mail: dzolkowska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Tancredi, Daniel J., E-mail: djtancredi@ucdavis.edu [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Rogawski, Michael A., E-mail: rogawski@ucdavis.edu [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D., E-mail: bdhammock@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lein, Pamela J., E-mail: pjlein@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase

  17. Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of an Edible Herb, Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), against Experimentally Induced Lead Acetate Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Tarun K; Dewanjee, Saikat; Khanra, Ritu; Joardar, Swarnalata; Barma, Sujata; Das, Shilpa; Zia-Ul-Haq, M; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), an edible aquatic herb, is traditionally employed against toxic effects of heavy metals in India. The present study was planned to discover the protective effect of edible extract of E. fluctuans (AEEF) against Pb toxicity. The cytoprotective role of AEEF was determined on murine hepatocytes employing MTT assay and Hoechst staining. The effects on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, endogenous redox systems and the transcription levels of apoptotic proteins were studied after incubating the hepatocytes with AEEF (400 μg/ml) + Pb-acetate (6.8 μM). The defensive role of AEEF (100 mg/kg) against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) intoxication was measured in mice by in vivo assays. Biochemical, haematological and histological parameters, intracellular Pb burden and redox status were measured. AEEF exhibited a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect against Pb-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Pb-acetate incubation significantly (p intoxicated animals. However, concurrent administration of AEEF (100 mg/kg) could significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) reinstate the Pb-acetate mediated toxicity. Presence of metal chelators and phyto-antioxidants within AEEF would offer overall protection through promoting Pb clearance coupled with restoring redox balance.

  18. GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco P.; Jones, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t½ ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant

  19. Effects of topiramate and other anti-glutamatergic drugs on the acute intoxicating actions of ethanol in mice: modulation by genetic strain and stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chyan; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Compounds with anti-glutamatergic properties currently in clinical use for various indications (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, psychosis, mood disorders) have potential utility as novel treatments for alcoholism. Enhanced sensitivity to certain acute intoxicating effects (ataxia, sedative) of alcohol may be one mechanism by which anti-glutamatergic drugs modulate alcohol use. We examined the effects of six compounds (memantine, dextromethorphan, haloperidol, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, topiramate) on sensitivity to acute intoxicating effects of ethanol (ataxia, hypothermia, sedation/hypnosis) in C57BL/6J mice. Analysis of topiramate was extended to determine the influence of genetic background (via comparison of the 129S1, BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J inbred strains) and prior stress history (via chronic exposure of C57BL/6J to swim stress) on topiramate's effects on ethanol-induced sedation/hypnosis. Results showed that one N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, memantine, but not another, dextromethorphan, potentiated the ataxic but not hypothermic or sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol. Haloperidol increased ethanol-induced ataxia and sedation/hypnosis to a similar extent as the prototypical NMDAR antagonist MK-801. Of the anticonvulsants tested, lamotrigine accentuated ethanol-induced sedation/hypnosis, while oxcarbazepine was without effect. Topiramate was without effect per se under baseline conditions in C57BL/6J, but had a synergistic effect with MK-801 on ethanol-induced sedation/hypnosis. Comparing inbred strains, topiramate was found to significantly potentiated ethanol's sedative/hypnotic effects in BALB/cJ, but not 129S1, C57BL/6J or DBA/2J strains. Topiramate also increased ethanol-induced sedation/hypnosis in C57BL/6J after exposure to chronic stress exposure. Current data demonstrate that, with the exception of MK-801 and haloperidol, the compounds tested had either no significant or assay-selective effects on sensitivity to acute

  20. Clinical and laboratory parameters in dapsone acute intoxication Parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais na intoxicação aguda pela dapsona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zilda N Carrazza

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the severity of dapsone (DDS acute intoxication – an uncommon medical event – using clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy four patients with acute DDS intoxication, aged 1 month to 50 years old, were studied and classified into four age groups. Clinical evaluation was assessed through a protocol and correlated with laboratory parameters. Spectrophotometric methods were used to analyze methemoglobinemia (MHbp and dapsonemia (DDSp. RESULTS: The most prevalent clinical sign of intoxication was cyanosis, seen in 65.7% of the patients and in 100% of children less than 5 years of age. According to laboratory criteria, MHbp-related severe clinical intoxication was seen in 56.2% and DDSp-related occurred in 58% of the patients. Regarding DDSp, intoxication was considered severe when 20 tablets (100 mg each were ingested, a median of 29 mug/ml. Regarding MHbp, intoxication was severe when 7.5 tablets were ingested, a median of 38% of the total Hb. The correlation between MHbp and DDSp was statistically significant (n=144, r=0.32, pOBJETIVO: Definir a gravidade da intoxicação aguda por dapsona (DDS – uma ocorrência médica não usual – usando parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 274 pacientes intoxicados por DDS, divididos em quatro grupos etários; as idades variaram de um mês a 50 anos. A avaliação clínica foi efetuada por meio de um questionário e correlacionada com parâmetros laboratoriais. A metemoglobinemia (MHbp e a dapsonemia (DDSp foram analisadas por métodos espectrofotométricos. RESULTADOS: O sinal clínico mais prevalente da intoxicação foi a cianose, presente em 65,7% dos pacientes e em 100% das crianças menores de 5 anos. A intoxicação grave, definida laboratorialmente, de acordo com a MHb ocorreu em 56,2% dos pacientes e, de acordo com a DDSp, em 58%. A intoxicação foi grave, de acordo com a DDSp, quando houve a ingestão mediana de 20

  1. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D.; Policard, J.; Rigal, M. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Service de Neurologie, Lille (France); Sengler, C. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Laboratoire de Pharmaco-Toxicologie, Guadeloupe (France); Benabdallah, E. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Service de Radiologie, Guadeloupe (France); Colombani, S. [Centre d' Imagerie medicale, Martinique (France)

    2005-02-01

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. (orig.)

  2. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D.; Policard, J.; Rigal, M.; Sengler, C.; Benabdallah, E.; Colombani, S.

    2005-01-01

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. (orig.)

  3. Intracellular Zn(II) Intoxication Leads to Dysregulation of the PerR Regulon Resulting in Heme Toxicity in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Transition metal ions (Zn(II), Cu(II)/(I), Fe(III)/(II), Mn(II)) are essential for life and participate in a wide range of biological functions. Cellular Zn(II) levels must be high enough to ensure that it can perform its essential roles. Yet, since Zn(II) binds to ligands with high avidity, excess Zn(II) can lead to protein mismetallation. The major targets of mismetallation, and the underlying causes of Zn(II) intoxication, are not well understood. Here, we use a forward genetic selection to identify targets of Zn(II) toxicity. In wild-type cells, in which Zn(II) efflux prevents intoxication of the cytoplasm, extracellular Zn(II) inhibits the electron transport chain due to the inactivation of the major aerobic cytochrome oxidase. This toxicity can be ameliorated by depression of an alternate oxidase or by mutations that restrict access of Zn(II) to the cell surface. Conversely, efflux deficient cells are sensitive to low levels of Zn(II) that do not inhibit the respiratory chain. Under these conditions, intracellular Zn(II) accumulates and leads to heme toxicity. Heme accumulation results from dysregulation of the regulon controlled by PerR, a metal-dependent repressor of peroxide stress genes. When metallated with Fe(II) or Mn(II), PerR represses both heme biosynthesis (hemAXCDBL operon) and the abundant heme protein catalase (katA). Metallation of PerR with Zn(II) disrupts this coordination, resulting in depression of heme biosynthesis but continued repression of catalase. Our results support a model in which excess heme partitions to the membrane and undergoes redox cycling catalyzed by reduced menaquinone thereby resulting in oxidative stress. PMID:27935957

  4. Scrub Typhus Leading to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Siraj A; Bora, Trishna; Laskar, Basanta; Khan, Abdul M; Dutta, Prafulla

    2017-01-01

    To determine the contribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the agent of scrub typhus, as a cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Assam, India, we conducted a retrospective study of hospital patients with symptoms of AES during 2013-2015. Our findings suggest that O. tsutsugamushi infection leads to AES and the resulting illness and death.

  5. Pesticide use, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase level and self-reported acute intoxication symptoms among vegetable farmers in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; Jors, E.; Brandt, L.

    2014-01-01

    : The majority of pesticides used were WHO class II, classified as moderately hazardous. The mean numbers of personal protective equipment used by farmers were 2.22 (95% CI: 1.89; 2.54). Out of five hygienic practices asked, farmers followed 3.63 (95% CI: 3.40; 3.86) hygienic practices on the average. Farmers...... of healthy individuals. A lower mean haemoglobin-adjusted AChE level was seen among farmers compared to the controls. The use of highly toxic pesticides, inadequate use of personal protective equipment and poor hygienic practices might explain the reason for symptoms of pesticide intoxication and a lower ACh...

  6. Alcohol intoxication in the context of major public holidays, sporting and social events: a time-series analysis in Melbourne, Australia, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Belinda; Matthews, Sharon; Livingston, Michael; Jayasekara, Harindra; Smith, Karen

    2013-04-01

    To assess the relationship between ambulance attendances, emergency department (ED) presentations and hospital admissions for acute alcohol intoxication and the timing of public holidays, sporting and social events. Time-series analysis was used to explore trends in intoxication in the context of major events. Population of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia between 2000 and 2009. All patients attended by ambulance, presenting to hospital EDs, or admitted to hospital who were classified as acutely alcohol intoxicated. Analysis of daily numbers of presentations for acute alcohol intoxication associated with major events were undertaken, including lead and lag effects. Analyses controlled for day of week and month of year to address temporal and seasonal variations. Alcohol intoxication presentations were significantly elevated the day before all public holidays, with intoxication cases on the day of public holidays only higher on New Year's Day (ambulance 6.57, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 3.4-9.74; ED 3.34, 95% CI: 1.28-5.4) and ANZAC Day (ambulance 3.71, 95% CI: 0.68-6.75). The Australian Football League (AFL) Grand Final (ED 2.37, 95% CI: 0.55-4.19), Commonwealth Games (ED 2.45, 95% CI: 0.6-4.3) and Melbourne Cup Day (ambulance 6.14, 95% CI: 2.42-9.85) represented the sporting events with significant elevations in acute intoxication requiring medical attention. The last working day before Christmas was the only social event where a significant increase in acute intoxication occurred (ambulance 8.98, 95% CI: 6.8-11.15). Acute alcohol intoxication cases requiring ambulance, emergency department and hospital in-patient treatment increase substantially on the day preceding public holidays and other major social events. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. VIGILANCE POISON: Illegal poisoning and lead intoxication are the main factors affecting avian scavenger survival in the Pyrenees (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berny, Philippe; Vilagines, Lydia; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Mastain, Olivier; Chollet, Jean-Yves; Joncour, Guy; Razin, Martine

    2015-08-01

    A specific surveillance program has been set up to monitor avian scavenger populations in the French Pyrenean Mountains, hosting a high proportion of the French populations. The two main purposes of the study were to identify all causes of death and to investigate poisoning cases. All 170 birds found dead during the 7-year program were submitted to full necropsy, X-Ray, parasitological investigations and consistent analytical toxicology screenings (Cholinesterase inhibitors, anticoagulant rodenticides, organochlorine insecticides, Pb, Cd). Over the study period, 8 Bearded Vultures, 120 Griffon Vultures, 8 Egyptian Vultures and 34 Red kites were eventually collected. Mortality events were often multifactorial, but poisoning was by far the most common cause of death (24.1%), followed by trauma/fall (12%), bacterial diseases and starvation (8%) and electrocution (6%). Illicit use of banned pesticides was identified as a common cause of poisoning (53% of all poisoning cases) and lead poisoning was also identified as a significant toxicant issue (17% of all poisoning cases). Lead isotopic signature could be associated primarily with ammunition. Last, a positive association between trauma and lead contamination was detected, indicating that lead could be a significant contributor to different causes of death. These results urge for severe restrictions on the use of lead ammunition to prevent scavengers from detrimental exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ammonia intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessman, S.P.; Pal, N.

    1982-01-01

    Data is presented which shows that there is a relation between ammonia concentration in the blood and state of consciousness. The concentrations of GTP and ATP also relate both to the ammonia concentration in blood and the state of consciousness. The rate of protein synthesis in the brain as measured by the percent of intracellular counts that are incorporated into protein is also related to ammonia concentration. These findings of energy depletion and depressed synthesis resulting from energy depletion suggest that the primary lesion in ammonia intoxication involves the Krebs cycle. The greater effect of ammonia on GTP than on ATP metabolism supports the view that the primary site of action of ammonia is at the glutamate dehydrogenase-ketoglutarate reduction step - and is consistent with previous work on this subject. (H.K.)

  9. Two cases of acute lead poisoning due to occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masanori; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Ryuichi; Endo, Yoko

    2008-04-01

    We experienced two cases of acute lead poisoning due to occupational exposure to lead. The patients were engaged in stripping off antirust compounds including Pb from a bridge and re-painting it at the same work place. Both patients exhibited colic, arthralgia, and anemia. Blood lead levels were 73.1 microg/dl and 96.3 microg/dl. Intravenous CaEDTA chelation therapy was therefore performed. After chelation, blood lead levels decreased and symptoms gradually disappeared. Although the patients were working with protective equipment, the workplace was in the mountains and there was no water for washing. The patients were thus unable to washing their hands and faces. We assume that they swallowed lead dust left on their hands and faces when they removed their clothing, and believe that this poisoning occurred due to lack of knowledge sufficient for protection.

  10. Some considerations concerning the theory of combined toxicity: a case study of subchronic experimental intoxication with cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaksin, Anatoly N; Katsnelson, Boris A; Panov, Vladimir G; Privalova, Larisa I; Kireyeva, Ekaterina P; Valamina, Irene E; Beresneva, Olga Yu

    2014-02-01

    Rats were exposed intraperitoneally (3 times a week up to 20 injections) to either Cadmium and Lead salts in doses equivalent to their 0.05 LD50 separately or combined in the same or halved doses. Toxic effects were assessed by more than 40 functional, biochemical and morphometric indices. We analysed the results obtained aiming at determination of the type of combined toxicity using either common sense considerations based on descriptive statistics or two mathematical models based (a) on ANOVA and (b) on Mathematical Theory of Experimental Design, which correspond, respectively, to the widely recognised paradigms of effect additivity and dose additivity. Nevertheless, these approaches have led us unanimously to the following conclusions: (1) The above paradigms are virtually interchangeable and should be regarded as different methods of modelling the combined toxicity rather than as reflecting fundamentally differing processes. (2) Within both models there exist not merely three traditionally used types of combined toxicity (additivity, subadditivity and superadditivity) but at least 10 variants of it depending on exactly which effect is considered and on its level, as well as on the dose levels and their ratio. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of CaNa{sub 2}EDTA on excretion of {sup 210}PB, {sup 210}Po and stable lead in cases of chronic lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, I.; Milacic, S.; Novak, Lj.; Uzelac, V.; Nesic, V

    1998-07-01

    The study describes the effect of CaNa{sub 2}EDTA on the excretion of the naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po and stable lead in workers' urine. The CaNa{sub 2}EDTA was administered intravenously to workers in the morning for five days. The results show that CaNa{sub 2}EDTA mobilises biologically active {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po and stable lead, appreciably increasing their concentration in urine. (author)

  12. Sudden onset unexplained encephalopathy in infants: think of cannabis intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Eran; Rekhtman, David; Berkun, Yackov; Wexler, Isaiah

    2016-03-01

    The use of cannabis as both a therapeutic agent and recreational drug is common, and its availability is increasing as a result of legalization in many countries. Among older children, the manifestations of cannabis intoxication are numerous and include both neurological and systemic manifestations that are frequently non-specific. There have been only a few reports detailing cannabis intoxication in infants and toddlers. We describe three infants who presented to the emergency department with encephalopathic signs without prominent systemic manifestations. During the initial interview of caregivers, no history of exposure to neurotoxic agents was obtained. All three patients were subsequently diagnosed with cannabis intoxication based on urine toxic screens for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The infants recovered with supportive care that included fluids and monitoring. The non-specific symptomatology of cannabis intoxication in infants together with the wide differential for unexplained acute onset encephalopathy may delay diagnosis and lead to inappropriate procedures and interventions such as antimicrobial treatments and imaging studies. Healthcare personnel of emergency rooms, urgent care centers, and general clinics should be aware of the potential risk of cannabis ingestion in young infants. A thorough medical history and toxic screen are warranted in all infants with unexplained decreased sensorium.

  13. A blunted anxiolytic like effect of curcumin against acute lead induced anxiety in rat: involvement of serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benammi, Hind; El Hiba, Omar; Romane, Abderrahmane; Gamrani, Halima

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders sharing extreme or pathological anxiety states as the primary disturbance in mood or emotional tone, with increased fear and exaggerated acute stress responses. Medicinal plants are very variable, but some of them are used as a spice such as curcumin (Curcuma longa). Curcumin shows a wide range of pharmacological potentialities, however, little is known about its anxiolytic properties. The aim of our study was to assess the anti-anxiety potential of curcumin extract against experimental lead induced-anxiety in rats. Experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats intoxicated acutely with an intraperitoneal injection of Pb (25mg/kg B.W.) and/or concomitantly with administration of curcumin (30 mg/kg B.W.) for 3 days. Using immunohistochemistry and anxiety assessment tests (dark light box and elevated plus maze), we evaluated, respectively, the expression of serotonin (5HT) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the anxiety state in our animals. Our results showed, for the first time, a noticeable anxiolytic effect of curcumin against lead induced anxiety in rats and this may possibly result from modulation of central neuronal monoaminergic neurotransmission, especially serotonin, which has shown a significant reduction of the immunoreactivity within the DRN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Resource utilization and outcomes of intoxicated drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Robert A; Nichols, Pamela A; Snavely, Theresa M; Camera, Lindsay J; Mauger, David T

    2010-08-05

    The high risk behavior of intoxicated drivers, impaired reaction time, lack of seat belt use, and increased incidence of head injury raises questions of whether pre-hospital use of alcohol leads to a higher injury severity score and worse clinical outcomes. We therefore compared intoxicated and non-intoxicated drivers of motor vehicle crashes with respect to outcome measurements and also describe the resources utilized to achieve those outcomes at our Level 1 trauma center. Retrospective descriptive study (Jan 2002-June 2007) of our trauma registry and financial database comparing intoxicated drivers with blood alcohol levels (BAC) > 80 mg/dl (ETOH > 80) with drivers who had a BAC of 0 mg/dl (ETOH = 0). Drivers without a BAC drawn or who had levels ranging from 1 mg/dL to 80 mg/dL were excluded. Data was collected on demographic information (age, gender, injury severity score or ISS), outcome variables (mortality, complications, ICU and hospital LOS, ventilator days) and resource utilization (ED LOS, insurance, charges, costs, payments). p 80; stratified chi square. Out of 1732 drivers, the combined study group (n = 987) of 623 ETOH = 0 and 364 ETOH > 80 had a mean age of 38.8 +/- 17.9, ISS of 18.0 +/- 12.1, and 69.8%% male. There was no difference in ISS (p = 0.67) or complications (p = 0.38). There was a trend towards decreased mortality (p = 0.06). The ETOH = 0 group had more patients with a prolonged ICU LOS (>/= 5 days), ventilator days (>/= 8 days), and hospital LOS (> 14 days) when compared to the ETOH > 80 group (p 80 group tended to be self pay (4.9% vs. 0.7%, p pay, less likely to have charges > $50K, and less likely to pay >/= 90% of the charges. Further research using multivariable analysis is needed to determine if these apparent outcomes differences are driven by acute intoxication, and the tendency for endotracheal intubation and ICU admission, rather than injury severity.

  15. Baclofen Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Bor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Baclofen is a β-(ρ-chlorophenyl derivative of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and is usually prescribed for spasticity of spinal cord origin, intractable hiccup, trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and tardive dyskinesia. The usual recommended daily dose ranges from 40-80 mg, and the total dose should not exceed 80 mg per day. A 41 year old woman using baclofen for migraine therapy intended suicide after a bitter headache attack by taking 37 tablets, 10 mg in each. On arrival to emergency room, she was conscious and co-operable, but somnolent, her pupils were normoisocoric and light reflex was intact bilaterally. On her follow up, respiratory insufficiency and unconsciousness was observed so she was entubated orotracheally and transferred to intensive care unit (ICU for advanced tests and therapy. No pathology was determined on cranial CT. On ICU follow up, she was unconscious and mechanically ventilated, her Glasgow Coma Scale was 3/15 (E1M1VE and pupils were mid-dilated with no light reflex. Since she was again conscious, oriented and co-operable on 19th hour of arrival to ICU and 20th hour of arrival to emergency room, spontaneous breathing trials was started. Extubation was carried out on her 31th hour of arrival to ICU and 32th hour of arrival to emergency room. In conclusion; since baclofen overdose may cause deep coma, it should also be included in differential diagnosis. According to our opinion, performing diagnostic toxicological tests is not always possible that’s why history and physical examination is fundamental in case of baclofen intoxication and we can get good results by giving frequent neurological examination, supportive and extracorporeal therapy in such a case.

  16. Individual prolactin reactivity modulates response of nucleus accumbens to erotic stimuli during acute cannabis intoxication: an fMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androvicova, R; Horacek, J; Tintera, J; Hlinka, J; Rydlo, J; Jezova, D; Balikova, M; Hlozek, T; Miksatkova, P; Kuchar, M; Roman, M; Tomicek, P; Tyls, F; Viktorinova, M; Palenicek, T

    2017-07-01

    Self-report studies indicate that cannabis could increase sexual desire in some users. We hypothesized that intoxication increases activation of brain areas responsive to visual erotica, which could be useful in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder, a condition marked by a lack of sexual desire. The aim of this study is to assess the aphrodisiacal properties of cannabis. We conducted an open-randomized study with 21 heterosexual casual cannabis users. A 3T MRI was used to measure brain activation in response to erotic pictures. Blood samples were collected to determine the serum levels of cannabinoids, cortisol and prolactin. Participants were grouped according to whether they had ever experienced any aphrodisiacal effects during intoxication (Group A) or not (Group non-A). Intoxication was found to significantly increase activation in the right nucleus accumbens in the Group A while significantly decreasing activation in the Group non-A. There was also a significant interaction between the group and intoxication, with elevated prolactin in the Group non-A during intoxication. No intoxication-related differences in subjective picture evaluations were found. Cannabis intoxication increases activation of the right nucleus accumbens to erotic stimuli. This effect is limited to users whose prolactin is not elevated in response to intoxication. This effect may be useful in the treatment of low sexual desire.

  17. Therapy for influenza and acute respiratory viral infection in young and middle-aged schoolchildren: Effect of Ingavirin® on intoxication, fever, and catarrhal syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Farber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the clinical results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter phase III study evaluating the clinical efficacy and safety of Ingavirin® capsules 30 mg at a daily dose of 60 mg for the treatment of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in 7–12-year-old children.The study included 310 children of both sexes. The study participants took Ingavirin® 60 mg/day or placebo for 5 days. The drug was shown to be effective in normalizing temperature and alleviating intoxication and catarrhal syndromes just at day 3 of therapy. Ingavirin® was demonstrated to considerably reduce the risk of bacterial complications of ARVI/influenza, which require antibiotic therapy, which is important for clinical use in children. This clinical trial has shown the high safety and tolerance of the drug. Ingavirin® contributes to accelerated virus elimination, shorter disease duration, and lower risk of complications.

  18. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  19. [Intoxications with plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Jacqueline; Reichert, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Ingestions of plants rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic plants, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with plants of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These plants are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of plant material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the plants. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are plants with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous plants belong to this group. Plants of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different plants are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of plant material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic plants. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing plants (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at

  20. [Intentional paracetamol intoxication in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, L.L.; Bisschops, W.A.; Vroegop, M.P.; Rossum, L.K. van; Kramers, C.

    2011-01-01

    As paracetamol is widely used and easily available acetaminophen auto-intoxication is frequently seen. In the majority of patients no complications will occur, but in a small group it may lead to liver damage and death. Children are less susceptible to complications than adults. Cornerstone of

  1. Chelation in Metal Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J.S. Flora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications.

  2. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-01-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism. (orig.) [de

  3. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichte, B.; Ritzau, F.; Assmann, H.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  4. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  5. Severe Neurotoxicity Following Ingestion of Tetraethyl Lead

    OpenAIRE

    Wills, Brandon K.; Christensen, Jason; Mazzoncini, Joe; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Organic lead compounds are potent neurotoxins which can result in death even from small exposures. Traditionally, these compounds are found in fuel stabilizers, anti-knock agents, and leaded gasoline. Cases of acute organic lead intoxication have not been reported for several decades. We report a case of a 13-year-old Iraqi male who unintentionally ingested a fuel stabilizer containing 80–90% tetraethyl lead, managed at our combat support hospital. The patient developed severe neurologic symp...

  6. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurdak, M.; Wolstein, J.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized

  7. Acute Intoxication following Dimethyltryptamine Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Kristan V.; Wiegand, Timothy J.; Gorodetsky, Rachel M.

    2018-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis. This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage. A review of ayahuasca toxicity and evaluation of serious adverse effects is also presented. PMID:29682363

  8. Acute Intoxication following Dimethyltryptamine Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. Bilhimer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis. This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT, a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage. A review of ayahuasca toxicity and evaluation of serious adverse effects is also presented.

  9. Rapid Onset Acute Epiglottitis Leading to Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Saraswat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary edema is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute airway obstruction. It develops rapidly, without warning, in young healthy individuals. Two forms of post-obstructive pulmonary edema (POPE (also known as negative pressure pulmonary edema, NPPE have been identified. POPE I follows sudden, severe upper airway obstruction. POPE II occurs following surgical relief of chronic upper airway obstruction. Treatment for both is supportive. Full and rapid recovery can be expected with appropriate management. A case report of a middle aged man with acute onset epiglottitis who developed negative pressure pulmonary edema after intubation is presented. The report includes a brief discussion on etiology, clinical features and management dilemma of acute upper airway obstruction.

  10. Obstrucción aguda de la vía respiratoria superior y rabdomiolisis luego de intoxicación por tintura para el cabello Acute upper respiratory obstruction and rhabdomiolysis due to intoxication with a hair dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Arroyave

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Las intoxicaciones por tinturas para el cabello son infrecuentes en Antioquia; sin embargo, su toxicidad es potencialmente letal cuando ingresan al organismo por vía oral al producir un compromiso multiorgánico que puede llevar a la muerte del paciente. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 2 años que ingirió una dosis de 125 mg/kg de parafenilendiamina, asociada a ácido bórico y perborato de sodio, compuestos que hacen parte de una presentación comercial de una tintura para el cabello; la intoxicación por parafenilendiamina tuvo como consecuencia principal la obstrucción de la vía aérea por angioedema que requirió intubación endotraqueal, soporte ventilatorio y administración de esteroides y antihistamínicos; secundario al compromiso aéreo la paciente presentó edema agudo de pulmón y posteriormente un cuadro neumónico que requirió tratamiento con antibióticos. Adicionalmente presentó rabdomiolisis severa que se trató con líquidos endovenosos para que no se comprometiera la función renal. Luego de una terapia durante 10 días en el hospital, la niña fue dada de alta con resolución completa del cuadro tóxico. Se revisan los posibles mecanismos fisiopatológicos, las manifestaciones clínicas y el tratamiento de la intoxicación por parafenilendiamina, dado que este fue el compuesto tóxico clínicamente importante en el contexto de este caso. There have been few cases reported of intoxication by hair dyes in Antioquia; however, their toxicity may be potentially lethal when their components enter the organism by oral route inducing a multiorganic compromise that may lead to death. We report the case of a two year old girl who ingested 125mg/kg of paraphenylenediamine, with boric acid and sodium perborate; these compounds are part of the commercial presentation of a hair dye; the child suffered airway obstruction because of angioedema that required intubation, ventila tory support, steroids and antihistaminics; due to

  11. Rapid Onset Acute Epiglottitis Leading to Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    V Saraswat; P V Madhu; Suresh S Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute airway obstruction. It develops rapidly, without warning, in young healthy individuals. Two forms of post-obstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) (also known as negative pressure pulmonary edema, NPPE) have been identified. POPE I follows sudden, severe upper airway obstruction. POPE II occurs following surgical relief of chronic upper airway obstruction. Treatment for both is supportive. Full and rapid recovery can be expecte...

  12. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure following multiple hornet stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambery Pradeep

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hornet stings are generally associated with local and occasionally anaphylactic reactions. Rarely systemic complications like acute renal failure can occur following multiple stings. Renal failure is usually due to development of acute tubular necrosis as a result of intravascular haemolysis, rhabdomyolysis or shock. Rarely it can be following development of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis. Case presentation We describe a young male, who was stung on face, head, shoulders and upper limbs by multiple hornets (Vespa orientalis. He developed acute renal failure as a result of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis and responded to steroids. Conclusion Rare causes of acute renal failure like tubulo-interstitial nephritis should be considered in a patient with persistent oliguria and azotemia following multiple hornet stings. Renal biopsy should be undertaken early, as institution of steroid therapy may help in recovery of renal function

  13. Guillain Barre syndrome: the leading cause of acute flaccid paralysis in Hazara division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis-ur-Rehman; Idris, Muhammad; Elahi, Manzoor; Jamshed; Arif, Adeel

    2007-01-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) can be caused by a number of conditions. A common preventable cause is poliomyelitis which is still being reported in Pakistan, Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS), also known as Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy, is another common cause of acute flaccid paralysis. It is important to recognize GBS in childhood as parents consider all acute flaccid paralysis to be due to poliomyelitis. The present study was designed to know the frequency of different causes of acute flaccid paralysis in Hazara division. This is a retrospective analysis of cases of acute flaccid paralysis reported from various districts of Hazara division during the period January 2003 to December 2004. Acute flaccid paralysis was diagnosed clinically through history and clinical examination. The underlying cause of acute flaccid paralysis was investigated by appropriate laboratory tests, such as serum electrolytes, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, electromyogram, nerve conduction study and stool culture for polio virus and other enteroviruses. Diagnosis of Poliomyelitis was confirmed by stool testing for poliovirus. 74 patients presented with AFP during the study period. 36 were male and 38 were female. Guillain Barre syndrome and enteroviral encephalopathy were the two leading causes of acute flaccid paralysis. Majority of the cases were reported from Mansehra district. Children of age groups 12 to 24 months and > 96 months constituted the majority (20% each). Guillian Barre syndrome was the leading cause of acute flaccid paralysis reported from various parts of Hazara division.

  14. Intoxication with natural sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropilova, D.; Toropila, M.; Tomko, M.; Takac, L.; Fric, M.

    2015-01-01

    The authors of this article deal with intoxication of the organism with natural resources. As objects of our interest we chose some interchangeable types of fungi which cause severe intoxication of gastrointestinal tract: Scleroderma citrinum, Boletus luridus var. rubriceps (Maire) Dermek, Boletus satanas, Agaricus xanthodermus and poisonous plants affect mainly digestive tract such as Sambucus nigra L. (elderberry). Sambucus ebulus L. (European dwarf elder), Viburnum lantana L. (wayfaring tree), Viburnum opulus (guelder-rose), Rhamnus cathartica (purging buckthorn).

  15. Case of acute lead poisoning in a dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, C M

    1970-02-14

    A six month old male Pug dog died after displaying symptoms which included excessive salivation, chomping of the jaws and arching of the neck. At post-mortem examination, abnormally high levels of lead were found in the liver and kidneys. The dog was observed to have been chewing old wood with flakes of paint in the days immediately preceding the onset of symptoms. Post mortem examination for lead levels in vital organs is recommended in cases where young dogs die with symptoms of nervous disorder. 6 references.

  16. Acute evaluation of transthoracic impedance vectors using ICD leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfridsson, Christer; Daum, Douglas; Kennergren, Charles; Ramuzat, Agnès; Willems, Roger; Edvardsson, Nils

    2009-06-01

    Minute ventilation (MV) has been proven to be very useful in rate responsive pacing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads as part of the MV detection system. At implant in 10 patients, the transthoracic impedance was measured from tripolar ICD, tetrapolar ICD, and atrial lead vectors during normal, deep, and shallow voluntary respiration. MV and respiration rate (RespR) were simultaneously measured through a facemask with a pneumotachometer (Korr), and the correlations with impedance-based measurements were calculated. Air sensitivity was the change in impedance per change in respiratory tidal volume, ohms (Omega)/liter (L), and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was the ratio of the respiratory and cardiac contraction components. The air sensitivity and SNR in tripolar ICD vector were 2.70 +/- 2.73 ohm/L and 2.19 +/- 1.31, respectively, and were not different from tetrapolar. The difference in RespR between tripolar ICD and Korr was 0.2 +/- 1.91 breaths/minute. The regressed correlation coefficient between impedance MV and Korr MV was 0.86 +/- 0.07 in tripolar ICD. The air sensitivity and SNR in tripolar and tetrapolar ICD lead vectors did not differ significantly and were in the range of the values in pacemaker leads currently used as MV sensors. The good correlations between impedance-based and Korr-based RespR and MV measurements imply that ICD leads may be used in MV sensor systems.

  17. Fatal cocaine intoxication in a body packer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajković Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ‘Body packer’ syndrome with severe intoxication or sudden death may happen in persons who smuggle drugs in their body cavities. In case of lethal outcome when carrying cocaine, it is important, but sometimes difficult to determine whether death was due to intoxication or due to other causes. Therefore, it is necessary not only to quantify cocaine and its metabolites in biological material, but also based on their distribution in body fluids and tissues to conclude whether it is acute intoxication. We described a well-documented case of fatal poisoning in a body packer and post mortem distribution of the drug in biological samples. Case report. A 26-year-old man was brought to hospital with no vital signs. Resuscitation measures started at once, but with no success. Autopsy revealed 66 packets of cocaine in his digestive tract, one of which was ruptured. Hyperemia of the most of all internal organs and pulmonary and brain edema were found. High concentrations of cocaine, its metabolites benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, as well as cocaine adulteration levamisole were proven in the post mortem blood and tissues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MC method with selective-ion monitoring. Conclusion. The ratio of cocaine and its metabolites concentrations in the brain and blood obtained by LC-MS method can be used for forensic confirmation of acute intoxication with cocaine.

