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Sample records for acute isovolumetric sodium

  1. Intravenous Sodium Valproate for Acute Pediatric Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, David; Sun, Benjamin; O'Brien, Patricia; Hansen, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Headaches are common in the pediatric population, and increase in prevalence with age. The abortive medications currently used have a number of potential side effects. Sodium valproate (VPA) has been shown to be effective for acute treatment in the adult population, but no data exist in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of VPA for acute pediatric headache in the emergency department. This was a retrospective case series of all patients pediatric emergency department (PED) at two tertiary care pediatric hospitals and with a final diagnosis of migraine or headache who received parenteral VPA. Data collected included patient demographics, pain reduction, length of stay, and final disposition. From July 2010 to February 2014, there were 16 patients who received VPA for acute headache in the PED; 4 were excluded. Eighty-three percent were discharged home. Mean length of stay in the PED before VPA was 395 min, and 120 min after VPA administration. Patients achieved a 17% mean pain score reduction before VPA and approximately an additional 40% mean pain reduction after VPA infusion. VPA appears to be an effective agent for acute pediatric headache in this small series. Patients responded well to VPA in a relatively short amount of time. Further studies are needed to evaluate its effectiveness in combination with other first-line medications or as a single agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vena Cava Responsiveness to Controlled Isovolumetric Respiratory Efforts.

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    Folino, Anna; Benzo, Marco; Pasquero, Paolo; Laguzzi, Andrea; Mesin, Luca; Messere, Alessandro; Porta, Massimo; Roatta, Silvestro

    2017-10-01

    Respirophasic variation of inferior vena cava (IVC) size is affected by large variability with spontaneous breathing. This study aims at characterizing the dependence of IVC size on controlled changes in intrathoracic pressure. Ten healthy subjects, in supine position, performed controlled isovolumetric respiratory efforts at functional residual capacity, attaining positive (5, 10, and 15 mmHg) and negative (-5, -10, and -15 mmHg) alveolar pressure levels. The isovolumetric constraint implies that equivalent changes are exhibited by alveolar and intrathoracic pressures during respiratory tasks. The IVC cross-sectional area equal to 2.88 ± 0.43 cm 2 at baseline (alveolar pressure = 0 mmHg) was progressively decreased by both expiratory and inspiratory efforts of increasing strength, with diaphragmatic efforts producing larger effects than thoracic ones: -55 ± 15% decrease, at +15 mmHg of alveolar pressure (P < .01), -80 ± 33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg diaphragmatic (P < .01), -33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg thoracic. Significant IVC changes in size (P < .01) and pulsatility (P < .05), along with non significant reduction in the response to respiratory efforts, were also observed during the first 30 minutes of supine rest, detecting an increase in vascular filling, and taking place after switching from the standing to the supine position. This study quantified the dependence of the IVC cross-sectional area on controlled intrathoracic pressure changes and evidenced the stronger influence of diaphragmatic over thoracic activity. Individual variability in thoracic/diaphragmatic respiratory pattern should be considered in the interpretation of the respirophasic modulations of IVC size. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Elasticity-based determination of isovolumetric phases in the human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgeti, Thomas; Beling, Mark; Hamm, Bernd; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2010-10-27

    BACKGROUND/MOTIVATION: To directly determine isovolumetric cardiac time intervals by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) using the magnitude of the complex signal for deducing morphological information combined with the phase of the complex signal for tension-relaxation measurements. Thirty-five healthy volunteers and 11 patients with relaxation abnormalities were subjected to transthoracic wave stimulation using vibrations of approximately 25 Hz. A k-space-segmented, ECG-gated gradient-recalled echo steady-state sequence with a 500-Hz bipolar motion-encoding gradient was used for acquiring a series of 360 complex images of a short-axis view of the heart at a frame rate of less than 5.2 ms. Magnitude images were employed for measuring the cross-sectional area of the left ventricle, while phase images were used for analyzing the amplitudes of the externally induced waves. The delay between the decrease in amplitude and onset of ventricular contraction was determined in all subjects and assigned to the time of isovolumetric tension. Conversely, the delay between the increase in wave amplitude and ventricular dilatation was used for measuring the time of isovolumetric elasticity relaxation. Wave amplitudes decreased during systole and increased during diastole. The variation in wave amplitude occurred ahead of morphological changes. In healthy volunteers the time of isovolumetric elasticity relaxation was 75 ± 31 ms, which is significantly shorter than the time of isovolumetric tension of 136 ± 36 ms (P < 0.01). In patients with relaxation abnormalities (mild diastolic dysfunction, n = 11) isovolumetric elasticity relaxation was significantly prolonged, with 133 ± 57 ms (P < 0.01), whereas isovolumetric tension time was in the range of healthy controls (161 ± 45 ms; P = 0.053). The complex MRE signal conveys complementary information on cardiac morphology and elasticity, which can be combined for directly measuring isovolumetric tension and elasticity relaxation

  4. Elasticity-based determination of isovolumetric phases in the human heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Jürgen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Motivation To directly determine isovolumetric cardiac time intervals by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE using the magnitude of the complex signal for deducing morphological information combined with the phase of the complex signal for tension-relaxation measurements. Methods Thirty-five healthy volunteers and 11 patients with relaxation abnormalities were subjected to transthoracic wave stimulation using vibrations of approximately 25 Hz. A k-space-segmented, ECG-gated gradient-recalled echo steady-state sequence with a 500-Hz bipolar motion-encoding gradient was used for acquiring a series of 360 complex images of a short-axis view of the heart at a frame rate of less than 5.2 ms. Magnitude images were employed for measuring the cross-sectional area of the left ventricle, while phase images were used for analyzing the amplitudes of the externally induced waves. The delay between the decrease in amplitude and onset of ventricular contraction was determined in all subjects and assigned to the time of isovolumetric tension. Conversely, the delay between the increase in wave amplitude and ventricular dilatation was used for measuring the time of isovolumetric elasticity relaxation. Results Wave amplitudes decreased during systole and increased during diastole. The variation in wave amplitude occurred ahead of morphological changes. In healthy volunteers the time of isovolumetric elasticity relaxation was 75 ± 31 ms, which is significantly shorter than the time of isovolumetric tension of 136 ± 36 ms (P n = 11 isovolumetric elasticity relaxation was significantly prolonged, with 133 ± 57 ms (P P = 0.053. Conclusion The complex MRE signal conveys complementary information on cardiac morphology and elasticity, which can be combined for directly measuring isovolumetric tension and elasticity relaxation in the human heart.

  5. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Melis Köse; Ebru Canda; Mehtap Kagnici; Sema Kalkan Uçar; Mahmut Çoker

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...

  6. Bone: an acute buffer of plasma sodium during exhaustive exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew-Butler, T; Stuempfle, K J; Hoffman, M D

    2013-09-01

    Both hyponatremia and osteopenia separately have been well documented in endurance athletes. Although bone has been shown to act as a "sodium reservoir" to buffer severe plasma sodium derangements in animals, recent data have suggested a similar function in humans. We aimed to explore if acute changes in bone mineral content were associated with changes in plasma sodium concentration in runners participating in a 161 km mountain footrace. Eighteen runners were recruited. Runners were tested immediately pre- and post-race for the following main outcome measures: bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA); plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]p), plasma arginine vasopressin ([AVP]p), serum aldosterone concentration ([aldosterone]s), and total sodium intake. Six subjects finished the race in a mean time of 27.0±2.3 h. All subjects started and finished the race with [Na+]p within the normal range (137.7±2.3 and 136.7±1.6 mEq/l, pre- and post-race, respectively). Positive correlations were noted between change (Δ; post-race minus pre-race) in total BMC (grams) and [Na+]p (mEq/l) (r=0.99; pbone density may be inter-related during endurance exercise and should be considered in future investigations of athletic osteopenia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Thiosulfate Are Effective Against Acute Cyanide Poisoning When Administered by Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Brittain, Matthew; Chan, Adriano; Garrett, Norma; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Babin, Michael; Pilz, Renate B; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Boss, Gerry R

    2017-06-01

    The 2 antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning in the United States must be administered by intravenous injection. In the out-of-hospital setting, intravenous injection is not practical, particularly for mass casualties, and intramuscular injection would be preferred. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are effective cyanide antidotes when administered by intramuscular injection. We used a randomized, nonblinded, parallel-group study design in 3 mammalian models: cyanide gas inhalation in mice, with treatment postexposure; intravenous sodium cyanide infusion in rabbits, with severe hypotension as the trigger for treatment; and intravenous potassium cyanide infusion in pigs, with apnea as the trigger for treatment. The drugs were administered by intramuscular injection, and all 3 models were lethal in the absence of therapy. We found that sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate individually rescued 100% of the mice, and that the combination of the 2 drugs rescued 73% of the rabbits and 80% of the pigs. In all 3 species, survival in treated animals was significantly better than in control animals (log rank test, Pcyanide poisoning in 3 clinically relevant animal models of out-of-hospital emergency care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; Uçar, Sema Kalkan; Çoker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment's efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  9. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Köse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment’s efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  10. Intraerythrocytic sodium and potassium concentrations during acute and chronic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K E; Koldkjaer, O; Berndtz, N H; Hvidt, S; Kjaer, K; Midtskov, C; Sanchez, G

    1982-01-01

    To assess the cellular effects of digoxin, intraerythrocytic sodium and potassium concentrations were measured in 17 patients during the early phase of digitalization, in 45 patients on long-term therapy and in 64 non-digitalized control patients. Acute digitalization raised intraerythrocytic sodium from 11.6 +/- 0.4 to 16.7 +/- 1.0 mmol/l (mean +/- SEM) (p less than 0.01) and reduced intraerythrocytic potassium from 100.1 +/- 1.3 to 95.9 +/- 1.8 mmol/l (p less than 0.01). These changes were strongly correlated with the steady-state plasma digoxin concentration. During a few weeks of digoxin therapy, the intraerythrocytic cation composition normalized gradually. In patients on chronic treatment, neither intraerythrocytic sodium (11.3 +/- 0.3 mmol/l) nor potassium concentrations (100.0 +/- 0.6 mmol/l) differed significantly from the values of the control group (11.4 +/- 0.2 and 99.9 +/- 0.5 mmol/l, respectively). The changes in intraerythrocytic cation concentrations, induced by acute digitalization, seem to disappear during chronic administration of the drug.

  11. Naproxen sodium and piroxicam in acute musculo-skeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchier-Hayes, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    Of one hundred patients originally entered for this trial eighty-three with acute musculo-skeletal disorders were treated with either naproxen sodium (SYNFLEX, Syntex), 550 mg initially followed by 275 mg four times daily, or piroxicam (FELDENE, Pfizer), 20 mg twice daily for two days then 20 mg once daily. Patients were assessed at admission, on day 4 and on day 8. Pain on passive movement, tenderness, swelling and limitation of function were evaluated and patients also completed a daily self-assessment form. Pain relief was recorded by the patient for 4 hours following the first dose. No statistically significant differences were detected between the treatment groups for any of the efficacy measurements. Of the eighty-three patients analysed, twenty-four patients withdrew from treatment twenty of whom did not need further analgesia (13 in the naproxen sodium group and 7 in the piroxicam group). Three patients experienced side-effects; all were in the piroxicam group, and one patient withdrew from the study because of epigastric pain. Both naproxen sodium and piroxicam proved effective in the treatment of musculo-skeletal disorders. Naproxen sodium did not give rise to any side-effects. Images p80-a PMID:6466934

  12. More Efficient Sodium Removal by Ultrafiltration Compared to Diuretics in Acute Heart Failure; Underexplored and Overstated.

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    Kazory, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced removal of sodium has often been cited as an advantage of ultrafiltration (UF) therapy over diuretic-based medical treatment in the management of acute decompensated heart failure. However, so far clinical studies have rarely evaluated the precise magnitude of sodium removal, and this assumption is largely based on the physiologic mechanisms and anecdotal observations that predate the contemporary management of heart failure. Recent data suggest that patients treated with UF experience substantial reduction in urinary sodium excretion possibly due to prolonged intravascular volume contraction. Consequently, the efficient sodium extraction through production of isotonic ultrafiltrate can be offset by urine hypotonicity. Based on the limited currently available data, it seems unlikely that the persistent benefits of UF could be solely explained by its greater efficiency in sodium removal. The design of the future studies should include frequent measurements of urine sodium to precisely compare the impact of UF and diuretics on sodium balance. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effect of Sodium Alginate Addition to Resveratrol on Acute Gouty Arthritis

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    Peng Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Resveratrol has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, while sodium alginate is a common pharmaceutic adjuvant with antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties. We performed an animal study to investigate the effect of sodium alginate addition to resveratrol on acute gouty arthritis. Methods: Twenty-four SPF Wistar mice were randomized to four groups receiving the combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol, resveratrol alone, colchicine, and placebo, respectively. Acute gouty arthritis was induced by injection of 0.05 ml monosodium urate (MSU solution (25g/mL into ankle joint cavity. IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10 levels in both serum and synovial fluid were measured using ELISA. NLRP3 expression in the synovial tissues was measured using western plot. Results: The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol significantly reduced synovial levels of IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10 when compared with colchicines, and all P values were less than 0.0001. The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol was also superior to resveratrol in terms of both serum levels and synovial levels of IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10. In addition, resveratrol, with or without sodium alginate, could reduce NLRP3 expression obviously in the synovial tissues. Conclusion: The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol has better effect over colchicines in treating MSU-induced acute gouty arthritis.

  14. Reduced natriuretic response to acute sodium loading in COMT Gene deleted mice

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    Uhlén Staffan

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intrarenal natriuretic hormone dopamine (DA is metabolised by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT and monoamine oxidase (MAO. Inhibition of COMT, as opposed to MAO, results in a potent natriuretic response in the rat. The present study in anaesthetized homozygous and heterozygous COMT gene deleted mice attempted to further elucidate the importance of COMT in renal DA and sodium handling. After acute intravenous isotonic sodium loading, renal function was followed. Results COMT activity in heterozygous mice was about half of that in wild type mice and was zero in the homozygous mice. MAO activity did not differ between the genotypes. Urinary sodium excretion increased 10-fold after sodium loading in wild type mice. In heterozygous and homozygous mice, the natriuretic effects of sodium loading were only 29 % and 39 %, respectively, of that in wild type mice. Arterial pressure and glomerular filtration rate did not differ between genotypes. Baseline norepinephrine and DA excretions in urine were elevated in the homozygous, but not in heterozygous, COMT gene deleted mice. Urinary DA excretion increased after isotonic sodium loading in the wild type mice but not in the COMT gene deleted mice. Conclusions Mice with reduced or absent COMT activity have altered metabolism of catecholamines and are unable to increase renal DA activity and produce normal natriuresis in response to acute sodium loading. The results support the hypothesis that COMT has an important role in the DA-mediated regulation of renal sodium excretion.

  15. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  16. Reversible effects of acute hypertension on proximal tubule sodium transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Magyar, C E; Norian, J M

    1998-01-01

    of blood pressure (BP) of 50 mmHg for 5 min, 2) restoration of normotension after the first protocol, or 3) sham operation. Systolic hypertension increased urine output and endogenous lithium clearance three- to fivefold within 5 min, but these returned to basal levels only 15 min after BP was restored......, smaller fractions of sodium-phosphate cotransporter immunoreactivity, and apical alkaline phosphatase and dipeptidyl-peptidase redistributed to membranes of higher density enriched in markers of the intermicrovillar cleft (megalin) and endosomes (Rab 4 and Rab 5), whereas density distributions...

  17. Effect of acute hypertension on sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule.

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    Koch, K M; Aynedjian, H S; Bank, N

    1968-07-01

    The effect of acute hypertension on sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule was studied in rats by means of micropuncture methods. Hypertension was induced by bilateral carotid artery ligation and cervical vagotomy. Within a few minutes after blood pressure rose (30-60 mm Hg above control levels), a moderate natriuresis and diuresis began. Proximal sodium reabsorption, measured by two independent methods, was found to be markedly suppressed, both in absolute amount per unit length and per unit of tubular volume (C/pir(2)). The ratio between tubular volume and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (pir(2)d/V(0)) was found to be increased. These observations indicate that the inhibition of proximal sodium reabsorption induced by hypertension cannot be explained by the tubular geometry hypothesis of sodium regulation. Several possible hormonal mechanisms were investigated. Intravenous d-aldosterone did not prevent the suppression of sodium transport due to acute hypertension, nor did chronic oral saline loading to reduce the renal content of renin. Constriction of the suprarenal aorta, with maintenance of a normal renal perfusion pressure, did prevent the inhibition of proximal transport during carotid artery occlusion, thus excluding an extrarenally produced natriuretic hormone as the mechanism. The observations are compatible with the view that sodium transport was inhibited either by an intrarenal natriuretic hormone or by an increase in the interstitial volume of the kidney produced by a transient hydrostatic pressure gradient across the peritubular capillaries. The latter seems more likely to us because of the rapidity of onset of the natriuresis, and because removing the renal capsule and releasing the surface interstitial fluid prevented the effect of hypertension on proximal sodium transport.

  18. Sulforaphane protects against sodium valproate-induced acute liver injury.

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    Nazmy, Entsar A; El-Khouly, Omar A; Atef, Hoda; Said, Eman

    2017-04-01

    Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is one of the most commonly encountered obstacles in the field of medical practice. Sodium valproate (VPA) is among many drugs with reported hepatotoxic effects. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a thiol compound found in wide abundance in cruciferous plants that has numerous reported therapeutic efficacies. The current investigation sheds light on the potential hepatoprotective effect of SFN against VPA-induced liver injury in rats. Twice daily VPA (700 mg/kg, i.p.) for 7 days induced significant biochemical alterations and hepatic histopathological damage. SFN (0.5 mg/kg, orally) for 7 days significantly boosted liver function biomarkers; it reduced serum alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase, and restored serum albumin concentration in a significant manner. Meanwhile, SFN significantly mitigated VPA-induced histopathological alterations. To highlight the mechanisms implicated in the observed hepatoprotective action, hepatic malondialdehyde and tumour necrosis factor α content significantly declined with concomitant increase in hepatic heme oxygenase-1 content and glutathione concentration with SFN treatment. In conclusion, SFN can significantly ameliorate VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and liver injury primarily by direct association between antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  19. Plasma exchange successfully treats central pontine myelinolysis after acute hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kyung Yoon; Lee, In-Hee; Kim, Gi Jun; Cho, Kangwon; Park, Hoon Suk; Kim, Hyung Wook

    2014-04-04

    oral sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride. This case indicates that serum sodium concentrations should be carefully monitored in patients with distal RTA receiving intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy. We should keep in mind that acute hypernatremia and CPM can be associated with intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy, and that CPM due to acute hypernatremia may be effectively treated with plasma exchange.

  20. Late sodium current and intracellular ionic homeostasis in acute ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Carlotta; Torre, Eleonora; Rizzetto, Riccardo; Bernardi, Joyce; Rocchetti, Marcella; Zaza, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Blockade of the late Na+ current (I NaL) protects from ischemia/reperfusion damage; nevertheless, information on changes in I NaL during acute ischemia and their effect on intracellular milieu is missing. I NaL, cytosolic Na+ and Ca2+ activities (Nacyt, Cacyt) were measured in isolated rat ventricular myocytes during 7 min of simulated ischemia (ISC); in all the conditions tested, effects consistently exerted by ranolazine (RAN) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) were interpreted as due to I NaL blockade. The results indicate that I NaL was enhanced during ISC in spite of changes in action potential (AP) contour; I NaL significantly contributed to Nacyt rise, but only marginally to Cacyt rise. The impact of I NaL on Cacyt was markedly enhanced by blockade of the sarcolemmal(s) Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and was due to the presence of (Na+-sensitive) Ca2+ efflux through mitochondrial NCX (mNCX). sNCX blockade increased Cacyt and decreased Nacyt, thus indicating that, throughout ISC, sNCX operated in the forward mode, in spite of the substantial Nacyt increment. Thus, a robust Ca2+ source, other than sNCX and including mitochondria, contributed to Cacyt during ISC. Most, but not all, of RAN effects were shared by TTX. (1) The paradigm that attributes Cacyt accumulation during acute ischemia to decrease/reversal of sNCX transport may not be of general applicability; (2) I NaL is enhanced during ISC, when the effect of Nacyt on mitochondrial Ca2+ transport may substantially contribute to I NaL impact on Cacyt; (3) RAN may act mostly, but not exclusively, through I NaL blockade during ISC.

  1. Sodium bicarbonate use in shock and cardiac arrest: attitudes of pediatric acute care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa J; Parshuram, Christopher S

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the preferences and self-reported practices of pediatric acute care physicians with respect to sodium bicarbonate administration to infants and children in shock or cardiac arrest. National survey study utilizing a self-administered questionnaire. Thirteen Canadian pediatric tertiary care centers. Canadian pediatric critical care physicians, pediatric emergency physicians, and trainees in these subspecialties. None. Survey items were evaluated based on Yes/No responses, frequency responses, and Likert scales. Overall response rate was 53% (151/284) with 49.0% (74/151) citing pediatric critical care as their primary practice. 82.0% of respondents (123/150) indicated they would administer sodium bicarbonate as part of ongoing resuscitation for septic shock, whereas 58.3% (88/151) would administer sodium bicarbonate in a cardiac arrest scenario (p=0.004). 47.3% (71/150) selected a pH threshold at or below which they would administer sodium bicarbonate (mean, 6.94±0.013; median, 7.00; range, 6.50-7.20; interquartile range, 6.90-7.00), whereas 20.5% (31/151) selected a base excess threshold (mean, -15.62±0.78; median, -16; range, -20 to -4; interquartile range, -20 to -14). Both pH and duration of resuscitation were strongly associated with the decision to administer sodium bicarbonate (ppediatric acute care physicians with respect to the timing and appropriateness of sodium bicarbonate administration during resuscitation. Most indicated they would support moving forward with a clinical trial.

  2. Aggressive fluid and sodium restriction in acute decompensated heart failure : a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Aliti,Graziella Badin; Silva, Eneida Rejane Rabelo da; Clausell, Nadine Oliveira; Rohde, Luis Eduardo Paim; Biolo, Andreia; Silva, Luis Beck da

    2013-01-01

    Importance: The benefits of fluid and sodium restriction in patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are unclear. Objective: To compare the effects of a fluid-restricted (maximum fluid intake, 800 mL/d) and sodiumrestricted (maximum dietary intake, 800 mg/d) diet (intervention group [IG]) vs a diet with no such restrictions (control group [CG]) on weight loss and clinical stability during a 3-day period in patients hospitalized with ADHF. Design: Randomized, paralle...

  3. Case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by ampicillin/cloxacillin sodium in a pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuka; Okubo, Yukari; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Ito, Tomonobu; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2008-06-01

    We report a case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) induced by ampicillin/cloxacillin sodium (ABPC/MCIPC) in a pregnant woman. AGEP is caused mostly by drugs. Among them, beta-lactam antibiotics account for a high proportion of the cases, predominantly by amoxicillin. To our knowledge, this is only the second case ever reported in the Japanese language published work of AGEP induced by ABPC/MCIPC.

  4. Sodium butyrate protects against severe burn-induced remote acute lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Liang

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1, a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI. Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1 sham group, sham burn treatment; 2 burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution for resuscitation; 3 burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1

  5. Interpretation of the Fractional Excretion of Sodium in the Absence of Acute Kidney Injury: A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.F.; Bokenkamp, A.; Wijk, J.A. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa) may be helpful in establishing the cause of acute renal failure. This study was performed to determine the influence of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), sodium intake, and tubular function on FeNa in children without renal failure.

  6. Efficacy of olanzapine and sodium valproate given alone or as add-on therapy in acute mania. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Gupta, M; Jiloha, R C; Tekur, U

    2010-06-01

    Acute mania requires hospitalization and prompt control of symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of sodium valproate and olanzapine administered alone or in combination in patients suffering from acute mania. Patients (N = 30) suffering from acute mania were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 patients were treated with sodium valproate 250 mg 3 times a day and Group 2 patients received olanzapine 5 mg twice daily. In both groups sodium valproate or olanzapine was given as add-on therapy at 3 weeks. The primary method of assessment was 50% or more improvement on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). The serum levels of valproic acid were also measured. Sodium valproate and olanzapine were effective in the treatment of acute mania with all patients demonstrating a 50% or more improvement on the YMRS. Sodium valproate-treated patients receiving olanzapine in the third week had a 15.3% decrease in the YMRS score and patients on olanzapine receiving sodium valproate had a 23.7% decrease. Patients who attained serum valproic acid levels of 100 μg/mL showed improvement on the YMRS. The present study supports combination therapy in the management of acute mania and suggests that serum valproic acid levels of 100 microg/mL are necessary for clinical response. Copyright 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental pancreatitis in the rat: role of bile reflux in sodium taurocholate-induced acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, J. F.; van Gool, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1986-01-01

    Mortality of sodium taurocholate-induced acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis in the rat was prevented by biliary diversion. Bile reflux into the pancreas after the induction of pancreatitis is postulated to be a major factor affecting mortality of this popular model of acute pancreatitis. The reduction

  8. When to increase or reduce sodium loading in the management of fluid volume status during acute decompensated heart failure.

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    Hirotani, Shinichi; Masuyama, Tohru

    2014-12-01

    Sodium restriction has been believed to be indispensible to manage fluid overload during acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). However, recently, it was reported that a change in aggression of sodium and water restriction did not affect the outcome of ADHF. In contrast, current data suggest that small amount of hypertonic saline solution with high-dose furosemide produces an improvement in haemodynamic and clinical parameters without any severe adverse effects. In this perspective, first, we are going to describe the effects of sodium loading on neurohormonal activation, body's sodium balance, and renal function in chronic heart failure and the efficacy of loop diuretics in ADHF. Then, we are going to explain the possible mechanisms by which sodium loading enhances the efficacy of loop diuretics and about the clinical conditions during which sodium loading should be avoided. © 2014 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  9. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of urinary protein in acute kidney injury

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    Sufi M Suhail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown the importance of urinary proteomics in acute kidney injury (AKI. We analyzed the protein in urine of patients with clinical AKI using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE for its diagnostic value, and followed them up for 40 months to evaluate prognosis. Urine from 31 consecutive cases of AKI was analyzed with SDS-PAGE to determine the low, middle and high molecular weight proteins. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa was estimated from serum and urine creatinine and sodium (Na. The cases were followed-up for 40 months from the end of the recruitment of study cases. Glomerular protein was higher in the hematuria group when compared with the non-hematuria group (P <0.04 and in the AKI group than in the acute on chronic renal failure (AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.002. Tubular protein was higher in the AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.003 than in the AKI group. Tubular protein correlated with FENa in groups with diabetes mellitus (DM, AKI-on-CRF, and without hematuria (P <0.03, P <0.02 and P <0.004, respectively. Pattern of protein did not differ between groups with and without DM and clinical acute tubular necrosis (ATN. At the end of 40 months follow-up, category with predominantly glomerular protein progressed to chronic renal failure (CRF or end-stage renal failure in higher proportion (P <0.05. In clinical AKI, we observed that glomerular protein dominated in cases with glomerular insult, as indicated by hematuria. Tubular protein was common in the study cases with CRF, DM and cases without hematuria. This indicates tubulo-interstitial injury for AKI in these cases. Patients with predominantly glomerular protein had an adverse outcome.

  10. Nebulization of the acidified sodium nitrite formulation attenuates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

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    Surber Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV occurring during exposure to hypoxia is a detrimental process resulting in an increase in lung vascular resistance. Nebulization of sodium nitrite has been shown to inhibit HPV. The aim of this project was to investigate and compare the effects of nebulization of nitrite and different formulations of acidified sodium nitrite on acute HPV. Methods Ex vivo isolated rabbit lungs perfused with erythrocytes in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (adjusted to 10% hematocrit and in vivo anesthetized catheterized rabbits were challenged with periods of hypoxic ventilation alternating with periods of normoxic ventilation. After baseline hypoxic challenges, vehicle, sodium nitrite or acidified sodium nitrite was delivered via nebulization. In the ex vivo model, pulmonary arterial pressure and nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas were monitored. Nitrite and nitrite/nitrate were measured in samples of perfusion buffer. Pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were monitored in the in vivo model. Results In the ex vivo model, nitrite nebulization attenuated HPV and increased nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas and nitrite concentrations in the perfusate. The acidified forms of sodium nitrite induced higher levels of nitric oxide in exhaled gas and had longer vasodilating effects compared to nitrite alone. All nitrite formulations increased concentrations of circulating nitrite to the same degree. In the in vivo model, inhaled nitrite inhibited HPV, while pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were not affected. All nitrite formulations had similar potency to inhibit HPV. The tested concentration of appeared tolerable. Conclusion Nitrite alone and in acidified forms effectively and similarly attenuates HPV. However, acidified nitrite formulations induce a more pronounced increase in nitric oxide exhalation.

  11. THE RATE OF CLINICAL RESPONSE OF ORAL LOADING SODIUM VALPROATE IN ACUTELY MANLC PATIENT

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    K SHAFIEE

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acheiving accelerated clinical response is desirable in patients with acute manic episode. We conducted a prospective study to compare the rate of clinical response of oral loading sodium valproate versus standard dose titration. Methods: Fourty - two patients who met DSM - IV critevia for current manic episode and who had a "Young mania rating scale "score between 20 and 50 were randomly assigned on a double blind basis to recieve valproate oral "loading"(N = 21 at a dose of 20 mg/kg in divided doses for 7 days and valproate "non -loading" at a starting dose of 10 mg/kg followed by standard titration which at day 6 , they recieved 20 mg/kg valproate. Patients were scored at day 0, 3, 5 and 7 by a blindraterusing YMRS. Results: There was no significat differences between the groups in advers events and useing of adjunctive tranquilizer .The efficacy of valproate in both two groups was similar but " the rate of improvement on YMRS" over the first 3 days was significantly greater in loading group. Conclusion: Valproate oral loading with sodium valproate can induced a more rapid clinical response in acutely manic patient.

  12. Differential Acute Effects of Selenomethionine and Sodium Selenite on the Severity of Colitis

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    Franziska Hiller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The European population is only suboptimally supplied with the essential trace element selenium. Such a selenium status is supposed to worsen colitis while colitis-suppressive effects were observed with adequate or supplemented amounts of both organic selenomethionine (SeMet and inorganic sodium selenite. In order to better understand the effect of these selenocompounds on colitis development we examined colonic phenotypes of mice fed supplemented diets before the onset of colitis or during the acute phase. Colitis was induced by treating mice with 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS for seven days. The selenium-enriched diets were either provided directly after weaning (long-term or were given to mice with a suboptimal selenium status after DSS withdrawal (short-term. While long-term selenium supplementation had no effect on colitis development, short-term selenite supplementation, however, resulted in a more severe colitis. Colonic selenoprotein expression was maximized in all selenium-supplemented groups independent of the selenocompound or intervention time. This indicates that the short-term selenite effect appears to be independent from colonic selenoprotein expression. In conclusion, a selenite supplementation during acute colitis has no health benefits but may even aggravate the course of disease.

  13. Aggressive fluid and sodium restriction in acute decompensated heart failure: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliti, Graziella Badin; Rabelo, Eneida R; Clausell, Nadine; Rohde, Luís E; Biolo, Andreia; Beck-da-Silva, Luis

    2013-06-24

    The benefits of fluid and sodium restriction in patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are unclear. To compare the effects of a fluid-restricted (maximum fluid intake, 800 mL/d) and sodium-restricted (maximum dietary intake, 800 mg/d) diet (intervention group [IG]) vs a diet with no such restrictions (control group [CG]) on weight loss and clinical stability during a 3-day period in patients hospitalized with ADHF. Randomized, parallel-group clinical trial with blinded outcome assessments. Emergency room, wards, and intensive care unit. Adult inpatients with ADHF, systolic dysfunction, and a length of stay of 36 hours or less. Fluid restriction (maximum fluid intake, 800 mL/d) and additional sodium restriction (maximum dietary intake, 800 mg/d) were carried out until the seventh hospital day or, in patients whose length of stay was less than 7 days, until discharge. The CG received a standard hospital diet, with liberal fluid and sodium intake. Weight loss and clinical stability at 3-day assessment, daily perception of thirst, and readmissions within 30 days. Seventy-five patients were enrolled (IG, 38; CG, 37). Most were male; ischemic heart disease was the predominant cause of heart failure (17 patients [23%]), and the mean (SD) left ventricular ejection fraction was 26% (8.7%). The groups were homogeneous in terms of baseline characteristics. Weight loss was similar in both groups (between-group difference in variation of 0.25 kg [95% CI, -1.95 to 2.45]; P = .82) as well as change in clinical congestion score (between-group difference in variation of 0.59 points [95% CI, -2.21 to 1.03]; P = .47) at 3 days. Thirst was significantly worse in the IG (5.1 [2.9]) than the CG (3.44 [2.0]) at the end of the study period (between-group difference, 1.66 points; time × group interaction; P = .01). There were no significant between-group differences in the readmission rate at 30 days (IG, 11 patients [29%]; CG, 7 patients [19%]; P = .41

  14. Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in an acute-on-chronic lithium poisoned patient: A case report

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    Chakroun-Walha Olfa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old woman with an acute-on-chronic lithium overdose received multiple oral doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate totaling 120 g over a 24-h period. During the 72 h after the institution of therapy, the serum lithium level decreased from 3.80 to 0.42 mEq/L. Multiple doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be useful in lowering the serum lithium level in severely ill patients with acute renal failure, and can substitute hemodialysis.

  15. Olfactory dysfunction in acute rhinosinusitis: intranasal sodium hyaluronate as adjuvant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofalo, Andrea; de Vincentiis, Marco; Zambetti, Giampietro; Altissimi, Giancarlo; Fusconi, Massimo; Greco, Antonio; Ottaviano, Giancarlo; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is defined as an inflammation of the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses and affects 1-5 % of general population in Europe. Sinonasal diseases represent the main cause of smell alterations in adult patients and lead to mucosal congestion, increased quantity and density of secretions and altered mucociliary transport. For this reason the odorous molecules contained in the inspired air, cannot interact with the olfactory epithelium. Medical therapy of ARS has to reduce the severity and duration of symptoms and prevent complications. Recent studies have shown that Sodium hyaluronate modulate inflammation and has a reparative effect on the nasal mucosa. 48 patients affected by acute rhinosinusitis proven by CT scan, were enrolled. They were submitted to nasal endoscopy, olfactometric and mucociliary transport evaluation (MCTt), Visual Analogue Scale Questionnaire (VAS) at T0, after 14-18 days (T1) and after 30-35 days (T2). The patients were randomized into two treatment groups, A and B, and were treated for 30 days; each group was composed of 24 subjects. All patients received Levofloxacin (500 mg for 10 days) and Prednisone (50 mg for 8 days, 25 mg for 4 days and 12, 5 mg for 4 days). Moreover, Group A received twice a day for 30 days high molecular weight Sodium Hyaluronate (3 %) plus saline solution (3 mL sodium chloride-NaCl-0.9 %) using a nebulizer ampoule for nasal douche. Group B received twice a day for 30 days saline solution (6 mL sodium chloride-NaCl-0.9 %) using a nebulizer ampoule for nasal douche. At T1 Group A shown lower values in MCTt and threshold score was significantly higher than in Group B. VAS showed statistically significant differences between the two groups, in particular for smell, nasal obstruction and for nasal discharge. At T2 Group A MCTt was significantly lower than in Group B; odour threshold improved in both groups but in Group A was still significantly higher than in Group B. No

  16. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis impairs dermal lymphatic function in mice.

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    Agollah, Germaine D; Wu, Grace; Peng, Ho-Lan; Kwon, Sunkuk

    2015-12-07

    To investigate whether dermal lymphatic function and architecture are systemically altered in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. Balb/c mice were administered 4% DSS in lieu of drinking water ad libitum for 7 d and monitored to assess disease activity including body weight, diarrhea severity, and fecal bleeding. Control mice received standard drinking water with no DSS. Changes in mesenteric lymphatics were assessed following oral administration of a fluorescently-labelled fatty acid analogue, while dermal lymphatic function and architecture was longitudinally characterized using dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging following intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) at the base of the tail or to the dorsal aspect of the left paw prior to, 4, and 7 d after DSS administration. We also measured dye clearance rate after injection of Alexa680-bovine serum albumin (BSA). NIRF imaging data was analyzed to reveal lymphatic contractile activity after selecting fixed regions of interest (ROIs) of the same size in fluorescent lymphatic vessels on fluorescence images. The averaged fluorescence intensity within the ROI of each fluorescence image was plotted as a function of imaging time and the lymphatic contraction frequency was computed by assessing the number of fluorescent pulses arriving at a ROI. Mice treated with DSS developed acute inflammation with clinical symptoms of loss of body weight, loose feces/watery diarrhea, and fecal blood, all of which were aggravated as disease progressed to 7 d. Histological examination of colons of DSS-treated mice confirmed acute inflammation, characterized by segmental to complete loss of colonic mucosa with an associated chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate that extended into the deeper layers of the wall of the colon, compared to control mice. In situ intravital imaging revealed that mice with acute colitis showed significantly fewer fluorescent mesenteric lymphatic vessels, indicating impaired

  17. Acute kidney injury due to sodium bromate intoxication: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dong Hwan; Jang, Kyung Ae; Kim, Seok Min; Park, Jong Won; Do, Jun Young; Yoon, Kyung Woo

    2011-12-01

    Sodium bromate is a strong oxidant used as a neutralizing solution in hair permanents, as well as an auxiliary agent in printing and dyeing. Accidental or deliberate ingestion of bromate solution has rarely been reported in Korea. The clinical manifestations of bromate intoxication are vomiting, diarrhea, central nervous system symptoms, oliguric or non-oliguric acute kidney injury, hemolytic anemia, and deafness; most of these manifestations are reversible, with the exception of renal failure and deafness. Here, we report on two patients who demonstrated distinct clinical progressions. In the first case, a 16-year-old woman was successfully treated with hemodialysis and recovered renal function without hearing loss. However, in the second case, delayed hemodialysis resulted in persistent renal failure and hearing loss in a 77-year-old woman. This suggests that emergency therapeutic measures, including hemodialysis, should be taken as soon as possible, as the rapid removal of bromate may be essential to preventing severe intoxication and its sequelae.

  18. Curative effect of ganglioside sodium for adjuvant therapy on acute severe craniocerebral injury

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    Yun-Liang Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of adjuvant therapy of ganglioside sodium on intracranial pressure (ICP, partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2, nerve injury molecules, nerve protection molecules and indexes of oxidative stress in patients with acute severe craniocerebral injury. Methods: Forty-seven patients with severe craniocerebral injury treated in the emergency department of our hospital during the period time from December 2012 to October 2015 were selected for retrospective analyses. They were divided into the ganglioside group and the normal treatment group according to the usage of ganglioside sodium in the process of the emergency treatment. At days 1, 3, 5 and 7 before and after treatment, the ICP and PbtO2 in patients of the two groups were measured. After 7 days of treatment, the nerve injury molecules, nerve protection molecules and the indexes of oxidative stress in serum of the patients of the two groups were determined. Results: At days 1, 3, 5 and 7 before and after treatment, the ICP in patients of the ganglioside group were all significantly lower than those of the normal treatment group, while the PbtO2 were all significantly higher than those of normal treatment group. After 7 days of treatment, the contents of serum methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine urine, S100β, glial fibrillary acidic portein, neuron specific enolase, myelin basic protein, neuroglobin and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 in patients of the ganglioside group were notably lower than those of the normal treatment group, while the contents of superoxidase dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, nerve growth factor and brain derived neurotrophic factor were significantly higher than those of the normal treatment group. Conclusions: The adjuvant therapy of ganglioside sodium in patients with severe craniocerebral injury can effectively reduce ICP, improve PbtO2 and alleviate

  19. Protective Effect of Tetrandrine on Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis

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    Xian-lin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tet is a type of alkaloid extracted from Stephania tetrandra, and it has recently been demonstrated that Tet can protect against inflammation and free radical injury and inhibit the release of inflammatory mediators. The present study was designed to observe the protective effect of Tet on sodium taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis (SAP. The rat model of SAP was induced by retrograde bile duct injection of sodium taurocholate and then treated with Verapamil and Tet. The results showed that Tet can reduce NF-κB activation in pancreas issue, inhibit the SAP cascade, and improve SAP through inducing pancreas acinar cell apoptosis and stabilizing intracellular calcium in the pancreas, thus mitigating the damage to the pancreas. Our study revealed that Tet may reduce systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS to protect against damage, and these roles may be mediated through the NF-κB pathway to improve the proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory imbalance.

  20. Study of efficacy and tolerance of ketoprofen and diclofenac sodium in the treatment of acute rheumatic and traumatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, I A; Siddiqui, K A; Waraich, T; Abbas, M; Ali, A

    1998-12-01

    A comparative, multi-centre study, was conducted during June to December, 1996 to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of Ketoprofen 100 mg Enteric Coated (EC) tablet and 100 mg intra-muscular injection; with that of Diclofenac Sodium 50 mg tablet and 75 mg intra-muscular injection in acute rheumatic and traumatic disorders. Total of 180 patients (90 per drug), were studied, 82 men and 98 women, between the ages of 18 and 75 years. The symptoms and the number of patients were backache 50, arthritis 64, frozen shoulder 32 and sprains 34. Pain was qualitatively assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS), XY pain index, pain at mobilization and the level of pain handicap. For pain (VAS 75-100) the treatment was initiated with an injectable bid, followed by tablets bid or tid. If the pain score on VAS was less than 75, tablets were given in a bid dosage. The duration of treatment was 15 days in each case. The overall complete relief of symptoms occurred in 25% (23/90) patients with Ketoprofen and in 10% (9/90) diclofenac sodium. Moderate to mild relief was found in 75% (67/90) cases with Ketoprofen and 87% (78/90) with diclofenac sodium. No pain relief was seen in 3% (3/90) with diclofenac sodium, as against no failure in pain relief in the ketoprofen group. Tolerance was found as excellent-good for ketoprofen in 72% (65/90) with diclofenac sodium in 50%, moderate to poor for ketoprofen in 28% (35/90) and with diclofenac sodium in 50% (45/90). Our results indicate that ketoprofen compared to diclofenac sodium is efficacious in acute rheumatic and traumatic injuries. Ketoprofen injection, compared to diclofenac sodium was found to be more effective in providing analgesia.

