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Sample records for acute intracranial subarachnoid

  1. Intracranial drug delivery for subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Robert Loch; Leung, Ming; Tice, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Tice and colleagues pioneered site-specific, sustained-release drug delivery to the brain almost 30 years ago. Currently there is one drug approved for use in this manner. Clinical trials in subarachnoid hemorrhage have led to approval of nimodipine for oral and intravenous use, but other drugs, such as clazosentan, hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and magnesium, have not shown consistent clinical efficacy. We propose that intracranial delivery of drugs such as nimodipine, formulated in sustained-release preparations, are good candidates for improving outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage because they can be administered to patients that are already undergoing surgery and who have a self-limited condition from which full recovery is possible.

  2. [Neurologic complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysm rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama-Maceiras, P; Fàbregas Julià, N; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Hernández-Palazón, J

    2010-12-01

    The high rates of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of an intracranial aneurysm are mainly the result of neurologic complications. Sixty years after cerebral vasospasm was first described, this problem remains unsolved in spite of its highly adverse effect on prognosis after aneurysmatic rupture. Treatment is somewhat empirical, given that uncertainties remain in our understanding of the pathophysiology of this vascular complication, which involves structural and biochemical changes in the endothelium and smooth muscle of vessels. Vasospasm that is refractory to treatment leads to cerebral infarction. Prophylaxis, early diagnosis, and adequate treatment of neurologic complications are key elements in the management of vasospasm if neurologic damage, lengthy hospital stays, and increased use of health care resources are to be avoided. New approaches to early treatment of cerebral lesions and cortical ischemia in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture should lead to more effective, specific management.

  3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysms during pregnancy and the puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroharu; Miyoshi, Takekazu; Neki, Reiko; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Iihara, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy and is responsible for important morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. This study reviewed reports of ruptured IA during pregnancy and the puerperium, and our own cases of ruptured IA in pregnant women. Hemorrhage occurred predominantly during the third trimester of pregnancy, when maternal cardiac output and blood volume increase and reach maximum. Physiological and hormonal changes in pregnancy are likely to affect the risk of IA rupture. Ruptured IAs during pregnancy should be managed based on neurosurgical considerations, and the obstetrical management of women with ruptured IAs should be decided according to the severity of SAH and the gestational age. Emergent cesarean section followed by clipping or coiling of aneurysms is indicated if the maternal condition and the gestational age allow such interventions. Although SAH during pregnancy can result in disastrous outcomes, the necessity of intracranial screening for high-risk pregnant women is still controversial.

  4. Treatment of acute hydrocephalus and cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hasan (Djo)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractOnly recently has acute hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage been recognized as a clinical important problem. The mortality rate in patients with acute hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage is higher than in those without, which is mainly caused by cerebral ischemia. An expl

  5. Treatment of acute hydrocephalus and cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hasan (Djo)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractOnly recently has acute hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage been recognized as a clinical important problem. The mortality rate in patients with acute hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage is higher than in those without, which is mainly caused by cerebral ischemia. An

  6. Headache in subarachnoid hemorrhage and headache attributed to intracranial endovascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, E; Zagaria, M; Longoni, M

    2015-05-01

    Headache is a critical problem in the emergency setting. In this paper we briefly review the epidemiological data regarding headache in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH), considering the role of headache as a warning symptom and the other clinical manifestation of SAH. We have also introduced a recent clinical entity, represented by headache associated to intracranial endovascular procedures (IEPs).

  7. Intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Walavan; Ravindra, Vijay M; Cutler, Aaron; Couldwell, William T

    2014-06-01

    Although most patients with intracranial hypotension typically present with headaches, the rest of the clinical spectrum is characteristically non-specific and often quite variable. In a patient with concurrent pathologies that can produce a similar clinical picture, a high index of suspicion must be maintained to achieve the correct diagnosis. The authors report a patient with intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 63-year-old woman with a family history of ruptured intracranial aneurysms presented after a sudden thunderclap headache and was found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Imaging revealed anterior communicating and superior hypophyseal artery aneurysms. Following the uneventful clipping of both aneurysms, the patient experienced a delayed return to her neurological baseline. After it was noted that the patient had an improved neurological examination when she was placed supine, further investigation confirmed intracranial hypotension from perineural cyst rupture. The patient improved and returned to her neurological baseline after undergoing a high-volume blood patch and remained neurologically intact at postoperative follow-up. Although intracranial hypotension is known to be commonly associated with cerebrospinal fluid leak, its causal and temporal relationship with subarachnoid hemorrhage has yet to be elucidated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toward understanding non-coding RNA roles in intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Fengzhen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is a common and frequently life-threatening cerebrovascular disease, which is mostly related with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Its complications include rebleeding, early brain injury, cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, chronic hydrocephalus, and also non neurological problems. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, comprising of microRNAs (miRNAs, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, play an important role in intracranial aneurysms and SAH. Here, we review the non-coding RNAs expression profile and their related mechanisms in intracranial aneurysms and SAH. Moreover, we suggest that these non-coding RNAs function as novel molecular biomarkers to predict intracranial aneurysms and SAH, and may yield new therapies after SAH in the future.

  9. The Effects of Vasospasm and Re-Bleeding on the Outcome of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipce, Venko; Caparoski, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Vasospasm and re-bleeding after subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm are devastating complication that can severely affect the outcome of the patients. We are presenting a series of total number of 224 patients treated and operated at our Department due to subarachnoid hemorrhage, out of which certain number developed vasospasm and re-bleeding. We are evaluating the effect of these complications on the outcome of the patients according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale at the day of discharge. In our experience both vasospasm and ReSAH can significantly influence the outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

  10. Acute surgical management in idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zakaria, Zaitun

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a headache syndrome with progressive symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. Most commonly, it is a slow process where surveillance and medical management are the main treatment modalities. We describe herein an acute presentation with bilateral sixth nerve palsies, papilloedema and visual deterioration, where acute surgical intervention was a vision-saving operation.

  11. Equal contribution of increased intracranial pressure and subarachnoid blood to cerebral blood flow reduction and receptor upregulation after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Laboratory investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    OBJECT: Cerebral ischemia remains the key cause of disability and death in the late phase after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the change in intracranial pressure or the extravasated blood causes the...

  12. Equal contribution of increased intracranial pressure and subarachnoid blood to cerebral blood flow reduction and receptor upregulation after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Laboratory investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    OBJECT: Cerebral ischemia remains the key cause of disability and death in the late phase after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the change in intracranial pressure or the extravasated blood causes the...

  13. Intracranial subarachnoid fat and hemorrhage secondary to sacral fracture with spondylopelvic dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres Polo, J; Álvarez Martínez, M V; Sánchez Mateos, D

    2017-06-10

    We describe a case of fat droplets and blood in the cerebral subarachnoid space secondary in a patient with a complex sacral fracture without associated cranial trauma, a few days after admission. To our knowledge, there is only one published case with similar findings and without any other underlying lesion as cause. We explain the differences in the mechanism of production between this direct fat embolism and brain fat embolism syndrome, which is an intravascular embolism with different radiological appearance. The most important features of sacral fracture with spondylopelvic dissociation are described. Finally, this entity should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of the few causes of fat in the subarachnoid space. In the context of high-energy trauma fractures of the sacrum or spine must be ruled out as a potential cause of this uncommon intracranial finding. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Hyponatremia in acute intracranial disorders: cerebral salt wasting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betjes, M G; Koopmans, R P

    2000-03-18

    Hyponatraemia is a frequent finding in the course of an acute intracranial disease, especially after a subarachnoid haemorrhage. The fall in plasma sodium concentration is usually mild and not below 124 mmol/l but may reach dangerously low levels with serious neurological complications. In the early 1950s the cause of the hyponatraemia was believed to be primarily excessive natriuresis and therefore named 'cerebral salt wasting'. After the description of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) this was favoured as the most likely explanation. Only in recent years has it become evident that many hyponatraemic patients with acute brain disease are actually hypovolaemic. This is compatible with the original diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting. The increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides are likely to mediate the increased natriuresis. Cerebral salt wasting can be treated with a simple regimen of water and salt suppletion. If needed a mineralocorticoid like fludrocortisone can be given to increase renal tubular sodium reabsorption.

  15. Histopathological Findings in Brains of Patients Who Died in the Acute Stage of Poor-grade Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    SATOMI, Junichiro; HADEISHI, Hiromu; YOSHIDA, Yasuji; SUZUKI, Akifumi; NAGAHIRO, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are likely to die due to irreversible acute-stage primary brain damage. However, the mechanism(s) and pathology responsible for their high mortality rate remain unclear. We report our findings on the brains of individuals who died in the acute stage of SAH. An autopsy was performed on the brains of 11 SAH patients (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade 5) who died within 3 days of admission and who did not receive respiratory assistance. All brains were free of intracranial hematoma and hydrocephalus; all harbored ruptured aneurysms. In all brains, multiple infarcts with perifocal edema were scattered throughout the cortex and subcortical white matter of the whole brain. Infarcts with a patchy – were more often seen than infarcts with a wedge-shaped pattern. Microscopic examination revealed multiple areas with cytotoxic edema and neuronal death indicative of acute ischemic changes. Edema and congestion were more obvious in areas where the subarachnoid clot tightly adhered to the pia mater. Pathologically, the brains of deceased patients with acute poor-grade SAH were characterized by edema and multifocal infarcts spread throughout the whole brain; they were thought to be attributable to venous ischemia. Diffuse disturbance in venous drainage attributable to an abrupt increase in the intracranial pressure and focal disturbances due to tight adhesion of the subarachnoid clot to the pia mater, may contribute strongly to irreversible brain damage in the acute stage of SAH. PMID:27357086

  16. Is acute reperfusion therapy safe in acute ischemic stroke patients who harbor unruptured intracranial aneurysm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowla, Ashkan; Singh, Karanbir; Mehla, Sandhya; Ahmed, Mohammad K; Shirani, Peyman; Kamal, Haris; Krishna, Chandan; Sawyer, Robert N; Ching, Marilou; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Snyder, Kenneth V; Crumlish, Annemarie; Hopkins, L N

    2015-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are currently considered as contraindication for intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke, very likely due to a possible increase in the risk of bleeding from aneurysm rupture; however, there is limited data available on whether intravenous thrombolysis is safe for acute ischemic stroke patients with pre-existing intracranial aneurysms. To find out the safety of intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients who harbor unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and cerebrovascular images of all the patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in our center from the beginning of 2006 till the end of April 2014. Those with unruptured intracranial aneurysm present on cerebrovascular images prior to acute reperfusion therapy were identified. Post-thrombolysis brain imaging was reviewed to evaluate for any intraparenchymal or subarachnoid hemorrhage related or unrelated to the aneurysm. A total of 637 patients received intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in our center during an 8·3-year period. Thirty-three (5·2%) were found to have at least one intracranial aneurysms. Twenty-three (70%) of those received only intravenous thrombolysis, and 10 patients received combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis. The size of the largest aneurysm was 10 mm in maximum diameter (range: 2-10 mm). The mean size of aneurysms was 4·8 mm. No symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred among the 23 patients receiving only intravenous thrombolysis. Out of those who received a combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis, one developed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the location of acute infarct, distant to the aneurysm location. Our findings suggest that neither intravenous thrombolysis nor combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis increases the risk of aneurysmal hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke

  17. Isolated acute nontraumatic cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage: Etiologies based on MRI findings

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    Cho, Eun; Kang, Myung Jin; Kim, Sang Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Dong-A University Medical Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify common underlying etiologies that may be responsible for isolated acute nontraumatic cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) by analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the brain. From August 2005 to February 2014, 15 cSAH patients were admitted to our institution. All patients with cSAH underwent brain MRI and magnetic resonance angiography as a part of their initial evaluation. An analysis of the patients' medical history, clinical presentations, and brain MRI findings was retrospectively performed. Among the combined pathologies that were suspected causes of cSAH, 11 patients showed acute or subacute cerebral infarctions at the ipsilateral hemisphere of cSAH on the diffusion-weighted images. Four of 11 patients had only cerebral infarction, but the other 7 had combined vasculopathy of extra- and intracranial arteries. Four of 15 patients who did not have cerebral infarction, had intracranial artery stenosis, or showed possible cerebral amyloid angiopathy, or no abnormal findings on the brain MRI. Ischemic stroke, such as cerebral infarction or vasculopathy of the extra and intracranial arteries is regarded as a common underlying etiology of the cSAH based on MRI findings.

  18. Acute recurrent haemorrhage of an intracranial meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellut, David; Nern, Christian; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Könü, Dilek; Bertalanffy, Helmut; Krayenbühl, Niklaus

    2011-07-01

    Meningioma-associated haemorrhages are rare. To our knowledge this is the first report of a patient with an acute two-stage haemorrhage of a benign intracranial meningioma (World Health Organization grade I) verified by cranial CT scan and histopathological examination. Early surgery with complete tumour removal led to a good outcome for the patient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage due to Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm

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    Choi, C. W.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kwark, C. E.; Lee, D. S.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M. C.; Han, D. H.; Koh, C. S. [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    We evaluated the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in 21 Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm and in 3 patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm. SPECT study could detect the bilaterally hypoperfused cases in 10 patients(48%), but CT/MRI showed the bilateral abnormalities in only 3 patients(14%). The number of abnormal lesions were 56 in SPECT and 25 in CT/MRI. The lesions found in SPECT were well correlated with the neurological signs of the patients such as aphasia or hemiplegia. SPECT study during Matas test was helpful in evaluating the risk for carotid artery occlusion therapy. We thought that {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT is helpful in evaluating the functional changes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  20. [Two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia with Bacillus cereus bacteremia resulting in fatal intracranial hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, H; Moriyama, Y; Tatekawa, T; Tominaga, N; Teshima, H; Hiraoka, A; Masaoka, T; Yoshinaga, T

    1993-12-01

    This manuscript reports Bacillus cereus sepsis in two cases with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who suffered complications of fatal intracranial hemorrhage during remission induction therapy. The first case was 43-year-old male with AML (M0) receiving first consolidation chemotherapy who developed sudden diarrhea, abdominal pain and spiking fever. Two days later, he died of intracranial hemorrhage. The second case was 15-year-old male with AML (M5b) who was receiving first induction chemotherapy. He developed headache and vomiting following spiking fever and diarrhea. He died of subarachnoid hemorrhage the next day. In both cases, Bacillus cereus was isolated from blood culture. Fatal intracranial hemorrhage due to severe bleeding tendency caused rapid to death in both cases. These bleeding tendencies might have been induced by B. cereus sepsis. In addition, we should not overlook B. cereus as contamination, but rather consider it as a potential pathogen, when isolated from blood culture.

  1. Rapid MRI evaluation of acute intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric head trauma

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    Ryan, Maura E.; Jaju, Alok [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Ciolino, Jody D. [Northwestern University, Biostatistics Collaboration Center, Department of Preventive Medicine Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Alden, Tord [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Neurosurgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Rapid MRI with ultrafast T2 sequences can be performed without sedation and is often used in place of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate pediatric patients for indications such as hydrocephalus. This study investigated the sensitivity of rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection and follow-up of acute intracranial hemorrhage in comparison to CT, which is commonly the first-line imaging. Patients presenting to a pediatric hospital with acute intracranial hemorrhage on CT and follow-up rapid MRI within 48 h were included. Rapid MRI studies consisted of three plane ultrafast T2 sequences either with or without axial gradient echo (GRE) sequences. Identification of hemorrhage on rapid MRI was assessed by readers both blinded and unblinded to prior CT results. One hundred two acute hemorrhages in 61 patients were identified by CT. Rapid MRI detection of subdural and epidural hemorrhages was modest in the absence of prior CT for comparison (sensitivity 61-74 %), but increased with review of the prior CT (sensitivity 80-86 %). Hemorrhage size was a significant predictor of detection (p < 0.0001). Three plane fast T2 images alone without GRE sequences were poor at detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 10-25 %); rapid MRI with GRE sequences identified the majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 71-93 %). GRE modestly increased detection of other extra-axial hemorrhages. Rapid MRI with GRE sequences is sensitive for most acute intracranial hemorrhages only when a prior CT is available for review. Rapid MRI is not adequate to replace CT in initial evaluation of intracranial hemorrhages but may be helpful in follow-up of known hemorrhages. (orig.)

  2. Risk of rebleeding after treatment of acute hydrocephalus in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellingman, Catharine A; van den Bergh, Walter M; Beijer, Inge S; van Dijk, Gert W; Algra, Ale; van Gijn, Jan; Rinkel, Gabriël J E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebrospinal fluid drainage is often indicated in patients with acute hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage but is believed to increase the risk of rebleeding. We studied the risk of rebleeding in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage during treatment for ac

  3. Nontraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage concomitant with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Makoto; Inatomi, Yuichiro; Yonehara, Toshiro; Hirano, Teruyuki; Ando, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    Nontraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) rarely occurs subsequent to acute ischemic stroke. The incidence, clinical background characteristics, and outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients with cSAH were investigated. Our stroke center database was reviewed to identify patients with acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) who demonstrated acute cSAH within 14 days of admission between 2005 and 2011. Background characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes at discharge and 3 months after onset were investigated in these patients. Of 4953 acute stroke/TIA patients, cSAH was observed in 8 (.14%) patients (7 men, mean age 71 years): 7 were detected incidentally, and the other was found immediately after a convulsion. Two patients died during their hospital stay, 1 died after discharge, and 3 were dependent at 3 months. Major artery occlusion or severe stenosis was observed in 5 patients. Two patients subsequently developed subcortical hemorrhage. On gradient echo imaging, lobar cerebral microbleeds were observed in 2 patients, and chronic superficial siderosis was observed in 2 patients. In this retrospective review of cases with ischemic stroke and cSAH, over half of patients had occlusion of major arteries. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy was suggested by magnetic resonance imaging findings and subsequent events in 3 patients. The overall outcome was unfavorable although the causal relationship with cSAH was unclear. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of superficial siderosis following singular, acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    Lummel, N.; Bochmann, K. [Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Bernau, C. [Leibniz-Rechenzentrum, Munich (Germany); Thon, N. [Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Linn, J. [Technical University, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Superficial siderosis is presumably a consequence of recurrent bleeding into the subarachnoid space. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of superficial siderosis after singular, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the long term. We retrospectively identified all patients who presented with a singular, acute, aneurysmal SAH at our institution between 2010 and 2013 and in whom a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2*-weighted imaging was available at least 4 months after the acute bleeding event. MRI scans were judged concerning the presence and distribution of superficial siderosis. Influence of clinical data, Fisher grade, localization, and cause of SAH as well as the impact of neurosurgical interventions on the occurrence of superficial siderosis was tested. Seventy-two patients with a total of 117 MRIs were included. Mean delay between SAH and the last available MRI was 47.4 months (range 4-129). SAH was Fisher grade 1 in 2 cases, 2 in 4 cases, 3 in 10 cases, and 4 in 56 cases. Superficial siderosis was detected in 39 patients (54.2 %). In all patients with more than one MRI scan, localization and distribution of superficial siderosis did not change over time. Older age (p = 0.02) and higher degree of SAH (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with the development of superficial siderosis. Superficial siderosis develops in approximately half of patients after singular, aneurysmal SAH and might be more common in patients with an older age and a greater amount of blood. However, additional factors must play a role in whether a patient is prone to develop superficial siderosis or not. (orig.)

  5. Imaging findings of the orbital and intracranial complications of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankbaar, J W; van Bemmel, A J M; Pameijer, F A

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: In patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis severe orbital and intracranial complications can occur. This review will illustrate the anatomic relationship between the paranasal sinuses and the orbital and intracranial compartments. Subsequently, the spectrum of orbital and intracrani

  6. Cerebral microbleeds in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang-Beom; Parikh, Gunjan; Choi, H Alex; Badjatia, Neeraj; Lee, Kiwon; Schmidt, J Michael; Lantigua, Hector; Connolly, E Sander; Mayer, Stephan A; Claassen, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are commonly found after stroke but have not previously been studied in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). To study the prevalence, radiographic patterns, predictors, and impact on outcome of CMBs in patients with SAH. We analyzed retrospectively 39 consecutive patients who underwent T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging within 7 days after onset of spontaneous SAH. We report the frequency and location of CMBs and show their association with demographics, vascular risk factors, the Hunt-Hess grade, the modified Fisher Scale, the Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II, magnetic resonance imaging findings including diffusion-weighted imaging lesions, and laboratory data, as well as data on rebleeding, global cerebral edema, delayed cerebral ischemia, seizures, the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, and the modified Rankin Scale. Eighteen patients (46%) had CMBs. Of these patients, 9 had multiple CMBs, and overall a total of 50 CMBs were identified. The most common locations of CMBs were lobar (n = 23), followed by deep (n = 15) and infratentorial (n = 12). After adjustment for age and history of hypertension, CMBs were related to the presence of diffusion-weighted imaging lesions (odds ratio, 5.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-24.00; P = .03). Three months after SAH, patients with CMBs had nonsignificantly higher modified Rankin Scale scores (odds ratio, 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-9.39; P = .18). This study suggests that CMBs are commonly observed and associated with diffusion-weighted imaging lesions in patients with SAH. Our findings may represent a new mechanism of tissue injury in SAH. Further studies are needed to investigate the clinical implications of CMBs.