  18. THE ROLE OF ENTEROSORBENTS IN TREATMENT OF ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Ursova

    2012-01-01

    Usage of enterosorbents in treatment of almost all types of acute and chronic disorders accompanied with endogenous intoxication syndrome takes on special significance. The critical point of endogenous intoxication pathogenesis is dysfunction of microbiocenosis and intestinal barrier. The necessity of enterosorbents usage is very high due to their efficacy, safety and wide availability. Smectite dioctaedric (diosmectite), which has been successfully used in clinical practice for a long period...

  19. Thallium intoxication. Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojáková, Michaela; Žigrai, Miroslav; Karaman, Andrej; Plačková, Silvia; Klepancová, Petra; Hrušovský, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of serious voluntary intoxication by laboratory thallium monobromate combined with alcohol intake by a 24-years old man. The diagnosis of thallium intoxication was based on history, nonspecific but typical clinical symptoms including gastrointestinal complaints, painful polyneuropathy, alopecia, and confirmed by the finding of increased thallium concentration in the urine. The treatment, performed at the due time, consisted of decontamination of the stomach by irrigation, administration of active charcoal and Prussian blue, correction of water and mineral dysbalance, symptomatic treatment, and led to complete recovery.

  20. LABORATORY EXAMINATION IN NERVE AGENT INTOXICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Bajgar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of nerve agent intoxication is based on anamnestic data, clinical signs and laboratory examination. For acute poisoning, cholinesterase activity in the blood (erythrocyte AChE, plasma/serum BuChE is sensitive, simple and most frequent laboratory examination performed in biochemical laboratories. Specialized examinations to precise treatment (reactivation test or to make retrospective diagnosis (fluoride induced reactivation etc. can be conducted. Other sophisticated methods are available, too.

  1. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = - 1.18), binge drinking (d = - 1.61) and drunkenness (d = - 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588).

  2. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of

  3. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of

  4. Driving While Intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  5. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological...... prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads...... to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%....

  6. Acute MUS81 depletion leads to replication fork slowing and a constitutive DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Meichun; Wang, Xiaohui; Palmai-Pallag, Timea

    2015-01-01

    have investigated the role of MUS81 in human cells by acutely depleting the protein using shRNAs. We found that MUS81 depletion from human fibroblasts leads to accumulation of ssDNA and a constitutive DNA damage response that ultimately activates cellular senescence. Moreover, we show that MUS81...

  7. Lead Poisoning Can Be Easily Misdiagnosed as Acute Porphyria and Nonspecific Abdominal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ta Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning (LP is less commonly encountered in emergency departments (ED. However, lead exposure still occurs, and new sources of poisoning have emerged. LP often goes unrecognized due to a low index of suspicion and nonspecific symptoms. We present a case of a 48-year-old man who had recurring abdominal pain with anemia that was misdiagnosed. His condition was initially diagnosed as nonspecific abdominal pain and acute porphyria. Acute porphyria-like symptoms with a positive urine porphyrin test result led to the misdiagnosis; testing for heme precursors in urine is the key to the differential diagnosis between LP and acute porphyria. The final definitive diagnosis of lead toxicity was confirmed based on high blood lead levels after detailed medical history taking. The lead poisoning was caused by traditional Chinese herbal pills. The abdominal pain disappeared after a course of chelating treatment. The triad for the diagnosis of lead poisoning should be a history of medicine intake, anemia with basophilic stippling, and recurrent abdominal pain.

  8. An overview of exposure to ethanol-containing substances and ethanol intoxication in children based on three illustrated cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction and intoxication are major health problems worldwide. Acute alcohol intoxication is well reported in adults and adolescents but less frequently reported in children of younger ages. We report three anonymized cases of pediatric ethanol exposure and illustrate the different mechanisms of intoxication. In all cases, a focused history is the key to prompt diagnosis and timely management. Physicians should be aware of this potential poison in children presented with acute confusional or encephalopathic state. In contrast, neonates with ethanol intoxication may present with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptomatology. Urgent exclusion of sepsis, electrolyte imbalance, drug intoxication, and surgical abdominal condition is critical. Using these illustrated cases, we performed a narrative literature review on issues of exposure to ethanol-containing substances and ethanol intoxication in children. In conclusion, a high level of suspicion and interrogation on ethanol or substance use are essential particularly in the lactating mother for an accurate and timely diagnosis of ethanol intoxication to be made.

  9. [Intoxication of botulinum toxin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzicka, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  10. Acute exposure to lead increases myocardial contractility independent of hypertension development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioresi, M.; Furieri, L.B.; Simões, M.R.; Ribeiro, R.F. Junior; Meira, E.F.; Fernandes, A.A.; Stefanon, I.; Vassallo, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of the acute administration of small doses of lead over time on hemodynamic parameters in anesthetized rats to determine if myocardial contractility changes are dependent or not on the development of hypertension. Male Wistar rats received 320 µg/kg lead acetate iv once, and their hemodynamic parameters were measured for 2 h. Cardiac contractility was evaluated in vitro using left ventricular papillary muscles as were Na + ,K + -ATPase and myosin Ca 2+ -ATPase activities. Lead increased left- (control: 112 ± 3.7 vs lead: 129 ± 3.2 mmHg) and right-ventricular systolic pressures (control: 28 ± 1.2 vs lead: 34 ± 1.2 mmHg) significantly without modifying heart rate. Papillary muscles were exposed to 8 µM lead acetate and evaluated 60 min later. Isometric contractions increased (control: 0.546 ± 0.07 vs lead: 0.608 ± 0.06 g/mg) and time to peak tension decreased (control: 268 ± 13 vs lead: 227 ± 5.58 ms), but relaxation time was unchanged. Post-pause potentiation was similar between groups (n = 6 per group), suggesting no change in sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, evaluated indirectly by this protocol. After 1-h exposure to lead acetate, the papillary muscles became hyperactive in response to a β-adrenergic agonist (10 µM isoproterenol). In addition, post-rest contractions decreased, suggesting a reduction in sarcolemmal calcium influx. The heart samples treated with 8 µM lead acetate presented increased Na + ,K + -ATPase (approximately 140%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) and myosin ATPase (approximately 30%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) activity. Our results indicated that acute exposure to low lead concentrations produces direct positive inotropic and lusitropic effects on myocardial contractility and increases the right and left ventricular systolic pressure, thus potentially contributing to the early development of hypertension

  11. Intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucurescu, I.; Stan, T.

    1990-01-01

    The changes in the particular number of animals in two groups of 40 rats each subjected to intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate was investigated. The two investigations had very different characteristics. In the case of chronic intoxication there was a marked lethality over given time intervals. In the case of subacute intoxication the number of animals decreased with time. It was found empirically that this change can be described by an exponential relationship which lends itself to statistical interpretation. (author)

  12. Transient ST-segment elevation in precordial leads by acute marginal branch occlusion during stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzola, Leidimar Carballo; Esteban, Marcos T Rodríguez; Niebla, Javier García

    2016-01-01

    The isolated right ventricular infarction is a rare entity. Our case presented a selective occlusion of an acute marginal branch that supplies the right ventricular free wall with isolated ST elevation in precordial leads simulating an occlusion of the left anterior descending artery and without pseudonormalization in inferior due to the non-involvement of the main branch in the ischemic process. Our case clearly illustrates a rare differential diagnosis when a new ST segment elevation appears in earlier precordial leads in patients with symptoms of myocardial ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tea of thornapple leaves: a rare cause of atropine intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamens, D.; de Hert, S.; Vermeyen, K.

    1994-01-01

    A patient was admitted with signs of an acute psychosis. There was no clear history of drug intake nor injury. The presenting clinical symptoms were similar to those of an atropine intoxication. This was later confirmed on toxicological screening of the urine. This alkaloid was ingested by means of

  14. Chelation in metal intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Cao, yang

    2015-01-01

    The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due to the incon......The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due...... to the inconvenience of parenteral administration, their own toxicity and tendency to increase the neurotoxicity of several metals. The hydrophilic dithiol chelators DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) and DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate) are less toxic and more efficient than BAL in the clinical treatment...... of heavy metal poisoning, and available as capsules for oral use. In copper overload, DMSA appears to be a potent antidote, although d-penicillamine is still widely used. In the chelation of iron, the thiols are inefficient, since iron has higher affinity for ligands with nitrogen and oxygen, but the new...

  15. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Acute exposure to lead increases myocardial contractility independent of hypertension development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fioresi, M. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Departamento de Enfermagem, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Furieri, L.B.; Simões, M.R.; Ribeiro, R.F. Junior; Meira, E.F.; Fernandes, A.A.; Stefanon, I. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Vassallo, D.V. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro de Ciências da Saúde de Vitória, Escola Superior de Ciências da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2013-02-01

    We studied the effects of the acute administration of small doses of lead over time on hemodynamic parameters in anesthetized rats to determine if myocardial contractility changes are dependent or not on the development of hypertension. Male Wistar rats received 320 µg/kg lead acetate iv once, and their hemodynamic parameters were measured for 2 h. Cardiac contractility was evaluated in vitro using left ventricular papillary muscles as were Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase and myosin Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities. Lead increased left- (control: 112 ± 3.7 vs lead: 129 ± 3.2 mmHg) and right-ventricular systolic pressures (control: 28 ± 1.2 vs lead: 34 ± 1.2 mmHg) significantly without modifying heart rate. Papillary muscles were exposed to 8 µM lead acetate and evaluated 60 min later. Isometric contractions increased (control: 0.546 ± 0.07 vs lead: 0.608 ± 0.06 g/mg) and time to peak tension decreased (control: 268 ± 13 vs lead: 227 ± 5.58 ms), but relaxation time was unchanged. Post-pause potentiation was similar between groups (n = 6 per group), suggesting no change in sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, evaluated indirectly by this protocol. After 1-h exposure to lead acetate, the papillary muscles became hyperactive in response to a β-adrenergic agonist (10 µM isoproterenol). In addition, post-rest contractions decreased, suggesting a reduction in sarcolemmal calcium influx. The heart samples treated with 8 µM lead acetate presented increased Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase (approximately 140%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) and myosin ATPase (approximately 30%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) activity. Our results indicated that acute exposure to low lead concentrations produces direct positive inotropic and lusitropic effects on myocardial contractility and increases the right and left ventricular systolic pressure, thus potentially contributing to the early development of hypertension.

  17. Immediate and Long-Term Outcome of Acute H2S Intoxication Induced Coma in Unanesthetized Rats: Effects of Methylene Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonobe, Takashi; Chenuel, Bruno; Cooper, Timothy K; Haouzi, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Acute hydrogen sulfide (H2S) poisoning produces a coma, the outcome of which ranges from full recovery to severe neurological deficits. The aim of our study was to 1--describe the immediate and long-term neurological effects following H2S-induced coma in un-anesthetized rats, and 2--determine the potential benefit of methylene blue (MB), a compound we previously found to counteract acute sulfide cardiac toxicity. NaHS was administered IP in un-sedated rats to produce a coma (n = 34). One minute into coma, the rats received MB (4 mg/kg i.v.) or saline. The surviving rats were followed clinically and assigned to Morris water maze (MWM) and open field testing then sacrificed at day 7. Sixty percent of the non-treated comatose rats died by pulseless electrical activity. Nine percent recovered with neurological deficits requiring euthanasia, their brain examination revealed major neuronal necrosis of the superficial and middle layers of the cerebral cortex and the posterior thalamus, with variable necrosis of the caudate putamen, but no lesions of the hippocampus or the cerebellum, in contrast to the typical distribution of post-ischemic lesions. The remaining animals displayed, on average, a significantly less effective search strategy than the control rats (n = 21) during MWM testing. Meanwhile, 75% of rats that received MB survived and could perform the MWM test (Pcoma, spatial search patterns were used less frequently than in control animals. A small percentage of rats presented necrotic neuronal lesions, which distribution differed from post-ischemic lesions. MB dramatically improved the immediate survival and spatial search strategy in the surviving rats.

  18. Immediate and Long-Term Outcome of Acute H2S Intoxication Induced Coma in Unanesthetized Rats: Effects of Methylene Blue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sonobe

    Full Text Available Acute hydrogen sulfide (H2S poisoning produces a coma, the outcome of which ranges from full recovery to severe neurological deficits. The aim of our study was to 1--describe the immediate and long-term neurological effects following H2S-induced coma in un-anesthetized rats, and 2--determine the potential benefit of methylene blue (MB, a compound we previously found to counteract acute sulfide cardiac toxicity.NaHS was administered IP in un-sedated rats to produce a coma (n = 34. One minute into coma, the rats received MB (4 mg/kg i.v. or saline. The surviving rats were followed clinically and assigned to Morris water maze (MWM and open field testing then sacrificed at day 7.Sixty percent of the non-treated comatose rats died by pulseless electrical activity. Nine percent recovered with neurological deficits requiring euthanasia, their brain examination revealed major neuronal necrosis of the superficial and middle layers of the cerebral cortex and the posterior thalamus, with variable necrosis of the caudate putamen, but no lesions of the hippocampus or the cerebellum, in contrast to the typical distribution of post-ischemic lesions. The remaining animals displayed, on average, a significantly less effective search strategy than the control rats (n = 21 during MWM testing. Meanwhile, 75% of rats that received MB survived and could perform the MWM test (P<0.05 vs non-treated animals. The treated animals displayed a significantly higher occurrence of spatial search than the non-treated animals. However, a similar proportion of cortical necrosis was observed in both groups, with a milder clinical presentation following MB.In conclusion, in rats surviving H2S induced coma, spatial search patterns were used less frequently than in control animals. A small percentage of rats presented necrotic neuronal lesions, which distribution differed from post-ischemic lesions. MB dramatically improved the immediate survival and spatial search strategy in the

  19. Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, A. S.; Prichard, J. S.; Freedman, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4691106

  20. THE ROLE OF ENTEROSORBENTS IN TREATMENT OF ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ursova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage of enterosorbents in treatment of almost all types of acute and chronic disorders accompanied with endogenous intoxication syndrome takes on special significance. The critical point of endogenous intoxication pathogenesis is dysfunction of microbiocenosis and intestinal barrier. The necessity of enterosorbents usage is very high due to their efficacy, safety and wide availability. Smectite dioctaedric (diosmectite, which has been successfully used in clinical practice for a long period of time, is of an increased interest among the natural enterosorbents. The main quality of diosmectite is its restoration effect on the microbiocenisis and intestinal barrier function, and with a high degree of evidence-based efficacy and safety.

  1. Correction of Oxygen Transport and Metabolic Disturbances in Acute Poisoning by Neurotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Livanov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to examine the capacities of pharmacological correction of impairments in oxygen-transporting systems and metabolic processes with perfluorane and cytoflavin in critically ill patients with acute intoxication with neurotropic poisons.Subjects and methods. Metabolic sequels of severe hypoxia, free radical processes, and endogenous intoxications were studied in 62 patients with the severest acute intoxication with neurotropic poisons.Results. The studies have established that hypoxia and metabolic changes lead to the development of endotoxicosis. Intensifying endotoxicosis in turn enhances hypoxic lesion. Thus, the major task of intensive care is to restore oxygen delivery and to diminish metabolic disturbances and endotoxicosis. Ways of correcting hypoxia and metabolic disturbances are considered in the severe forms of acute poisoning. 

  2. Associations between bar patron alcohol intoxication and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L; O'Mara, Ryan J; Bastian, Nicholas; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2013-11-01

    To examine the event-specific relationship between alcohol intoxication and nighttime tobacco smoking among college bar patrons. In this secondary analysis of existing data, we examined event-specific associations between self-report measures of tobacco smoking and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) readings obtained from 424 patrons exiting on-premise drinking establishments. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, acute alcohol intoxication was positively associated with same-night incidents of smoking tobacco, adjusting for the effects of established smoking practices and other potential confounders. This investigation is the first known study using data collected in an on-premise drinking setting to link alcohol intoxication to specific incidents of tobacco smoking.

  3. Predictors of Poor Prognosis in Aluminum Phosphide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhredin Taghaddosi Nejad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aluminum phosphide as a fumigant is extensively used for wheat preservation from rodents and bugs especially in silos worldwide. There is increasing number of acute intoxication with this potentially lethal compound because of its easy availability. We have tried to locate predictors of poor prognosis in patients with aluminum phosphide intoxication in order to find patients who need more strict medical cares. Methods: All cases of aluminum phosphide intoxication that had been referred to our hospital during April 2008 to March 2010 were studied by their medical dossiers. Pertinent data including vital signs, demographic features, clinical and lab findings, and incidence of any complication were collected and analyzed by the relevant statistical methods. Results: Sixty seven cases of aluminum phosphide intoxication were included in the study. 44.8% of them were male. 97% of cases were suicidal. Mean amount of ingestion was 1.23+/- 0.71 tablets. Mortality rate was 41.8%. ECG abnormality and need for mechanical ventilation had negative relation with outcome. Conclusion: Correlation between some findings and complications with outcome in aluminum phosphide intoxication can be used as guidance for risk assessment and treatment planning in the patients.

  4. A case of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Sari Dogan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute hepatitis is characterized by liver inflammation and liver cell necrosis. The most frequently observed underlying cause thereof is viruses, but various other causes, such as alcohol, medication, or toxins may also lead thereto.In this paper, a case of acute hepatitis presenting with bradycardia, hypotension, and a prominent increase in liver enzymes following mad honey ingestion is discussed. Since there are only few cases of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion in the literature, we want to present this subject matter. Keywords: Mad honey poisoning, Mad honey intoxication, Bradycardia, Hypotension, Acute hepatitis

  5. Rheumatoid myositis leading to acute lower extremity compartment syndrome: a case-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Daniel; Pompa, Tiffany; Khalil, Ambreen; Kong, Frank; Wetz, Robert; Goldstein, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Muscle pain and weakness in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient has a broad differential, and myositis should be considered early in the disease course as serious limb and life-threatening sequelae may occur. A 55-year-old woman with a past medical history of methotrexate-controlled RA presented with right leg pain for 4 days. The patient suffered sensory loss in the right foot and decreased strength in the toes. Lab tests revealed elevated creatine kinase, ESR, and anti-rheumatoid factor antibody titers. CT scan revealed myositis of posterior compartment muscles. Progressive edema, pain, and neuromuscular deficits persisted despite steroid and antibiotic therapy, so the patient was taken for urgent fasciotomy for acute compartment syndrome. The muscle biopsy showed diffuse mononuclear cell infiltration as well as perivascular and perineural involvement consistent with rheumatoid myositis (RM). The patient did well post-op on a prednisone taper. This case underlines the systemic nature of RA and exemplifies the severity of inflammation that may lead to grave consequences such as compartment syndrome. The histopathology is diagnostic when there is evidence of mononuclear cell infiltration; however, this is not entirely specific. Early, aggressive therapy with immunosuppressives is warranted in such patients. RM has not, to our knowledge, been recorded to cause acute compartment syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of this uncommon manifestation of RA keeping the various presentations of rheumatoid disease in mind when faced with these patients.

  6. Leading clinical handover improvement: a change strategy to implement best practices in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christina M; Persaud, Drepaul David

    2011-03-01

    Many contemporary acute care facilities lack safe and effective clinical handover practices resulting in patient transitions that are vulnerable to discontinuities in care, medical errors, and adverse patient safety events. This article is intended to supplement existing handover improvement literature by providing practical guidance for leaders and managers who are seeking to improve the safety and the effectiveness of clinical handovers in the acute care setting. A 4-stage change model has been applied to guide the application of strategies for handover improvement. Change management and quality improvement principles, as well as concepts drawn from safety science and high-reliability organizations, were applied to inform strategies. A model for handover improvement respecting handover complexity is presented. Strategies targeted to stages of change include the following: 1. Enhancing awareness of handover problems and opportunities with the support of strategic directions, accountability, end user involvement, and problem complexity recognition. 2. Identifying solutions by applying and adapting best practices in local contexts. 3. Implementing locally adapted best practices supported by communication, documentation, and training. 4. Institutionalizing practice changes through integration, monitoring, and active dissemination. Finally, continued evaluation at every stage is essential. Although gaps in handover process and function knowledge remain, efforts to improve handover safety and effectiveness are still possible. Continued evaluation is critical in building this understanding and to ensure that practice changes lead to improvements in patient safety, organizational effectiveness, and patient and provider satisfaction. Through handover knowledge building, fundamental changes in handover policies and practices may be possible.

  7. Utility of lead aVR for identifying the culprit lesion in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; Berg, Ronan M G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lead aVR is a neglected, however, potentially useful tool in electrocardiography. Our aim was to evaluate its value in clinical practice, by reviewing existing literature regarding its utility for identifying the culprit lesion in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Based...... on a systematic search strategy, 16 studies were assessed with the intent to pool data; diagnostic test rates were calculated as key results. RESULTS: Five studies investigated if ST-segment elevation (STE) in aVR is valuable for the diagnosis of left main stem stenosis (LMS) in non-ST-segment AMI (NSTEMI......). The studies were too heterogeneous to pool, but the individual studies all showed that STE in aVR has a high negative predictive value (NPV) for LMS. Six studies evaluated if STE in aVR is valuable for distinguishing proximal from distal lesions in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) in anterior ST...

  8. Delayed Encephalopathy of Carbon Monoxide Intoxication and Treatment with Hyperbaric Oxygen: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Polat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy (DE is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that can arise generally within 20 days of acute carbon monoxide (CO intoxication after apparent recovery and involves variable degrees of cognitive deficits, personality changes, movement disorders and focal neurologic deficits. We report a 35-year-old female patient with delayed encephalopathy due to CO intoxication, presenting with cognitive impairment and mild parkinsonism despite receiving hyberbaric oxigen therapy (HBO. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signal intensity and decreased diffusivity at both caudate nuclei and globus pallidus. She continued to receive additional HBO therapy and complete recovery was reached within six months. The positive effect of early HBO therapy of selected patients in reversing the acute effects of CO intoxication is appearant. We here also review the beneficial effect of HBO in preventing or limitating the late neurocognitive deficits associated with severe CO intoxication

  9. PROTEOSE INTOXICATIONS AND INJURY OF BODY PROTEIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, J. V.; Whipple, G. H.

    1918-01-01

    Sterile abscess formation in the dog is accompanied by a large increase in output of urinary nitrogen and also by a small but definite increase in the blood non-protein nitrogen. All this nitrogenous material of course is derived from body protein injury and autolysis. Septic inflammation in the dog (pleurisy, pneumonia, peritonitis, etc.) likewise shows a distinct rise in the blood non-protein nitrogen. This rise is not often so great as that frequently observed in the intoxication of intestinal obstruction. Many acute infections in man (septicemia, peritonitis, pneumonia, etc.) show a definite rise in the non-protein nitrogen and urea nitrogen of the blood; some cases show a very great rise above normal (over 100 mg. of non-protein nitrogen per 100 cc. of blood). There may be no anatomical change in the kidney beyond the familiar picture of cloudy swelling. This does not exclude the possibility of some transient functional derangement of the kidney epithelium. Certain obscure intoxications in man may show a considerable rise in the non-protein nitrogen of the blood, indicating a large amount of protein disintegration. These findings must be taken into account in any clinical analysis and interpretation of high non-protein nitrogen of the blood in pathological conditions. PMID:19868253

  10. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%.

  11. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  12. Gender, age, and educational level attribute to blood alcohol concentration in hospitalized intoxicated adolescents: A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zanten, Eva; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of adolescents hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication, mainly because of severe reduced consciousness, is increasing. However, the characteristics of these adolescents are mainly unidentified. In this clinical research, we aimed to identify factors that attribute to

  13. Skeletal alterations in case of chronic exogenous intoxications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    A roentgenologic picture of characteristic bone alterations observed in chronic intoxications with phosphorus, lead, fluorine or their compounds is presented. Precise diagnosis of the disease, correct interpretation of roentgenologically revealed injuries become possible only with account of the corresponding analysis data and general clinical examination of a patient

  14. Atropa belladonna intoxication: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; Chetouani, Khadija; Harandou, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Atropa belladonna is a poisonous plant also called deadly nightshade. Its roots, leaves and fruits contain alkaloids: atropine, hyocyamine and scopolamine. The risk of poisoning in children is important because of possible confusion with other berries. Atropa belladonna acute intoxication is a severe condition, it's should be considered in the presence of anti-cholinergic toxidrome, the differential diagnosis include other plants or psychoactive drugs containing atropine. The treatment is mainly symptomatic including gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal. In severe cases, physostigmine can be used as an antidote. We report the case of 11 year old girl with Atropa belladonna poisoning which was administrated in a therapeutic purpose as a remedy to jaundice. The child presented essentially a central anti-cholinergic syndrome. She was admitted in the intensive care unit, the progression was favorable with symptomatic treatment.

  15. Ionoregulatory disruption as the acute toxic mechanism for lead in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.; Richards, J.G.; Wood, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism for acute toxicity of lead (Pb) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated at Pb concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 of 1.0 mg dissolved Pb l -1 (0.8-1.4, 95% C.I.) determined in dechlorinated Hamilton city tap water (from Lake Ontario, hardness=140 mg l -1 CaCO 3 ). Tissue Pb accumulation associated with death was highest in the gill, followed by kidney and liver. Significant ionoregulatory impacts were observed in adult rainbow trout (200-300 g) fitted with indwelling dorsal aortic catheters and exposed to 1.1±0.04 mg dissolved Pb l -1 . Decreased plasma [Ca 2+ ], [Na + ] and [Cl - ] occurred after 48 h of exposure through to 120 h, with increases in plasma [Mg 2+ ], ammonia, and cortisol. No marked changes in PaO 2 , PaCO 2 , pH, glucose, or hematological parameters were evident. Branchial Na + /K + ATPase activity in juvenile trout exposed to concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 was inhibited by approximately 40% after 48 h of Pb exposure. Calcium ion flux measurements using 45 Ca as a radiotracer showed 65% inhibition of Ca 2+ influx after 0, 12, 24 or 48 h exposure to the 96 h LC50 concentration of Pb. There was also significant inhibition (40-50%) of both Na + and Cl - uptake, measured with 22 Na and 36 Cl simultaneously. We conclude that the mechanism of acute toxicity for Pb in rainbow trout occurs by ionoregulatory disruption rather than respiratory or acid/base distress at Pb concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 in moderately hard water

  16. Ionoregulatory disruption as the acute toxic mechanism for lead in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.T.; Richards, J.G.; Wood, C.M

    2003-07-16

    The mechanism for acute toxicity of lead (Pb) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated at Pb concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 of 1.0 mg dissolved Pb l{sup -1} (0.8-1.4, 95% C.I.) determined in dechlorinated Hamilton city tap water (from Lake Ontario, hardness=140 mg l{sup -1} CaCO{sub 3}). Tissue Pb accumulation associated with death was highest in the gill, followed by kidney and liver. Significant ionoregulatory impacts were observed in adult rainbow trout (200-300 g) fitted with indwelling dorsal aortic catheters and exposed to 1.1{+-}0.04 mg dissolved Pb l{sup -1}. Decreased plasma [Ca{sup 2+}], [Na{sup +}] and [Cl{sup -}] occurred after 48 h of exposure through to 120 h, with increases in plasma [Mg{sup 2+}], ammonia, and cortisol. No marked changes in PaO{sub 2}, PaCO{sub 2}, pH, glucose, or hematological parameters were evident. Branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity in juvenile trout exposed to concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 was inhibited by approximately 40% after 48 h of Pb exposure. Calcium ion flux measurements using {sup 45}Ca as a radiotracer showed 65% inhibition of Ca{sup 2+} influx after 0, 12, 24 or 48 h exposure to the 96 h LC50 concentration of Pb. There was also significant inhibition (40-50%) of both Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} uptake, measured with {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl simultaneously. We conclude that the mechanism of acute toxicity for Pb in rainbow trout occurs by ionoregulatory disruption rather than respiratory or acid/base distress at Pb concentrations close to the 96 h LC50 in moderately hard water.

  17. Role of Tyrosine Isomers in Acute and Chronic Diseases Leading to Oxidative Stress - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Gergő A; Kun, Szilárd; Sélley, Eszter; Kertész, Melinda; Szélig, Lívia; Csontos, Csaba; Böddi, Katalin; Bogár, Lajos; Miseta, Attila; Wittmann, István

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Measurement of the oxidative stress-related end products may be performed, e.g. that of structural isomers of the physiological para-tyrosine, namely meta- and ortho-tyrosine, that are oxidized derivatives of phenylalanine. Recent data suggest that in sepsis, serum level of meta-tyrosine increases, which peaks on the 2(nd) and 3(rd) days (ptyrosine excretion correlated with both need of daily insulin dose and the insulin-glucose product in non-diabetic septic cases (ptyrosine excretion, urinary meta-tyrosine/para-tyrosine, urinary ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine and urinary (meta- + orthotyrosine)/ para-tyrosine proved to be markers of carbohydrate homeostasis. In a chronic rodent model, we tried to compensate the abnormal tyrosine isomers using para-tyrosine, the physiological amino acid. Rats were fed a standard high cholesterol-diet, and were given para-tyrosine or vehicle orally. High-cholesterol feeding lead to a significant increase in aortic wall meta-tyrosine content and a decreased vasorelaxation of the aorta to insulin and the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, that both could be prevented by administration of para-tyrosine. Concluding, these data suggest that meta- and ortho-tyrosine are potential markers of oxidative stress in acute diseases related to oxidative stress, and may also interfere with insulin action in septic humans. Competition of meta- and ortho-tyrosine by supplementation of para-tyrosine may exert a protective role in oxidative stress-related diseases.

  18. Depolarization changes during acute myocardial ischemia by evaluation of QRS slopes: standard lead and vectorial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel; Ringborn, Michael; Laguna, Pablo; Pahlm, Olle; Pueyo, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with acute coronary syndromes can be improved by adding information from the depolarization phase (QRS complex) to the conventionally used ST-T segment changes. In this study, ischemia-induced changes in the main three slopes of the QRS complex, upward ( ℑ(US)) and downward ( ℑ(DS) ) slopes of the R wave as well as the upward ( ℑ(TS)) slope of the terminal S wave, were evaluated as to represent a robust measure of pathological changes within the depolarization phase. From ECG recordings both in a resting state (control recordings) and during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-induced transmural ischemia, we developed a method for quantification of ℑ(US), ℑ(DS), and ℑ(TS) that incorporates dynamic ECG normalization so as to improve the sensitivity in the detection of ischemia-induced changes. The same method was also applied on leads obtained by projection of QRS loops onto their dominant directions. We show that ℑ(US), ℑ(DS), and ℑ(TS) present high stability in the resting state, thus providing a stable reference for ischemia characterization. Maximum relative factors of change ( ℜ(ℑ)) during PCI were found in leads derived from the QRS loop, reaching 10.5 and 13.7 times their normal variations in the control for ℑ(US) and ℑ(DS), respectively. For standard leads, the relative factors of change were 6.01 and 9.31. The ℑ(TS) index presented a similar behavior to that of ℑ(DS). The timing for the occurrence of significant changes in ℑ(US) and ℑ(DS) varied with lead, ranging from 30 s to 2 min after initiation of coronary occlusion. In the present ischemia model, relative ℑ(DS) changes were smaller than ST changes in most leads, however with only modest correlation between the two indices, suggesting they present different information about the ischemic process. We conclude that QRS slopes offer a robust tool for evaluating depolarization changes during myocardial ischemia.

  19. Inhaled Loxapine for Agitation in Intoxicated Patients: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero, Carlos; Ros-Cucurull, Elena; Palma-Álvarez, Raúl Felipe; Abad, Alfonso Carlos; Fadeuilhe, Christian; Casas, Miquel; Grau-López, Lara

    Episodes of agitation are frequent in intoxicated patients who have a substance use disorder, a psychiatric disorder or both (dual diagnosis). For managing the agitation, it is necessary to act promptly in a safe environment and addressing any underlying etiology. Inhaled loxapine improves symptoms of agitation in adults with psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia) within 10 minutes of administration. Recently, some reports have documented the usefulness of loxapine in dual diagnoses patients with agitation. However, the efficacy of loxapine in intoxicated patients has not been deeply addressed. This report describes a case series of 12 patients (with addiction or dual disorder) who received inhaled loxapine for symptoms of psychomotor agitation during intoxication with different substances (eg, alcohol, cannabis, or cocaine) at 1 center in Spain. Data from 12 patients were reviewed, 5 patients were attended at the emergency room, 4 at the addiction and dual diagnosis unit, and 3 were treated during hospitalization for detoxification. All patients were under effects of substances. They had substance use disorder (including cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, hypnotics, and hallucinogens), and almost all (90%) presented 1 or more psychiatric disorders. One dose of inhaled loxapine was effective in 9 patients (75%), and in 3 patients, a second dose was required. Only mild dizziness was reported in 1 patient after the second dose. The acute agitation was effectively and quickly managed with inhaled loxapine in all intoxicated patients and enabled the appropriate clinical evaluation of the agitated state and the patient's management.