  1. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

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    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  2. Quantification of nonosmotic sodium storage capacity following acute hypertonic saline infusion in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Engberink, Rik H. G.; Rorije, Nienke M. G.; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.; Vogt, Liffert

    2017-01-01

    The assumption that sodium accumulation in the human body is always accompanied by water retention has been challenged by data showing that sodium can be stored nonosmotically. Here we investigated the contribution of nonosmotic sodium storage to short-term sodium homeostasis after hypertonic saline

  3. Acute haemodynamic effects of sodium bicarbonate administration in respiratory and metabolic acidosis in anaesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M; Nishikawa, T

    1997-12-01

    Twenty-seven halothane-anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated adult mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to either respiratory acidosis group [pHa 7.22 (0.03, SD), PaCO2 9.6 (1.1) kPa, base excess -0.5 (1.4) mmol.l-1, n = 9], metabolic acidosis group [pHa 7.20 (0.05), PaCO2 5.5 (0.4) kPa, base excess -11.1 (2.1) mmol.l-1, n = 9], or nonacidosis group [pHa 7.37 (0.07), PaCO2 5.2 (0.4) kPa, base excess -1.1 (1.5) mmol.l-1, n = 9]. Respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis were induced by decreasing respiratory rate and continuous infusion of 2 mmol.l-1 hydrochloric acid, respectively. Sodium bicarbonate solution 1 mmol.kg-1 was injected into the right atrium over five seconds when haemodynamic stability was obtained. In all three groups, acute administration of sodium bicarbonate produced transient decreases in mean arterial pressure and RV dP/dtmax, and transient increase in right atrial pressure 30 seconds after injections, but these variables returned to the pre-injection values by the end of the three minutes observation period. Although no significant differences were seen in haemodynamic variables among the three groups at 30 seconds, one and three minutes, maximum reductions in both RV dP/dtmax and PBF in the metabolic acidosis group (260 (143) mmHg.s-1 and 0.38 (0.26) l.min-1) were significantly greater than those in the non-acidosis group (127 (34) mmHg.s-1 and 0.08 (0.09) l.min-1; P < 0.05).

  4. Serum chloride and sodium concentration as a predictor of acute kidney injury in premature newborns

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    Todorović Draženka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Hyperchloremia is often registered in adults’ studies after administration with 0.9% sodium chloride, which contributes to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI as it leads to vasoconstriction of renal blood vessels. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of sodium and chloride imbalance with the development of AKI, with consideration of other risk factors for this disorder. Methods. This retrospective study included 146 randomly selected preterm infants hospitalized at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from 2008 to 2015. Results. Among the patients registered for the study, 23.97% developed AKI, and they were of a significantly lower gestational age (26.3 ± 2.8 weeks vs. 31.7 ± 2.90 weeks, p < 0.05; birth weight (971.31 ± 412.1 g vs. 1,753.3 ± 750.3 g, p < 0.05; Apgar score in the first (3.2 ± 1.7 vs. 5.7 ± 2.4, p < 0.05 and fifth minute (5.3 ± 1.7 vs. 7.1 ± 1.8, p < 0.05 of life compared to those without AKI. The neonates with AKI had significantly higher maximum chloremia (Clmax: 114.1 ± 8.4 vs. 111.7 ± 4.6, p = 0.029 and maximum natremia (Namax: 147.9 ± 8.8 vs. 142.9 ± 4, p < 0.05. Each of these parameters is (independently a statistically significant risk factor for the development of AKI, and gestational age is the strongest (OR = 1 / 0.643 = 1.55; 95% CI 1.24–1.94. Mortality in neonates with AKI was higher than in neonates without AKI (19.4% vs. 92.7%, p < 0.05. Conclusion. Hyperchloremia and hypernatremia are more common in the premature newborns with AKI compared to the premature newborns without AKI. Higher maximum sodium and chloride values are independent risk factors for AKI.

  5. Kidney injury after sodium phosphate solution beyond the acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Juárez, Gema; Parejo, Leticia; Villacorta, Javier; Tato, Ana; Cazar, Ramiro; Guerrero, Carmen; Marin, Isabel Martinez; Ocaña, Javier; Mendez-Abreu, Angel; López, Katia; Gruss, Enrique; Gallego, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Screening colonoscopy with polipectomy reduces colonorectal cancer incidence and mortality. An adequate bowel cleansing is one of the keys to achieving best results with this technique. Oral sodium phosphate solution (OSP) had a widespread use in the 90s decade. Its efficacy was similar to polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution, but with less cost and convenient administration. Series of patients with acute renal failure due to OSP use have been reported. However, large cohorts of patients found no difference in the incidence of renal damage between these two solutions. From 2006 to 2009 we identified twelve cases of phosphate nephropathy after colonoscopy prepared with OSP. All patients were followed up to six months. All patients had received just a single dose. We analyzed 12 cases with phosphate nephropathy; three patients debuted with AKI and nine patients had chronic renal injury. Four cases were confirmed with renal biopsy. One patient with AKI needed hemodialysis at diagnosis without subsequent recovery. Two patients (both with chronic damage) fully recovered their previous renal function. The remaining patients (nine) had an average loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate of 24ml/min/1.73m(2). The use of OSP can lead to both acute and chronic renal damage. However, chronic injury was the most common pattern. Both forms of presentation imply a significant and irreversible loss of renal function. Further studies analyzing renal damage secondary to bowel cleaning should consider these two different patterns of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute and long-term effects of exposure to sodium monofluoroacetate (1080 in sheep

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    S. R. Gooneratne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of a single, relative lyhigh oral dose (0.25a nd 0.30 mg/kg of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080 on the survival and productivity of sheep were evaluated to establish a better understanding of 1080 poisoning and identify more specific changes diagnostic of toxicosis. In survivors, clinical signs of acute 1080 toxicosis such as salivation and lethar gywere generally very mild. Fasted animals were more prone to 1080 toxicity. In animals that died, more severe signs, including tachypnoea, dyspnoea, and tremors occurred for 15-20 min prior to death. 1080 concentrations were highest in the blood> heart> skeletal muscle> liver. 1080 could not be detected in any of these organs of the animals that survived. Serum citratec oncentratione were elevated for 4 days after dosing. No clinical or biochemical abnormalities were found in any animal after 4 days. Histopathological lesions were most marked in the heart and lung with inflammation, necrosis, and scattered foci of fibrous tissue in the myocardium, pulmonary oedema and inflammation of the lung. No adverse longterm effects on general health or reproductive performance were observed in any sheep that survived the first 4 days following exposure to 1080. The most reliable diagnostic in dicators of 1080 exposure in sheep were measurement of its residues in blood, skeletal muscle and ruminal contents, increased serum citratec oncentratione; l evated heart rate,and characteristic electrocardiograpchh anges(up to 4 days after exposure. Death from 1080 is most likely to occur within 96 h, and animals that survived this period appeared normal.

  7. The Reduction Rate of Serum Sodium and Mortality in Patients Undergoing Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration for Acute Severe Hypernatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng; Liu, Yirong; Bai, Ming; Li, Yangping; Yu, Yan; Zhou, Meilan; Wang, Pengbo; He, Lijie; Huang, Chen; Wang, Hanmin; Sun, Shiren

    2016-09-01

    The excessive correction of acute hypernatremia is not known to be harmful. This study aimed to evaluate whether a reduction rate of serum sodium (RRSeNa) > 1mEq/L/hour in acute severe hypernatremia is an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients undergoing continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) treatment. For this retrospective study, we reviewed records of 75 critically ill patients undergoing CVVH treatment for acute severe hypernatremia between March 2011 and March 2015. The 28-day mortality rate of all patients was 61.3%. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, a reduction rate of serum sodium (RRSeNa) > 1mEq/L/hour (hazard ratio = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.03-3.47; P = 0.04), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and vasopressor dependency (yes or no) had a statistically significantly effect on mortality. Once we excluded patients with an RRSeNa ≤ 0.5mEq/L/hour, only RRSeNa > 1mEq/L/hour (hazard ratio = 2.611; 95% CI: 1.228-5.550; P = 0.013) and vasopressor dependency had a statistically significant influence on mortality in multivariate regression. In addition to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and vasopressor dependency, the excessive correction of acute severe hypernatremia was possibly associated with mortality in critically ill patients undergoing CVVH treatment. The optimal reduction rate of acute hypernatremia should be extensively studied in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of intravenous sodium valproate vs dexamethasone on acute migraine headache: a double blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Shahir; Poorolajal, Jalal; Hosseinzadeh, Akram; Fazlian, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the impact of sodium valproate and dexamethasone on migraine headache, the efficacy of the two drugs has not been properly investigated and compared. This trial compared the effect of the two drugs on acute migraine headache. This double blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on patients aged 18 to 65 years with acute migraine headache who referred to the emergency departments of Beasat and Farshchian Hospitals in Hamadan, Iran, from April 2012 to June 2014. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single-dose of either 400 mg sodium valproate or 16 mg dexamethasone plus 50 ml saline normal solution within 15 min intravenously. The severity of headache in the two groups was evaluated at baseline, 0.5 and 2 hours later using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) on a scale of 0 to 10. Of 104 patients enrolled, 72 patients remained for analysis. The effect of both sodium valproate and dexamethasone on acute migraine headache was statistically significant at 0.5 and 2 hours post-treatment compared to pre-treatment (P=0.001). The severity of headache based on VAS reduced form 8.20 (7.72, 8.68) before treatment to 5.31 (4.74, 5.89) and 3.66 (2.99, 4.33) at 0.5 and 2 hours after treatment, respectively, in patients receiving sodium valproate and from 8.46 (8.05, 8.86) before treatment to 5.46 (4.81, 6.11) and 3.59 (2.84, 4.35) at 0.5 and 2 hours after treatment, respectively, in patients receiving dexamethasone. Both drugs were highly effective in improvement of acute headache in patients without aura. However, sodium valproate significantly improved the acute headache in patients with aura but dexamethasone did not. The severity of headache based on VAS reduced form 8.50 (7.40, 9.60) before treatment to 4.67 (2.40, 6.93) and 3.50 (1.78, 5.22) at 0.5 and 2 hours after treatment, respectively, in patients with aura receiving sodium valproate and from 8.80 (7.76, 9.84) before treatment to 7.20 (4.98, 9.42) and 6.20 (2.43, 9.97) at 0.5 and 2 hours after treatment

  9. Hydroxocobalamin versus sodium thiosulfate for the treatment of acute cyanide toxicity in a swine (Sus scrofa) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Pitotti, Rebecca L; Dixon, Patricia; Lairet, Julio R; Bush, Anneke; Tanen, David A

    2012-06-01

    We compare the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin to sodium thiosulfate to reverse the depressive effects on mean arterial pressure in a swine model of acute cyanide toxicity and gain a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the hydroxocobalamin in reversal of the toxicity. Swine were intubated, anesthetized, and instrumented with central arterial and venous lines and a pulmonary artery catheter. Animals (n=36) were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: hydroxocobalamin alone (150 mg/kg), sodium thiosulfate alone (413 mg/kg), or hydroxocobalamin (150 mg/kg)+sodium thiosulfate (413 mg/kg) and monitored for 60 minutes after the start of antidotal infusion. Cyanide was infused until severe hypotension developed, defined as blood pressure 50% of baseline mean arterial pressure. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine statistically significant changes between groups over time. Time to hypotension (25, 28, and 33 minutes), cyanide dose at hypotension (4.7, 5.0, and 5.6 mg/kg), and mean cyanide blood levels (3.2, 3.7, and 3.8 μg/mL) and lactate levels (7, 8.2, 8.3 and mmol/L) were similar. All 12 animals in the sodium thiosulfate group died compared with 2 of 12 in the hydroxocobalamin/sodium thiosulfate group and 1 of 12 in hydroxocobalamin group. No statistically significant differences were detected between the hydroxocobalamin and hydroxocobalamin/sodium thiosulfate groups for carbon monoxide, mean arterial pressure, cyanide levels, or mortality at 60 minutes. Lactate level (2.6 versus 2.1 mmol/L), pH (7.44 versus 7.42), and bicarbonate level (25 versus 26 mEq/L) at 60 minutes were also similar between groups. Sodium thiosulfate failed to reverse cyanide-induced shock in our swine model of severe cyanide toxicity. Further, sodium thiosulfate was not found to be effective when added to hydroxocobalamin in the treatment of cyanide-induced shock. Hydroxocobalamin alone was again found to be effective for severe cyanide toxicity. Copyright © 2012. Published

  10. Effects of sodium polyacrylate (PANa) on acute esophagitis by gastric juice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Ozawa, Y; Furuta, Y; Miyazaki, H

    1982-06-01

    Sodium polyacrylate (PANa) is a water-soluble, high-molecular compound, and its aqueous solution shows a very high viscosity and stringiness. In the present study, preventive effects of PANa on three kinds of esophageal lesions induced by gastric juice were examined in comparison with those of aceglutamide aluminum and sodium alginate. The influences of PANa on gastric contents were also studied. The preventive effect of PANa given intraesophageally on esophageal lesions induced by the intraesophageal application of gastric juice was more potent than aceglutamide aluminum and sodium alginate. Oral administration of PANa inhibited the formation of esophageal ulcer by pylorus ligation more markedly than aceglutamide aluminum, whereas sodium alginate had no effect in a high dose of 500 mg/kg. In preventing gastric ulcer which occurred simultaneously with the esophageal ulcer after the pylorus ligation, aceglutamide aluminum was most potent, and PANa was as potent as sodium alginate. Oral administration of PANa showed a more protective effect than aceglutamide aluminum on the esophageal ulceration induced by the simultaneous ligations of the pylorus and limiting ridge, whereas sodium alginate in a high dose of 500 mg/kg had little effect on the ulcer formation. PANa caused only a slight increase in the pH of gastric juice and a slight decrease in pepsin activity. From the results, it may be concluded that PANa showed an antiulcerogenic activity mainly due to its mucosa covering action against gastric juice.

  11. The influence of the combined effects of acute gamma-radiation, sodium bromate and sodium nitrate on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling root growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.; Osipov, D. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Among special industrial reservoirs used for the storage of liquid radioactive waste of Mayak PA, Russia, one of the most radioactively contaminated is the R-17 reservoir, so-called 'Staroye Boloto' (the total β-activity of water ranged in the observation period from 0.4 MBq/l to 4.5 MBq/l, the total a-activity ranged from 43 to 420 Bq/l). Also this reservoir is characterized by high level of chemical contamination, in particular, the concentration of nitrates in water is 2.5-4,4 g/l, sodium bromate - up to 35 mg/l. One of the interesting questions is interaction of radiation and chemical contamination in their effect on living organisms in this reservoir. In laboratory experiments seeds of Lactuca sativa were used; the effect of the studied factor on the length of the sprout's root was estimated. To assess the effect of chemical toxicants the solutions of each salt in 7 different concentrations were used, distilled water was used as a control. For evaluation of acute effects of external gamma irradiation the seeds after exposure for 24 hours in distilled water, were irradiated at 7 different doses using gamma-unit on the basis of Cs-137 with the dose rate of 0.62 Gy/min. To assess the combined effects of acute external gamma irradiation, of nitrates and bromates, seeds after 24 hour exposure at each test concentration of the salts solutions were irradiated using gamma-unit. To calculate the effective concentrations or doses was used drc package for R software. To calculate the dose rate to aquatic organisms in the R-17 was used ERICA Assessment Tool 2012. It was found out that the EC50 of sodium nitrate for lettuce was 2.69 g/l, which is comparable to the concentration of nitrates in the 'Staroye Boloto'. This indicates that nitrate can have significant toxic effect on aquatic higher plants of the reservoir. The EC50 of sodium bromate was 14.6 mg/l. This is less than the maximum concentration of the substance in the R-17, which suggests

  12. Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome is an Avid and Persistent Sodium-Retaining State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vitorio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, which is triggered by many conditions in the intensive care unit, including different types of circulatory shock. One under-recognized characteristic of the SIRS-induced AKI is its avidity for sodium retention, with progressive decreases in urinary sodium concentration (NaU and its fractional excretion (FENa. This phenomenon occurs in parallel with increases in serum creatinine, being only transitorily mitigated by diuretic use. In the present case, we report a situation of two consecutive shocks: the first shock is hemorrhagic in origin and then the second shock is a septic one in the same patient. The SIRS and AKI triggered by the first shock were not completely solved when the second shock occurred. This could be viewed as a persistent avid sodium-retaining state, which may be appreciated even during renal replacement therapy (in the absence of complete anuria and that usually solves only after complete AKI and SIRS resolution. We suggest that decreases in NaU and FENa are major characteristics of SIRS-induced AKI, irrespective of the primary cause, and may serve as additional monitoring tools in its development and resolution.

  13. Fermented herbal formula KIOM-MA-128 protects against acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Gun; Lee, Mi-Ra; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Park, Kwang-Il; Ma, Jin-Yeul

    2017-07-05

    Colitis is a well-known subtype of inflammatory bowel disease and is caused by diverse factors. Previous research has shown that KIOM-MA elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects on various diseases. KIOM-MA-128, our novel herbal formula, was generated from KIOM-MA using probiotics to improve the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated whether KIOM-MA-128 has protective activity in a mouse model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Colitis was induced by DSS administered to ICR mice in drinking water. KIOM-MA-128 (125 or 250 mg/kg) was orally administered once per day. The body weights of the mice were measured daily, and colonic endoscopies were performed at 5 and 8 days. Colon length as well as histological and cytokine changes were observed at the end of drug administration. KIOM-MA-128 has pharmacological activity in an acute colitis model. KIOM-MA-128 reduced the loss of body weight and disease activity index (DAI) and inhibited the abnormally short colon lengths and the colonic damage in this mouse model of acute colitis. Moreover, KIOM-MA-128 suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and maintained the integrity of the tight junctions during DSS-induced colitis. The results indicated that KIOM-MA-128 protects against DSS-induced colitis in mice and suggested that this formula might be a candidate treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  14. Comparison between Intravenous Sodium Valproate and Subcutaneous Sumatriptan for Treatment of Acute Migraine Attacks; Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Rahimdel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium valproate (SV has been approved for migraine prophylaxis and its intravenous form is used to treat acute migraine attacks. We compared the efficacy and safety of intravenous SV and subcutaneous Sumatriptan in managing acute migraine attacks. Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial divided 90 patients into two groups: one group received 400 mg of intravenous SV and the second group received 6 mg of subcutaneous Sumatriptan. Headache severity before treatment and half an hour, one hour, and two hours after treatment was measured based on the VNRS in the groups. Associated symptoms, i.e., photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and vomiting, were assayed on admission and 2 hours after treatment. Side effects of the drugs were checked 2 hours after injection. Obtained data from the groups were compared. Results: In both groups, pain decrement at the mentioned time points was significant (P0.05, indicating the similar effect of both drugs on pain improvement. In the SV group, photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and vomiting were improved significantly, while in the Sumatriptan group, only photophobia and vomiting were decreased significantly, indicating the advantage of SV in improving the associated symptoms. Nausea, vomiting, facial paresthesia, and hypotension were more significantly frequent in the Sumatriptan group than in the SV group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Intravenous SV (400 mg was as effective as subcutaneous Sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine attacks, but with more improvement in associated symptoms and with fewer side effects. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201108025943N4

  15. A Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Patients With Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Recommendations on the Use of Methylprednisolone Sodium Succinate

    OpenAIRE

    Fehlings, Michael G.; Wilson, Jefferson R.; Tetreault, Lindsay A.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Anderson, Paul; Paul M Arnold; Brodke, Darrel S.; Burns, Anthony S.; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Dettori, Joseph R.; Furlan, Julio C.; Hawryluk, Gregory (University of Utah); Holly, Langston T.; Howley, Susan; Jeji, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this guideline is to outline the appropriate use of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) in patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to address key questions related to the use of MPSS in acute SCI. A multidisciplinary Guideline Development Group used this information, in combination with their clinical expertise, to develop recommendations for the use of MPSS. Based on GRADE (Grading of Rec...

  16. Plasma exchange successfully treats central pontine myelinolysis after acute hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Kyung Yoon; Lee, In-Hee; Kim, Gi Jun; Cho, Kangwon; Park, Hoon Suk; Kim, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Background Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) primarily occurs after rapid correction of severe hyponatremia. There are no proven effective therapies for ODS, but we describe the first case showing the successful treatment of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) by plasma exchange, which occurred after rapid development of hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy. Case presentation A 40-year-old woman presented with general weakness, hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis. The p...

  17. Role of GABAergic activity of sodium valproate against ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Ramanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder Pal; Kaur, Tajpreet; Arora, Saroj; Singh, Amrit Pal

    2014-02-01

    Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) has been reported to be renoprotective in various preclinical studies. Sodium valproate (SVP) is documented to protect against renal injury through its histone deacetylase-inhibiting activity. The present study investigated the involvement of GABAA receptors and the role of GABAergic activity of SVP against ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h to induce AKI. The creatinine clearance, serum urea, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, and microproteinuria were measured to assess kidney injury. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, reduced glutathione level, myeloperoxidase, and catalase activity were assayed to assess oxidative stress in renal tissues along with hematoxylin-eosin staining to observe histopathological changes. The ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI witnessed an increase in serum parameters, microproteinuria, oxidative stress, and histopathological changes in renal tissues. Picrotoxin aggravated ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced AKI confirming the role of GABAA receptors in AKI. The SVP treatment afforded protection against AKI that was blocked by concurrent treatment with picrotoxin. Hence, it is concluded that regulation of GABAA receptors is important for management of AKI. Moreover, the GABAergic activity of SVP is important for its renoprotective effect.

  18. Effect of nitric oxide pathway regulation on water/sodium balance and renal function in a rodent model of acute liver and renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracyn, Marek; Ząbkowski, Tomasz; Zdanowski, Robert; Brytan, Marek; Patera, Janusz; Nowak, Zbigniew; Kade, Grzegorz; Wańkowicz, Zofia

    2014-09-27

    The pathomechanism of acute hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), a particular form of acute renal failure that occurs in the course of acute liver injury, is still poorly understood. The aim of our study was to estimate the influence of the activation and inhibition of the nitric oxide pathway on the water/sodium balance and development of acute renal failure in the course of HRS. We used male Sprague-Dawley rats in the acute galactosamine (Ga1N) model of HRS. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors L-NAME and L-arginine were administered intraperitoneally before and after liver damage. HRS developed in all tested groups. L-NAME increased osmotic clearance and urine volume more effectively before liver injury. Furthermore, administration of L-NAME increased creatinine clearance both before and after Ga1N injection. A double dose of L-NAME did not yield further improvement before Ga1N injection, but improved creatinine clearance after Ga1N intoxication. Injection of L-arginine increased sodium excretion and urine volume, but only after liver injury. Moreover, L-arginine injected after Ga1N caused significant improvement of the creatinine clearance in a dose-dependent manner. Our study shows that inhibition of the nitric oxide pathway improves parameters of water and sodium balance and prevents development of acute renal failure in the course of acute liver injury and liver failure. Activation of the nitric oxide system also has a favorable influence on water/sodium balance and renal failure, but only after liver injury.

  19. [Inhibition of sodium channels in acutely isolated hippocampal neurons by scorpion venom heat resistant protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jing-Yu; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Li, Shao

    2007-06-25

    The effects of scorpion venom heat resistant protein (SVHRP) on sodium channel were studied in freshly isolated hippocampal neurons in rat using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The results indicated that tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-dependent sodium current in hippocampal neurons was inhibited by SVHRP in a dose-dependent manner. The half-inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was (0.0034+/-0.0004) microg/mL, Hill constant (n) was 0.4361+/-0.0318. After SVHRP application, a clear shift of the activation curve of Na(+) channel was shown towards more depolarized potential, resulting in channel opening at more positive membrane potentials. In the presence of 0.1 mug/mL SVHRP, the voltage for half-activation (V(1/2)) and the slope factor of the activation curve were (-23.96+/-0.41) mV and 3.73+/-0.08 (n=8, P<0.05) compared with the control recordings of (-34.38+/-0.62) mV and 4.52+/-0.52 (n=16), respectively. Averaged and normalized curve of steady-state inactivation of Na(+) channel was shifted towards negative potential after treatment of 0.1 and 0.01 mug/mL SVHRP. In the presence of 0.1 mug/mL SVHRP, the voltage for half-inactivation (V(1/2)) and the slope factor determined by a sigmoid fit of the inactivation curve were (-50.69+/-2.55) mV (n=8, P<0.01) and 5.49+/-0.72 (n=8, P<0.05) compared with the control recordings of (-32.60+/-1.52) mV and 6.73+/-0.51 (n=16), respectively. These results suggest that SVHRP blocks the voltage-dependent sodium currents and alters the sodium channel kinetics to decrease the excitability of neurons. This might be an interpretation for the antiepileptic effects of SVHRP.

  20. Kidney injury after sodium phosphate solution beyond the acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Fernández-Juárez

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: The use of OSP can lead to both acute and chronic renal damage. However, chronic injury was the most common pattern. Both forms of presentation imply a significant and irreversible loss of renal function. Further studies analyzing renal damage secondary to bowel cleaning should consider these two different patterns of injury.

  1. Downstream shift in sodium pump activity along the nephron during acute hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyar, C E; Zhang, Y; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    2001-01-01

    reabsorption with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor benzolamide: 2 mg/kg in 300 mM NaHCO(3) at 50 microl/min for 5 to 7 min. Both stimuli increased urine output and lithium clearance three- to four-fold and increased basolateral Na,K-ATPase activity about 40%. In homogenates, acute hypertension increased...

  2. Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves cardiac performance in acute heart failure: a pilot randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalos, Marek; Leverve, Xavier; Huang, Stephen; Weisbrodt, Leonie; Parkin, Ray; Seppelt, Ian; Ting, Iris; Mclean, Anthony

    2014-03-25

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is characterized by inadequate cardiac output (CO), congestive symptoms, poor peripheral perfusion and end-organ dysfunction. Treatment often includes a combination of diuretics, oxygen, positive pressure ventilation, inotropes and vasodilators or vasopressors. Lactate is a marker of illness severity but is also an important metabolic substrate for the myocardium at rest and during stress. We tested the effects of half-molar sodium lactate infusion on cardiac performance in AHF. We conducted a prospective, randomised, controlled, open-label, pilot clinical trial in 40 patients fulfilling two of the following three criteria for AHF: (1) left ventricular ejection fraction Hartmann's solution without continuous infusion. The primary outcome was CO assessed by transthoracic echocardiography 24 hours after randomisation. Secondary outcomes included a measure of right ventricular systolic function (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)), acid-base balance, electrolyte and organ function parameters, along with length of stay and mortality. The infusion of half-molar sodium lactate increased (mean ± SD) CO from 4.05 ± 1.37 L/min to 5.49 ± 1.9 L/min (P < 0.01) and TAPSE from 14.7 ± 5.5 mm to 18.3 ± 7 mm (P = 0.02). Plasma sodium and pH increased (136 ± 4 to 146 ± 6 and 7.40 ± 0.06 to 7.53 ± 0.03, respectively; both P < 0.01), but potassium, chloride and phosphate levels decreased. There were no significant differences in the need for vasoactive therapy, respiratory support, renal or liver function tests, duration of ICU and hospital stay or 28- and 90-day mortality. Infusion of half-molar sodium lactate improved cardiac performance and led to metabolic alkalosis in AHF patients without any detrimental effects on organ function. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01981655. Registered 13 August 2013.

  3. Acute toxicity of sodium metabisulphite on mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Decapoda, Ucididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana B. Pedale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The sodium metabisulphite salt is usually used in shrimp culture to prevent black spot. Unfortunately the toxicological effect of this xenobiotic in decapod crabs is unknown. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the sodium metabisulphite LC50 - 96 h in the mangrove species Ucides cordatus. Crabs were collected in the tidal creek margins in Bragança estuarine and were submitted to preliminary test (screening and posterior definitive test. Crabs were exposed in five different concentrations and a control group in five replicates, two crabs per recipient (5 L during 96 hours. A negative correlation was observed to sodium metabisulphite concentration in relation to dissolved oxygen and pH. At the end of the experiment were obtained the following mortality index in relation to sodium metabisulphite concentrations: 100% in 86.0 mg.L-1, 74% in 62.0 mg.L-1, 52% in 52.0 mg.L-1, 44% in 38.0 mg.L-1. The value of LC50 - 96 h for U. cordatus was determinate at 42.58 mg.L-1/Na2S2O5. The results strongly indicate that sodium metabisulphite is toxic for U. cordatus, and this crab could be used for biomonitoring the environmental impact.O metabissulfito de sódio é um sal habitualmente usado no cultivo de camarão a fim de se evitar a melanose. Infelizmente o efeito toxicológico deste xenobiótico em caranguejos decápodes é desconhecido. O presente estudo objetiva investigar o LC50 - 96 h do metabissulfito de sódio na espécie Ucides cordatus em manguezal. A coleta dos caranguejos foi realizada nas margens do canal de maré estuarino em Bragança/PA. Os caranguejos foram submetidos a um teste preliminar (screening e posteriormente ao teste definitivo, e foram expostos a cinco concentrações diferentes e um grupo controle com cinco repetições, com dois caranguejos por recipiente (5 L durante 96 horas. Houve correlação negativa no aumento da concentração de metabissulfito de sódio com o oxigênio dissolvido e pH. No final do experimento foram

  4. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchini, A.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Gregory, S.

    2002-01-01

    -specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from...... toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarus diogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above...... hypothesis. Therefore, sensitivity to AgNO3, in terms of either total measured silver or free Ag+, was reliably predicted from the whole body Na+ uptake rate in animals with body mass ranging over 6 orders of magnitude (from micrograms to grams). A positive log-log correlation between acute AgNO3 toxicity...

  5. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of ellagic acid in the acute and chronic dextrane sulfate sodium models of mice colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Marta; María Giner, Rosa; Ríos, José-Luis; Recio, María Carmen

    2013-12-12

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.; Lythraceae) has traditionally been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC). Because its fruits and extracts are rich in ellagitannins, which release ellagic acid when hydrolyzed, consumption of pomegranate products is currently being widely promoted for their potential health effects, including the prevention of inflammatory diseases and cancer. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of ellagic acid on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute and chronic experimental colitis in two different strains of mice and to elucidate its possible mechanisms of action. In the acute UC model, female Balb/C mice were treated with DSS (5%) for seven days while concomitantly receiving a dietary supplement of ellagic acid (2%). In the chronic UC model, female C57BL/6 mice received four week-long cycles of DSS (1% and 2%) interspersed with week-long recovery periods along with a diet supplemented with ellagic acid (0.5%). In acute model of UC, ellagic acid ameliorated disease severity slightly as observed both macroscopically and through the profile of inflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ). In the chronic UC model, ellagic acid significantly inhibited the progression of the disease, reducing intestinal inflammation and decreasing histological scores. Moreover, mediators such as COX-2 and iNOS were downregulated and the signaling pathways p38 MAPK, NF-κB, and STAT3 were blocked. Our study reinforces the hypothetical use of ellagic acid as an anti-inflammatory complement to conventional UC treatment in chronic UC patients and could be considered in the dietary prevention of intestinal inflammation and related cancer development. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Rapid redistribution and inhibition of renal sodium transporters during acute pressure natriuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Mircheff, A K; Hensley, C B

    1996-01-01

    natriuretic stimuli, cortex was removed, and membranes were fractionated by density gradient centrifugation. Urine output and endogenous lithium clearance increased threefold in response to either stimuli. Acute hypertension provoked a redistribution of apical Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3, alkaline phosphatase......, and dipeptidyl peptidase IV to higher density membranes enriched in the intracellular membrane markers. Basolateral membrane Na(+)-K(+)-adenosinetriphosphatase (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) activity decreased 50%, 25-30% of the alpha 1-and beta 1-subunits redistributed to higher density membranes, and the remainder...

  7. [Experimental substantiation of use of sodium hypochlorite and ozone at a formation of intestinal anastomosis in conditions of acute intestinal obstruction and peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelianov, A D; Ivliev, N V; Bazhenov, S M; Nesterov, A A

    2009-01-01

    Presented are the results of experimental research on 144 animals (the rats Wistar), on whom was carried out resection of a part of large intestine and a intestinal anastamosis was formed in the presents of acute intestinal obstruction and peritonitis. The sanitation of abdominal cavity in the basic group of animals (74) was performed using sodium hypochlorite solution and dissolved ozone. The intestinal lavage was carried out by dissolved ozone with the subsequent introduction of ozonized oil Ozonide in the area of intestinal anastamosis. The combined application of ozone and sodium produces an expressed samative effect which leads to healing of intestinal anastamosis and decreases unstability of intestinal sutures and mortality.

  8. Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Zhen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Antiplatelet aggregation treatment has become a regular treatment of ischemic stroke. The affirmation of antiplatelet therapy is mainly derived from patients with clinical use, which can not provide the laboratory indexes for evaluation of a recognized accuracy. Studies have confirmed that the degree of platelet activation is associated with atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke, and recognized that both CD62p (α-platelet granule membrane glycoprotein and CD63 (lysosomal membrane glycoprotein were important indexes of platelet activation. This study aims to explore the differences of efficacy between combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium and monotherapy by aspirin in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke by investigating the expression of CD62p and CD63. Methods Flow cytometry was employed to detect CD62p and CD63 expression on circulating platelet in patients with ischemic stroke and normal control group. The positive rate of CD62p and CD63 was detected in patients with ischemic stroke who were treated with aspirin 0.15 g (single drug therapy and clopidogrel 75 mg + ozagrel sodium 80 mg (combination therapy before and after one and two weeks' treatment. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores were measured in patients with ischemic stroke at the same time in three periods respectively to evaluate the improvement of neural function. Results Platelet CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate in ischemic stroke group were higher than normal control group before treatment (P = 0.001, 0.032. CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score were measured at different times, and the differences were statistically significant (F = 56.693, P = 0.000; F = 21.544, P = 0.000; F = 216.271, P = 0.000, respectively. Compared with before treatment, CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score decreased significantly after treatment (P = 0.000, for all, but the differences between aspirin group and combination

  9. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, Paul W.; Butt, Omer I. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); D' Agnillo, Felice, E-mail: felice.dagnillo@fda.hhs.gov [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO{sub 2} therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. {yields} Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO{sub 2} infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. {yields} These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. {yields} NaNO{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO{sub 2} with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO{sub 2} on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO{sub 2}, at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  10. Monocolonization of Germ-Free Mice with Bacteroides fragilis Protects against Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Acute Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chao Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis is inflammatory conditions of the colon caused by interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies indicated that the gut microflora may be involved in the colonic inflammation. Bacteroides fragilis (BF is a Gram-negative anaerobe belonging to the colonic symbiotic. We aimed to investigate the protective role of BF in a colitis model induced in germ-free (GF mice by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS. GF C57BL/6JNarl mice were colonized with BF for 28 days before acute colitis was induced by DSS. BF colonization significantly increased animal survival by 40%, with less reduction in colon length, and decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells (macrophages and neutrophils in colon mucosa following challenge with DSS. In addition, BF could enhance the mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory-related cytokine such as interleukin 10 (IL-10 with polymorphism cytokine IL-17 and diminish that of proinflammatory-related tumor necrosis factor α with inducible nitric oxide synthase in the ulcerated colon. Myeloperoxidase activity was also decreased in BF-DSS mice. Taking these together, the BF colonization significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis by suppressing the activity of inflammatory-related molecules and inducing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. BF may play an important role in maintaining intestinal immune system homeostasis and regulate inflammatory responses.

  11. Retrospective analysis of inferior vena cava collapsibility with point of care ultrasound and urine sodium and FENa in patients with early stage acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Faizan; Singh, Gurkeerat; Noor, Mustafa; Sabath, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Early stage acute kidney injury (AKI) is an independent risk factor for an increase in mortality. Accurate assessment of volume status is a major challenge during the early stages of acute renal injury. Determining volume status based on the history and physical exam lacks accuracy. Urine sodium and free excretion of sodium (FENa) provide objective evidence of intravascular volume status when interpreted carefully and is helpful to delineate prerenal from intrinsic renal failure. In recent years point of care ultrasound has been used to assess volume status. Our team conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the association of inferior vena cava collapsibility by point of care ultrasound (POCUS) and urine electrolytes (urine sodium, fractional excretion of sodium) during early stage AKI (Stage 1-2 of KDIGO guidelines). We reviewed 150 cases based on the provisional diagnosis. 36 patients met the criteria for further review. Using bivariate analysis, we found a strong association between >50% IVC collapsibility with FENa < 0.4% with an odds ratio 5.3 (CI 1.1-24.5, p = 0.04), and urine sodium <20 meq/dl with an odds ratio of 6.7 (Cl 1.5-30, p = 0.02). Subsequently, multivariate analysis and Spearman correlation showed an inverse relation between IVC collapsibility and fractional excretion of sodium FENa (β = -0.4, p = 0.001) and (r = -0.44, p = 0.01). These findings suggest the role of POCUS and urinary markers in determining the intravascular volume status in AKI. POCUS is also valuable to assess volume status in cases of renal failure where urine studies are difficult to interpret.

  12. A selective, non-peptide CRF receptor 1 antagonist prevents sodium lactate-induced acute panic-like responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Anantha; Johnson, Philip L; Fitz, Stephanie D; Nakazato, Atsuro; Chaki, Shigeyuki; Steckler, Thomas; Schmidt, Mark

    2011-04-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is implicated in a variety of stress-related disorders such as depression and anxiety, and blocking CRF receptors is a putative strategy for treating such disorders. Using a well-studied animal model of panic, we tested the efficacy of JNJ19567470/CRA5626, a selective, non-peptidergic CRF type 1 receptor (CRF1) antagonist (3, 10 and 40 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection), in preventing the sodium lactate (NaLac)-induced panic-like behavioural and cardiovascular responses. Adult male rats with chronic reduction of GABA levels (by inhibition of GABA synthesis with l-allyglycine, a glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibitor) in the dorsomedial/perifornical hypothalamus are highly anxious and exhibit physiological and behavioural responses to intravenous NaLac infusions similar to patients with panic disorder. These 'panic-prone' rats pre-treated with vehicle injections displayed NaLac-induced increases in autonomic responses (i.e. tachycardia and hypertensive responses), anxiety-like behaviour in the social interaction test, and flight-like increases in locomotor activity. However, systemically injecting such panic-prone rats with the highest dose of CRF1 receptor antagonist prior to NaLac infusions blocked all NaLac-induced behaviour and cardiovascular responses. These data suggest that selective CRF1 receptor antagonists could be a novel target for developing anti-panic drugs that are as effective as benzodiazepines in acute treatment of a panic attack without the deleterious side-effects (e.g. sedation and cognitive impairment) associated with benzodiazepines.

  13. The effects of elevated levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on the acute power output and time to fatigue of maximally stimulated mouse soleus and EDL muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M F; Tallis, J; Price, M J; James, R S

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of elevated buffer capacity [~32 mM HCO₃(-)] through administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on maximally stimulated isolated mouse soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles undergoing cyclical length changes at 37 °C. The elevated buffering capacity was of an equivalent level to that achieved in humans with acute oral supplementation. We evaluated the acute effects of elevated [HCO₃(-)] on (1) maximal acute power output (PO) and (2) time to fatigue to 60 % of maximum control PO (TLIM60), the level of decline in muscle PO observed in humans undertaking similar exercise, using the work loop technique. Acute PO was on average 7.0 ± 4.8 % greater for NaHCO₃-treated EDL muscles (P muscles (P muscle performance was variable, suggesting that there might be inter-individual differences in response to NaHCO₃ supplementation. These results present the best indication to date that NaHCO₃ has direct peripheral effects on mammalian skeletal muscle resulting in increased acute power output.

  14. Development of acute pancreatitis caused by sodium valproate in a patient with bipolar disorder on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayasu, Hiroaki; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Osone, Akira; Ozeki, Yuji; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2014-03-29

    Cases of acute pancreatitis caused by sodium valproate (VPA) have been reported by many authors thus far. However, most of these were cases with epilepsy. Chronic renal failure is also regarded as a risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Here, we report a case of acute pancreatitis development due to VPA in a patient with bipolar disorder on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure. The patient was a 52-year-old Japanese male who was diagnosed as bipolar disorder on hemodialysis for renal failure. He was treated with VPA and manic symptoms gradually stabilized. However, the patient complained of severe abdominal pain. Blood amylase was found to be markedly high, and computed tomography revealed pancreatomegaly and an increased amount of peripancreatic fat. Hence, we diagnosed the case as acute pancreatitis caused by VPA. We discontinued oral medication, and he was started on a pancreatic enzyme inhibitor, antibiotics, and transfusion, and he showed improvement. It has been reported that acute pancreatitis induced by VPA is caused by intermediate metabolites of VPA. We consider that patients with renal failure are prone to pancreatitis caused by VPA because of the accumulation of these intermediate metabolites. We need close monitoring for serious adverse effects such as pancreatitis when we prescribe VPA to patients with bipolar disorder on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure, although VPA is safer than other mood stabilizers.