  7. Considerable delay in diagnosis and acute management of subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carl Christian; Eskesen, Vagn; Hauerberg, John

    2010-01-01

    Rebleeding from subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) usually occurs within the first six hours after the initial bleeding. Rebleeding can be prevented effectively with tranexamic acid (TXA). Although a broad consensus has evolved that SAH should be treated as an emergency, it is likely that delays do...

  8. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm following posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa Nanba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is rarely associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, to our knowledge, rupture of a concomitant cerebral aneurysm following PRES has not been reported. We describe a patient with atypical PRES involving the brainstem, thalamus, and periventricular white matter without cortical or subcortical edema of the parietooccipital lobe on magnetic resonance imaging, with rupture of a concomitant cerebral aneurysm. Preexisting extremely high blood pressure may trigger atypical PRES, and failure to lower blood pressure may lead to a concomitant aneurysm rupture. In the future treatment of hypertensive urgency with a recurrence of symptoms and mean arterial blood pressure >150 mmHg, it is advisable to immediately hospitalize the patient for aggressive blood pressure management, especially if PRES is suspected based on clinical and radiological features.

  9. The Role of ABO Blood Group in Cerebral Vasospasm, Associated Intracranial Hemorrhage, and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia in 470 Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinski, Daniel; Won, Sae-Yeon; Konczalla, Jürgen; Mersmann, Jan; Geisen, Christof; Herrmann, Eva; Seifert, Volker; Senft, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm usually presents with an acute onset and requires multidisciplinary intensive care treatment and the overall death and disability rates are high. The ABO blood type is known to play an important role in hemostasis, thrombosis, and vascular NO response. The aspect of ABO blood type in onset, clinical progress, and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is largely unexplored. We conducted this study to elucidate the association of ABO blood type with the occurrence and outcome of aneurysmal SAH. In our retrospective study, 470 patients with aneurysmal SAH treated at our institution were included. We performed a χ(2) test for comparison between blood types and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies admission status, cerebral vasospasm, delayed infarction, associated intracerebral hemorrhage and Fisher grade for analysis for their association with SAH. No significant difference between blood type and the reviewed variables for SAH outcome were identified: World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies admission status (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-1.6; P = 0.56); SAH-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.5-1.3; P = 0.36); cerebral vasospasm (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.7-1.6; P = 0.71); DCI (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.8-1.8; P = 0.30); Fisher grade (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.7-1.6; P = 0.19). Although a possible relationship between the ABO blood group and the clinical course of patients with SAH was hypothesized, our study showed no significant influence of patient's ABO blood type on cerebral vasospasm onset, SAH-associated intracerebral hemorrhage, or delayed infarction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Bacillus cereus sepsis and subarachnoid hemorrhage following consolidation chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatani, Eri; Kishikawa, Yuki; Sankoda, Chikahiro; Kuwahara, Nobuo; Mori, Daisuke; Osoegawa, Kouichi; Matsuishi, Eijo; Gondo, Hisashi

    2009-04-01

    A 64-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukemia (FAB classification, M7) in remission received consolidation chemotherapy with mitoxantrone/cytosine arabinoside. WBC counts decreased to 0/microl on day 14, and fever (39.3 degrees C) and epigastralgia developed on day 15. Cefozopran was instituted for febrile neutropenia; however, on day 16, he was found to be in cardiac arrest. CT scan on day 16 revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage. Gram-positive rods were isolated from blood cultures on day 15, and were later identified as B.cereus. He recovered transiently, but eventually died on day 19. Postmortem examination demonstrated many colonies of B. cereus in the cerebrum, cerebellum, lung, and liver. Hepatocyte necrosis was also observed in the liver. Bacterial aneurysms or septic emboli were not identified in the arachnoid vessels, but necrosis of cerebral vessels was prominent, which was considered to be the cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage has been reported to be associated with B. cereus sepsis, which developed at nadir following chemotherapy for leukemia patients. Because of the aggressive clinical course of B. cereus sepsis, including the risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage, early treatment with effective antibiotics for B. cereus sepsis would be important in the management of leukemia patients after chemotherapy.

  11. A case of subarachnoid hemorrhage revealed by an acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatim, Abdedaim; El Otmani, Wafae; Houssa, Mehdi Ait; Atmani, Noureddine; Moutakiallah, Younes; Haimeur, Charqui; Drissi, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is definitely the best descriptive model of the interaction between cardiovascular system and cerebral damage. The underlying mechanism of cardiovascular alterations after SAH is linked to the adrenergic discharge related to aneurysm rupture. Cardiac and pulmonary complications are common after severe brain injury, especially the aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Acute neurogenic pulmonary edema is not exceptional; it may occur in 20% of cases and commonly follows a severe subarachnoid hemorrhage. Severe myocardial damage with cardiogenic shock may possibly reveal the SAH (3% of cases) and mislead to wrong diagnosis of ACS with dramatic therapeutic consequences. The contribution of CT and cerebral angiography is essential for diagnosis and treatment. Surgical or endovascular treatment depends on location, size and shape of the aneurysm, on patient's age, neurological status and existence of concomitant diseases. We report the case of a 58 years old patient, with a past medical history of diabetes and hypertension, admitted for acute pulmonary edema with cardiogenic shock. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of aneurismal SAH in a patient presenting with an acute coronary syndrome.

  12. Isolated spinal artery aneurysm: a rare culprit of subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tony H T; Leung, Warren K W; Lai, Bill M H; Khoo, Jennifer L S

    2015-04-01

    Isolated spinal artery aneurysm is a rare lesion which could be accountable for spontaneous spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. We describe the case of a 74-year-old man presenting with sudden onset of chest pain radiating to the neck and back, with subsequent headache and confusion. Initial computed tomography aortogram revealed incidental finding of subtle acute spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. A set of computed tomography scans of the brain showed further acute intracranial subarachnoid haemorrhage with posterior predominance, small amount of intraventricular haemorrhage, and absence of intracranial vascular lesions. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a thrombosed intradural spinal aneurysm with surrounding sentinel clot, which was trapped and excised during surgical exploration. High level of clinical alertness is required in order not to miss this rare but detrimental entity. Its relevant aetiopathological features and implications for clinical management are discussed.

  13. A STUDY ON INTRACRANIAL STENOSIS IN ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE

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    Jerrin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Acute ischemic stroke is very common cause of significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The causes of acute ischemic stroke could be intracranial or extra cranial. Prevention of the acute episode could be decreased by surgically treating ex tra - cranial vascular disease but the prevention of intracranial cause is only medical. Various risk factors are also associated with development of ischemic stroke. However, the association between these and the pattern of vascular involvement is not clear . AIM: The aim of the study was to 1. Identify the location of the vessel involved in different cases of ischemic stroke 2. To study the various risk factors associated with the development of ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: This was a prospective study conducted between the years 2010 and 2012. All adult patients with acute ischemic stroke which was confirmed by MRI and less than two weeks duration were included in the study. Parameters recorded were presence of pre - existing comorbid conditions, n eurological examination findings, Cardiovascular system examination findings, Blood pressures, blood sugar levels and pattern of vascular involvement. This was assessed using MR angiography or four vessel Doppler. Statistical analysis was done using the SP SS software. RESULTS: Two hundred patients were enrolled in the study. Pure extracranial stenosis was present in 21.5%, extracranial with intracranial stenosis in 34%, and pure intracranial stenosis in 44.5%, which was predominant and resembled other Indi an studies. 15.5% of patients had significant carotid stenosis based on Doppler study and were suitable candidates for carotid endarterectomy. Middle cerebral artery was commonly involved (55%. Hypertension (63.5%, diabetes mellitus (48%, alcoholism (20 .5% and smoking (18.5% were the common risk factors. Prevalence of these risk factors was more in those with intracranial stenosis in our study, elevated total

  14. The safety of vasopressor-induced hypertension in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with coexisting unruptured, unprotected intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Buckley, Robert T; Indrakanti, Santoshi S; Turkmani, Ali H; Oh, Gerald; Crobeddu, Emanuela; Fargen, Kyle M; El Ahmadieh, Tarek Y; Naidech, Andrew M; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Hoh, Brian L; Bendok, Bernard R; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2015-10-01

    Vasopressor-induced hypertension (VIH) is an established treatment for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who develop vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). However, the safety of VIH in patients with coincident, unruptured, unprotected intracranial aneurysms is uncertain. This retrospective multiinstitutional study identified 1) patients with aneurysmal SAH and 1 or more unruptured, unprotected aneurysms who required VIH therapy (VIH group), and 2) patients with aneurysmal SAH and 1 or more unruptured, unprotected aneurysms who did not require VIH therapy (non-VIH group). All patients had previously undergone surgical or endovascular treatment for the presumed ruptured aneurysm. Comparisons between the VIH and non-VIH patients were made in terms of the patient characteristics, clinical and radiographic severity of SAH, total number of aneurysms, number of ruptured/unruptured aneurysms, aneurysm location/size, number of unruptured and unprotected aneurysms during VIH, severity of vasospasm, degree of hypervolemia, and degree and duration of VIH therapy. For the VIH group (n = 176), 484 aneurysms were diagnosed, 231 aneurysms were treated, and 253 unruptured aneurysms were left unprotected during 1293 total days of VIH therapy (5.12 total years of VIH therapy for unruptured, unprotected aneurysms). For the non-VIH group (n = 73), 207 aneurysms were diagnosed, 93 aneurysms were treated, and 114 unruptured aneurysms were left unprotected. For the VIH and non-VIH groups, the mean sizes of the ruptured (7.2 ± 0.3 vs 7.8 ± 0.6 mm, respectively; p = 0.27) and unruptured (3.4 ± 0.2 vs 3.2 ± 0.2 mm, respectively; p = 0.40) aneurysms did not differ. The authors observed 1 new SAH from a previously unruptured, unprotected aneurysm in each group (1 of 176 vs 1 of 73 patients; p = 0.50). Baseline patient characteristics and comorbidities were similar between groups. While the degree of hypervolemia was similar between the VIH and non-VIH patients

  15. A complicated case of antepartum eclamptic fit with HELLP syndrome, acute renal failure and multiple intracranial hemorrhages: A mortality report

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    Ahmed Samy El-agwany

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available HELLP is an acronym for hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets count, affecting 0.2–12% of all pregnancies or 4–12% of those with preeclampsia. The maternal mortality reported from the literature is up 4% due to disseminated intravascular coagulation, placental abruption, acute renal failure, eclampsia, and cerebral hemorrhage. A 20 year old, G2P1, at 36 weeks of gestation, was referred to our hospital because of postictal coma state with bilateral mydriasis and epistaxis due to repeated antepartum eclamptic fits. Elevated blood pressure level 170/110 mmHg was accompanied with massive proteinuria. Cesarean section was performed and female newborn were delivered. Laboratory findings were characteristic of preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome and renal failure. The patient developed an intraventricular hematoma and an intracerebral hemorrhage with subarachnoid one, which were not suitable to neurosurgical treatment. The patient died from refractory hemolytic anemia, spontaneous bleeding of multiple organs, renal failure and intracranial hemorrhage. Preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy might overlap and be associated with potentially fatal complications, including intracranial hemorrhage, as in the present case. Early detection and diagnosis are crucial to ensure appropriate management and treatment success.