  20. Tardily accelerated neurologic deterioration in two-step thallium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Nishiyama, Shuhei; Takeshita, Takayuki; Tateyama, Maki; Takeda, Atsushi; Aoki, Masashi

    2016-12-01

    Thallium intoxication was reported in cases with accidental ingestion, suicide attempt, and criminal adulteration. Reported cases were mostly one-time ingestion, therefore, the clinical course of divisional ingestion has not been fully known. Here, we report a case with two-step thallium intoxication manifesting as tardily accelerated neurologic deterioration. A 16-year-old adolescent was cryptically poisoned with thallium sulfate twice at an interval of 52days. After the first ingestion, neurologic symptoms including visual loss, myalgia, and weakness in legs developed about 40days after the development of acute gastrointestinal symptoms and alopecia. After the second ingestion, neurologic symptoms deteriorated rapidly and severely without gastrointestinal or cutaneous symptoms. Brain magnetic resonance imaging exhibited bilateral optic nerve atrophy. Nerve conduction studies revealed severe peripheral neuropathies in legs. Thallium intoxication was confirmed by an increase in urine thallium egestion. Most of the neurologic manifestations ameliorated in two years, but the visual loss persisted. The source of thallium ingestion was unraveled afterward because a murder suspect in another homicidal assault confessed the forepast adulteration. This discriminating clinical course may be attributable to the cumulative neurotoxicity due to the longer washout-time of thallium in the nervous system than other organs. It is noteworthy that the divisional thallium intoxication may manifest as progressive optic and peripheral neuropathy without gastrointestinal or cutaneous symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Accelerated Intoxication of GABAergic Synapses by Botulinum Neurotoxin A Disinhibits Stem Cell-Derived Neuron Networks Prior to Network Silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-23

    administered BoNT can lead to central nervous system intoxication is currently being debated. Recent findings in vitro and in vivo suggest that BoNT...Literature 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Accelerated intoxication of GABAergic synapses by botulinum neurotoxin A disinhibits 5a...April 2015 Published: 23 April 2015 Citation: Beske PH, Scheeler SM, AdlerM and McNutt PM (2015) Accelerated intoxication of GABAergic synapses by

  2. Adolescent alcohol intoxication in the dutch hospital departments of pediatrics: A 2-year comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.J. van; Lely, N. van der; Bouthoorn, S.H.; Dalen, W.E. van; Pereira, R.R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the prevalence of, and the circumstances leading to, adolescent alcohol intoxication admissions in Dutch hospital departments of pediatrics. Methods: Data were collected in 2007 and 2008, using the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance System, in which pediatricians received

  3. Epileptic seizures, coma and EEG burst-suppression from suicidal bupropion intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Anna Hiro; Schu, Ulrich; Maier, Tanja; Knake, Susanne; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-03-01

    Bupropion, an amphetamine-like dual mechanism drug, is approved and increasingly used for the treatment of major depression, and its use is associated with a dose-dependent risk of epileptic seizures. Suicide attempts are frequent in major depression and often an overdose of the drugs available is ingested. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the clinical course, including EEG and neurological symptoms, as well as treatment and prognosis of bupropion intoxication. We report on the clinical and EEG course of a women who ingested 27 g of bupropion in a suicide attempt. Myoclonic seizures were followed by generalized tonic-clonic seizures and coma associated with EEG burst-suppression and brief tonic seizures. Active carbon and neuro-intensive care treatment, including respiratory support, were given. Within three days, the patient returned to a stable clinical condition with a mildly encephalopathic EEG. In conclusion, bupropion intoxication requires acute intensive care treatment and usually has a good prognosis, however, misinterpretation of the clinical and EEG presentation may lead to errors in management.

  4. Acute necrosis after Gamma Knife surgery in vestibular schwannoma leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitza, Sandra; Pangalu, Athina; Horstmann, Gerhard A; van Eck, Albert T; Regli, Luca; Tarnutzer, Alexander A

    2016-08-01

    We discuss a rare acute complication after Gamma Knife therapy (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) in a single patient. A 52-year-old woman presented with vertigo, facial weakness and hearing loss emerging 48hours following Gamma Knife radiosurgery for a right-sided vestibular schwannoma. Neurological examination 6days after symptom onset showed right-sided facial palsy, spontaneous left-beating nystagmus and pathologic head-impulse testing to the right. Pure-tone audiogram revealed right-sided sensorineural hearing loss. A diagnosis of acute vestibulocochlear and facial neuropathy was made. Brain MRI demonstrated focal contrast sparing within the schwannoma, likely related to acute radiation necrosis. Acute multiple cranial neuropathies of the cerebellopontine angle after Gamma Knife treatment should raise suspicion of acute tissue damage within the schwannoma and should result in urgent MRI. Treatment with steroids may be considered based on accompanying swelling and edema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs acute tests. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Geological Survey.

  6. Development of a Series of Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase Inhibitors Leading to a Clinical Candidate for the Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ann L; Ancellin, Nicolas; Beaufils, Benjamin; Bergeal, Marylise; Binnie, Margaret; Bouillot, Anne; Clapham, David; Denis, Alexis; Haslam, Carl P; Holmes, Duncan S; Hutchinson, Jonathan P; Liddle, John; McBride, Andrew; Mirguet, Olivier; Mowat, Christopher G; Rowland, Paul; Tiberghien, Nathalie; Trottet, Lionel; Uings, Iain; Webster, Scott P; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Mole, Damian J

    2017-04-27

    Recently, we reported a novel role for KMO in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). A number of inhibitors of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) have previously been described as potential treatments for neurodegenerative conditions and particularly for Huntington's disease. However, the inhibitors reported to date have insufficient aqueous solubility relative to their cellular potency to be compatible with the intravenous (iv) dosing route required in AP. We have identified and optimized a novel series of high affinity KMO inhibitors with favorable physicochemical properties. The leading example is exquisitely selective, has low clearance in two species, prevents lung and kidney damage in a rat model of acute pancreatitis, and is progressing into preclinical development.

  7. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these

  8. Hepatitis E virus is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kokki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute viral hepatitis affects all ages worldwide. Hepatitis E virus (HEV is increasingly recognized as a major cause of acute hepatitis in Europe. Because knowledge of its characteristics is limited, we conducted a retrospective study to outline demographic and clinical features of acute HEV in comparison to hepatitis A, B and C in Lothian over 28 months (January 2012 to April 2014. A total of 3204 blood samples from patients with suspected acute hepatitis were screened for hepatitis A, B and C virus; 913 of these samples were also screened for HEV. Demographic and clinical information on patients with positive samples was gathered from electronic patient records. Confirmed HEV samples were genotyped. Of 82 patients with confirmed viral hepatitis, 48 (59% had acute HEV. These patients were older than those infected by hepatitis A, B or C viruses, were more often male and typically presented with jaundice, nausea, vomiting and/or malaise. Most HEV cases (70% had eaten pork or game meat in the few months before infection, and 14 HEV patients (29% had a recent history of foreign travel. The majority of samples were HEV genotype 3 (27/30, 90%; three were genotype 1. Acute HEV infection is currently the predominant cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian and presents clinically in older men. Most of these infections are autochthonous, and further studies confirming the sources of infection (i.e. food or blood transfusion are required.

  9. Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication: Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez Gomez, S.; Aguilera Navarro, J.M.; Gonzalez Garcia, A.; Gonzalez Marcos, J.R.; Fernandez Cruz, J.

    1993-01-01

    We present a case of acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication in a previously healthy 13-year-old girl, who was found in the bathroom, unconscious and with the gas-burning hot water thank operating. The neuroradiological study showed bilateral, symmetrical cortical and subcortical parietooccipital and temporal lesions as well as damage to the basal lymph nodes. These lesions were related to the anoxic situation induced by this type of intoxication. Clinicoradiological follow-up included CT and MR sequences over a period of 10 months. In this cases, we stress the greater sensitivity of MR in the early detection of the characteristic lesions in this situation and we analyze the evolution of the process. (Author)

  10. Patent foramen ovale increases the risk of acute ischemic stroke in patients with acute pulmonary embolism leading to right ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliszek, Sylwia; Wiśniewska, Małgorzata; Kurnicka, Katarzyna; Lichodziejewska, Barbara; Ciurzyński, Michał; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Babiuch, Marek; Paczynska, Marzanna; Koć, Marcin; Palczewski, Piotr; Wyzgał, Anna; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an established risk factor for ischemic stroke. Since acute right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) observed in patients with PE can lead to right-to-left inter-atrial shunt via PFO, we hypothesized that PFO is a risk factor for ischemic stroke in PE with significant right ventricular dysfunction. 55 patients (31 F, 24M), median age 49 years (range 19-83 years) with confirmed PE underwent echocardiography for RVD and PFO assessment. High risk acute PE was diagnosed in 3 (5.5%) patients, while 16 (29%) hemodynamically stable with RVD patients formed a group with intermediate-risk PE. PFO was diagnosed in 19 patients (34.5%). Diffusion-weighted MRI of the brain for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was performed in all patients 4.91 ± 4.1 days after admission. AIS was detected by MRI in 4 patients (7.3%). Only one stroke was clinically overt and resulted in hemiplegia. All 4 AIS occurred in the PFO positive group (4 of 19 patients), and none in subjects without PFO (21.0% vs 0%, p=0.02). Moreover, all AIS occurred in patients with RVD and PFO, and none in patients with PFO without RVD (50% vs 0%, p=0.038). Our data suggest that acute pulmonary embolism resulting in right ventricular dysfunction may lead to acute ischemic stroke in patients with patent foramen ovale. However, the clinical significance of such lesions remains to be determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  12. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and cocaine intoxication in a Danish child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Victoria Elizabeth; Breindahl, Torben; Harboe, Kirstine Moll

    2016-01-01

    GHB intoxication must be considered in children with coma and a suspicion of drug intoxication. Furthermore, mixed intoxication with several substances and the possibility of unpredictable symptom profiles should be anticipated to ensure optimal symptomatic treatment of patients....

  13. Portrayal of Alcohol Intoxication on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A.; Colditz, Jason B.; Pang, Kevin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to characterize the content of leading YouTube videos related to alcohol intoxication and to examine factors associated with alcohol intoxication in videos that were assessed positively by viewers. Methods We systematically captured the 70 most relevant and popular videos on YouTube related to alcohol intoxication. We employed an iterative process to codebook development which resulted in 42 codes in 6 categories: video characteristics, character socio-demographics, alcohol depiction, degree of alcohol use, characteristics associated with alcohol, and consequences of alcohol. Results There were a total of 333,246,875 views for all videos combined. While 89% of videos involved males, only 49% involved females. The videos had a median of 1646 (IQR 300-22,969) “like” designations and 33 (IQR 14-1,261) “dislike” designations each. Liquor was most frequently represented, followed by beer and then wine/champagne. Nearly one-half (44%) of videos contained a brand reference. Humor was juxtaposed with alcohol use in 79% of videos, and motor vehicle use was present in 24%. There were significantly more likes per dislike, indicating more positive sentiment, when there was representation of liquor (29.1 vs. 11.4, p = .008), brand references (32.1 vs. 19.2, p = .04), and/or physical attractiveness (67.5 vs. 17.8, p < .001). Conclusions Internet videos depicting alcohol intoxication are heavily viewed. Nearly half of these videos involve a brand-name reference. While these videos commonly juxtapose alcohol intoxication with characteristics such as humor and attractiveness, they infrequently depict negative clinical outcomes. The popularity of this site may provide an opportunity for public health intervention. PMID:25703135

  14. Portrayal of alcohol intoxication on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Colditz, Jason B; Pang, Kevin C; Jackson, Kristina M

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to characterize the content of leading YouTube videos related to alcohol intoxication and to examine factors associated with alcohol intoxication in videos that were assessed positively by viewers. We systematically captured the 70 most relevant and popular videos on YouTube related to alcohol intoxication. We employed an iterative process to codebook development which resulted in 42 codes in 6 categories: video characteristics, character socio demographics, alcohol depiction, degree of alcohol use, characteristics associated with alcohol, and consequences of alcohol. There were a total of 333,246,875 views for all videos combined. While 89% of videos involved males, only 49% involved females. The videos had a median of 1,646 (interquartile range [IQR] 300 to 22,969) "like" designations and 33 (IQR 14 to 1,261) "dislike" designations each. Liquor was most frequently represented, followed by beer and then wine/champagne. Nearly one-half (44%) of videos contained a brand reference. Humor was juxtaposed with alcohol use in 79% of videos, and motor vehicle use was present in 24%. There were significantly more likes per dislike, indicating more positive sentiment, when there was representation of liquor (29.1 vs. 11.4, p = 0.008), brand references (32.1 vs. 19.2, p = 0.04), and/or physical attractiveness (67.5 vs. 17.8, p < 0.001). Internet videos depicting alcohol intoxication are heavily viewed. Nearly, half of these videos involve a brand-name reference. While these videos commonly juxtapose alcohol intoxication with characteristics such as humor and attractiveness, they infrequently depict negative clinical outcomes. The popularity of this site may provide an opportunity for public health intervention. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Persistent and acute diarrhoea as the leading causes of child mortality in urban Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Aaby, P; Ingholt, L

    1992-01-01

    services was relatively easy: 75% of the children who died had attended for treatment at a hospital or a health centre. It is important to find ways of preventing and managing persistent diarrhoea, the major cause of death, and to improve the control of acute diarrhoea by a targeted approach....

  16. Acute methaemoglobinaemia initially treated as organophosphate poisoning leading to atropine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakhandki, Srinivas; Yahya, Mohammed; Praveen, Mudalgi

    2012-07-01

    A case of unknown compound poisoning is presented. It was initially treated as organophosphate poisoning with lack of response. A timely diagnosis of acute methaemoglobinaemia and iatrogenic atropine toxicity was made based on clinical evaluation. Treatment of methaemoglobinaemia using oral methylene blue and of atropine toxicity with supportive measures could save the patient.

  17. WILD HONEY INTOXICATION: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munire Babayigit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild honey intoxication (WHI is a rare disease that results from consuming honey produced by Rhododendron polen feeded bees. WHI develops due to grayanotoxin (GT that it contains. WHI might present with mild symptoms of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological systems or might also present in a life threatining form with AV block and cardiovascular collaps. In this report we aimed to present clinical presentation and treatment of a case of WHI. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 197-199

  18. Incorporation of DL-methionine /sup 3/H into the rat brain in the course of triethyl tin sulphate intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozik, M B; Ozarzewska, E; Piechowski, A [Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    The incorporation of DL-methionine /sup 3/H into the rat brain in the course of acute edema caused by the triethyl tin sulphate (TET) was investigated by autoradiography. The results indicate that TET intoxication effects in lower incorporation of methionine into the experimental rat brain in comparison to that in normal animals. The changes in dynamics of DL-methionine /sup 3/H incorporation after TET intoxication are presented. The possible pathogenetic mechanism of the observed changes is discussed.

  19. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.

  20. ACUTE POISONING WITH BENZODIAZEPINES AND OTHER HYPNOTICS: ETIOLOGIC CAUSE, SEX/AGE DISTRIBUTION AND CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Poisoning with drugs occupies a leading position among the causes of acute intoxications. Etiological distribution of medicated poisoning in different countries, even if they are adjacent, is different. In the most studies it was reported that the highest incidence of poisoning is with benzodiazepines or other psychoactive drugs. A retrospective analysis of acute poisoning with benzodiazepines and other hypnotic drugs in the Varna region for 25 years period – from 1991 to 2015 was carried out. Material and Methods: The number of patients who received hospital treatment after poisoning with benzodiazepines is 1741, and those with other hypnotics is 293, representing respectively 26.37% and 4.44% of all drug intoxications. Results: The share of poisoning with benzodiazepines and hypnotics compared to all acute intoxications is 11.66%. They are more common in women – 1566 (77%. Men are 468 (23%, the ratio of men to women was 3.34:1. The largest number of intoxications is in the age group up to 24 years - 1123 (55.2%, and only 4.1% of patients over 60 years. Intentional suicide attempts are 1896 (93.2%. Death is registered in 8 (0.4% patients.

  1. Is the OECD acute worm toxicity test environmentally relevant? The effect of mineral form on calculated lead toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.Nicola A.; Hodson, M.E.Mark E.; Black, S.Stuart

    2003-01-01

    The current OECD acute worm toxicity test does not relate well to ambient conditions. - In a series of experiments the toxicity of lead to worms in soil was determined following the draft OECD earthworm reproduction toxicity protocol except that lead was added as solid lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide rather than as lead nitrate solution as would normally be the case. The compounds were added to the test soil to give lead concentrations of 625-12500 μg Pb g -1 of soil. Calculated toxicities of the lead decreased in the order nitrate>carbonate>sulphide, the same order as the decrease in the solubility of the metal compounds used. The 7-day LC 50 (lethal concentration when 50% of the population is killed) for the nitrate was 5321±275 μg Pb g -1 of soil and this did not change with time. The LC 50 values for carbonate and sulphide could not be determined at the concentration ranges used. The only parameter sensitive enough to distinguish the toxicities of the three compounds was cocoon (egg) production. The EC 50 s for cocoon production (the concentration to produce a 50% reduction in cocoon production) were 993, 8604 and 10246 μg Pb g -1 of soil for lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide, respectively. Standard toxicity tests need to take into account the form in which the contaminant is present in the soil to be of environmental relevance

  2. Acute morphological and physiological effects of lead in the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. R. Martinez

    Full Text Available The present study investigated lead effects on gill morphology, hematocrit, blood sodium, glucose, lipids, protein, and cholesterol of Prochilodus lineatus exposed to two sublethal lead concentrations for 96 h. Preliminary series of short-term static toxicity tests were run to determine LC50 (96 h of lead in P. lineatus, which was 95 mg Pb.L-1. Therefore, lead concentrations tested in the sublethal experiments were 24 and 71 mg Pb.L-1, which correspond to 25% and 75% of the LC50 (96 h, respectively. Gills of P. lineatus exposed to both lead concentrations during 96 h presented a higher occurrence of histopathological lesions such as epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, and lamellar aneurism. P. lineatus did not show significant alterations in hematocrit during exposure to both lead concentrations. Fish exposed to the highest lead concentration showed a significant decrease in Na+ plasma concentration after 48 h, possibly reflecting a sodium influx rate decrease. P. lineatus exposed to both lead concentrations presented a "classical general adaptation syndrome to stress", as hyperglycemia associated with lowered lipids and proteins was reported. Stress-response magnitude was dose-dependent. While the response to the lowest lead concentration might represent adaptation, the highest concentration seems to characterize exhaustion.

  3. Acute high-dose lead exposure from beverage contaminated by traditional Mexican pottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, T D; Proops, D; Palazuelos, E; Graef, J; Hernandez Avila, M

    1994-10-15

    Screening and follow-up blood lead measurements in a 7-year-old child of a US Embassy official in Mexico City revealed an increase in blood lead concentration from 1.10 to 4.60 mumol/L in less than 4 weeks. The cause was traced to fruit punch contaminated with lead leached from traditional ceramic pottery urns. Consumption of the contaminated punch at a picnic was associated with a 20% increase in blood lead concentrations among embassy staff and dependants who were tested 6 weeks after the exposure. This episode highlights the continued health risk, even from brief exposure, posed by traditional pottery in Mexico.

  4. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to lead on the behavior of the pond snail Helisoma trivolvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, V.T.; Copeland, J. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The behavior of aquatic invertebrates may be useful as an indicator for the presence of toxicants in both freshwater and marine environments. The pond snail Helisoma trivolvis, the red ram`s horn, was exposed to low levels of lead (0.05 ppm). Chronic exposure significantly reduced the number of head movements but had no affect on radula movement or antenna twitches. Acute exposure resulted in curling of the foot that lasted 0.5 to 14.0 minutes. Electrochemical analysis of lead levels within treated snails indicated a higher concentration of lead in the tissue than that in the treated environment. Organ analysis of the digestive gland, 1 salivary gland, reproductive organs and the cerebral ganglion is currently being studied.

  5. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Campbell, James A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2004-01-01

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk

  6. Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium, L. var. strumarium) intoxication in swine: review and redefinition of the toxic principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, B P; Cole, R J; Gosser, H S

    1981-05-01

    Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) fed to feeder pigs was associated with acute to subacute hepatotoxicosis. Cotyledonary seedings fed at 0.75% to 3% of body weight or ground bur fed at 20% to 30% of the ration caused acute depression, convulsions, and death. Principle gross lesions were marked serofibrinous ascites, edema of the gallbladder wall, and lobular accentuation of the liver. Acute to subacute centrilobular hepatic necrosis was present microscopically. The previously reported toxic principle, hydroquinone, was not recovered from the plant or bur of X. strumarium. Authentic hydroquinone administered orally failed to produce lesions typical of cocklebur intoxication but did produce marked hyperglycemia. Carboxyatractyloside recovered from the aqueous extract of X. strumarium and authentic carboxyatractyloside, when fed to pigs, caused signs and lesions typical of cocklebur intoxication. Marked hypoglycemia and elevated serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum isocitric dehydrogenase concentrations occurred in pigs with acute hepatic necrosis that had received either cocklebur seedlings, ground bur or carboxyatractyloside.

  7. Contributing factors in self-poisoning leading to hospital admission in adolescents in northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liisanantti, Janne Henrik; Ala-Kokko, Tero Ilmari; Dunder, Teija Sinikka; Ebeling, Hanna Elina

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the frequencies of different agents used in self-poisonings and acute factors contributing to intoxication of patients aged 12-18 years in northern Finland. Retrospective medical record review of all hospitalized patients during the period from January 1, 1991 to December 31, 2006. Cause of the admission, contributing factors, readmissions within one year. There were 309 admissions during the period, 54% were females. The leading cause of admission was alcohol, in 222 cases (71.8%). Hospitalizations related to alcohol consumption were associated with accidental poisoning in recreational use. There were no acute contributing factors in the majority of all patients. Over one-third of all intoxications were intentional self-harm, although previously diagnosed psychiatric diseases were rare. It is crucial to recognize adolescent psychiatric disorders in time and consult child and adolescent psychiatrist in case of poisoning.

  8. Bacterial Intoxication Evokes Cellular Senescence with Persistent DNA Damage and Cytokine Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blazkova, Hana; Krejcikova, Katerina; Moudry, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    to such intoxication are mechanistically incompletely understood. Here we show that both normal and cancer cells (BJ, IMR-90 and WI-38 fibroblasts, HeLa and U2-OS cell lines) that survive the acute phase of intoxication by Haemophilus ducreyi CDT possess the hallmarks of cellular senescence. This characteristic...... mechanistically underlie the 'distended' morphology evoked by CDTs. Finally, the activation of the two anti-cancer barriers, apoptosis and cellular senescence, together with evidence of chromosomal aberrations (micronucleation) reported here, support the emerging genotoxic and potentially oncogenic effects...

  9. Non-oncogenic Acute Viral Infections Disrupt Anti-cancer Responses and Lead to Accelerated Cancer-Specific Host Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick J. Kohlhapp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In light of increased cancer prevalence and cancer-specific deaths in patients with infections, we investigated whether infections alter anti-tumor immune responses. We report that acute influenza infection of the lung promotes distal melanoma growth in the dermis and leads to accelerated cancer-specific host death. Furthermore, we show that during influenza infection, anti-melanoma CD8+ T cells are shunted from the tumor to the infection site, where they express high levels of the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1. Immunotherapy to block PD-1 reverses this loss of anti-tumor CD8+ T cells from the tumor and decreases infection-induced tumor growth. Our findings show that acute non-oncogenic infection can promote cancer growth, raising concerns regarding acute viral illness sequelae. They also suggest an unexpected role for PD-1 blockade in cancer immunotherapy and provide insight into the immune response when faced with concomitant challenges.

  10. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells leading to acute myeloid leukemia in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuhiko Ban; Tomoko Kusama

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (RI-AML) in mice is charaterized by deletion and/or rearrangement of chromosome 2. While chromosome 2 has been suspected to be a target of RI-AML, radiation-sensitive site of the chromosome might be implicated in the leukemogenesis. There were few cytogenetical studies, however, focusing on chromosomal rearrangements shortly after irradiation, and little was known about the frequency and pattern of chromosome 2 aberrations during the early period. In this study, metaphase samples were prepared from whole-body irradiated mice 24 hours after irradiation, most of the cells considered to be in the first mitotic stage. Distribution of chromosomal breakpoints on the metaphase samples were analyzed to study the relationship between chromosome aberrations and RI-AML. (author)

  11. Illicit Opioid Intoxication: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fareed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioid intoxications and overdose are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Opioid overdose may occur in the setting of intravenous or intranasal heroin use, illicit use of diverted opioid medications, intentional or accidental misuse of prescription pain medications, or iatrogenic overdose. In this review, we focused on the epidemiology of illict opioid use in the United States and on the mechanism of action of opioid drugs. We also described the signs and symptoms, and diagnoses of intoxication and overdose. Lastly, we updated the reader about the most recent recommendations for treatment and prevention of opioid intoxications and overdose.

  12. Accuracy of localization of acute myocardial infarction by 12 lead electrocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, T.; Ribeiro, L.G.; Holman, B.L.; Alpert, J.S.; Maroko, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    Until recently, ECG accuracy in localizing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) could be assessed only by comparing the ECGs with autopsy findings. This approach, however, preselected patients, including only those who died. It is possible that this postmortem group of patients would be different from the whole population of patients with AMI. Myocardial imaging with 99 mTc-pyrophosphate offers the advantage of directly localizing the region of injured myocardium in the acute phase of AMI. In 34 patients with confirmed AMI and focal uptake of 99 mTc-pyrophosphate, serial ECGs were obtained and interpreted by two independent observers. The sensitivity and specificity of serial ECGs in determining the location of AMI in the five left ventricular (LV) wall segments were determined: (1) in the anterior wall sensitivity was 86.7% and specificity was 89.5%; (2) in the lateral wall sensitivity was 73.7% and specificity was 80.0%; (3) in the high lateral wall sensitivity was 80.0% and specificity was 87.5%; (4) in the inferior wall sensitivity was 87.5% and specificity was 100%; (5) in the true posterior wall sensitivity was 83.3% and specificity was 86.4%. Overall, in the 170 LV wall segments (five per patient) examined, scans localized with a sensitivity of 81.9% and a specificity of 88.8%. After four patients with LBBB were excluded, sensitivity increased to 87.1%. Overall, localization of AMI by serial ECG was accurate in 85.9% of the 34 patients included in the study

  13. Acute phosphine poisoning on board a bulk carrier: analysis of factors leading to a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loddé, Brice; Lucas, David; Letort, Jean-Marie; Jegaden, Dominique; Pougnet, Richard; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2015-01-01

    To determine accidental factors, clinical presentation and medical care in cases of seafarers presenting phosphine poisoning symptoms on board a bulk carrier. To consider primary prevention of this pathology, which can have extremely severe consequences. To analyse circumstances resulting in toxic exposure to phosphine in the sea transport sector. To obtain information from medical reports regarding the seafarer's rescue. To identify the causes of this accidental poisoning and how to establish an early, appropriate diagnosis thus avoiding other cases. In February 2008, on board a bulk carrier with a cargo of peas, a 56-year-old seafarer with intense abdominal and chest pains, associated with dizziness, was rescued by helicopter 80 miles away from the coast. Despite being admitted rapidly to hospital, his heart rate decreased associated with respiratory distress. He lost consciousness and convulsed. He finally died of pulmonary oedema, major metabolic acidosis and acute multi organ failure. The following day, the captain issued a rescue call from the same vessel for a 41-year-old man also with abdominal pain, vomiting and dizziness. The ECG only revealed type 1 Brugada syndrome. Then 11 other seafarers were evacuated for observation. 3 showed clinical abnormalities. Collective poisoning was suspected. Medical team found out that aluminium phosphide pellets had been put in the ship's hold for pest control before the vessel's departure. Seafarers were poisoned by phosphine gas spreading through cabins above the hold. It was found that the compartments and ducts were not airtight. Unfortunately, a seafarer on board a bulk carrier died in 2008 because of acute phosphine poisoning. Fumigation performed using this gas needs to be done with extreme care. Systematic checks need to be carried out before sailing to ensure that the vessel's compartments are airtight.

  14. Development of alginate gel beads with a potential use in the treatment against acute lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtat, Djamel; Bouaicha, Malika Nawel; Benamer, Samah; Nacer-Khodja, Assia; Mahlous, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    The objective was to develop alginate beads that could adsorb lead ions in gastric pH, in view to preconize their use in gastric lavage following lead poisoning. The swelling measurements of both, dry and hydrated beads, were carried out in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The sorption kinetics was examined at lead concentrations ranging from 50 to 200mg/l. Calcium released during the sorption process was investigated. The swelling rate of the dry beads increased considerably with time increase and reached the equilibrium at 736% after 240min; concerning the hydrated beads, the equilibrium swelling reached 139% after 180min. The adsorption of Pb (II) in SGF by dry beads increased with the increase of time and initial lead concentration. The adsorption kinetics of Pb ions by hydrated alginate beads indicated a rapid binding of Pb ions to the sorbent during the first 15min for all the concentrations, followed by a slow increase until the equilibrium was reached after 90min. The adsorption capacity of Pb ions increased with the increase of the storage time in water at 4°C and with the weight. The amount of Ca 2+ released by the beads increased with the increase of Pb ions a rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice: Effects of penicillamine, dimercaptosuccinic acid and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, O.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The antidotal efficacies of chelators during acute cadmium intoxication has previously been examined in experiments where both a soluble cadmium salt and the chelator were administered parenterally. In the present study, PA, DMSA and related compounds were studied as oral antidotes during oral CdCl 2 intoxication. According to the antagonistic effects noted on mortality, peristaltic toxicity and intestinal cadmium uptake, the relative efficacies of the compounds tested were: DMSA>PAD>DMPS>MSA>PA>NAPA. None of the chelators induced major changes in the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, in particular no increased cerebral deposition of cadmium. This study indicates that, in oral cadmium intoxication in humans, orally administered DMSA would be likely to offer protection against the local toxicity of cadmium in the gastrointestinal tract as well as to reduce the risk of systemic toxicity of absorbed cadmium. (author)

  16. CIRCULATORY FAILURE DURING NON-INHALED FORMS OF CYANIDE INTOXICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haouzi, Philippe; Tubbs, Nicole; Rannals, Matthew D.; Judenherc-Haouzi, Annick; Cabell, Larry A.; McDonough, Joe A.; Sonobe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine how circulatory failure develops following systemic administration of potassium cyanide (KCN). We used a non-inhaled modality of intoxication, wherein the change in breathing pattern would not influence the diffusion of CN into the blood, akin to the effects of ingesting toxic levels of CN. In a group of 300–400 g rats, CN-induced coma (CN IP, 7 mg/kg) produced a central apnea within 2–3 minutes along with a potent and prolonged gasping pattern leading to auto-resuscitation in 38% of the animals. Motor deficits and neuronal necrosis were nevertheless observed in the surviving animals. To clarify the mechanisms leading to potential auto-resuscitation versus asystole, 12 urethane-anesthetized rats were then exposed to the lowest possible levels of CN exposure that would lead to breathing depression within 7–8 minutes; this dose averaged 0.375 mg/kg/min iv. At this level of intoxication, a cardiac depression developed several minutes only after the onset of the apnea, leading to cardiac asystole as PaO2 reached value around 15 Torr, unless breathing was maintained by mechanical ventilation or through spontaneous gasping. Higher levels of KCN exposure in 10 animals provoked a primary cardiac depression, which led to a rapid cardiac arrest by pulseless electrical activity despite the maintenance of PaO2 by mechanical ventilation. These effects were totally unrelated to the potassium contained in KCN. It is concluded that circulatory failure can develop as a direct consequence of CN induced apnea but in a narrow range of exposure. In this “low” range, maintaining pulmonary gas exchange after exposure, through mechanical ventilation (or spontaneous gasping) can reverse cardiac depression and restore spontaneous breathing. At higher level of intoxication, cardiac depression is to be treated as a specific and spontaneously irreversible consequence of CN exposure, leading to a pulseless electrical activity. PMID:27513083

  17. Development of the intoxicated personality scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Brinkman, Craig S; Miller, Ashlin; Doolittle, James J

    2015-01-01

    To develop the Intoxicated Personality Scale (IPS). Data were collected from 436 college students via an online survey. Through an iterative measurement development process, the resulting IPS was created. The 5 subscales (Good Time, Risky Choices, Risky Sex, Emotional, and Introvert) of the IPS positively related to alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, and personality. The results suggest that the Intoxicated Personality Scale may be a useful tool for predicting problematic alcohol consumption, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives.

  18. Amitriptyline Intoxication Responded to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güldem Turan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The most severe effects in amitriptiline intoxications are related with central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Amitriptiline intoxication especially with high doses has severe cardiac effects and can result in cardiac arrest. Most favorable responses can be achieved with efficient and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We wanted to present a case ingested high dose of amitriptiline for attempt to suicide and responded to prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  19. Effects of ethanol intoxication on speech suprasegmentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollien, Harry; Dejong, Gea; Martin, Camilo A.; Schwartz, Reva; Liljegren, Kristen

    2001-12-01

    The effects of ingesting ethanol have been shown to be somewhat variable in humans. To date, there appear to be but few universals. Yet, the question often arises: is it possible to determine if a person is intoxicated by observing them in some manner? A closely related question is: can speech be used for this purpose and, if so, can the degree of intoxication be determined? One of the many issues associated with these questions involves the relationships between a person's paralinguistic characteristics and the presence and level of inebriation. To this end, young, healthy speakers of both sexes were carefully selected and sorted into roughly equal groups of light, moderate, and heavy drinkers. They were asked to produce four types of utterances during a learning phase, when sober and at four strictly controlled levels of intoxication (three ascending and one descending). The primary motor speech measures employed were speaking fundamental frequency, speech intensity, speaking rate and nonfluencies. Several statistically significant changes were found for increasing intoxication; the primary ones included rises in F0, in task duration and for nonfluencies. Minor gender differences were found but they lacked statistical significance. So did the small differences among the drinking category subgroups and the subject groupings related to levels of perceived intoxication. Finally, although it may be concluded that certain changes in speech suprasegmentals will occur as a function of increasing intoxication, these patterns cannot be viewed as universal since a few subjects (about 20%) exhibited no (or negative) changes.

  20. Acute vs chronic exposure to high fat diet leads to distinct regulation of PKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Edra; Nesterova, Maria; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2017-07-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is an essential regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism that plays a critical role in energy homeostasis. The impact of diet on PKA signaling has not been defined, although perturbations in individual PKA subunits are associated with changes in adiposity, physical activity and energy intake in mice and humans. We hypothesized that a high fat diet (HFD) would elicit peripheral and central alterations in the PKA system that would differ depending on length of exposure to HFD; these differences could protect against or promote diet-induced obesity (DIO). 12-week-old C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned to a regular diet or HFD and weighed weekly throughout the feeding studies (4 days, 14 weeks; respectively), and during killing. PKA activity and subunit expression were measured in liver, gonadal adipose tissue (AT) and brain. Acute HFD-feeding suppressed basal hepatic PKA activity. In contrast, hepatic and hypothalamic PKA activities were significantly increased after chronic HFD-feeding. Changes in AT were more subtle, and overall, altered PKA regulation in response to chronic HFD exposure was more profound in female mice. The suppression of hepatic PKA activity after 4 day HFD-feeding was indicative of a protective peripheral effect against obesity in the context of overnutrition. In response to chronic HFD-feeding, and with the development of DIO, dysregulated hepatic and hypothalamic PKA signaling was a signature of obesity that is likely to promote further metabolic dysfunction in mice. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Referral of patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction directly to the catheterization suite based on prehospital teletransmission of 12-lead electrocardiogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Martin; Sejersten, Maria; Strange, Søren

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Time from symptom onset to reperfusion is essential in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. Prior studies have indicated that prehospital 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) transmission can reduce time to reperfusion. PURPOSE: Determine 12-lead ECG transmission...