  15. Exogenous leptin protects rat models of sodium taurocholate‑induced severe acute pancreatitis through endocrinal and immunological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haiyu; Lu, Qin; Yin, Chenghong; Xiao, Hongli; Wen, Yan; Zhang, Shuwen; Cui, Qu; Yang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common non‑bacterial disease compromising pancreatic tissues. Adipocyte‑derived leptin is closely associated with the severity and clinical outcome of pancreatitis. The potential protective effects of exogenous leptin administration on a rat model of severe AP (SAP) remain to be elucidated, and were examined in the present study. Male Wistar rats were divided into a sham operation group (SO), SAP model group (SAP) and leptin group (LEP). Each group was divided into three sub‑groups by observation time (24, 48 and 72 h). The SAP models were prepared by retrograde injection of 6% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic‑bile duct. Following model establishment, exogenous leptin was intraperitoneally injected into mice at 50 mg/kg in the LEP group. Subsequently, serum amylase, lipase and glucose levels at particular time‑points were analyzed using a fully‑automatic biochemical analyzer, and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and interleukin (IL)‑10 were detected using an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. The pathological changes in pancreatic tissues were observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and the pancreatic expression of the long form of the leptin receptor (OB‑Rb) was detected and evaluated using Nest‑polymerase chain reaction analysis. The mortality rates of the model rats were compared between the groups. Following the administration of exogenous leptin, the serum level of amylase in the LEP group was significantly decreased at 48 h, compared with that in the SAP group, with serum lipase levels decreased at 48 and 72 h, and blood glucose levels decreased at 72 h. Regarding the serum inflammatory factors, the level of TNF‑α in the LEP group was significantly lower, compared with that in the SAP group at 24 h; whereas no significant difference was observed in the serum level of IL‑10 between the two groups. Regarding the pathological changes in the pancreas, the tissues in the LEP

  16. Sodium bicarbonate does not prevent postoperative acute kidney injury after off-pump coronary revascularization: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, S; Song, J W; Shim, J K; Kim, J H; Kwak, Y L

    2016-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common morbidity after off-pump coronary revascularization. We investigated whether perioperative administration of sodium bicarbonate, which might reduce renal injury by alleviating oxidative stress in renal tubules, prevents postoperative AKI in off-pump coronary revascularization patients having renal risk factors. Patients (n=162) having at least one of the following AKI risk factors were enrolled: (i) age >70 yr; (ii) diabetes mellitus; (iii) chronic renal disease; (iv) congestive heart failure or left ventricular ejection fraction sodium bicarbonate (0.5 mmol kg(-1) for 1 h upon induction of anaesthesia followed by 0.15 mmol kg(-1) h(-1) for 23 h) or 0.9% saline. Acute kidney injury within 48 h after surgery was assessed using the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. The incidences of AKI were 21 and 26% in the bicarbonate and control groups, respectively (P=0.458). Serially measured serum creatinine concentrations and perioperative fluid balance were also comparable between the groups. The length of postoperative hospitalization and incidence of morbidity end points were similar between the groups, whereas significantly more patients in the bicarbonate group required prolonged mechanical ventilation (>24 h) relative to the control group (20 vs 6, P=0.003). Perioperative sodium bicarbonate administration did not decrease the incidence of AKI after off-pump coronary revascularization in high-risk patients and might even be associated with a need for prolonged ventilatory care. NCT01840241. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Efficacy and safety of intravenous sodium valproate versus phenobarbital in controlling convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamiri, Reza Azizi; Ghaempanah, Mahdieh; Khosroshahi, Nahid; Nikkhah, Ali; Bavarian, Behrouz; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza

    2012-09-01

    Status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures are the most commonly occurring neurological emergencies in children. Such events have high morbidity and mortality rates along with poor long-term outcomes, depending on their duration and causes. Therefore, such seizures warrant urgent treatment using appropriate doses of anticonvulsants. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, and phenytoin are the most commonly used anticonvulsants for controlling status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures. However, these medications have several well-known adverse effects. Previous studies on both adults and children have shown the efficacy and safety of rapid infusion of valproate in controlling status epilepticus. However, few well-designed randomised trials have been carried out in children, and there remains a paucity of data regarding intravenous sodium valproate use in children. Therefore, our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of rapid loading of valproate with those of intravenous phenobarbital in children with status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures. Sixty children (30 in each group) with convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either valproate or phenobarbital. The main outcome variable was termination of all convulsive activity within 20 min of starting anticonvulsant infusion. Intravenous rapid loading of valproate was successful in seizure termination in (27/30, 90%) of patients compared to phenobarbital (23/30, 77%) (p = 0.189). Clinically significant adverse effects occurred in 74% patients of the phenobarbital group and 24% patients of the valproate group (p valproate is effective and safe in controlling convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children. Intravenous valproate should be considered as a suitable choice for terminating status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures in children. Copyright © 2012 European Paediatric Neurology Society

  18. Behavioural and gill histopathological effects of acute exposure to sodium chloride in moneda (Metynnis orinocensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of sodium chloride (NaCl), juveniles and adult Metynnis orinocensis were exposed for 96 h to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 40 g L-1 of salt. Food intake, behaviour, opercular frequency (OF), mortality, body weight and gill microscopic alterations were evaluated. Behavioural changes...

  19. A Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Patients With Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Recommendations on the Use of Methylprednisolone Sodium Succinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlings, Michael G; Wilson, Jefferson R; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Aarabi, Bizhan; Anderson, Paul; Arnold, Paul M; Brodke, Darrel S; Burns, Anthony S; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Dettori, Joseph R; Furlan, Julio C; Hawryluk, Gregory; Holly, Langston T; Howley, Susan; Jeji, Tara; Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Kotter, Mark; Kurpad, Shekar; Kwon, Brian K; Marino, Ralph J; Martin, Allan R; Massicotte, Eric; Merli, Geno; Middleton, James W; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Nagoshi, Narihito; Palmieri, Katherine; Skelly, Andrea C; Singh, Anoushka; Tsai, Eve C; Vaccaro, Alexander; Yee, Albert; Harrop, James S

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this guideline is to outline the appropriate use of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) in patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). A systematic review of the literature was conducted to address key questions related to the use of MPSS in acute SCI. A multidisciplinary Guideline Development Group used this information, in combination with their clinical expertise, to develop recommendations for the use of MPSS. Based on GRADE (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation), a strong recommendation is worded as "we recommend," whereas a weaker recommendation is indicated by "we suggest." The main conclusions from the systematic review included the following: (1) there were no differences in motor score change at any time point in patients treated with MPSS compared to those not receiving steroids; (2) when MPSS was administered within 8 hours of injury, pooled results at 6- and 12-months indicated modest improvements in mean motor scores in the MPSS group compared with the control group; and (3) there was no statistical difference between treatment groups in the risk of complications. Our recommendations were: (1) "We suggest not offering a 24-hour infusion of high-dose MPSS to adult patients who present after 8 hours with acute SCI"; (2) "We suggest a 24-hour infusion of high-dose MPSS be offered to adult patients within 8 hours of acute SCI as a treatment option"; and (3) "We suggest not offering a 48-hour infusion of high-dose MPSS to adult patients with acute SCI." These guidelines should be implemented into clinical practice to improve outcomes and reduce morbidity in SCI patients.

  20. A Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Patients With Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Recommendations on the Use of Methylprednisolone Sodium Succinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jefferson R.; Tetreault, Lindsay A.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Anderson, Paul; Arnold, Paul M.; Brodke, Darrel S.; Burns, Anthony S.; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Dettori, Joseph R.; Furlan, Julio C.; Hawryluk, Gregory; Holly, Langston T.; Howley, Susan; Jeji, Tara; Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Kotter, Mark; Kurpad, Shekar; Kwon, Brian K.; Marino, Ralph J.; Martin, Allan R.; Massicotte, Eric; Merli, Geno; Middleton, James W.; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Nagoshi, Narihito; Palmieri, Katherine; Skelly, Andrea C.; Singh, Anoushka; Tsai, Eve C.; Vaccaro, Alexander; Yee, Albert; Harrop, James S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this guideline is to outline the appropriate use of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) in patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to address key questions related to the use of MPSS in acute SCI. A multidisciplinary Guideline Development Group used this information, in combination with their clinical expertise, to develop recommendations for the use of MPSS. Based on GRADE (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation), a strong recommendation is worded as “we recommend,” whereas a weaker recommendation is indicated by “we suggest.” Results: The main conclusions from the systematic review included the following: (1) there were no differences in motor score change at any time point in patients treated with MPSS compared to those not receiving steroids; (2) when MPSS was administered within 8 hours of injury, pooled results at 6- and 12-months indicated modest improvements in mean motor scores in the MPSS group compared with the control group; and (3) there was no statistical difference between treatment groups in the risk of complications. Our recommendations were: (1) “We suggest not offering a 24-hour infusion of high-dose MPSS to adult patients who present after 8 hours with acute SCI”; (2) “We suggest a 24-hour infusion of high-dose MPSS be offered to adult patients within 8 hours of acute SCI as a treatment option”; and (3) “We suggest not offering a 48-hour infusion of high-dose MPSS to adult patients with acute SCI.” Conclusions: These guidelines should be implemented into clinical practice to improve outcomes and reduce morbidity in SCI patients. PMID:29164025

  1. Variation in the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 gene is associated with risk of acute coronary syndrome among women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Dalgård

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin C is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease possibly due to its anti-oxidative effects, beneficial effects on endothelial function and importance in collagen synthesis. The sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 is responsible for the transport of vitamin C into various cells and malfunction of this protein leads to reduced vitamin C in tissue, including the arterial wall. We tested the hypothesis that candidate variations rs6139591 and rs1776964 in the gene coding for sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 are associated with development of acute coronary syndrome. DESIGN: In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study, we performed a case-cohort study among 57,053 subjects aged 50-64 years. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 6.4 years, we identified 936 cases and randomly selected a sub-cohort (n = 1,580 with full information on genotypes and covariates. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we found that women with the rs6139591 TT genotype and a lower than median dietary vitamin C intake had a higher risk of acute coronary syndrome compared with those with the CC genotype (adjusted HR 5.39, 95% confidence interval, 2.01-14.50. We also observed a not as strong but positive although inconsistent association for women at a higher than median intake of vitamin C rich food. For the rs1776964 polymorphism, we found a higher risk (adjusted HR 3.45, 95% CI, 1.16-10.28 among TT-homozygous women with higher than median vitamin C intake compared with the CC genotype and low vitamin C intake. Among men, weaker and non-significant associations were observed for both polymorphisms. CONCLUSION: Genetic variation in the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 is associated with risk of incident acute coronary syndrome in women. The genotype effects may not be fully compensated by a higher intake of vitamin C rich food.

  2. Complete remission of nephrotic syndrome and acute kidney injury in crescentic IgA nephropathy: Role of mycophenolate sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Bhandari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal therapy and prognosis of crescentic-IgA nephropathy (C-IgAN are not known. Reported treatment options for C-IgAN include combination of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide for 6 months. The role of mycophenolate sodium in C-IgAN is unknown. We report a case of C-IgAN that was successfully treated with combination immunosuppressive therapy.

  3. On admission serum sodium and uric acid levels predict 30 day rehospitalization or death in patients with acute decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ahmad; Chitsazan, Mitra; Shiukhi Ahmad Abad, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Sepideh; Naderi, Nasim

    2017-05-01

    A considerable proportion of hospitalized patients for acute decompensated heart failure will be readmitted or die in short-term follow-up. In the present study, we aimed to assess the role of admission sodium (Na) and uric acid (UA) levels in the prediction of 30 day post-discharge heart failure readmission or all-cause mortality in advanced heart failure patients admitted with acute decompensation. One hundred and forty consecutive advanced heart failure patients who were admitted for a recent cardiac decompensation were enrolled in this prospective study. Serum Na and UA levels remained statistically unchanged during index admission (P = 0. 54 and 0.19, respectively). Within 30 days post-discharge, composite end point of heart failure rehospitalization or all-cause death occurred in 62 (44.3%) patients (event group). Length of stay was statistically similar between patients in the event and non-event groups (P = 0.38). No correlations were also found between length of stay and left ventricular ejection fraction, serum Na, UA, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), creatinine, and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels (all P > 0.05). Lower left ventricular ejection fraction and Na and higher UA on admission were significantly associated with 30 day event both in univariate and multivariate analyses. Given the predictive role of baseline Na and UA for early post-discharge outcome and the absence of significant changes in their levels during initial hospitalization, admission Na and UA can be considered as prognosticators of acute decompensated heart failure, which their prognostic significance cannot be affected by routine acute heart failure therapy.

  4. MK-801-induced impairments on the trial-unique, delayed nonmatching-to-location task in rats: effects of acute sodium nitroprusside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtubise, Jessica L; Marks, Wendie N; Davies, Don A; Catton, Jillian K; Baker, Glen B; Howland, John G

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenia are not consistently alleviated by conventional antipsychotics. Following a recent pilot study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) has been identified as a promising adjunct treatment to reduce the working memory impairments experienced by schizophrenia patients. The present experiments were designed to explore the effects of SNP on the highly translatable trial-unique, delayed nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task in rats with and without acute MK-801 treatment. SNP (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 5.0 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mg/kg) were acutely administered to rats trained on the TUNL task. Acute MK-801 treatment impaired TUNL task accuracy. Administration of SNP (2.0 mg/kg) with MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) failed to rescue performance on TUNL. SNP (5.0 mg/kg) administration nearly 4 h prior to MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg) treatment had no preventative effect on performance impairments. SNP (2.0 mg/kg) improved performance on a subset of trials. These results suggest that SNP may possess intrinsic cognitive-enhancing properties but is unable to block the effects of acute MK-801 treatment on the TUNL task. These results are inconsistent with the effectiveness of SNP as an adjunct therapy for working memory impairments in schizophrenia patients. Future studies in rodents that assess SNP as an adjunct therapy will be valuable in understanding the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of SNP as a treatment for schizophrenia.

  5. Edelman's equation is valid in acute hyponatremia in a porcine model: plasma sodium concentration is determined by external balances of water and cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard-Steensen, Christian; Larsson, Anders; Bluhme, Henrik; Tønnesen, Else; Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Ring, Troels

    2010-01-01

    Acute hyponatremia is a serious condition, which poses major challenges. Of particular importance is what determines plasma sodium concentration ([Na(+)]). Edelman introduced an explicit model to describe plasma [Na(+)] in a population as [Na(+)] = alpha.(exchangeable Na(+) + exchangeable K(+))/(total body water) - beta. Evidence for the clinical utility of the model in the individual and in acute hyponatremia is sparse. We, therefore, investigated how the measured plasma [Na(+)] could be predicted in a porcine model of hyponatremia. Plasma [Na(+)] was estimated from in vivo-determined balances of water, Na(+), and K(+), according to Edelman's equation. Acute hyponatremia was induced with desmopressin acetate and infusion of a 2.5% glucose solution in anesthetized pigs. During 480 min, plasma [Na(+)] and osmolality were reduced from 136 (SD 2) to 120 mmol/l (SD 3) and from 284 (SD 4) to 252 mosmol/kgH(2)O (SD 5), respectively. The following interpretations were made. First, Edelman's model, which, besides dilution, takes into account Na(+) and K(+), fits plasma [Na(+)] significantly better than dilution alone. Second, a common value of alpha = 1.33 (SD 0.08) and beta = -13.04 mmol/l (SD 7.68) for all pigs explains well the plasma [Na(+)] in the individual animal. Third, measured exchangeable Na(+) and calculated exchangeable Na(+) + K(+) per weight in the pigs are close to Edelman's findings in humans, whereby the methods are cross-validated. In conclusion, plasma [Na(+)] can be explained in the individual animal by external balances, according to Edelman's construct in acute hyponatremia.

  6. The pattern of plasma sodium abnormalities in an acute elderly care ward: a cross-sectional study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, K A

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: The combination of ageing, illness, and medications can lead to hyponatraemia or hypernatraemia. AIMS: To describe the distribution of plasma sodium levels in older patients admitted to hospital. METHODS: We carried out a hospital based cross-sectional study examining 1,511 serum sodium concentrations ([Na+]) among 336 elderly patients and attempted to elucidate the cause(s) of the abnormal serum [Na+]. RESULTS: The study population had a mean age of 81.4. Ninety-two (27.4%) patients had hyponatraemia and seven patients (2.1%) had hypernatraemia during their hospitalisation. The distribution of [Na+] results was towards the lower end of the normal range. The mortality rate of patients with hyponatraemia was 14.1% and that of patients with normal serum [Na+] was 8.9%. Six patients with hypernatraemia died in hospital. Lower respiratory tract infection and medication accounted for the majority of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Deranged [Na+] is common among elderly patients admitted to hospital.

  7. Realgar- and cinnabar-containing an-gong-niu-huang wan (AGNH) is much less acutely toxic than sodium arsenite and mercuric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Yan, Jun-Wen; Wu, Qin; Shi, Jing-Zhen; Liu, Jie; Shi, Jing-Shan

    2011-01-15

    An-gong-niu-huang wan (AGNH) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine used for brain trauma, hemorrhage, and coma. AGNH contains 10% realgar (As₄S₄) and 10% cinnabar (HgS). Both As and Hg are well-known for their toxic effects, and the safety of AGNH is of concern. To address this question, the acute toxicity of AGNH, realgar and cinnabar were compared to sodium arsenite (NaAsO₂) and mercuric chloride (HgCl₂). Mice were administrated orally AGNH at 1, 3 and 6g/kg. AGNH at 3g/kg contains 2.8mmol As/kg as realgar and 1.18mmol Hg/kg as cinnabar. Realgar, cinnabar, arsenite (0.28 mmol/kg, 10% of realgar) and HgCl₂ (0.256 mmol/kg, 20% of cinnabar) were orally given to mice for comparison. Blood and tissues were collected 8h later for toxicity evaluation. Serum alanine aminotransferase was increased by arsenite and blood urea nitrogen was increased by HgCl₂. Total As accumulation after arsenite in liver (100-fold) and kidney (13-fold) was much higher than that after realgar. The accumulation of Hg after HgCl₂ in liver was 400-fold higher and kidney 30-fold higher than after cinnabar. Histopathology showed moderate liver and kidney injuries after arsenite and HgCl₂, but injuries were mild or absent after AGNH, realgar, and cinnabar. The expression of metallothionein-1, a biomarker of metal exposure, was increased 4-10-fold by arsenite and HgCl₂, but was unchanged by AGNH, realgar and cinnabar. Thus, AGNH, realgar and cinnabar are much less toxic acutely than arsenite and HgCl₂. The chemical forms of As and Hg are extremely important factors in determining their disposition and toxicity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of a Solution Composed by Verbascoside, Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Sodium Hyaluronate in the Treatment of Chemotherapy-induced Oral Mucositis in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Schumacher, Richard Fabian; D'Ippolito, Carmelita; Porta, Fulvio; Majorana, Alessandra

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a solution composed by verbascoside, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and sodium hyaluronate (Mucosyte) in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositi (OM). Patients between 5 and 18 years receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and with OM grade 1 or 2 were randomized in group A (treated with Mucosyte, 3 mouthwashes/d per 8 d) and group B (treated with placebo, ie, an inert water-based solution, 3 mouthwashes/d per 8 d). The OM scoring was performed at day 1 (diagnosis of OM-T0), after 3 days of treatment (T1), and at day 8 (T2). Pain was evaluated through the visual analog scale with the same timing of OM measurement. A total of 56 patients were included (28 patients per group). Group A experienced a statistically significant decline of OM at T2 (P=0.0038); a statistically significant difference in pain reduction between 2 groups both at T1 and at T2 (P<0.005) was observed. The use of Mucosyte mouthwashes in children with chemotherapy-induced OM may be recommended as supportive therapy.

  9. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low levels of cortisol, aldosterone and sex hormones ( Addison disease ) Drinking too much water as might occur during ... urinary sodium levels may indicate diuretic use or Addison disease. Sodium levels are often evaluated in relation to ...

  10. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aïda M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  11. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sources Top 10 Sources of Sodium How to Reduce Sodium Sodium Reduction Resources for Everyone Sodium Reduction Fact ... in processed food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: ...

  12. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  13. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  14. Administration of intrapulmonary sodium polyacrylate to induce lung injury for the development of a porcine model of early acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, William R; Barnbrook, Julian; Dominelli, Paolo B; Griesdale, Donald Eg; Arndt, Tara; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Foster, Glen; Ackland, Gareth L; Xu, James; Ayas, Najib T; Sheel, Andrew W

    2014-12-01

    The loss of alveolar epithelial and endothelial integrity is a central component in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, experimental models investigating the mechanisms of epithelial injury are lacking. The purpose of the present study was to design and develop an experimental porcine model of ARDS by inducing lung injury with intrapulmonary administration of sodium polyacrylate (SPA). The present study was performed at the Centre for Comparative Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia. Human alveolar epithelial cells were cultured with several different concentrations of SPA; a bioluminescence technique was used to assess cell death associated with each concentration. In the anesthetized pig model (female Yorkshire X pigs (n = 14)), lung injury was caused in 11 animals (SPA group) by injecting sequential aliquots (5 mL) of 1% SPA gel in aqueous solution into the distal airway via a rubber catheter through an endotracheal tube. The SPA was dispersed throughout the lungs by manual bag ventilation. Three control animals (CON group) underwent all experimental procedures and measurements with the exception of SPA administration. The mean (± SD) ATP concentration after incubation of human alveolar epithelial cells with 0.1% SPA (0.92 ± 0.27 μM/well) was approximately 15% of the value found for the background control (6.30 ± 0.37 μM/well; p < 0.001). Elastance of the respiratory system (E RS) and the lung (E L) increased in SPA-treated animals after injury (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). Chest wall elastance (E CW) did not change in SPA-treated animals. There were no differences in E RS, E L, or E CW in the CON group when pre- and post-injury values were compared. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed a significant shift toward neutrophil predominance from before to after injury in SPA-treated animals (p < 0.001) but not in the CON group (p = 0.38). Necropsy revealed

  15. The secretory response of parathyroid hormone to acute hypocalcemia in vivo is independent of parathyroid glandular sodium/potassium-ATPase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martuseviciene, Giedre; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Clausen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of sodium/potassium-ATPase in regulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is inferred from in vitro studies. Recently, the α-klotho-dependent rapid recruitment of this ATPase to the parathyroid cell plasma membrane in response to low extracellular calcium ion was suggested......-treated parathyroid glands, indicating inhibition of the ATPase. As ouabain induced systemic hyperkalemia, the effect of high potassium on hormone secretion was also examined but was found to have no effect. Thus, inhibition of the parathyroid gland sodium/potassium-ATPase activity in vivo had no effect...

  16. Electrolytes: Sodium Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Michael M; Mahowald, Megan

    2017-08-01

    Sodium disorders (ie, hyponatremia, hypernatremia) are common electrolyte disturbances in clinical medicine and are associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Etiologies of hyponatremia are classified into four categories. The first is pseudohyponatremia, in which the sodium level is low due to hyperproteinemia, hyperlipidemia, or hyperglycemia. The other three categories are based on overall patient fluid status and include hypovolemic (commonly due to fluid loss), hypervolemic (commonly due to fluid retention from heart failure, cirrhosis, or renal failure), and euvolemic (most often because of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone). Hypovolemic hyponatremia is managed by rehydration with isotonic saline. Hypervolemic hyponatremia is managed by addressing the underlying cause. Euvolemic hyponatremia is managed by restricting free water intake, addressing the underlying cause, and occasionally with drugs (eg, vasopressin receptor antagonists). Patients with severe or acutely symptomatic hyponatremia (eg, altered mental status, seizures), including those with acute symptomatic exercise-induced hyponatremia, require urgent treatment. This should consist of hypertonic saline administration along with monitoring of sodium levels to avoid overly rapid correction. Hypernatremia most often occurs because of water loss or inadequate water intake. Depending on severity, management involves oral or intravenous hypotonic fluids and addressing the underlying cause. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  17. Sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeka, W.J.; Oliva, R.M.; Horton, P.

    1973-12-01

    The objective of this program is to conduct friction screening tests in an environment of high-temperature, high-purity liquid sodium or sodium vapor to: (1) develop backup materials, processes, and vendors for core component wear pads, (2) investigate material treatments and coatings for improvement of wear behavior of common LMFBR structural materials, (3) evaluate weld-deposited hardfacings and/or prefabricated bearing materials for use in long-term, high-temperature, high-fluence regions, (4) evaluate bearing materials with a low potential for change in surface composition due to corrosion or mass transfer effects, and (5) develop statistical confidence in friction values for selected material combinations.

  18. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the measuring device from its wrapper. Open the bottle by pushing down on the cap and turning the cap counterclockwise (to the left) ... Rinse the measuring device with water Replace the cap on the bottle of sodium oxybate and return the bottle and ...

  19. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... potassium in your blood; a high level of sodium or phosphate in your blood; colitis (inflammation of the large intestine) or other conditions that irritate your intestine; slow moving bowels; heart failure (condition in which the heart cannot pump blood through the body as well as it ...

  20. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  1. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  2. Therapeutic Effects of 6-Gingerol, 8-Gingerol, and 10-Gingerol on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Acute Ulcerative Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Ma, Na; Gao, Yong-Feng; Sun, Li-Li; Zhang, Ji-Guo

    2017-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is one of the most common types of inflammatory bowel disease and is multifactorial and relapsing. 6-Gingerol, a component of gingerols extracted from ginger (Zingiber officinale), has been reported to improve ulcerative colitis. The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of two analogous forms of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol, on ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in rats through consumption of 5% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium drinking water for 7 consecutive days. 6-Gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol were then given intraperitoneally at doses of 30 mg kg(-1)  d(-1) for another 7 days, respectively. Body weight change, disease activity index, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress indices were measured, and the colonic tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and histopathologically. Results showed that all three gingerols attenuated colitic symptoms evoked by dextran sulfate sodium, significantly elevated superoxide dismutase activity, decreased malondialdehyde levels and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon tissue, and markedly reduced the content of tumor necrosis factor alpha and Interleukin 1 beta in the serum. Histological observations showed that all three gingerols obviously accelerated mucosal damage healing. It is concluded that 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol, the three analogues, have a strong and relatively equal efficacy in the treatment of colitis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Sodium Taste During Sodium Appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgren, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    Sodium appetite appears to be an excellent model to study the neural mechanisms of motivation. In this issue of Chemical Senses, experiments by St John (2016) challenge 2 hypotheses for how a systemic sodium deficit guides an animal to find and ingest more Na ions in the environment. Both hypotheses deal with modifications of the sensory neural code produced by Na(+) ions on the tongue. One envisions a change in the Na(+) signal amplitude. A reduction could make the strong Na(+) signals less aversive; an increase, weak signals more noticeable. The other hypothesis requires no changes in the identity or amplitude of the Na(+) signal, but a shift in its hedonic tone toward sweetness or reward. The results of the 3 behavioral experiments render both explanations unlikely but fail to suggest alternatives. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  5. Cytotoxicity and Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Bacterial Cellulose-Poly (acrylamide-sodium acrylate Hydrogel: A Carrier for Oral Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Pandey 1,2 * , Hira Choudhury 1, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin 2

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preliminary safety evaluation of polymer intended to use as drug delivery carrier is essential. Methods: In this study polyacrylamide grafted bacterial cellulose (BC/AM hydrogel was prepared by microwave irradiation initiated free radical polymerization. The synthesized hydrogel was subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity and acute gastrointestinal toxicity studies to evaluate its biological safety as potential oral drug delivery carrier. Results: The results indicate that hydrogel was non cytotoxic and did not show any histopathological changes in GI tract after a high dose of oral administration. Conclusion: The results revealed that hydrogel composed of bacterial cellulose and polyacrylamide is safe as oral drug delivery carrier.

  6. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  7. Fatal rhabdomyolysis after acute sodium monensin (Rumensin® toxicity: case report Rabdomiólise fatal aguda pós-intoxicação por monensina sódica (Rumensin®: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Myoglobinuria or rhabdomyolysis occurs when myoglobin escapes into the blood and then into the urine after acute muscle necrosis. It can be a serious medical condition leading to renal failure and death. There are many causes including exertion, crush syndromes, ischaemia, metabolic disorders, exogenous toxins and drugs, heat stroke and hereditary disorders such as malignant hyperthermia. We report the case of a 17 year-old boy who developed myoglobinuria, renal failure and death 11 days after ingesting sodium monensin, possibly with the intention of developing muscles. Sodium monensin, the active principle of Rumensin®, is a dietary additive used as a growth promoter for confined cattle. There are no previous reports of human intoxication. Accidental or experimental sodium monensin intoxication in animals produces similar findings to those seen in this case.Mioglobinúria ou rabdomiólise refere-se a necrose muscular aguda com liberação de mioglobina na circulação e na urina podendo causar, na sua forma mais grave, insuficiência renal e óbito. A etiologia é ampla, incluindo exercício intenso, síndrome do esmagamento, isquemia, toxinas exógenas, anormalidades metabólicas, medicações, altas temperaturas, além de algumas condições herdadas como hipertermia maligna. Neste relato descreve-se o caso de um paciente jovem, do sexo masculino, que desenvolveu mioglobinúria, insuficiência renal e óbito, 11 dias após ingestão de monensina sódica, princípio ativo de Rumensin®, usado como aditivo alimentar para gado confinado; a ingestão possivelmente foi feita para desenvolvimento muscular. Não há relato na literatura de intoxicação humana e o quadro clínico nos animais com intoxicação experimental ou acidental pelo Rumensin® se assemelha àquele observado no presente caso.

  8. Sodium valproate-related hyperammonaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, Emily Jane; Zaman, Fawad

    2014-04-10

    A 59-year-old man with a background of poststroke epilepsy, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypertension, presented to the medical assessment unit with acute confusion and altered consciousness. Medications included sodium valproate, aspirin and antihypertensives. On examination he was confused, with his Glasgow Coma Scale fluctuating between 10 and 14. Routine blood tests, thyroid function tests, serum sodium valproate level, urine dip, CT of the brain and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were all normal. EEG revealed changes consistent with an encephalopathic process. Serum ammonia was elevated (75 µg/dL), consistent with a diagnosis of valproate-related hyperammonaemic encephalopathy. Sodium valproate was changed to a different antiepileptic drug and his confusion gradually resolved. Valproate-related hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is a treatable condition which should be considered as a diagnosis in anyone taking sodium valproate with new onset confusion, even in the presence of therapeutic sodium valproate levels and normal liver function tests.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effect of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice on dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis in mice and LPS-activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minjung; Park, Hye-Jin

    2014-06-11

    Phellinus linteus is a herb used in traditional Asian medicine to treat stomachache, inflammation, and tumors. Recent studies show that the extract of Phellinus linteus has anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. However, Phellinus linteus extract has limitation of high cost and limited availability because of supply shortage. Here, we grew Phellinus linteus on germinated brown rice to address the issue of supply shortage and investigated anti-inflammatory effect in vivo as well as in vitro. Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice (PBR) were extracted using filtration steps, which included γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The PBR (200, 500mg/kg/day) was applied into the mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. We used sulfasalazine as a reference drug. In addition, mechanism related to anti-inflammatory was investigated by Western blotting. In the mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, PBR ameliorated the pathological characteristics of colitis such as shortening of colon length and improved the disease activity index score. In addition, we showed that PBR reduced the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in colitis. Western blotting showed that PBR decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) proteins. Further, PBR treatment reduced the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (e.g., extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38) in the mouse model of DSS-induced colitis. Treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with a combination of PBR and LPS showed a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. In addition, we determined the ability of PBR to reduce the iNOS and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression. PBR inhibited the expression of iNOS, NF-κB, and Cox-2 proteins in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. This study

  10. Differential responses in ammonia excretion, sodium fluxes and gill permeability explain different sensitivities to acute high environmental ammonia in three freshwater teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Nawata, C Michele; Blust, Ronny; Wood, Chris M; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-01-15

    We examined the acute physiological responses to high environmental ammonia (HEA), particularly the linkages between branchial ammonia fluxes and unidirectional Na(+) fluxes, as well as urea excretion, cortisol, and indicators of gill permeability in three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities to ammonia; the highly sensitive salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less sensitive cyprinid Cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly resistant cyprinid Carassius auratus (goldfish). Fish were acutely exposed to two sub-lethal ammonia concentrations (as NH(4)HCO(3)) at pH 7.9: 1 mM for a period of 12 h, identical for all species, and 5 mM for the cyprinids and 1.4 mM for the trout for 3 h. Elevation of plasma cortisol at both levels of HEA was apparent in all species. At 1 mM, ammonia excretion (J(amm)) was inhibited to a greater extent in trout than cyprinids and concurrently a significantly higher plasma ammonia level was evident in trout. However J(amm) was reversed in all species at 5 or 1.4 mM. Goldfish showed a significant increase in urea excretion rate (J(urea)) during HEA exposure. In carp and trout, neither level of HEA elevated J(urea) but urea production was increased as evidenced by a considerable elevation of plasma urea. At 1mM HEA, Na(+) imbalance became progressively more severe in trout and carp due to a stimulation of unidirectional Na(+) efflux (J(out)(Na)) without a concomitant increase in unidirectional Na(+) influx (J(in)(Na)). Additionally, a transient reduction of J(in)(Na) was evident in trout. Goldfish showed an opposite trend for J(out)(Na) with reduced efflux rates and a positive Na(+) balance during the first few hours of HEA. However, after 12 h of exposure, both J(in)(Na) and J(out)(Na) were also increased in both carp and goldfish, whereas only J(out)(Na) was increased in trout, leading to a net Na(+) loss. Na(+) homeostasis was entirely disrupted in all three species when subjected to the 5 or 1.4 mM ammonia

  11. Evaluating the safety and efficacy of sodium-restricted/Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet after acute decompensated heart failure hospitalization: design and rationale for the Geriatric OUt of hospital Randomized MEal Trial in Heart Failure (GOURMET-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Jeffrey D; Maurer, Mathew S; Hummel, Scott L

    2015-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem affecting predominantly older adults. Nonadherence to diet remains a significant contributor to acute decompensated HF (ADHF). The sodium-restricted Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH/SRD) eating plan reduces cardiovascular dysfunction that can lead to ADHF and is consistent with current HF guidelines. We propose that an intervention that promotes adherence to the DASH/SRD by home-delivering meals will be safe and improve health-related quality of life (QOL) in older adults after hospitalization for ADHF. This is a 3-center, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial of 12-week duration designed to determine the safety and efficacy of home-delivered DASH/SRD-compliant meals in older adults after discharge from ADHF hospitalization. Sixty-six subjects will be randomized in a 1:1 stratified fashion by gender and left ventricular ejection fraction (<50% vs ≥50%). Study subjects will receive either preprepared, home-delivered DASH/SRD-compliant meals or usual dietary advice for 4weeks after hospital discharge. Investigators will be blinded to group assignment, food diaries, and urinary electrolyte measurements until study completion. The primary efficacy end point is the change in the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire summary scores for health-related QOL from study enrollment to 4weeks postdischarge. Safety evaluation will focus on hypotension, renal insufficiency, and hyperkalemia. Exploratory end points include echocardiography, noninvasive vascular testing, markers of oxidative stress, and salt taste sensitivity. This randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of 4weeks of DASH/SRD after ADHF hospitalization. By testing a novel dietary intervention supported by multiple levels of evidence including preliminary data in outpatients with stable HF, we will address a critical evidence gap in the care of older patients with ADHF. If effective and safe, this

  12. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  13. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  14. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  15. Sodium sieving in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, E.; Krediet, R.T.; Willems, H.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Schroder, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  16. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid sodium rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sodium levels have been reported to rise during episodic migraine. Since migraine frequently starts in early morning or late afternoon, we hypothesized that natural sodium chronobiology may predispose susceptible persons when extracellular CSF sodium increases. Since no mammalian brain sodium rhythms are known, we designed a study of healthy humans to test if cation rhythms exist in CSF. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected every ten minutes at 0.1 mL/min for 24 h from six healthy participants. CSF sodium and potassium concentrations were measured by ion chromatography, total protein by fluorescent spectrometry, and osmolarity by freezing point depression. We analyzed cation and protein distributions over the 24 h period and spectral and permutation tests to identify significant rhythms. We applied the False Discovery Rate method to adjust significance levels for multiple tests and Spearman correlations to compare sodium fluctuations with potassium, protein, and osmolarity. Results The distribution of sodium varied much more than potassium, and there were statistically significant rhythms at 12 and 1.65 h periods. Curve fitting to the average time course of the mean sodium of all six subjects revealed the lowest sodium levels at 03.20 h and highest at 08.00 h, a second nadir at 09.50 h and a second peak at 18.10 h. Sodium levels were not correlated with potassium or protein concentration, or with osmolarity. Conclusion These CSF rhythms are the first reports of sodium chronobiology in the human nervous system. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that rising levels of extracellular sodium may contribute to the timing of migraine onset. The physiological importance of sodium in the nervous system suggests that these rhythms may have additional repercussions on ultradian functions.

  18. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  19. Protective effect of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in acute dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis: differential regulation of tumour necrosis factor-a and interleukin-18 in BALB/c and severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudcovic, T.; Kolinska, J.; Klepetar, J.; Stepankova, R.; Rezanka, T.; Srutkova, D.; Schwarzer, M.; Erban, V.; Du, Z.; Wells, J.; Hrncir, T.; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H.; Kozakova, H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the promising approaches in the therapy of ulcerative colitis is administration of butyrate, an energy source for colonocytes, into the lumen of the colon. This study investigates the effect of butyrate producing bacterium Clostridium tyrobutyricum on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced

  20. Chronic activation of plasma renin is log-linearly related to dietary sodium and eliminates natriuresis in response to a pulse change in total body sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjolby, Mads; Bie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cl during different low-sodium diets spanning a 25-fold change in sodium intake on elements of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and on natriuresis. To custom-made, low-sodium chow (0.003%), NaCl was added to provide four levels of intake, 0.03-0.75 mmol.kg(-1).day(-1) for 7 days. Acute Na...

  1. Sodium cloxacillin for treatment of mastitis in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W T; Maplesden, D C

    1975-12-01

    Sodium cloxacillin was used to treat 107 cows affected with acute mastitis and 138 affected with subclinical mastitis. Based on the application of conservative bacteriologic criteria, the cure rate was 53% for acute staphylococci mastitis and 65% for subclinical staphylococci mastitis. The cure rate for Streptococcus agalactiae infections was 91% in acute conditions and 92% in subclinical conditions. The cure rate was 73% for the acute infections and 88% in cases of subclinical infections when Streptococcus spp. "non ag" was the cause. Daily milk production had no effect on response rate. No adverse reactions due to treatment were reported by any investigator.

  2. Effects of metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on sodium and calcium transport in the dog kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, R A; Wong, N L; Dirks, J H

    1979-05-01

    Clearance and micropuncture studies have been performed in dogs to examine the effects of acute and chronic metabolic acidosis and acute alkalosis on tubular sodium and calcium transport. Acute metabolic acidosis, induced by the infusion of hydrochloric acid, decreased proximal fluid reabsorption and increased the fractional delivery of sodium and calcium to the distal tubule, but not to the final urine. In comparison with normal dogs, dogs with chronic metabolic acidosis (induced by feeding ammonium chloride) showed an increase in proximal fluid reabsorption and a dissociation of calcium from sodium reabsorption more distally, leading to an increased delivery of calcium relative to sodium at the distal tubule and in the final urine. The infusion of sodium bicarbonate to correct chronic metabolic acidosis, both in intact and thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) dogs, reduced proximal fluid reabsorption and caused a selective enhancement of calcium reabsorption relative to sodium in the more distal nephron, resulting in a reversal of the dissociation observed in acidosis, both at the distal tubule and in the final urine. By contrastin fusion of sodium chloride in parathyroid-intact acidotic dogs did not reduce proximal fluid reabsorption or enhance tubular calcium reabsorption. In nonacidotic dogs, both intact and TPTX, infusion of sodium bicarconate to induce acute alkalosis resulted in selhese data demonstrate the presence of a component of tubular calcium reabsorption situated beyond the proximal tubule, which is inhibited by chronic (but not acute) metabolic acidosis and enhanced by metabolic alkalosis (or bicarbonate infusion) independently of parathyroid hormone.

  3. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  4. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate is found in: Automatic dishwashing soaps Clinitest (diabetes testing) tablets Glass products Pulp and paper products Some bleaches Some bubble bath solutions Some steam iron cleaners Note: This list is not all-inclusive.

  5. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consider the benefits of treating constipation symptoms during pregnancy. Your health care provider may also want to confirm diagnosis of constipation and see how dietary and other lifestyle therapies may help. Can use of docusate sodium ...

  6. Low sodium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do other vigorous activity, drink fluids such as sports drinks that contain electrolytes to keep your body's sodium level in a healthy range. Alternative Names Hyponatremia; Dilutional hyponatremia; Euvolemic hyponatremia; Hypervolemic hyponatremia; ...

  7. Effect of hypoxaemia on water and sodium homeostatic hormones and renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1995-01-01

    the advantage of opposing excessive sodium and water retention, which characterizes acute mountain sickness. Short-term isocapnic or hypocapnic hypoxaemia in spontaneously breathing humans causes moderate if any increases in renal blood flow and only minor changes in GFR. In contrast, renal blood flow and GFR....... However, renal vascular tone may increase most probably secondary to the increased adrenosympathetic activity. In the first hours, acute hypoxaemia may induce an increased excretion of sodium and water. Previous studies suggest that the natriuretic response is caused by decreased reabsorption of sodium...... and bicarbonate in the proximal tubules secondary to the associated hyperventilation and hypocapnia. After 6 hours, sodium and water excretion is normalized or even depressed, dependent on the severity of acute mountain sickness. In view of the prompt increase in sodium and water excretion found during short...