  16. Intracranial chordoma presenting as acute hemorrhage in a child: Case report and literature review

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    Kenneth A Moore

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: There are few previous reports of petroclival chordomas causing acute intracranial hemorrhage. To the authors′ knowledge, this is the first case of a petroclival chordoma presenting as acute intracranial hemorrhage in a pediatric patient. Although uncommon, it is important to consider chordoma when evaluating a patient of any age presenting with a hemorrhagic lesion of the clivus.

  17. Ciclosporin does not attenuate intracranial hypertension in rats with acute hyperammonaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rikke Hebo; Kjær, Mette S; Eefsen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective potential of ciclosporin during acute liver failure. We evaluated the effect of intrathecally administered ciclosporin on intracranial pressure, brain water content and aquaporin-4 expression in a rat model with acute hyperammonaemia....

  18. Dysnatremia as a poor prognostic indicator in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatenkova, Vera; Bradac, Ondrej; de Lacy, Patricia; Skrabalek, Pavel; Suchomel, Petr

    2017-08-01

    Dysnatremias are common and carry a risk of poor prognosis in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and outcome of dysnatremias in 344 SAH patients treated by a targeted sodium management regimen. We performed a 10-year observational dysnatremia study. Hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium (SNa) below 135 mmol/L, hypernatremia SNa above 150 mmol/L. Dysnatremia occurred in 35.8% patients; this was more frequently hyponatremia (19.8%) with a mean SNa 132.23±2.09 mmol/L, (16.0% mild, 3.2% moderate, 0.6% severe). Hypernatremia occurred less commonly in 11.9%, Psodium management regimen in acute SAH patients showed that dysnatremias were frequent, predominantly hyponatremia of which the more usual causes were CSW and not SIADH. Hypernatremia was shown to be an independent risk factor for inpatient mortality and poor outcome.

  19. Intracranial stents in the endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Acosta, F; Jiménez Gómez, E; Bravo Rey, I; Bravo Rodríguez, F A; Ochoa Sepúlveda, J J; Oteros Fernández, R

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intracranial stenting as a rescue therapy after failed mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We retrospectively studied 42 patients treated with intracranial stenting after failed mechanical thrombectomy between December 2008 and January 2016. We compared outcomes before and after the incorporation of stentrievers. We assessed the degree of recanalization in the carotid and basilar territories (modified TIMI score), prognostic factors, and outcome (modified Rankin Score at 3 months). Safety was evaluated in function of the appearance of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH). Median NIHSS was 17 in patients with carotid territory strokes and 26 in those with vertebrobasilar territory strokes. Median time from onset of symptoms to treatment was 225minutes in carotid territory strokes and 390minutes in vertebrobasilar territory strokes. A total of 10 patients underwent intravenous fibrinolytic therapy before treatment with stentrievers. Two patients developed SICH; both had undergone intravenous fibrinolytic therapy (p=0.0523). Recanalization was effective in 30 (71.4%) in the entire series: in 7 (50%) of 14 patients treated before the incorporation of stentrievers and in 23 (82.1%) of 28 treated after the incorporation of stentrievers (p=0.0666). Outcome at 3 months was good in 2 (14.3%) patients in the earlier group and in 14 (50%) patients in the later group (p=0.042). We found significant associations between recanalization and outcome (p=0.0415) and between shorter time to treatment and outcome (p=0.002). Outcome was good in 14 (48.3%) of the 29 patients with carotid territory strokes and in 2 (15.4%) of the 13 patients with vertebrobasilar territory strokes (p=0.078). Intracranial stenting is the rescue treatment when the usual treatment fails. Stentrievers must be used to eliminate the clot burden before stenting. In our study, antiplatelet treatment did not seem to increase the risk of SICH

  20. A case of Plasmodium vivax malaria with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and acute renal failure, severe thrombocytopenia, with anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind S Shiddapur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When we talk about severe malaria, we usually think of Plasmodium falciparum. However, in recent times, Plasmodium vivax has also been reported to cause severe multi-organ dysfunction and life-threatening disease similar to P. falciparum. We report here a case of P. vivax malaria in a young boy from an endemic zone, who developed acute renal failure, severe thrombocytopenia, and anemia and later developed spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Multisystem involvement in a patient with P. vivax is rare, and subarachnoid hemorrhage is an unusual presentation.

  1. The Challenge of Managing Fusiform Basilar Artery Aneurysms: From Acute Ischemic Stroke to a Massive Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    Sofia Bezerra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a patient with acute brain stem ischemic stroke who was found to have a fusiform basilar aneurysm with a thrombus within the dilated vessel. Three days after the ischemic stroke, the patient had a massive subarachnoid hemorrhage and died. This case illustrates the difficulties in the acute management of ischemic events in patients with basilar fusiform aneurysms, because the natural history of this disease encompasses both bleeding and thrombosis.

  2. Prognosis of patients in coma after acute subdural hematoma due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torné, Ramon; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Romero-Chala, Fabián; Arikan, Fuat; Vilalta, Jordi; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Acute subdural hematomas (aSDH) secondary to intracranial aneurysm rupture are rare. Most patients present with coma and their functional prognosis has been classically considered to be very poor. Previous studies mixed good-grade and poor-grade patients and reported variable outcomes. We reviewed our experience by focusing on patients in coma only and hypothesized that aSDH might worsen initial mortality but not long-term functional outcome. Between 2005 and 2013, 440 subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients were admitted to our center. Nineteen (4.3%) were found to have an associated aSDH and 13 (2.9%) of these presented with coma. Their prospectively collected clinical and outcome data were reviewed and compared with that of 104 SAH patients without aSDH who presented with coma during the same period. Median aSDH thickness was 10mm. Four patients presented with an associated aneurysmal cortical laceration and only one had good recovery. Overall, we observed good long-term outcomes in both SAH patients in coma with aSDH and those without aSDH (38.5% versus 26.4%). Associated aSDH does not appear to indicate a poorer long-term functional prognosis in SAH patients presenting with coma. Anisocoria and brain herniation are observed in patients with aSDH thicknesses that are smaller than those observed in trauma patients. Despite a high initial mortality, early surgery to remove the aSDH results in a good outcome in over 60% of survivors. Aneurysmal cortical laceration appears to be an independent entity which shows a poorer prognosis than other types of aneurysmal aSDH.

  3. Trends in monitoring patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, J B; Frederiksen, H-J; Eskesen, V

    2005-01-01

    After aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), the clinical outcome depends upon the primary haemorrhage and a number of secondary insults in the acute post-haemorrhagic period. Some secondary insults are potentially preventable but prevention requires prompt recognition of cerebral or systemic...... with the conventional monitoring systems, for example intracranial pressure measurements, transcranial Doppler ultrasound and modern neuro-imaging, direct assessment of biochemical markers by intracerebral microdialysis is promising in the advancement of neurointensive care of patients with SAH. A successfully...

  4. Tumefactive intracranial presentation of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forester, Craig M. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Braunreiter, Chi L. [University of Utah, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Primary Children' s Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Helen DeVos Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Yaish, Hasan; Afify, Zeinab [University of Utah, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Primary Children' s Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hedlund, Gary L. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2009-11-15

    In children, leukemia is the most common malignancy, and approximately 75% of leukemias are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Central nervous system leukemia is found at diagnosis in fewer than 5% of children with ALL. Leukemic intracranial masses have been described with acute myeloid leukemia, but ALL presenting as a mass lesion is rare. We describe a unique case of an intracranial confirmed precursor B cell (pre-B) ALL mass in a 13-year-old girl that was diagnosed by brain CT, MRI and cerebral angiography, and confirmed by biopsy. This report details pertinent history and distinguishing imaging features of an intracranial ALL tumefaction. (orig.)

  5. Prevalence of electrocardiographic changes in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and their relationship with outcome

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    Saktheeswaran Mahesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electrocardiographic (ECG alterations occurring after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH have been described frequently, but the prognostic significance of these changes has not been well characterized. Aim and Objectives: To report the prevalence and patterns of ECG alterations in patients with acute aneurysmal SAH and to study the relationship between ECG alterations and the neurological outcome, if any. Materials and Methods: Records of consecutive patients admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit of the SCTIMST, Trivandrum between January 1999 and January 2011 with acute aneurysmal SAH were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Of the 321 patients with SAH, 190 (59.2% had abnormal ECGs. Repolarization abnormalities were the most common, with T wave inversion in the anterolateral leads occurring in 155 (48.3% patients. By univariate analysis, female sex, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS at admission of I, ST segment depression or T inversion in anterolateral leads, prolonged corrected QT interval, and sinus bradycardia were associated with increased risk of death. By multivariate analysis, only GCS and WFNS grade independently predicted mortality and none of the ECG changes predicted the same. Presence of tall T waves in anterior leads, T inversion in anterolateral leads, sinus bradycardia, and WFNS grade >1 were independently associated with GCS <15 and poor outcome at discharge. Conclusions: In patients with acute aneurysmal SAH, repolarization abnormalities are the commonest ECG alterations. ECG alterations do not independently predict death, but independently predict poor discharge neurological status.