  2. Inhibition of renal Na+/H+ exchange in cadmium-intoxicated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Do Whan; Chung, Jin Mo; Kim, Jee Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Ryong; Park, Yang Saeng

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) results in bicarbonaturia, leading to metabolic acidosis. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which renal bicarbonate reabsorption is inhibited, we investigated changes in renal transporters and enzymes associated with bicarbonate reabsorption in Cd-intoxicated rats. Cd intoxication was induced by subcutaneous injections of CdCl 2 (2 mg Cd/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Cd intoxication resulted in a significant reduction in V max of Na + /H + antiport with no changes in K Na in the renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Western blotting of BBM proteins and indirect immunohistochemistry in renal tissue sections, using an antibody against Na + /H + exchange-3 (NHE3), showed a diminished expression of NHE3 protein in the BBM. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that NHE3 mRNA expression was reduced in the renal cortex. The activity of carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) in BBM was not changed. The protein abundance of Na + -HCO 3 - cotransporter-1 (NBC1) in whole kidney membrane fractions was slightly attenuated, whereas that of the Na + -K + -ATPase α-subunit was markedly elevated in Cd-intoxicated animals. These results indicate that Cd intoxication impairs NHE3 expression in the proximal tubule, thereby reducing the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption, leading to bicarbonaturia in an intact animal

  3. Nontraumatic Exertional Rhabdomyolysis Leading to Acute Kidney Injury in a Sickle Trait Positive Individual on Renal Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyana C. Janga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old African American male with a history of congenital cerebral palsy, sickle cell trait, and intellectual disability presented with abdominal pain that started four hours prior to the hospital visit. The patient denied fever, chills, diarrhea, or any localized trauma. The patient was at a party at his community center last evening and danced for 2 hours, physically exerting himself more than usual. Labs revealed blood urea nitrogen (BUN level of 41 mg/dL and creatinine (Cr of 2.8 mg/dL which later increased to 4.2 mg/dL while still in the emergency room. Urinalysis revealed hematuria with RBC > 50 on high power field. Imaging of the abdomen revealed no acute findings for abdominal pain. With fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa > 3%, findings suggested nonoliguric acute tubular necrosis. Over the next couple of days, symptoms of dyspepsia resolved; however, BUN/Cr continued to rise to a maximum of 122/14 mg/dL. With these findings, along with stable electrolytes, urine output matching the intake, and prior use of proton pump inhibitors, medical decision was altered for the possibility of acute interstitial nephritis. Steroids were subsequently started and biopsy was taken. Biopsy revealed heavy deposits of myoglobin. Creatinine phosphokinase (CPK levels drawn ten days later after the admission were found to be elevated at 334 U/dl, presuming the levels would have been much higher during admission. This favored a diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI secondary to exertional rhabdomyolysis. We here describe a case of nontraumatic exertional rhabdomyolysis in a sickle cell trait (SCT individual that was missed due to findings of microscopic hematuria masking underlying myoglobinuria and fractional excretion of sodium > 3%. As opposed to other causes of ATN, rhabdomyolysis often causes FeNa < 1%. The elevated fractional excretion of sodium in this patient was possibly due to the underlying inability of SCT positive individuals

  4. Is Ureaplasma spp. the leading causative agent of acute chorioamnionitis in women with preterm birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikhney, J; von Schöning, D; Steding, I; Schulze, J; Petrich, A; Hiergeist, A; Reischl, U; Moter, A; Thomas, A

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this study was to detect microorganisms in fetal membranes and placental tissue in preterm chorioamnionitis by combining fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with broad range PCR. The combination of the two molecular techniques enables identification and localization of the microorganisms within the tissue, confirming their clinical relevance. In a prospective cohort study, we compared 31 women with preterm premature rupture of membranes or preterm labour and preterm delivery by caesarean section with a control group of 26 women undergoing elective caesarean section at term. Fetal membranes and placental tissue were analysed by FISH and broad range 16S rRNA-gene PCR and sequencing. For 20 women in the preterm group, caesarean section was performed because of a clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. Microorganisms were detected in the tissues by both molecular techniques in 11 out of 20 women. Among those, Ureaplasma spp. was most abundant, with five cases that remained culture-negative and would have been missed by routine diagnostic procedures. Other infections were caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mitis or Escherichia coli. FISH and PCR were negative for all women without suspected chorioamnionitis and for the control group. Combination of FISH with broad-range PCR and sequencing permitted unambiguous identification of the causative microorganisms in chorioamnionitis. The high prevalence of Ureaplasma spp. should lead to a re-evaluation of its clinical significance and possible therapeutic consequences. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN) intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction...... and animal experiments have shown that in rats exposed to CN intoxication, HBO can increase the concentration of CN in whole blood....

  6. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Toomey, Traci L; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the US to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1,082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55 % of local agencies and 90 % of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60 % of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies.

  7. Transition between acute and chronic hepatotoxicity in mice is associated with impaired energy metabolism and induction of mitochondrial heme oxygenase-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniket Nikam

    Full Text Available The formation of protein inclusions is frequently associated with chronic metabolic diseases. In mice, short-term intoxication with 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC leads to hepatocellular damage indicated by elevated serum liver enzyme activities, whereas only minor morphological changes are observed. Conversely, chronic administration of DDC for several weeks results in severe morphological damage, characterized by hepatocellular ballooning, disruption of the intermediate filament cytoskeleton, and formation of Mallory-Denk bodies consisting predominantly of misfolded keratins, Sqstm1/p62, and heat shock proteins. To evaluate the mechanistic underpinnings for this dichotomy we dissected the time-course of DDC intoxication for up to 10 weeks. We determined body weight change, serum liver enzyme activities, morphologic alterations, induction of antioxidant response (heme oxygenase-1, HO-1, oxidative damage and ATP content in livers as well as respiration, oxidative damage and the presence and activity of HO-1 in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria (mtHO-1. Elevated serum liver enzyme activity and oxidative liver damage were already present at early intoxication stages without further subsequent increase. After 2 weeks of intoxication, mice had transiently lost 9% of their body weight, liver ATP-content was reduced to 58% of controls, succinate-driven respiration was uncoupled from ATP-production and antioxidant response was associated with the appearance of catalytically active mtHO-1. Oxidative damage was associated with both acute and chronic DDC toxicity whereas the onset of chronic intoxication was specifically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction which was maximal after 2 weeks of intoxication. At this transition stage, adaptive responses involving mtHO-1 were induced, indirectly leading to improved respiration and preventing further drop of ATP levels. Our observations clearly demonstrate principally different

  8. Investigating global trends in paraquat intoxication research from 1962 to 2015 using bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2018-06-01

    Paraquat is considered to be the main pesticide involved in accidental and intentional poisoning, and is responsible for a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to present a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of paraquat intoxication-related research. Data was retrieved in March 2017 from the Scopus database. An overview of the research on paraquat intoxication was presented alongside the information related to several bibliometric indicators, such as research trends, countries with their h-index, collaboration, hot issues, top-cited publications, journals, and institutions. There were 1971 publications related to paraquat intoxication in the Scopus database that were published between 1966 and 2015. There was increasing research output in the field of paraquat intoxication during the period 2006-2015. The USA published the highest number of publications (n = 338), followed by Japan with 228 publications, and China with 159 publications. The USA and the UK achieved the greatest h-index values (h-index values of 49 and 31, respectively). The USA also achieved the highest number of publications involving international collaboration, with 55 publications, followed by the UK, with 18 publications. The most prevalent topics in this field were "acute paraquat intoxication," "toxic effects of paraquat to the lung," and "mechanism of paraquat toxicity." Although a substantial amount of research has been produced on paraquat intoxication for most developed countries, there are research gaps regarding the international research agenda in this research area. The findings could be applied for prioritizing and organizing future research efforts related to paraquat toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of Suicide and Intoxication Cases Admitted to our Newly Opened Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Muhammedoğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suicide and intoxication cases between April 2011 and April 2013. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed hospital records of patients who were admitted to our intensive care unit due to suicide and intoxication. The age, sex, intoxication causes, laboratory analyses, treatment refusal rates, and the prognosis were evaluated. Results: A total of 308 patients (105 males, 203 females were admitted to the intensive care unit. The mean age of the patients was 27.45±10.26 years (males: 28.70±9.86 years, females: 26.80±10.43 years. There were only 4 patients over 65 years of age. 275 patients had drug intoxication (antidepressant drug, pain killer, antibiotic, etc. and 33 patients had other causes of intoxication. When analyzing the prognosis; a total of 234 patients were discharged after initial treatment and 57 patients were discharged due to treatment refusal. 15 patients were referred for inpatient psychiatric treatment, 1 patient to the Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment Center (AMATEM and 1 patient was referred to İstanbul University Medical Faculty due to acute hepatic failure. Conclusion: The patients admitted to our intensive care unit due to suicide and intoxications were mainly females (65.9% and individuals of young age (median age: 27.45 years. Female patients had used antidepressants for suicide attempts and males had used antiflu-acetaminophen combinations. No mortality was observed. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52:153-7

  10. Surgery for acute Type I aortic dissection without resection of supra-aortic entry sites leads to unfavourable aortic remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Woon; Song, Suk-Won; Lee, Kwang-Hun; Lee, Shin-Young; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Baek, Min-Young; Yoo, Kyung-Jong

    2018-01-29

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of remnant re-entries in arch branches on postoperative change in the aortic arch and descending aortic diameters and the rate of major adverse aortic events. Between January 2010 and December 2016, 249 patients underwent surgery for acute Type I aortic dissection. Patients who underwent total arch replacement, had Marfan syndrome or had intramural haematoma were excluded. Seventy-two patients with predischarge and follow-up computed tomography scans were enrolled. Patients with and without re-entries in the arch branches after surgery were assigned to the supra-aortic entry (SAE, n = 21) and no supra-aortic entry (n = 51) groups, respectively. Diameters were measured at 7 levels: the innominate artery, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery, 20 mm distal to the left subclavian artery, pulmonary artery bifurcation, coeliac axis and maximal diameter of the descending thoracic aorta. Growth rates at the levels of the pulmonary artery bifurcation and 20 mm distal to the left subclavian artery were significantly higher in the SAE group than in the no supra-aortic entry group. The rate of freedom from major adverse aortic events (annual growth >5 mm or maximal diameter of the descending thoracic aorta >50 mm) at 5 years was significantly higher in the no supra-aortic entry group than in the SAE group. Remnant SAE leads to unfavourable aortic remodelling after acute Type I aortic dissection repair. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  12. Adolescent alcohol intoxication in the dutch hospital Departments of Pediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.J. van; Lely, N. van der; Pereira, R.R.; Dalen, W.E. van

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to investigate the number and characteristics of adolescent alcohol intoxication cases in hospital Departments of Pediatrics. The study also analyzes drinking patterns and intoxication characteristics. Method: Data were collected using the Dutch Pediatric

  13. Treatment of theophylline intoxication using continuous venovenous haemofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijers, J.J.; Verhoeven, C.L.; Boersma, H.H.; van Mook, W.N.K.A

    2008-01-01

    Theophylline intoxication can cause serious complications such as seizures, cardiac arrhythmias and eventually cardiac arrest. Because of these potentially life-threatening clinical manifestations of theophylline intoxication, treatment methods that rapidly eliminate the drug are essential. These

  14. Histomorphormetric studies on lactational lead intoxication in testes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    damped cotton wool in a vacuum (air-tight chamber). ... The animal was then perfused to clear blood from the organs before the organs were harvested, the testes of the pups exposed via lactation were observed via histological methods.

  15. Fatal alcohol intoxication in women: A forensic autopsy study from Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straka Lubomir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plenty of information related to alcoholism can be found in the literature, however, the studies have mostly dealt with the predominance of male alcoholism and data related to addiction in women are desperately scarce and difficult to find. Basic demographic data focusing on the impact of acute alcohol intoxication on the circumstances of death and social behaviour in the alcohol addicted female population are needed especially in the prevention of alcohol related mortality. Methods A retrospective forensic autopsy study of all accidental deaths due to alcohol intoxication over a 12-year period was performed in order to evaluate the locations, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. Results A sample of 171 cases of intoxicated women who died due to blood alcohol concentration (BAC equal to or higher than 2 g/kg was selected. Among them 36.26% (62/171 of women died due to acute alcohol intoxication (AAI. We noted an increase in the number of deaths in women due to AAI from 2 in 1994 up to 5 in 2005 (an elevation of 150% between the years 1994-2005. The age structure of deaths in women due to BAC and AAI followed the Gaussian distribution with a dominant group of women aged 41-50 years (45.16% and 35.09% respectively. The most frequent place of death (98% among women intoxicated by alcohol was their own home. The study suggests a close connection between AAI and violence against women. Conclusions The increasing number of cases of death of women suffering from AAI has drawn attention to the serious problem of alcoholism in women in the Slovak Republic during the process of integration into "western" lifestyle and culture.

  16. A Case Report of Successful Kidney Donation After Brain Death Following Nicotine Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, M; Helanterä, I; Kalliomäki, J; Savikko, J; Parry, M; Lempinen, M

    Nicotine intoxication is a rare cause of death and can lead to brain death after respiratory arrest and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. To our knowledge, no previous reports regarding organ donation after nicotine intoxication have been described. We present a successful case of kidney donation after brain death caused by subcutaneous nicotine overdose from liquid nicotine from an e-cigarette cartridge in an attempted suicide. Both kidneys were transplanted successfully with immediate graft function, and both recipients were discharged at postoperative day 9 with normal plasma creatinine levels. Graft function has remained excellent in follow-up. This case suggests that kidneys from a donor with fatal nicotine intoxication may be successfully used for kidney transplantation in the absence of other contraindications for donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Life-threatening intoxication with methylene bis(thiocyanate: clinical picture and pitfalls. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnuelle Peter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylene bis(thiocyanate (MBT is a microbiocidal agent mainly used in industrial water cooling systems and paper mills as an inhibitor of algae, fungi, and bacteria. Case presentation We describe the first case of severe intoxication following inhalation of powder in an industrial worker. Profound cyanosis and respiratory failure caused by severe methemoglobinemia developed within several minutes. Despite immediate admission to the intensive care unit, where mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis for toxin elimination were initiated, multi-organ failure involving liver, kidneys, and lungs developed. While liver failure was leading, the patient was successfully treated with the MARS (molecular adsorbent recirculating system procedure. Conclusion Intoxication with MBT is a potentially life-threatening intoxication causing severe methemoglobinemia and multi-organ failure. Extracorporeal liver albumin dialysis (MARS appears to be an effective treatment to allow recovery of hepatic function.

  18. Severe neurotoxicity following ingestion of tetraethyl lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Brandon K; Christensen, Jason; Mazzoncini, Joe; Miller, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Organic lead compounds are potent neurotoxins which can result in death even from small exposures. Traditionally, these compounds are found in fuel stabilizers, anti-knock agents, and leaded gasoline. Cases of acute organic lead intoxication have not been reported for several decades. We report a case of a 13-year-old Iraqi male who unintentionally ingested a fuel stabilizer containing 80-90% tetraethyl lead, managed at our combat support hospital. The patient developed severe neurologic symptoms including agitation, hallucinations, weakness, and tremor. These symptoms were refractory to escalating doses of benzodiazepines and ultimately required endotracheal intubation and a propofol infusion. Adjunctive therapies included chelation, baclofen, and nutrition provided through a gastrostomy tube. The patient slowly recovered and was discharged in a wheelchair 20 days after ingestion, still requiring tube feeding. Follow-up at 62 days post-ingestion revealed near-resolution of symptoms with residual slurred speech and slight limp. This case highlights the profound neurotoxic manifestations of acute organic lead compounds.

  19. Secondary acute pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Pathological changes, promoting the development of secondary pneumonias, are investigated. To this group belong: blood circulation disturbance in small circle, bronchial passability disturbance, aspiration of liquids, gases and vapors, infections and purulent processes, intoxications, injuries, operative interference. Roetgenologic symptomatics of each secondary acute pneumonia form is presented in detail

  20. Identification and initial management of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in the pediatric emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Gatti Pianca

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To review the screening, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in children and adolescents in the emergency scenario. Data source: This was a narrative literature review. Data summary: The detection of this problem in the emergency room can be a challenge, especially when its assessment is not standardized. The intentional and episodic use of large amounts of psychoactive substances by adolescents is a usual occurrence, and unintentional intoxication is more common in children younger than 12 years. The clinical picture in adolescents and children differs from that in adults and some particularities are important in the emergency scenario. After management of the acute condition, interventions targeting the adolescent at risk may be effective. Conclusion: The diagnosis and treatment of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in adolescents and children in the emergency scenario requires a systematic evaluation of the use of these drugs. There are few specific treatments for intoxication, and the management comprehends support measures and management of related clinical complications.

  1. Physiologic effects of prolonged conducted electrical weapon discharge in ethanol-intoxicated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscati, Ronald; Ho, Jeffrey D; Dawes, Donald M; Miner, James R

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the physiologic effects of prolonged conducted electrical weapon (CEW) exposure on alcohol-intoxicated adult subjects. Adult volunteers were recruited at a TASER International training conference. All subjects ingested mixed drinks until clinical intoxication or until a minimum breath alcohol level of 0.08 mg/dL was achieved. Blood samples for venous pH, Pco(2), bicarbonate, and lactate were measured in all subjects at baseline, immediately after alcohol ingestion, immediately after exposure to a 15-second TASER X26 discharge (Taser International Inc, Scottsdale, AZ), and 24 hours post-alcohol ingestion. Laboratory values were compared at sampling times using repeated-measure analysis of variance. A focused analysis comparing time points within groups was then performed using paired t tests. Twenty-two subjects were enrolled into the study. There was a decrease in pH and bicarbonate and an increase in lactate after alcohol ingestion. There was a further increase in lactate and drop in pH after CEW exposure. No subject experienced a significant adverse event. All values had returned to baseline levels at 24 hours except lactate, which demonstrated a small but clinically insignificant increase. Prolonged continuous CEW exposure in the setting of acute alcohol intoxication has no clinically significant effect on subjects in terms of markers of metabolic acidosis. The acidosis seen is consistent with what occurs with ethanol intoxication or moderate exertion. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and initial management of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in the pediatric emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianca, Thiago Gatti; Sordi, Anne Orgle; Hartmann, Thiago Casarin; von Diemen, Lisia

    To review the screening, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in children and adolescents in the emergency scenario. This was a narrative literature review. The detection of this problem in the emergency room can be a challenge, especially when its assessment is not standardized. The intentional and episodic use of large amounts of psychoactive substances by adolescents is a usual occurrence, and unintentional intoxication is more common in children younger than 12 years. The clinical picture in adolescents and children differs from that in adults and some particularities are important in the emergency scenario. After management of the acute condition, interventions targeting the adolescent at risk may be effective. The diagnosis and treatment of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in adolescents and children in the emergency scenario requires a systematic evaluation of the use of these drugs. There are few specific treatments for intoxication, and the management comprehends support measures and management of related clinical complications. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Severe Valproic Acid Intoxication Responding to Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ertuğ Arslanköylü

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid is a commonly used antiepileptic drug which causes intoxication easily due to its narrow therapeutic window. Here, we present a child with valproic acid poisoning who responded to hemodialysis. A 14-year-old male patient with epilepsy and mental motor retardation was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit due to valproic acid intoxication. Plasma valproic acid level was 710 µg/mL. The patient’s vital signs were stable and a decrease was observed in the valproic acid and ammonia levels with supportive treatment at the beginning. On the third day of the admission, hemodynamic and mental status of the patient deteriorated, plasma ammonia and lactate levels elevated, thus, we decided to perform hemodialysis. After hemodialysis, the patient’s hemodynamic status and mental function improved in conjunction with the reduction in valproic acid, ammonia and lactate levels. Thus he was transferred to the pediatric ward. Hemodialysis may be considered an effective treatment choice for severe valproic acid intoxication. Here, it was shown that hemodialysis may also be effective in patients with deteriorated general status under supportive treatment in the late phase of valproic acid intoxication.

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DRUG INTOXICATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cheraghali M. Taymori

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional drug intoxication is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. In order to study the epidemiological pattern of childhood drug poisoning in Golestan province, all cases diagnosed with poisoning from 1997 to 2002 in the only pediatric hospital in province were recruited. During this period 563 cases of poisoned children were hospitalized in Taleqani hospital, of these 305 cases were due to drug poisoning. Opium was responsible for more than half of the poisoning cases, and 91% of deaths, among drug intoxicated children. Metoclopramide, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants were among the other frequent causes of poisoning. Neurological symptoms were the most prominent symptoms of poisoning and more than 80% of cases showed some neurological symptoms. Mortality rate among the cases was 3.6% and of total of 11 deaths, 10 were poisoned with opium. About 61% of cases were hospitalized between 24-48 hrs. Most of the poisoning cases in young children were unintentional and in many cases, their parents played a critical role in their intoxication. This role specially is crucial in infants and children under one year of age. Parents in Golestan province use opium widely for symptomatic treatment of routine illnesses in their young children and overdose of opium may cause severe intoxication and even death of the child.

  5. Consequences of 40 Years' Dioxin Intoxication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Dubská, Z.; Malík, J.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2009), s. 494-494 ISSN 1556-3650. [The International Congress of the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists /29./. 12.05.2009-15.05.2009, Stockholm] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : dioxins * intoxication Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  6. The delphic oracle and the ethylene-intoxication hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J; Lehoux, D

    2007-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team of scientists--including an archeologist, a geologist, a chemist, and a toxicologist--has argued that ethylene intoxication was the probable cause of the High Priestess of Delphi's divinatory (mantic) trances. The claim that the High Priestess of Delphi entered a mantic state because of ethylene intoxication enjoyed widespread reception in specialist academic journals, science magazines, and newspapers. This article uses a similar interdisciplinary approach to show that this hypothesis is implausible since it is based on problematic scientific and textual evidence, as well as a fallacious argument. The main issue raised by this counterargument is not that a particular scientific hypothesis or conjecture turned out to be false. (This is expected in scientific investigation.) Rather, the main issue is that it was a positivist disposition that originally led readers to associate the evidence presented in such a way that it seemed to point to the conclusion, even when the evidence did not support the conclusion. We conclude by observing that positivist dispositions can lead to the acceptance of claims because they have a scientific form, not because they are grounded in robust evidence and sound argument.

  7. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  8. Regulation of porphyrin synthesis and photodynamic therapy in heavy metal intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinblat, Borislava; Pour, Nir; Malik, Zvi

    2006-01-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) synthesis by malignant cells is successfully exploited for photodynamic therapy (PDT) following administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and light irradiation. The influence of two environmental heavy metal poisons, lead and gallium, on PpIX-synthesis and ALA-PDT was studied in two neu-ronal cell lines, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and PC12 pheochromocytoma. The heavy metal intoxication affected two of the heme-synthesis enzymes, ALA-dehydratase (ALAD) and porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD). The present results show that lead poisoning significantly decreased the PBGD cellular level and inhibited its enzymatic activity, whereas the effects of gallium were less prominent. Although, the protein levels were reduced, the mRNA levels of PBGD remained unchanged during metal intoxication. These findings show additional inhibitory activity of lead on top of its classical effect on ALAD. Proteasome activity was enhanced during lead treatment, as measured by the AMC fluorigenic proteasome assay. The reduction in PBGD levels was not a consequence of PBGD mRNA reduced synthesis, which remained unchanged as shown by RT-PCR analysis. As a result of the lead poisoning, marked alterations in the cell cycle were observed, including a decreased G1 phase and an increased number of S phase cells. The efficacy of ALA-PDT was reduced in correlation with decreased activities of the enzymes during lead intoxication. We may conclude that lead poisoning adversely affects the outcome of ALA photodynamic therapy of cancer.

  9. Lead poisoning from souvenir earthenware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Björklund, Andreas; Karlson-Stiber, Christine; Harper, Pauline; Seldén, Anders I

    2006-02-01

    A case of massive lead poisoning from juice contained in a Greek earthenware jug as well as six satellite cases of high lead exposure of similar origin is reported. The intoxicated patient was successfully treated with dimercaptosuccinic acid. Ceramic producers should adhere to the longstanding European legislation.

  10. Musculus gastrocnemius tetanus kinetics in alcohol-intoxicated rats with experimentally-induced hindlimb vascular ischemia under conditions of low-frequence muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Melnychuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol intoxication and ischemic injury of skeletal muscles often accompany each other. It is shown that patients hospitalized with chronic alcoholism develop muscle fatigue. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in alcohol-dependent patients is caused by ethanol-associated myofibrillar atrophy and metabolic disbalance, while compression-ischemic lesions result from unconsciousness of the patient, in case of taking the critical alcohol dose. Therefore, the aim of this study is to discover typical m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetics changes in alcohol intoxicated rats with experimentally induced vascular ischemia of hindlimb muscles under conditions of low-frequency progressive muscle fatigue. Experiments were carried out on 10 young male Wistar rats (149.5 ± 5.8 g kept under standard vivarium conditions and diet. The investigation was conducted in two phases: chronic (30 days and acute (3 hours experiment. All surgical procedures were carried out aseptically under general anesthesia. Ishemic m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetic changes and force productivity in alcohol intoxicated rats were investigated in the isometric mode, with direct electrical stimulation. The fatigue of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. was evaluated by three characteristic criteria: the first sag effect, the secondary force rise, the second sag effect. There have been 10 similar experiments: 5 series in each study group with 10 tetanic runs in each series. The highest amplitude of the native m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus relative to isoline was taken as 100% force response. The same pattern of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. low-frequency fatigue development was found in both rat groups under study. It is evidenced by the absence of substantial m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus kinetics differences in alcohol intoxicated rats, compared with non-alcohol intoxicated rats during fatigue test. However, the appreciable m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic force reduction

  11. CT findings following diphenylhydantoin intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, W.K.; Beck, U.; Hirsch, W.

    1985-05-01

    CT findings in three female epileptic patients are presented. The patients were treated with toxic doses of the anticonvulsant diphenylhydantoin, leading to irreversible ataxia of varying severity. CT shows cerebellar atrophy, including discernible sulci, a dilated 4th ventricle, basal cisterns, and subarachnoid space. These effects of severe DPH toxicity are in the differential diagnosis from the ''idiopathic'' and other toxic and systemic atrophies, as well as from the dysontogenetic lesions of the cerebellum.

  12. CT findings following diphenylhydantoin intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, W.K.; Beck, U.; Hirsch, W.; Kiel Univ.

    1985-01-01

    CT findings in three female epileptic patients are presented. The patients were treated with toxic doses of the anticonvulsant diphenylhydantoin, leading to irreversible ataxia of varying severity. CT shows cerebellar atrophy, including discernible sulci, a dilated 4th ventricle, basal cisterns, and subarachnoid space. These effects of severe DPH toxicity are in the differential diagnosis from the ''idiopathic'' and other toxic and systemic atrophies, as well as from the dysontogenetic lesions of the cerebellum. (orig.)

  13. Fetal brain damage following maternal carbon monoxide intoxication: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsberg, M D; Myers, R E

    1974-01-01

    Techniques of fetal monitoring, including fetal blood sampling in utero, were employed to study the physiological effects of acute maternal carbon monoxide intoxication on nine term-pregnant female rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.1 to 0.3% inspired carbon monoxide over 1 to 3 hr. The mothers tolerated carboxyhemoglobin levels exceeding 60% without clinical sequelae, whereas the fetuses promptly developed profound hypoxia upon exposure of the mothers to CO. The fetal COHb levels rose only gradually over 1 to 3 hr, and thus contributed only slightly to the development of early fetal hypoxia. The fetal hypoxia was associated with bradycardia, hypotension, and metabolic and respiratory acidosis. Severity of intrauterine hypoxia was closely correlated with the appearance of brain damage. Brain swelling associated with hemorrhagic necrosis of the cerebral hemispheres (severe brain damage) appeared only in fetuses whose arterial oxygen content was reduced below 1.0 ml/100 ml for at least 45 min during the maternal CO intoxication.

  14. Theobromine intoxication in a red fox and a European badger in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, D S; Galgan, V; Schubert, B; Segerstad, C H

    2001-04-01

    A red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and a European badger (Meles meles) were found dead on a golf-course in October 1997 near Stockholm (Sweden). At necropsy, both animals were obese and the main finding was acute circulatory collapse. Theobromine intoxication was suspected as chocolate waste was available at a nearby farm and no other cause of death could be detected. Gastric contents and samples of liver from both animals were analyzed by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography for the presence of methylxanthines. Theobromine and caffeine were detected in gastric contents and theobromine was identified in the liver samples from both animals. This appears to be the first report of theobromine intoxication in the red fox and the European badger.

  15. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafihelan Javad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed.

  16. [Intoxications specific to the Aquitaine region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; Gromb, S

    2009-07-01

    Some intoxications are more specifically linked to the Aquitaine region than to other regions of France, due to environmental circumstances (fauna, flora, climate) or traditional activities (gastronomy). Three types of intoxications are particular in this area. Pine processionary caterpillar envenomations (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), a Southern Europe pinewood parasite, are frequently encountered in the Landes' forest. They are responsible of ocular and/or skin lesions with urticaria or contact dermatitis, seldom associated with immediate IgE hypersensitivity. According to the south Atlantic coastal region geology and the marine streams, venomous marine animals are mainly located in Charente-Maritime for jellyfish, in Gironde and in Landes for weeverfish and in Atlantic Pyrenees for sea anemone. Usually not dangerous, first-aid workers treat most cases of these envenomations. Some endemic mushrooms (Tricholoma auratum) which grow on the dunes of the Atlantic coastal region, are usually considered as very good comestibles, but were recently responsible for serious intoxications: T.auratum was responsible of several cases of rhabdomyolysis, without neurological involvement, nor renal or hepatic lesion. Three deaths were notified. Animal studies confirmed the responsibility of the mushrooms.

  17. Effects of blood lead level on biochemical and hematological parameters in children with neurological diseases of Western Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratinidhi, Shilpa A; Patil, Arun J; Behera, Manaskumar; Patil, Maya; Ghadage, Dnyaneshwari P; Pratinidhi, Asha K

    2014-05-01

    Lead is found in small but appreciable quantities in air, soil, drinking water, and food. Exposure to such amounts of lead does not lead to acute lead toxicity but produces subtle effects particularly in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of blood lead level on biochemical and hematological parameters in children with neurological diseases in Western Maharashtra, India, and to estimate the blood lead level by liver and kidney function tests and hematological parameters in children with neurological disorders admitted to the pediatric ward and compare them with healthy controls. In this study, 30 children with various neurological disorders admitted to the pediatric ward of Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College and General Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India, were compared with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Four milliliters of venous blood was collected for estimation of blood lead level, and biochemical and hematological parameters were determined using standard methods. Blood lead level was significantly increased in the study group (plead levels, there was a significant difference between the groups. All other biochemical and hematological parameters were not significantly altered in the study group as compared to the control group. Neurologically challenged children are more vulnerable to lead intoxication. It is imperative for the parents to take extra care of their children's food habits and limit hand-to-mouth activities to prevent lead intoxication.

  18. Modifications of the sympathetic skin response in workers chronically exposed to lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Nora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of low-level lead intoxication are not known. The sympathetic skin response (SSR was evaluated in a group of 60 former workers of a primary lead smelter, located in Santo Amaro, BA, Brazil. The individuals participating in the study were submitted to a clinical-epidemiological evaluation including questions related to potential risk factors for intoxication, complaints related to peripheral nervous system (PNS involvement, neurological clinical examination, and also to electromyography and nerve conduction studies and SSR evaluation. The sample consisted of 57 men and 3 women aged 34 to 69 years (mean ± SD: 46.8 ± 6.9. The neurophysiologic evaluation showed the presence of lumbosacral radiculopathy in one of the individuals (1.7%, axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy in 2 (3.3%, and carpal tunnel syndrome in 6 (10%. SSR was abnormal or absent in 12 cases, representing 20% of the sample. More than half of the subjects (53.3% reported a history of acute abdominal pain requiring hospitalization during the period of work at the plant. A history of acute palsy of radial and peroneal nerves was reported by about 16.7 and 8.3% of the individuals, respectively. Mean SSR amplitude did not differ significantly between patients presenting or not the various characteristics in the current neurological situation, except for diaphoresis. The results suggest that chronic lead intoxication induces PNS damage, particularly affecting unmyelinated small fibers. Further systematic study is needed to more precisely define the role of lead in inducing PNS injury.

  19. Differential expression of myocardial heat shock proteins in rats acutely exposed to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-09-01

    Acute fluoride (F - ) toxicity is known to cause severe cardiac complications and leads to sudden heart failure. Previously, we reported that increased myocardial oxidative damage, apoptosis, altered cytoskeleton and AMPK signaling proteins associated with energy deprivation in acute F - induced cardiac dysfunction. The present study was aimed to decipher the status of myocardial heat shock proteins (Hsps-Hsp27, Hsp32, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90) and heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1) in acute F - -intoxicated rats. In order to study the expression of myocardial Hsps, male Wistar rats were treated with single oral doses of 45 and 90 mg/kg F - for 24 h. The expression levels of myocardial Hsps were determined using RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemical studies. Acute F - -intoxicated rats showed elevated levels of both the transcripts and protein expression of Hsf1, Hsp27, Hsp32, Hsp60, and Hsp70 when compared to control. In addition, the expression levels of Hsp40 and Hsp90 were significantly declined in a dose-dependent fashion in F - -treated animals. Our result suggests that differential expression of Hsps in the rat myocardium could serve as a balance between pro-survival and death signal during acute F - -induced heart failure.

  20. [Acute caffeine intoxication after intake of 'herbal energy capsules'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.E.; Landstra, A.M.; Luin, M. van; Setten, P.A. van

    2008-01-01

    Two males, 15 and 17 years old respectively, presented at the Emergency Department complaining of cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after ingestion of energy capsules. Physical examination revealed sinus tachycardia and slight abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed substantial

  1. Extending supplementary feeding for children younger than 5 years with moderate acute malnutrition leads to lower relapse rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have a high rate of relapse and death in the year following recovery. In this pilot study, we evaluate the long-term benefits of an extended course of nutritional therapy for children with MAM. Rural Malawian children 6 to 59 months old with MAM, defin...