  8. Sodium bicarbonate therapy in patients with metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeva-Andany, María M; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Mouriño-Bayolo, David; Castro-Quintela, Elvira; Domínguez-Montero, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated.

  9. Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Mouriño-Bayolo, David; Castro-Quintela, Elvira; Domínguez-Montero, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated. PMID:25405229

  10. Unusual Voltage-Gated Sodium Currents as Targets for Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C; Cummins, T R

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a serious health problem that impacts the lives of many individuals. Hyperexcitability of peripheral sensory neurons contributes to both acute and chronic pain syndromes. Because voltage-gated sodium currents are crucial to the transmission of electrical signals in peripheral sensory neurons, the channels that underlie these currents are attractive targets for pain therapeutics. Sodium currents and channels in peripheral sensory neurons are complex. Multiple-channel isoforms contribute to the macroscopic currents in nociceptive sensory neurons. These different isoforms exhibit substantial variations in their kinetics and pharmacology. Furthermore, sodium current complexity is enhanced by an array of interacting proteins that can substantially modify the properties of voltage-gated sodium channels. Resurgent sodium currents, atypical currents that can enhance recovery from inactivation and neuronal firing, are increasingly being recognized as playing potentially important roles in sensory neuron hyperexcitability and pain sensations. Here we discuss unusual sodium channels and currents that have been identified in nociceptive sensory neurons, describe what is known about the molecular determinants of the complex sodium currents in these neurons. Finally, we provide an overview of therapeutic strategies to target voltage-gated sodium currents in nociceptive neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Case of Sodium Chlorite Toxicity Managed with Concurrent Renal Replacement Therapy and Red Cell Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Romanovsky, Adam; Djogovic, Dennis; Chin, Dat

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sodium chlorite is a powerful oxidizing agent with multiple commercial applications. We report the presentation and management of a single case of human toxicity of sodium chlorite. Case report A 65-year-old man presented to hospital after accidentally ingesting a small amount of a sodium chlorite solution. His principal manifestations were mild methemoglobinemia, severe oxidative hemolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and anuric acute kidney injury. He was managed wi...

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate, a new cosmetic allergen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, H; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2001-01-01

    Sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate (trade name Dragophos S 2/918501) was identified as a contact allergen in a herbal moisturizing cream causing severe acute contact dermatitis on the hands and face of a 41-year-old woman. Sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate is a complex mixture of phosphate esters of d...

  13. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  14. Inherited sodium avid states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achard, Jean-Michel; Hadchouel, Juliette; Faure, Sébastien; Jeunemaitre, Xavier

    2006-04-01

    Several familial forms of hypertension have been identified, in which the mendelian pattern of inheritance indicated that hypertension results from the alteration of a single gene. This short review focuses on those rare monogenic disorders characterized by a low-renin profile. This common feature reflects that the causative mutations responsible for these disorders all result in an excessive sodium reabsorption in the aldosterone-dependent nephron. Low-renin familial hypertensions with hypokalemia encompass familial hyperaldosteronisms, in which aldosterone levels are elevated, and familial pseudohyperaldosteronisms, mimicking aldosteronism despite appropriately suppressed aldosterone levels. In these disorders, the avidity of the kidney for sodium is because of dysregulated sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel ENaC and results in potassium wasting and metabolic alcalosis. Familial hypertension with hyperkalemia is a specific syndrome resulting from mutations in at least 3 different genes, among which 2 have been recently identified. These genes encode members of a new family of kinase, the WNK kinases, involved in the regulation of sodium and potassium excretion by the kidney.

  15. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  16. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  17. Sodium Phosphate Rectal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid using a measuring spoon. Then replace the bottle cap.To use the sodium phosphate enema, follow these steps: Remove the protective shield from the tip of the enema. Lie down on ... insert the enema bottle into your rectum with the tip pointing toward ...

  18. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Ahmad S.; Asghari-Roodsari, Alaleh; Tan, Hanno L.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  19. Sodium bicarbonate plus N-acetylcysteine to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in primary and rescue percutaneous coronary interventions: the BINARIO (BIcarbonato e N-Acetil-cisteina nell'infaRto mIocardico acutO) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Antonio Maria; De Caterina, Alberto Ranieri; Sciahbasi, Alessandro; Aurelio, Andrea; Basile, Eloisa; Porto, Italo; Trani, Carlo; Burzotta, Francesco; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Mongiardo, Rocco; Mazzari, Mario Attilio; Buffon, Antonino; Panocchia, Nicola; Romagnoli, Enrico; Lioy, Ernesto; Rebuzzi, Antonio Giuseppe; Crea, Filippo

    2012-11-22

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a frequent and potentially harmful complication of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), especially in the setting of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We tested the efficacy of a sodium bicarbonate (SB)-based hydration in urgent PCI for STEMI. From June 2009 to September 2010, 262 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing urgent PCI were prospectively enrolled and treated by SB-based hydration (154 mEq/L at 3 ml Kg-1 for one hour followed by 1 ml Kg-1 for six hours) (group A). As controls, 262 consecutive STEMI patients receiving 0.9% saline hydration (1 ml Kg-1 for 24 hours) before June 2009 were retrospectively enrolled (group B). Both groups received high-dose N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The primary endpoint was the composite of in-hospital death, need for dialysis and CIN (≥25% increase in serum creatinine at 48 hours). The two groups were comparable for baseline clinical and procedural characteristics, for Mehran risk score and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate. The primary combined endpoint was significantly reduced in group A as compared to group B (9.2 vs. 18.7%, p=0.023) with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 11. Specifically, a significant reduction of both in-hospital death (2.3 vs. 6.1%, p=0.049, NNT 27) and CIN (8.0 vs. 14.1%, p=0.03, NNT 17) was observed, with no difference in the need for dialysis. Our data indicate that hydration with sodium bicarbonate in addition to high-dose NAC in the setting of urgent PCI for STEMI is associated with a net clinical benefit.

  20. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  1. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause

  2. Hanford site sodium management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenberg, S.

    1995-09-25

    The Hanford Site Sodium Management Plan, Revision 1, provides changes to the major elements and management strategy to ensure an integrated and coordinated approach for disposition of the more than 350,000 gallons of sodium and related sodium facilities located at the DOE`s Hanford Site

  3. 'Low sodium' diuresis and ileal loss in patients with ileostomies: effect of desmopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutters, M; Carmichael, D J; Unwin, R J; Sozi, C; Hunter, M; Calam, J; Lightman, S L; Peart, W S

    1991-01-01

    Patients with ileostomies show an early diuresis when sodium restricted; this, together with an obligatory ileal sodium loss, predisposes them to severe salt and water depletion. The role of arginine vasopressin in this circumstance and whether it is natriuretic, or antinatriuretic, is unclear. There is also controversy over its likely effect on small bowel fluid reabsorption. We have examined the effect of the non-pressor (V2) synthetic vasopressin analogue 1-deamino-8-D-arginine (desmopressin) on renal and ileal sodium and water excretion in ileostomy patients during acute adaptation to a low sodium diet. Patients were studied on two separate occasions (nonrandomised) with and without the administration of desmopressin (0.75 micrograms intramuscular, three times a day). In eight subjects without desmopressin there was pronounced diuresis on the first low sodium day, associated with a fall in renal sodium excretion and no change in ileal output or composition. In five (of the original) subjects with desmopressin there was pronounced antidiuresis, no change in renal sodium excretion, and no change in ileal output or composition. In both studies rises in plasma renin activity and salivary aldosterone concentration lagged behind the early decline in renal sodium excretion. We have confirmed the phenomenon of 'low sodium' diuresis after sodium restriction in ileostomy patients and shown that it can be prevented by desmopressin. Desmopressin has no direct or indirect effect on renal sodium excretion or ileal fluid and electrolyte loss in humans. PMID:2060872

  4. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate...

  5. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section). (e) The term very low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug... milligrams or less. (f) The term low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended for... substituted for the term sodium. (h) The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print...

  6. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake 6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Clinical trial with 2% sodium cromoglycate (Opticrom) in vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hennawi, M

    1980-01-01

    An open assessment study was carried out during the summer of 1972 in which 2% sodium cromoglycate eyedrops were evaluated in the treatment of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. A highly significant number of patients found the eyedrops effective, while a marked improvement was recorded in mild and moderate cases; in severe cases or in acute exacerbations additional steroid therapy was recommended. Sodium cromoglycate eyedrops were found to be as effective as Decadron and superior to Antistin-Privine. Furthermore SCG eyedrops could replace or reduce local steroid therapy in vernal keratoconjuntivitis and so avert the possible rise in ocular tension caused by steroids. PMID:6775687

  8. White button, portabella, and shiitake mushroom supplementation up-regulates interleukin-23 secretion in acute dextran sodium sulfate colitis C57BL/6 mice and murine macrophage J.744.1 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Lawrance C; Traoré, Djibril; French, Christine; Marlow, Denver; D'Offay, Jean; Clarke, Stephen L; Smith, Brenda J; Kuvibidila, Solo

    2013-05-01

    Interleukin-23 (IL-23), a cytokine produced primarily by dendritic cells, is involved in host defense against gut pathogens and promotes innate immunity and inflammatory responses through the IL-23/interleukin-17 axis. We previously reported that extracts from edible mushrooms enhanced antimicrobial α-defensin production n HL60 cells. Because IL-23 is involved in defensin production, we hypothesized that edible mushrooms may modulate its secretion and gut inflammation. Eight-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN76 diet or the same diet supplemented with 5% white button (WBM), portabella, or shiitake mushrooms. To assess in vivo and in vitro cytokine secretion, 7 to 8 mice per group received 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water during the last 5 days of the 6-week feeding period. To delineate the mechanisms by which mushrooms alter IL-23 secretion, J.744.1 cells were incubated with (100 μg/mL) WBM, portabella, and shiitake extracts without and with 100 μg/mL curdlan (a dectin-1 agonist) or 1 mg/mL laminarin (a dectin-1 antagonist). The dectin-1 receptor is a pattern-recognition receptor found in phagocytes, and its activation promotes antimicrobial innate immunity and inflammatory responses. In DSS-untreated mice, mushrooms significantly increased IL-23 plasma levels but decreased those of interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P mushroom-supplemented diets increased IL-6 and IL-23 levels (P Mushroom extracts potentiated curdlan-induced IL-23 secretion, and mushroom-induced IL-23 secretion was not blocked by laminarin in vitro, suggesting the involvement of both dectin-1-dependent and dectin-1-independent pathways. Although all mushrooms tended to increase IL-6 in the colon, only WBM and shiitake tended to increase IL-23 levels. These data suggest that edible mushrooms may enhance gut immunity through IL-23. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Aberrant sodium influx causes cardiomyopathy and atrial fibrillation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Elaine; Abrams, Jeffrey; Weinberg, Richard L; Katchman, Alexander N; Bayne, Joseph; Zakharov, Sergey I; Yang, Lin; Morrow, John P; Garan, Hasan; Marx, Steven O

    2016-01-01

    Increased sodium influx via incomplete inactivation of the major cardiac sodium channel Na(V)1.5 is correlated with an increased incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in humans. Here, we sought to determine whether increased sodium entry is sufficient to cause the structural and electrophysiological perturbations that are required to initiate and sustain AF. We used mice expressing a human Na(V)1.5 variant with a mutation in the anesthetic-binding site (F1759A-Na(V)1.5) and demonstrated that incomplete Na+ channel inactivation is sufficient to drive structural alterations, including atrial and ventricular enlargement, myofibril disarray, fibrosis and mitochondrial injury, and electrophysiological dysfunctions that together lead to spontaneous and prolonged episodes of AF in these mice. Using this model, we determined that the increase in a persistent sodium current causes heterogeneously prolonged action potential duration and rotors, as well as wave and wavelets in the atria, and thereby mimics mechanistic theories that have been proposed for AF in humans. Acute inhibition of the sodium-calcium exchanger, which targets the downstream effects of enhanced sodium entry, markedly reduced the burden of AF and ventricular arrhythmias in this model, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach for AF. Together, our results indicate that these mice will be important for assessing the cellular mechanisms and potential effectiveness of antiarrhythmic therapies.

  10. Sodium regulation, sodium pump function and sodium pump inhibitors in uncomplicated pregnancy and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Steven W

    2007-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria but can manifest many abnormalities. Some of the best documented alterations involve changes in the handling of sodium ion both on the systemic and on the cellular level. There is broad agreement that the components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway are markedly reduced in women with preeclampsia. However, other changes, especially those involving cell sodium are less consistent. A majority of studies support an increase in peripheral cell sodium concentration. This would suggest a defect in (Na,K)ATPase or sodium pump activity. Direct study of cellular sodium pump activity provides suggestive but not unequivocal support for this decreased sodium pump activity. Other evidence indicates increased circulating concentrations of a sodium pump inhibitor in most, but not all, studies of preeclampsia. Together, current research argues more strongly in favor of derangements of cell sodium handling perhaps mediated by circulating sodium pump inhibitors leading often to increased cell sodium. Such an increase of cell sodium in vascular tissue has previously been shown to enhance vascular sensitivity to vasoconstrictor agents or lead directly to increased vasoconstriction.

  11. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  12. Sodium channels and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Abdella M; Wood, John N; Cox, James J

    2015-01-01

    Human and mouse genetic studies have led to significant advances in our understanding of the role of voltage-gated sodium channels in pain pathways. In this chapter, we focus on Nav1.7, Nav1.8, Nav1.9 and Nav1.3 and describe the insights gained from the detailed analyses of global and conditional transgenic Nav knockout mice in terms of pain behaviour. The spectrum of human disorders caused by mutations in these channels is also outlined, concluding with a summary of recent progress in the development of selective Nav1.7 inhibitors for the treatment of pain.

  13. Mechanistic studies of sodium pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Larry D

    2008-08-01

    Sodium pump was the first ion pump discovered. A member of the family of active transporters that catalyze adenosine 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis by forming a phosphorylated enzyme intermediate, sodium pump couples the energy released to unequal countertransport of sodium and potassium ions. The ion gradient generated by the pump is important for a variety of secondary physiological processes ranging from metabolite transport to electrical excitation of nerve and muscle. Selected experiments relating structure to function are reviewed.

  14. Sodium channelopathies and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Angelika; O'Reilly, Andrias O; Reeh, Peter; Leffler, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Chronic pain often represents a severe, debilitating condition. Up to 10% of the worldwide population are affected, and many patients are poorly responsive to current treatment strategies. Nociceptors detect noxious conditions to produce the sensation of pain, and this signal is conveyed to the CNS by means of action potentials. The fast upstroke of action potentials is mediated by voltage-gated sodium channels, of which nine pore-forming alpha-subunits (Nav1.1-1.9) have been identified. Heterogeneous functional properties and distinct expression patterns denote specialized functions of each subunit. The Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 subunits have emerged as key molecules involved in peripheral pain processing and in the development of an increased pain sensitivity associated with inflammation and tissue injury. Several mutations in the SCN9A gene encoding for Nav1.7 have been identified as important cellular substrates for different heritable pain syndromes. This review aims to cover recent progress on our understanding of how biophysical properties of mutant Nav1.7 translate into an aberrant electrogenesis of nociceptors. We also recapitulate the role of Nav1.8 for peripheral pain processing and of additional sodium channelopathies which have been linked to disorders with pain as a significant component.

  15. Effect of sodium deoxycholate and sodium cholate on DPPC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effects of two bile salts, namely sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) and sodium cholate (NaC), on DPPC small unilamellar vesicles have been investigated using the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy () of diphenylhexatriene (DPH) as a tool. It was found that the variation of is sensitive enough to monitor different ...

  16. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride ...

  17. Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in the one-pot synthesis of intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxides. Fengzhu Lv Zilin Meng Penggang Li Yihe Zhang Guocheng Lv Qian Zhang Zhilei Zhang. Volume 38 Issue 4 August 2015 pp 1079-1085. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF.

  18. USE OF SODIUM ALUMINATE IN FOUNDRY PAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of the properties of the casting paints based on sodium silicate and sodium aluminat, and sodium aluminat as an additive to the ink for the organic binder has shown that sodium aluminat provides a higher level of properties than sodium silicate and aluminat, in addition to an organic paint binder improves properties

  19. Sodium Channels in Pain and Cancer: New Therapeutic Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Ana Paula; Wood, John N

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) underpin electrical activity in the nervous system through action potential propagation. First predicted by the modeling studies of Hodgkin and Huxley, they were subsequently identified at the molecular level by groups led by Catterall and Numa. VGSC dysfunction has long been linked to neuronal and cardiac disorders with some nonselective sodium channel blockers in current use in the clinic. The lack of selectivity means that side effect issues are a major impediment to the use of broad spectrum sodium channel blockers. Nine different sodium channels are known to exist, and selective blockers are now being developed. The potential utility of these drugs to target diseases ranging from migraine, multiple sclerosis, muscle, and immune system disorders, to cancer and pain is being explored. Four channels are potential targets for pain disorders. This conclusion comes from mouse knockout studies and human mutations that prove the involvement of Nav1.3, Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 in the development and maintenance of acute and chronic pain. In this chapter, we present a short overview of the possible role of Nav1.3, Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 in human pain and the emerging and unexpected role of sodium channels in cancer pathogenesis. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Caffeine intake antagonizes salt sensitive hypertension through improvement of renal sodium handling

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Yu; Tao Yang; Peng Gao; Xing Wei; Hexuan Zhang; Shiqiang Xiong; Zongshi Lu; Li Li; Xiao Wei; Jing Chen; Yu Zhao; Arendshorst, William J.; Qianhui Shang; Daoyan Liu; Zhiming Zhu

    2016-01-01

    High salt intake is a major risk factor for hypertension. Although acute caffeine intake produces moderate diuresis and natriuresis, caffeine increases the blood pressure (BP) through activating sympathetic activity. However, the long-term effects of caffeine on urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure are rarely investigated. Here, we investigated whether chronic caffeine administration antagonizes salt sensitive hypertension by promoting urinary sodium excretion. Dahl salt-sensitive (Dah...

  1. Sodium pump localization in epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystriansky, Jason S; Kaplan, Jack H

    2007-12-01

    In epithelial cells, the sodium pump, in coordination with several other ion transporting proteins and channels, acts to regulate directional water and ion flux across the epithelial barrier. This function is dependant on the polarized localization of the sodium pump to a single plasma membrane domain. In most epithelial cell types the sodium pump is found in an exclusively basolateral position. Despite the clear importance of maintaining a polarized distribution of the sodium pump, surprisingly little is known about the specific mechanisms responsible for the targeting and trafficking of the sodium pump to the basolateral surface. We briefly discuss our current understanding of factors which may act to regulate the cellular distribution of the sodium pump, including the potential role of the sodium pump beta-subunit. Several previous, studies have suggested that the expression of the beta2 isoform (instead of beta1) may cause the apical localization of the sodium pump. This appeared to be confirmed by Wilson et al. Am J Pathol, 156: 253-268, 2000 who found that MDCK cells stably transfected with the beta2 subunit express the sodium pump at the apical surface. However, careful examination by Laughery et al.,Am J Physiol, 292: F1718-F1725, 2007, showed that the apical targeting of the pump was caused by the presence of butyrate in the cell growth media and was not due to the presence of the beta2 isoform. These findings are discussed below, along with potential explanations as to how butyrate may influence the polarity of the sodium pump in epithelial cells.

  2. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  3. Effect of beta-alanine, with and without sodium bicarbonate, on 2000-m rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Ruth M; Harris, Roger C; Martin, Dan; Smith, Perry; Macklin, Ben; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig

    2013-10-01

    To examine the effect of beta-alanine only and beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2,000-m rowing performance. Twenty well-trained rowers (age 23 ± 4 y; height 1.85 ± 0.08 m; body mass 82.5 ± 8.9 kg) were assigned to either a placebo or beta-alanine (6.4 g · d(-1) for 4 weeks) group. A 2,000-m rowing time trial (TT) was performed before supplementation (Baseline) and after 28 and 30 days of supplementation. The post supplementation trials involved supplementation with either maltodextrin or sodium bicarbonate in a double-blind, crossover design, creating four study conditions (placebo with maltodextrin; placebo with sodium bicarbonate; beta-alanine with maltodextrin; beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate). Blood lactate, pH, bicarbonate, and base excess were measured pre-TT, immediately post-TT and at TT+5 min. Performance data were analyzed using magnitude based inferences. Beta-alanine supplementation was very likely to be beneficial to 2,000-m rowing performance (6.4 ± 8.1 s effect compared with placebo), with the effect of sodium bicarbonate having a likely benefit (3.2 ± 8.8 s). There was a small (1.1 ± 5.6 s) but possibly beneficial additional effect when combining chronic beta-alanine supplementation with acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation compared with chronic beta-alanine supplementation alone. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion led to increases in plasma pH, base excess, bicarbonate, and lactate concentrations. Both chronic beta-alanine and acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation alone had positive effects on 2,000-m rowing performance. The addition of acute sodium bicarbonate to chronic beta-alanine supplementation may further enhance rowing performance.

  4. Sodium fire testing: structural evaluation of sodium fire suppression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the development and the lessons learned from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Sodium Fire Testing Program (DRS 26.03). The purpose of this program was to evaluate the behavior of the Sodium Fire Suppression System and validate the analytical techniques used in the calculation of the effects of sodium fires in air-filled cells. This report focuses on the fire suppression capability and the structural integrity of the Fire Suppression System. System features are discussed; the test facility is described and the key results are provided. Modifications to the fire suppression system and the plant made as a result of test experience are also discussed.

  5. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  6. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the fundamentals of alkali diffusion in boroaluminosilicate (BAS) glasses is of critical importance for advanced glass applications, e.g., the production of chemically strengthened glass covers for personal electronic devices. Here, we investigate the composition dependence...... of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O...

  8. Teratogenicity of sodium valproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, Rachel; Wyszynski, Diego F

    2005-03-01

    The teratogenicity of the widely popular antiepileptic drug (AED) and mood stabiliser sodium valproate (also known as valproate, VPA) has been evidenced by previous research; however, these findings have often been limited by a small population sample of exposed women and a retrospective study design. Many factors contribute to the teratogenicity of VPA. These include the number of drugs that are co-administered, drug dosage, differences in maternal and/or infant metabolism, the gestational age of the fetus at exposure, and hereditary susceptibility. VPA has been associated with a variety of major and minor malformations, including a 20-fold increase in neural tube defects, cleft lip and palate, cardiovascular abnormalities, genitourinary defects, developmental delay, endocrinological disorders, limb defects, and autism. It has been suggested that polytherapy treatment in epileptic pregnant women increases the risk of teratogenicity in offspring. Furthermore, there is an established relationship between VPA dose and adverse outcome. Large single doses of VPA potentially cause high peak levels in the fetal serum resulting in deleterious effects. Currently there is an increase in the number of national and international pregnancy registries being formed in an effort to better identify the teratogenic effects of AEDs. These efforts hope to enhance our understanding of AEDs and their associated risks by addressing past study limitations.

  9. Sodium management in dialysis by conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetto, A; Bene, B; Petitclerc, T

    1999-07-01

    The determination of dialysate sodium concentration is one of the challenges of dialysis prescription, because no accurate information on the predialytic sodium overload is available. Too low dialysate sodium is responsible for intradialytic intolerance symptoms, whereas too high sodium may lead to long-term water sodium overload with cardiovascular hazards (hypertension, left heart failure). We propose here a biofeedback system based on noninvasive repeated measures of ionic dialysance and plasma water conductivity used here as a surrogate of plasma water sodium. This system achieves a stable postdialytic sodium pool and subsequently a dialysate sodium concentration adapted to the inter dialytic sodium load. This new tool in dialysate sodium prescription aims at reducing the morbidity related to patient sodium balance impairment.

  10. Bronchitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflamed tissue in the main ... present only for a short time. Causes When acute bronchitis occurs, it almost always comes after having a ...

  11. Acute cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000264.htm Acute cholecystitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute cholecystitis is sudden swelling and irritation of the gallbladder. ...

  12. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    OpenAIRE

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C), formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium car...

  13. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-06-01

    Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to moderate intake. However, current observational evidence suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CVD; the lowest risks observed with 3-5 g/day but higher risk with 5 g/day) and increased risk of CVD. Although lower intake may reduce BP, this may be offset by marked increases in neurohormones and other adverse effects which may paradoxically be adverse. Large randomised clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are required to provide robust data on the long-term effects of sodium reduction on CVD incidence. Until such trials are completed, current evidence suggests that moderate sodium intake for the general population (3-5 g/day) is likely the optimum range for CVD prevention.

  14. 21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cloprostenol sodium. 522.460 Section 522.460 Food... Cloprostenol sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of the aqueous solution contains 263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid...

  15. Technical Guidelines for Sodium Storage and Handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. B.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, T. J.; Nam, H. Y.; Lee, T. H.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.; Choi, J. H.

    2010-09-15

    This document presents as a technical guideline for education and training of beginners who engage in the sodium facility operation and R and D activities for the first time. This guideline covers the following technical areas. - General properties of sodium - Sodium handling technology - Sodium fire and fire fighting - Material safety data sheet(MSDS)

  16. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  17. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed...

  18. Natriuretic Hormones, Endogenous Ouabain, and Related Sodium Transport Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHamlyn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work of deWardener and colleagues stimulated longstanding interest in natriuretic hormones (NH. In addition to the atrial peptides (APs, the circulation contains unidentified physiologically-relevant NHs. One NH is controlled by the central nervous system (CNS and likely secreted by the pituitary. Its circulating activity is modulated by salt intake and the prevailing sodium concentration of the blood and intracerebroventricular fluid, and contributes to postprandial and dehydration natriuresis. The other NH, mobilized by atrial stretch, promotes natriuresis by increasing the production of intrarenal dopamine and/or nitric oxide. Both NHs have short (<35 minutes circulating half lives, depress renotubular sodium transport, and neither requires the renal nerves. The search for NHs led to endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS including ouabain-, digoxin-, and bufadienolide-like materials. These CTS, given acutely in high nanomole to micromole amounts into the general or renal circulations, inhibit sodium pumps and are natriuretic. Among these CTS, only bufalin is cleared sufficiently rapidly to qualify for an NH-like role. Ouabain-like CTS are cleared slowly, and when given chronically in low daily nanomole amounts, promote sodium retention, augment arterial myogenic tone, reduce renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, suppress nitric oxide in the renal vasa recta, and increase sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. Moreover, lowering total body sodium raises circulating endogenous ouabain. Thus, ouabain-like CTS have physiological actions that, like aldosterone, support renal sodium retention and blood pressure. In conclusion, the mammalian circulation contains two non-AP NHs. Identification of the CNS NH should be a priority.

  19. Predictive Factors of Gastrointestinal Injuries after Exposure to Sodium Hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghoochani Khorasani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium hypochlorite is found in bleaching agents used to cleaning dishes and bleach laundry. The ingestion of sodium hypochlorite causes acute corrosive esophagitis and gastritis. In establishing the diagnosis and therapeutic approach of acute corrosive poisonings, the upper endoscopy has great importance. The aim of this study was to determine predictive factors of gastrointestinal injuries that mandate early endoscopy. Methods: This study consisted of 65 patients presented to Loghman Hakim Toxicology Center, Tehran, Iran with history of sodium hypochlorite bleach exposure from 2010 to 2014. The post-corrosive damage classified according to Kikendal’s grading. Results: There were a total of 19 males and 46 females with a mean age of 34.21 yr old. In upper GI endoscopy, 20% of poisoned patients had abnormal findings. Male gender (P=0.029, presence of hoarseness (P=0.044, nausea and vomiting (P=0.007, sialorrhea (P=0.044 and higher age (P=0.05 were associated with the occurrence of gastrointestinal injuries, but only male gender (OR=5.04, nausea and vomiting (OR=8.97 were independent predictors of gastrointestinal injuries (P=0.03 and P=0.03, respectively. Conclusion: We proposed five factors associated with gastrointestinal injuries, which could be important factors that mandate urgent endoscopy.

  20. Acute hyperkalemia and failure of pacemaker stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guetta, Roland; Mansencal, Nicolas; Digne, Franck; Dubourg, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    Acute hyperkalemia may induce well-known serious cardiac arrhythmia. However, ventricular aberration including concealed conduction may also occur. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman who had a previous history of late-operated ventricular septal defect communication and DDD pacemaker was admitted for dyspnea. During hospitalization, an acute hyperkalemia induced sinoatrial block despite correct pacemaker programming. Sodium bicarbonate allowed to restore sinus rhythm. Our report highlights that acute hyperkalemia may increase thresholds of pacemaker stimulus and physicians should be aware that complete block of conduction may occur despite correct pacemaker programming. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ke

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent...

  2. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  3. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Diabetic Hyperglycemic Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Machado Ramírez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state are two of the major metabolic emergencies that may occur. These conditions are not always treated properly.Objective: to describe the metabolic hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetic patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit, and to assess the use of sodium bicarbonate. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted including 52 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Enrique Cabrera Hospital from 2000 through 2007. The following variables were analyzed: type of diabetes mellitus, type of acute complication, use or not of sodium bicarbonate, blood gases, ionogram and progress of patients. Kitabchi criteria were used for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and its severity and for the diagnosis of the hyperglycemic state as well. Criteria proposed by an Expert Committee of the American Diabetes Association and a World Health Organization Expert Committee were adopted for the diagnosis of diabetes and its classification. Results: diabetic ketoacidosis was confirmed in 57,5 % of type 1 diabetic patients and in 42,5 % of those with type 2 diabetes. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was observed in 23,0 % of type 2 diabetics. There was not any death among patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who did not use sodium bicarbonate whereas 80,0 % of patients with hyperglycemic state who used it died. Conclusions: diabetic ketoacidosis was the most common complication. Mortality due to ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was high. Sodium bicarbonate was not properly used.

  4. Two barriers for sodium in vascular endothelium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberleithner, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelium plays a key role in blood pressure regulation. Recently, it has been shown that a 5% increase of plasma sodium concentration (sodium excess) stiffens endothelial cells by about 25%, leading to cellular dysfunction. Surface measurements demonstrated that the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC), an anionic biopolymer, deteriorates when sodium is elevated. In view of these results, a two-barrier model for sodium exiting the circulation across the endothelium is suggested. The first sodium barrier is the eGC which selectively buffers sodium ions with its negatively charged prote-oglycans.The second sodium barrier is the endothelial plasma membrane which contains sodium channels. Sodium excess, in the presence of aldosterone, leads to eGC break-down and, in parallel, to an up-regulation of plasma membrane sodium channels. The following hypothesis is postulated: Sodium excess increases vascular sodium permeability. Under such con-ditions (e.g. high-sodium diet), day-by-day ingested sodium, instead of being readily buffered by the eGC and then rapidly excreted by the kidneys, is distributed in the whole body before being finally excreted. Gradually, the sodium overload damages the organism. PMID:22471931

  5. Sodium Azide Associated Acute Hyperkalemia in a Swine Model of Sodium Azide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-16

    Surgical Center (WHASC) internship and residency programs. 3. Please know that if you are a Graduate Health Sciences Education student and your...Continued Graph 1. Potassium trends over time In treated vs. non treated animals Limitations ....•..• Potil1isium r Conclusions r--.J" ..J’--J’-...j...J.’-.J’,J, ....~,..J,j\\""r--’-i~-....f’.J’ J I , .a- ,.... _ ••••••••1 _ •.•••••• J _ •• ~ zo_ 110_ __ W_ fO$ Figure 1. ST elevation In animal #8611

  6. Acute Porphyrias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besur, Siddesh; Schmeltzer, Paul; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2015-09-01

    Porphyrias are a group of eight metabolic disorders characterized by defects in heme biosynthesis. Porphyrias are classified into two major categories: 1) the acute or inducible porphyrias and 2) the chronic cutaneous porphyrias. The acute hepatic porphyrias are further classified into acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), hereditary coproporphyria, variegate porphyria, and porphyria due to severe deficiency of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase (ALADP). AIP is the most common, and ALADP is the least common acute porphyria. The clinical presentations of acute porphyrias are nonspecific. There are no pathognomonic signs or symptoms. The most frequent presenting symptom is abdominal pain, but pain in the chest, back, or lower extremities may also occur. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality during acute attacks, and hypomagnesemia is also common. Both are risk factors for development of seizures, which occur in ∼ 20-30% of acute attacks. Once suspected, the diagnosis of porphyria can be rapidly established by checking random urinary porphobilinogen. Initial management of acute porphyria includes discontinuation of all potentially harmful drugs and management of symptoms. Acute attacks should be treated emergently with intravenous heme and glucose to avoid considerable morbidity and mortality. Acute attacks last a few days, and the majority of patients are asymptomatic between attacks. Prognosis is good if the condition is recognized early and treated aggressively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  8. Complications in the use of sodium hypochlorite during endodontic treatment. Report of three cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, A. G.

    1991-01-01

    In endodontic treatment, solutions of sodium hypochlorite are widely used as an irrigating agent. It is an effective solvent of both necrotic and vital tissues, which makes it toxic to the surrounding tissues. Complications are rarely reported. Nevertheless, the acute symptoms caused by the toxic

  9. Acute cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fialkowski, Elizabeth; Halpin, Valerie; Whinney, Robb R

    2008-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis causes unremitting right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and if untreated can lead to perforations, abscess formation, or fistulae. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones.It is thought that blockage of the bile duct by a gallstone or local inflammation can lead to acute cholecystitis, but we don't know whether bacterial infection is also necessary.

  10. Acute cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Halpin, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis causes unremitting right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and if untreated can lead to perforations, abscess formation, or fistulae. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones.It is thought that blockage of the cystic duct by a gallstone or local inflammation can lead to acute cholecystitis, but we don't know whether bacterial infection is also necessary.

  11. Acute cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Halpin, Valerie; Gupta, Aditya

    2011-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis causes unremitting right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and if untreated can lead to perforations, abscess formation, or fistulae. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones.It is thought that blockage of the bile duct by a gallstone or local inflammation can lead to acute cholecystitis, but we don't know whether bacterial infection is also necessary.

  12. Agranulocytosis after Metamizole Sodium Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Cagan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metamizole sodium (Novalgine is commonly used as an antipyretic, analgesic, and spasmolytic agent in some parts of the world and our country; however, it is banned in developed countries because of severe side effects. Here we present a case of a three-years- four- months-old girl who developed life-threatening agranulocytosis in his bone marrow after metamizole sodium use for fever, which resolved with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 580-583

  13. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  14. LMFBR safety and sodium boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, W.D.; Tschamper, P.M.; Fontana, M.H.; Henry, R.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Within the U.S. Fast Breeder Reactor Safety R and D Work Breakdown Structure for Line of Assurance 2, Limit Core Damage, the influence of sodium boiling upon the progression and termination of accidents is being studied in loss of flow, transient overpower, loss of piping integrity, loss of shutdown heat removal system and local fault situations. The pertinent analytical and experimental results of this research to date are surveyed and compared with the requirements for demonstrating the effectiveness of this line of assurance. A discussion of specific technical issues concerned with sodium boiling and the need for future development work is also presented.

  15. Leptin blockade attenuates sodium excretion in saline-loaded normotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Daniel; Reams, Garry; Freeman, Ronald; Spear, Robert; Tchoukina, Inna; Samar, Huma

    2006-02-01

    Previous investigations in normotensive animals have demonstrated a marked natriuretic and diuretic response following the acute administration of supraphysiologic doses of synthetic leptin. However, the importance of endogenous leptin in the regulation of renal sodium and water balance is not yet defined. This study examined the hemodynamic and renal excretory effects of circulating leptin blockade with a specific polyclonal antibody in groups of normotensive, chronically saline-loaded Sprague-Dawley rats. In the experimental group (n = 10), leptin antibody significantly decreased urinary sodium excretion and urinary flow by approximately 30% compared to the control rats (n = 10). Mean arterial pressure remained unchanged. Collectively, these results are interpreted to suggest that leptin is an important renal sodium-regulating factor under conditions of mild sodium and volume expansion.

  16. Sodium disorders in the emergency department: a review of hyponatremia and hypernatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Camiron L; Slovis, Corey M

    2012-10-01

    Identifying and correcting sodium abnormalities is critical, since suboptimal management potentially leads to substantial morbidity and mortality. Manifestations of hyponatremia, which is one of the more common electrolyte abnormalities in clinical medicine, depend on multiple factors, including the chronicity of the symptoms, the absolute level of sodium, and the patient's overall health. In symptomatic hyponatremia, emergency clinicians must understand the importance of determining the proper rate of sodium correction in order to avoid encephalopathy, cerebral edema, and death. Hypernatremia is most often due to unreplaced water that is lost from the gastrointestinal tract, skin, or the urine. Acute symptomatic hypernatremia should be corrected rapidly, while chronic hypernatremia is generally corrected more slowly due to the risks of brain edema during treatment. Special circumstances do exist in sodium management, and every patient's presentation should be evaluated in clinical context.

  17. Sodium/proton antiporter in Streptococcus faecalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kakinuma, Y

    1987-01-01

    Streptococcus faecalis, like other bacteria, accumulates potassium ions and expels sodium ions. This paper is concerned with the pathway of sodium extrusion. Earlier studies (D.L. Heefner and F.M. Harold, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:2798-2802, 1982) showed that sodium extrusion is effected by a primary, ATP-linked sodium pump. I report here that cells grown under conditions in which sodium ATPase is not induced can still expel sodium ions. This finding suggested the existence of an alternat...

  18. Dietary Sodium Intake in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Laura Ferreira; Stark, Sue; Steenkiste, Ann; Piraino, Beth; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-07-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Superimposed hypertension further increases the risk and is associated with increased dietary sodium intake. There are few data available on dietary sodium intake in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to quantify dietary sodium intake in a cohort of self-referred patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with it. Sodium intake in this cohort was far greater than current recommendations. Increased awareness of sodium intake in this population might lead to target interventions to reduce sodium intake and potentially improve long-term outcomes.

  19. Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I

    2010-02-01

    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  20. Bronchitis (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Wark, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Acute bronchitis affects more than 40 in 1000 adults per year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens.The role of smoking or environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear.One third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence.

  1. Acute nierschade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.E.; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  2. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana; Damasceno, Albertino; Jessen, Neusa; Novela, Célia; Moreira, Pedro; Lunet, Nuno; Padrão, Patrícia

    2017-08-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus(®) was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium). Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium) was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation) urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830) mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0%) and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%). The mean (standard deviation) urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778) mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation) sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4). Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  3. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  4. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaHann, T.

    1995-11-01

    ISU`s Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents.

  5. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  6. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkor, Mati

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  7. Identification of sodium channel isoforms that mediate action potential firing in lamina I/II spinal cord neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Michael E; Mezeyova, Janette; Smith, Paula L; Salter, Michael W; Tringham, Elizabeth; Snutch, Terrance P

    2011-09-12

    Voltage-gated sodium channels play key roles in acute and chronic pain processing. The molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of sodium channel currents have been extensively studied for peripheral nociceptors while the properties of sodium channel currents in dorsal horn spinal cord neurons remain incompletely understood. Thus far, investigations into the roles of sodium channel function in nociceptive signaling have primarily focused on recombinant channels or peripheral nociceptors. Here, we utilize recordings from lamina I/II neurons withdrawn from the surface of spinal cord slices to systematically determine the functional properties of sodium channels expressed within the superficial dorsal horn. Sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons exhibited relatively hyperpolarized voltage-dependent properties and fast kinetics of both inactivation and recovery from inactivation, enabling small changes in neuronal membrane potentials to have large effects on intrinsic excitability. By combining biophysical and pharmacological channel properties with quantitative real-time PCR results, we demonstrate that functional sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons are predominantly composed of the NaV1.2 and NaV1.3 isoforms. Overall, lamina I/II neurons express a unique combination of functional sodium channels that are highly divergent from the sodium channel isoforms found within peripheral nociceptors, creating potentially complementary or distinct ion channel targets for future pain therapeutics.

  8. Intrarenal ghrelin receptors regulate ENaC-dependent sodium reabsorption by a cAMP-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Brandon A; Howell, Nancy L; Gildea, John J; Keller, Susanna R; Padia, Shetal H

    2013-09-01

    The main distal nephron segment sodium transporters are the distal tubule chlorothiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and the collecting duct amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). The infusion of ghrelin into the renal interstitium stimulates distal nephron-dependent sodium reabsorption in normal rats, but the mechanism is unknown. Here we localize renal ghrelin receptors (GR) to the cortical collecting duct (CCD). Ghrelin significantly increased phosphorylated serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-1 (pSGK1), a major upstream signaling intermediate regulating ENaC. To test whether increased apical membrane αENaC induced the antinatriuresis, ghrelin was infused in the presence of acute and chronic amiloride, a selective inhibitor of ENaC. In the presence of amiloride, renal interstitial ghrelin failed to reduce urine sodium excretion, suggesting that ghrelin-induced sodium reabsorption is dependent on intact ENaC activity. While the main sodium transporter of the CCD is ENaC, NCC is also present. In response to renal interstitial ghrelin infusion, neither total nor phosphorylated NCC levels are altered. Ghrelin-induced sodium reabsorption persisted in the presence of chlorothiazide (selective inhibitor of NCC), indicating that intact NCC activity is not necessary for ghrelin-induced antinatriuresis. Finally, renal interstitial ghrelin infusion significantly increased interstitial cAMP levels and adenylyl cyclase blockade abolished ghrelin-induced antinatriuresis. Thus, GRs expressed in the CCD regulate sodium reabsorption by cAMP-induced trafficking of ENaC to the apical membrane.