  6. 以蛛网膜下腔出血起病的颅内多发动脉瘤的诊治%Diagnosis and treatment for multiple intracranial aneurysms presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琳; 张祥茂

    2014-01-01

    With the wider availability and continuous advances of imaging techniques , the increasing numbers of multiple intracranial aneurysms are detected in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Studies have shown that unruptured aneurysms in patients with previous subara-chnoid hemorrhage have higher rupture risk than those without previous subarachnoid hemorrhage. For patients with multiple intracranial aneurysms presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage , in addition to the ruptured aneurysms are identified and dealt with first , the unruptured aneurysms should be detected and treated aggressively. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of multiple intracranial aneurysms are more difficult than those of single ones.%随着脑血管成像技术的广泛应用及不断提高,动脉瘤性蛛网膜下腔出血患者中多发动脉瘤检出率越来越高。研究表明既往有蛛网膜下腔出血病史患者的未破裂动脉瘤破裂风险要高于无蛛网膜下腔出血病史者,对于发生动脉瘤破裂的多发动脉瘤患者除明确责任动脉瘤并首先处理外,其未破裂动脉瘤也应尽量检出并积极治疗,因此多发动脉瘤的诊断和治疗均要比单发动脉瘤复杂。

  7. Systolic Blood Pressure Variability is a Novel Risk Factor for Rebleeding in Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-Song; Ping-Chen; Lin, Yuan-Xiang; Lin, Zhang-Ya; Yu, Liang-Hong; Dai, Lin-Sun; Kang, De-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rebleeding of an aneurysm is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated predictors of rebleeding and effect of systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) on stroke, few data on the association between SBPV and rebleeding. Here, we sought to identify the effect of SBPV on rebleeding in acute aneurysmal SAH. Case–control study. From January 2010 to June 2015, 612 patients with aneurysmal SAH were enrolled in our tertiary care medical center. Main outcome measures: Consecutive patients with acute (<3 days from ictus) aneurismal rebleeding or repair or death were retrospectively included. Antihypertensive therapy based on a predefined standardized protocol was prescribed to lower and maintain SBP between 120 and 160 mm Hg. SBP was measured hourly until a censoring event occurred. SBPV was determined as standard deviation (SD) and successive variation (SV). Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between SBPV and rebleeding. Rebleeding occurred in 61 (10.0%) of the 612 patients. We identified 47 acute rebleeding as cases and 382 early repair or early death as controls. On binary logistic regression analysis, rebleeding was associated with the SD of SBP (odds ratio [OR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.131–1.391; P < 0.001) and the SV of SBP (OR, 1.131; 95% CI, 1.039–1.231; P = 0.004). No significant difference was seen between rebleeding and mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP). SBPV is associated with increased rates of acute aneurysmal rebleeding. Further prospective research is warranted to confirm that SBP stability prevents acute aneurysm rebleeding. PMID:26986118

  8. Frontal sinus mini-trephination for acute sinusitis complicated by intracranial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, D L; Mahadevan, M

    2007-10-01

    Acute bacterial sinusitis is common in the pediatric population. Intracranial spread of infection is a rare but life-threatening complication of acute sinusitis. Due to the infrequent presentation of this complication, there are no well-defined management protocols for the acute sinusitis. We present three pediatric cases where children presented with intracranial sepsis, and the underlying source of infection was from the paranasal sinuses. In all cases, endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in the acute setting, with the use of frontal sinus mini-trephines playing a significant role. We describe our experience and review the available literature.

  9. Hypocortisolism in noncomatose patients during the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanterna, Luigi A; Spreafico, Veronica; Gritti, Paolo; Prodam, Flavia; Signorelli, Antonio; Biroli, Francesco; Aimaretti, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    Hypopituitarism represents a common long-term complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The incidence of hypocortisolism may be higher during the acute phase of SAH. Although hypocortisolism may be harmful in critically ill SAH patients, data are still lacking. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of hypocortisolism during the acute phase of SAH (15 days). Secondary objectives included an analysis of the relationship between hypocortisolism and outcome and the computation of the cortisol-time secretion curve. Clinical data of a consecutive series of 26 noncomatose patients with aneurysmal SAH were collected prospectively. The sample size was calculated considering an expected proportion of hypocortisolism of 30%, a confidence level of 95%, and a total width of confidence interval of 0.35. The definition of hypocortisolism (as taken from a statement from the critical care medicine task forces) includes random total cortisol Hypocortisolism was diagnosed in 11 patients (42.3%). Cortisol increment after stimulation test was always >9 μg/dl, suggesting a hypothalamic-pituitary impairment. Hypocortisolism was independently associated with a higher risk of poor outcome (P = .046) even after adjusting for age and Hunt and Hess grade. The cortisol-time secretion curve showed a peak at day 5 and a minimum at day 8. The peak at day 5 correlated with the risk of delayed cerebral ischemia (P = .001), and the cortisol concentration slope between days 1 and 8 correlated with the risk of poor outcome (P = .033). Patients with SAH are at high risk of secondary hypocortisolism during the first 15 days after bleeding. Hypocortisolism independently increases the risk of poor outcome. The acute phase of hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction, as reflected by an abnormal day-by-day cortisol secretion pattern, may affect the risk of delayed cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CT angiography for evaluation of cerebral vasospasm following acute subarachnoid haemorrhage

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    Shankar, Jai Jai Shiva [Dalhousie University, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, QEII Health Sciences Center, Halifax (Canada); Tan, Irene Y.L.; Krings, Timo; Terbrugge, Karel; Agid, Ronit [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Cerebral vasospasm (CV) is one of the most dreaded complications in patients who survive acute subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), and conventional cerebral angiography (DSA) is the gold standard for its diagnosis. We evaluated CT angiography (CTA) as a non-invasive alternative for diagnosis of CV and assessed if CTA could have a role in choosing appropriate treatment. Consecutive patients with SAH and suspected vasospasm were included when DSA was performed within 24 h from CTA. Two neuro-radiologists retrospectively analysed CTA and DSA studies independently. Assessment included presence of central and peripheral vasospasm and grading of severity of central CV. A treatment recommendation based on CTA was compared to actual treatment received. Final analysis included 34 patients. CTA was more accurate for diagnosis of central then for peripheral CV with high sensitivity (reader 1, 91%; reader 2, 92%), specificity (reader 1, 73%; reader 2, 90%), accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for central vasospasm. For grading the severity of CV CTA's sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were high for most central arteries. The reader's recommendation of angioplasty according to CTA was significantly predictive of actual receipt of angioplasty but overestimated actual receipt of triple H treatment. CTA is adequate for detecting central vasospasm in symptomatic SAH patients. A negative result should not prevent further investigation especially when evaluating arterial segments adjacent to metal artefacts from coils or clips. CTA is helpful in treatment decision making specifically regarding the need for balloon angioplasty. (orig.)

  11. Guglielmi detachable coil embolization of acute intracranial aneurysm: perioperative anatomical and clinical outcome in 403 patients. 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñuela, Fernando; Duckwiler, Gary; Mawad, Michel

    2008-04-01

    From December 1990 to July 1995, the investigators participated in a prospective clinical study to evaluate the safety of the Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) system for the treatment of aneurysms. This report summarizes the perioperative results from eight initial interventional neuroradiology centers in the United States. The report focuses on 403 patients who presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. These patients were treated within 15 days of the primary intracranial hemorrhage and were followed until they were discharged from the hospital or died. Seventy percent of the patients were female and 30% were male. The patients' mean age was 58 years old. Aneurysm size was categorized as small (60.8%), large (34.7%), and giant (4.5%); and neck size was categorized as small (53.6%), wide (36.2%), fusiform (6%), and undetermined (4.2%). Fifty-seven percent of the aueurysms were located in the posterior circulation and 43% in the anterior circulation. Eighty-two patients were classified as Hunt and Hess Grade I (20.3%), 105 Grade II (26.1%), 121 Grade III (30%), 69 Grade IV (17.1%), and 26 Grade V (6.5%). All patients in this study were excluded from surgical treatment either because of anticipated surgical difficulty (69.2%), attempted and failed surgery (12.7%), the patient's poor neurological (12.2%) or medical (4.7%) status, and/or refusal of surgery (1.2%). The GDC embolization was performed within 48 hours of primary hemorrhage in 147 patients (36.5%), within 3 to 6 days in 156 patients (38.7%), 7 to 10 days in 71 patients (17.6%), and 11 to 15 days in 29 patients (7.2%). Complete aneurysm occlusion was observed in 70.8% of small aneurysms with a small neck, 35% of large aneurysms, and 50% of giant aneurysms. A small neck remnant was observed in 21.4% of small aneurysms with a small neck, 57.1% of large aneurysms, and 50% of giant aneurysms. Technical complications included aneurysm perforation (2.7%), unintentional

  12. Intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, G; Ruggieri, P M

    1995-08-01

    MR angiography provides a rapid, accurate, and extremely flexible noninvasive evaluation of intracranial aneurysms without the cost and risk of conventional angiography. TOF and phase contrast techniques each have specific advantages and disadvantages that can be selectively exploited to optimize aneurysm evaluation. Present indications for MR angiography in aneurysm evaluation include: (1) the presence of incidental findings on a CT or MR examination that suggest the possibility of aneurysm (Figs. 7 and 8), (2) when angiography is contraindicated or when the risk is too high, (3) non-invasive follow-up of patients with known aneurysms, (4) patient refusal of contrast angiography, and (5) evaluation of patients with specific clinical symptoms (i.e., third cranial nerve palsy) or patients with non-specific subacute symptoms in whom an aneurysm might explain the clinical presentation. Although MR angiography certainly can detect aneurysms with a high rate of sensitivity and specificity, detailed decision analyses generally have not supported the overall benefit of this type of screening. Future technical advances as well as advances in the overall understanding of aneurysms may one day prove unequivocally the benefit of MR angiography in screening high-risk patient groups. MR angiography has not yet been clinically evaluated as a tool in the evaluation of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Potential obstacles to such an evaluation include the clinical instability of SAH patients, limited spatial resolution of the MR angiography acquisitions, the potential for subarachnoid blood or focal intraparenchymal hematomas to obscure or mimic small aneurysms, and the unreliability of MR angiography in demonstrating vasospasm. Currently these factors continue to provide an integral role for contrast angiography in aneurysm evaluation.

  13. Clinical relevance of cortical spreading depression in neurological disorders: migraine, malignant stroke, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Martin; Dreier, Jens Peter; Fabricius, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and depolarization waves are associated with dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis, efflux of excitatory amino acids from nerve cells, increased energy metabolism and changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). There is strong clinical and experimental evidence...... treatment strategies, which may be used to prevent or attenuate secondary neuronal damage in acutely injured human brain cortex caused by depolarization waves....

  14. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backes, Daan

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm results in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a subtype of stroke with an incidence of 9 per 100,000 person-years and a case-fatality around 35%. In order to prevent SAH, patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms can be treated by neurosurgical or end

  15. Computerised tomography after recent severe head injury in patients without acute intracranial haematoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, Jos; Jennett, Bryan

    1979-01-01

    Sixty patients with severe head injury who did not have an acute intracranial haematoma on CAT scanning are reviewed. The scans are correlated with the level of consciousness at the time of scanning and with the outcome six months after injury. The initial scan was interpreted as being normal in 38%

  16. A multicentre randomized controlled trial of moderate hypothermia to prevent intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, William; Murphy, Nicholas; Brown, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Animal models and human case series of acute liver failure (ALF) suggest moderate hypothermia (MH) to have protective effects against cerebral oedema (CO) development and intracranial hypertension (ICH). However, the optimum temperature for patient management is unknown. In a p...