  2. Does Cardiac Rehabilitation After an Acute Cardiac Syndrome Lead to Changes in Physical Activity Habits? Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hoeve, Nienke; Huisstede, Bionka M. A.; Stam, Henk J.; van Domburg, Ron T.; Sunamura, Madoka; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J. G.

    Background. Optimal physical activity levels have health benefits for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and are an important goal of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Purpose. The purpose of this study was to systematically review literature regarding short-term effects (= 6 months after

  3. High-dose alcohol intoxication differentially modulates cognitive subprocesses involved in response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Schulz, Tom; Lenhardt, Martin; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Aside from well-known physiological effects, high-dose alcohol intoxication (a.k.a. binge drinking) can lead to aversive social and legal consequences because response inhibition is usually compromised under the influence of alcohol. Although the behavioral aspects of this phenomenon were reported on extensively, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms mediating this disinhibition are unclear. To close this gap, we used both behavioral and neurophysiological measures (event-related potentials, ERPs) to investigate which subprocesses of response inhibition are altered under the influence of high-dose alcohol intoxication. Using a within-subject design, we asked young healthy participants (n = 27) to complete a GO/NOGO task once sober and once intoxicated (approximately 1.2‰). During intoxication, high-dose alcohol effects were highest in a condition where the participants could not rely on automated stimulus-response mapping processes during response inhibition. In this context, the NOGO-P3 (ERP), that likely depends on dopaminergic signaling within mesocorticolimbic pathways and is thought to reflect motor inhibition and/or the evaluation of inhibitory processes, was altered in the intoxicated state. In contrast to this, the N2 component, which largely depends on nigrostriatal dopamine pathways and is thought to reflect inhibition on a pre-motor level, was not altered. Based on these results, we demonstrate that alcohol-induced changes of dopaminergic neurotransmission do not exert a global effect on response inhibition. Instead, changes are highly subprocess-specific and seem to mainly target mesocorticolimbic pathways that contribute to motor inhibition and the evaluation of such. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. A plant-based oral vaccine to protect against systemic intoxication by Shiga toxin type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Sharon X.; Teel, Louise D.; Judge, Nicole A.; O’Brien, Alison D.

    2006-01-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome, the leading cause of kidney failure in children, often follows infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and is mediated by the Shiga type toxins, particularly type 2 (Stx2), produced by such strains. The challenge in protecting against this life-threatening syndrome is to stimulate an immune response at the site of infection while also protecting against Shiga intoxication at distal sites such as the kidney. As one approach to meeting this challenge, we sou...

  5. The Effect of Ethanol Intoxication on the Spectral Characteristics for Blood Components of White Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Korobova O.; Dudok T.; Trach I.; Moroz O.; Vlokh I.; Vlokh R.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to studying, with the aid of different organic dyes, the transmittance spectra of hemoglobin and immunoglobulin G extracted from the blood of laboratory rats, which have been chronically intoxicated with ethanol. The differences in the spectra are detected, when compare with those for the control group. It is shown that the presence of ethanol in blood probably leads to uncoiling partially the hemoglobin molecules. The essential difference is also found in the tra...

  6. In-Person Communication Between Radiologists and Acute Care Surgeons Leads to Significant Alterations in Surgical Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Elliot C; Alam, Hasan B; Brown, Richard K J; Stojanovska, Jadranka; Davenport, Matthew S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if direct in-person communication between an acute care surgical team and radiologists alters surgical decision making. Informed consent was waived for this institutional review board-exempt, HIPAA-compliant, prospective quality improvement study. From January 29, 2015 to December 10, 2015, semiweekly rounds lasting approximately 60 min were held between the on-call acute care surgery team (attending surgeon, chief resident, and residents) and one of three expert abdominal radiologists. A comprehensive imaging review was performed of recent and comparison examinations for cases selected by the surgeons in which medical and/or surgical decision making was pending. All reviewed examinations had available finalized reports known to the surgical team. RADPEER interradiologist concordance scores were assigned to all reviewed examinations. The impression and plan of the attending surgeon were recorded before and after each in-person review. One hundred patients were reviewed with 11 attending surgeons. The in-person meetings led to changes in surgeons' diagnostic impressions in 43% (43 of 100) and changes in medical and/or surgical planning in 43% (43 of 100; 20 acute changes, 23 nonacute changes, 19 changes in operative management) of cases. There were major discrepancies (RADPEER score ≥3) between the impression of the reviewing radiologist and the written report in 11% of cases (11 of 100). Targeted in-person collaboration between radiologists and acute care surgeons is associated with substantial and frequent changes in patient management, even when the original written report contains all necessary data. The primary mechanism seems to be promotion of a shared mental model that facilitates the exchange of complex information. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediction of acute toxicity of cadmium and lead to zebrafish larvae by using a refined toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yongfei; Feng, Jianfeng, E-mail: fengjf@nankai.edu.cn; Zhu, Lin, E-mail: zhulin@nankai.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed a BLM-aided TK-TD model that considers the effects of H{sup +}. • The time-course metal concentration in larvae was well described by the TK model. • The time-course survival of zebrafish larvae was well simulated by the TD model. - Abstract: The biotic ligand model (BLM) and the toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) model are essential in predicting the acute toxicity of metals in various species and exposure conditions; however, these models are usually separately utilized. In this study, a mechanistic TK-TD model was developed to predict the acute toxicity of 10{sup −6} M Cd and 10{sup −6} M Pb to zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. The novel approach links the BLM with relevant TK processes to simulate the bioaccumulation processes of Cd or Pb as a function of the maximum uptake rate of each metal, the affinity constants, and the concentrations of free metal ions and H{sup +} in test solutions. Results showed that the refined TK-TD model can accurately predict the accumulation and acute toxicity of Cd and Pb to zebrafish larvae at pH 5.5, 6.5, and 7.0.

  8. Prediction of acute toxicity of cadmium and lead to zebrafish larvae by using a refined toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yongfei; Feng, Jianfeng; Zhu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a BLM-aided TK-TD model that considers the effects of H"+. • The time-course metal concentration in larvae was well described by the TK model. • The time-course survival of zebrafish larvae was well simulated by the TD model. - Abstract: The biotic ligand model (BLM) and the toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) model are essential in predicting the acute toxicity of metals in various species and exposure conditions; however, these models are usually separately utilized. In this study, a mechanistic TK-TD model was developed to predict the acute toxicity of 10"−"6 M Cd and 10"−"6 M Pb to zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. The novel approach links the BLM with relevant TK processes to simulate the bioaccumulation processes of Cd or Pb as a function of the maximum uptake rate of each metal, the affinity constants, and the concentrations of free metal ions and H"+ in test solutions. Results showed that the refined TK-TD model can accurately predict the accumulation and acute toxicity of Cd and Pb to zebrafish larvae at pH 5.5, 6.5, and 7.0.

  9. Treatment of ibuprofen intoxication in a dog via therapeutic plasma exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Stuart; Ryan, Kirk A; Davis, Jennifer L; Acierno, Mark

    2017-07-01

    To describe the treatment of ibuprofen intoxication with therapeutic plasma exchange in a dog (TPE). A 13-year-old male neutered mixed breed dog presented after ingesting approximately 200 mg/kg of ibuprofen. Treatment consisted of supportive medical therapy with IV fluids, gastrointestinal protectants, antiemetics and prostaglandin analogs, and TPE. A cycle of TPE was performed over 180 minutes, achieving 1.5 plasma volume exchanges. During therapy, heparinized blood and effluent samples were collected. Ibuprofen concentrations were determined in the samples by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Post TPE, the dog was continued on supportive medical therapy and was discharged 96 hours after the overdose. This report describes the use of TPE as an adjunct for ibuprofen intoxication. An 85% reduction in plasma ibuprofen concentration occurred and recovery from a potentially lethal ingestion of ibuprofen was achieved with TPE and supportive care. TPE should be considered when presented with acute ibuprofen intoxication due to the rapid and efficacious nature of therapy. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  10. Peripheral markers of oxidative stress in chronic mercuric chloride intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez L.L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the time course changes in peripheral markers of oxidative stress in a chronic HgCl2 intoxication model. Twenty male adult Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously daily for 30 days and divided into two groups of 10 animals each: Hg, which received HgCl2 (0.16 mg kg-1 day-1, and control, receiving the same volume of saline solution. Blood was collected at the first, second and fourth weeks of Hg administration to evaluate lipid peroxidation (LPO, total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP, and superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and catalase (CAT. HgCl2 administration induced a rise (by 26% in LPO compared to control (143 ± 10 cps/mg hemoglobin in the second week and no difference was found at the end of the treatment. At that time, GST and GPx were higher (14 and 24%, respectively in the Hg group, and Cu,Zn-SOD was lower (54% compared to control. At the end of the treatment, Cu,Zn-SOD and CAT were higher (43 and 10%, respectively in the Hg group compared to control (4.6 ± 0.3 U/mg protein; 37 ± 0.9 pmol/mg protein, respectively. TRAP was lower (69% in the first week compared to control (43.8 ± 1.9 mM Trolox. These data provide evidence that HgCl2 administration is accompanied by systemic oxidative damage in the initial phase of the process, which leads to adaptive changes in the antioxidant reserve, thus decreasing the oxidative injury at the end of 30 days of HgCl2 administration. These results suggest that a preventive treatment with antioxidants would help to avoid oxidative damage in subjects with chronic intoxication.

  11. Inferior ST-Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction or an Inferior-Lead Brugada-like Electrocardiogram Pattern Associated With the Use of Pregabalin and Quetiapine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Natale D; Ieva, Riccardo; Correale, Michele; Cuculo, Andrea; Santoro, Francesco; Guaricci, Andrea I; De Gennaro, Luisa; Gaglione, Antonio; Di Biase, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Brugada electrocardiogram pattern is characterized by coved-type ST-elevation (>2 mm) in the right precordial leads. We report the case of a 62-year-old man, with bipolar disorder, admitted to the emergency department because of dyspnea and chest discomfort. The patient was on treatment with pregabalin and quetiapine. Unexpectedly, electrocardiogram at admission showed diffuse ST-elevation, more evident in inferior leads, where a Brugada-like pattern was present. The patient underwent coronary angiography with a diagnosis of suspected acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography, however, showed mild coronary artery disease not requiring coronary angioplasty. Echocardiography did not reveal left ventricular dysfunction or pericardial effusion. Troponin levels remained normal over serial controls. Eventually, chest radiography showed lung opacities and consolidation suggestive for pneumonia. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first cases showing a transient Brugada-like electrocardiogram pattern in inferior leads, probably amplified by the administration of pregabalin and quetiapine.

  12. Psychiatric and Medical Management of Marijuana Intoxication in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui, Quan M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We use a case report to describe the acute psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency setting. A 34-year-old woman presented with erratic, disruptive behavior and psychotic symptoms after recreational ingestion of edible cannabis. She was also found to have mild hypokalemia and QT interval prolongation. Psychiatric management of cannabis psychosis involves symptomatic treatment and maintenance of safety during detoxification. Acute medical complications of marijuana use are primarily cardiovascular and respiratory in nature; electrolyte and electrocardiogram monitoring is indicated. This patient’s psychosis, hypokalemia and prolonged QTc interval resolved over two days with supportive treatment and minimal intervention in the emergency department. Patients with cannabis psychosis are at risk for further psychotic sequelae. Emergency providers may reduce this risk through appropriate diagnosis, acute treatment, and referral for outpatient care. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:414–417.

  13. Impairment of autophagy: From hereditary disorder to drug intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aki, Toshihiko; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Unuma, Kana; Uemura, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    At first, the molecular mechanism of autophagy was unveiled in a unicellular organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), followed by the discovery that the basic mechanism of autophagy is conserved in multicellular organisms including mammals. Although autophagy was considered to be a non-selective bulk protein degradation system to recycle amino acids during periods of nutrient starvation, it is also believed to be an essential mechanism for the selective elimination of proteins/organelles that are damaged under pathological conditions. Research advances made using autophagy-deficient animals have revealed that impairments of autophagy often underlie the pathogenesis of hereditary disorders such as Danon, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. On the other hand, there are many reports that drugs and toxicants, including arsenic, cadmium, paraquat, methamphetamine, and ethanol, induce autophagy during the development of their toxicity on many organs including heart, brain, lung, kidney, and liver. Although the question as to whether autophagic machinery is involved in the execution of cell death or not remains controversial, the current view of the role of autophagy during cell/tissue injury is that it is an important, often essential, cytoprotective reaction; disturbances in cytoprotective autophagy aggravate cell/tissue injuries. The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a gross summarization of autophagy processes, which are becoming more important in the field of toxicology, and (2) examples of important studies reporting the involvement of perturbations in autophagy in cell/tissue injuries caused by acute as well as chronic intoxication

  14. Deficiency in Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B Shortens Lifespan and Leads to Development of Acute Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sommer, Samantha; Morrice, Nicola; Pesaresi, Martina; Thompson, Dawn; Vickers, Mark A; Murray, Graeme I; Mody, Nimesh; Neel, Benjamin G; Bence, Kendra K; Wilson, Heather M; Delibegović, Mirela

    2018-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a critical regulator of signaling pathways controlling metabolic homeostasis, cell proliferation, and immunity. In this study, we report that global or myeloid-specific deficiency of PTP1B in mice decreases lifespan. We demonstrate that myeloid-specific deficiency of PTP1B is sufficient to promote the development of acute myeloid leukemia. LysM-PTP1B -/- mice lacking PTP1B in the innate myeloid cell lineage displayed a dysregulation of bone marrow cells with a rapid decline in population at midlife and a concomitant increase in peripheral blood blast cells. This phenotype manifested further with extramedullary tumors, hepatic macrophage infiltration, and metabolic reprogramming, suggesting increased hepatic lipid metabolism prior to overt tumor development. Mechanistic investigations revealed an increase in anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage responses in liver and spleen, as associated with increased expression of arginase I and the cytokines IL10 and IL4. We also documented STAT3 hypersphosphorylation and signaling along with JAK-dependent upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl2 and BclXL. Our results establish a tumor suppressor role for PTP1B in the myeloid lineage cells, with evidence that its genetic inactivation in mice is sufficient to drive acute myeloid leukemia. Significance: This study defines a tumor suppressor function for the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B in myeloid lineage cells, with evidence that its genetic inactivation in mice is sufficient to drive acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Res; 78(1); 75-87. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Silencing of microRNA-155 in mice during acute inflammatory response leads to derepression of c/ebp Beta and down-regulation of G-CSF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Jesper; Stenvang, Jan; Petri, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    microRNA-155 (miR-155) has been implicated as a central regulator of the immune system, but its function during acute inflammatory responses is still poorly understood. Here we show that exposure of cultured macrophages and mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to up-regulation of miR-155......-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a central regulator of granulopoiesis during inflammatory responses. Consistent with these data, we show that silencing of miR-155 in LPS-treated mice by systemically administered LNA-antimiR results in derepression of the c/ebp Beta isoforms and down-regulation of G-CSF expression...

  16. Sigmoid endometriosis in a post-menopausal woman leading to acute large bowel obstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardia Bidarmaghz, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This case report shows that colonic endometriosis, although rare, can be significantly infiltrative and lead to complications such as a large bowel obstruction. Diagnosing this condition can be challenging and usually requires histological confirmation.

  17. β5i subunit deficiency of the immunoproteasome leads to reduced Th2 response in OVA induced acute asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Volkov

    Full Text Available The immunoproteasome subunit β5i has been shown to play an important role in Th1/Th17 driven models of colitis and arthritis. However, the function of β5i in Th2 dependent diseases remains enigmatic. To study the role of β5i in Th2-driven pathology, β5i knockout (KO and control mice were tested in different models of experimental allergic asthma. β5i-deficient mice showed reduced OVA/Alum- and subcutaneous/OVA-induced acute asthma with decreased eosinophilia in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, low OVA-specific IgG1 and reduced local and systemic Th2 cytokines. While Th2 cells in the lungs were reduced, Tregs and Th1 cells were not affected. Attenuated asthma in β5i KO mice could not be attributed to defects in OVA uptake or maturation of dendritic cells in the lung. Surprisingly, β5i deficient mice developed HDM asthma which was comparable to control mice. Here, we present novel evidence for the requirement of the β5i immunosubunit to generate a strong Th2 response during OVA- but not HDM-induced acute asthma. The unexpected role of β5i in OVA asthma remains to be clarified.

  18. Colchicine intoxication: a report of two suicide cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erden A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdulsamet Erden,1 Hatice Karagoz,1 Hasan Hüseyin Gümüscü,1 Samet Karahan,1 Mustafa Basak,1 Fatma Aykas,1 Kadir Bulut,1 Ali Cetinkaya,1 Deniz Avci,1 Orhan Kürsat Poyrazoglu2 1Internal Medicine Department, 2Gastroenterology Department, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey Abstract: Colchicine, an old and well-known drug, is an alkaloid extracted from Colchicum autumnale and related species. Colchicine inhibits the deposition of uric acid crystals and is an inhibitor of mitosis. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, with a massive loss of fluid and electrolytes are the first clinical symptoms of colchicine poisoning. Stomach lavage and rapid gastric decontamination with activated charcoal are crucial. An acute dose of about 0.8 mg/kg of colchicine is presumed to be fatal. We report the clinical outcomes of two different cases of colchicine intoxication for attempted suicide. The dose required for morbidity or mortality varies significantly. The dose of 1 mg/kg in the first case was directly related with mortality, while the dose of 0.2 mg/kg in the second was related with survival. The other difference between the patients was the time of arrival to hospital after ingestion. This period was 4 hours for case 1 and only 1, hour for case 2. The initiation of treatment later than 2 hours after ingestion of colchicine may significantly impair treatment because the absorption time for colchicine after oral administration is about 30–120 minutes. The rising lactate level and high anion gap metabolic acidosis in our patient (case 1 were attributed to lactic acidosis, so hemodialysis was performed, and the duration of hemodialysis was prolonged. Lactic acidosis in the first case was one of the reasons for mortality. The most important parameters which define the chance of survival are the dose of ingested drugs and the arrival time to hospital after ingestion. The patients must be monitored closely for lactic acidosis

  19. Vitamin D and Risk for Vitamin A Intoxication in an 18-Month-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Talarico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-month-old boy presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and poor appetite for 6 days. He had been given a multivitamin preparation once daily, containing 50.000 IU of vitamin D and 10.000 IU of vitamin A for a wide anterior fontanelle for about three months. He presented with hypercalcemia, low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH, and very high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD levels. Renal ultrasound showed nephrocalcinosis. He did not have sign or symptom of vitamin A intoxication. Patient was successfully treated with intravenous hydration, furosemide, and prednisolone. With treatment, serum calcium returned rapidly to the normal range and serum 25-OHD levels were reduced progressively. In conclusion the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency rickets without checking 25-OHD levels may cause redundant treatment that leads to vitamin D intoxication (VDI.

  20. Intoxicações em eqüinos no Brasil Intoxications in horses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Riet-Correa

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se algumas intoxicações descritas em eqüídeos no Brasil. Dentre as intoxicações por plantas, incluem-se: Senecio spp., Ateleia glazioviana, Crotalaria juncea, Equisetum spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Baccharis coridifolia, Senna occidentalis e Brachiaria spp.. Mencionam-se, também, as micotoxicoses causadas por Fusarium moniliforme, Claviceps purpurea e aflatoxinas, e as intoxicações por uréia, iodo, chumbo e inseticidas clorados.Toxic disease reported in horses in Brazil are reviewed. Intoxications by plants including: Senecio spp, Ateleia glazioviana, Crotalaria juncea, Equisetum spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Baccharis coridifolia, Senna occidentalis e Brachiaria spp. are described. Mycotoxicosis caused by Fusarium moniliforme, Claviceps purpurea and aflatoxins, and intoxications by urea, iodine, lead, chlorinated insecticides are also mentioned.

  1. Acute vergiftigingen bij mens en dier. Jaaroverzicht 2005-2006. Nationaal Vergiftigingen Informatie Centrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen AG van; Gorcum TF van; Riel AJHP van; Meulenbelt J; Vries I de; VIC

    2007-01-01

    In 2005 the National Poisons Information Centre (NVIC) received 36,375 enquiries and in 2006, 37,088, all on acute intoxications of humans and animals. These enquiries concerned about 50,000 exposures to chemical substances per year. More than half of these intoxications were due to a medication

  2. Two Fatal Intoxications Involving Butyryl Fentanyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, Justin; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl; Hathaway, Cindie; Arbefeville, Elise; Chrostowski, Leszek; Devers, Kelly; Hair, Laura; Mainland, Mary; Merves, Michele; Pearson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    We present the case histories, autopsy findings and toxicology findings of two fatal intoxications involving the designer drug, butyryl fentanyl. The quantitative analysis of butyryl fentanyl in postmortem fluids and tissues was performed by an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. In the first case, butyryl fentanyl was the only drug detected with concentrations of 99 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 220 ng/mL in heart blood, 32 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 590 ng/mL in gastric contents, 93 ng/g in brain, 41 ng/g in liver, 260 ng/mL in bile and 64 ng/mL in urine. The cause of death was ruled fatal intoxication by butyryl fentanyl. In the second case, butyryl fentanyl was detected along with acetyl fentanyl, alprazolam and ethanol. The butyryl fentanyl concentrations were 3.7 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 9.2 ng/mL in heart blood, 9.8 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 4,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 63 ng/g in brain, 39 ng/g in liver, 49 ng/mL in bile and 2 ng/mL in urine. The acetyl fentanyl concentrations were 21 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 95 ng/mL in heart blood, 68 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 28,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 200 ng/g in brain, 160 ng/g in liver, 330 ng/mL in bile and 8 ng/mL in urine. In addition, the alprazolam concentration was 40 ng/mL and the ethanol concentration was 0.11 g/dL, both measured in peripheral blood. The cause of death in the second case was ruled a mixed drug intoxication. In both cases, the manner of death was accident. PMID:27339481

  3. C-reactive protein testing in patients with acute rhinosinusitis leads to a reduction in antibiotic use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars; Arranz, Javier

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of C-reactive protein (CRP) testing on the antibiotic prescribing in patients with acute rhinosinusitis. METHODS: Audit-based study carried out in primary care centres in Spain. GPs registered episodes of rhinosinusitis during 3-week period before and after...... an intervention. Two types of intervention were considered: full intervention group (FIG) consisting in individual feedback based on results from the first registry, courses in rational antibiotic prescribing, guidelines, patient information leaflets, workshops on rapid tests and use of the CRP test. GPs...... in the partial intervention group (PIG) underwent all the above intervention except for the workshop and they did not have access to CRP. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed considering the prescription of antibiotics as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Two hundred and ten physicians were...

  4. Acute kidney injury due to star fruit ingestion: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehruba Alam Ananna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Star fruit (Avarrhoa carambola is a fruit from oxalidace family. lt is found in many countries of the world including Bangladesh. But its ingestion or drinking star fruit juice may lead to intoxication especially in patients with chronic kidney disease and manifestations might be neurological or nephrological. lt may also cause acute kidney injury in patients with previously normal renal function. Here we are presenting a case who presented with acute kidney injury after star fruit ingestion with previously unknown renal function impairment. The etiology was confirmed by histopathological exami­nation after doing renal biopsy. This renal function impairment is mainly due to oxalate crystal induce nephropathy which is richly abundant in star fruit. His renal function was improved ·with conservative management. Physicians should be alert to consider the ingestion of star fruit as a cause of acute kidney injury in a patient even in the absence of previous renal function impairment.

  5. Changes in the nervous system state and peripheral blood parameters under benzene intoxication during an experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Orujov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is a widely spread chemical health risk factor. Our research goal was to examine the nervous system state and the blood system state under benzene intoxication during an experiment. An acute experiment was performed on 45 white mice with 5-fold poisoning with benzene; a chronic one was performed on 72 rabbits being under inhalation exposure to benzene during 4 months, its concentrations increasing and fluctuating. We determined the following blood parameters: number of reticulocytes, eosinophils, basocytes, and erythrocytes; erythrocytes sedimentation rate; blood clotting period; blood clot retraction; plasma re-calcification period; plasma tolerance to heparin; prothrombin time; prothrombin index; fibrinogen concentration; blood fibrinolytic activity; acetylcholine and choline esterase contents. We also determined adrenalin, noradrenalin, dopamine, and dihydroxyphenylalanine contents in urine. Acute experiments results revealed that one-time exposure to benzene exerted a narcotic effect on the central nervous system which had an excitation phase and inhibition phase. Under a repeat exposure to benzene animals' drug intoxication was shorter. And here neutrophils / leucocytes gradient first increased to 139.5 % from its standards value and then when down under consequent intoxications. We detected relevant changes in morphological picture of animals' peripheral blood and their central and vegetative nervous system under chronic exposure to intermittent and increasing benzene concentrations. So, our research revealed that effects exerted by benzene in small concentrations led to apparent shifts in white blood and catecholamines (adrenalin, noradrenalin, dopamine, and dihydroxyphenylalanine. We also detected certain signs that cate-cholamines endogenous reserves (dihydroxyphenylalanine were depleted and, and also signs of eosinophils-basocytes disso-ciation; such prognostic signs were considered to be unfavorable as it was exactly at that

  6. Effects of cadmium and monensin on renal and cardiac functions of mice subjected to subacute cadmium intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Juliana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a well-known nephrotoxic agent. Cd-induced renal dysfunction has been considered as one of the causes leading to the development of hypertension. The correlation between Cd concentration in blood and urine and cardiovascular diseases has been discussed in many epidemiological studies. A therapy with chelating agents is utilized for the treatment of toxic metal intoxication. Herein we present novel information indicating that monensin (applied as tetraethylammonium salt is a promising chelating agent for the treatment of Cd-induced renal and cardiac dysfunction. The study was performed using the ICR mouse model. Adult ICR male mice were divided into three groups with six animals in each group: control (received distilled water and food ad libitum for 28 days; Cd-intoxicated (treated orally with 20 mg/kg b.w. Cd(II acetate from day 1 to day 14 of the experimental protocol, and monensin treated group (intoxicated with Cd(II acetate as described for the Cd-intoxicated group followed by oral treatment with 16 mg/kg b.w. tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid for 2 weeks. Cd intoxication of the animals resulted in an increase of the organ weight/body weight indexes. Cd elevated significantly creatinine and glucose level in serum. Monensin treatment improved the organ weight/body weight ratios. The therapy of the Cd-intoxicated animals with monensin ameliorated the creatinine and glucose level in serum and decreased the concentration of the toxic metal ions in the heart and kidneys by 54 % and 64 %, respectively

  7. Corruption of dendritic cell antigen presentation during acute GVHD leads to regulatory T-cell failure and chronic GVHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque-El Mouttie, Lucie; Koyama, Motoko; Le Texier, Laetitia; Markey, Kate A; Cheong, Melody; Kuns, Rachel D; Lineburg, Katie E; Teal, Bianca E; Alexander, Kylie A; Clouston, Andrew D; Blazar, Bruce R; Hill, Geoffrey R; MacDonald, Kelli P A

    2016-08-11

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major cause of late mortality following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is characterized by tissue fibrosis manifesting as scleroderma and bronchiolitis obliterans. The development of acute GVHD (aGVHD) is a powerful clinical predictor of subsequent cGVHD, suggesting that aGVHD may invoke the immunologic pathways responsible for cGVHD. In preclinical models in which sclerodermatous cGVHD develops after a preceding period of mild aGVHD, we show that antigen presentation within major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II of donor dendritic cells (DCs) is markedly impaired early after BMT. This is associated with a failure of regulatory T-cell (Treg) homeostasis and cGVHD. Donor DC-restricted deletion of MHC class II phenocopied this Treg deficiency and cGVHD. Moreover, specific depletion of donor Tregs after BMT also induced cGVHD, whereas adoptive transfer of Tregs ameliorated it. These data demonstrate that the defect in Treg homeostasis seen in cGVHD is a causative lesion and is downstream of defective antigen presentation within MHC class II that is induced by aGVHD. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  8. Intoxicação aguda por aldrin: relação dos níveis séricos com efeitos tóxicos no homem Acute intoxication by aldrin: relationship between clinical signs and serum levels in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Andrade Carvalho

    1990-02-01

    inseticida.In the attempt to correlate clinical findings with serum levels of aldrin, sixteen patients were followed-up after acute intoxication by this agent. Eight of them, males and females, aged from 1 to 37 years, presented no or light symptoms (some discomfort and nausea. The serum of one of these patients was found to contain 16.6 ppb of aldrin and that of another, 1.41 ppb of dieldrin. A group of five patients, aged from two to 30 years, showed symptoms of moderate severity, reporting nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, dyspnea, sweating, mild jerking, rise in blood pressure and convulsions. Of these cases, two were accidental and three were attempted suicides, the majority achieving complete recovery within 24 hours. Serum levels of aldrin were between 6.98 ppb and 26.3 ppb and of dieldrin between 82.00 and 314.18 ppb. We found three severe cases, aged from 21 to 35 years, two attempted suicides and one occupational case. Two of these patients died and one of them presented hypothermia, coma, absence of reflexes and generalized convulsions, and another presented abdominal pain, paleness, sweating, cold extremities, dyspnea, hyperthermia and generalized convulsions. In the first one that died the serum levels were: of aldrin 30.00 ppb and of dieldrin 720 ppb. In the other levels of 747.3 ppb of aldrin and 1,314.00 ppb of dieldrin were found. The third had less serious symptoms and presented serum levels of aldrin of 31.05 ppb and of dieldrin 147.11 ppb. These data seem to indicate that the serum levels of aldrin or of its metabolite dieldrin do not show great correlation between clinical signs and acute toxicity, because patients were found that presented serious symptoms, such as convulsions, without presenting other prior clinical signs and in whom the blood levels of aldrin and dieldrin were found to be as low as 7.2 ppb and 90.40 ppb, respectively. The lethal blood levels were 700 ppb of aldrin and raged from 720 ppb to 1,314.00 ppb of dieldrin.

  9. [The "dental amalgam syndrome" - an environmental somatization Syndrome? A comparison between chronic carbon monoxide intoxication and illness related to dental amalgam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, T

    2001-01-01

    In 1940, during World War II, restrictions in import of petroleum products to Sweden necessitated the use of producer gas in motor traffic. In the following years, the incidence of acute carbon monoxide intoxications raised steeply. However, many patients with minor but longstanding exposition to producer gas exhibited a neurastenic syndrome (fatigue, headaches and vertigo) thought to be specific. In Stockholm, an epidemic of this syndrome can afterwards be traced to the personal conviction of an internist who also had an important influence on various authorities, leading to a forceful campaign to the public about the dangers of using producer gas. After some years, the frequency and even the existence of a chronic carbon monoxide intoxication was called in question and at the end of the war that diagnosis lost its actuality. In Sweden, oral galvanism attributed to dental amalgam was discussed in mass media in the 1970s, not least by evidence given by some well-known personalities. In the 1980s, the frequency of illness attributed to dental amalgam increased to an important epidemic. The question of the dangers of mercury released from amalgam fillings is still an important issue of debate among dentists and physicians, although the majority remains sceptical. Also medical authorities have found little evidence of the importance of dental amalgam toxicity. A patients organisation, Tandvårdsskadeförbundet, seems to have played a significant part in the acceptance of the syndrome among laymen. Thus, various psychosocial factors seem to have played a role in both syndromes which could thus be conceived as environmental somatization syndromes.

  10. Clinical and Laboratory Findings in Patients with Tramadol Intoxication Referred to Razi Hospital During 2005-06

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Rahbar Taromsari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Frequency of Tramadol intoxication is increasing as a result of its useas a drug for suppression of withdrawal symptoms by opioids abusers and its wideaccessibility of this drug. Tramadol intoxication can lead to death and, therefore, earlyidentification of its clinical manifestations is crucial since early detection of theintoxication and its treatment could improve patients' survival This study investigatedthe frequency of clinical and laboratory findings in Tramadol intoxication.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with Tramadol intoxication whoreferred to Razi Hospital in Rasht, Iran, during 2005-06 were examined. Theirmedical records were surveyed for demographic data, past medical history,neurological examination, and routine laboratory tests. All data were statisticallyanalyzed by SPSS software version 14.Result: The majority of the 306 patients (83.3% male were in the age range of 20-40 years and 68.6% of them had been educated up to high school. The mean dose ofingested Tramadol was 746± 453mg (mean± SD. Agitation (25.2% and seizure(20.3% were the most frequent reported symptoms. Among laboratory abnormalities,the most common findings were prolonged PT (18.3% and increased ALT (5.6%.Conclusion: The most common clinical presentation was agitation and the mostcommon laboratory finding was prolonged PT. Of all the patients, 3 cases wereadmitted to ICU. Although Tramadol poisoning might lead to death, there was onlyone death after Tramadol poisoning in the current study.

  11. Mortality supposedly due to intoxication by pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium indicum in a horse population in Costa Rica: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weeren, P R; Morales, J A; Rodríguez, L L; Cedeño, H; Villalobos, J; Poveda, L J

    1999-04-01

    This article describes a case of massive mortality among horses which was probably due to intoxication by pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium indicum. Over 4 years more than 75% of a population of about 110 horses on a farm in Costa Rica died after showing nervous neurological symptoms. Two clinical manifestations were encountered, an acute and a chronic one, both with a fatal outcome. Pathological findings in 2 horses coincided with those reported in the literature for intoxication by pyrrolizidine alkaloids and were not specific for VEE. However Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) was the main differential diagnosis and could not completely be excluded because this disease was endemic in the region and VEE titres were found to be high. Taxonomic and toxicological investigations implicated Heliotropium indicum as the most probable principal cause of the intoxication.

  12. The effects of alcohol intoxication on attention and memory for visual scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alistair J; Kneller, Wendy; Campbell, Alison C

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the claim that alcohol intoxication narrows the focus of visual attention on to the more salient features of a visual scene. A group of alcohol intoxicated and sober participants had their eye movements recorded as they encoded a photographic image featuring a central event of either high or low salience. All participants then recalled the details of the image the following day when sober. We sought to determine whether the alcohol group would pay less attention to the peripheral features of the encoded scene than their sober counterparts, whether this effect of attentional narrowing was stronger for the high-salience event than for the low-salience event, and whether it would lead to a corresponding deficit in peripheral recall. Alcohol was found to narrow the focus of foveal attention to the central features of both images but did not facilitate recall from this region. It also reduced the overall amount of information accurately recalled from each scene. These findings demonstrate that the concept of alcohol myopia originally posited to explain the social consequences of intoxication (Steele & Josephs, 1990) may be extended to explain the relative neglect of peripheral information during the processing of visual scenes.