  9. Identification of sodium channel isoforms that mediate action potential firing in lamina I/II spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paula L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage-gated sodium channels play key roles in acute and chronic pain processing. The molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of sodium channel currents have been extensively studied for peripheral nociceptors while the properties of sodium channel currents in dorsal horn spinal cord neurons remain incompletely understood. Thus far, investigations into the roles of sodium channel function in nociceptive signaling have primarily focused on recombinant channels or peripheral nociceptors. Here, we utilize recordings from lamina I/II neurons withdrawn from the surface of spinal cord slices to systematically determine the functional properties of sodium channels expressed within the superficial dorsal horn. Results Sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons exhibited relatively hyperpolarized voltage-dependent properties and fast kinetics of both inactivation and recovery from inactivation, enabling small changes in neuronal membrane potentials to have large effects on intrinsic excitability. By combining biophysical and pharmacological channel properties with quantitative real-time PCR results, we demonstrate that functional sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons are predominantly composed of the NaV1.2 and NaV1.3 isoforms. Conclusions Overall, lamina I/II neurons express a unique combination of functional sodium channels that are highly divergent from the sodium channel isoforms found within peripheral nociceptors, creating potentially complementary or distinct ion channel targets for future pain therapeutics.

  10. Two cases of methemoglobinaemia caused by suspected sodium nitrite poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Matteucci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the causes of acute methemo-globinaemia are the ingestion and inhalation of over 40 oxidising substances, including nitrite, nitrate, carbon monoxide, some medicines, chlorine. The authors describe a case of acute methemoglobinaemia in two people that most probably suffered from food poisoning resulting from the consumption of a preparation of a dish called turkey alla canzanese that contained significant amounts of sodium nitrite. Both subjects who were treated promptly with methylene blue and hyperbaric oxygen therapy room recovered fully. Epidemiological investigations performed to clarify the dynamics of the episode suggested that among the causes of contamination were the swapping of products at the time of sale and the non-compliance to rules for the preparation of foods for human consumption.

  11. Clinical impact of nonosmotic sodium storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Engberink, R.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    High sodium intake is associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular and renal risk. In this thesis we assessed whether these negative effects of sodium can be neutralised by glycosaminoglycans in the endothelial surface layer (i.e. nonosmotic sodium storage). Also, we investigate the

  12. 21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsanilate sodium. 558.60 Section 558.60 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.60 Arsanilate sodium. (a) Appprovals. Type A medicated articles: 20, 50, or 100...) Arsanilate sodium may be used in accordance with the provisions of this section in the combinations provided...

  13. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at 0.1...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... as a preservative and color fixative in canned pet food containing fish, meat, and fish and meat... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and...

  16. Eagle-Picher Industries Sodium Sulfur Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Ronald L.

    1993-02-01

    Viewgraphs of the sodium sulfur program are presented. Sodium sulfur low earth orbit (LEO) cells are described. Topics covered include cell sizes, areas of improvement, and NaS cell testing. Sodium sulfur cell and battery designs continue to evolve with significant improvement demonstrated in resistance, rechargeability, cycle life, energy density, and electrolyte characterization.

  17. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i) Amount...

  18. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all

  19. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and... level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  3. Tolvaptan in the Treatment of Acute Hyponatremia Associated with Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Gopinath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia defined as a plasma sodium concentration of less than 135 mmol/L is a very common disorder, occurring in hospitalized patients. Hyponatremia often results from an increase in circulating arginine vasopressin (AVP levels and/or increased renal sensitivity to AVP, combined with an increased intake of free water. Hyponatremia is subdivided into three groups, depending on clinical history and volume status: hypovolemic, euvolemic, and hypervolemic. Acute symptomatic hyponatremia is usually treated with hypertonic (3% saline. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone hypersecretion (SIADH and hypervolemic hyponatremia caused by heart failure or cirrhosis are treated with vasopressin antagonists (vaptans since they increase plasma sodium (Na2+ concentration via their aquaretic effects (augmentation of free-water clearance. The role of tolvaptan in the treatment of acute hyponatremia and conversion of oliguric to nonoliguric phase of acute tubular necrosis has not been previously described.

  4. Sodium purification in Rapsodie; La purification du sodium a Rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [French] Ce rapport fait partie d'une serie de publications presentant l'essentiel des resultats des essais effectues a l'occasion du demarrage du premier reacteur francais a neutrons rapides: RAPSODIE. Cet article expose les techniques de la purification du sodium utilise dans les circuits de refroidissement du reacteur tant au point de vue de leur realisation technologique, que des resultats obtenus pendant la premiere annee de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  5. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a...

  6. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  7. Acute Cholecystitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schuld, Jochen; Glanemann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of acute cholecystitis has been controversially discussed in the literature as there are no high-evidence-level data yet for determining the optimal point in time for surgical intervention...

  8. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400°C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 lm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  9. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-02-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  10. Bronchitis (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Wark, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Acute bronchitis, with transient inflammation of the trachea and major bronchi, affects over 40/1000 adults a year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens.The role of smoking or environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear.A third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence.

  11. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig, E-mail: cgerardi@anl.gov; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Distributed temperature sensors measured high-resolution liquid-sodium temperatures. • DTSs worked well up to 400 °C. • A single DTS simultaneously detected sodium level and temperature. - Abstract: Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400 °C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 μm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  12. Effect of renal nerve activity on tubular sodium and water reabsorption in dog kidneys as determined by the lithium clearance method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, U; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of the lithium clearance method in studies of the effect of renal nerve activity upon tubular sodium and water handling in the dog kidney was investigated. Following unilateral acute surgical denervation of the kidney a significant increase in urinary flow rate (40 +/- 7%), sodium...... reabsorption of sodium and water increased significantly by 9 +/- 2% and 8 +/- 2%. Low-frequency electrical stimulation of the distal nerve bundle of the denervated kidney caused a significant decrease in urine flow rate (37 +/- 6%), sodium clearance (31 +/- 4%), lithium clearance (17 +/- 5%) and in fractional...... lithium clearance (18 +/- 5%). Calculated absolute proximal reabsorption rate increased significantly by 17 +/- 3%, while calculated absolute rates of distal sodium and water reabsorption decreased significantly by 16 +/- 5% and 16 +/- 5%. These changes in tubular sodium and water reabsorption during...

  13. [Compare the effect of lipo- and normal prepared Sodium Morrhuate on ECV-304 cell line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jun-Bo; Lan, Hai-Long; Yang, Zhuang-Qun; Zhang, Tie-Liang; Song, Yong; Xing, Zhe

    2006-12-01

    To compare the effect of Sodium Morrhuate on ECV-304 between its lipo- and normal preparation. The ECV-304 cell line was supplemented with Sodium Morrhuate and lipo-Sodium Morrhuate in order, and the result on morphology (microscope, Giemsa Staining and electron microscope), cell activity (MTT), and flow cytometer between the two preparation were compared. In normal preparation group, cell's edema occurred. Chromatin was like catkins. Tumefaction and degeneration of mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum appeared. In lipo-Sodium Morrhuate group, the membrane was creased and processus appeared. Chromatin aggregates to the membrane of nucleus was like crescent, and then broken. The apoptotic body was formed. MTT changes showed that the curve of the normal preparation group was steep and the change time was short relatively, which cues the vital cells decreased sharply. The curve of lipo-Sodium Morrhuate group was gentle and the change time was long relatively, which cues the vital cells decreased slowly. The flow cytometer showed that typical apoptosis peak appeared. The normal preparation group shows an acute toxic effect on ECV-304 cell line, which result in a necrosis course, while lipo-Sodium Morrhuate shows a gradual releasing process, which may indicate a apoptosis course.

  14. Accidental death from acute selenium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Katharine A; Lavercombe, Peter S; Dillon, Jasmine; Ginsberg, Riesa

    2006-10-02

    We report a fatal case of acute selenium poisoning in a 75-year-old man. After reading on the Internet about a possible role of selenium in prostate cancer, the patient ingested 10 g of sodium selenite. Despite intensive care treatment, he suffered a cardiac arrest and died 6 hours after ingestion. This case illustrates the risks of failing to critically evaluate Internet information and exposes the myth that natural therapies are inherently safe.

  15. Functional Expression of Drosophila para Sodium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmke, Jeffrey W.; Reenan, Robert A.G.; Wang, Peiyi; Qian, Su; Arena, Joseph P.; Wang, Jixin; Wunderler, Denise; Liu, Ken; Kaczorowski, Gregory J.; Ploeg, Lex H.T. Van der; Ganetzky, Barry; Cohen, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    The Drosophila para sodium channel α subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd ≅ 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels. PMID:9236205

  16. Fluid balance does not predict estimated sodium balance in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Shailesh; Baldwin, Claire E; Bersten, Andrew D

    2013-06-01

    Distribution of total body water (TBW) depends on local and systemic factors including osmolality, relative sodium content and permeability. Although positive fluid balance has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, the mechanisms and relative roles of sodium balance and water distribution are uncertain. To track changes in sodium and fluid balance, respiratory function and body composition in patients who required mechanical ventilation for ≥48 hours. Prospective observational study, set in a tertiary intensive care unit, of 10 patients (seven men) with a mean age of 60 years (standard deviation [SD],12 years) and mean admission Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score of 71 (SD, 26). Sodium and fluid balances were estimated daily for up to 5 days, following institution of mechanical ventilation on Day 0. Serum sodium level, oxygenation (PaO(2)/FIO(2)), body weight, intracellular and extracellular fluid (ECF) distribution (bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy), and blinded chest x-ray oedema scores were performed daily. After 5 days of mechanical ventilation, the cumulative fluid balance was - 954 mL (SD, 3181 mL) and estimated cumulative sodium balance was 253 mmol (SD, 346 mmol). Serum sodium had increased from 140 mmol/L (SD, 4 mmol/L) to 147 mmol/L (SD, 5 mmol/L). Cumulative sodium balance was weakly correlated with worsening chest x-ray score (r = 0.35, P = 0.004), a reduction in PaO(2)/ FIO(2) ratio (r = - 0.52, P = 0.001) and 24-hour urinary sodium (r = - 0.24, P = 0.02). Between Days 1 and 5, body weight decreased (- 2.7 kg; SD, 1.4 kg) and TBW decreased (- 3.4 L; SD, 1.3 L), despite a rise in ECF distribution (1.4% of TBW; SD, 1.9% of TBW). Fluid balance may not reflect sodium balance in critically ill patients. As sodium balance correlates with respiratory dysfunction and increased extracellular volume, further studies examining sodium balance and morbidity seem warranted.

  17. Acute Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Sara; Håkansson, Anders; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We aimed to evaluate the potential relation between the incidence of (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) acute pancreatitis (AP) and alcohol consumption in the general population, and whether the occurrence of AP shows any seasonal variation, particularly in relation to periods with expected...... consumption in the general population do not appear to be related to changes in the incidence of AP and there are no significant seasonal differences in the occurrence of AP in Sweden. Short summary: The incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) is increasing, and alcohol is still recognized as one of the most...

  18. The use of sodium lamps to brightly illuminate mouse houses during their dark phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, I S; Taylor-Jeffs, J

    2004-10-01

    The human and murine diurnal rhythms are out of phase. Consequently in conventionally-lit mouse houses the mice's deep sleep is often disrupted, the daily welfare monitoring of the mice is limited by their inactivity, and scientific data obtained from the mice model the sleeping rather than awake human. Sodium light is bichromatic, with both wavelengths being in the human visual field but at the margin of murine vision. We report here that sodium lamps can be used to light mouse houses to a level that is comfortable for humans, but still sufficiently dull to permit nocturnal behaviour in mice. The response of mice to sodium light was initially monitored by recording the locomotory activity of BALB/c mice. The movement of mice in their cages greatly increased at the start of the nocturnal phase. Alterations in the white light cycle caused an acute change in the onset of nocturnal behaviour. In contrast, sodium light did not suppress the onset of nocturnal locomotory behaviour, even though the lighting was sufficiently bright for humans to read without light adaptation. The sodium lighting was then used to observe the nocturnal behaviour of over 150 mice of various strains, for over 1.5 years. Mice were invariably awake and alert during the nocturnal/sodium light phase. All exhibited high locomotory activity, except for nursing mothers. Some tasks, such as cage cleaning and minor surgery, were more easily done under white than sodium lighting. We therefore adjusted the timing of the light cycles to provide white light in the morning and sodium light (nocturnal phase) in the afternoon. This provided for easy operation of the mouse house, while yielding both animal welfare and scientific advantages.

  19. Effects of sodium benzoate, a widely used food preservative, on glucose homeostasis and metabolic profiles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennerz, Belinda S; Vafai, Scott B; Delaney, Nigel F; Clish, Clary B; Deik, Amy A; Pierce, Kerry A; Ludwig, David S; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2015-01-01

    Sodium benzoate is a widely used preservative found in many foods and soft drinks. It is metabolized within mitochondria to produce hippurate, which is then cleared by the kidneys. We previously reported that ingestion of sodium benzoate at the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) dose leads to a robust excursion in the plasma hippurate level [1]. Since previous reports demonstrated adverse effects of benzoate and hippurate on glucose homeostasis in cells and in animal models, we hypothesized that benzoate might represent a widespread and underappreciated diabetogenic dietary exposure in humans. Here, we evaluated whether acute exposure to GRAS levels of sodium benzoate alters insulin and glucose homeostasis through a randomized, controlled, cross-over study of 14 overweight subjects. Serial blood samples were collected following an oral glucose challenge, in the presence or absence of sodium benzoate. Outcome measurements included glucose, insulin, glucagon, as well as temporal mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiles. We did not find a statistically significant effect of an acute oral exposure to sodium benzoate on glucose homeostasis. Of the 146 metabolites targeted, four changed significantly in response to benzoate, including the expected rise in benzoate and hippurate. In addition, anthranilic acid, a tryptophan metabolite, exhibited a robust rise, while acetylglycine dropped. Although our study shows that GRAS doses of benzoate do not have an acute, adverse effect on glucose homeostasis, future studies will be necessary to explore the metabolic impact of chronic benzoate exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  1. Regulation of the cardiac sodium pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, W; Tulloch, L B; Shattock, M J; Calaghan, S C; Howie, J; Wypijewski, K J

    2013-04-01

    In cardiac muscle, the sarcolemmal sodium/potassium ATPase is the principal quantitative means of active transport at the myocyte cell surface, and its activity is essential for maintaining the trans-sarcolemmal sodium gradient that drives ion exchange and transport processes that are critical for cardiac function. The 72-residue phosphoprotein phospholemman regulates the sodium pump in the heart: unphosphorylated phospholemman inhibits the pump, and phospholemman phosphorylation increases pump activity. Phospholemman is subject to a remarkable plethora of post-translational modifications for such a small protein: the combination of three phosphorylation sites, two palmitoylation sites, and one glutathionylation site means that phospholemman integrates multiple signaling events to control the cardiac sodium pump. Since misregulation of cytosolic sodium contributes to contractile and metabolic dysfunction during cardiac failure, a complete understanding of the mechanisms that control the cardiac sodium pump is vital. This review explores our current understanding of these mechanisms.

  2. Neurotransmitter: Sodium Symporters: Caught in the Act!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinauskaite, Lina

    The neurotransmitter: sodium symporters in the neurons. Communication between neurons is mediated by the release of molecules called neurotransmitters (blue dots) from first neuron and sensed by receptors on the surface of the second (purple sphere). The signal is ended by active reuptake...... of these neurotransmitters by a family of proteins called neurotransmitter: sodium symporters (NSS), which are driven using the large concentration difference of sodium (orange dots) between the outside and the inside of the cell...

  3. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillard, R.K.

    1978-10-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related informaion on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-3B aerosol behavior computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m/sup 3/ CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking.

  4. Sodium channels and mammalian sensory mechanotransduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Raouf, R.; Rugiero, F.; Kiesewetter, H.; Hatch, R.; Hummler, E; Nassar, M. A.; Wang, F.; Wood, J.N.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Members of the degenerin/epithelial (DEG/ENaC) sodium channel family are mechanosensors in C elegans, and Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 voltage-gated sodium channel knockout mice have major deficits in mechanosensation. β and γENaC sodium channel subunits are present with acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) in mammalian sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The extent to which epithelial or voltage-gated sodium channels are involved in transduction of mechanical stimuli is u...

  5. Sodium accumulation in Atriplex. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, J.A.; Caldwell, M.M.; Richardson, S.G.

    1984-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the ecological significance and the significance to arid land reclamation of sodium accumulation and nonaccumulation in Atriplex. There was a continuum in the genetic tendency of Atriplex canescens to accumulate sodium, from populations which accumulated almost no sodium to populations which accumulated up to 7% in the leaves. There were also substantial differences in sodium uptake between populations of A. tridentata, A. falcata and A. gardneri, with some populations having less than 0.1% leaf sodium and other populations having up to 5 or 6%. In three experiments (a field study, a greenhouse pot study and a hydroponics study) there were no significant differences in salinity tolerance between sodium accumulating and nonaccumulating A. canescens: both genotypes were highly salt tolerant. There was a significant buildup of sodium in the soil beneath sodium accumulating Atriplex plants, both in natural populations and on revegetated oil shale study plots. The sodium buildup was not sufficient to be detrimental to the growth or establishment of most herbaceous species, but with older Atriplex plants or with more saline soil, the buildup could potentially be detrimental. 14 references, 42 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Small-angle neutron scattering study of sodium cholate and sodium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    angle neutron scattering study of sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate interacting micelles in aqueous medium. J Santhanalakshmi G Shantha Lakshmi V K Aswal P S Goyal. Physical and Theoretical Volume 113 Issue 1 February 2001 pp 55- ...

  7. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  8. Acute Sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute sinusitis is mostly caused by the common cold. Unless a bacterial infection develops, most cases resolve within a week to 10 days. In ... sinusitis is most often caused by the common cold, which is a viral infection. In some cases, a bacterial infection develops. Risk factors You may ...

  9. Acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, Melissa A; Buscaglia, Jonathan M

    2010-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common disease most frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. Diagnosis is usually based on characteristic symptoms, often in conjunction with elevated serum pancreatic enzymes. Imaging is not always necessary, but may be performed for many reasons, such as to confirm a diagnosis of pancreatitis, rule out other causes of abdominal pain, elucidate the cause of pancreatitis, or to evaluate for complications such as necrosis or pseudocysts. Though the majority of patients will have mild, self-limiting disease, some will develop severe disease associated with organ failure. These patients are at risk to develop complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation such as pancreatic necrosis, fluid collections, pseudocysts, and pancreatic duct disruption. Validated scoring systems can help predict the severity of pancreatitis, and thus, guide monitoring and intervention.Treatment of acute pancreatitis involves supportive care with fluid replacement, pain control, and controlled initiation of regular food intake. Prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended in acute pancreatitis if there is no evidence of pancreatic infection. In patients who fail to improve, further evaluation is necessary to assess for complications that require intervention such as pseudocysts or pancreatic necrosis. Endoscopy, including ERCP and EUS, and/or cholecystectomy may be indicated in the appropriate clinical setting. Ultimately, the management of the patient with severe acute pancreatitis will require a multidisciplinary approach. (c) 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  10. Acute Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkade, Scott; Long, Natalie A

    2016-10-01

    Cough is the most common illness-related reason for ambulatory care visits in the United States. Acute bronchitis is a clinical diagnosis characterized by cough due to acute inflammation of the trachea and large airways without evidence of pneumonia. Pneumonia should be suspected in patients with tachypnea, tachycardia, dyspnea, or lung findings suggestive of pneumonia, and radiography is warranted. Pertussis should be suspected in patients with cough persisting for more than two weeks that is accompanied by symptoms such as paroxysmal cough, whooping cough, and post-tussive emesis, or recent pertussis exposure. The cough associated with acute bronchitis typically lasts about two to three weeks, and this should be emphasized with patients. Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viruses, and antibiotics are not indicated in patients without chronic lung disease. Antibiotics have been shown to provide only minimal benefit, reducing the cough or illness by about half a day, and have adverse effects, including allergic reactions, nausea and vomiting, and Clostridium difficile infection. Evaluation and treatment of bronchitis include ruling out secondary causes for cough, such as pneumonia; educating patients about the natural course of the disease; and recommending symptomatic treatment and avoidance of unnecessary antibiotic use. Strategies to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use include delayed prescriptions, patient education, and calling the infection a chest cold.

  11. Sodium Carbonate is Saltier Than Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; McBrayer, Anya M; Krauskopf, Erin E

    2017-10-01

    In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite. After each depletion, rats were given a brief-access taste test in a lickometer presenting, in random order, water and 7 concentrations of salt. One test used NaCl (0.028-0.89 M, quarter log steps), another used Na2CO3, and the third used Na2CO3, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (0.0028-0.089 M). Rats licked NaCl in an inverted-U shaped concentration-response function peaking at 0.158-0.281 M. As Morrison's results predicted, rats licked Na2CO3 in nearly identical fashion, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (peak at 0.0158-0.028 M). In a second experiment, furosemide-treated rats were repeatedly tested with the lower Na2CO3 range but mixed in the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride at various concentrations (3-300 μM, half log steps). Amiloride reduced licking for Na2CO3 and shifted the peak response rightward up to about half a log unit. Thus, this "super-saltiness" of Na2CO3 to rats is at least partly amiloride-dependent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Sodium Valproate as an Adjunctive to Risperidone in Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Omrani Fard

    2007-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Although sodium valproate came to the market as an anticonvulsant drug, nowadays it is wildly used in the management of psychiatric disorders. It is used as a mood stabilizer and as an adjunctive agent in treatment of depression and psychosis. There are controversies regarding sodium valproate efficacy in psychosis. Although some studies have reported that it is effective in the management of positive symptoms and aggression in acute psychosis, others have not found such an association. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adjunctive sodium valproate in the pharmacological management of patients with schizophrenia. Materials & Methods: In a double blind clinical trial, in 2 mental health hospitals (Noor and Farabi in Isfahan during the spring and summer of 2006, 32 schizophrenic patients (aged 18-65 years, who were in immediate need of admission, were randomly allocated into two groups. The first group was treated by combination of sodium valproate and risperidone and the other by combination of placebo and risperidone. A diagnosis of schizophrenia was established based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. All patients were assessed by PANSS on the 1st, 14th and 28th days of the admission. The collected data were analyzed by T Student and Paired T tests and repeated measure of ANOVA through SPSS. Results: Comparison of PANSS mean scores in two groups, before and after the trial, showed statistically significant differences. The reduction in PANSS score was significantly higher in the group treated with sodium valproate than in placebo group (p=0.006. Although, there was a statistically significant reduction in positive symptoms in both groups after 2 weeks of treatment (p=0.048, the difference was not significant in the fourth week. Conclusion: Our study shows that if used as an adjunct to antipsychotic in the management of acute psychosis, sodium valproate will speed up the recovery of positive sysmptoms.

  13. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1134 Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning; Enforcement... products containing sodium nitrite labeled for the treatment of cyanide poisoning and unapproved injectable...

  14. Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Baslund, Bo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of sodium intake on population health remains controversial. The objective was to investigate the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease events (CVDEs) in populations exposed to dietary intakes of low sodium (<115 mmol), usual sodium (low usual so...

  15. Assay of Serum Sodium Balance Disturbance in Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Relation to Prognosis of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sabouri

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Electrolyte disturbances are frequently observed during the acute period after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Hyponatremia and hypernatremia are the most common electrolyte disturbance in acute period of disease, and these disturbances may worsen cerebral edema and mass effect. We performed this study to determine the prognostic significance of serum sodium concentration abnormalities.Materials & Methods: This study was performed as prospective analytic cross sectional in Kashani and Alzahra Hospitals of Isfahan during 2003-2004. The presence of hypernatremia (serum sodium concentration of>145m mol/L and hyponatremia (serum sodium concentration of<135mmol/l was determined with serum sodium measurements at admission and 3, 6 and 9 days after SAH, then the effects of hypernatremia and hyponatremia on three-month outcomes were analyzed after adjustment for age, sex, preexiting HTN , admission GCS score, initial mean arterial pressure and finding of Brain CT Scan and Brain angiography. Patients with symptomatic vasospasm were excluded.Results: The analysis of data showed that from 100 participated patients in this study 18% developed hypernatremia and 42% developed hyponatremria. Hypernatemia was significantly assiociated with poor outcomes compared with hyponatremia (odds ratio, 2.63- CI 95% . Conclusion: Hyponatremia seems to be more common than hypernatremia after SAH. Hypernatrenia after SAH associted with poor outcome and this association is independet of previously identified outcome predictors, including age, sex, admission GCS Score, and X.Ray finding.

  16. 21 CFR 172.826 - Sodium stearyl fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium stearyl fumarate. 172.826 Section 172.826... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.826 Sodium stearyl fumarate. Sodium stearyl fumarate may be safely... sodium stearyl fumarate calculated on the anhydrous basis, and not more than 0.25 percent sodium stearyl...

  17. Posttranslational Modification of Sodium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zifan; Pan, Yanling; Cummins, Theodore R

    2017-10-26

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are critical determinants of excitability. The properties of VGSCs are thought to be tightly controlled. However, VGSCs are also subjected to extensive modifications. Multiple posttranslational modifications that covalently modify VGSCs in neurons and muscle have been identified. These include, but are not limited to, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, palmitoylation, nitrosylation, glycosylation, and SUMOylation. Posttranslational modifications of VGSCs can have profound impact on cellular excitability, contributing to normal and abnormal physiology. Despite four decades of research, the complexity of VGSC modulation is still being determined. While some modifications have similar effects on the various VGSC isoforms, others have isoform-specific interactions. In addition, while much has been learned about how individual modifications can impact VGSC function, there is still more to be learned about how different modifications can interact. Here we review what is known about VGSC posttranslational modifications with a focus on the breadth and complexity of the regulatory mechanisms that impact VGSC properties.

  18. 21 CFR 582.7724 - Sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 582.7724 Section 582.7724 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... alginate. (a) Product. Sodium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  19. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to formulate sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B by controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a “passive carrier” in targeted antifungal therapy. Methods: Sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B were prepared by controlled ...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium...

  1. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  2. Sodium Dedecyl Suphate Polyacrilamide Gel Electrophosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium Dedecyl Suphate Polyacrilamide Gel Electrophosis of Campylobacter coli. S.I. Smith, M.M. Ibrahim, V.N. Ezeobi, K.S. Oyedeji, K.A. Akinsinde, A.O Coker. Abstract. Campylobacter coli were characterized using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The isolates were obtained ...

  3. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural ci...

  4. [Cerebral oedema caused by sodium valproate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurri, Lauri; Posti, Jussi; Seppä, Juha Matti; Rauhala, Esa; Puustinen, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Sodium valproate is widely used as an antiepileptic drug. It has potential side effects and its overdosage is toxic. We present a case where a sodium valproate intoxication with severe cerebral oedema was managed in the intensive care unit with hemodialysis, levocarnitine and supportive care.

  5. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same amount of sodium as table salt. Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table ... substitute — and get too much sodium. Also, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Although potassium can lessen some ...

  6. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alcohol route is being adopted for cleaning sodium from sodium-wetted small components of coolant circuits of fast reactors. For better understanding of sodium–alcohol reactions and their energetics, the data on thermo-chemical properties such as heats of sodium–alcohol reactions, heats of dissolution, heat capacities, ...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. Acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wig J

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.

  10. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  11. [Acute cholangiocholecystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilescu, S; Rădulescu, D

    1991-01-01

    In analysis of a group of 48 patients, the authors describe an entity they call acute cholangio-cholecystitis (or acute cholecystitis of choledochal origin) and define it by 4 obligatory criteria: 1. vesicular lesion of acute cholecystitis type; 2. the obstruction of the main bile duct in the direction of its junction with the cystic duct; 3. free duct communication between the gallbladder and the main bile ducts; 4. fluid content (purulent gallbladder) found identical over the whole biliary territory (the gallbladder the main bile ducts the intrahepatic bile ducts). This entity represents 7.6% of the total of acute cholecystitis and was met in 2.8% of the total of the interventions for the main bile ducts obstruction. The deficient biological background of the patients (60% over 60 years old), and other seriousness factors--vesicular destructive lesions associated with biliary peritonitis (7/48), the existence of the duct obstruction, usually calculous (42/48), but also hydatic (3/48) or tumoural (3/48), the multitude and seriousness of the associated lesions are emphasized. The surgery, performed in over 80% emergent cases, was directed to the decomprimation of the main biliary axis to which the increase of the gangrenous cholecyst, treatment of the duct obstructive factor, repair of the internal biliary fistulas, treatment of the consequent peritonitis were added. The results, very often good (71%), were shadowed by a series of complications (29%) which ended in deaths (14.5%). The paper pleads for the early surgery of the lithiasic biliary disease, before the appearance of the inevitable complications.

  12. Sodium Pentazolate: a Nitrogen Rich Energetic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleynik, Ivan; Steele, Brad

    Sodium pentazolates NaN5 and Na2N5, new energetic materials, are discovered using first principles crystal structure search for the compounds of varying amounts of elemental sodium and nitrogen. The pentazole anion (N5-s)i stabilized in the condensed phase by sodium Na+ cations at pressures exceeding 20 GPa, and becomes metastable upon release of pressure, i.e. at ambient conditions. The sodium azide (NaN3) precursor for the new compounds is predicted to undergo a chemical transformation above 50 GPa into sodium pentazolates NaN5 and Na2N5. The calculated Raman spectrum of NaN5 is in agreement with the experimental Raman spectrum of a previously unidentified substance appearing upon compression and heating of NaN3 precursor, thus confirming the appearance of the new compound.

  13. Sinusitis (acute)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1−5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides, different doses [amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides], long-course regimens), antihistamines, cephalosporins or macrolides, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), doxycycline, saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intra-nasal). PMID:19450327

  14. Bronchitis (acute).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Peter

    2011-06-20

    Acute bronchitis affects over 40/1000 adults a year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens. The role of smoking or of environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear. One third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute bronchitis in people without chronic respiratory disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 21 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics, antibiotics (macrolides, tetracyclines, cephalosporins, penicillins, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [co-trimoxazole]), antihistamines, antitussives, beta(2) agonists (inhaled or oral), and expectorants/mucolytics.

  15. The roles of sodium channels in nociception: implications for mechanisms of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Wood, John N

    2011-07-01

    Animal models have provided useful insights into the development and treatment of neuropathic pain. New genetic data from both human studies and transgenic mouse models suggest that specific voltage-gated sodium channel subtypes are associated with specific types of pain and, as such, may be useful analgesic drug targets for a variety of pain types including neuropathic pain. Global voltage-gated sodium channel blockers such as lidocaine have proven efficacy in treating pain but can be limited by adverse effects when administered systemically. Selective sodium channel blockers targeting channels at the periphery (Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9) could potentially reduce the side effect profile. Individual isoforms of voltage-gated sodium channels have been linked to particular types of pain. Nav1.7 is a useful target for ameliorating acute mechanical pain and inflammatory pain, and strong evidence also suggests that Nav1.9 could be targeted for treating inflammatory pain. Selective blockers of Nav1.8 could also have clinical benefit for visceral pain. Although there is no association between a single sodium channel isoform and neuropathic pain, combined blockade of peripherally expressed isoforms Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 may prove useful. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Y.; Yamaguchi, A. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na{sub 2}O{sub (l)}, and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH{sub (g)}. The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH{sub (g)}, NaOH{sub (l)} and H2{sub (g)}. Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar.

  17. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK components and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.

  18. First report on an inotropic peptide activating tetrodotoxin-sensitive, "neuronal" sodium currents in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Tal, Tzachy; Fabritz, Larissa; Klimas, Jan; Nesher, Nir; Schulte, Jan S; Ehling, Petra; Kanyshkova, Tatayana; Budde, Thomas; Nikol, Sigrid; Fortmueller, Lisa; Stallmeyer, Birgit; Müller, Frank U; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Schmitz, Wilhelm; Zlotkin, Eliahu; Kirchhefer, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    New therapeutic approaches to improve cardiac contractility without severe risk would improve the management of acute heart failure. Increasing systolic sodium influx can increase cardiac contractility, but most sodium channel activators have proarrhythmic effects that limit their clinical use. Here, we report the cardiac effects of a novel positive inotropic peptide isolated from the toxin of the Black Judean scorpion that activates neuronal tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels. All venoms and peptides were isolated from Black Judean Scorpions (Buthotus Hottentotta) caught in the Judean Desert. The full scorpion venom increased left ventricular function in sedated mice in vivo, prolonged ventricular repolarization, and provoked ventricular arrhythmias. An inotropic peptide (BjIP) isolated from the full venom by chromatography increased cardiac contractility but did neither provoke ventricular arrhythmias nor prolong cardiac repolarization. BjIP increased intracellular calcium in ventricular cardiomyocytes and prolonged inactivation of the cardiac sodium current. Low concentrations of tetrodotoxin (200 nmol/L) abolished the effect of BjIP on calcium transients and sodium current. BjIP did not alter the function of Nav1.5, but selectively activated the brain-type sodium channels Nav1.6 or Nav1.3 in cellular electrophysiological recordings obtained from rodent thalamic slices. Nav1.3 (SCN3A) mRNA was detected in human and mouse heart tissue. Our pilot experiments suggest that selective activation of tetrodotoxin-sensitive neuronal sodium channels can safely increase cardiac contractility. As such, the peptide described here may become a lead compound for a new class of positive inotropic agents. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, M A H; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Noort, M W; van Raaij, J M A

    2015-07-01

    Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers' behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007-2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886 mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627 mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake.

  20. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, M A H; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Noort, M W; van Raaij, J M A

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers' behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Subjects/methods: Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007–2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Results: Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886 mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627 mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. Conclusions: In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake. PMID:25782426

  1. Sodium, potassium and glucose management in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Mark T; Wright, David R

    2010-06-01

    To present current knowledge about the metabolic management of patients undergoing solid organ transplantation, and potential organ donors. Appropriate management of electrolytes and glucose improves outcome after transplantation, although conflicting evidence exists. Patients with cirrhosis-induced hyponatremia can be successfully transplanted but are at increased risk of postoperative complications. A new class of drugs, the vaptans, that antagonizes arginine vasopressin may be an effective treatment for hyponatremia in transplant candidates. Recent literature has documented the implications, predictors and potential therapies for perioperative hyperkalemia in the transplant population. The debate over appropriate targets for serum glucose in perioperative and critically ill patients has been lively. The documented risk of hypoglycemia associated with 'intensive insulin therapy' has led to the adoption of more conservative glycemic targets. Studies of glycemic control in transplant recipients are limited. In patients undergoing solid organ transplants, sodium management should aim to minimize an acute change in sodium concentration. Vaptans may be of future use in optimizing patients with cirrhosis prior to transplantation. Pending further studies, a perioperative 'middle ground' target glucose of between 140 and 180 mg/dl seems reasonable at this time.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009), bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393), sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985), sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008) which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon...

  3. Sodium-metal halide and sodium-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seongmin; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Aram; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2014-07-21

    Impressive developments have been made in the past a few years toward the establishment of Na-ion batteries as next-generation energy-storage devices and replacements for Li-ion batteries. Na-based cells have attracted increasing attention owing to low production costs due to abundant sodium resources. However, applications of Na-ion batteries are limited to large-scale energy-storage systems because of their lower energy density compared to Li-ion batteries and their potential safety problems. Recently, Na-metal cells such as Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries have been considered to be promising for use in electric vehicles owing to good safety and high energy density, although less attention is focused on Na-metal cells than on Na-ion cells. This Minireview provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the fields of Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of new electrochemical systems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Valproic acid and sodium valproate for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dipender; Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J; Moore, R Andrew

    2011-10-05

    Valproic acid and its sodium salt (sodium valproate) are antiepileptic drugs that are sometimes used to treat chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia, although they are not licensed for this use. To evaluate the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of valproic acid and sodium valproate in the management of chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. We identified randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of valproic acid and sodium valproate in acute, and chronic pain by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL to June 2011, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews. RCTs that were double blind and of eight-weeks duration or longer, reporting on analgesic effects and adverse events with valproic acid and sodium valproate in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. Two review authors independently extracted results and scored for quality. We extracted efficacy and adverse event data, and examined issues of study quality. We included three studies, two in diabetic neuropathy (42 participants treated with valproate, 42 with placebo), and one in post-herpetic neuralgia (23 treated with divalproex sodium, 22 with placebo). Study duration was eight or 12 weeks. No studies were found in fibromyalgia.Only one study reported one of our primary outcomes (≥ 50% pain relief), while all three reported group means for pain reduction from baseline to endpoint. In all three studies; efficacy results were given only for participants who completed the study. One study in diabetic neuropathy and the study in post-herpetic neuralgia reported significant differences between active and placebo groups, but there were insufficient data for reliable pooled analysis.More adverse events were reported with active treatment than placebo, and included nausea, drowsiness and abnormal liver function tests. One participant taking sodium valproate withdrew due to serious derangement of liver enzymes. These three studies no more than hint that sodium

  5. Sodium sulfur battery flight experiment definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rebecca R.; Minck, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Sodium-sulfur batteries were identified as the most likely successor to nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications. One advantage of the Na/S battery system is that the usable specific energy is two to three times that of nickel-hydrogen batteries. This represents a significant launch cost savings or increased payload mass capabilities. Sodium-sulfur batteries support NASA OAST's proposed Civil Space Technology Initiative goal of a factor of two improvement in spacecraft power system performance, as well as the proposed Spacecraft 2000 initiative. The sodium-sulfur battery operates at between 300 and 400 C, using liquid sodium and sulfur/polysulfide electrodes and solid ceramic electrolyte. The transport of the electrode materials to the surface of the electrolyte is through wicking/capillary forces. These critical transport functions must be demonstrated under actual microgravity conditions before sodium-sulfur batteries can be confidently utilized in space. Ford Aerospace Corporation, under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center, is currently working on the sodium-sulfur battery space flight experiment definition study. The objective is to design the experiment that will demonstrate operation of the sodium-sulfur battery/cell in the space environment with particular emphasis on evaluation of microgravity effects. Experimental payload definitions were completed and preliminary designs of the experiment were defined.

  6. Sodium channels and mammalian sensory mechanotransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raouf, Ramin; Rugiero, Francois; Kiesewetter, Hannes; Hatch, Rachel; Hummler, Edith; Nassar, Mohammed A; Wang, Fan; Wood, John N

    2012-03-26

    Members of the degenerin/epithelial (DEG/ENaC) sodium channel family are mechanosensors in C elegans, and Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 voltage-gated sodium channel knockout mice have major deficits in mechanosensation. β and γENaC sodium channel subunits are present with acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) in mammalian sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The extent to which epithelial or voltage-gated sodium channels are involved in transduction of mechanical stimuli is unclear. Here we show that deleting β and γENaC sodium channels in sensory neurons does not result in mechanosensory behavioural deficits. We had shown previously that Nav1.7/Nav1.8 double knockout mice have major deficits in behavioural responses to noxious mechanical pressure. However, all classes of mechanically activated currents in DRG neurons are unaffected by deletion of the two sodium channels. In contrast, the ability of Nav1.7/Nav1.8 knockout DRG neurons to generate action potentials is compromised with 50% of the small diameter sensory neurons unable to respond to electrical stimulation in vitro. Behavioural deficits in Nav1.7/Nav1.8 knockout mice reflects a failure of action potential propagation in a mechanosensitive set of sensory neurons rather than a loss of primary transduction currents. DEG/ENaC sodium channels are not mechanosensors in mouse sensory neurons.

  7. Endogenous ligand of alpha(1) sodium pump, marinobufagenin, is a novel mediator of sodium chloride--dependent hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Olga V; Talan, Mark I; Agalakova, Natalia I; Lakatta, Edward G; Bagrov, Alexei Y

    2002-03-05

    Digitalis-like sodium pump ligands (SPLs) effect natriuresis via inhibition of renal tubular Na(+),K(+)-ATPase but may induce vasoconstriction. The present study investigated the potential roles of 2 putative endogenous SPLs, an ouabain-like compound (OLC) and an alpha(1) Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, marinobufagenin (MBG), in regulating natriuresis and blood pressure (BP) responses to sustained and acute NaCl loading in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DS). During 4 weeks of an 8% NaCl diet, DS exhibited a progressive increase in MBG renal excretion (66 +/-13 pmol/24 hours at week 4 versus 11 +/- 1 pmol/24 hours at baseline, n=48), which paralleled an increase in systolic BP (174 +/- 10 mm Hg at week 4 versus 110 +/- 2 mm Hg at baseline). By contrast, OLC excretion peaked at week 1 and returned to baseline levels. Administration of an anti-MBG, but not anti-ouabain antibody, to DS after 3 weeks of a high NaCl diet lowered BP (139 +/- 7 versus 175 +/- 5 mm Hg, Psodium and MBG but not that of OLC. An anti-ouabain antibody (n=5) reduced sodium excretion and both OLC and MBG. An initial transient stimulation of OLC induced by NaCl loading of DS precedes an MBG response. A sustained increase in MBG production in DS contributes to the chronic BP elevation induced by a sustained high NaCl intake.

  8. Extraction of long-chain fatty acids in isolated rat heart during acute low-flow ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, W S; Fischer, S; Ernst, N; Munz, D L

    2001-07-01

    Although beta-oxidation of fatty acids is suppressed rapidly during ischemia, the behavior of fatty acid extraction at different flow rates is incompletely understood. This study assessed the relationship between flow and extraction of (123)I-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in the isolated heart model, especially at low flow. Isolated hearts from male Wistar rats (n = 15) were subjected to retrograde perfusion with constant flow (Krebs Henseleit solution containing 10 mmol/L glucose). A latex balloon in the left ventricle allowed isovolumetric contractions and ventricular pressure measurements. The extraction of (123)I-IPPA was assessed with the indicator dilution technique and (99m)Tc-albumin as the intravascular reference. The flow was either increased from the control flow (8 mL/min) until 300% or reduced until 10%. (123)I-IPPA extraction was measured three times before and 10 min after flow alteration. The tracer uptake was estimated from the product of net extraction and flow. The mean (123)I-IPPA extraction at the control flow (third measurement) was 51.6% +/- 2.8%. Between flow rates of approximately 25% and 300%, (123)I-IPPA extraction increased exponentially at decreasing flow rates. At flow rates IPPA extraction was exponentially higher than predicted. (123)I-IPPA uptake and flow changed largely in parallel. During low flow, the rate-pressure product showed the expected decline (perfusion-contraction matching). The extraction of (123)I-IPPA is preserved and slightly increased (relative to flow) during acute low-flow ischemia.