  17. Intratemporal and intracranial complications of acute suppurative otitis media in children : renewed interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhooge, IJM; Albers, FWJ; Van Cauwenberge, PB

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, a rise in the incidence of intratemporal and intracranial complications of acute otitis media (AOM) has been mentioned in the literature. Lack of a well-developed immune system and difficulties in diagnosing AOM, can account for part of the rise in the incidence of complications of

  18. [Effects of solcoseryl on the cerebral blood flow, intracranial pressure, systemic blood pressure and EEG in acute intracranial hypertensive cats (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, S; Asakura, T; Kitamura, K

    1976-02-01

    The experiment was performed on 86 cases under intraperitoneal pentobarbital anesthesia. One balloon was placed in the extradural space of right frontal region, and the other balloon was placed in the left extradural space and the intracranial pressure was measured. A needle was stereotaxically inserted into the subcortical area in order to measure the cerebral blood flow. Systemic blood pressure was recorded by inserting a catheter into the femoral artery, and electrocorticogram was also recorded. An expanding intracranial lesion was made by inflating the extradural balloon with physiological saline. The animals were arbitrarily divided into two groups.: 1) light or moderate groups which intracranial pressure before the injection of drug was below 400 mmH2O. 2) severe groups above 400 mmH2O. After the maintenance of the pressure, Solcoseryl was infused intravenously. The investigation was focused to observe whether Solcoseryl reveales any potent effect on cerebral blood flow, intracranial pressure, systemic blood pressure and on electroencephalogram in acute intracranial hypertension. Results 1) Intravenous injection of Solcoseryl had the effect of lowering intracranial pressure in the light or moderate and severe groups. Particularly, dose of 80 mg/kg showed the marked effect, though with a rebound phenomenon in the light or moderate groups. Furthermore, the effect was more marked and lasting by drip infusion of Solcoseryl and also by intravenous injection of Solcoseryl after pretreatment with hydrocortisone, and at this time no rebound phenomenon was recognized. 2) Solcoseryl had the effect of increasing the cerebral blood flow accompained with the lowering of intracranial pressure. 3) Systemic blood pressure was transiently lowered by the injection of Solcoseryl 20 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg and recovered immediately. 4) Solcoseryl had no effect on electroencephalogram in the severe groups. Conclusion On the basis of these results, it is rational to conclude that

  19. Risk factors and treatments related to acute hydrocephalus after performing endovascular embolization in patients with intracranial aneurysms%血管内治疗颅内动脉瘤术后发生急性脑积水的危险因素及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛希宏; 宋黎; 李斌; 马孝伟; 唐太昆; 常魏

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors and treatments related to acute hydrocephalus after performing endovascular embolization in patients with intracranial aneurysms.Methods The data of 36 patients suffering from spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were retrospectively analyzed. Nine patients with intracranial anenrysms occurred acute communicative hydrocephalus following endovascular embolization were chose as patient group. And the other 27 patients with intracranial aneurysms without post-operative acute communicative hydrocephalus were included in control group. Possible risk factors were Hunt-Hess grade, Fisher grade, location of intracranial aneurysms, and lumbar subarachnoid continuous drainage; logistic regression analysis was performed on these factors. Results Hunt-Hess grade and lumbar subarachnoid continuous drainage were the most important factors that had effects on hydrocephalus following endovascular embolization in patients with intracranial aneurysms. Hunt-Hess grade was a risk factor (OR=14.54; 95% C.I:1.33-158.95), while lumbar suharachnoid continuous drainage was a protective factor (B=-3.198; OR=0.04; 95% C.I: 0.00-0.44). Conclusion Early lumbar subarachnoid continuous drainage, a clear protective factor, should be performed in the early stage of endovascular embolization for the purpose of protecting patients with intracranial anenrysms from acute hydrocephalus.%目的 可能危险因素进行Logistic多元回归分析.结果 Hunt-Hess分级和早期腰池持续置管引流为颅内动脉瘤血管内介入治疗后并发急性脑积水的最重要影响因素.结论 颅内动脉瘤血管内介入治疗后早期选择腰大池蛛网膜下腔持续引流,可预防急性脑积水发生,该方法可避免脑室穿刺,起到治疗急性脑积水的作用.

  20. Terson syndrome in conjunction with ruptured intracranial aneurysm and penetrating intracranial injury: a review of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinboldt, Matt; Francis, Kirenza; Parrish, David; Harper, Derrick; Blase, John

    2014-04-01

    Terson syndrome, the presence of intraocular hemorrhage in the setting of acutely elevated intracranial pressure, was historically described in conjunction with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage; however, more recently, it has been associated with a gamut of intracranial pathophysiology ranging from blunt or penetrating injury to neurosurgical procedures. We describe two cases of profound intracranial injury, secondary to ballistic injury, and a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, in which posterior chamber ocular hemorrhage was noted on CT imaging. Though the outcome in such cases, as with ours, is often poor, the findings are germane to clinical care as the presence of Terson syndrome has been noted to be a negative prognostic factor in multiple clinical reviews. Additionally, clinical recovery can be impacted adversely by lasting visual deficits or retinal degradation in the absence of timely ophthalmologic intervention.

  1. Nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, Nancy J; Wijman, Christine A C

    2010-11-01

    Nontraumatic (or spontaneous) intracranial hemorrhage most commonly involves the brain parenchyma and subarachnoid space. This entity accounts for at least 10% of strokes and is a leading cause of death and disability in adults. Important causes of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage include hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, aneurysms, vascular malformations, and hemorrhagic infarcts (both venous and arterial). Imaging findings in common and less common causes of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage are reviewed.

  2. Intracranial blister aneurysms: clip reconstruction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Daniel L; Pradilla, Gustavo; McCracken, D Jay

    2015-07-01

    Intracranial blister aneurysms are difficult to treat cerebrovascular lesions that typically affect the anterior circulation. These rare aneurysms can lead to acute rupture which usually cannot be treated via endovascular methods, but still require urgent surgical intervention. Surgical options are limited given their unique pathology and often require a combination of wrapping and clip reconstruction. In this video we present two patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured blister aneurysms. We demonstrate several surgical techniques for repairing the vascular defect with and without intraoperative rupture. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/nz-JM45uKQU.

  3. Acute Cholecystitis as a Cause of Fever in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Rae Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Fever is a very common complication that has been related to poor outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH. The incidence of acalculous cholecystitis is reportedly 0.5%–5% in critically ill patients, and cerebrovascular disease is a risk factor for acute cholecystitis (AC. However, abdominal evaluations are not typically performed for febrile patients who have recently undergone aSAH surgeries. In this study, we discuss our experiences with febrile aSAH patients who were eventually diagnosed with AC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 192 consecutive patients who underwent aSAH from January 2009 to December 2012. We evaluated their characteristics, vital signs, laboratory findings, radiologic images, and pathological data from hospitalization. We defined fever as a body temperature of >38.3°C, according to the Society of Critical Care Medicine guidelines. We categorized the causes of fever and compared them between patients with and without AC. Results Of the 192 enrolled patients, two had a history of cholecystectomy, and eight (4.2% were eventually diagnosed with AC. Among them, six patients had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In their pathological findings, two patients showed findings consistent with coexistent chronic cholecystitis, and two showed necrotic changes to the gall bladder. Patients with AC tended to have higher white blood cell counts, aspartame aminotransferase levels, and C-reactive protein levels than patients with fevers from other causes. Predictors of AC in the aSAH group were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 8.758; P = 0.033 and the initial consecutive fasting time (OR, 1.325; P = 0.024. Conclusions AC may cause fever in patients with aSAH. When patients with aSAH have a fever, diabetes mellitus and a long fasting time, AC should be suspected. A high degree of suspicion and a thorough abdominal examination of febrile aSAH patients allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment of this

  4. Risk factors of intracranial stenosis among older adults with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizaldy Pinzon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial large artery atherosclerosis is an important cause of stroke worldwide. Previous studies have shown that it is found more commonly in Asians. However, studies of intracranial stenosis in Indonesian stroke patients have been very few in number. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the frequency and risk factors of intracranial stenosis in acute ischemic stroke. The data were obtained from 234 consecutive patients in the transcranial doppler (TCD registry. Documentation of risk factors was performed systematically and for TCD sonography TD-DOP 9000 equipment with a 2-MHz probe was used for the examination of the intracranial circulation. The criteria of middle cerebral artery (MCA stenosis used in this study were a peak systolic velocity (PSV >140 cm/s or mean systolic velocity (MSV >80 cm/s. For stenosis of the posterior circulation the criteria were PSV > 90 cm/s or MSV >60 cm/s. The data were obtained from 234 patients, and complete examinations were performed in 182 patients (77.7%. Ischemic stroke is the most common indication for performing TCD sonography. Stenosis was present in 38% of cases, with stenosis iof the anterior circulation being the more common. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Intracranial stenosis is common in stroke patients, in whom the risk factors are hypertension and diabetes.

  5. High signal in cerebrospinal fluid mimicking subarachnoid haemorrhage on FLAIR following acute stroke and intravenous contrast medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechambre, S D; Duprez, T; Grandin, C B; Lecouvet, F E; Peeters, A; Cosnard, G

    2000-08-01

    We describe five cases of high signal in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on fast-FLAIR images 24-48 h after onset of stroke. All the patients had undergone perfusion-weighted MRI within 6 h of the onset of the symptoms. The CSF was far brighter than the cortical gyri. The high signal was diffusely around both cerebral hemispheres in two cases and around one hemisphere in two others; it was focal, around the acute ischaemic lesion, in one. CT was normal in all cases. The CSF high signal was transient, decreasing in extent and intensity with time and resolving completely within 3-6 days. It was not associated with worsening of the clinical state or poor outcome. Our explanation of this phenomena is hypothetical: we speculate that it could be due to disruption of the blood-brain barrier resulting in leakage of protein, gadolinium chelates, or both in to the subarachnoid space. It should not be confused with subarachnoid haemorrhage.

  6. Influence of acute jugular vein compression on the cerebral blood flow velocity, pial artery pulsation and width of subarachnoid space in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej F Frydrychowski

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of acute bilateral jugular vein compression on: (1 pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ; (2 cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV; (3 peripheral blood pressure; and (4 possible relations between mentioned parameters. METHODS: Experiments were performed on a group of 32 healthy 19-30 years old male subjects. cc-TQ and the subarachnoid width (sas-TQ were measured using near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS, CBFV in the left anterior cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler, blood pressure was measured using Finapres, while end-tidal CO(2 was measured using medical gas analyser. Bilateral jugular vein compression was achieved with the use of a sphygmomanometer held on the neck of the participant and pumped at the pressure of 40 mmHg, and was performed in the bend-over (BOPT and swayed to the back (initial position. RESULTS: In the first group (n = 10 during BOPT, sas-TQ and pulse pressure (PP decreased (-17.6% and -17.9%, respectively and CBFV increased (+35.0%, while cc-TQ did not change (+1.91%. In the second group, in the initial position (n = 22 cc-TQ and CBFV increased (106.6% and 20.1%, respectively, while sas-TQ and PP decreases were not statistically significant (-15.5% and -9.0%, respectively. End-tidal CO(2 remained stable during BOPT and venous compression in both groups. Significant interdependence between changes in cc-TQ and PP after bilateral jugular vein compression in the initial position was found (r = -0.74. CONCLUSIONS: Acute bilateral jugular venous insufficiency leads to hyperkinetic cerebral circulation characterised by augmented pial artery pulsation and CBFV and direct transmission of PP into the brain microcirculation. The Windkessel effect with impaired jugular outflow and more likely increased intracranial pressure is described. This study clarifies the potential mechanism linking jugular outflow insufficiency with arterial small vessel cerebral