  13. Acute health problems due to recreational drug use in patients presenting to an urban emergency department in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Liakoni, Evangelia; Dolder, Patrick C.; Rentsch, Katharina; Liechti, Matthias E.

    2015-01-01

    QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: To describe acute toxicity of recreational drugs including novel psychoactive substances. METHODS: We included all cases presenting at the emergency department (ED) of the University Hospital of Basel, Switzerland, between October 2013 and September 2014 with acute toxicity due to self-reported recreational drug use or with symptoms/signs consistent with acute toxicity. Isolated ethanol intoxications were excluded. Intoxications were confirmed with immunoassa...

  14. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  15. Characteristics of caffeine intoxication-related death in Tokyo, Japan, between 2008 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Masako; Kato, Yukihisa; Shibata, Mikiyoshi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2014-10-01

    Caffeine is widely available in beverages and over-the-counter products; however, in large doses, it can lead to lethal arrhythmia. This study aims to clarify the characteristics of caffeine intoxication-related deaths in Tokyo, Japan. Among the 4754 forensic autopsy cases between 2008 and 2013 in which a toxicological investigation was performed, cases in which the blood concentration of caffeine exceeded toxic levels (15 μg/ml) were selected (N = 22). We examined subjects' ages, medical histories, direct/underlying causes of death, and manner of death. We also assessed concurrent drug substance detection and identified the origin of the caffeine. More than 60% of the subjects were between the ages of 20 and 49 years (n = 14, 63.6%). Sixteen cases (72.7%) showed a history of psychiatric diseases such as depression and sleep disorders. The underlying cause of death for all cases except two was caffeine intoxication, and manner of death was classified as undetermined (n = 11), accidental (n = 7), suicide (n = 2), or others (n = 2). Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of ingredients common to analgesics/cold remedies in 12 cases (54.5%). The origin of the caffeine was identified in 11 cases (50.0%); the proportion of identification was significantly lower among the cases in which analgesic/cold remedy ingredients were not detected (20.0%). Caffeine intoxication-related deaths mainly occurred in young and middle-aged persons with common psychiatric diseases. Psychiatrists should take note of caffeine dependence while diagnosing common psychiatric symptoms. In half of the cases, the origin of the caffeine was unidentified; nevertheless, dietary sources or over-the-counter drugs containing caffeine were suspected. As it becomes easier to obtain caffeinated products, continuous monitoring of the number of deaths from caffeine intoxication, in addition to detailed investigations of the caffeine's origin, will be necessary.

  16. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited. (b... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is...

  17. [Functional state of vision system under chronic mercury intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iablonskaia, D A; Mishchenko, T S; Lakhman, O L; Rukavishnikov, V S; Malyshev, V V

    2010-01-01

    Examination of chronic mercury intoxication patients in distant (post-contact) period revealed marked vision disorders and inhibited neuro-conductivity--inhibited neuronal structures of retina and optic nerve.

  18. The Price of Eternal Vigilance: Women and Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle McClellan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Price of Eternal Vigilance: Women and Intoxication by Michelle McClellan. The author argues that the “cultural meaning of intoxication is shaped profoundly by the reality that we seem to only hear about it from women who have given it up.” This is a problem when it obscures the reasons why women seek out alcohol. Resisting the seemingly inevitable trajectory of addiction and recovery narratives, McClellan introduces the concepts of “dry” and “wet” feminism to draw attention to both the cultural expectations women face and the ways that intoxication might serve as a form of resistance. By refusing to see intoxication as a sort of false consciousness from which women must awake, McClellan demonstrates that it reflects female ambivalence about mothering, sexuality, and pleasure itself.

  19. A Methanol Intoxication Outbreak From Recreational Ingestion of Fracking Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, David; Duff, Graham; Palatnick, Wesley; Komenda, Paul; Tangri, Navdeep; Hingwala, Jay

    2017-05-01

    Single-patient methanol intoxications are a common clinical presentation, but outbreaks are rare and usually occur in settings in which there is limited access to ethanol and methanol is consumed as a substitute. In this case report, we describe an outbreak of methanol intoxications that was challenging from a public health perspective and discuss strategies for managing such an outbreak. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ameliorative effects of l-carnitine on rats raised on a diet supplemented with lead acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Said El-Sherbini

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion:l-Carnitine may play an important role in reversing the undesirable effects of lead intoxication. Future studies should be conducted to see whether such an effect is applicable in humans exposed to lead poising.

  1. Intoxication due to Papaver rhoeas (Corn Poppy: Five Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Kemal Günaydın

    2015-01-01

    then discharged from the hospital with recovery. Unconscious consumption of Papaver rhoeas leads to a clinical condition resembling morphine intoxication, CNS depression, and epileptic seizures.

  2. Lead pollution: lead content in milk from cows fed on contaminated forages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapetti, C; Arduino, E; Durio, P

    1973-01-01

    Lead toxicity is reviewed, and the history of the lead poisoning is described. Much of the lead pollution in soil is due to automobile exhaust. Two milk cows were fed forage with added lead acetate. The 20 kg of lead corresponded to 50 ppm, a level that is often found in hays near major highways. The cows milk was then analyzed for lead content. During the first and second phase of administration of lead salts, the milk cows did not show any evident symptoms of intoxication. The lead in the milk did have a marked correlation with the administered lead. The lead doses did not last long enough for chronic symptoms to begin. The dosage of lead in milk, due to the facility of drawing samples and the relevant levels of response, could represent a valid method for diagnosing incipient chronic intoxications.

  3. Carbon dioxide poisoning: a literature review of an often forgotten cause of intoxication in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permentier, Kris; Vercammen, Steven; Soetaert, Sylvia; Schellemans, Christian

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this article was to provide an overview of the literature available on carbon dioxide intoxication. Articles were included based on their focus on medical or physiological effects of carbon dioxide. Studies related to decompression sickness were excluded. Mechanisms of carbon dioxide poising (both as an asphyxiant and as a toxicant) were described. Our review suggested that precautions are needed when handling dry ice or while working in confined spaces. Pre-hospital responders also need to pay attention for the possible diagnosis of CO 2 intoxication for their own safety. When confronted with a victim, he/she should be removed from the dangerous area as fast as possible and oxygen should be administered. Without adequate treatment, victims may show acute reduced cognitive performance, respiratory failure, and circulatory arrest. Therefore, carbon dioxide poisoning is a rare but not to miss diagnosis in the emergency department.

  4. Global research production in glyphosate intoxication from 1978 to 2015: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, S H; Waring, W S; Al-Jabi, S W; Sweileh, W M

    2017-10-01

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) has been used as a broad-spectrum herbicide that has been widely used in the agricultural industry and also available for home use. The main aim of this study is to present a general overview of glyphosate intoxication-related publications from its introducing since the early 1970s using bibliometric technique. On June 23, 2016, a literature search of the Scopus database was performed. We then extracted and analyzed the data using well-established qualitative and quantitative bibliometric indices: Publication year, affiliation, document type, country name, subject category, journal name, publishing language, and collaboration and citation patterns. We recognized a total of 3735 publications on glyphosate published between 1973 and 2015. There were 875 publications related to glyphosate intoxication in the Scopus database published between 1978 and 2015. Articles (757) comprised 86.5% of the total publications, followed by reviews (41; 4.7%). Most publications were published in English (87.9%), followed by Portuguese (6.6%). The number of publications related to glyphosate intoxication increased from 44 in 1978-1987 up to 152 in 1996-2005 and then quadrupled in 2006-2015. The United States was the leading country with 180 documents representing 20.6%, followed by Brazil (120; 13.7%), Canada (78; 8.9%), Argentina (61; 7.0%), and France (57; 6.5%). The 85.6% of the publications was cited, and the average of citation per document was 17.13 with h-index of 55. Furthermore, the United States achieved the highest h-index of 33. Most of the global international collaborations are made with researchers from the United States, who collaborated with 23 countries/territories in 44 publications. The trends in global glyphosate-related research between 1978 and 2015 were evaluated by a bibliometric technique. Results showed that English was the leading publishing language, and the major publication type was original article. Findings showed

  5. Acute vergiftigingen bij mens en dier. Jaaroverzicht 2002. Nationaal Vergiftigingen Informatie Centrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorcum TF van; Velzen AG van; Riel AJHP van; Meulenbelt J; Vries I de; NVIC

    2003-01-01

    The National Poisons Information Centre (NVIC) of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) provides information on acute intoxications by telephone, 24 hours a day, to physicians, veterinarians, pharmacists and government institutions such as regional health authorities,

  6. Features and Prognostic Factors for Elderly With Acute Poisoning in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hui Hu

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that elderly patients with acute poisoning had a mortality rate of 9.6%. Suicide attempts resulted in more serious complications. The risk factors for mortality were herbicide intoxication, hypotension and respiratory failure.

  7. Inventarisatie van acute intoxicaties bij dieren in de periode van 1 februari 1992 tot 30 juni 1992

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontelez W; Meulenbelt J

    1993-01-01

    From 1 February 1992 till 30 June a study was conducted to gain clearer insight into the nature, circumstances, causes and effects of acute intoxications in animals. The methods of treatment used were also studied. In case of intoxications in domestic animals one animal is usually involved.

  8. Diphenyl Ditelluride Intoxication Triggers Histological Changes in Liver, Kidney, and Lung of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cristina Almeida da Luz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tellurium compounds may be cytotoxic to different cells types. Thus, this work evaluated the effect of diphenyl ditelluride ((PhTe2, an organotellurium commonly used in organic synthesis, on the morphology of liver, kidney, and lung. Adult mice were acutely (a subcutaneous single dose: 250 μmol/kg or subchronically (one daily subcutaneous dose: 10 or 50 μmol/kg for 7 and 14 days exposed to (PhTe2. Afterwards, the histological analyses of liver, kidney, and lungs were performed. Liver histology revealed that the hepatocytes of mice subchronically exposed to (PhTe2 presented cytoplasmic vacuolization, hydropic degeneration, and hyperchromatic nuclei. Subchronic exposure to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe2 also caused hepatic necrosis. Microvesicular and macrovesicular steatosis were identified in liver of mice acutely exposed to (PhTe2. Acute and subchronic intoxication with (PhTe2 induced changes on epithelial cells of renal tubules, namely, loss of brush border and cytoplasmatic vacuolization. Atrophy and hypertrophy, cast proteinaceous formation, and acute tubular necrosis were also identified in renal tissue. Mice subchronically exposed to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe2 developed intra-alveolar edema and alveolar wall congestion in some areas of lungs. Acute exposure to (PhTe2 did not cause histological changes in lungs. Our data show that (PhTe2 may be considered a histotoxic agent for liver, kidney, and lung.

  9. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  10. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression in alcohol and cannabis users, respectively, following aggression exposure. Drug-free controls served as a reference. It was hypothesized that aggression exposure would increase subjective aggression in alcohol users during alcohol intoxication, whereas it was expected to decrease subjective aggression in cannabis users during cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21), and controls (n = 20) were included in a mixed factorial study. Alcohol and cannabis users received single doses of alcohol and placebo or cannabis and placebo, respectively. Subjective aggression was assessed before and after aggression exposure consisting of administrations of the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) and the single category implicit association test (SC-IAT). Testosterone and cortisol levels in response to alcohol/cannabis treatment and aggression exposure were recorded as secondary outcome measures. Subjective aggression significantly increased following aggression exposure in all groups while being sober. Alcohol intoxication increased subjective aggression whereas cannabis decreased the subjective aggression following aggression exposure. Aggressive responses during the PSAP increased following alcohol and decreased following cannabis relative to placebo. Changes in aggressive feeling or response were not correlated to the neuroendocrine response to treatments. It is concluded that alcohol facilitates feelings of aggression whereas cannabis diminishes aggressive feelings in heavy alcohol and regular cannabis users, respectively.

  11. Association of renal function and symptoms with mortality in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Choon-Bing; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Tsui, Huan-Wen; Yang, Po-Jen; Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Tsai, I-Ting

    2017-08-01

    Star fruit (SF) is a commonly available fruit produced and eaten in tropical and subtropical countries. Since 1993, various reports have described neurotoxicity after eating SF, but this clinical condition remains unfamiliar. We aimed to describe this clinical entity, the role of renal dysfunction in this disorder, treatment strategies, and prognosis of patients with SF intoxication. We conducted a search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases from 1993 to 2016. We included reports describing patients with a clear history of SF ingestion with acute symptoms. We described the demographic characteristics, reported SF intake, treatments used, and outcomes. We reviewed totally 126 patients (male:female = 1.5:1) from 33 articles with mean age 54.4 ± 11 (range: 30-84). The most common symptom was hiccups (65%), whereas confusion and seizure were the most common symptoms associated with mortality (42% and 61%, respectively). Pre-intoxication renal function also affected mortality. While there was no mortality in patients with normal renal function (NRF), the mortality of patients among reported cases with chronic renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis were 36% and 27%, respectively. With the inclusion of patients reported to have NRF, the overall mortality was 24%. Consistently, the number of SF consumed was substantially higher in the patients with NRF than those with renal functional impairment. The most common treatment strategy was hemodialysis (59%). Patients with impaired renal function were at higher risks of SF intoxication. Severe neurologic symptoms mandate immediate medical intervention because of the association between their occurrence and high mortalities. Toxin removal through dialysis, rather than symptomatic relief, seems to be beneficial to patient survival. Early and continuous dialysis appears to alleviate severe symptoms and prevent symptom rebounds.

  12. Results of using low-intensity laser radiation for plumbum intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejneka, S. Y.

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the noninvasive effect of low-intensive laser impulse radiation in the infrared spectrum region on the liver projection site in experimental lead intoxication achieved by means of intragastric administration of Pb acetate to albino rats over a period of 30 days in a dose of 30 mg/kg. We determined a number of indices in laboratory animals which characterized the state of the nervous system, immune system, muscular performance efficiency. We have also investigated the hematologic indices and the blood and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid content as well as the plumbum levels in the blood, urine and the animals' inner organs.

  13. Proteomic profiling of a mouse model of acute intestinal Apc deletion leads to identification of potential novel biomarkers of human colorectal cancer (CRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudi, Abeer; Song, Fei; Reed, Karen R; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Meniel, Valerie S; Watson, Alastair J M; Pritchard, D Mark; Clarke, Alan R; Jenkins, John R

    2013-10-25

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Accurate non-invasive screening for CRC would greatly enhance a population's health. Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene mutations commonly occur in human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, leading to Wnt signalling pathway activation. Acute conditional transgenic deletion of Apc in murine intestinal epithelium (AhCre(+)Apc(fl)(/)(fl)) causes phenotypic changes similar to those found during colorectal tumourigenesis. This study comprised a proteomic analysis of murine small intestinal epithelial cells following acute Apc deletion to identify proteins that show altered expression during human colorectal carcinogenesis, thus identifying proteins that may prove clinically useful as blood/serum biomarkers of colorectal neoplasia. Eighty-one proteins showed significantly increased expression following iTRAQ analysis, and validation of nine of these by Ingenuity Pathaway Analysis showed they could be detected in blood or serum. Expression was assessed in AhCre(+)Apc(fl)(/)(fl) small intestinal epithelium by immunohistochemistry, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR; increased nucelolin concentrations were also detected in the serum of AhCre(+)Apc(fl)(/)(fl) and Apc(Min)(/)(+) mice by ELISA. Six proteins; heat shock 60kDa protein 1, Nucleolin, Prohibitin, Cytokeratin 18, Ribosomal protein L6 and DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 5,were selected for further investigation. Increased expression of 4 of these was confirmed in human CRC by qPCR. In conclusion, several novel candidate biomarkers have been identified from analysis of transgenic mice in which the Apc gene was deleted in the intestinal epithelium that also showed increased expression in human CRC. Some of these warrant further investigation as potential serum-based biomarkers of human CRC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS SEEDS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS. ... with the aim of investigating the toxicity of the ethanol seed extract of JC in rats, mice, and chicks; and also to use conventional antidotes to treat intoxication in rats due to ...

  15. Imaging study of brain damage from methanol intoxication of wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chengfu; Liu Yimin; Yang Yi; Shi Jing; Wu Yihang; Zhang Weisen; Mao Xiaofen; Luo Jing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the imaging of CT and MRI in brain damage caused by methanol intoxication from false wine, and to study the relations between imaging manifestation and different degrees of the methanol intoxication. Method: Thirty nine cases with methanol intoxication from false wine were retrospectively reported, The latent period of these patients was 0-4 days, and the average latent period of these patients was 0.5 days, All cases were performed by serology examination, brain CT scan, and four cases performed by MRI scan after average 2.5 days (range, 1-6 days) the onset of methanol intoxication. Results: Six cases showed hyperintense signals in bilateral putamen, two cases also showed hyperintense signals in biolateral subcortex white substance regions. Four cases showed hyperintense signals in unilateral internal capsule. One case showed hyperintense changess in subcortex white substance regions. Our study showed the positive correlation between CT features and the amount of methanol and stage of clinic manifestation(χ 2 =4.232, P 2 =0.001, P>0.05). Conclusions: MRI was better than CT in finding early brain damage caused by methanol intoxication from false wine. The characteristic finding changes of the patients was showed mainly in in bilateral putamen, Prognosis for the patients combined with subcortex white substance lesion wasn't hopeful. (authors)

  16. Oleander intoxication in New World camelids: 12 cases (1995-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozikowski, Tania A; Magdesian, K Gary; Puschner, Birgit

    2009-08-01

    To characterize the clinical and clinicopathologic effects and evaluate outcome associated with oleander toxicosis in New World camelids. Retrospective case series. 11 llamas and 1 alpaca. Medical records from a veterinary medical teaching hospital from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2006, were reviewed. Records of all New World camelids that had detectable amounts of oleandrin in samples of serum, urine, or gastrointestinal fluid were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, and outcome of affected camelids. 11 llamas and 1 alpaca met the inclusion criteria of the study. Either oleander plants were present where the camelids resided (n = 7) or oleander plant material was identified in the hay fed to the camelids (5). One llama was dead on arrival at the hospital, and another was euthanized upon admission because of financial concerns. Of the 10 treated camelids, 9 had evidence of acute renal failure, 7 had gastrointestinal signs, and 4 had cardiac dysrhythmias on initial evaluation. The overall mortality rate was 25%, but the mortality rate for the 10 camelids that were medically treated was 10%. In New World camelids, oleander intoxication was associated with a triad of clinical effects (ie, renal, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular dysfunction). Oleander intoxication often represented a herd problem but carried a fair to good prognosis if treated promptly. Oleander toxicosis should be considered a differential diagnosis in sick camelids.

  17. Paraquat intoxication and associated pathological findings in three dogs in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June H. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is a bipyridylium non-selective contact herbicide commonly used worldwide. When ingestion occurs by humans and animals either accidentally, intentionally or maliciously, paraquat selectively accumulates in the lungs resulting in the production of oxygen-free radicals, causing membrane damage and cell death. Intoxicated subjects typically show progressive and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage, collapse and oedema. In individuals surviving the acute phase, pulmonary fibrosis develops. Gastrointestinal-, renal- and central nervous system clinical signs may also occur. Owing to the lack of effective treatment and absence of an antidote, the prognosis is poor. The clinical presentation, clinicopathological findings and treatment are briefly described of three dogs from one South African household, intoxicated with paraquat. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions in one dog that was necropsied, as well as pulmonary ultrastructure are detailed and illustrated for academic reference. All dogs presented with tachypnoea and dyspnoea 2–3 days after accidental paraquat ingestion. Treatment was aimed at reducing gastrointestinal absorption, enhancing elimination by diuresis and avoiding further oxidative damage by administration of antioxidants. All dogs, however, became progressively hypoxic despite treatment and were euthanised. Paraquat toxicity should be a differential diagnosis in dogs with unexplained progressive respiratory and gastrointestinal signs and renal failure. The local veterinary profession should be aware of accidental or intentional paraquat toxicity of animals. Existing literature, variations possible in canine clinical signs, measured parameters, lesions, as well as possible treatments, promising experimental antidotes and management options are discussed.

  18. Nerve agent intoxication: Recent neuropathophysiological findings and subsequent impact on medical management prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collombet, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript provides a survey of research findings catered to the development of effective countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning over the past decade. New neuropathophysiological distinctive features as regards organophosphate (OP) intoxication are presented. Such leading neuropathophysiological features include recent data on nerve agent-induced neuropathology, related peripheral or central nervous system inflammation and subsequent angiogenesis process. Hence, leading countermeasures against OP exposure are down-listed in terms of pre-treatment, protection or decontamination and emergency treatments. The final chapter focuses on the description of the self-repair attempt encountered in lesioned rodent brains, up to 3 months after soman poisoning. Indeed, an increased proliferation of neuronal progenitors was recently observed in injured brains of mice subjected to soman exposure. Subsequently, the latter experienced a neuronal regeneration in damaged brain regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The positive effect of a cytokine treatment on the neuronal regeneration and subsequent cognitive behavioral recovery are also discussed in this review. For the first time, brain cell therapy and neuronal regeneration are considered as a valuable contribution towards delayed treatment against OP intoxication. To date, efficient delayed treatment was lacking in the therapeutic resources administered to patients contaminated by nerve agents. - Highlights: → This review focuses on neuropathophysiology following nerve agent poisoning in mice. → Extensive data on long-term neuropathology and related inflammation are provided here. → Delayed self-repair attempts encountered in lesioned rodent brains are also described. → Cell therapy is considered as a valuable treatment against nerve agent intoxication.

  19. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  20. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  1. Beryllium poisonings; Les intoxications par le beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-15

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis.

  2. Effects of alcohol intoxication on parenting behavior in interactions with child confederates exhibiting normal or deviant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A R; Pelham, W E; Atkeson, B M; Murphy, D A

    1999-06-01

    Experimental analogue methods were used to study how acute alcohol intoxication in parents influences their perceptions of and reactions to child behaviors, as well as their strategies for management of those behaviors. All participating parents had a grade school-aged son, but in half the cases this target child had a diagnosed externalizing disorder, whereas for the remaining half neither the target son nor any other offspring of the parents evidenced any psychopathology. Equal numbers of married fathers, married mothers, and single mothers from each of these groups received either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages prior to videotaped interactions with male child confederates who, depending on condition, enacted behaviors characteristic of either normal boys or boys with attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct/oppositional defiant disorders (ADHD/CD/ODD). Results indicated that intoxicated parents rated their ADHD/CD/ODD child partners as less deviant than did sober parents. Alcohol intoxication caused all participant groups to exhibit less attention and productive work and more commands, indulgences, and off-task talk in the interactions. Implications for better understanding of the role of psychosocial factors in the correlation between adult drinking problems and childhood behavior disorders are discussed.

  3. [Development of a prediabetic state under chronic alcohol intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voĭtenko, V V; Konopel'niuk, V V; Savchuk, O M; Ostapchenko, L I

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the changes in key parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, which correspond to the clinical picture that accompanies the development of prediabetic condition on the background of chronic alcohol intoxication. From the analysis of glycemic curves obtained during the insulin-glucose test, a speed of glucose uptake by peripheral tissues increased at the 1st day (1.5 fold) and the third day (1.3 fold) of administration of alcohol solution. At the later periods, at 7 and 11 days of ethanol administration, a decreased rate of glucose uptake in animals with chronic alcohol intoxication was detected. We also detected an increased content of serotonin in the blood serum and a decreased (1.2 fold) serotonin content in rat brain during the whole period of development of chronic alcohol intoxication.

  4. Metal intoxication of atmospheric precipitations near coal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapulinski, J.; Zielonka, U.; Kwapulinska, G.; Nowak, B.

    1989-01-01

    Intoxication of atmospheric precipitation near power stations is presented. The migration of some metals in air is described by intoxication coefficient, which in 1981 for Pb changed from 2.25 to 2.96, for Cd from 1.92 to 3.0, for Cu from 2.31 to 4.44, for Fe from 2.78 to 3.95, and for Mn from 1.77 to 3.76. The coefficient value defines potential ecotoxicity of a given metal in the region investigated. Rain or snow intoxication by Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe and Mn, depending o their amount, is described by equation y=ax b . (author). 4 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Patterns of substance abuse and intoxication among murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarvis, R M

    1994-01-01

    A series of 100 murderers was examined to discern patterns of substance abuse and intoxication in relation to homicidal events. More than half of the study subjects were found to be actively abusing drugs at the time of their crime, and almost half were intoxicated. Alcohol was the drug most often abused. Demographic and other discriminating factors were utilized to examine the hypothesis that murderers do not constitute a homogeneous population and that subgroups differ in their abuse patterns. Cluster analytic techniques were applied to the study population. Utilizing a set of 13 proximate causal factors, a typology of seven distinct homicide profiles was created. Two of the seven profiles exhibited extremely high abuse and intoxication rates, three others intermediate rates, and two profiles very low rates. Moreover, different substances were prime offenders in different profiles. These findings demonstrate that substance abuse is an important etiological contributor in some types of murderer but not in all types.

  6. Exposure to acute severe hypoxia leads to increased urea loss and disruptions in acid-base and ionoregulatory balance in dogfish sharks (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of acute moderate (20% air O2 saturation; 6-h exposure) and severe (5% air O2 saturation; 4-h exposure) hypoxia on N-waste, acid-base, and ion balance in dogfish sharks (Squalus acanthias suckleyi) were evaluated. We predicted that the synthesis and/or retention of urea, which are active processes, would be inhibited by hypoxia. Exposure to moderate hypoxia had negligible effects on N-waste fluxes or systemic physiology, except for a modest rise in plasma lactate. Exposure to severe hypoxia led to a significant increase in urea excretion (Jurea), while plasma, liver, and muscle urea concentrations were unchanged, suggesting a loss of urea retention. Ammonia excretion (Jamm) was elevated during normoxic recovery. Moreover, severe hypoxia led to disruptions in acid-base balance, indicated by a large increase in plasma [lactate] and substantial decreases in arterial pHa and plasma [Formula: see text], as well as loss of ionic homeostasis, indicated by increases in plasma [Mg(2+)], [Ca(2+)], and [Na(+)]. We suggest that severe hypoxia in dogfish sharks leads to a reduction in active gill homeostatic processes, such as urea retention, acid-base regulation and ionoregulation, and/or an osmoregulatory compromise due to increased functional gill surface area. Overall, the results provide a comprehensive picture of the physiological responses to a severe degree of hypoxia in an ancient fish species.

  7. Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Infection Leads to an Enhanced RNA Interference Response and Not Its Suppression in the Bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaat Cappelle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is the primary antiviral defense system in insects and its importance for pollinator health is indisputable. In this work, we examined the effect of Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV infection on the RNAi process in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, and whether the presence of possible functional viral suppressors could alter the potency of the host’s immune response. For this, a two-fold approach was used. Through a functional RNAi assay, we observed an enhancement of the RNAi system after IAPV infection instead of its suppression, despite only minimal upregulation of the genes involved in RNAi. Besides, the presence of the proposed suppressor 1A and the predicted OrfX protein in IAPV could not be confirmed using high definition mass spectrometry. In parallel, when bumblebees were infected with cricket paralysis virus (CrPV, known to encode a suppressor of RNAi, no increase in RNAi efficiency was seen. For both viruses, pre-infection with the one virus lead to a decreased replication of the other virus, indicating a major effect of competition. These results are compelling in the context of Dicistroviridae in multi-virus/multi-host networks as the effect of a viral infection on the RNAi machinery may influence subsequent virus infections.

  8. The implications of alcohol intoxication and the Uniform Policy Provision Law on trauma centers; a national trauma data bank analysis of minimally injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Terence; Shafi, Shahid; Sperry, Jason L; Gentilello, Larry M

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol intoxication may confound the initial assessment of trauma patients, resulting in increased use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, thereby increasing hospital costs. The Uniform Policy Provision Law (UPPL) exists in many states and allows insurance companies to deny payment for medical treatment for alcohol-related injuries. If intoxication increases resource utilization, these denials compound the financial burden of alcohol use on trauma centers. We hypothesized that patients injured while under the influence of alcohol require more diagnostic tests, procedures, and hospital admissions, leading to higher hospital charges. The National Trauma Databank (2000-2004) was analyzed to identify adult trauma patients (age > or = 16 years) who were discharged alive, had a length of stay laws that penalize trauma centers for identifying intoxicated patients should be repealed in states where they exist.

  9. The effect of oral castor oil on the disposition of methyprylon in intoxicated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwilt, P R; Pankaskie, M C; Mitala, J J

    1982-07-01

    Clinical observations indicate that large oral doses of castor oil are effective in reducing the time of coma resulting from acute intoxication with lipophilic drugs. It has been further suggested that the rate of removal of these drugs from the body is increased by castor oil. In order to investigate the effect of castor oil on the disposition of lipophilic drugs, five dogs were given toxic doses of methyprylon by intravenous infusion. Each dog was treated with a large oral dose of castor oil in a cross-over fashion. No significant difference was observed in the sleep times of the dogs treated with castor oil, or in the methyprylon pharmacokinetics compared to controls. It was concluded that castor oil does not affect the disposition of methyprylon.

  10. Evaluation of Cholinesterase Activities During in Vivo Intoxication Using an Electrochemical Sensor Strip – Correlation With Intoxication Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zdarova-Karasova

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholinesterase activity in blood of laboratory rats was monitored. Rats were intoxicated with paraoxon at dosis of 0 – 65 – 125 – 170 – 250 – 500 nmol. The 250 nmol dose was found to be the LD50. An electrochemical sensor was found useful to provide information about cholinesterase activity. The decrease of cholinesterase activity was correlated to intoxication symptoms and mortality level. It was found that the symptoms of intoxication are not observed while at least 50% of cholinesterase activity in blood remains. The minimal cholinesterase activity essential to survival is around 10%, when compared with the initial state. No changes in levels of low moleculary weight antioxidants were observed.

  11. Respiratory depression in the intoxicated trauma patient: are opioids to blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Eleni; Barton, Cassie A; Mah, Nathan D; Ran, Ran; Hendrickson, Robert G; Watters, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Providing effective pain management to acutely intoxicated trauma patients represents a challenge of balancing appropriate pain management with the risk of potential respiratory depression from opioid administration. The objective of this study was to quantify the incidence of respiratory depression in trauma patients acutely intoxicated with ethanol who received opioids as compared with those who did not and identify potential risk factors for respiratory depression in this population. Retrospective medical record review was conducted for subjects identified via the trauma registry who were admitted as a trauma activation and had a detectable serum ethanol level upon admission. Risk factors and characteristics compared included demographics, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Score, serum ethanol level upon arrival, urine drug screen results, incidence of respiratory depression, and opioid and other sedative medication use. A total of 233 patients were included (78.5% male). Patients who received opioids were more likely to have a higher Injury Severity Score and initial pain score on admission as compared with those who did not receive opioids. Blood ethanol content was higher in patients who did not receive opioids (0.205 vs 0.237 mg/dL, P = .015). Patients who did not receive opioids were more likely to be intubated within 4 hours of admission (1.7% vs 12.1%, P = .02). Opioid administration was not associated with increased risk of respiratory depression (19.7% vs 22.4%, P = .606). Increased cumulative fentanyl dose was associated with increased risk of respiratory depression. Increased cumulative fentanyl dose, but not opioid administration alone, was found to be a risk factor for respiratory depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of in vivo toxicity of hydroxylamine sulfate and the efficiency of intoxication treatment by α-tocopherol acetate and methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanchuk, Mykola G; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Prodanchuk, Georgiy M; Tsakalof, Andreas K

    2013-11-01

    Investigation of hydroxylamine sulfate toxicity mechanism in vivo and estimation of α-tocopherol acetate and methylene blue efficiency in poisoning treatments. In vivo experiments were conducted on 102 Wistar Han rats. The experiments investigated the hematotoxic and oxidative stress effects of hydroxylamine sulfate in acute and subacute toxicity treatment of animals. Electron Spin Resonance was used for quantitative determination of blood and liver tissue parameters alterations after intoxication. The osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, lipid peroxidation intensity and level of SH-groups in liver of rats were determined by established biochemical assays. Hydroxylamine sulfate cause an acute hematotoxicity and oxidative stress in vivo as demonstrated by the appearance of free oxidized iron in blood, reduced glutathione content and increased lipid peroxidation in liver. The experimental studies showed the formation of Hb-NO, MetHb in erythrocytes and as well of stable complex of reduced iron (Fe(2+)) with hydroxylamine sulfate. Methylene blue treatment does not reduce the Hb-NO or MetHb levels in intoxicated animals while administration of α-tocopherol acetate reduces substantially lipid peroxidation. Oxidative stress is a key mechanism of acute hematotoxicity caused by hydroxylamine sulfate. Methylene blue is not suitable antidote in case of hydroxylamine intoxication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Liver Injury by Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxication in 16 Patients Treated with Forced Ventilation to Accelerate Toxin Removal via the Lungs: A Clinical Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Teschke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is an efficient but highly toxic solvent, used in households and commercially in the industry under regulatory surveillance to ensure safety at the working place and to protect the workers’ health. However, acute unintentional or intentional intoxications by CCl4 may rarely occur and are potentially life-threatening. In this review article, therapy options are discussed that are based on a literature review of traditional poisoning cases and the clinical experience with 16 patients with acute poisoning by CCl4. Among various therapy options, the CO2-induced hyperventilation therapy will be considered in detail as the most promising approach. This special therapy was developed because only around 1% of the intoxicating CCl4 is responsible for the liver injury after conversion to toxic radicals via microsomal cytochrome P450 2E1 whereas 99% of the solvent will leave the body unchanged by exhalation. Therefore, to enhance CCl4 elimination through the lungs, CO2 is added to the inspiration air at a flow rate of 2–3 L min−1 in order to achieve hyperventilation with a respiratory volume of 25–30 L min−1. Under this therapy, the clinical course was favorable in 15/16 patients, corresponding to 93.8%. In essence, patients with acute CCl4 intoxication should be treated by forced ventilation.