  9. Acute effects of a caffeine-taurine energy drink on repeated sprint performance of American college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwacham, Nnamdi; Wagner, Dale R

    2012-04-01

    Consumption of energy drinks is common among athletes; however, there is a lack of research on the efficacy of these beverages for short-duration, intense exercise. The purpose of this research was to investigate the acute effects of a low-calorie caffeine-taurine energy drink (AdvoCare Spark) on repeated sprint performance and anaerobic power in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Twenty football players (age 19.7 ± 1.8 yr, height 184.9 ± 5.3 cm, weight 100.3 ± 21.7 kg) participated in a double-blind, randomized crossover study in which they received the energy drink or an isoenergetic, isovolumetric, non-caffeinated placebo in 2 trials separated by 7 days. The Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test, consisting of six 35-m sprints with 10 s of rest between sprints, was used to assess anaerobic power. Sprint times were recorded with an automatic electronic timer. The beverage treatment did not significantly affect power (F = 3.84, p = .066) or sprint time (F = 3.06, p = .097). However, there was a significant interaction effect between caffeine use and the beverage for sprint times (F = 4.62, p = .045), as well as for anaerobic power (F = 5.40, p = .032), indicating a confounding effect. In conclusion, a caffeine-taurine energy drink did not improve the sprint performance or anaerobic power of college football players, but the level of caffeine use by the athletes likely influenced the effect of the drink.

  10. A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-01-01

    A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

  11. Acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Inman, Hayley; Kuehl, Damon

    2014-08-01

    Although great progress has been made in the understanding and treatment of acute leukemia, this disease has not been conquered. For emergency providers (EPs), the presentation of these patients to an emergency department presents a host of challenges. A patient may present with a new diagnosis of leukemia or with complications of the disease process or associated chemotherapy. It is incumbent on EPs to be familiar with the manifestations of leukemia in its various stages and maintain some suspicion for this diagnosis, given the nebulous and insidious manner in which leukemia can present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacologic inhibition of intestinal sodium uptake: a gut centric approach to sodium management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Andrew G; Greasley, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Impaired sodium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) can drive fluid overload and hypertension and accelerate CKD progression. Diuretics reduce fluid overload but require residual kidney function to work. Adherence to dietary sodium restriction is generally poor. Here, we review an alternative pharmacologic strategy aimed at reducing sodium absorption from the gut. Genetic studies implicate the sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) as the major absorptive sodium transporter. Pharmacologic inhibition of apically expressed gut NHE3 offers the potential of reducing sodium absorption and fluid overload independent of kidney function and with better safety than systemic drugs. Two small-molecule inhibitors of NHE3 (tenapanor and SAR218034) with minimal systemic exposure reduce urinary sodium and increase stool sodium in a dose-dependent manner in rodents, with similar results observed with tenapanor in humans. These molecules also reduce blood pressure in rat models of CKD (tenapanor) and hypertension (SAR218034). Clinical trials of tenapanor in patients with CKD-related disorders are ongoing. Pharmacologic inhibition of gut NHE3 may be a viable strategy for managing sodium load in patients with CKD or with sodium-sensitive hypertension in general. Ongoing clinical trials will shed further light on the potential benefits of this approach.

  13. Potential importance of low-sodium bread and breakfast cereal to a reduced sodium diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugirdas, John T

    2013-01-01

    Purchasing data suggest that bread and cereal products are responsible for approximately 18% of normal daily unrestricted sodium intake; this percentage may be substantially higher in subjects attempting to follow a reduced sodium diet by avoiding added salt and salty sauces and meats. Substituting with low-sodium bread would be expected to result in a sodium intake reduction of 0.6 g/day or higher, depending on the amount of bread normally eaten. Many cold breakfast cereals typically contain 0.2 to 0.3 g of sodium per serving. A number of zero-sodium or low-sodium cold cereal options are commercially available, and many hot cereals are available in forms that contain no sodium. Because bread and breakfast cereals are not commonly thought of as being salty foods, substituting these with low-sodium alternatives might help achieve additional substantial sodium intake reduction without much disruption of the diet. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. From lithium to sodium: cell chemistry of room temperature sodium-air and sodium-sulfur batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adelhelm, Philipp; Hartmann, Pascal; Bender, Conrad L; Busche, Martin; Eufinger, Christine; Janek, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    .... Quite surprisingly, not much is known about the analogous sodium-based battery systems, although the already commercialized, high-temperature Na/S8 and Na/NiCl2 batteries suggest that a rechargeable...

  15. Evolution of the epithelial sodium channel and the sodium pump as limiting factors of aldosterone action on sodium transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romain A. Studer; Emilie Person; Marc Robinson-Rechavi; Bernard C. Rossier

    2011-01-01

    Despite large changes in salt intake, the mammalian kidney is able to maintain the extracellular sodium concentration and osmolarity within very narrow margins, thereby controlling blood volume and blood pressure...

  16. Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.

    1982-03-01

    The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

  17. Survival of acute hypernatremia due to massive soy sauce ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, David J; Borek, Heather A; Syverud, Scott A; Holstege, Christopher P

    2013-08-01

    Intentional massive sodium chloride ingestions are rare occurrences and are often fatal. There are a variety of treatment recommendations for hypernatremia, ranging from dialysis to varying rates of correction. We report a case of acute severe hypernatremia corrected with rapid free-water infusions that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. A 19-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department in a comatose state with seizure-like activity 2 hours after ingesting a quart of soy sauce. He was administered 6 L of free water over 30 min and survived neurologically intact without clinical sequelae. Corrected for hyperglycemia, the patient's peak serum sodium was 196 mmol/L, which, to our knowledge, is the highest documented level in an adult patient to survive an acute sodium ingestion without neurologic deficits. Emergency physicians should consider rapidly lowering serum sodium with hypotonic intravenous fluids as a potential management strategy for acute severe hypernatremia secondary to massive salt ingestion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Turbulent diamagnetism in flowing liquid sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, E J; Nornberg, M D; Jacobson, C M; Parada, C A; Taylor, N Z; Kendrick, R D; Forest, C B

    2007-04-20

    The nature of Ohm's law is examined in a turbulent flow of liquid sodium. A magnetic field is applied to the flowing sodium, and the resulting magnetic field is measured. The mean velocity field of the sodium is also measured in an identical-scale water model of the experiment. These two fields are used to determine the terms in Ohm's law, indicating the presence of currents driven by a turbulent electromotive force. These currents result in a diamagnetic effect, generating magnetic field in opposition to the dominant fields of the experiment. The magnitude of the fluctuation-driven magnetic field is comparable to that of the field induced by the sodium's mean flow.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with...(n)(43) of this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established...

  20. Antimicrobial efficacy of nanosilver, sodium hypochlorite and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NS), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Two tests of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and zone of inhibition were carried out using NS, NaOCl and CHX. 70-fold ...

  1. European Union Risk Assessment Report - Sodium Perborate

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This report provides , with conclusions, the risk assessment report of the substance sodium perborate that has been prepared by Austria in the context of Council Regulation (EEC) No. 793/93 on the evaluation and control of existing substances.

  2. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, particularly younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  3. Acute Liver Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute liver failure Overview Acute liver failure is loss of liver function that occurs rapidly — in days or weeks — usually in a person who has no pre-existing liver disease. Acute liver failure is less common than ...

  4. Is Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy Still Up To Date?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kurt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate (SB, which has a vital role in the regulation of acid-base balance of all tissues and organs, is one of the most important buffering systems of the body. SB plays an important role in the treatment of poisoning caused by numerous agents including mainly salicylate and tricyclic antidepressants. In metabolic acidosis (MA occurred in patient with systemic and metabolic diseases, first, the primary disease should be treated and in the case of low bicarbonate levels such as diarrhea and renal tubular acidosis, missing SB should be recovered. As the kidney has an important role in acid-base balance, SB is widely used in the treatment of acute and chronic renal failure. Although there is no conclusive evidence to prevent contrast nephropathy, SB comes to the fore compared to other agents. SB is used due to MA and its effects occurring in acute renal failure. In addition, SB treatment applied to reduce the increased acid levels in chronic kidney failure may reduce mortality. While SB can be used as individualized in lactic acidosis and cardiac arrest cases, it can be used safely as a performance enhancer for athletes. SB is used widely in gastrointestinal tract diseases due to its antacid effects and its routine use is not recommended in diabetic ketoacidosis. These data demonstrate that SB is still popular and it will retain its popularity in the near future.

  5. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  6. Acute Aldosterone-mediated Signaling Networks in Distal Convoluted Tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Lei; Wu, Qi; Olesen, Emma T. B.

    2017-01-01

    The kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) plays an important role in modulating body sodium balance and blood pressure. Long-term effects of aldosterone to increase sodium reabsorption in the DCT are well described. However, potential effects of aldosterone to acutely modulate DCT function via non...... to map global changes in protein phosphorylation in mpkDCT cells following 30 min aldosterone treatment. A total of 8136 unique proteins, containing 14838 different phosphopeptides were identified. Of these, 148 phosphopeptides were significantly up regulated, and 96 phosphopeptides were downregulated...

  7. The unique response of renin and aldosterone to dietary sodium intervention in sodium sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Joon; Lim, ChiYeon; Oh, Sang Woo; Rhee, Moo-Yong

    2014-06-01

    Sodium sensitivity (SS) is a phenomenon in which significant changes in blood pressure (BP) are observed based on sodium intake. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a critical role in sodium handling and hypertension. We identified the specific responses of renin and aldosterone based on dietary sodium intake and revealed the relationship between these hormonal changes and dietary sodium intake in patients with SS. In total, 61 subjects were available to analyze full data including plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone. Participants were given a low-sodium DASH diet (LSD) for 7 days and a high-sodium DASH diet (HSD) for the following 7 days. SS was found in five (14.71%) in normotensives, and 14 (51.85%) in hypertensives. In sodium-resistant (SR) subjects, both PRA and aldosterone decreased significantly after consuming HSD. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between PRA and aldosterone in SR subjects. In contrast, only hypertensive subjects showed a marked fall in PRA after consuming HSD (1.299 ± 0.904 vs. 0.593 ± 0.479) among SS subjects. This study demonstrated the different responses of renin and aldosterone in SS and SR subjects based on dietary sodium intake whether or not they had hypertension. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Denning, Richard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic event Energetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolant Entrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached cladding Rates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodium Surface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclides Thermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphere Reactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  9. Acute Appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tind, Sofie; Qvist, Niels

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The classification of acute appendicitis (AA) into various grades is not consistent, partly because it is not clear whether the perioperative or the histological findings should be the foundation of the classification. When comparing results from the literature on the frequency...... patients were included. In 116 (89 %) of these cases, appendicitis was confirmed histological. There was low concordance between the perioperative and histological diagnoses, varying from 16 to 76 % depending on grade of AA. Only 44 % of the patients receiving antibiotics postoperatively had a positive...... peritoneal fluid cultivation. CONCLUSION: There was a low concordance in clinical and histopathological diagnoses of the different grades of appendicitis. Perioperative cultivation of the peritoneal fluid as a standard should be further examined. The potential could be a reduced postoperative antibiotic use...

  10. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney injury. Alternative Names Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute Images Kidney anatomy References Devarajan P. Biomarkers for assessment of renal ...

  11. Process for the production of sodium carbonate anhydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, H.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; De Graauw, J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the production of sodium carbonate-anhydrate having a bulk density of at least 800 kg/m<3>, said process comprising: providing a suspension of solid sodium carbonate and/or solid sodium bicarbonate and/or solid double salts at least comprising one of sodium

  12. U. S. position paper on sodium fires, design and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Johnson, R.P.; Powers, D.A.

    1982-05-01

    Sodium combustion phenomena and U.S. computer codes developed for sodium fires are discussed. Ways of preventing and mitigating sodium fires are described. Effects of sodium fires and spills on LMFBR structural materials, thermal insulation materials, and equipment/instrumentation are considered. (DLC)

  13. Plants and sodium ions: keeping company with the enemy

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, José M.; Quintero, Francisco J

    2002-01-01

    Plants face a dilemma about sodium metabolism. Uptake of ubiquitous sodium ions is desirable as a way to build osmotic potential, absorb water and sustain turgor, but excess sodium ions may be toxic. Information from a number of plant species about the proteins involved in sodium-ion uptake helps to explain how plants manage to take in just the right amount.

  14. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium... the provisions of this section. (a) Sodium nitrate-urea complex is a clathrate of approximately two...

  15. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium...

  16. Ion-selective optical sensor for continuous on-line monitoring of dialysate sodium during dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj K.; Frijns, Arjan J. H.; Mandamparambil, Rajesh; Kooman, Jeroen P.; Smeulders, David M. J.

    2017-02-01

    Patients with end stage renal disease are dependent on dialysis. In most outpatient centers, the dialysate is prepared with a fixed electrolyte concentration without taking into account the inter-individual differences of essential electrolytes (sodium, potassium and calcium). This one-size fits all approach can lead to acute and chronic cardiovascular complications in dialysis patients. On-line monitoring of these essential electrolytes is an important physiological step towards patient specific dialysate leading to individualized treatment. Currently, changes in electrolyte concentrations are indirectly measured by conductivity measurements, which are not ion- specific. In this paper, we present a novel optical sensor for on-line monitoring of sodium concentrations in dialysate. This sensor is ion-specific and can detect up to a single ion. The working principle is based on the selective fluorescence quenching of photo-induced electron transfer (PET) molecules. The PET molecules when complexed with sodium ions start fluorescing upon laser excitation. The emission intensity is directly correlated to the sodium concentration. To prove the working principle, a micro-optofluidic device has been fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with integrated optical fibers for fluorescence light collection. The PET molecules are covalently grafted in the PDMS microchannel for continuous monitoring of the sodium dialysate concentrations. The experimental setup consists of a laser module (λ=450nm) operating at 4.5mW, a syringe pump to precisely control the sample flow and a spectrometer for fluorescence collection. The performance of the sensor has been evaluated for sodium ions ranging from 0-50mM. A clear signal and good response time was observed.

  17. Effects of sodium ascorbate, sodium saccharin and ammonium chloride on the male rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Garland, E M; Cano, M; St John, M K; Khachab, M; Wehner, J M; Arnold, L L

    1995-11-01

    Sodium saccharin administered at high doses to male rats beginning after 5 weeks of age produces mild urothelial hyperplasia but does not result in a significant increase in incidence of bladder cancer unless it is administered after an initiating agent. However, if it is administered in a two-generation bioassay, a significant incidence of bladder tumors is produced. The hyperplastic and tumorigenic effects are inhibited by co-administration with high doses of NH4Cl. The present experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of another sodium salt, sodium ascorbate, administered through the neonatal time period. Sodium saccharin administered as 5% of the diet produced urothelial hyperplasia and increased labeling index, and this was inhibited by co-administration with 1.23% NH4Cl. Four doses of sodium ascorbate was evaluated. The lowest dose, 0.91%, was without effect on the urinary tract. A slight effect (not statistically significant) was observed at a dose of 2.73%, and a significant proliferative response was detected at 4.56 and 6.84%. Recent studies suggest that a calcium phosphate-containing amorphous precipitate forms in the urine of rats fed high doses of sodium saccharin, producing cytotoxicity of the urothelium and consequent regenerative hyperplasia. This precipitate was observed in the present experiment in the rats administered the high dose of sodium saccharin or the higher doses of sodium ascorbate. Formation of this precipitate and induction of urothelial proliferation were inhibited by co-administration of NH4Cl, but somewhat higher doses of ammonium chloride were required for doses of sodium ascorbate compared to sodium saccharin. These results demonstrate that sodium ascorbate administered through the neonatal time period of the male rat produces urothelial hyperplasia in the dose responsive manner, with a no-effect level of 0.91% of the diet. The formation of the calcium phosphate-containing amorphous precipitate and urothelial proliferation

  18. Sodium arsenite down-regulates the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein via translational and post-translational mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hong; Hao, Yuqing; Wang, Lijing; Jia, Dongwei [Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ruan, Yuanyuan, E-mail: yuanyuanruan@fudan.edu.cn [Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Gu, Jianxin [Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium arsenite down-regulates the protein expression level of XIAP in HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium arsenite inhibits the de novo XIAP synthesis and its IRES activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium arsenite decreases XIAP stability and promotes its proteasomal degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of XIAP attenuates the pro-apoptotic effect of sodium arsenite. -- Abstract: X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, and has been reported to exhibit elevated expression levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and promote cell survival, metastasis and tumor recurrence. Targeting XIAP has proven effective for the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and restoration of cancer cell chemosensitivity. Arsenic (or sodium arsenite) is a potent anti-tumor agent used to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Additionally, arsenic induces cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human HCC cells. In this study, we identified XIAP as a target for sodium arsenite-induced cytotoxicity in HCC. The exposure of HCC cell lines to sodium arsenite resulted in inhibition of XIAP expression in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Sodium arsenite blocked the de novo XIAP synthesis and the activity of its internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element. Moreover, treatment with sodium arsenite decreased the protein stability of XIAP and induced its ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. Overexpression of XIAP attenuated the pro-apoptotic effect of sodium arsenite in HCC. Taken together, our data demonstrate that sodium arsenite suppresses XIAP expression via translational and post-translational mechanisms in HCC.

  19. Persistent Sodium Current and Its Role in Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Stafstrom, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium currents are essential for the initiation and propagation of neuronal firing. Alterations of sodium currents can lead to abnormal neuronal activity, such as occurs in epilepsy. The transient voltage-gated sodium current mediates the upstroke of the action potential. A small fraction of sodium current, termed the persistent sodium current (INaP), fails to inactivate significantly, even with prolonged depolarization. INaP is activated in the subthreshold voltage range and is capable of a...

  20. Analysis of the action of lidocaine on insect sodium channels

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Weizhong; Silver, Kristopher S.; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Zhiqi; Dong, Ke

    2010-01-01

    A new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs), which include indoxacarb, its active metabolite, DCJW, and metaflumizone, preferably block inactivated states of both insect and mammalian sodium channels in a manner similar to that by which local anesthetic (LA) drugs block mammalian sodium channels. A recent study showed that two residues in the cockroach sodium channel, F1817 and Y1824, corresponding to two key LA-interacting residues identified in mammalian sodium channels are n...

  1. Hyponatremia following acute overdose with paroxetine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C R; Hoejlyng, N

    1998-01-01

    This case illustrates severe hyponatremia following an acute overdose of paroxetine. An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital after an attempt to commit suicide. She had consumed an overdose of 360 mg paroxetine. The treatment was started 3 days previously with 10 mg/day because of regular...... suffering from obsessive and suicidal thoughts. An initial sign of overdose was excessive vomiting. Five days late she developed hyponatremia (serum sodium 112 mmol/l) with somnolence, confusion, muscle spasms, dehydration of arms and legs and slow reflexes. Ecchymoses and myxoedema were also observed...

  2. Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Disease Lookup > Acute Bronchitis Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Acute Bronchitis ... Symptoms that last a few weeks How Is Acute Bronchitis Diagnosed? Healthcare providers diagnose acute bronchitis by asking ...

  3. Remote Observations of the Lunar Sodium Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Morgan, Thomas H.; Potter, Andrew; SSERVI DREAM2

    2017-10-01

    We have designed, built and installed a small robotic coronagraph at the Winer Observatory in Sonoita, Arizona, in order to observe the sodium exosphere out to one-half degree around the Moon. Observations are obtained remotely every available clear night from our home base at Goddard Space Flight Center. Our data encompass lunations in 2015, 2016, and 2017, thus we have a long baseline of sodium exospheric calibrated images. We employ an Andover temperature-controlled 1.5 Å wide narrow-band filter centered on the sodium D2 line, and a similar 1.5 Å filter centered blueward of the D2 line by 5 Å. Exposures of 10 minutes are required to image the sodium corona at good signal to noise. Autoguiding is performed locking onto a small bright crater each night. Following each onband-offband exposure pair, on- and off-band images of the lunar surface are collected by taking a 0.1- 0.5 second exposures with the open filter. The sodium is calibrated using the counts in the open Moon images and the Hapke function. We use both dark and bright Hapke parameters for comparison check using Mare and highlands, respectively. In order to obtain the sodium profile around the entire limb, the images are transformed using a polar transform and the profiles are extracted automatically. Example of our resulting images of the sodium corona will be shown, with the image of the moon's disk (taken subsequently to the occulted coronal image) superimposed on the occulting disk, thus showing the position and phase of the moon under the disk. We compare our lunar model derived from these observations with the data from the UV spectrograph onboard the LADEE spacecraft.

  4. Regulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase and sodium pump in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakula, Zorica; Koricanac, Goran; Putnikovic, Biljana; Markovic, Ljiljana; Isenovic, Esma R

    2007-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a hormone and growth factor closely related to insulin. The autocrine/paracrine actions of IGF-1 involve activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase sodium pump in cardiovascular tissues. Data from literature indicate that iNOS is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and that IGF-1-induced release of NO is both rapid and delayed. We hypothesize that impaired IGF-1-induced sodium pump activity/expression in rats with type 1 diabetes is related to activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/cytosolic phospholipase 2 (cPLA(2))/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling, and that IGF-1 prevents acute and chronic dysfunction of iNOS and sodium pump activity in a chemically induced model of type 1 diabetes, the streptozotocin-treated rat heart (STZ). Understanding how iNOS and sodium pump activity are regulated by IGF-1 activation of the PI3K/cPLA(2)/Akt cascade should provide novel and fundamental knowledge regarding the regulatory actions of IGF-1 in promoting vasodilation. Since insulin resistance is currently a major focus of research, the use of IGF-1 to improve insulin resistance and glucose metabolism has opened a new arena for treatment of comorbid conditions. Future investigations should now focus on mechanisms of action of IGF-1 and its clinical applicability.

  5. Concordance of dietary sodium intake and concomitant phosphate load : Implications for sodium interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, J. K.; Keyzer, C. A.; Binnenmars, S. H.; Kwakernaak, A. J.; Slagman, M. C. J.; Laverman, G. D.; Bakker, S. J. L.; de Borst, M. H.; Navis, G. J.

    Background and aims: Both a high dietary sodium and high phosphate load are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and possibly also in non-CKD populations. Sodium and phosphate are abundantly present in processed food. We hypothesized that

  6. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  7. Bromination of Benzonorbornadiene Using a Mixture of Sodium Bromide and Sodium Perborate at High Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Şenocak, Erdal; Yavuz TAŞKESENLİGİL

    2014-01-01

    Bromination of benzonorbornadiene (1) with sodium bromide in the presence of sodium perborate at room temperature gave only one product, the dibromide 2 produced via Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement. However, at high temperatures, bromination resulted predominantly in the formation of rearranged solvolytic products whose formation mechanisms are discussed.

  8. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.; Raaij, J.M.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically

  9. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400¿mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically

  10. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie

    2013-01-01

    the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American...

  11. Angiotensin II clamp prevents the second step in renal apical NHE3 internalization during acute hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Patrick K K; Yang, Li E; McDonough, Alicia A

    2002-01-01

    Acute hypertension inhibits proximal tubule (PT) sodium reabsorption. The resultant increase in NaCl delivery to the macula densa suppresses renin release. We tested whether the sustained pressure-induced inhibition of PT sodium reabsorption requires a renin-mediated decrease in ANG II levels...... hypertension, including diuresis and redistribution of PT NHE3 into intracellular membranes, require a responsive renin-angiotensin system and that the responses may be induced by the sustained increase in NaCl delivery to the macula densa during acute hypertension....

  12. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a nutshell. • A patient with sudden onset of a cold, weak, numb and painful foot has acute lower extremity ischaemia (ALEXI) until proven otherwise. Labelling patients as acute gout, acute phlegmasia (deep vein thrombosis), acute sciatica, etc. may result in unnecessary delays in treatment, with tragic consequences.

  13. Reducing sodium intake from meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusunen, Marita; Puolanne, Eero

    2005-07-01

    Sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations in many industrialized countries. Excessive intake of sodium has been linked to hypertension and consequently to increased risk of stroke and premature death from cardiovascular diseases. The main source of sodium in the diet is sodium chloride. It has been established that the consumption of more than 6g NaCl/day/person is associated with an age-increase in blood pressure. Therefore, it has been recommended that the total amount of dietary salt should be maintained at about 5-6g/day. Genetically salt susceptible individuals and hypertensives would particularly benefit from low-sodium diets, the salt content of which should range between 1 and 3g/day. In industrialized countries, meat products and meat meals at home and in catering comprise one of the major sources of sodium, in the form of sodium chloride. Sodium chloride affects the flavour, texture and shelf life of meat products. The salt intake derived from meat dishes can be lowered by, whenever possible, adding the salt, not during preparation, but at the table. In most cases, salt contents of over 2% can be markedly lowered without substantial sensory deterioration or technological problems causing economical losses. Salt contents down to 1.4% NaCl in cooked sausages and 1.75% in lean meat products are enough to produce a heat stable gel with acceptable perceived saltiness as well as firmness, water-binding and fat retention. A particular problem with low-salt meat products is, however, that not only the perceived saltiness, but also the intensity of the characteristic flavour decreases. Increased meat protein content (i.e. lean meat content) in meat products reduces perceived saltiness. The required salt content for acceptable gel strength depends on the formulation of the product. When phosphates are added or the fat content is high, lower salt additions provide a more stable gel than in non-phosphate and in low-fat products. Small differences in salt

  14. The mutagenic activity of sodium perborate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, J P

    1989-10-01

    Sodium perborate (CAS No. 1333-73-9, 10486-00-7, or 13517-20-9, depending on the structural formula given) is produced in huge amounts mainly for its use as a bleaching agent in laundry detergents. Its action involves the liberation of active oxygen species at elevated temperatures. In view of the widespread use of this compound it is surprising to note that no mutagenicity test data yet exist. The investigations reported in this paper have shown that sodium perborate is indeed capable of producing mutagenic changes in a number of in vitro test systems. Its potential for inflicting damage to DNA could be demonstrated in an assay which is tailored to probe for oxidative damage induced by a chemical agent. As expected, sodium perborate proved to be able to oxidize thymidine to an appreciable extent at an incubation temperature of 80 degrees C, but even at 40 degrees C thymidine oxidation was measurable. The compound induced point mutations in the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA102, while TA98 did not respond. Also, incubation in the presence of a mammalian auxiliary metabolic system (rat liver S9) abolished the mutagenic activity completely. Finally, Chinese hamster ovary cells (strain CHO-K1) were shown to undergo extensive chromosomal damage when treated with sodium perborate. The rather unusual prevalence of chromosome rearrangements was especially noted. Sodium perborate is thus to be regarded as a direct-acting in vitro mutagen.

  15. Efficacy of stepwise sodium profile versus individualized dialysate sodium in blood pressure control among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahgholian, Nahid; Hashemi, Maryam Sadat; Shahidi, Shahrzade

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is very common in patients with end-stage renal disease and accelerates cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The most important factor in achieving normal blood pressure in these patients is reaching dry weight. Sodium and extracellular fluid balance play a vital role in this regard. Considering the lack of consensus about the efficacy of stepwise sodium profile and individualized dialysate sodium, this study aimed to determine the superior method for blood pressure control in hemodialysis patients. In a quasi-experimental study, patients satisfying the inclusion criteria were enrolled through convenience sampling. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups of stepwise sodium profile and individualized dialysate sodium. Information record form was used for data collection. Data were analyzed with paired and independent t-test and descriptive statistics using SPSS for Windows 20.0. Patients in the two groups were similar in qualitative and quantitative background variables. While systolic blood pressure significantly decreased following hemodialysis with individualized dialysate sodium (P profile (P = 0.060). Individualized dialysate sodium caused greater change in the mean systolic blood pressure than stepwise sodium profile did (P = 0.040). Pre- and post-dialysis diastolic blood pressure values showed significant differences in both groups (P profile). However, the mean changes in diastolic blood pressure of the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.295). We found no significant difference in interdialytic weight gain and blood pressure control by the two methods. The change in systolic blood pressure was lower in the stepwise profile method than in the individualized dialysate sodium method, and this method did not cause interdialytic hypertension. So, by adjusting the dialysis solution with regard to plasma sodium levels, lead to more blood pressure control. Meanwhile, the two groups were not significantly different in the

  16. The Sodium Content of Processed Foods in South Africa during the Introduction of Mandatory Sodium Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Dunford, Elizabeth; Ware, Lisa J; Harris, Teresa; Walker, Adele; Wicks, Mariaan; van Zyl, Tertia; Swanepoel, Bianca; Charlton, Karen E; Woodward, Mark; Webster, Jacqui; Neal, Bruce

    2017-04-20

    In June 2016, the Republic of South Africa introduced legislation for mandatory limits for the upper sodium content permitted in a wide range of processed foods. We assessed the sodium levels of packaged foods in South Africa during the one-year period leading up to the mandatory implementation date of the legislation. Data on the nutritional composition of packaged foods was obtained from nutrition information panels on food labels through both in-store surveys and crowdsourcing by users of the HealthyFood Switch mobile phone app between June 2015 and August 2016. Summary sodium levels were calculated for 15 food categories, including the 13 categories covered by the sodium legislation. The percentage of foods that met the government's 2016 sodium limits was also calculated. 11,065 processed food items were included in the analyses; 1851 of these were subject to the sodium legislation. Overall, 67% of targeted foods had a sodium level at or below the legislated limit. Categories with the lowest percentage of foods that met legislated limits were bread (27%), potato crisps (41%), salt and vinegar flavoured snacks (42%), and raw processed sausages (45%). About half (49%) of targeted foods not meeting the legislated limits were less than 25% above the maximum sodium level. Sodium levels in two-thirds of foods covered by the South African sodium legislation were at or below the permitted upper levels at the mandatory implementation date of the legislation and many more were close to the limit. The South African food industry has an excellent opportunity to rapidly meet the legislated requirements.

  17. Temporal sodium release related to gel microstructural properties-implications for sodium reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wan-Yuan; Lee, Youngsoo

    2014-11-01

    The microstructure of food can be engineered to enhance sodium release during mastication, which may be used as a strategy to reduce sodium content in foods. This study aimed to relate sodium release to microstructural properties of solid lipoproteic colloid (SLC) foods. The SLC gels with 1.5% (w/w) NaCl were prepared by homogenization of whey protein isolate and anhydrous milk fat, followed by heat-induced gelation. The gels varied in protein content (8% or 16%), fat content (0%, 11%, 22%, or 33%), and homogenization pressures (14 or 55 MPa). The maximum rate of sodium release during the initial gel compression increased with increasing gel porosity and pore size. This was due to more releasable serum in the gels with larger pore volume and larger pores. The maximum concentration of sodium at the end of sodium release increased with reduced size of the fat particles in the gels. The smaller fat particles were dispersed more uniformly and interrupted the protein network more, and facilitated the gel breakdown. The above findings suggested that, during the breakdown of the SLC gels, the major mechanisms of sodium release are via serum release followed by sodium diffusion, which are governed by the gel porosity and the particle size of fat, respectively. This study demonstrated the dependence of temporal sodium release properties on the microstructural properties of an SLC food system. The findings from this study could lay the foundation for further investigation of the dependence of saltiness perception on SLC microstructure, which can provide insight for sodium reduction in SLC products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Oral sucralfate in acute radiation oesophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, R.K. (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)); Kochhar, R. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)); Singh, D.P. (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India))

    1994-01-01

    Eighty patients with carcinoma in the middle third of oesophagus and with acute radiation oesophagitis following external beam and intracavitary radiotherapy were managed by two different schedules. Group 1 (n = 40) received an antacid containing sodium alginate whereas Group 2 (n = 40) were given a 10% sucralfate suspension during 4 weeks. In Group 2, 32 patients had significant relief of symptoms within 7 days of treatment and most ulcers had healed by 12 days of treatment as seen on endoscopy. Patients in Group 1, on the other hand, showed little improvement of symptoms and had persistent ulcers even after 4 weeks of therapy. We conclude that sucralfate is useful in the management of acute radiation oesophagitis. (orig.).

  19. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  20. Effects of dopamine on renal haemodynamics tubular function and sodium excretion in normal humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    of critically ill patients with low cardiac output states and/or acute oliguric renal failure. Pharmacological effects of dopamine are dose dependent. Low doses of dopamine predominantly stimulate dopaminergic receptors, but with increasing doses actions secondary to stimulation of adrenergic beta(1) and alpha...... to a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, independent of effects of beta(1) receptors on cardiac contractility and heart rate. Dose-response studies demonstrated that the dopamine-induced increase in effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) reaches its maximum at 3 micrograms/kg/min. The increase in ERPF...... ranging from 1 to 5 micrograms/kg/min caused about a two-fold increase in sodium excretion. At doses at and above 7.5 micrograms/kg/min which increased mean arterial pressure, dopamine further increased sodium clearance (CNa) while ERPF was decreasing, indicating the contribution of pressure natriuresis...

  1. pH and salivary sodium bicarbonate in cancer patients: correlation with seric concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Morales, Thais; Navas, Rita; Viera, Ninoska; Alvarez, Carmen Julia; Chaparro, Neira

    2008-07-01

    To determine the correlation between pH and bicarbonate of soda in blood and saliva in child and adolescent patients during the administration of 3 g/m2 of methotrexate. A controlled clinical test was performed on 23 patients diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Ages ranged from 4 to 18. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient was used to interpret the data. No significant correlation was found between pH levels and seric and salivary sodium bicarbonate. However, there was a significant correlation between the levels of sodium bicarbonate in the body fluids evaluated (rs 0.2576, p=0.0354). Changes modifying the microenvironment of the oral cavity probably do not allow saliva to be used to determine blood pH and seric bicarbonate.

  2. Acute otitis externa

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Charles PS

    2013-01-01

    Acute otitis externa, also known as ‘swimmer’s ear’, is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present.

  3. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Proposal for Acute Endodontic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keine, Kátia Cristina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Diniz, Ana Carolina Soares; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Galoza, Marina Oliveira Gonçalves; Magro, Miriam Graziele; de Barros, Yolanda Benedita Abadia Martins; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the main lesions that simulate clinically and propose a treatment protocol for acute endodontic infection. Signs and clinical symptoms of periodontal abscess, gingival abscess, odontoma, herpes simplex, pericoronitis, acute pulpitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/NUP) were described and compared with acute endodontic infections. A treatment protocol was described by optimizing the procedures in access cavity, microbial decontamination and detoxification of the root canal, apical debridement, intracanal and systemic medication and surgical drainage procedures. The convenience of the use of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, root canal instrumentation using a crown-down technique, intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine or triple antibiotic paste and the convenience of the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and surgical drainage to solve cases of acute dentoalveolar abscess was discussed.

  4. Sodium sulfur batteries for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degruson, James A.

    1992-02-01

    In 1986, Eagle-Picher Industries was selected by the Air Force to develop sodium sulfur cells for satellite applications. Specifically, the development program was geared toward low earth orbit goals requiring high charge and/or discharge rates. A number of improvements have been made on the cell level and a transition to a complete space battery was initiated at Eagle-Picher. The results of six months of testing a 250 watt/hour sodium sulfur space battery look very promising. With over 1000 LEO cycles conducted on this first battery, the next generation battery is being designed. This next design will focus on achieving greater energy densities associated with the sodium sulfur chemistry.

  5. Sodium in Your Diet: Using the Nutrition Facts Label to Reduce Your Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than 5 mg of sodium per serving Very Low Sodium 35 mg of sodium or less per serving Low Sodium 140 mg of sodium or less per serving ... Buy fresh, frozen (no sauce or seasoning), or low sodium or no-salt-added canned vegetables. Give sodium ...

  6. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Perry E.

    1981-01-01

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

  7. Sodium hypochlorite accident in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ulrich; Kleier, Donald J

    2013-01-01

    A sodium hypochlorite accident is a rare event in adults, but even more so in children. The purposes of this paper were to: report the case of a one-year, 10-month-old toddler who was treated under general anesthesia for early childhood caries, incurred a sodium hypochlorite accident following attempted pulpectomy in his primary maxillary central incisors, but made a full recovery without any sequelae after a typical four to six weeks course of disease; review the pertinent literature; and give recommendations on how to minimize the potential occurrence of such incidents.

  8. LOW SODIUM DIET: PROS AND CONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is rather contradictory evidence on the effectiveness of a low sodium diet for the prevention of various diseases. At that, it is a generally accepted fact, that it is necessary to reduce salt intake in order to reduce high blood pressure. An internist should remember that the degree of blood pressure reduction is individual and not always depends on the level of salt intake. Moreover, the low-sodium diet helps to reduce the rate of telomere shortening, thereby slowing down the aging process.

  9. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Baldev; Vasudeva Rao, PR 0

    2015-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspectsFeatures a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspecti

  10. Short-term effects of hypertonic saline solution in acute heart failure and long-term effects of a moderate sodium restriction in patients with compensated heart failure with New York Heart Association class III (Class C) (SMAC-HF Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, Salvatore; Fasullo, Sergio; Parrinello, Gaspare; Cannizzaro, Sergio; Basile, Ivana; Vitrano, Gabriella; Terrazzino, Gabriella; Maringhini, Giorgio; Ganci, Filippo; Scalzo, Sebastiano; Sarullo, Filippo M; Cice, Gennaro; Di Pasquale, Pietro

    2011-07-01

    Hypertonic saline solution (HSS) and a moderate Na restriction plus high furosemide dose showed beneficial effects in compensated heart failure (HF), in short and long terms. The study was aimed to verify the effects of this combination on hospitalization time, readmissions and mortality in patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III. Chronic ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy uncompensated patients with HF in NYHA III functional class with ejection fraction <40%, serum creatinine <2.5 mg/dL, blood urea nitrogen <60 mg/dL and reduced urinary volume were single-blind randomized in 2 groups: the first group received a 30-minute intravenous infusion of furosemide (250 mg) plus HSS (150 mL) twice daily and a moderate Na restriction (120 mmol); the second group received furosemide intravenous bolus (250 mg) twice a day, without HSS and a low Na diet (80 mmol); both groups received a fluid intake of 1000 mL/d. After discharge, the HSS group continued with 120 mmol Na/d; the second group continued with 80 mmol Na/d. A total of 1771 patients (881 HSS group and 890 without HSS group) met inclusion criteria: the first group (881 patients), compared with the second (890 patients), showed an increase in diuresis and serum Na levels, a reduction in hospitalization time (3.5 + 1 versus 5.5 + 1 days, P < 0.0001) and, during follow-up (57 + 15 months), a lower rate in readmissions (18.5% versus 34.2%, P < 0.0001) and mortality (12.9% versus 23.8%, P < 0.0001); the second group also showed a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. This study suggests that in-hospital HSS administration, combined with moderate Na restriction, reduces hospitalization time and that a moderate sodium diet restriction determines long-term benefit in patients with NYHA class III HF.

  11. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  12. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Gil Felicisimo S; Balbin, Michelle M; Eugenio, Paul John G; Zapanta, Charleo S; Monserate, Juvy J; Salazar, Joel R; Mingala, Claro N

    2017-03-18

    The Turkevich method has been used for many years in the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Lately, the use of plant extracts and amino acids has been reported, which is valuable in the field of biotechnology and biomedicine. The AuNPs was synthesized from the reduction of HAuCl4 3H2O by sodium glutamate and stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The optimum concentrations for sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate in the synthesis process were determined. The characteristics of the synthesized AuNPs was analysed through UV-Vis Spectroscopy and SEM. The AuNPs have spherical shape with a mean diameter of approximately 21.62 ± 4.39 nm and is well dispersed. FTIR analysis of the AuNPs reflected that the sulfate head group of sodium dodecyl sulfate is adsorbed at the surface of the AuNPs. Thus, we report herein the synthesis of AuNPs using sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissolution and ionization of sodium superoxide in sodium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsoo; Park, Hyeokjun; Lee, Byungju; Seong, Won Mo; Lim, Hee-Dae; Bae, Youngjoon; Kim, Haegyeom; Kim, Won Keun; Ryu, Kyoung Han; Kang, Kisuk

    2016-02-01

    With the demand for high-energy-storage devices, the rechargeable metal-oxygen battery has attracted attention recently. Sodium-oxygen batteries have been regarded as the most promising candidates because of their lower-charge overpotential compared with that of lithium-oxygen system. However, conflicting observations with different discharge products have inhibited the understanding of precise reactions in the battery. Here we demonstrate that the competition between the electrochemical and chemical reactions in sodium-oxygen batteries leads to the dissolution and ionization of sodium superoxide, liberating superoxide anion and triggering the formation of sodium peroxide dihydrate (Na2O2.2H2O). On the formation of Na2O2.2H2O, the charge overpotential of sodium-oxygen cells significantly increases. This verification addresses the origin of conflicting discharge products and overpotentials observed in sodium-oxygen systems. Our proposed model provides guidelines to help direct the reactions in sodium-oxygen batteries to achieve high efficiency and rechargeability.

  14. Sodium-coupled motility in a swimming cyanobacterium.

    OpenAIRE

    Willey, J M; Waterbury, J B; Greenberg, E P

    1987-01-01

    The energetics of motility in Synechococcus strain WH8113 were studied to understand the unique nonflagellar swimming of this cyanobacterium. There was a specific sodium requirement for motility such that cells were immotile below 10 mM external sodium and cell speed increased with increasing sodium levels above 10 mM to a maximum of about 15 microns/s at 150 to 250 mM sodium. The sodium motive force increased similarly with increasing external sodium from -120 to -165 mV, but other energetic...