  7. Influence of acute jugular vein compression on the cerebral blood flow velocity, pial artery pulsation and width of subarachnoid space in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrychowski, Andrzej F; Winklewski, Pawel J; Guminski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of acute bilateral jugular vein compression on: (1) pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ); (2) cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV); (3) peripheral blood pressure; and (4) possible relations between mentioned parameters. Experiments were performed on a group of 32 healthy 19-30 years old male subjects. cc-TQ and the subarachnoid width (sas-TQ) were measured using near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS), CBFV in the left anterior cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler, blood pressure was measured using Finapres, while end-tidal CO(2) was measured using medical gas analyser. Bilateral jugular vein compression was achieved with the use of a sphygmomanometer held on the neck of the participant and pumped at the pressure of 40 mmHg, and was performed in the bend-over (BOPT) and swayed to the back (initial) position. In the first group (n = 10) during BOPT, sas-TQ and pulse pressure (PP) decreased (-17.6% and -17.9%, respectively) and CBFV increased (+35.0%), while cc-TQ did not change (+1.91%). In the second group, in the initial position (n = 22) cc-TQ and CBFV increased (106.6% and 20.1%, respectively), while sas-TQ and PP decreases were not statistically significant (-15.5% and -9.0%, respectively). End-tidal CO(2) remained stable during BOPT and venous compression in both groups. Significant interdependence between changes in cc-TQ and PP after bilateral jugular vein compression in the initial position was found (r = -0.74). Acute bilateral jugular venous insufficiency leads to hyperkinetic cerebral circulation characterised by augmented pial artery pulsation and CBFV and direct transmission of PP into the brain microcirculation. The Windkessel effect with impaired jugular outflow and more likely increased intracranial pressure is described. This study clarifies the potential mechanism linking jugular outflow insufficiency with arterial small vessel cerebral disease.

  8. [A case of acute intracranial epidural hematoma caused by chronic nasal sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Kazunori; Sato, Motoki; Kado, Ken; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Takao; Yamakami, Iwao

    2015-01-01

    Non-traumatic intracranial acute epidural hematoma(EDH)is rare. It is mostly caused by coagulation disorders, dural metastasis, or vascular malformations of the dura. We report a case of non-traumatic acute EDH caused by chronic nasal sinusitis and review the literature comprising 10 cases of acute EDH caused by chronic nasal sinusitis. A 16-year-old boy visited our outpatient clinic with a 2-day history of severe headache. He did not have fever or neurological abnormalities and showed no evidence of head trauma. Cranial computed tomography(CT)revealed sphenoid sinusitis and a small amount of epidural air in the middle fossa, but no other intracranial abnormalities. After eight days with no subsequent history of trauma, radiological exams showed a massive acute epidural hematoma in the left middle fossa and temporal convexity without any vascular lesion or skull fracture. The patient underwent a hematoma evacuation that revealed neither a skull fracture nor a vascular abnormality. In this adolescent, chronic nasal sinusitis caused fragility of the meningeal artery wall, an air collection in the epidural space, and the detachment of the dura mater from the inner surface of the skull, thereby resulting in a non-traumatic acute EDH.

  9. Acute onset of intracranial subdural hemorrhage five days after spinal anesthesia for knee arthroscopic surgery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagino Tetsuo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Spinal anesthesia is a widely used general purpose anesthesia. However, serious complications, such as intracranial subdural hemorrhage, can rarely occur. Case presentation We report the case of a 73-year-old Japanese woman who had acute onset of intracranial subdural hemorrhage five days after spinal anesthesia for knee arthroscopic surgery. Conclusion This case highlights the need to pay attention to acute intracranial subdural hemorrhage as a complication after spinal anesthesia. If the headache persists even in a supine position or nausea occurs abruptly, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain should be conducted. An intracranial subdural hematoma may have a serious outcome and is an important differential diagnosis for headache after spinal anesthesia.

  10. Risk of Familial Intracranial Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap; Millichap, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Investigators at University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands, studied the yield of long-term (up to 20 years) screening for intracranial aneurysms in individuals with a positive family history (2 or more first-degree relatives) of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) or unruptured intracranial aneurysm (1993-2013).

  11. Problems with diagnosis by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Masami; Hoshikawa, Kaori; Shiramizu, Hideki; Oda, Shinri; Matsumae, Mitsunori

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic efficacy of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) for acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were compared and the problems with diagnosis were investigated in 81 patients with aneurysmal SAH within 24 hours after onset who underwent FLAIR imaging and CT on admission. The number of hematomas in the cisterns and ventricles were evaluated by clot scores. In addition, the frequency of undetected hematomas was calculated for the cisterns and ventricles. Clot scores were significantly higher for FLAIR imaging than for CT in the lateral sylvian, quadrigeminal, and convexity cisterns. On the other hand, clot scores were significantly higher for CT than for FLAIR imaging in the interhemispheric and medial sylvian cisterns. The overall frequency of undetected SAH was 2% for FLAIR imaging and 14% for CT. With the exception of the interhemispheric and medial sylvian cisterns, the frequency of undetected SAH was higher for CT than for FLAIR imaging. In this study, FLAIR imaging was more sensitive than CT for the detection of acute SAH within 24 hours after onset. However, the diagnostic efficacy of FLAIR imaging was reduced in comparatively tight cisterns.

  12. Intracranial artery dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, T.; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Eshghi, O.; De Keyser, J.; Brouns, R.; van Dijk, J.M.C.; Luijckx, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this narrative review is to evaluate the pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of intracranial artery dissection (IAD). IAD is a rare and often unrecognized cause of stroke or subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), especially in young adults. Two types of IAD can be

  13. Intracranial artery dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, T.; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Eshghi, O.; De Keyser, J.; Brouns, R.; van Dijk, J.M.C.; Luijckx, G. J.

    The aim of this narrative review is to evaluate the pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of intracranial artery dissection (IAD). IAD is a rare and often unrecognized cause of stroke or subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), especially in young adults. Two types of IAD can be

  14. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage: using 64-slice multidetector CT angiography to ''triage'' patients' treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agid, R.; Lee, S.K.; Willinsky, R.A.; Farb, R.I.; TerBrugge, K.G. [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-11-15

    To evaluate the clinical role of CT angiography (CTA) in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for treatment decision-making. Consecutive patients with acute SAH had CTA using a 64-slice scanner for initial clinical decision-making. Image processing included multiplanar volume reformatted (MPVR) maximum intensity projections (MIP) and 3D volume-rendered reconstructions. CTAs were used for (1) evaluating the cause of SAH, and (2) triaging aneurysm-bearing patients to the more appropriate management, either surgical clipping or endovascular coiling. CTA findings were confirmed by neurosurgical exploration or catheter angiography (digital subtraction angiography, DSA). Successful coiling provided evidence that triaging to endovascular treatment was correct. Included in the study were 73 patients. CTA findings were confirmed by DSA or neurosurgical operation in 65 patients, and of these 65, 47 had aneurysmal SAH, 3 had vasculitis, 1 had arterial dissection and 14 had no underlying arterial abnormality. The cause of SAH was detected with CTA in 62 out of the 65 patients (95.4%, sensitivity 94%, specificity 100%). CTA revealed the aneurysm in 46 of 47 patients (98%, sensitivity 98%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 82.3%), 1 of 3 vasculitides and 1 of 1 dissection. Of the 46 patients with aneurysm, 44 (95.7%) were referred for treatment based on CTA. In 2 patients (2 of 46, 4.4%) CTA was not informative enough to choose treatment requiring DSA. Of the 44 patients, 27 (61.4%) were referred to endovascular treatment and successful coiling was achieved in 25 (25 of 27, 92.6%). CTA using a 64-slice scanner is an accurate tool for detecting and characterizing aneurysms in acute SAH. CTA is useful in the decision process whether to coil or clip an aneurysm. (orig.)

  15. Acute Headache at Emergency Department: Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Complicated by Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Cerebral Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is becoming widely accepted as a rare cause of both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke and should be evocated in case of thunderclap headaches associated with stroke. We present the case of a patient with ischemic stroke associated with cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH and reversible diffuse arteries narrowing, leading to the diagnosis of reversible vasoconstriction syndrome. Case Report. A 48-year-old woman came to the emergency department because of an unusual thunderclap headache. The computed tomography of the brain completed by CT-angiography was unremarkable. Eleven days later, she was readmitted because of a left hemianopsia. One day after her admission, she developed a sudden left hemiparesis. The brain MRI showed ischemic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobe and diffuse cSAH. The angiography showed vasoconstriction of the right anterior cerebral artery and stenosis of both middle cerebral arteries. Nimodipine treatment was initiated and vasoconstriction completely regressed on day 16 after the first headache. Conclusion. Our case shows a severe reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome where both haemorrhagic and ischemic complications were present at the same time. The history we reported shows that reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is still underrecognized, in particular in general emergency departments.

  16. Hydrocephalus Onset after Microsurgical or Endovascular Treatment for Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Retrospective Italian Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Michelangelo; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; Di Somma, Alberto; Mazzucco, Grazia Marina; Bono, Paolo Sebastiano; Ghetti, Giovanni; Zambon, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic shunt-dependent hydrocephalus is a complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Its incidence and risk factors have been described while the hydrocephalus onset in terms of days after treatment (microsurgical or endovascular) has not been yet analyzed. Materials and Methods 45 patients, treated for aSAH in 4 Italian Neurosurgical Departments, were retrospectively analyzed. It was calculated the time that elapses between treatment and hydrocephalus onset in 36 patients. Results Of the 45 shunted patients, 15 (33.3%) were included in the microsurgical group (group A) and 30 (66.6%) were in the endovascular one (group B). There was no difference of the hydrocephalus onset between the two groups (24,1 days, group A vs. 27,7 days, group B). The presence of intracerebral hematoma (ICH) caused a delay in the hydrocephalus onset after endovascular treatment in terms of 11,5 days compared to microsurgical group as well the absence of vasospasm determined a delay of 13,7 days (not statistically significant). Conclusion No difference in terms of hydrocephalus onset after microsurgical or endovascular treatment has been demonstrated. Only the presence of ICH or the absence of vasospasm can cause a slight delay in the time of hydrocephalus onset in the endovascular series (not statistically significant). Long-term follow-up studies involving higher numbers of subjects are needed to better demonstrate this issue. PMID:24809036

  17. Hydrogen-rich saline injection into the subarachnoid cavity within 2 weeks promotes recovery after acute spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-long Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen can relieve tissue-damaging oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Injection of hydrogen-rich saline is an effective method for transporting molecular hydrogen. We hypothesized that hydrogen-rich saline would promote the repair of spinal cord injury induced by Allen′s method in rats. At 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after injury, then once daily for 2 weeks, 0.25 mL/kg hydrogen-rich saline was infused into the subarachnoid space through a catheter. Results at 24 hours, 48 hours, 1 week and 2 weeks after injury showed that hydrogen-rich saline markedly reduced cell death, inflammatory cell infiltration, serum malondialdehyde content, and caspase-3 immunoreactivity, elevated serum superoxide dismutase activity and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity, and improved motor function in the hindlimb. The present study confirms that hydrogen-rich saline injected within 2 weeks of injury effectively contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury in the acute stage.