  14. Gender, intoxication and the developing brain: Problematisations of drinking among young adults in Australian alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Elizabeth; Moore, David

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we draw on recent scholarly work in the poststructuralist analysis of policy to consider how policy itself functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems', and the political implications of these problematisations. We do this by examining Australian alcohol policy as it relates to young adults (18-24 years old). Our critical analysis focuses on three national alcohol policies (1990, 2001 and 2006) and two Victorian state alcohol policies (2008 and 2013), which together span a 25-year period. We argue that Australian alcohol policies have conspicuously ignored young adult men, despite their ongoing over-representation in the statistical 'evidence base' on alcohol-related harm, while increasingly problematising alcohol consumption amongst other population subgroups. We also identify the development of a new problem representation in Australian alcohol policy, that of 'intoxication' as the leading cause of alcohol-related harm and rising hospital admissions, and argue that changes in the classification and diagnosis of intoxication may have contributed to its prioritisation and problematisation in alcohol policy at the expense of other forms of harm. Finally, we draw attention to how preliminary and inconclusive research on the purported association between binge drinking and brain development in those under 25 years old has been mobilised prematurely to support calls to increase the legal purchasing age from 18 to 21 years. Our critical analysis of the treatment of these three issues - gender, intoxication, and brain development - is intended to highlight the ways in which policy functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiologic trends and geographic patterns of fatal opioid intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997 – 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C.; Grau, Lauretta E.; Carver, H. Wayne; Kinzly, Mark; Heimer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background The leading cause of injury death among adults in Connecticut (CT), USA is drug poisonings. We analyzed the epidemiology and geographic distribution of opioid-involved accidental drug-involved intoxication deaths (“overdoses”) in CT over an 11-year period. Methods We reviewed data from 1997 to 2007 on all adult accidental/undetermined drug intoxication deaths in CT that were referred to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME). Regression analyses were conducted to uncover risk factors for fatal opioid-involved intoxications and to compare heroin- to prescription opioid- and methadone-involved deaths. Death locations were mapped to visualize differences in the geographic patterns of overdose by opioid type. Results Of the 2900 qualifying deaths, 2231 (77%) involved opioids. Trends over time revealed increases in total opioid-related deaths although heroin-related deaths remained constant. Methadone, oxycodone and fentanyl, the most frequently cited prescription opioids, exhibited significant increases in opioid deaths. Prescription opioid-only deaths were more likely to involve other medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) and to have occurred among residents of a suburban or small town location, compared to heroin-involved or methadone-involved deaths. Heroin-only deaths tended to occur among non-Whites, were more likely to involve alcohol or cocaine and to occur in public locations and large cities. Conclusions The epidemiology of fatal opioid overdose in CT exhibits distinct longitudinal, risk factor, and geographic differences by opioid type. Each of these trends has implications for public health and prevention efforts. PMID:21131140

  16. Epidemiologic trends and geographic patterns of fatal opioid intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C; Grau, Lauretta E; Carver, H Wayne; Kinzly, Mark; Heimer, Robert

    2011-06-01

    The leading cause of injury death among adults in Connecticut (CT), USA is drug poisonings. We analyzed the epidemiology and geographic distribution of opioid-involved accidental drug-involved intoxication deaths ("overdoses") in CT over an 11-year period. We reviewed data from 1997 to 2007 on all adult accidental/undetermined drug intoxication deaths in CT that were referred to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME). Regression analyses were conducted to uncover risk factors for fatal opioid-involved intoxications and to compare heroin- to prescription opioid- and methadone-involved deaths. Death locations were mapped to visualize differences in the geographic patterns of overdose by opioid type. Of the 2900 qualifying deaths, 2231 (77%) involved opioids. Trends over time revealed increases in total opioid-related deaths although heroin-related deaths remained constant. Methadone, oxycodone and fentanyl, the most frequently cited prescription opioids, exhibited significant increases in opioid deaths. Prescription opioid-only deaths were more likely to involve other medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) and to have occurred among residents of a suburban or small town location, compared to heroin-involved or methadone-involved deaths. Heroin-only deaths tended to occur among non-Whites, were more likely to involve alcohol or cocaine and to occur in public locations and large cities. The epidemiology of fatal opioid overdose in CT exhibits distinct longitudinal, risk factor, and geographic differences by opioid type. Each of these trends has implications for public health and prevention efforts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychogenic Polydipsia: The Result, or Cause of, Deteriorating Psychotic Symptoms? A Case Report of the Consequences of Water Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Gill

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water intoxication is a rare condition characterised by overconsumption of water. It can occur in athletes engaging in endurance sports, users of MDMA (ecstasy, and patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. This case outlines water intoxication in a patient with psychogenic polydipsia. When the kidney’s capacity to compensate for exaggerated water intake is exceeded, hypotonic hyperhydration results. Consequences can involve headaches, behavioural changes, muscular weakness, twitching, vomiting, confusion, irritability, drowsiness, and seizures. Cerebral oedema can lead to brain damage and eventual death. In this case, psychogenic polydipsia led to significant hyponatraemia, cerebral oedema, and tonic-clonic seizures. Differential diagnoses for hyponatraemia are outlined. The aetiology of psychogenic polydipsia is uncertain, but postulated hypotheses are explored. Psychogenic polydipsia occurs in up 20% of psychiatric patients and this case serves to remind us to be cognizant of water overconsumption.

  18. Case report: Radiologic changes of the skeleton in a dog with lead poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, J.; Šehić, M.; Žubčić, D.; Jesovsek, S.

    1994-01-01

    The skeleton of a young dog displayed radiological signs of chronic lead intoxication. Osteoclastic changes were demonstrable at the metaphyse of the long bones as well as in all areas with growth activity [de

  19. The Effect of Alcohol Intoxications on Hematological Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the accessibility of alcohol, people around the world become readily intoxicated with it and in turn, it produces protease devastating effects in the human system. This study investigates the hematological effects of alcohol in albino rats grouped into three (A, B and C). Group A and B served as test while C served as ...

  20. Phenytoin intoxication with no symptoms correlated with serum drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In high-dose intake of phenytoin, which is used frequently to treatepilepsy, nystagmus, diplopia, nausea-vomiting, lethargy, confusion, seizure, and coma can be observed. In recent studies on phenytoin intoxication, in which seizure and coma were observed in drug levels greater than 50 ug/mL. The serum phenytoin level ...

  1. Chronic intoxication with copper in sheep: prophylaxis and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomov, A

    1964-01-01

    In the period 1961-1962 chronic intoxication of sheep with copper was observed on 7 farms, the number of sheep totaling about 9000. In one of the flocks intoxication occurred after feeding the sheep for a long time with aftermath collected from orchards which had been sprinkled with copper compounds. The aftermath was proven to contain from 11 to 17 mg. per cent of copper. The other flocks were put to pasture in vineyards after the grapes had been gathered. Intoxication in these flocks was caused by vineleaves. No accumulation of copper through the soil was established in the investigated fresh grass found in the vineyards and which the sheep had also grazed. From 36 to 81 mg. per cent of copper was established in the livers of dead sheep. In order to protect the sheep from this intoxication, 100-200 mg. of ammonium or sodium molybdate and 5-10 g. of sodium sulfate were used in the case of each sheep daily for 2-3 weeks. The concentrated fodder of the sheep was moistened with an aqueous solution of these compounds. A very good prophylactic effect was obtained. At the same time oats, maize, oilcakes and others, which constitute a fodder rich in fats, were eliminated from the food rations of the sheep. The above substances, given at larger doses simultaneously with vitamin B/sub 12/ were also used for the treatment of diseased sheep, and of 10 ill sheep, 7 recovered.

  2. Circumvention of Learning Increases Intoxication Efficacy of Nematicidal Engineered Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Olena R; Manchery, Cyril; Haskell, Evan C; Blanar, Christopher A; Smith, Robert P

    2016-03-18

    Synthetic biology holds promise to engineer systems to treat diseases. One critical, yet underexplored, facet of designing such systems is the interplay between the system and the pathogen. Understanding this interplay may be critical to increasing efficacy and overcoming resistance against the system. Using the principles of synthetic biology, we engineer a strain of Escherichia coli to attract and intoxicate the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our bacteria are engineered with a toxin module, which intoxicates the nematode upon ingestion, and an attraction module, which serves to attract and increase the feeding rate of the nematodes. When independently implemented, these modules successfully intoxicate and attract the worms, respectively. However, in combination, the efficacy of our bacteria is significantly reduced due to aversive associative learning in C. elegans. Guided by mathematical modeling, we dynamically regulate module induction to increase intoxication by circumventing learning. Our results detail the creation of a novel nematicidal bacterium that may have application against nematodes, unravel unique constraints on circuit dynamics that are governed by C. elegans physiology, and add to the growing list of design and implementation considerations associated with synthetic biology.

  3. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001 Section 57.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  4. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001 Section 56.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous...

  5. Mass-media publicity campaign on driving while intoxicated.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1986-01-01

    Mass media publicity campaigns against driving while intoxicated have been conducted in the netherlands for a number of years. A new, more aggressive approach was introduced in 1984 with the slogan "alcohol ..... all too easily a crime". Goals of this campaign were (1) internationalization of the

  6. Heart Rate Variability in Children with Tricyclic Antidepressant Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ener Cagri Dinleyici

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate HRV in children requiring intensive care unit stays due to TCA poisoning between March 2009 and July 2010. In the time-domain nonspectral evaluation, the SDNN (P<0.001, SDNNi (P<0.05, RMSDD (P<0.01, and pNN50 (P<0.01 were found to be significantly lower in the TCA intoxication group. The spectral analysis of the data recorded during the first 5 minutes after intensive care unit admission showed that the values of the nLF (P<0.05 and the LF/HF ratio (P=0.001 were significantly higher in the TCA intoxication group, while the nHF (P=0.001 values were significantly lower. The frequency-domain spectral analysis of the data recorded during the last 5 minutes showed a lower nHF (P=0.001 in the TCA intoxication group than in the controls, and the LF/HF ratio was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the intoxication group. The LF/HF ratio was higher in the seven children with seizures (P<0.001. These findings provided us with a starting point for the value of HRV analysis in determining the risk of arrhythmia and convulsion in TCA poisoning patients. HRV can be used as a noninvasive testing method in determining the treatment and prognosis of TCA poisoning patients.

  7. Alcohol Intoxication Impact on Outcome from Traumatic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    12. Impact of alcohol intoxication on outcome from hemorrhagic shock. VII Congreso Internacional en Adicciones y 5 Curso de Actualización en ... Adicciones : de la Ciencia Básica a la Clínica. Saturday, April 29th, 2006. Guadalajara, Mexico . 13. Contribution of soft tissue trauma to pro

  8. The Impact of Behavioral Signs of Intoxication on Bartender Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsite, Billie; Klear, Lacey; Rosenberg, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether the serving practices of a sample of bartenders in an American university town would vary as a function of the number of behavioral cues of intoxication displayed by apparently real patrons (who were actually experimental confederates). Method: We trained two male and three female…

  9. Abnormal temperature control after intoxication with short-acting barbiturates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villota, E D; Mosquera, J M; Shubin, H; Weil, M H

    1981-09-01

    Changes in rectal and toe temperatures were measured in 16 patients who had been intoxicated with short-acting barbiturates. The lowest temperatures observed in the group of 16 patients averaged 35.5 +/- 2.0 degrees C. In 11 patients, the interval between intoxication and admission was documented. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.83) between the time of estimated intoxication and hypothermia. Patients who were admitted soon after the ingestion of the barbiturates had the lowest rectal temperatures. These observations indicate that hypothermia is a usual clinical sign in the initial period after intoxication with a short-acting barbiturate. Except for 2 patients, rectal temperature exceeded 38 degrees C during the interval of recovery with the maximum rectal temperature averaging 39.0 +/- 0.8 degrees C. Hyperthermia was not related to infection of the airways, lungs, urinary tract, or bloodstream. In 11 patients, pathogenic organisms were recovered from the airway and/or urine, but there was no difference in the highest rectal temperature in these patients (39.0 +/- 0.9 degrees C) when compared with 5 patients from whom no pathogenic organisms were recovered (39.2 +/- 0.7 degrees C). Accordingly, there was no evidence that hyperthermia was due to infection. The skin temperatures of the ventrum of the first toe were not typically decreased during hypothermia. To the contrary, increases in skin temperatures were often observed during hypothermia. These observations provide evidence of altered thermoregulation with increased surface heat loss accounting for the hypothermia in the early course and heat conservation with hyperthermia during the later course of intoxication by short-acting barbiturates.

  10. Sanctified madness: the God-intoxicated saints of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinis, A

    1985-01-01

    The saintly madman is a familiar character in South Asia. To outer appearances he is no different from a lunatic, but the mad saint comes to be revered because his idiocy is popularly believed to arise from a different cause than ordinary madness. The common psychopath neglects social conventions because his consciousness is dimmed by incapacity; the saintly madman also breaches convention, but does so because his heightened consciousness has liberated him from the bonds of convention that entrap ordinary people. In the terms of Hinduism, he has tasted the divine nectar of God-realization and has returned to the human realm intoxicated by the experience. In this paper two popular God intoxicated saints of Bengal are discussed. The question is posed whether 'God intoxication' can be considered a culture-bound syndrome of Bengal. The concept of 'culture bound syndrome' is found to be too narrow to encompass the most significant issues to arise from reflection on the characteristics of the God intoxicated. These larger issues have to do with the relationship between cultural practices and models and mental states (whether deviant, as implied by the term 'syndrome' although deviance does not always carry the negative connotation implicit in 'syndrome', or normal). It is suggested that all cultures culture a limited range of mental states and thus the questions posed by the notion of culture bound syndromes are subsumed by larger questions about the relationship of all mind-states to the socio-cultural environment which conditions them. The conclusion is that God intoxication is indeed a uniquely Bengali mental condition, with variants throughout South Asia and kinship to other mystical states, but that the concept of 'syndrome' is not useful.

  11. Effect of foot frostbite in alcoholic intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gun'ko, R.I.; Petrik, V.D.

    1986-01-01

    An observation is presented showing that continuous violation of peripheric circulation in frostbitten fect leads to hardafter effects in the distant period. On the base of clinical, roentgenologic and radionuclide data osteomyelitis is determined

  12. Heavy metals toxicity after acute exposure of cultured renal cells. Intracellular accumulation and repartition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodja, Hicham; Carriere, Marie; Avoscan, Laure; Gouget, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and uranium (U) present no known biological function but are toxic in various concentration ranges. Pb and Cd lead generally to nephrotoxicity consisting in proximal renal tubular dysfunction and accumulation while U has been reported to induce chemical kidney toxicity, functional and histological damages being as well mainly observed in proximal tubule cells. This work address the question of Cd, Pb, and U cytotoxicity, intracellular accumulation and repartition after acute intoxication of renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. After cells exposure to different concentrations of metals for various times, morphological changes were observed and intracellular concentrations and distributions of toxic metals were specified by PIXE coupled to RBS. Cell viability, measured by biochemical tests, was used as toxicity indicator. A direct correlation between cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation in renal epithelial cells have been established. Finally, intracellular Pb and U localizations were detected while Cd was found to be uniformly distributed in renal cells. (author)

  13. CD44 Promotes intoxication by the clostridial iota-family toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigelsworth, Darran J; Ruthel, Gordon; Schnell, Leonie; Herrlich, Peter; Blonder, Josip; Veenstra, Timothy D; Carman, Robert J; Wilkins, Tracy D; Van Nhieu, Guy Tran; Pauillac, Serge; Gibert, Maryse; Sauvonnet, Nathalie; Stiles, Bradley G; Popoff, Michel R; Barth, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Various pathogenic clostridia produce binary protein toxins associated with enteric diseases of humans and animals. Separate binding/translocation (B) components bind to a protein receptor on the cell surface, assemble with enzymatic (A) component(s), and mediate endocytosis of the toxin complex. Ultimately there is translocation of A component(s) from acidified endosomes into the cytosol, leading to destruction of the actin cytoskeleton. Our results revealed that CD44, a multifunctional surface protein of mammalian cells, facilitates intoxication by the iota family of clostridial binary toxins. Specific antibody against CD44 inhibited cytotoxicity of the prototypical Clostridium perfringens iota toxin. Versus CD44(+) melanoma cells, those lacking CD44 bound less toxin and were dose-dependently resistant to C. perfringens iota, as well as Clostridium difficile and Clostridium spiroforme iota-like, toxins. Purified CD44 specifically interacted in vitro with iota and iota-like, but not related Clostridium botulinum C2, toxins. Furthermore, CD44 knockout mice were resistant to iota toxin lethality. Collective data reveal an important role for CD44 during intoxication by a family of clostridial binary toxins.

  14. Towards bio monitoring of toxic (lead) and essential elements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of lead intoxication in all the children studied was low; The established reference intervals for Cu, Zn, Ca and Mg provide an important guidance for the reasonable supplementation of essential elements during different age groups. Keywords: prenatal biomonitoring, copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, lead ...

  15. Lead poisoning after gunshot wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Madureira

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Despite the absence of symptoms in the majority of patients carrying lead bullet fragments in their bodies, there needs to be an awareness of the possible signs and symptoms of lead intoxication when bullets are lodged in large joints like knees, hips and shoulders. Such patients merit closer follow-up, and even surgical procedure for removing the fragments. OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient who developed clinical lead intoxication several years after a gunshot wound. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A single white 23-year-old male, regular job as a bricklayer, with a history of chronic alcohol abuse, showed up at the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain with colic, weakness, vomiting and diarrhea with black feces. All the symptoms had a duration of two to three weeks, and had been recurrent for the last two years, with calming during interval periods of two to three weeks. Abdominal radiograms showed a bullet lodged in the left hip, with a neat bursogram of the whole synovial capsule. A course of chelating treatment using calcium versenate (EDTACaNa2 intravenously was started. After the chelation therapy the patient had recurrence of his symptoms and a radical solution for the chronic mobilization of lead was considered. A hip arthroplasty procedure was performed, leading to complete substitution of the left hip.

  16. Medico-legal and legal-penal aspects of expert opinions and adjudication in cases of intoxications with intoxicating agents and ethanol-like intoxicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ćwiklińska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The available legal regulations in Poland do not define the concentration thresholds enabling to differentiate between the states of “after-use” versus “under the influence” of a drug, as it is in the case of alcohol. The aim of the study was to analyse jurisdiction in cases regarding the evaluation of the effects of intoxicating agents and ethanol-like intoxicants and to identify ambiguities and gaps in the applicable regulations leading to problems in preparing expert opinions. Material and methods: The material included the opinions of experts in the field of toxicology and forensic medicine made by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Lublin in the years 2009–2011 and records obtained in the process of inquiry from the regional prosecutor’s offices and courts in 52 cases. Results : Amongst 52 cases in which the ordered toxicology examinations demonstrated the presence of intoxicating agents in drivers’ blood (tetrahydrocannabinols in 39 and amphetamine in 21 cases in 2 cases petty offence proceedings were instituted (Art. 87 of the Petty Offence Code although high concentrations of xenobiotics indicated the state of being “under the influence” of a narcotic drug (Art. 178a of the Penal Code. Three cases were discontinued despite expert opinions that the drivers were at least in the after-narcotic use state. In only 3 cases were witnesses asked to provide testimony about the circumstances of the driver’s conduct. Conclusions : The analysis has demonstrated that judicial bodies expect forensic expertise based exclusively on toxicological examination results; when expert findings are inconclusive, they only administer litigations opportunistically applying the principle of the presumption of innocence understood literally. Considering the above, threshold values of “use” and “influence” of the most commonly detected drugs should be urgently determined.

  17. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Melatonin reduces lead levels in blood, brain and bone and increases lead excretion in rats subjected to subacute lead treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Plata, Everardo; Quiroz-Compeán, Fátima; Ramírez-Garcia, Gonzalo; Barrientos, Eunice Yáñez; Rodríguez-Morales, Nadia M; Flores, Alberto; Wrobel, Katarzina; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Méndez, Isabel; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Robles, Juvencio; Martínez-Alfaro, Minerva

    2015-03-04

    Melatonin, a hormone known for its effects on free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, can reduce lead toxicity in vivo and in vitro.We examined the effects of melatonin on lead bio-distribution. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with lead acetate (10, 15 or 20mg/kg/day) with or without melatonin (10mg/kg/day) daily for 10 days. In rats intoxicated with the highest lead doses, those treated with melatonin had lower lead levels in blood and higher levels in urine and feces than those treated with lead alone, suggesting that melatonin increases lead excretion. To explore the mechanism underlying this effect, we first assessed whether lead/melatonin complexes were formed directly. Electronic density functional (DFT) calculations showed that a lead/melatonin complex is energetically feasible; however, UV spectroscopy and NMR analysis showed no evidence of such complexes. Next, we examined the liver mRNA levels of metallothioneins (MT) 1 and 2. Melatonin cotreatment increased the MT2 mRNA expression in the liver of rats that received the highest doses of lead. The potential effects of MTs on the tissue distribution and excretion of lead are not well understood. This is the first report to suggest that melatonin directly affects lead levels in organisms exposed to subacute lead intoxication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender differences in natural language factors of subjective intoxication in college students: an experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Limites de aplicabilidade da determinação do ácido delta-aminolevulínico urinário como teste screening na avaliação da intoxicação profissional pelo chumbo Applicability limits of urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid as a screening test to evaluate professional intoxication by lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Caldeira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicabilidade da determinação da concentração do ácido delta-aminolevulínico urinário (ALA-U no controle da saúde de trabalhadores expostos ocupacionalmente ao chumbo foi realizada em dois grupos de trabalhadores. Os valores médios de Pb-S para os dois grupos foram 17,3 µg/dl (6,2-39,4 e 61,5 µg/dl (41,1-91,0, respectivamente. As concentrações de ALA-U foram determinadas por HPLC e por espectrofotometria. Uma correlação significativa (pThe relationship between concentrations of ALA-U and Pb-S for two groups of workers is reported. The first group consisted of workers from a telephone company, and the second, of workers from battery factories with average Pb-S equivalent to 17,3 µg/dl (6,2-39,4 and 61,5 µg/dl (41,1-91,0, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization of ALA-U levels as a screening test for different levels of lead in blood by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and of spectrophotometry. A significant correlation was found between measured ALA and levels of blood lead (R = 0,739 - first group; R = 0,902 - second group; p < 0,001. The validity of ALA-U test to evaluate different levels of lead in blood was also studied. By using ALA levels of 3 mg/g creatinine as a threshold to detect levels of lead in blood equal to or higher than 20 µg/dl, the test results, for the workers in the first group, showed sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 90%. In both groups, the false positives as well as the false negatives were lower than 10%, which was enough to validate the test.

  1. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal

  2. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1986-10-01

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.

  3. Inhaled Loxapine for Agitation in Intoxicated Patients: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Roncero, Carlos; Ros-Cucurull, Elena; Palma-Álvarez, Raúl Felipe; Abad, Alfonso Carlos; Fadeuilhe, Christian; Casas, Miquel; Grau-López, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Episodes of agitation are frequent in intoxicated patients who have a substance use disorder, a psychiatric disorder or both (dual diagnosis). For managing the agitation, it is necessary to act promptly in a safe environment and addressing any underlying etiology. Inhaled loxapine improves symptoms of agitation in adults with psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia) within 10 minutes of administration. Recently, some reports have documented the usefulness of loxapine in dual diagn...

  4. Artificial sweeteners, caffeine, and alcohol intoxication in bar patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L

    2011-10-01

    Previous laboratory research on alcohol absorption has found that substitution of artificially sweetened alcohol mixers for sucrose-based mixers has a marked effect on the rate of gastric emptying, resulting in elevated blood alcohol concentrations. Studies conducted in natural drinking settings, such as bars, have indicated that caffeine ingestion while drinking is associated with higher levels of intoxication. To our knowledge, research has not examined the effects of alcohol mixers that contain both an artificial sweetener and caffeine, that is, diet cola. Therefore, we assessed the event-specific association between diet cola consumption and alcohol intoxication in bar patrons. We sought to determine whether putative increases in blood alcohol, produced by accelerated gastric emptying following diet cola consumption, as identified in the laboratory, also appear in a natural setting associated with impaired driving. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 2 nighttime field studies that collected anonymous information from 413 randomly selected bar patrons in 2008 and 2010. Data sets were merged and recoded to distinguish between energy drink, regular cola, diet cola, and noncaffeinated alcohol mixers. Caffeinated alcohol mixers were consumed by 33.9% of the patrons. Cola-caffeinated mixed drinks were much more popular than those mixed with energy drinks. A large majority of regular cola-caffeinated mixed drink consumers were men (75%), whereas diet cola-caffeinated mixed drink consumers were more likely to be women (57%). After adjusting for the number of drinks consumed and other potential confounders, number of diet cola mixed drinks had a significant association with patron intoxication (β = 0.233, p 0.05). Caffeine's effect on intoxication may be most pronounced when mixers are artificially sweetened, that is, lack sucrose which slows the rate of gastric emptying of alcohol. Risks associated with on-premise drinking may be reduced by greater

  5. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanan, R.; Stockhausen, H.B. von; Petersen, B. [Children' s Hospital, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Solymosi, L.; Warmuth-Metz, M. [Department for Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  6. Intoxication par la paraphényléne-diamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    9 mars 2011 ... remède contre la douleur par Averbukh [8], ou contre la constipation par Schemesh [9], mais l´utilisation à des fins autolytique reste toujours prédominante. Le tableau clinique de l´intoxication à ... une anurie ayant nécessité le recours à l´hémodialyse. Ce taux de survenue d´IRA anurique est relativement ...

  7. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanan, R.; Stockhausen, H.B. von; Petersen, B.; Solymosi, L.; Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  8. Hemorheological changes and hematometric erythrocyte characteristics in rats after sodium nitrite intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Petrova, Emilia; Antonova, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a precursor to a variety of organic compounds (pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides), but it is best known as a food additive. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of acute (i.p.) treatment of Wistar rats with NaNO2 (at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w.) on the blood rheological properties and erythrocyte hematometric indices (Hb, HCT, RBC, MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC). The significant differences were not found in the whole blood viscosity (WBV) values of the control and NaNO2-treated groups. The changes in the erythrocyte hematometric indices were statistically significant for RDW, MCHC and MCH at the 1st hour, five- and ten days after NaNO2 administration. Interestingly, at the day 5th of the NaNO2 treatment we obtained statistically significant lower values for the RBC count, Hb, HCT, RDW, as well as elevated indices MCV (no statistically significant), MCH, MCHC. The results obtained indicate that hemorheological and hematometric parameters examined should be monitored in cases of acute exposure to nitrites — for the purposes of clinical toxicology. The quantitative values of hematometric indices reported in our experimental model could be suitable for predicting NaNO2 intoxication and methemoglobinemia in animals and humans.

  9. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  10. Severe hypertriglyceridemia and colchicine intoxication following suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shaul Lev,1 David Snyder,2 Carmil Azran,3 Victor Zolotarsky,1 Arik Dahan4 1Intensive Care Unit, Rabin Medical Center, Petah-Tikva, 2Sackler School of Medicine NY/American Program, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 3Clinical Pharmacy, Herzliya Medical Center, Herzliya, 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel Abstract: Colchicine overdose is uncommon but potentially life threatening. Due to its serious adverse systemic effects, overdose must be recognized and treated. We report a case of an 18-year-old female who ingested 18 mg (~0.4 mg/kg of colchicine in a suicide attempt. The patient’s clinical manifestations included abdominal cramps, vomiting, pancytopenia, hypocholesterolemia, and rhabdomyolysis. Two unique manifestations of toxicity in this patient were profound and persistent, severe hypertriglyceridemia and electrolyte imbalance, mainly hypophosphatemia, with no other evident cause except the colchicine intoxication. Following intensive supportive treatment, including ventilator support, N-acetylcysteine, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, electrolyte repletion, and zinc supplementation, the patient made a complete recovery. Colchicine intoxication is a severe, life-threatening situation that should be followed closely in intensive care units. Severe changes in body functions can rapidly develop, as previously described in the literature. To our knowledge, this extremely elevated triglyceride level has never been reported without the administration of propofol, and requires further evaluation. Keywords: colchicine, intoxication, hypophosphatemia, hypertriglyceridemia 

  11. Peganum harmala L. Intoxication in a Pregnant Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adnane Berdai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peganum harmala L. is a plant widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. It is commonly used in traditional medicine in Morocco as sedative and abortifacient but exposes users to the risk of overdose and poisoning. The pharmacologically active compounds of this plant include a number of β-carboline and quinazoline alkaloids responsible of its pharmacological and toxicological effects. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman, 22 weeks pregnant, intoxicated with the seeds of Peganum harmala L. On admission, she had disturbance of consciousness, uterine contraction, and oliguria. Laboratory tests revealed renal failure and liver injury, and she benefited then from hemodialysis. During hospitalization, she was intubated after deterioration of consciousness and presented a spontaneous expulsion of the fetus. After extubation, she kept unusual sequelae: cerebellar ataxia and peripheral polyneuropathy. Physicians in regions using Peganum harmala L. as traditional medicine must be able to detect symptoms of its toxicity, in order to establish early gastrointestinal decontamination. The prognosis of this intoxication is variable; most cases can be managed successfully; but in high doses of intoxication, evolution can be fatal.

  12. [Risk of acute hepatic insufficiency in children due to chronic accidental overdose of paracetamol (acetaminophen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameleers-Snijders, P.; Hogeveen, M.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Kramers, C.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Two girls aged 4 and 3 years, respectively, experienced acute liver failure due to accidental ingestion of supratherapeutic doses of paracetamol (90 mg/kg/day or more). Recognition of chronic paracetamol intoxication as a cause of acute hepatic failure is often delayed. It is important to consider

  13. Iatrogenic water intoxication during pelvic ultrasonography in a patient with diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derinöz, Okşan; Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Kalkan, Gökhan; Camurdan, Orhun

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic ultrasonography (US) is a simple and non-invasive radiologic test to evaluate the pelvic organs. It requires a full bladder for better visualization. Our case is a 14-year-old female with diabetes insipidus (DI) who admitted to the pediatric emergency service with the complaints of seizure and agitation after drinking 4 liters of water in one hour for a pelvic US examination due to work-up for delayed puberty. Her biochemical and clinical evaluation revealed water intoxication (WI). To our knowledge, this is the first WI case developed in a patient with DI. Here, we discuss the underlying factors leading to this complication and recommended an approach to obtain a better sonographic image without necessitating oral water intake to fill the urinary bladder.

  14. Enhancing Brain Pregnenolone May Protect Cannabis Intoxication but Should Not Be Considered as an Anti-addiction Therapeutic: Hypothesizing Dopaminergic Blockade and Promoting Anti-Reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Braverman, Eric R.; Febo, Marcelo; Li, Mona; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Many US states now embrace the medical and recreational use of Cannabis. Changes in the laws have heightened interest and encouraged research into both cannabinoid products and the potential harms of Cannabis use, addiction, and intoxication. Some research into those harms will be reviewed here and misgivings about the use of Pregnenolone, to treat cannabis addiction and intoxication explained. Pregnenolone considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, has recently been shown to protect the brain from Cannabis intoxication. The major active ingredient of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances Pregnenolone synthesis in the brain via stimulation of the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. This steroid has been shown to inhibit the activity of the CB1 receptor thereby reducing many of the effects of THC. While this mechanism seems correct, in our opinion, Vallee et al., incorrectly suggest that blocking CB1 receptors could open unforeseen approaches to the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction. In this hypothesis, we caution the scientific community that, other CB1 receptor blockers, such as, Rimonabant (SR141718) have been pulled off the market in Europe. In addition, CB1 receptor blockers were rejected by the FDA due to mood changes including suicide ideation. Blocking CB1 receptors would result in reduced neuronal release of Dopamine by disinhibition of GABA signaling. Long-term blockade of cannabinoid receptors could occur with raising Pregnenolone brain levels, may induce a hypodopaminergic state, and lead to aberrant substance and non-substance (behavioral) addictions. PMID:26306328

  15. Drunk, but not blind: the effects of alcohol intoxication on change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colflesh, Gregory J H; Wiley, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol use has long been assumed to alter cognition via attentional processes. To better understand the cognitive consequences of intoxication, the present study tested the effects of moderate intoxication (average BAC between .071 and .082) on attentional processing using complex working memory capacity (WMC) span tasks and a change blindness task. Intoxicated and sober participants were matched on baseline WMC performance, and intoxication significantly decreased performance on the complex span tasks. Surprisingly, intoxication improved performance on the change blindness task. The results are interpreted as evidence that intoxication decreases attentional control, causing either a shift towards more passive processing and/or a more diffuse attentional state. This may result in decreased performance on tasks where attentional control or focus are required, but may actually facilitate performance in some contexts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. When Do Friends Prevent Friends from Hooking Up Intoxicated? An Examination of Sex Differences and Hypothetical Intoxication in Peer Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Matthew W; Menegatos, Lisa; Roberto, Anthony J

    2017-08-01

    Despite the risks involved when mixing alcohol with casual sexual activity, the majority of college students engage in hookups, and the majority of those hookups involve alcohol. This study focused on the protective role college students' peers can play and the situational factors that might influence their willingness to intervene when a close friend is about to hook up intoxicated. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study investigated differences in students' (N = 1270) attitudes, norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions to persuade a close friend not to engage in a hypothetical drunken hookup using a 2 (friend sex) × 2 (participant sex) × 2 (sober/intoxicated) factorial design. Results indicated significant differences in the TPB variables. Participants intended to intervene with female friends, but not male friends, and women were more likely to intervene than men. Participants in the sober condition had stronger intentions to intervene than those in the intoxicated condition, but this effect was driven by increases in men's intentions when sober. Implications for theory and prevention programming are discussed.

  17. Removal of Retained Lead Shot Through Laparoscopic Appendectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a patient presenting with lead shot in his appendix. A plain radiograph of his lumbar spine was performed for back pain, and an incidental finding of lead shot retained within the appendix was seen. Lead shot in the appendix is associated with appendicitis, and 2 cases have been reported of lead intoxication. We suggest that an elective laparoscopic appendectomy should be offered to patients as a possible management option. PMID:12856854

  18. Role of garlic extract and silymarin compared to dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in treatment of lead induced nephropathy in adult male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman A. El-Khishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning has been known as an important disorder that affects individuals through acute, sub-acute and chronic exposure in environmental and occupational settings. This study was conducted to compare the curative role of garlic combined with silymarin versus dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in decreasing lead induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats. The period of lead intoxication extended for 3 months followed by either 1 month treatment with garlic and silymarin or 5 days treatment with DMSA. Lead poisoning caused non-significant difference in kidney function tests (BUN and serum creatinine while, it caused significant elevation in kidney lead level, significant decrease in renal antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and significant elevation in kidney malondialdehyde. Histologically, lead induced disorganization and shrinkage of glomeruli with sloughing and vaculation of epithelium, widening of Bowman's space and inflammatory infiltration in renal medulla. Treatment by garlic extract combined with silymarin as well as treatment with DMSA resulted in significant improvement in the affected parameters. Also, both methods of treatment resulted in improvement of the histopathological changes. It can be concluded that garlic extract combined to silymarin is comparable to DMSA in amelioration of lead induced nephrotoxicity.