  15. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  16. Urinary sodium excretion and dietary sources of sodium intake in Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Min; Ho, Suzanne C; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-Ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8 ± 3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium.

  17. Functional Assessment of Cardiac Responses of Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to Acute and Chronic Temperature Change Using High-Resolution Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ling; Genge, Christine E; Cua, Michelle; Sheng, Xiaoye; Rayani, Kaveh; Beg, Mirza F; Sarunic, Marinko V; Tibbits, Glen F

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important organism as a model for understanding vertebrate cardiovascular development. However, little is known about adult ZF cardiac function and how contractile function changes to cope with fluctuations in ambient temperature. The goals of this study were to: 1) determine if high resolution echocardiography (HRE) in the presence of reduced cardiodepressant anesthetics could be used to accurately investigate the structural and functional properties of the ZF heart and 2) if the effect of ambient temperature changes both acutely and chronically could be determined non-invasively using HRE in vivo. Heart rate (HR) appears to be the critical factor in modifying cardiac output (CO) with ambient temperature fluctuation as it increases from 78 ± 5.9 bpm at 18°C to 162 ± 9.7 bpm at 28°C regardless of acclimation state (cold acclimated CA- 18°C; warm acclimated WA- 28°C). Stroke volume (SV) is highest when the ambient temperature matches the acclimation temperature, though this difference did not constitute a significant effect (CA 1.17 ± 0.15 μL at 18°C vs 1.06 ± 0.14 μl at 28°C; WA 1.10 ± 0.13 μL at 18°C vs 1.12 ± 0.12 μl at 28°C). The isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT) was significantly shorter in CA fish at 18°C. The CA group showed improved systolic function at 18°C in comparison to the WA group with significant increases in both ejection fraction and fractional shortening and decreases in IVCT. The decreased early peak (E) velocity and early peak velocity / atrial peak velocity (E/A) ratio in the CA group are likely associated with increased reliance on atrial contraction for ventricular filling.

  18. Functional Assessment of Cardiac Responses of Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio to Acute and Chronic Temperature Change Using High-Resolution Echocardiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Lee

    Full Text Available The zebrafish (Danio rerio is an important organism as a model for understanding vertebrate cardiovascular development. However, little is known about adult ZF cardiac function and how contractile function changes to cope with fluctuations in ambient temperature. The goals of this study were to: 1 determine if high resolution echocardiography (HRE in the presence of reduced cardiodepressant anesthetics could be used to accurately investigate the structural and functional properties of the ZF heart and 2 if the effect of ambient temperature changes both acutely and chronically could be determined non-invasively using HRE in vivo. Heart rate (HR appears to be the critical factor in modifying cardiac output (CO with ambient temperature fluctuation as it increases from 78 ± 5.9 bpm at 18°C to 162 ± 9.7 bpm at 28°C regardless of acclimation state (cold acclimated CA- 18°C; warm acclimated WA- 28°C. Stroke volume (SV is highest when the ambient temperature matches the acclimation temperature, though this difference did not constitute a significant effect (CA 1.17 ± 0.15 μL at 18°C vs 1.06 ± 0.14 μl at 28°C; WA 1.10 ± 0.13 μL at 18°C vs 1.12 ± 0.12 μl at 28°C. The isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT was significantly shorter in CA fish at 18°C. The CA group showed improved systolic function at 18°C in comparison to the WA group with significant increases in both ejection fraction and fractional shortening and decreases in IVCT. The decreased early peak (E velocity and early peak velocity / atrial peak velocity (E/A ratio in the CA group are likely associated with increased reliance on atrial contraction for ventricular filling.

  19. Increased brain tissue sodium concentration in Huntington's Disease - a sodium imaging study at 4 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetz, Kathrin; Romanzetti, Sandro; Dogan, Imis; Saß, Christian; Werner, Cornelius J; Schiefer, Johannes; Schulz, Jörg B; Shah, N Jon

    2012-10-15

    The neuropathological hallmark of the autosomal dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease is progressive striatal loss starting several years prior to symptom manifestation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been widely used to detect altered structure in premanifest and early Huntington's disease. Given that neurodegeneration is likely preceded by substantial neuronal dysfunction, we used in vivo sodium MR imaging, which has been shown to be sensitive to cell death and viability, to investigate cellular and metabolic integrity of Huntington's disease brain tissue. We studied a total of thirteen healthy controls and thirteen Huntington's disease gene carriers (11 manifest and 2 premanifest). The manifest Huntington's disease group was subdivided into stages 1 and 2 according to their Total Functional Capacity scores. Clinical total motor and cognitive scores, as well as calibrated sodium and T1-weighted MR images were obtained with a 4 T Siemens MR scanner. Sodium images were acquired by means of a constant time imaging technique with an ultra-short "echo time". T1-weighted MR images were further analysed with voxel-based morphometry. The absolute total sodium concentration and grey matter values were measured in several Huntington's disease-specific and also non-specific areas. Statistical analysis of variance and Pearson correlation were applied. In Huntington's disease subjects, we found an increase of total sodium concentration of the entire brain compared to controls. Increased total sodium concentration values were found in structurally affected, but also in some non-affected, regions. The highest total sodium concentration values were found in the bilateral caudate, which was associated with caudate grey matter atrophy and CAG repeat length. In all Huntington's disease subjects we further found a profound increase of total sodium concentration in the putamen, pallidum, thalamus, hippocampus, insula, precuneus and occipital

  20. Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration prevents contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamhane Umesh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrast-induced nephropathy is the leading cause of in-hospital acute renal failure. This side effect of contrast agents leads to increased morbidity, mortality, and health costs. Ensuring adequate hydration prior to contrast exposure is highly effective at preventing this complication, although the optimal hydration strategy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy still remains an unresolved issue. Former meta-analyses and several recent studies have shown conflicting results regarding the protective effect of sodium bicarbonate. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of normal saline versus sodium bicarbonate for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Methods The study searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, ISI Web of Science (until 15 December 2008, and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials that compared normal saline with sodium bicarbonate-based hydration regimen regarding contrast-induced nephropathy. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary odds ratios. Results A total of 17 trials including 2,633 subjects were pooled. Pre-procedural hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (odds ratios 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.80, P = 0.003. Number needed to treat to prevent one case of contrast-induced nephropathy was 16 (95% confidence interval 10–34. No significant differences in the rates of post-procedure hemodialysis (P = 0.20 or death (P = 0.53 was observed. Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration was found to be superior to normal saline in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in this updated meta-analysis.

  1. Extreme Hypernatremia Combined With Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ying Yang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is a life-threatening condition that involves muscle cell destruction. Among its etiologies, severe hyper-natremia is a less common cause. We report a teenage girl with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and hypothalamus dysfunction syndrome who presented with extreme hypernatremia (sodium, 211 mmol/L with rhabdomyolysis (creatine kinase, 32,850 U/L and acute renal failure (creatinine, 6.1 mg/dL following gastroenteritis with 7-kg weight loss. Rhabdomyolysis subsequently led to acute renal failure and hyperkalemia. Acute hemodialysis was initiated on hospital day 3 for hyperkalemia. This resulted in a 13 mmol/L fall in serum sodium in 3 hours despite using a 156 mmol/L sodium bath, but without the development of cerebral edema or neurological defect. This report highlights an unusual cause of rhabdomyolysis in children and the experience of managing such a difficult clinical situation. [J Chin Med Assoc 2009;72(10:555–558

  2. Sodium reduction in margarine using NaCl substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA GONÇALVES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sodium chloride is traditionally used as a food additive in food processing. However, because of its high sodium content, NaCl has been associated with chronic diseases. Margarine is a popular product that is used in several preparations, but it includes high sodium content; therefore, it is among the products whose sodium content should be reduced. Thus, the objective of this study was to produce margarines with reduced sodium content prepared using a salt mixture. The following 4 margarine formulations were prepared: Formulation A (control - 0% sodium reduction, Formulation B (20.8% less sodium, Formulation C (33.0% less sodium and Formulation D (47.4% less sodium. The low sodium formulations were produced using a salt mixture consisting of NaCl, KCl, and monosodium glutamate at different concentrations. The margarines were evaluated using an acceptance test and descriptive tests: time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations. The mixture used is a good alternative for preparing low sodium margarine because the low sodium formulations feature equal salinity and do not produce a strange or bad taste. Furthermore, it may be possible to prepare margarines with up to 47.4% less sodium and that are acceptable to consumers.

  3. SELECTIVE SODIUM REMOVAL FROM LITHIUM CHLORIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. Natrium superionic conductor (NASICON) ceramics present interesting sensitive and selective properties against alkaline cations due to their structure. The powder of Li1.4La0.4Zr1.6(PO4)3 has been synthesized by a solid phase reaction. The removal of sodium was studied in an extensive series of tests ...

  4. Development of sodium alginate and konkoli gumgrafted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment is a continuation of our effort to develop a blend membrane of sodium alginate and “konkoli” gum-g-polyacrylamide (KG-g-PAAm) for bioremediation of wastewater. The effect of graft reaction conditions on the percentage graft yield in the graft copolymerization was investigated. It was observed that grafting ...

  5. SODIUM SESQUICARBONATE (AKANG) AND LIMESTONE AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ben

    The limestone catalyst substantially increases the initial rate of reaction without appreciably lowering the time required for attaining the equilibrium concentration of monoglyceride in the resulting reaction mixture compared to the sodium sesquicarbonate ... Effect of catalysts on density of modified palm and palm kernel oils.

  6. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  7. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs ...

  8. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four strains of eri, Samia cynthia ricini Lepidoptera: Saturniidae that can be identified morphologically and maintained at North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat were characterized based on their protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and DNA by random ...

  9. Structure and properties of small sodium clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2002-01-01

    and the results of other theoretical work. We have systematically calculated the optimized geometries of neutral and singly charged sodium clusters having up to 20 atoms, their multipole moments (dipole and quadrupole), static polarizabilities, binding energies per atom, ionization potentials, and frequencies...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section 582.5772 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problem Who's At Risk? What Can Be Done Science Behind the Issue Related Pages 9 in 10 About 90% of Americans aged 2 years or older eat too much ... Top of Page Science Behind the Issue ... — United States, 2007–2008 (MMWR) CDC Feature- Most Americans Should Consume Less Sodium (1,500 mg/Day ...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH control... manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this...

  14. Nedocromil sodium and exercise induced asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Chudry, N; Correa, F; Silverman, M.

    1987-01-01

    Serial exercise tests were carried out by 12 children with asthma on two study days. After a control exercise test either nedocromil sodium 4 mg or placebo were given double blind by metered dose inhaler. Highly significant inhibition of exercise induced asthma occurred after nedocromil, lasting for over two hours.

  15. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SODIUM SYSTEMS FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, W. O.; Yunker, W. H.; Scott, F. A.

    1970-06-01

    BNWL-1407 summarizes information gained from the Chemical Analyses of Sodium Systems Program pursued by Battelle- Northwest over the period from July 1967 through June 1969. Tasks included feasibility studies for performing coulometric titration and polarographic determinations of oxygen in sodium, and the development of new separation techniques for sodium impurities and their subsequent analyses. The program was terminated ahead of schedule so firm conclusions were not obtained in all areas of the work. At least 40 coulometric titrations were carried out and special test cells were developed for coulometric application. Data indicated that polarographic measurements are theoretically feasible, but practical application of the method was not verified. An emission spectrographic procedure for trace metal impurities was developed and published. Trace metal analysis by a neutron activation technique was shown to be feasible; key to the success of the activation technique was the application of a new ion exchange resin which provided a sodium separation factor of 10{sup 11}. Preliminary studies on direct scavenging of trace metals produced no conclusive results.

  16. Sodium chloride damage to porous building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    This research studied sodium chloride (NaCl) damage to porous building materials with the aim of: i) gaining a better understanding of the damage process and ii) developing an effective crystallization test. It has been definitely proven that NaCl modifies the hygric dilation of a material

  17. Fused deposition modelling of sodium caseinate dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Houlder, S.; Wit, de Martin; Buijsse, C.A.P.; Alting, A.C.

    2018-01-01

    Only recently, researchers have started experimenting with 3D printing of foods. The aim of this study was to investigate 3D printed objects from sodium caseinate dispersions, exhibiting reversible gelation behaviour. Gelation and dispensing behaviour were explored and structures of different

  18. Genetic control of sodium channel function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Hanno L.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Smits, Jeroen P. P.; Verkerk, Arie O.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2003-01-01

    Sodium ion (Na) influx through cardiac Na channels triggers the action potential in cells of the working myocardium and the specialized conduction system. Na channels thus act as key molecular determinants of cardiac excitability and impulse propagation. Na channel dysfunction may cause

  19. Sodium Alanate Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldé, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of sodium alanate (NaAlH4) based hydrogen storage materials are described in this book. The effect of the NaAlH4 particle size, particularly in the nanometer size range deposited on carbon materials, will be linked to the hydrogen storage characteristics. Moreover,

  20. Painful peripheral neuropathy and sodium channel mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Waxman, Stephen G

    2015-06-02

    Peripheral neuropathy can lead to neuropathic pain in a subset of patients. Painful peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating disorder, reflected by a reduced quality of life. Therapeutic strategies are limited and often disappointing, as in most cases targeted treatment is not available. Elucidating pathogenetic factors for pain might provide a target for optimal treatment. Voltage-gated sodium channels NaV1.7-NaV1.9 are expressed in the small-diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons and their axons. By a targeted gene approach, missense gain-of-function mutations of NaV1.7-NaV1.9 have been demonstrated in painful peripheral neuropathy. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations produce a spectrum of pro-excitatory changes in channel biophysics, with the shared outcome at the cellular level of dorsal root ganglion hyperexcitability. Reduced neurite outgrowth may be another consequence of sodium channel mutations, and possible therapeutic strategies include blockade of sodium channels or block of reverse operation of the sodium-calcium exchanger. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of painful peripheral neuropathy offers new targets that may provide a basis for more effective treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  2. Durability of metakaolin geopolymers with various sodium silicate/sodium hydroxide ratios against seawater exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, Nur Ain; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Li, Long-Yuan; Sandu, Andrei Victor; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ming, Liew Yun

    2017-09-01

    This work presents an investigation of the performance of metakaolin geopolymers exposed to the continuous immersion of seawater. The geopolymers were prepared from metakaolin by activating with a mixture of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions and cured at 80°C. The ratios of sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide were varied from 0.20 to 0.32. The result showed that metakaolin geopolymers reduce in strength after immersion in seawater for 28 days. The unexposed samples with highest compressive strength attained greatest strength retention. White deposits were formed on the surface of the geopolymers after the exposure to seawater which was believed due to the depolymerisation process of the geopolymer network. Even so, the metakaolin geopolymers did not substantially change in dimension and remain structurally intact.

  3. Sodium Picosulfate, Magnesium Oxide, and Anhydrous Citric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium picosulfate, magnesium oxide, and anhydrous citric acid combination powder is used to empty the colon (large ... clear view of the walls of the colon. Sodium picosulfate is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Optimization of Low Sodium Salts Mix for Shoestring Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Heverton Carrara; de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Azevedo, Natália Csizmar; Rodrigues, Daniela Maria; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown the close relationship between the sodium consumption and health problems such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Thus, the demand for products with reduced sodium content, but with sensory quality, is increasing every day. In this context, this study aimed to optimize a low sodium salts mix using sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and monosodium glutamate to the development of shoestring potatoes with low sodium content and high sensory quality, through mixture design and response surface methodology. The salts mix that promotes the same salting power and similar sensory acceptability that the shoestring potatoes with 1.6% sodium chloride (ideal concentration) and at the same time promotes the greatest possible reduction of sodium, about 65%, should provide the composition as follows: 0.48% of sodium chloride, 0.92% of potassium chloride, and 0.43% of monosodium glutamate. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  6. Water Softeners: How Much Sodium Do They Add?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating I'm trying to watch the sodium in my diet. Should I be ... 08, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/water-softeners-sodium/ ...

  7. Sodium restriction in heart failure: benefit or harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konerman, Matthew C; Hummel, Scott L

    2014-02-01

    Current guidelines vary in the recommended amount of dietary sodium intake for heart failure (HF) patients. Observational studies and the hypertension literature support the concept that sodium restriction improves HF outcomes. In contrast, several randomized controlled trials imply that dietary sodium restriction can cause harm through hypovolemia and increased neurohormonal activation. Data from hypertensive animal models and humans suggest that dietary sodium intake may need to be individually tailored based on HF severity and the physiologic response to sodium loading. Future studies must assess interactions between sodium intake, fluid intake, and diuretics to match clinical practice and improve safety. More information is needed in multiple areas, including accurate measurement of sodium intake, implementation of dietary changes in HF patients, and establishment of biomarkers that predict response to changes in sodium intake. Additional research is urgently needed to determine the true impact of the most commonly recommended self-care strategy in HF.

  8. Reducing Sodium in Foods: The Effect on Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Djin Gie; Miremadi, Fatemeh; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium is an essential micronutrient and, via salt taste, appetitive. High consumption of sodium is, however, related to negative health effects such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In industrialized countries, about 75% of sodium in the diet comes from manufactured foods and foods eaten away from home. Reducing sodium in processed foods will be, however, challenging due to sodium’s specific functionality in terms of flavor and associated palatability of foods (i.e., increase of saltiness, reduction of bitterness, enhancement of sweetness and other congruent flavors). The current review discusses the sensory role of sodium in food, determinants of salt taste perception and a variety of strategies, such as sodium replacers (i.e., potassium salts) and gradual reduction of sodium, to decrease sodium in processed foods while maintaining palatability. PMID:22254117

  9. Quantitative sodium imaging with a flexible twisted projection pulse sequence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Aiming; Atkinson, Ian C; Claiborne, Theodore C; Damen, Frederick C; Thulborn, Keith R

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of sodium MR images from an arbitrary intensity scale into a bioscale fosters image interpretation in terms of the spatially resolved biochemical process of sodium ion homeostasis...

  10. Strategies to reduce sodium intake in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henney, Jane E; Taylor, Christine Lewis; Boon, Caitlin S

    2010-01-01

    "Reducing the intake of sodium is an important public health goal for Americans. Since the 1970s, an array of public health interventions and national dietary guidelines has sought to reduce sodium intake. However, the U.S...

  11. Solid state sodium cells. Faststof natriumbatterier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-15

    The report describes the results from the project: ''Secondary Sodium Cells with Intercalation Electrodes'' which was financed by the Danish Department of Energy. The work was carried out by the Solid State Electrochemistry Group at the Technical University of Denmark which is formed by collaborators from the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Physics Laboratory III. The use of sodium has several advantages in theory compared to lithium systems: Sodium is much more abundant and lower priced than lithium, it may be easier to find solid electrolytes of sufficiently high conductivity, sodium forms no alloy with aluminium thereby making it possible to use this metal for current collectors instead of the costlier and heavier nickel. The softness of sodium metal may make it easier to achieve and maintain contact to other components in the battery during repeated cycling. This might be of importance for room temperature operation especially. Results from the project have primarily been published in the form of articles in international scientific journals and as contributions to monographs. Copies of these articles form the backbone of the report together with a short commentary to each article. Also included in the report are some general observations, as well as results that are unsuited for publication (e.g. unsuccessful experiments) but which may still contain relevant information for other experimental workers. Lastly, the report includes results on several intercalation compounds that will be published at a later stage as well as some details about the experimental equipment. The report is divided into three main sections, Intercalation Cathode Materials, Polymer Electrolytes and Battery Cycling Equipment. (AB).

  12. The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meihui [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na2S4 and Na2S5 were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360°C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

  13. The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meihui Wang.

    1992-06-01

    The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 5} were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360{degree}C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

  14. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in a sample of undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake). The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7%) and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%). Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  15. Mechanism of action of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs) on insect sodium channels

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, Kristopher S.; Song, Weizhong; NOMURA, Yoshiko; Salgado, Vincent L.; Dong, Ke

    2009-01-01

    Sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs) are a relatively new class of insecticides, with a mechanism of action different from those of other classes of insecticides that target voltage-gated sodium channels. These compounds have no effect at hyperpolarized membrane potentials, but cause a voltage-dependent, nearly irreversible block as the membrane potential is depolarized. The mechanism of action of SCBIs is similar to that of local anesthetics (LAs), class I anticonvulsants and class I ...

  16. Delaminated sodium nonatitanate and a method for producing delaminated sodium nonatitanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, May D.

    2016-02-02

    A hydrothermal synthesis method of making a delaminated titanate is disclosed. The delaminated titanate has a unique structure or morphology. The delaminated titanate is first formed by forming at a low temperature a layered sodium nonatitanate (SNT), which may be referred to as layered sodium titanate. The layered SNT has a unique morphology. The layered SNT is then synthesized into a delaminated titanate having a unique morphology.

  17. Sodium Borohydride/Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells For Space Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Deelo, M. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Sodium Borohydride and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells as they are applied to space applications. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) The Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell; 3) Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell Test Stands; 4) Fuel Cell Comparisons; 5) MEA Performance; 6) Anode Polarization; and 7) Electrode Analysis. The benefits of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and benefits of sodium borohydride as a fuel are also addressed.

  18. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes; Sonia Maria Freire; Maria Margarida Castel-Branco; Isabel Vitória Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized...

  19. Visualizing sodium dynamics in isolated cardiomyocytes using fluorescent nanosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Dubach, J. Matthew; Das, Saumya; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Clark, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of sodium flux across the cell membrane plays a vital role in the generation of action potentials and regulation of membrane excitability in cells such as cardiomyocytes and neurons. Alteration of sodium channel function has been implicated in diseases such as epilepsy, long QT syndrome, and heart failure. However, single cell imaging of sodium dynamics has been limited due to the narrow selection of fluorescent sodium indicators available to researchers. Here we report, the detect...

  20. Excitability Constraints on Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Michael; Angelino, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    We study how functional constraints bound and shape evolution through an analysis of mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels. The primary function of sodium channels is to allow the propagation of action potentials. Since Hodgkin and Huxley, mathematical models have suggested that sodium channel properties need to be tightly constrained for an action potential to propagate. There are nine mammalian genes encoding voltage-gated sodium channels, many of which are more than approximately 90% ide...

  1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  2. Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Celiac Disease Additional Content Medical News Acute Mesenteric Ischemia By Parswa Ansari, MD, Assistant Professor and Program ... Abdominal Abscesses Abdominal Wall Hernias Inguinal Hernia Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Appendicitis Ileus Intestinal Obstruction Ischemic Colitis Perforation of ...

  3. Acute Bronchitis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Acute Bronchitis URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Acute Bronchitis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APF You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... of carbohydrate and energy in an effort to lose weight can worsen these diseases. Severe acute attacks have ...

  5. Survey of the transport properties of sodium superionic conductor materials for use in sodium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, M.; Tietz, F.

    2015-01-01

    One important issue in future scenarios predominantly using renewable energy sources is the electrochemical storage of electricity in batteries. Among all rechargeable battery technologies, Li-ion cells have the largest energy density and output voltage today, but they have yet to be optimized in terms of capacity, safety and cost for use as stationary systems. Recently, sodium batteries have been attracting attention again because of the abundant availability of Na. However, much work is still required in the field of sodium batteries in order to mature this technology. Sodium superionic conductor (NASICON) materials are a thoroughly studied class of solid electrolytes. In this study, their crystal structure, compositional diversity and ionic conductivity are surveyed and analysed in order to correlate the lattice parameters and specific crystal structure data with sodium conductivity and activation energy using as much data sets as possible. Approximately 110 compositions with the general formula Na 1 + 2 w + x - y + zMw(II) Mx(III) My(V) M2- w - x - y (IV) (SiO4)z(PO4) 3 - z were included in the data collection to determine an optimal size for the M cations. In addition, the impact of the amount of Na per formula unit on the conductivity and the substitution of P with Si are discussed. An extensive study of the size of the structural bottleneck for sodium conduction (formed by triangles of oxygen ions) was carried out to validate the influence of this geometrical parameter on sodium conductivity.

  6. Effect of sodium fluoride on apple trees in pots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelikanova, I.

    1968-01-01

    Various concentrations of NaF solution (15, 30, 60, 120 mg/100 g soil) were applied to the apple trees James Grieve grafted on M IV, cultivated in pots. Sodium fluoride was applied once to the soil. During the growing period pathogenic changes were observed. These could be classified as acute, chronic and invisible symptoms, according to the time between NaF application and symptoms development. Content of fluoride in leaves and in wood was determined, and also the content of N, P, K, Mg and Ca, together with the length of one year shoots. It was found that lower (15, 30) NaF concentrations were stimulatory, and higher (60, 120) concentrations were toxic. During the next growing season a striking regeneration effect was observed. The content of fluoride in leaves was reduced and no visible symptoms occurred. The content of essential nutrient elements approached the control, and in some cases were even higher. The inhibition effect was reduced, especially in growth of one year shoots and was found only by planimetrical measurements of leaf blades. Stimulatory effects were observed in trees treated with the lowest concentrations of NaF.

  7. Diclofenac sodium as an alternative treatment of temporomandibular joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, E C; Kopp, S; Akerman, S

    1996-06-01

    In a double-blind study, diclofenac sodium (Voltaren), 50 mg two or three times a day, was compared with placebo in 32 patients with pain localized to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The patients were allocated into two equally large groups. A visual analog scale was used to estimate the pretreatment degree of pain. The treatment effect was assessed as the frequency of joint and muscle pain and by the patients' own evaluation of improvement. The change in the clinical condition was assessed by tenderness to palpation of the TMJ and masticatory muscles and by mandibular mobility. The frequency of TMJ pain showed a greater reduction in the diclofenac group than in the placebo group, and there was a significant reduction of daily TMJ pain in the diclofenac group. The diclofenac group also showed a significant decrease in tenderness to palpation of the masticatory muscles in comparison with the placebo group. The patients with short duration of pain showed the best response to diclofenac. There was no evidence in this study to prove that diclofenac should be used as a primary treatment of TMJ pain, but it could be used as a complement to other treatments of acute TMJ pain.

  8. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinap, Selamat; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Karim, Roslina

    2016-01-01

    that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups.Conclusions: This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition...

  9. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  10. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  12. 40 CFR 141.41 - Special monitoring for sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monitoring for sodium. 141.41... and Prohibition on Lead Use § 141.41 Special monitoring for sodium. (a) Suppliers of water for... distribution system for the determination of sodium concentration levels; samples must be collected and...

  13. 21 CFR 522.2404 - Thialbarbitone sodium for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thialbarbitone sodium for injection. 522.2404... § 522.2404 Thialbarbitone sodium for injection. (a) Specifications. Thialbarbitone sodium for injection... period of anesthesia can be lengthened by slower initial injection and supplemental administration during...

  14. 21 CFR 522.2444a - Sodium thiopental for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium thiopental for injection. 522.2444a Section... § 522.2444a Sodium thiopental for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug contains sodium thiopental sterile powder for dilution with sterile water for injection. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c...

  15. 21 CFR 522.2424 - Sodium thiamylal for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium thiamylal for injection. 522.2424 Section... § 522.2424 Sodium thiamylal for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a sterile dry powder. It is reconstituted aseptically with sterile distilled water, water for injection, or sodium chloride injection, to a...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1704 - Sodium pentobarbital injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium pentobarbital injection. 522.1704 Section... § 522.1704 Sodium pentobarbital injection. (a)(1) Specifications. Sodium pentobarbital injection is..., the injection should be administered intravenously “to effect”. The drug may be given...

  17. Suppressive effects of a polymer sodium silicate solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The silicon contents in the roots of the miniature rose treated with polymer sodium silicate were significantly greater than that in plants treated with monomer sodium silicate. In conclusion, the suppressive effects of sodium silicate in the polymer form were confirmed against powdery mildew and root rot diseases of the ...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  20. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food...

  1. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food...

  2. Suppressive effects of a polymer sodium silicate solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohsen

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... Sodium silicate was dissolved in water in either a monomer form or polymer form; the effects of both forms of sodium silicate aqueous solution on rose powdery mildew and root rot diseases of miniature rose were examined. Both forms of sodium silicate aqueous solution were applied to the roots of the.

  3. Structure-rheology relations in sodium caseinate containing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, H.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The general aim of the work described in this thesis was to investigate structure-rheologyrelations for dairy related products, focusing on model systems containing sodium caseinate. The acid inducedgelationof sodium caseinate, of sodium caseinate

  4. Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour curtain at 45 degrees to the ISR beam in Ring I (sodium generator is in white cylinder just left of centre). Electrons produced by ionization of the sodium vapour give an image of the beam on a fluorescent screen that is observed by a TV camera (at upper right).

  5. Sodium Channel (Dys)Function and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Bezzina, Connie R.

    2010-01-01

    P>Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane proteins located in the cell membrane of cardiomyocytes. Influx of sodium ions through these ion channels is responsible for the initial fast upstroke of the cardiac action potential. This inward sodium current thus triggers the initiation

  6. 76 FR 5711 - Bispyribac-sodium; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... exposure for bispyribac-sodium including exposure resulting from the tolerances established by this action... neurotoxicity studies are not available for bispyribac-sodium. There were clinical signs of potential... tolerance action, therefore, EPA has assumed that bispyribac-sodium does not have a common mechanism of...

  7. SNL/JAEA Collaborations on Sodium Fire Benchmarking.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Andrew Jordan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Denman, Matthew R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Takata, Takashi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ohshima, Hiroyuki [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Two sodium spray fire experiments performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) were used for a code - to - code comparison between CONTAIN - LMR and SPHINCS. Both computer codes are used for modeling sodium accidents in sodium fast reactors. The comparison between the two codes provides insights into the ability of both codes to model sodium spray fires. The SNL T3 and T4 experiments are 20 kg sodium spray fires with sodium spray temperature s of 200 deg C and 500 deg C, respe ctively. Given the relatively low sodium temperature in the SNL T3 experiment, the sodium spray experienced a period of non - combustion. The vessel in the SNL T4 experiment experienced a rapid pressurization that caused of the instrumentation ports to fail during the sodium spray. Despite these unforeseen difficulties, both codes were shown in good agreement with the experiment s . The subsequent pool fire that develops from the unburned sodium spray is a significant characteristic of the T3 experiment. SPHIN CS showed better long - term agreement with the SNL T3 experiment than CONTAIN - LMR. The unexpected port failure during the SNL T4 experiment presented modelling challenges. The time at which the port failure occurred is unknown, but is believed to have occur red at about 11 seconds into the sodium spray fire. The sensitivity analysis for the SNL T4 experiment shows that with a port failure, the sodium spray fire can still maintain elevated pressures during the spray.

  8. Monitoring sodium in commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the sodium we eat comes from commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants. Sodium reduction in these foods is a key component of several recent public health efforts. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of USDA, CDC and FDA have launched a collaborative program to monitor sodium ...

  9. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  10. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See No...

  13. Renin-sodium profile and renal prostaglandins in the pathogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renin-sodium profile and renal prostaglandins in the pathogenesis of systemic arterial hypertension in blacks. L. Somova, J. Mufunda. Thirteen black women with systemic (essential) arterial hypertension, age-matched with normotensives, were examined during two protocols inducing sodium depletion and sodium loading ...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3565 - Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3565 Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance... ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt (PMN P-97-328) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  15. Radiology of acute phlebothrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, E.I.; Zeitler, E.

    1980-09-01

    The difference in technique of phlebography in acute phlebothrombosis and that in chronic venous insufficiency is demonstrated. Since acute phlebothrombosis can be cured with good results by thrombectomy and fibrinolysis in the first few days of the disease, phlebography should be performed early, preferably the day on which the presence of acute thrombosis is suspected.

  16. Radiopharmaceuticals in Acute Porphyria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Nanno; Mamedova, Ilahä; Jansman, Frank G A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The acute porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders of the heme biosynthetic pathway. Carriers of the acute porphyria gene are prone to potentially fatal acute attacks, which can be precipitated by drug exposure. It is therefore important to know whether a drug is safe for carriers

  17. Acute mastoiditis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute...

  18. The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of acute irritation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Hedegaard, K; Fullerton, A

    2006-01-01

    % isopropyl palmitate (IPP cream), 10% glycerol (glycerol cream), 19.5% canola oil (canola oil cream) or 0.5% (-)-alpha-bisabolol (bisabolol cream). METHODS: Acute irritation was induced by occlusive tests with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate aq. in both HLGP and HV, and in HV also by using nonanoic acid in n...

  19. Diuretic response to acute hypertension is blunted during angiotensin II clamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Patrick K K; Zhang, Yibin; Yang, Li E

    2002-01-01

    whether the suppression of the renin-angiotensin system during acute hypertension affects the magnitude of the inhibition of PT fluid and sodium reabsorption, plasma ANG II levels were clamped by infusion of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril (12 microg/min) and ANG II after...

  20. Proximal tubule Na transporter responses are the same during acute and chronic hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyar, C E; Zhang, Y; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    2000-01-01

    % greater in YSHR than YSD and decreased to SD levels in adults. We conclude that there are persistent changes in Na(+) transporter distributions and activity in response to chronic hypertension in SHR that mimic the responses to acute hypertension seen in SD rats and that elevated sodium pump activity per...

  1. Evaluation tissue dissolution property of 2.5 % Sodium Hypochlorite Prepared by Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Bicarbonate: An in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Razavian; Mohsen Hasheminia; Hazhir Yousefshahi; Rastin Sadeghian; Asana Valli

    2016-01-01

    Successful endodontic treatment requires chemical preparation in addition to mechanical preparation. The most common material for chemical preparations is sodium hypochlorite. One way to reduce the effects of pH adjustment is the use of sodium hypochlorite. The present paper was conducted to examine the effect of dilution with hydrochloric acid and sodium bicarbonate and reduce pH on ability of tissue solubility of sodium hypochlorite. The present study was conducted in vitro on b...

  2. Sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups and potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology: NHANES Dietary Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2014-12-18

    Because excessive dietary sodium intake is a major contributor to hypertension, a reduction in dietary sodium has been recommended for the US population. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake in US population ethnic subgroups and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were analyzed using The National Cancer Institute method to estimate usual intake in population subgroups. Potential impact of SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology on sodium intake was modeled using suggested sodium reductions of 20-30% in 953 foods and assuming various market penetrations. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across age, gender and ethnic groups. Current sodium intake across all population subgroups exceeds the Dietary Guidelines 2010 recommendations and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake has decreased significantly during the last decade for all ethnicities. "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish, & Mixtures" contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake. Sodium reduction, using SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology (with 100% market penetration) was estimated to be 185-323 mg/day or 6.3-8.4% of intake depending upon age, gender and ethnic group. Current sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups exceeds the recommendations and sodium reduction technologies could potentially help reduce dietary sodium intake among those groups.

  3. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3490 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose...

  4. Red blood cell sodium transport in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    to linear kinetics in 24 patients with cirrhosis and 14 healthy controls. The sodium efflux was modified by ouabain (O), furosemide (F) and a combination of O and F (O + F). RBC sodium was significantly decreased (4·6 versus control 6·3 mmol l(-1) , P.... Increased RBC sodium efflux is especially related to ouabain-sensitive, furosemide-insensitive transport and thus most likely due to upregulated activity of the sodium-potassium pump. The study gives no evidence to an altered intracellular/extracellular sodium ratio or to a reduced fractional furosemide...

  5. From menu to mouth: opportunities for sodium reduction in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Jessica Lee; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-23

    Restaurant foods can be a substantial source of sodium in the American diet. According to the Institute of Medicine, the significant contribution made by restaurants and food service menu items to Americans' sodium intake warrants targeted attention. Public health practitioners are uniquely poised to support sodium-reduction efforts in restaurants and help drive demand for lower-sodium products through communication and collaboration with restaurant and food service professionals and through incentives for restaurants. This article discusses the role of the public health practitioner in restaurant sodium reduction and highlights select strategies that have been taken by state and local jurisdictions to support this effort.

  6. From Menu to Mouth: Opportunities for Sodium Reduction in Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    Restaurant foods can be a substantial source of sodium in the American diet. According to the Institute of Medicine, the significant contribution made by restaurants and food service menu items to Americans’ sodium intake warrants targeted attention. Public health practitioners are uniquely poised to support sodium-reduction efforts in restaurants and help drive demand for lower-sodium products through communication and collaboration with restaurant and food service professionals and through incentives for restaurants. This article discusses the role of the public health practitioner in restaurant sodium reduction and highlights select strategies that have been taken by state and local jurisdictions to support this effort. PMID:24456646

  7. [Half-molar sodium-lactate: The osmotic agent we are looking for?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendi, I; Manzanares, W; Biestro, A

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial hypertension (ICH) is the most important modifiable factor with predictive negative value in brain injury patients. Osmotherapy is the most important first level specific measure in the treatment of ICH. Mannitol 20%, and 3, 7.5, 10, and 23% hypertonic sodium chloride are the most commonly used osmotic agents in the neurocritical care setting. Currently, controversy about the best osmotic agent remains elusive. Therefore, over the past few years, half-molar sodium lactate has been introduced as a new osmotic agent to be administered in the critically ill. Lactate is able to prevent hyperchloremia, as well as its adverse effects such as hyperchloremic acidosis, systemic inflammation, and acute kidney injury. Furthermore, lactate may also be used by glia as energy substrate in brain injury patients. Half-molar sodium lactate would also have a more potent and long-lasting effect decreasing intracellular osmolarity and by inhibiting neuronal volume control mechanisms. Pioneering researches in patients with traumatic brain injury have shown a more significant effect than mannitol on the control of ICH. In addition, in this group of patients this solution appears to be beneficial in preventing episodes of ICH. However, future research is necessary to corroborate or not these promising results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  9. Current Management of Hyponatremia in Acute Heart Failure: A Report From the Hyponatremia Registry for Patients With Euvolemic and Hypervolemic Hyponatremia (HN Registry)

    OpenAIRE

    Dunlap, Mark E.; Hauptman, Paul J.; Amin, Alpesh N.; Chase, Sandra L.; Chiodo, Joseph A.; Chiong, Jun R.; Dasta, Joseph F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Hyponatremia (HN) occurs commonly in patients with acute heart failure and confers a worse prognosis. Current HN treatment varies widely, with no consensus. This study recorded treatment practices currently used for patients hospitalized with acute heart failure and HN. Methods and Results Data were collected prospectively from 146 US sites on patients hospitalized with acute heart failure and HN (serum sodium concentration [Na+] ?130?mEq/L) present at admission or developing in th...

  10. SODIUM LOSS INDUCED HYPONATREMIA IN THE ELDERLY ON A LOW SODIUM DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Macías Núñez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLa hiponatremia es un desorden electrolítico que consiste en un aumento relativo a nivel corporal del contenido acuoso respecto del salino.La retención de agua libre o la pérdida de sodio son sus mecanismos causales principales, siendo el primero de ellos el más frecuente. Sin embargo, dado que los ancianos normales poseen un aumento en la excreción urinaria de sodio respecto de los jóvenes, pueden desarrollar hiponatremia secundaria a deplección salina cuando han estado en forma prolongada bajo una dieta hiposódica.En este reporte presentamos un caso de hiponatremia que fue resuelto mediante la restitución de sodio y no mediante la restricción hídrica. Analizamos también la baja confiabilidad de la excreción fraccional de urea en la interpretación de la etiología de la hiponatremia en los ancianos.BSTRACTHyponatremia is an electrolyte disorder which consist of a relative increase in body free water content respect to sodium one. Free water retention or sodium loss are its possible mechanisms, being the former more frequent than the latter. However, since urinary sodium loss is increased in healthy elderly, sodium depletion can be a frequent etiology of hyponatremia in this people when they have been on a low sodium diet for a long period.In this report a case of hyponatremia that solved with sodium restitution instead of water restriction is presented, and the name of senile sodium leakage hyponatremia is proposed for this entity. It is also analyzed the low reliability that fractional excretion of urea seems to have in the evaluation of this syndrome.

  11. Sodium channels in normal and pathological pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Cummins, Theodore R; Black, Joel A; Waxman, Stephen G

    2010-01-01

    Nociception is essential for survival whereas pathological pain is maladaptive and often unresponsive to pharmacotherapy. Voltage-gated sodium channels, Na(v)1.1-Na(v)1.9, are essential for generation and conduction of electrical impulses in excitable cells. Human and animal studies have identified several channels as pivotal for signal transmission along the pain axis, including Na(v)1.3, Na(v)1.7, Na(v)1.8, and Na(v)1.9, with the latter three preferentially expressed in peripheral sensory neurons and Na(v)1.3 being upregulated along pain-signaling pathways after nervous system injuries. Na(v)1.7 is of special interest because it has been linked to a spectrum of inherited human pain disorders. Here we review the contribution of these sodium channel isoforms to pain.

  12. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  13. Mechanism of action of sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrela Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an irrigating solution for use in infected root canals requires previous knowledge of the microorganisms responsible for the infectious process as well as the properties of different irrigating solutions. Complex internal anatomy, host defenses and microorganism virulence are important factors in the treatment of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Irrigating solutions must have expressive antimicrobial action and tissue dissolution capacity. Sodium hypochlorite is the most used irrigating solution in endodontics, because its mechanism of action causes biosynthetic alterations in cellular metabolism and phospholipid destruction, formation of chloramines that interfere in cellular metabolism, oxidative action with irreversible enzymatic inactivation in bacteria, and lipid and fatty acid degradation. The aim of this work is to discuss the mechanism of action of sodium hypochlorite based on its antimicrobial and physico-chemical properties.