  19. Optimizing the Treatment of Acute Duct-Destructive Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakiev, Bazylbek S.; Karsakbayev, Uteugali G.; Kelimberdiev, Mersaid S.; ?uhamedgalieva, Bodagoz M.; K?nonenko, Aleksander F.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new methods for treating duct-destructive pancreatitis is a relevant problem. Endogenous intoxication and oxidative stress that accompany acute pancreatitis often progress even after surgery, which forces one to search for additional possibilities of preventing these severe consequences. This research studied the effect of small…

  20. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-11-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected organophosphate pesticide intoxication. The patient's plasma acetylcholinesterase level was checked, revealing 1498.6 microU/L (normal range: 2,000-5, 000) on the first day and 1,379 microU/L on the second day. Upon questioning, the patient recalled that one of his shoe soles had been damaged and that his foot had been wet from walking all day in rain collected on the factory floor on the day that his symptoms first occurred. We conducted a study in the change of preshift and postshift acetylcholinesterase levels among six of his co-workers on a rainy day. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the preshift and postshift plasma acetylcholinesterase levels; no significant difference was revealed (p = 0.600), leaving contamination via the damaged shoe sole suspect. We reviewed the literature on organophosphate intoxication; pesticide bottle-recycling factories were reported to be at a low risk of organophosphate toxicity in the working environment. However, because the potential risk of intoxication is still present, protective equipment such as clothing, gloves, and water-proof shoes should be worn, and employees should be educated on the potential risks.

  1. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and Pelger-Huët anomaly associated with colchicine intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Malbora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colchicine is frequently used in the treatment of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF. First symptoms of colchicine intoxication are gastrointestinal disturbances, such as abdominal cramps, diarrhea, pancytopenia and so on. Herein, we report a female FMF patient with pancytopenia and hemophagocytic lymphohitiocytosis (HLH, following colchicine intoxication for committing suicide. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with HLH associated with colchicine intoxication.

  2. Acetaminophen influence on change of endogenous intoxication indices status of plasmatic membranes in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Furka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accumulation of excessive amounts of exo- and endotoxins in the body leads to the inevitable occurrence endogenous intoxication. This status is accompanied by a different type of inflammatory processes in the tissues. Middle mass molecules are products of catabolism of endo- and exogenous proteins. Separate fractions of middle molecular peptides have neurotoxic activity, change the membranes permeability, disturb the sodium-potassium balance, transport amino acids, creatinine excretion, protein biosynthesis, tissue respiration, cause microcirculation disorders, and have cytotoxic activity. Transaminases are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions progress. Aminotransferases influence on reaction of the formation and decomposition of amino acids and carbohydrates. The aim of the study: The aim of our work was to study endogenous intoxication and status of plasmatic membranes in animals with type 2 diabetes mellitus and acetaminophen toxic lesions. Research materials and methods: We conducted two series of experiments. In the first series toxic lesion was caused by a single intragastric administration of acetaminophen suspension in 2 % starch solution to animals in a dose of 1250 mg/kg (1/2 LD50. In the second series the suspension of acetaminophen in 2 % starch solution in a dose of 55 mg/kg was given. Non-genetic form of experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus was modeled by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin solution in doses 65 mg/kg, which was diluted by citrate buffer (pH 4.5 with the previous intraperitoneal nicotinamide administration in doses of 230 mg/kg. Rats, which were given the same amount of solvent (citrate buffer pH 4.5, were used as the control group. Results and discussion: Content of middle mass molecules and erythrocyte intoxication index were determined for research of endogenous intoxication status of rats with type 2 diabetes at single administration of acetaminophen. The experimental

  3. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN) intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction...... and possibly death. While several reports support the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) for the treatment of severe CO poisoning, limited data exist on the effect of HBO during CN poisoning. HBO increases the elimination rate of CO haemoglobin in proportion to the increased oxygen partial pressure...

  4. Lead poisoning: historical aspects of a paradigmatic "occupational and environmental disease".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Lafranconi, Alessandra; D'Orso, Marco Italo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2012-03-01

    Lead poisoning is one of the earliest identified and most known occupational disease. Its acute effects have been recognized from antiquity when this condition principally afflicted manual workers and slaves, actually scarcely considered by the medicine of that time. The Industrial Revolution caused an epidemic of metal intoxication, urging scientists and physician of that period to study and identify specific symptoms and organ alterations related to chronic lead poisoning. During the 20th century, the acknowledgment of occupational and environmental toxicity of lead fostered public awareness and legislation to protect health. More recently, the identification of sub-clinical effects have greatly modified the concept of lead poisoning and the approaches of medicine towards this condition. Nowadays, lead poisoning is rarely seen in developed countries, but it still represents a major environmental problem in certain areas. Consequently, it may appear as a paradigm of "occupational and environmental disease," and the history of this condition seems to parallel the historical development of modern "Occupational and Environmental Health" as a more complete medical discipline.

  5. Lead Poisoning: Historical Aspects of a Paradigmatic “Occupational and Environmental Disease”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Augusto Riva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is one of the earliest identified and most known occupational disease. Its acute effects have been recognized from antiquity when this condition principally afflicted manual workers and slaves, actually scarcely considered by the medicine of that time. The Industrial Revolution caused an epidemic of metal intoxication, urging scientists and physician of that period to study and identify specific symptoms and organ alterations related to chronic lead poisoning. During the 20th century, the acknowledgment of occupational and environmental toxicity of lead fostered public awareness and legislation to protect health. More recently, the identification of sub-clinical effects have greatly modified the concept of lead poisoning and the approaches of medicine towards this condition. Nowadays, lead poisoning is rarely seen in developed countries, but it still represents a major environmental problem in certain areas. Consequently, it may appear as a paradigm of “occupational and environmental disease,” and the history of this condition seems to parallel the historical development of modern “Occupational and Environmental Health” as a more complete medical discipline.

  6. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  7. Fatal intoxication with 3-methyl-N-methylcathinone (3-MMC) and 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-APB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Zuba, Dariusz; Byrska, Bogumiła

    2014-12-01

    The emergence of a large number of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) in recent years poses a serious problem to clinical and forensic toxicologists. Here we report a patient who administrated ca. 500mg of 3-MMC (3-methyl-N-methylcathinone) and 400mg of 5-APB (5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran) in combination with 80g of ethyl alcohol. The clinical manifestations included agitation, seizures, hypertension, tachycardia, hyperthermia and bradycardia. The patient did not recover and died around 4h after the use of drugs. The cause of death was acute cardiovascular collapse that occurred following mixed intoxication with NPSs and alcohol. Toxicological analysis of post-mortem blood revealed 3-MMC and 5-APB in concentrations of 1.6μg/mL and 5.6μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the serum alcohol concentration was 1.4g/L in ante-mortem sample collected 1h after admission to the hospital. This is the first report on blood concentration of 3-MMC and 5-APB in fatal intoxication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fatal manganese intoxication due to an error in the elaboration of Epsom salts for a liver cleansing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Baltasar; Casalots-Casado, Jaume; Quintana, Salvador; Arroyo, Amparo; Martín-Fumadó, Carles; Galtés, Ignasi

    2012-11-30

    We describe the case of a 50-year-old man with a fatal intoxication after accidental massive oral ingestion of manganese. The patient presented with lethargy, diffuse abdominal pain, vomiting, and profuse diarrhea after ingesting Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate heptahydrate) during a liver cleansing diet. Despite intensive care management with intubation, prone position ventilation, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and multiple transfusions, he progressed to refractory shock with multiple organ dysfunction resulting in death within 72 h. Similar patients arrived at several hospitals with identical epidemiology (all had ingested the same salt obtained in the same place). Clinical and forensic investigations (X-ray diffraction) discovered that the supplier had mistakenly prepared the salts with hydrated manganese sulfate instead of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. The results enabled the other patients to be successfully treated for hydrated manganese sulfate intoxication with life support in the intensive care unit and chelation therapy (EDTA). We describe the clinical presentation of acute manganese poisoning and alert professionals to the risk of an increasingly popular diet. This case demonstrates the importance of collaboration between clinicians, pathologists, and forensic scientists to resolve a difficult-to-diagnose case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of serum digoxin levels in digitalis intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, G.

    1981-01-01

    For 101 hospitalized patients where clinical symptoms of a glucosidine intoxication as a consequence of oral digoxin treatment were noted, serum digoxin levels were determined using a RIA kit of the Boehringer company (I-125 tracer, solid phase tube separation technique) on a fasted stomach prior to oral drug administration. An ECG was performed simultaneously and in addition kidney function parameters and electrolyte levels were determined. An anamnesis and clinical examination of the patients were also conducted. Interferences in the RIA method and gastro-intestinal illness resulting in changes in resorption behaviour were excluded. The group of patients showed collectively an average serum digoxin level of 2.9 +- 0.9 ng/ml with a range from 1.8 to 6.8 ng/ml, which was statistically significantly higher than the average value for 101 patients receiving long-term oral medication but without symptoms of glycosidine intoxication. According to the manufacture's specifications for the RIA kit, values > 2.0 ng/ml are considered as toxic, with values between 1.6 and 2.0 ng/mg falling into a ''grey zone''. A correlation was found between toxic serum values with changes in ECG pattern and subjective clinical symptoms of intoxication. A limitation of kidney function was responsible for the high serum glycoside levels in 62% of the patients. It was shown that the differing response of patients towards digitalis medication, above all in the case of long-term therapy, warrants an RIA determination of serum glycoside values in order to adjust the digoxin dose to individual requirements. (orig./MG) [de

  10. New Direction Treatment in Antidote Treatment of OPC Intoxications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dishovsky, C.

    2007-01-01

    The toxic effect of organophosphorus compounds (OPC) is based on inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), enzyme which plays an important physiological role in the cholinergic nervous system. The drug therapy on intoxication with OPC included mainly combination of cholinesterase reactivators and cholinolytics. There is no single AChE reactivator having the ability to sufficiently reactivate inhibited enzyme due to the high variability of chemical structure of the inhibitors. The classic oximes have antidote effect against intoxication with sarin, Vx and tabun, but are not effective against soman. HI-6 (Bulgarian ampoule form T oxidin ) has an effect against sarin, soman and Vx, and to a lesser degree against tabun. In order to improve the treatment of poisoning with highly toxic OPC, in ours laboratory we synthesized a variety of mono- and dioximes. We use different numbers of pyridinium or heterocyclic rings, different length and shape of the connecting chain between pyridinium or pyridinium-heterocyclic rings; different number and position of the oxime groups at the pyridinium rings and others. The investigations of some authors and our research showed that the compounds which present a combination between HI-6 and TMB-4 have a better antidote activity against tabun intoxications. The important finding of this study is that we synthesized complex compounds, reactivators of cholinesterase activity (including HI-6) with AMP / ATP and polycarboxilats, which have prolonged action in organism compared with original oximes. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that they are eliminated more slowly. The antidotal efficacy of these compounds after soman poisoning in rats was similar like that of the original oximes. The same tendency showed and the other pharmacological (blood pressure, EKG, breathing, neuromuscular transmission), and biochemical (ChE) investigations. (author)

  11. Driving intoxicated: is hospital admission protective against legal ramifications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Susannah Mary; Murry, Jason Steven; Truitt, Michael Seth; Dunn, Ernest Lewis

    2013-12-01

    According to the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in 2010, 10,228 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes. Daily, intoxicated drivers are seen in trauma centers across the country. At our trauma center, we sought to determine the number of drivers who had a documented elevation in their blood alcohol content (BAC) and compare this with county police records to evaluate how many charges for driving while intoxicated (DWI) were issued. A retrospective chart review was performed for trauma admissions during a 3-year period. Patients with a BAC of less than 0.08 g/dL were excluded. Only documented drivers were included. This group of intoxicated drivers was then compared against public records from the Dallas County for any record of a charge of DWI. During a 3-year period, from 2009 to 2011, 118 drivers had a confirmed BAC above the legal limit of 0.08 g/dL. Average BAC level was 0.218 g/dL. Injuries varied widely between patients with an average Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 11. Extremity fractures were seen in 27%, facial fractures were seen in 16%, and intracranial hemorrhage was seen in 7%. Forty-eight percent of the patients were admitted to the intensive care unit initially, with an average length of intensive care unit stay of 1.5 days (range, 0-25 days). Only 18% of our patients (21) received a charge of DWI. Four patients were charge with related offenses. A motor vehicle accident may be protective against the legal ramifications of drinking and driving. Less than 20% of patients who were driving under the influence incurred any legal repercussion. Deterrents that prevent law enforcement from being able to obtain evidence needed for prosecution should be eliminated. Health care providers and law enforcement agencies should work as a team to help mitigate the incidence of drunk driving and its burden on society. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  12. Acute mastoiditis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute...

  13. Pregnenolone can protect the brain from cannabis intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Monique; Vitiello, Sergio; Bellocchio, Luigi; Hébert-Chatelain, Etienne; Monlezun, Stéphanie; Martin-Garcia, Elena; Kasanetz, Fernando; Baillie, Gemma L; Panin, Francesca; Cathala, Adeline; Roullot-Lacarrière, Valérie; Fabre, Sandy; Hurst, Dow P; Lynch, Diane L; Shore, Derek M; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Spampinato, Umberto; Revest, Jean-Michel; Maldonado, Rafael; Reggio, Patricia H; Ross, Ruth A; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    2014-01-03

    Pregnenolone is considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, and its potential functional effects have been largely uninvestigated. The administration of the main active principle of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), substantially increases the synthesis of pregnenolone in the brain via activation of the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. Pregnenolone then, acting as a signaling-specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor, reduces several effects of THC. This negative feedback mediated by pregnenolone reveals a previously unknown paracrine/autocrine loop protecting the brain from CB1 receptor overactivation that could open an unforeseen approach for the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction.

  14. Heart Rate Variability in Children with Tricyclic Antidepressant Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Kilic, Zubeyir; Sahin, Sabiha; Tutuncu-Toker, Rabia; Eren, Makbule; Yargic, Zeynel Abidin; Kosger, Pelin; Ucar, Birsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate HRV in children requiring intensive care unit stays due to TCA poisoning between March 2009 and July 2010. In the time-domain nonspectral evaluation, the SDNN (P < 0.001), SDNNi (P < 0.05), RMSDD (P < 0.01), and pNN50 (P < 0.01) were found to be significantly lower in the TCA intoxication group. The spectral analysis of the data recorded during the first 5 minutes after intensive care unit admission showed that the values of the nLF (P < 0.05) and the LF/...

  15. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via dr...

  16. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  17. Clinical and pathological studies on intoxication in horses from freshly cut Jimson weed (Datura stramonium-contaminated maize intended for ensiling : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Binev

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intoxication in 34 horses after ingesting freshly harvested maize that was to be used for ensiling and heavily contaminated with young Datura stramonium plants, is described. The clinical status of all horses was monitored for 7 days, and included body (rectal temperature, respiratory and heart rates, colour and moistness of visible mucosae, changes in pupil size, appetite, thirst, general behaviour, locomotion, sensory perceptions, urination and defaecation. The intoxication was accompanied by altered clinical status, namely mild hyperthermia, tachycardia, polypnoea, dyspnoea and shallow breathing, mydriasis, dry oral, rectal, vaginal and nasal mucosae, acute gastric dilatation and severe intestinal gas accumulation, anorexia to complete refusal of feed, decreased or absent thirst, absence of defaecation and urination. As a result of the treatment, the clinical parameters normalised between days 2 and 5. Necropsies and pathological studies were performed on two horses that died, revealing toxic liver dystrophy, cardiac lesions and substantial dystrophic and necrotic processes in the kidneys. The observed clinical signs, the pathomorphological changes and the applied therapy could be used in the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of Jimson weed intoxication.

  18. Treatment of Arsenite Intoxication-Induced Peripheral Vasculopathy with Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Chiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenite (As, a notorious toxic metal, is ubiquitously distributed in the earth and poses a serious threat to human health. Histopathological lesions of As intoxication are known as thromboangiitis obliterans, which are resistant to current treatment and often lead to lower limb amputation. In this study, we attempt to find that treatment with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs may be effective for As-induced vasculopathy. We first conducted an in vitro study with a co-culture system containing human MSCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and treated individual and co-cultured cells with various concentrations of arsenite. We also designed an in vivo study in which Sprague Dawley (SD rats received periodic intraperitoneal (IP injections of 16 ppm arsenite for 12 weeks. MSCs were harvested from BALB/c mice that were transplanted via tail vein injection. We found that there was significantly higher cellular viability in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs than in HUVECs under concentrations of arsenite between 15 and 25 μM. The Annexin V apoptosis assay further confirmed this finding. Cytokine array assay for As-conditioned media revealed an elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF level secreted by MSCs, which is crucial for HUVEC survival and was evaluated by an siRNA VEGF knockdown test. In the in vivo study, we demonstrated early apoptotic changes in the anterior tibial vessels of As-injected SD rats with a Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay, but these apoptotic changes were less frequently observed upon MSCs transplantation, indicating that the cytoprotective effect of MSCs successfully protected against As-induced peripheral vasculopathy. The feasibility of MSCs to treat and /or prevent the progression of As-induced vasculopathy is justified. Further clinical studies are required to demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs in patients suffering from As intoxication with

  19. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas L. Stöggl; Glenn Björklund; Glenn Björklund

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high ...

  20. Acute Respiratory Failure in Acute Poisoning by Neutrotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Lodyagin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of methods for diagnosing and treating critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF in acute poisoning by neurotropic substances. Subjects and methods. Two hundred and thirty-three patients with acute severe intoxication with neurotropic poisons were examined. All the patients were admitted for toxic-hypoxic coma and ARF; in this connection all the patients underwent artificial ventilation (AV. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 1 those in whom the traditional treatments (AV, detoxifying therapy, and infusional and cardiotropic support could restore the basic parameters of vital functions, as judged from the recovered oxygenation index; these patients had no metabolic shifts; 2 those who had signs of pulmonary hyperhydration, low cardiac output and moderate metabolic disorders, as suggested by elevated lactate levels; 3 seriously ill patients in whom the interval between the time of poisoning to care delivery was more than 20 hours; the patients of this group had the most significant metabolic disorders. Results. Correction of ARF in critically ill patients with acute poisoning should include, in addition to the rational parameters of AV and detoxifying therapy, agents for targeted therapy for sequels of hypoxia and energy deficiency states. For maximally rapid and effective oxygen transport recovery, the addition of perfluorane to the complex therapy cardinally improves the results of treatment and reduces mortality rates. Conclusion. The complexity of the pathogenesis of ARF and its sequels is a ground for diagnosing and correcting not only ventilation disturbances, but also pulmonary microcirculatory disorders and metabolic disturbances. Key words: acute intoxication with neu-rotropic poisons, acute respiratory failure, pulmonary hyperhydration, hypoxia, metabolic disturbances.

  1. Use of lead aprons - further considerations of estimation of doses and conditions of acute exposures of TLD badge in diagnostic x-ray institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Chatterjee, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the recent study the authors reported that the exposure conditions of the use of the TLD badge, whether worn under or over the lead apron could be estimated from the readout of the TLD badge used in X-ray diagnostic departments. The effectiveness of lead aprons procured from different suppliers having the same value of quoted nominal lead equivalence was found to vary severely and this indicated some limitation in the applicability of the method of evaluation of exposure conditions of the badge. The transmission factors for the lead aprons varied up to a factor of 15 for the same value of quoted nominal lead equivalence procured from three different suppliers. This is of serious consequences in radiation protection and attracts attention for quality control. An error in the estimation of the exposure conditions of the TLD badge could lead to an underestimation of doses up to 4 times using the prevalent method. The estimation of the actual doses of radiation workers in the cases of over-exposures for the situations of the use of the TLD badge over the lead apron showed that the variation in the quality of lead aprons could be wrong in the range from 1.6 to 25 times even if the kVp of the machine is exactly known. Therefore, attempt should not be made to estimate the actual doses under lead apron from the readout of the TLD badge worn over the apron, as the real values of the transmission factors of the aprons and kVp of the X-ray machine may not be available. (author)

  2. Pacemaker syndrome with sub-acute left ventricular systolic dysfunction in a patient with a dual-chamber pacemaker: consequence of lead switch at the header.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurwolah, Mohammad Reeaze; Vezi, Brian Zwelethini

    In the daily practice of pacemaker insertion, the occurrence of atrial and ventricular lead switch at the pacemaker box header is a rare and unintentional phenomenon, with less than five cases reported in the literature. The lead switch may have dire consequences, depending on the indication for the pacemaker. One of these consequences is pacemaker syndrome, in which the normal sequence of atrial and ventricular activation is impaired, leading to sub-optimal ventricular filling and cardiac output. It is important for the attending physician to recognise any worsening of symptoms in a patient who has recently had a permanent pacemaker inserted. In the case of a dual-chamber pacemaker, switching of the atrial and ventricular leads at the pacemaker box header should be strongly suspected. We present an unusual case of pacemaker syndrome and right ventricular-only pacinginduced left ventricular systolic dysfunction in a patient with a dual-chamber pacemaker.

  3. Regulatory Self-efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaglietti, E.; Burk, W.J.; Giletta, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males)

  4. 49 CFR 384.221 - Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Compliance by States § 384.221 Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). The State shall adopt, and...

  5. Identification and initial management of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in the pediatric emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Gatti Pianca

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: The diagnosis and treatment of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in adolescents and children in the emergency scenario requires a systematic evaluation of the use of these drugs. There are few specific treatments for intoxication, and the management comprehends support measures and management of related clinical complications.

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may overcome nitric oxide blockage during cyanide intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polzik, Peter; Hansen, Marco Bo; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a blockade of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy during cyanide (CN) intoxication. METHODS: 39 anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CN intoxication (5.4 mg/kg intra-arterially) with or without previous nitric oxide...

  7. Current status of rodenticide intoxication in Brazil: a preliminary survey from 2009 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Papini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical control of rodents with anticoagulant products, especially derivatives of the coumarin chemical group, is legally authorised in Brazil. These products provide effective control and are safe for humans. However, the use of illegal 'rodenticides' has increased in many Brazilian cities recently, accompanied by increased numbers of suicides, homicides, and intoxications. The National Toxicology Information System (Sinitox registers the number of rodenticide intoxications, including suicides, but does not differentiate between the legal and illegal rodenticides. Intoxications by rodenticides outnumber those by illicit drugs and pesticides. A survey of data from 2005-2011 revealed an average of about 3,800 intoxications per year, about 60% of which were suicides. Many of these intoxications probably involved illegal rodenticides, some with unknown chemical compositions, which confound the data on rodenticide intoxication. This evaluation of Sinitox data highlighted the need to ensure the proper use of the term 'rodenticide' when registering intoxication cases. Intoxication by-products that are not rodenticides, but are erroneously used for this purpose, should be classified separately to improve the quality of information.

  8. Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) intoxication: an important cause of consciousness disturbance in patients with renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Tung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2002-05-01

    Star fruit intoxication is a rare cause of consciousness disturbance in patients with renal failure. Most cases in the literature are uremic patients on maintenance dialysis. We present a patient with chronic renal failure, who was not on dialysis program yet, suffered from star fruit intoxication with presentation of consciousness disturbance and successfully managed by a session of hemodialysis.

  9. Haemodialysis followed by continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration in lithium intoxication; a model and a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, John H J M; Jagernath, Danny R; Eleveld, Douglas J; Zijlstra, Jan G; Franssen, Casper F M

    2009-01-01

    For severe lithium intoxication haemodialysis is recommended to lower serum lithium levels rapidly. Frequently, serum lithium levels rebound after dialysis and repeated dialysis is needed. This is the first report of an adult patient with severe lithium intoxication who underwent haemodialysis (HD)

  10. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  11. Studies on the effects of lead toxicity on glutathione metabolism in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, C.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were performed to investigate certain aspects of lead toxicity in the chick. In the first study, the mechanism of the Pb-induced changes in glutathione (GSH) metabolism was examined by comparing changes in organ non-protein thiol concentrations during the administration of Pb by intraperitoneal injection (acute) or in the diet (chronic). The synthesis of GSH in the liver was increased by both acute and chronic Pb administration when evaluated in terms of the rate of incorporation of [I 14 C]-glycine into hepatic GSH. Total nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) concentrations were also increased by both acute and chronic Pb. However, that portion of NPSH which is GSH was increased only by prolonged (chronic) exposure to Pb. The administration of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, decreased hepatic HPDH and GSH concentrations both in the presence and absence of injected Pb and inhibited the effects of dietary Pb on hepatic NPSH and GSH concentrations. The data suggested an immediate release of NPSH compounds into blood plasma following acute PB injection. Thus, the interorgan translocation system for GSH may be important in acute Pb intoxication in that it facilitates an immediate response to maintain cellular GSH levels being depleted by detoxification reactions by increasing the rate of GSH turnover. The antagonistic relationship between Pb and Se was investigated in terms of chick body weight gain and changes in organ non-protein thiol concentrated when administered with diets containing deficient adequate, and excess amounts of Se. Growth depression by 2000 ppm dietary Pb was observed with diets that were either deficient or adequate in dietary Se

  12. Intoxicated workers: findings from a national Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken; Roche, Ann M; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke

    2011-09-01

    To identify prevalence of alcohol and drug use and intoxication at work. A total of 9,828 Australian workers ≥14 years old. Australia 2007. Work-place alcohol use and drug use, intoxication at work, industry and occupation of employment. Secondary analysis of a large nationally representative survey involving descriptive and weighted multivariate logistic regressions. Differential patterns were identified by drug type, worker characteristics and occupational setting, controlling for demographic variables. Nearly 9% of workers surveyed (8.7%) usually drank alcohol at work and 0.9% usually used drugs at work. Attending work under the influence of alcohol was more prevalent (5.6%) than attending work under the influence of drugs (2.0%), and significantly more likely among young, male, never married workers with no dependent children. Hospitality industry workers were 3.5 times more likely than other workers to drink alcohol and two to three times more likely to use drugs at work or attend work under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Other high-risk industries and occupations included construction, financial services, tradespersons and unskilled workers. More than one in 20 Australian workers admit to having worked under the influence of alcohol and almost one in 50 report attending work under the influence of psychoactive drugs. The rates are higher for some industries, such as the hospitality industry, than others. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Clinical prognosis of patients with diagnosed chronic solvent intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juntunen, J; Antti-Poika, M; Tola, S; Partanen, T

    1982-05-01

    The clinical symptoms and signs of 80 patients with chronic organic solvent intoxication were evaluated after 3-9 years (mean 5.8 years) of follow-up. Thirty-one of the patients had slight clinical neurological signs at the time of diagnosis while the rest of the patients had only neurophysiological or psychological disturbances. The most common subjective symptoms were headache, tiredness and memory disturbances. Of the clinical signs, disturbances occurred frequently in cerebellar functions, gait and station and fine motorics. In addition, psycho-organic alteration and neurasthenic signs were often found. After the follow-up clinical signs of impairment in the nervous system were present in 42 cases. At the group level, the subjective symptoms decreased during the follow-up but the objective clinical signs increased and worsened. Only the prognosis of disturbances in gait and station correlated with the duration and intensity of exposure. The present results emphasize the great difficulties arising in occupational neurology regarding chronic organic solvent intoxications. No clear-cut clinical picture exists and reliable estimation of prognosis in general cannot be made on the basis of the present knowledge.

  14. DO SOBER EYEWITNESSES OUTPERFORM ALCOHOL INTOXICATED EYEWITNESSES IN A LINEUP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fahlke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although alcohol intoxicated eyewitnesses are common, there are only a few studies in the area. The aim of the current study is to investigate how different doses of alcohol affect eyewitness lineup identification performance. The participants (N = 123 were randomly assigned to a 3 [Beverage: control (0.0 g/kg ethanol vs. lower (0.4 g/kg ethanol vs. higher alcohol dose (0.7 g/kg ethanol] X 2 (Lineup: target-present vs. target-absent between-subject design. Participants consumed two glasses of beverage at an even pace for 15 minutes. Five minutes after consumption the participants witnessed a film depicting a staged kidnapping. Seven days later, the participants returned to the laboratory and were asked to identify the culprit in a simultaneous lineup. The result showed that overall, the participants performed better than chance; however, their lineup performance was poor. There were no significant effects of alcohol intoxication with respect to performance, neither in target-present nor target-absent lineups. The study’s results suggest that eyewitnesses who have consumed a lower (0.4 g/kg ethanol or a higher (0.7 g/kg ethanol dose of alcohol perform at the same level as sober eyewitnesses in a lineup. The results are discussed in relation to the alcohol myopia theory and suggestions for future research are made.

  15. [Minoxidil intoxication, the pharmacological agent of a hair lotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprahamian, A; Escoda, S; Patteau, G; Merckx, A; Chéron, G

    2011-12-01

    Accidental intoxications in children are frequent but most of them are without serious consequences. We describe herein the case of a young girl who drank 100 mg of a topical hair lotion with minoxidil. On arrival, she had no symptoms except flush on the face and ears. Four and half hours after ingestion, tachycardia appeared with a pulse above 170 beats per min with hypotension at 76/24 mmHg. The heart rate remained between 170 and 190 beats per min for 12 h and then lowered to between 140 and 160 beats per min. Thirty-six hours after ingestion, the heart beat was at 140 beats per min. Minoxidil is a strong vasodilator used first in the 1970s for severe hypertension. It produces hypotension by direct arteriolar vasodilatation. Only a few cases of minoxidil intoxication have been described in the literature, including only one pediatric case. This young boy had only tachycardia of 160 beats per min for 40 h. Most serious cases have been described in adults. They suffered long-lasting tachycardia, hypotension, and ECG changes. Most patients need a bolus of normal saline fluid and some with hemodynamic problems need vasoactive drugs such as dopamine and/or phenylephrine. All patients need to be under medical supervision for a long time because of the product's very long action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhalwagy, Manal Ea; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, A A; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas's examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters.

  17. Intoxications aigues aux organophosphores chez la femme enceinte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Mohamed Hafed; Bannour, Badra; Barhoumi, Tarek; Jouini, Rami; Marwene, Nadia; Fatnassi, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-01-01

    Les intoxications aiguës par les pesticides organophosphorés (OP) au cours de la grossesse sont des événements rares, peu décrites dans la littérature. A travers cette étude rétrospective, nous rapportons les résultats de sept cas d’ingestion suicidaire d’OP chez des femmes enceintes. Cette intoxication était le plus souvent grave. En effet, cinq des sept parturientes avaient un Glasgow initial des cas elle était défavorable pour le fœtus (mort fœtal in utéro). Deux mécanismes peuvent expliquer ces complications fœtales. Le premier est l’hypoxie fœtale associée ou non à un état de choc qui peuvent se traduire au niveau du RCF par une tachycardie ou des décélérations et aboutir ainsi à un décès in utero. Le deuxième mécanisme est le passage de ces pesticides à travers la barrière placentaire, ce qui pose un risque potentiel pour le fœtus par altération des systèmes enzymatiques des microsomes. PMID:28293343

  18. Clinical and Pathological Findings on Intoxication by Yellow Phosphorus After Ingesting Firework Cracker: A Rare Case of Autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen Şamdanci, Emine; Çakir, Ebru; Şahin, Nurhan; Elmali, Candan; Sayin, Sadegül

    2016-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus is a toxic substance used in the production of firework cracker, fireworks, ammunition and agricultural dung. When ingested, it shows its effects mainly in the liver, the kidneys, and the brain. A four-year-old girl had died as a result of acute hepatic failure caused by ingesting a firework cracker. The case showed high levels of hepatic enzymes, along with non-specific signs such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Autopsy revealed diffuse microvesicular steatosis in the liver and disseminated degeneration in the proximal tubules of the kidneys. In cases with concomitant hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, death is inevitable. However, when only hepatic failure develops, hepatic transplantation may be lifesaving. Although intoxication from ingesting yellow phosphorus has a very high rate of mortality, forensic cases are extremely rare in the literature.

  19. Assessment of hepatoprotective role of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract in Rattus norvegicus after vanadium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Prabhu N.; Shukla, Aparna; Saxena, Nishi; Arya, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    The protective effect of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract and its potency has been compared with Liv.52 following V 2 O 5 , induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. LD 50 estimated for V 2 O 5 , was 69.6 mg/kg b.wt. The administered doses of V 2 O 5 , were LD 50 /10 th for acute and 1/7 th , 1/14 th and 1/21 th of sublethal dose for subacute (7, 14 and 21 ds) respectively. Body weight, liver weight and hepatosomatic index were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was assessed in terms of hepatic total proteins, total lipids and total cholesterol. V 2 O 5 intoxication significantly increased liver weight, hepatosomatic index, total lipids and total cholesterol, while significantly decreased body weight and total proteins. Pretreatment with dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract and 0.125 ml/kg b.wt. of Liv.52 syrup restored the increased liver weight, hepatosomatic index, total lipids and total cholesterol and decreased parameters like body weight and total proteins toward normalcy. The results reveal that Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract modulates V 2 O 5 toxicity like well known hepatoprotectant, however the modulation is less than Liv.52. (author)

  20. Extensive changes in innate immune gene expression in obese Göttingen minipigs do not lead to changes in concentrations of circulating cytokines and acute phase proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Moesgaard, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    not been studied in Göttingen minipigs. Therefore, we studied the expression of innate immune genes in liver and adipose tissues as well as serum concentrations of cytokines and acute phase proteins in obese vs. lean Göttingen minipigs. In the liver, of 35 investigated genes, the expression of nine...... was significantly different in obese pigs (three up-regulated, six down-regulated). Of 33 genes in adipose tissues, obesity was associated with changed expression of 12 genes in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (three up-regulated), 11 in the abdominal retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT) (seven of these up......-regulated) and eight in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from the neck (five of which were up-regulated). Obesity-associated expression changes were observed for three genes in all adipose tissues, namely chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3-like 1 (up-regulated), CD200 molecule (down-regulated) and interleukin 1...