  14. Using Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate for Foaming Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satin Lukáš

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available All plastics products are made of the essential polymer mixed with a complex blend of materials known collectively as additives. Without additives, plastics would not work, but with them, they can be made safer, cleaner, tougher and more colourful. Additives cost money, but by reducing production costs and making products live longer, they help us save money and conserve the world's precious raw material reserves. In fact, our world would be a lot less safe, a lot more expensive and a great deal duller without the additives that turn basic polymers into useful plastics. One of these additives is sodium bicarbonate. Influence of sodium bicarbonate on properties of the product made of polystyrene was observed in the research described in this paper. Since polystyrene is typically used as a material for electrical components, the mechanical properties of tensile strength and inflammability were measured as a priority. Inflammability parameters were measured using a cone calorimeter.

  15. CRBRP sodium fire protection system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttrey, K. E.

    1984-09-10

    A passive catch pan fire suppression deck system was designed. A large-scale sodium spray fire test showed that the effects of spray burning were being underestimated. A modified computer code indicated that for a design basis IHTS leak in CRBRP, the design allowables would be exceeded. A modified pipe insulation design was developed and tested. The tests and analysis indicate that the concrete temperatures, structural steel temperatures, building pressures, and aerosol releases are now all reduced to acceptable levels. (DLC)

  16. Sodium sulfur technology program NaSTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highley, Bob; Somerville, W. Andrew

    The NaSTEC program focuses on developing currently available sodium sulfur cells for use in space applications and investigating the operational parameters of the cells. The specific goals of the program are to determine the operational parameters and verify safety limits of Na/S technology battery cells; test long term zero-g operation; and create a life test database. The program approach and ground and flight test objectives are described in textual and graphic form.

  17. Various communications concerning sulfigran (sodium sulfide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, H.; Montfort, F.; Wickert; Horn; Junkermann; Wissel, K.; Pier, M.

    1943-01-01

    Most of these communications concerned the problems experienced by Poelitz when its regular supplier of Sulfigran (sodium sulfide), the I.G. Farbenindustrie plant at Luverkusen, had to shut down for repairs and Poelitz had to get an impure form of Sulfigran mixture (a crude melt of ore) from other suppliers, including the I.G. Farbenindustrie plant at Wolfen (Bitterfeld). Various problems arose in the transition, including the fact that the mixture supplied was not ground finely enough for the coal-paste-preparing machinery at Poelitz to handle without damage. An analysis of one sample of the raw melt mixture gave 68.8% sodium sulfide, 12.0% carbon, 1.5% hydrogen, 1.6% silicon dioxide, 1.8% iron, 1.0% aluminum, 0.6% calcium, traces of magnesium and sulfate, and 15.4% water-insoluble. An analysis for another sample showed about 1.8% less sodium sulfide, 1.5% more silicon dioxide, 0.7% less iron, 0.5% less aluminum, 0.6% more calcium, etc., than the previous analysis. Finally one of the communications was a letter in which Ludwigshafen responded favorably to Poelitz's question about whether it would be advantageous to add Sulfigran directly to the first oven of a hydrogenation chamber instead of grinding it with the coal paste. Ludwigshafen said that in some experiments it had observed deposits at places where Sulfigran and coal paste encountered each other in preheater tubes. The deposits consisted of sodium sulfide and iron compounds. 3 tables.

  18. Gamma heated subassembly for sodium boiling experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artus, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a system to boil sodium in an LMFBR is examined. This design should be regarded as a first step in a series of boiling experiments. The reactor chosen for the design of the boiling apparatus is the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), located at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho. Criteria broadly classified as design objectives and design requirements are discussed.

  19. Molecular biology of insect sodium channels and pyrethroid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Du, Yuzhe; Rinkevich, Frank; Nomura, Yoshiko; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lingxin; Silver, Kristopher; Zhorov, Boris S

    2014-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the initiation and propagation of the action potential in neurons and other excitable cells. Because of their critical roles in electrical signaling, sodium channels are targets of a variety of naturally occurring and synthetic neurotoxins, including several classes of insecticides. This review is intended to provide an update on the molecular biology of insect sodium channels and the molecular mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Although mammalian and insect sodium channels share fundamental topological and functional properties, most insect species carry only one sodium channel gene, compared to multiple sodium channel genes found in each mammalian species. Recent studies showed that two posttranscriptional mechanisms, alternative splicing and RNA editing, are involved in generating functional diversity of sodium channels in insects. More than 50 sodium channel mutations have been identified to be responsible for or associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Elucidation of molecular mechanism of kdr led to the identification of dual receptor sites of pyrethroids on insect sodium channels. Many of the kdr mutations appear to be located within or close to the two receptor sites. The accumulating knowledge of insect sodium channels and their interactions with insecticides provides a foundation for understanding the neurophysiology of sodium channels in vivo and the development of new and safer insecticides for effective control of arthropod pests and human disease vectors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Biology of Insect Sodium Channels and Pyrethroid Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Du, Yuzhe; Rinkevich, Frank; Nomura, Yoshiko; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lingxin; Silver, Kristopher; Zhorov, Boris S.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the initiation and propagation of the action potential in neurons and other excitable cells. Because of their critical roles in electrical signaling, sodium channels are targets of a variety of naturally occurring and synthetic neurotoxins, including several classes of insecticides. This review is intended to provide an update on the molecular biology of insect sodium channels and the molecular mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Although mammalian and insect sodium channels share fundamental topological and functional properties, most insect species carry only one sodium channel gene, compared to multiple sodium channel genes found in each mammalian species. Recent studies showed that two posttranscriptional mechanisms, alternative splicing and RNA editing, are involved in generating functional diversity of sodium channels in insects. More than 50 sodium channel mutations have been identified to be responsible for or associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Elucidation of molecular mechanism of kdr led to the identification of dual receptor sites of pyrethroids on insect sodium channels. Most of the kdr mutations appear to be located within or close to the two receptor sites. The accumulating knowledge of insect sodium channels and their interactions with insecticides provides a foundation for understanding the neurophysiology of sodium channels in vivo and the development of new and safer insecticides for effective control of arthropod pests and human disease vectors. PMID:24704279

  2. Visualizing sodium dynamics in isolated cardiomyocytes using fluorescent nanosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubach, J. Matthew; Das, Saumya; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Clark, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of sodium flux across the cell membrane plays a vital role in the generation of action potentials and regulation of membrane excitability in cells such as cardiomyocytes and neurons. Alteration of sodium channel function has been implicated in diseases such as epilepsy, long QT syndrome, and heart failure. However, single cell imaging of sodium dynamics has been limited due to the narrow selection of fluorescent sodium indicators available to researchers. Here we report, the detection of spatially defined sodium activity during action potentials. Fluorescent nanosensors that measure sodium in real-time, are reversible and are completely selective over other cations such as potassium that were used to image sodium. The use of the nanosensors in vitro was validated by determining drug-induced activation in heterologous cells transfected with the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7. Spatial information of sodium concentrations during action potentials will provide insight at the cellular level on the role of sodium and how slight changes in sodium channel function can affect the entirety of an action potential. PMID:19805271

  3. Mercury's Seasonal Sodium Exosphere: MESSENGER Orbital Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variations, but there are no obvious year-to-year variations in most of the observations. We do not see the episodic variability reported by some ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere, at about 1200 K, is much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

  4. Developmental programing of thirst and sodium appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecawi, Andre S; Macchione, Ana F; Nuñez, Paula; Perillan, Carmen; Reis, Luis C; Vivas, Laura; Arguelles, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Thirst and sodium appetite are the sensations responsible for the motivated behaviors of water and salt intake, respectively, and both are essential responses for the maintenance of hydromineral homeostasis in animals. These sensations and their related behaviors develop very early in the postnatal period in animals. Many studies have demonstrated several pre- and postnatal stimuli that are responsible for the developmental programing of thirst and sodium appetite and, consequently, the pattern of water and salt intake in adulthood in need-free or need-induced conditions. The literature systematically reports the involvement of dietary changes, hydromineral and cardiovascular challenges, renin-angiotensin system and steroid hormone disturbances, and lifestyle in these developmental factors. Therefore, this review will address how pre- and postnatal challenges can program lifelong thirst and sodium appetite in animals and humans, as well as which neuroendocrine substrates are involved. In addition, the possible epigenetic molecular mechanisms responsible for the developmental programing of drinking behavior, the clinical implications of hydromineral disturbances during pre- and postnatal periods, and the developmental origins of adult hydromineral behavior will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sodium selenite as a new rodenticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Jokić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are the most destructive group of small mammalian pests considering the overall damage that they cause by feeding and other activities, or as vectors of many disease agents. In practice, chemical rodenticides have been the most widespread and most effective method of control of commensal (Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus and most harmful field rodent pests (Apodemus sylvaticus, A. agrarius and Microtus arvalis. After anticoagulant and vitamin D3 rodenticides, which were introduced worldwide in the 1980s, no other chemical compound has had a comparable role as a rodenticide in practice. In the past decade, commercial baits containing 0.1% sodium selenite have also been registered in Serbia in various formulations both for controlling rodents indoors and in the field. Data on sodium selenite as a rodenticide have been scarce. The present paper surveys research data reported so far, analyzing and drawing conclusions regarding the validity and feasibility of sodium selenite as a method of rodent control with reference to the available ecotoxicological data.

  6. Sodium pump regulation of locomotor control circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picton, Laurence D; Zhang, HongYan; Sillar, Keith T

    2017-08-01

    Sodium pumps are ubiquitously expressed membrane proteins that extrude three Na(+) ions in exchange for two K(+) ions, using ATP as an energy source. Recent studies have illuminated additional, dynamic roles for sodium pumps in regulating the excitability of neuronal networks in an activity-dependent fashion. We review their role in a novel form of short-term memory within rhythmic locomotor networks. The data we review derives mainly from recent studies on Xenopus tadpoles and neonatal mice. The role and underlying mechanisms of pump action broadly match previously published data from an invertebrate, the Drosophila larva. We therefore propose a highly conserved mechanism by which sodium pump activity increases following a bout of locomotion. This results in an ultraslow afterhyperpolarization (usAHP) of the membrane potential that lasts around 1 min, but which only occurs in around half the network neurons. This usAHP in turn alters network excitability so that network output is reduced in a locomotor interval-dependent manner. The pumps therefore confer on spinal locomotor networks a temporary memory trace of recent network performance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Sodium ion interaction with psyllium husk (Plantago sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimoh, M A; MacNaughtan, W; Williams, H E L; Greetham, D; Linforth, R L; Fisk, I D

    2016-09-14

    The nature of and factors effecting sodium interactions with psyllium were investigated in vitro. In a batch extraction system, psyllium mucilage gel retained at least 50% of sodium across a range of concentrations (5-300 mg sodium per g psyllium) and pH (2-10) environments. FTIR and Na NMR analyses of psyllium gels indicated that binding was complex with non-specific multi-site interactions. The potential use of psyllium husk as a binding agent for the reduction of bioavailable sodium was therefore evaluated. The binding of sodium at physiologically relevant conditions (pH 1.2 (stomach) and 6.8 (intestine)) was studied in a gastrointestinal tract (GIT) pH simulated model. Results show consistently high sodium retention (∼50%) across the GIT model and less than 20% loss of bound sodium under the simulated intestinal pH conditions after repeated washings.

  8. Isotonic and hypertonic sodium loading in supine humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Jensen, T U; Bestle, M H

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis that hypertonic saline infusion induces a greater natriuresis than infusion of the same amount of sodium as isotonic saline was tested in 8 supine subjects on fixed sodium intake of 150 mmol NaCl day(-1). Sodium loads equivalent to the amount of sodium contained in 10% of measured...... extracellular volume were administered intravenously over 90 min either as isotonic saline or as hypertonic saline (850 mmol L(-1)). A third series without saline infusion served as time control. Experiments lasted 8 h. Water balance and sodium loads were maintained by replacing the excreted amounts every hour...... stimulus. Renal sodium excretion increased more than a factor of four with isotonic and hypertonic saline but also increased during time control (factor of three). Cumulated sodium excretions following isotonic (131 +/- 13 mmol) and hypertonic saline (123 +/- 10 mmol) were statistically identical exceeding...

  9. Reversible electrophysiological abnormalities in acute secondary hyperkalemic paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkal R Naik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperkalemia manifests clinically with acute neuromuscular paralysis, which can simulate Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS and other causes of acute flaccid paralysis. Primary hyperkalemic paralysis occurs from genetic defects in the sodium channel, and secondary hyperkalemic paralysis (SHP from diverse causes including renal dysfunction, potassium retaining drugs, Addison′s disease, etc. Clinical characteristics of SHP have been addressed in a number of publications. However, electrophysiological evaluations of these patients during neuromuscular paralysis are infrequently reported and have demonstrated features of demyelination. The clinical features and electrophysiological abnormalities in secondary hyperkalemia mimic GBS, and pose diagnostic challenges. We report the findings of nerve conduction studies in a middle-aged man who was admitted with rapidly reversible acute quadriplegia resulting from secondary hyperkalemic paralysis.

  10. Characterization and reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Rivera, Lymaris, E-mail: luo105@psu.edu [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bakaev, Victor A.; Banerjee, Joy [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mueller, Karl T. [Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pantano, Carlo G. [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • XPS revealed that these fiber surfaces contain sodium carbonate weathering products. • IGC–MS data confirms the products of acetic acid reaction with sodium carbonate. • NMR data shows two closely spaced, but distinct sodium carboxylate peaks. • Acetic acid reacts with both sodium in the glass and sodium in the sodium carbonate. - Abstract: Multicomponent complex oxides, such as sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fibers, are important materials used for thermal insulation in buildings and homes. Although the surface properties of single oxides, such as silica, have been extensively studied, less is known about the distribution of reactive sites at the surface of multicomponent oxides. Here, we investigated the reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces for better understanding of their interface chemistry and bonding with acrylic polymers. Acetic acid (with and without a {sup 13}C enrichment) was used as a probe representative of the carboxylic functional groups in many acrylic polymers and adhesives. Inverse gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (IGC–MS), and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), were used to characterize the fiber surface reactions and surface chemical structure. In this way, we discovered that both sodium ions in the glass surface, as well as sodium carbonate salts that formed on the surface due to the intrinsic reactivity of this glass in humid air, are primary sites of interaction with the carboxylic acid. Surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of sodium carbonates on these surfaces. Computer simulations of the interactions between the reactive sites on the glass fiber surface with acetic acid were performed to evaluate energetically favorable reactions. The adsorption reactions with sodium in the glass structure provide adhesive bonding sites, whereas the reaction with the sodium carbonate consumes the acid to form sodium-carboxylate, H

  11. Sodium-calcium exchanger and multiple sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal nerve terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nociception requires transduction and impulse electrogenesis in nerve fibers which innervate the body surface, including the skin. However, the molecular substrates for transduction and action potential initiation in nociceptors are incompletely understood. In this study, we examined the expression and distribution of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX and voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal free nerve terminals. Results Small diameter DRG neurons exhibited robust NCX2, but not NCX1 or NCX3 immunolabeling, and virtually all PGP 9.5-positive intra-epidermal free nerve terminals displayed NCX2 immunoreactivity. Sodium channel NaV1.1 was not detectable in free nerve endings. In contrast, the majority of nerve terminals displayed detectable levels of expression of NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9. Sodium channel immunoreactivity in the free nerve endings extended from the dermal boundary to the terminal tip. A similar pattern of NCX and sodium channel immunolabeling was observed in DRG neurons in vitro. Conclusions NCX2, as well as NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9, are present in most intra-epidermal free nerve endings. The presence of NCX2, together with multiple sodium channel isoforms, in free nerve endings may have important functional implications.

  12. Sodium-calcium exchanger and multiple sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Anna-Karin; Black, Joel A; Gasser, Andreas; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Fischer, Tanya Z; Waxman, Stephen G

    2010-11-30

    Nociception requires transduction and impulse electrogenesis in nerve fibers which innervate the body surface, including the skin. However, the molecular substrates for transduction and action potential initiation in nociceptors are incompletely understood. In this study, we examined the expression and distribution of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal free nerve terminals. Small diameter DRG neurons exhibited robust NCX2, but not NCX1 or NCX3 immunolabeling, and virtually all PGP 9.5-positive intra-epidermal free nerve terminals displayed NCX2 immunoreactivity. Sodium channel NaV1.1 was not detectable in free nerve endings. In contrast, the majority of nerve terminals displayed detectable levels of expression of NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9. Sodium channel immunoreactivity in the free nerve endings extended from the dermal boundary to the terminal tip. A similar pattern of NCX and sodium channel immunolabeling was observed in DRG neurons in vitro. NCX2, as well as NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9, are present in most intra-epidermal free nerve endings. The presence of NCX2, together with multiple sodium channel isoforms, in free nerve endings may have important functional implications.

  13. Acute luchtweginfecties en acute coronaire syndromen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, T. T.; Mairuhu, A. T. A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Brandjes, D. P. M.; Peters, R. J. G.; van Gorp, E. C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological research indicates a correlation between respiratory-tract infections and acute cardiovascular events. Chronic infections have been linked to the development of atherosclerosis. As a result of chronic infections a prolonged and elevated inflammatory activity arises. Inflammation and

  14. Acute hemodialysis in a young man with severe symptomatic hyponatremia and kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteau, Catherine; Al Khoury, Alex; Michel, Rene P; Weber, Catherine L

    2018-01-30

    A 35-year-old man presented with severe hypo-osmolar hyponatremia (serum sodium 99 mmol/L), profound nonoliguric renal failure (serum creatinine 1240 μmol/L), and nephrotic range proteinuria. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed nephromegaly and no obstruction. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and conventional hemodialysis was initiated. To avoid rapid sodium correction, we prescribed concurrent dialysate flow, a low dialysate sodium concentration, a small surface area dialyzer, and a low blood flow rate. We infused dextrose 5% water into the venous return line and adjusted the infusion rate according to hourly sodium concentration. The rate of sodium correction was 7.7 mmol/day over the first 3 days of admission. A subsequent renal biopsy revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and interstitial infiltration with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma nasal type. The patient died of massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to lymphomatous involvement day 19 in the ICU. In the setting of acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy and concomitant severe hyponatremia, it is challenging to avoid overcorrection of serum sodium. We describe several key prescription modifications to conventional hemodialysis, factors that affect sodium diffusion at the level of the dialyzer membrane, and the importance of frequent laboratory monitoring. © 2018 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  15. Decitabine in Treating Children With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  16. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage.

  17. Sodium intake and socio-demographic determinants of the non-compliance with daily sodium intake recommendations: Thai NHES IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Kasemsup, Rachada; Inthawong, Rungkarn; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Sangthong, Rassamee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Putwatana, Panwadee; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2013-12-01

    To estimate daily intake of sodium and examine the relation of socio-demographic factors with sodium intake exceeding the recommendations. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV (NHES IV) conducted during 2008-2009 were used. The 24-hour-dietary-recall data were available for a subsample of 10% of the total participants. All food and beverage data were analyzed for amount of total daily sodium intake for each person. In statistical analyses, descriptive statistics were employed to describe participants' characteristics, quantities of dietary sodium and percentages of participants noncompliant with daily sodium intake recommendations. Logistic regression was used to examine socio-demographic determinants of sodium intake exceeding the recommendations. 2,969 participants participated in this study. Sodium intake varied by socio-demographics. Percentages of participants non-compliant with sodium intake recommendations ranged from 75.3 (> or = 1,500 mg) to 52.0 (> or = 2,400 mg) for those aged or = 1,500 mg) to 67.6 (2,400 mg) for those aged > or = 16 years. In the younger group, age and region were key determinants of consuming sodium exceeding all recommendations. Having family income between 5,000 and risk of non-compliance with some recommendations; oppositely, region and residential area participants lived significantly, increased non-compliant risk. Most participants consumed dietary sodium exceeding current recommendations. Effective programs to reduce sodium intake in Thais are critical.

  18. Evaluation tissue dissolution property of 2.5 % Sodium Hypochlorite Prepared by Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Bicarbonate: An in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Razavian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Successful endodontic treatment requires chemical preparation in addition to mechanical preparation. The most common material for chemical preparations is sodium hypochlorite. One way to reduce the effects of pH adjustment is the use of sodium hypochlorite. The present paper was conducted to examine the effect of dilution with hydrochloric acid and sodium bicarbonate and reduce pH on ability of tissue solubility of sodium hypochlorite. The present study was conducted in vitro on bovine muscle tissue. Ability of tissue solubility was conducted in four groups respectively with active ingredient including 1 sodium hypochlorite diluted with distilled water 2 sodium hypochlorite diluted with sodium bicarbonate 3 sodium hypochlorite diluted with hydrochloric acid and finally 4 distilled water (control group. Each sample was firstly weighed and then placed in contact with 10 m/L solution for 60 minutes (five 12 -minute intervals. The sample was weighted every five minutes and solution was renewed. The results were analyzed using SPSS-21 Software based on variance analysis, Tukey and T-test (α=0.05. The findings showed that there was significant difference between first, second and third groups in terms of ability of tissue solubility. However, the tissue solubility in second and third groups was lower than first group and it was similar in second and third groups (P Value <0.001. Reduction of sodium bicarbonate PH using sodium hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid reduces ability of tissue solubility in sodium hypochlorite.

  19. Transient Studies of a Sodium Sulfur Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, Sarah

    Modern grids will include input from fossil-fueled power generation facilities as well as renewable energy sources, and these are expected to work together actively. One major problem with this integrated power production is that most renewable energy sources are intermittent and variable, and thus introduce a very challenging situation with regard to grid stability and reliability. Also, fossil-fueled power generation facilities have load cycles based on expected usage. A non-reliable power source cannot feasibly be used to supply the grid with proper amounts of energy needed in peak times. A solution to this dilemma is power storage. The sodium-sulfur battery has high potential for electrical storage at the grid level due to its high energy density, low cost of the reactants, and high open-circuit voltage. However, the use of sodium-sulfur batteries at the grid level requires high current density operation that can cause cell deterioration, leading to lower sulfur utilization and lower energy efficiency. In addition, it can result in undesired thermal runaway leading to potentially hazardous situations. A rigorous, dynamic model of a sodium-sulfur battery can be used to study these phenomena, design the battery for optimal transient performance, and develop mitigation strategies. Most literature on sodium-sulfur batteries is concerned the dynamics of the sulfur electrode (a sodium-polysulfide melt). There is limited data in the open literature for dynamics of an entire cell. With this motivation, a first-principles dynamic model of a sodium-sulfur cell (with beta"-alumina electrolyte) has been developed. The state of discharge (SOD) of a sodium-sulfur cell significantly affects the heat generation rate, rates of electrochemical reactions, and internal resistance. To capture these phenomena correctly, a fully coupled thermal-electrochemical model has been developed. The thermal model considers heat generation due to Ohmic loss, Peltier heat, and heat due to the

  20. Efferent pathways in sodium overload-induced renal vasodilation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia O Amaral

    Full Text Available Hypernatremia stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OT, but the physiological role of OT remains unclear. The present study sought to determine the involvement of OT and renal nerves in the renal responses to an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. Male Wistar rats (280-350 g were anesthetized with sodium thiopental (40 mg. kg(-1, i.v.. A bladder cannula was implanted for collection of urine. Animals were also instrumented for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP and renal blood flow (RBF. Renal vascular conductance (RVC was calculated as the ratio of RBF by MAP. In anesthetized rats (n = 6, OT infusion (0.03 µg • kg(-1, i.v. induced renal vasodilation. Consistent with this result, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that OT caused renal artery relaxation. Blockade of OT receptors (OXTR reduced these responses to OT, indicating a direct effect of this peptide on OXTR on this artery. Hypertonic saline (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml • kg(-1 b.wt., i.v. was infused over 60 s. In sham rats (n = 6, hypertonic saline induced renal vasodilation. The OXTR antagonist (AT; atosiban, 40 µg • kg(-1 • h(-1, i.v.; n = 7 and renal denervation (RX reduced the renal vasodilation induced by hypernatremia. The combination of atosiban and renal denervation (RX+AT; n = 7 completely abolished the renal vasodilation induced by sodium overload. Intact rats excreted 51% of the injected sodium within 90 min. Natriuresis was slightly blunted by atosiban and renal denervation (42% and 39% of load, respectively, whereas atosiban with renal denervation reduced sodium excretion to 16% of the load. These results suggest that OT and renal nerves are involved in renal vasodilation and natriuresis induced by acute plasma hypernatremia.

  1. Efferent pathways in sodium overload-induced renal vasodilation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Nathalia O; de Oliveira, Thiago S; Naves, Lara M; Filgueira, Fernando P; Ferreira-Neto, Marcos L; Schoorlemmer, Gerard H M; de Castro, Carlos H; Freiria-Oliveira, André H; Xavier, Carlos H; Colugnati, Diego B; Rosa, Daniel A; Blanch, Graziela T; Borges, Clayton L; Soares, Célia M A; Reis, Angela A S; Cravo, Sergio L; Pedrino, Gustavo R

    2014-01-01

    Hypernatremia stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OT), but the physiological role of OT remains unclear. The present study sought to determine the involvement of OT and renal nerves in the renal responses to an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. Male Wistar rats (280-350 g) were anesthetized with sodium thiopental (40 mg. kg(-1), i.v.). A bladder cannula was implanted for collection of urine. Animals were also instrumented for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal blood flow (RBF). Renal vascular conductance (RVC) was calculated as the ratio of RBF by MAP. In anesthetized rats (n = 6), OT infusion (0.03 µg • kg(-1), i.v.) induced renal vasodilation. Consistent with this result, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that OT caused renal artery relaxation. Blockade of OT receptors (OXTR) reduced these responses to OT, indicating a direct effect of this peptide on OXTR on this artery. Hypertonic saline (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml • kg(-1) b.wt., i.v.) was infused over 60 s. In sham rats (n = 6), hypertonic saline induced renal vasodilation. The OXTR antagonist (AT; atosiban, 40 µg • kg(-1) • h(-1), i.v.; n = 7) and renal denervation (RX) reduced the renal vasodilation induced by hypernatremia. The combination of atosiban and renal denervation (RX+AT; n = 7) completely abolished the renal vasodilation induced by sodium overload. Intact rats excreted 51% of the injected sodium within 90 min. Natriuresis was slightly blunted by atosiban and renal denervation (42% and 39% of load, respectively), whereas atosiban with renal denervation reduced sodium excretion to 16% of the load. These results suggest that OT and renal nerves are involved in renal vasodilation and natriuresis induced by acute plasma hypernatremia.

  2. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengnan eWang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs. Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  3. The genotoxicity of sodium saccharin and sodium chloride in relation to their cancer-promoting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, J

    1985-01-01

    The literature indicates that sodium saccharin is non-reactive to DNA and inactive as a gene mutagen in vitro. At elevated dose levels it is capable of producing structural disturbances in eukaryotic chromosomes in vitro, and it shows intermittent activity as a very weak germ-cell and somatic-cell mutagen in vivo. Its possible mode of action in these respects is speculated on and related to its ability to promote bladder tumours in rats at elevated dose levels. A review of the toxicology of sodium chloride reveals a profile of genotoxic activities almost identical to that of sodium saccharin. It is suggested that the recorded genotoxic and cancer-promoting activities of these chemicals will only become apparent at elevated dose levels that define them as significant contributors to the biological medium (solvent) rather than as trace xenobiotic toxins (solutes). The possible activity of acid saccharin, or of its potassium, calcium and ammonium salts, as ionic genotoxins requires urgent evaluation.

  4. Evolution of the epithelial sodium channel and the sodium pump as limiting factors of aldosterone action on sodium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Romain A; Person, Emilie; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Rossier, Bernard C

    2011-07-14

    Despite large changes in salt intake, the mammalian kidney is able to maintain the extracellular sodium concentration and osmolarity within very narrow margins, thereby controlling blood volume and blood pressure. In the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN), aldosterone tightly controls the activities of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and Na,K-ATPase, the two limiting factors in establishing transepithelial sodium transport. It has been proposed that the ENaC/degenerin gene family is restricted to Metazoans, whereas the α- and β-subunits of Na,K-ATPase have homologous genes in prokaryotes. This raises the question of the emergence of osmolarity control. By exploring recent genomic data of diverse organisms, we found that: 1) ENaC/degenerin exists in all of the Metazoans screened, including nonbilaterians and, by extension, was already present in ancestors of Metazoa; 2) ENaC/degenerin is also present in Naegleria gruberi, an eukaryotic microbe, consistent with either a vertical inheritance from the last common ancestor of Eukaryotes or a lateral transfer between Naegleria and Metazoan ancestors; and 3) The Na,K-ATPase β-subunit is restricted to Holozoa, the taxon that includes animals and their closest single-cell relatives. Since the β-subunit of Na,K-ATPase plays a key role in targeting the α-subunit to the plasma membrane and has an additional function in the formation of cell junctions, we propose that the emergence of Na,K-ATPase, together with ENaC/degenerin, is linked to the development of multicellularity in the Metazoan kingdom. The establishment of multicellularity and the associated extracellular compartment ("internal milieu") precedes the emergence of other key elements of the aldosterone signaling pathway.

  5. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-07-09

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the

  6. Dietary sodium intake modulates systemic but not forearm norepinephrine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, C M; Nelson, R; Brown, M; He, H; Wood, M; Wood, A J

    1995-10-01

    Sodium intake has profound effects on systemic and renal sympathetic activity, but its effects on sympathetic activity in skeletal muscle vascular beds, a site at which local regulatory mechanisms could alter vascular tone directly, are unclear. To determine the effect of dietary sodium intake on basal and isoproterenol-stimulated systemic and forearm norepinephrine kinetics, we studied seven healthy male volunteers twice, 4 weeks apart, while they were receiving a low-sodium (10 mmol sodium/24 hours) diet and a high-sodium diet (250 mmol sodium/24 hours). Forearm blood flow, measured by plethysmography, and systemic and forearm norepinephrine spillover, measured by radioisotope dilution, were determined before and after intra-arterial infusion of 60 and 400 ng/min isoproterenol. Baseline (before isoproterenol) systemic norepinephrine spillover was higher when subjects received the low-sodium diet (448.1 +/- 55.7 ng/min) compared with the high-sodium diet (269.7 +/- 42.7 ng/min; p < 0.05). In contrast, sodium intake did not affect local forearm norepinephrine spillover, either at baseline (low-sodium diet, 2.05 +/- 0.48 ng/min versus high-sodium diet, 2.63 +/- 0.79 ng/min; p = 0.50) or after stimulation with isoproterenol in doses of 60 ng/min (low-sodium diet, 8.84 +/- 2.2 ng/min versus high-sodium diet, 6.1 +/- 1.9 ng/min; p = 0.38) or 400 ng/min (low-sodium diet, 16.4 +/- 4.5 ng/min versus high-sodium diet, 16.7 +/- 2.5 ng/min; p = 0.93). Under conditions of low sodium intake, systemic norepinephrine spillover was increased but forearm norepinephrine spillover was not, suggesting that alteration in sodium intake may produce a differential effect on norepinephrine spillover in different tissues but that decreased local sympathetic activity in skeletal muscle is not the likely mechanism by which a low-sodium diet may lower blood pressure or attenuate stress-induced pressor responses.

  7. Feasibility Study on Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor for Under-Sodium Visualization of Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young-Sang; Park, Chang-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Han; Lim, Sa-Hoe

    2008-01-15

    The reactor core and internal structures of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) can not be visually examined due to the opaque sodium. The examination of the internal structures is possible by using ultrasonics to penetrate the sodium. The under-sodium viewing technique using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the in-service inspection of the reactor internals. Immersion sensors and waveguide sensors have been utilized for the under-sodium viewing application. The immersion sensor has a precise imaging capability, but may have high temperature restrictions and an uncertain life. The waveguide sensor can operate in a hostile environment, such as liquid metal at a high temperature in the presence of high radiation. The waveguide sensor has the advantages of simplicity and reliability, but limits in its movement. A new plate-type waveguide sensor has been developed to overcome the limitations of previous waveguide sensors. And a novel ultrasonic technique has been suggested. The technique is capable of steering a radiation beam of a waveguide sensor without a mechanical movement of the waveguide sensor. The control of the radiation beam angle can be achieved by a frequency tuning method of the excitation pulse in the dispersive low frequency range of the A{sub 0} Lamb wave. A waveguide sensor assembly has been designed for the actual application of undersodium visual inspection in sodium-cooled fast reactor. The main purpose of this study is achievement of feasibility of ultrasonic waveguide sensor technology to the application of undersodium viewing. Under-water C-scan imaging test was carried out by using 10 m long waveguide sensor assembly. It was confirmed that the test target could be clearly visualized and the resolution of C-scan image could be less than 2 mm.

  8. Theoretical assessment of particle generation from sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M., E-mail: monica.gmartin@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kissane, M.P., E-mail: Martin.KISSANE@oecd.org [Nuclear Safety Technology and Regulation Division, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), 46 quai Alphonse Le Gallo, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Development of particle generation model for sodium-oxides aerosol formation. • Development of partially validated numerical simulations to build up maps of saturation ratio. • Nucleation of supersaturated vapours as relevant source of aerosols over sodium pools. • Prediction of high concentrations of primary particles in the combustion zone. - Abstract: Potential sodium discharge in the containment during postulated Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs) in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) would have major consequences for accident development in terms of energetics and source term. In the containment, sodium vaporization and subsequent oxidation would result in supersaturated oxide vapours that would undergo rapid nucleation creating toxic aerosols. Therefore, modelling this vapour nucleation is essential to proper source term assessment in SFRs. In the frame of the EU-JASMIN project, a particle generation model to calculate the particle generation rate and their primary size during an in-containment sodium pool fire has been developed. Based on a suite of individual models for sodium vaporization, oxygen natural circulation (3D modelling), sodium-oxygen chemical reactions, sodium-oxides-vapour nucleation and condensation, its consistency has been partially validated by comparing with available experimental data. As an outcome, large temperature and vapour concentration gradients set over the sodium pool have been found which result in large particle concentrations in the close vicinity of the pool.

  9. Acute renal failure associated with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A

    OpenAIRE

    Sarawgi, S.; Gupta, A K; Arora, D S; Jasuja, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis A runs a benign course in children, but may have atypical presentations in adults. Very rarely acute renal failure complicates nonfulminant hepatitis A. We report a patient with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A with multiorgan involvement. Patient had biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis, acute pancreatitis, acute myocarditis and required hemodialysis for 6 weeks.

  10. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  11. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pica

    Full Text Available Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  12. Sodium pump inhibition and regional expression of sodium pump alpha-isoforms in lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Q F; Hollenberg, N K; Graves, S W

    1999-11-01

    Both hypertension and cataract formation have been associated with reductions in sodium pump activity, possibly as a result of an endogenous inhibitor. The objective of the present study was to answer 4 closely related questions: (1) Is the lens sodium pump effectively inhibited by a labile, digitalis-like factor we have identified in the peritoneal dialysate from hypertensive patients in end-stage renal failure? (2) How does that inhibition compare to that induced by ouabain? (3) Does sodium pump isoform distribution determine the degree of lens sodium pump inhibition? (This question was precipitated by the unanticipated finding that the labile DLF was more effective in inhibiting lens sodium pump than was anticipated.) (4) Is sodium pump activity altered in lens in response to increased salt intake, a maneuver known to increase endogenous digitalis-like factor? We found that whereas ouabain produced equivalent or significantly less inhibition of lens Na(+), K(+)-ATPase from calf or rabbit, respectively, compared with brain, labile digitalis-like factor preferentially inhibited lens compared with brain. Analysis of whole-lens preparations from rabbit, calf, and normal human lens revealed substantial alpha2- and alpha3-isoforms of the sodium pump but little alpha1-isoform. Ouabain inhibition of whole-lens Na(+),K(+)-ATPase from rabbit and calf were comparable: for rabbit lens, K(i)=5.2x10(-7) mol/L; for calf lens, K(i)=1.0x10(-6) mol/L. Limited quantities of labile digitalis-like factor prohibited similar determinations; however, its concentration-activity profile paralleled that of ouabain. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, measured in the 3 major anatomic regions of lens and normalized to nucleus, was greatest in epithelium (56. 9+/-17.9) compared with cortex (5.8+/-1.4) and nucleus (1.0+/-0.0; P=0.01). Immunohistochemistry of rabbit lens found abundant alpha2- and alpha3-isoforms in epithelium and limited alpha3 but undetectable alpha1 in cortex and nucleus. Finally

  13. Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechele, A.C.

    1982-05-01

    Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

  14. Acute Idiopathic Scrotal Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheál Breen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE in a 4-year-old boy who presented with acute scrotal pain and erythema. The clinical features, ultrasound appearance, and natural history of this rare diagnosis are reviewed. In this report, we highlight the importance of good ultrasound technique in differentiating the etiology of the acute scrotum and demonstrate the color Doppler “Fountain Sign” that is highly suggestive of AISE.

  15. Acute recurrent polyhydramnios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bundgaard, Anne; Skibsted, Lillian

    2007-01-01

    Acute recurrent polyhydramnios is a rare occurrence characterized by a poor fetal outcome. This is a case report describing a 34-year-old woman presenting with acute recurrent polyhydramnios. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and therapeutic amniocenteses was initiated...... an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As in normal pregnancies, amniotic prolactin levels decreased by 80% from highest to lowest value in this case of resolving acute recurrent polyhydramnios....

  16. Acute periodontal lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Gonzalez, David; Alonso Álvarez, Bettina; Arriba de la Fuente, Lorenzo; Santa- Cruz Astorqui, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz Alonso, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    This is a review and update on acute conditions affecting the gingival tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases, and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious process not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, muco-cutanenous disorders, and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important since it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodo...

  17. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4-Induced Modulation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels in Hippocampal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhiwen; Jie, Pinghui; Tian, Yujing; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Lei; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is reported to control the resting membrane potential and increase excitability in many types of cells. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play an important role in initiating action potentials in neurons. However, whether VGSCs can be modulated by the activation of TRPV4 in hippocampal pyramidal neurons remains unknown. In this study, we tested the effect of TRPV4 agonists (GSK1016790A and 4α-PDD) on voltage-gated sodium current (I Na) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and the protein levels of α/β-subunit of VGSCs in the hippocampus of mice subjected to intracerebroventricular (icv.) injection of GSK1016790A (GSK-injected mice). Herein, we report that I Na was inhibited by acute application of GSK1016790A or 4α-PDD. In the presence of TRPV4 agonists, the voltage-dependent inactivation curve shifted to the hyperpolarization, whereas the voltage-dependent activation curve remained unchanged. The TRPV4 agonist-induced inhibition of I Na was blocked by the TRPV4 antagonist or tetrodotoxin. Moreover, blocking protein kinase A (PKA) markedly attenuated the GSK1016790A-induced inhibition of I Na, whereas antagonism of protein kinase C or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase did not change GSK1016790A action. Finally, the protein levels of Nav1.1, Nav1.2, and Nav1.6 in the hippocampus increased in GSK-injected mice, whereas those of Nav1.3 and Navβ1 remained nearly unchanged. We conclude that I Na is inhibited by the acute activation of TRPV4 through PKA signaling pathway in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, but protein expression of α-subunit of VGSCs is increased by sustained TRPV4 activation, which may compensate for the acute inhibition of I Na and provide a possibility for hyper-excitability upon sustained TRPV4 activation.

  18. Acute rhinosinusitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aring, Ann M; Chan, Miriam M

    2011-05-01

    Rhinosinusitis is one of the most common conditions for which patients seek medical care. Subtypes of rhinosinusitis include acute, subacute, recurrent acute, and chronic. Acute rhinosinusitis is further specified as bacterial or viral. Most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by viral infections associated with the common cold. Symptomatic treatment with analgesics, decongestants, and saline nasal irrigation is appropriate in patients who present with nonsevere symptoms (e.g., mild pain, temperature less than 101°F [38.3°C]). Narrow-spectrum antibiotics, such as amoxicillin or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, are recommended in patients with symptoms or signs of acute rhinosinusitis that do not improve after seven days, or that worsen at any time. Limited evidence supports the use of intranasal corticosteroids in patients with acute rhinosinusitis. Radiographic imaging is not recommended in the evaluation of uncomplicated acute rhinosinusitis. Computed tomography of the sinuses should not be used for routine evaluation, although it may be used to define anatomic abnormalities and evaluate patients with suspected complications of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Rare complications of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis include orbital, intracranial, and bony involvement. If symptoms persist or progress after maximal medical therapy, and if computed tomography shows evidence of sinus disease, referral to an otolaryngologist is warranted.

  19. Fulminant Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hassan A Alayafi; Faisal R Jahangiri; Mukki Almuntashri

    2014-01-01

      Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, or post infectious encephalomyelitis is an immunologically mediated demyelinating disorder affecting the central nervous system after infection or vaccination...

  20. Evidence for sodium azide as an artifact mediating the modulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Nuria; Azcutia, Verónica; Matesanz, Nuria; Cercas, Elena; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F; Peiró, Concepción

    2005-03-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein identified as a cardiovascular risk marker. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have investigated the possible direct effects of CRP on the vasculature, using mainly commercial CRP. In the present work, a potential role for CRP as a modulator of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction was explored. Cultured human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HASMC) were stimulated for 18 hours with 10 ng/mL interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), resulting in a marked increase of iNOS levels and NO production, as determined by Western blotting and nitrite measurement, respectively. Commercial CRP (1 to 100 microg/mL) concentration-dependently inhibited the effects elicited by IL-1beta. Unexpectedly, similar results were observed when the commercial CRP solution was replaced by the corresponding vehicle medium containing growing concentrations of sodium azide. The inhibitory effects of commercial CRP or vehicle medium were lost on sodium azide removal by dialysis. In conclusion, sodium azide from the commercial CRP solution, but not CRP itself, mainly accounts for the inhibitory effect on IL-1beta-evoked iNOS induction and NO release. Care should be taken before attributing any biologic role to commercial CRP containing sodium azide.