  18. Hydrogen-rich saline injection into the subarachnoid cavity within 2 weeks promotes recovery after acute spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-long Wang; Qing-shan Zhang; Kai-di Zhu; Jian-feng Sun; Ze-peng Zhang; Jian-wen Sun; Ke-xiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen can relieve tissue-damaging oxidative stress, inlfammation and apoptosis. Injection of hydrogen-rich saline is an effective method for transporting molecular hydrogen. We hypothe-sized that hydrogen-rich saline would promote the repair of spinal cord injury induced by Allen’s method in rats. At 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after injury, then once daily for 2 weeks, 0.25 mL/kg hydrogen-rich saline was infused into the subarachnoid space through a catheter. Results at 24 hours, 48 hours, 1 week and 2 weeks after injury showed that hydrogen-rich saline marked-ly reduced cell death, inlfammatory cell inifltration, serum malondialdehyde content, and caspa se-3 immunoreactivity, elevated serum superoxide dismutase activity and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity, and improved motor function in the hindlimb. The present study conifrms that hydrogen-rich saline injected within 2 weeks of injury effectively contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury in the acute stage.

  19. Urea for treatment of acute SIADH in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a single-center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hyponatremia occurring as a result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a common complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The efficacy and safety of urea as treatment for SIADH-induced hyponatremia has not been reported in this population. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of all patients admitted to our department for nontraumatic SAH between January 2003 and December 2008 (n = 368). All patients with SIADH-induced hyponatremia (plasma sodium  20 mEq/L, and osmolality > 200 mOsm/kg; absence of overt dehydration or hypovolemia; no peripheral edema or renal failure; no history of adrenal or thyroid disease) routinely received urea per os when hyponatremia was associated with clinical deterioration or remained less than 130 mEq/L despite saline solution administration. Results Forty-two patients developed SIADH and were treated with urea. Urea was started after a median of 7 (IQR, 5–10) days and given orally at doses of 15–30 g tid or qid for a median of 5 (IQR, 3–7) days. The median plasma sodium increase over the first day of treatment was 3 (IQR, 1–6) mEq/L. Hyponatremia was corrected in all patients, with median times to Na+ >130 and >135 mEq/L of 1 (IQR, 1–2) and 3 (IQR, 2–4) days, respectively. Urea was well tolerated, and no adverse effects were reported. Conclusions Oral urea is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for SIADH-induced hyponatremia in SAH patients. PMID:22647340

  20. Hypermagnesemia does not prevent intracranial hypertension and aggravates cerebral hyperperfusion in a rat model of acute hyperammonemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Eefsen, Martin; Larsen, Fin Stolze;

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous infusion of magnesium sulfate prevents seizures in patients with eclampsia and brain edema after traumatic brain injury. Neuroprotection is achieved by controlling cerebral blood flow (CBF), intracranial pressure, neuronal glutamate release, and aquaporin-4 (Aqp4) expression....... These factors are also thought to be involved in the development of brain edema in acute liver failure. We wanted to study whether hypermagnesemia prevented development of intracranial hypertension and hyperperfusion in a rat model of portacaval anastomosis (PCA) and acute hyperammonemia. We also studied...... rats receiving ammonia infusion/vehicle and MgSO4) /saline. The effect of MgSO(4) on mean arterial pressure (MAP), intracranial pressure (ICP), CBF, cerebral glutamate and glutamine, and aquaporin-4 expression was studied. Finally, the effect of MgSO4 on MAP, ICP, and CBF was studied, using two...

  1. Sex differences in intracranial arterial bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekleiv, Haakon M; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Morgan, Michael K;

    2010-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious condition, occurring more frequently in females than in males. SAH is mainly caused by rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, which is formed by localized dilation of the intracranial arterial vessel wall, usually at the apex of the arterial bifurcation. T....... The female preponderance is usually explained by systemic factors (hormonal influences and intrinsic wall weakness); however, the uneven sex distribution of intracranial aneurysms suggests a possible physiologic factor-a local sex difference in the intracranial arteries....

  2. Sex differences in intracranial arterial bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekleiv, Haakon M; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Morgan, Michael K

    2010-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious condition, occurring more frequently in females than in males. SAH is mainly caused by rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, which is formed by localized dilation of the intracranial arterial vessel wall, usually at the apex of the arterial bifurcation....... The female preponderance is usually explained by systemic factors (hormonal influences and intrinsic wall weakness); however, the uneven sex distribution of intracranial aneurysms suggests a possible physiologic factor-a local sex difference in the intracranial arteries....

  3. Significance of large vessel intracranial occlusion causing acute ischemic stroke and TIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wade S; Lev, Michael H; English, Joey D; Camargo, Erica C; Chou, Maggie; Johnston, S Claiborne; Gonzalez, Gilberto; Schaefer, Pamela W; Dillon, William P; Koroshetz, Walter J; Furie, Karen L

    2009-12-01

    Acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion (LVO)-vertebral, basilar, carotid terminus, middle and anterior cerebral arteries-likely portends a worse prognosis than stroke unassociated with LVO. Because little prospective angiographic data have been reported on a cohort of unselected patients with stroke and with transient ischemic attack, the clinical impact of LVO has been difficult to quantify. The Screening Technology and Outcome Project in Stroke Study is a prospective imaging-based study of stroke outcomes performed at 2 academic medical centers. Patients with suspected acute stroke who presented within 24 hours of symptom onset and who underwent multimodality CT/CT angiography were approached for consent for collection of clinical data and 6-month assessment of outcome. Demographic and clinical variables and 6-month modified Rankin Scale scores were collected and combined with blinded interpretation of the CT angiography data. The OR of each variable, including occlusion of intracranial vascular segment in predicting good outcome and 6-month mortality, was calculated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Over a 33-month period, 735 patients with suspected stroke were enrolled. Of these, 578 were adjudicated as stroke and 97 as transient ischemic attack. Among patients with stroke, 267 (46%) had LVO accounting for the stroke and 13 (13%) of patients with transient ischemic attack had LVO accounting for transient ischemic attack symptoms. LVO predicted 6-month mortality (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 2.7 to 7.3; PStroke Scale and age, independently predicted outcome. Large vessel intracranial occlusion accounted for nearly half of acute ischemic strokes in unselected patients presenting to academic medical centers. In addition to age and baseline stroke severity, occlusion of either the basilar or internal carotid terminus segment is an independent predictor of outcome at 6 months.

  4. Intracranial arterial calcification is highly prevalent in hemodialysis patients but does not associate with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Albert; Chan, Kakit; Haydar, Ali; Hamady, Mohamed; Cairns, Tom; Taube, David; Duncan, Neill

    2011-04-01

    Intracranial arterial calcification (IAC) is associated with ischemic stroke in the general population but this relationship has not been examined in hemodialysis patients. We examined the factors associated with IAC and its relationship with acute ischemic stroke in this population. We retrospectively studied 490 head computed tomographic scans from 2225 hemodialysis patients presenting with neurological symptoms at our center (October 2005-May 2009). Intracranial arterial calcification was graded using a validated scoring system. Multivariate regression was used to examine the factors associated with the presence of IAC, its severity, and its ability to predict acute ischemic stroke. Weibull's survival models analyzed the relationship between IAC severity and survival. Ninety-five percent of patients with ischemic stroke had IAC vs. 83% in the nonstroke group (P=0.02). Intracranial arterial calcification severity increased with age (Pacute ischemic stroke (P=0.05) on logistic regression analysis. High-grade and not low-grade IAC was associated with worse survival (P=0.008). Intracranial arterial calcification is highly prevalent in hemodialysis patients, especially in those with acute ischemic stroke. Its severity is prognostically significant and associated with risk factors for vascular calcification and may confer a greater risk of acute ischemic stroke. The mechanisms underlying the high incidence of ischemic stroke in this patient group require further comprehensive study. © 2011 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2011 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  5. Hyponatremia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis and acute glucocorticoid deficiency

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2011-06-01

    Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Retrospective data suggests that the syndrome of inappropriate diuresis (SIAD) is the most common cause of hyponatraemia in SAH, though cerebral salt wasting has been postulated by some workers to be the predominant abnormality. Data which has shown acute glucocorticoid deficiency following SAH has suggested that some cases of euvolaemic hyponatraemia may also be caused by this mechanism.We prospectively studied the hormonal and haemodynamic influences involved in the development of hyponatraemia in 100 patients (61% female, median age 53 (range 16-82)) with non-traumatic aneurysmal SAH. Each patient had plasma sodium (pNa), urea, osmolality, glucose and 0900h cortisol (PC), and urinary sodium and osmolality measured on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 following SAH. Fluid balance and haemodynamic parameters were recorded daily. Results were compared with 15 patients admitted to ITU following vascular surgery. A PC<300nmol\\/L in a patient in ITU was regarded clinically as inappropriately low.49% of patients developed hyponatraemia (pNa<135 mmol\\/L), including 14% who developed clinically significantly hyponatraemia (pNa<130 mmol\\/L). 36\\/49 (73.4%) developed hyponatraemia between days 1 and 3 post SAH. The median duration of hyponatraemia was 3 days (range 1–10 days).In 35\\/49 (71.4%), hyponatraemia was due to SIAD as defined by standard diagnostic criteria. 14% of SAH patients had at least one PC<300nmol\\/L; 5 of these (35.7%) developed hyponatraemia. In 4 patients hyponatraemia was preceded by acute cortisol deficiency and responded to hydrocortisone treatment. In contrast, all controls had PC>500 nmol\\/L on day 1, and >300 nmol on days 3–12. There were no cases of cerebral salt wasting. There was no relationship between the incidence of hyponatraemia and the defined anatomical territory or severity of

  6. Acute hypoxia diminishes the relationship between blood pressure and subarachnoid space width oscillations at the human cardiac frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wszedybyl-Winklewska, Magdalena; Wolf, Jacek; Swierblewska, Ewa; Kunicka, Katarzyna; Gruszecka, Agnieszka; Gruszecki, Marcin; Kucharska, Wieslawa; Winklewski, Pawel J.; Zabulewicz, Joanna; Guminski, Wojciech; Pietrewicz, Michal; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F.; Bieniaszewski, Leszek; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute hypoxia exerts strong effects on the cardiovascular system. Heart-generated pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid motion is recognised as a key factor ensuring brain homeostasis. We aimed to assess changes in heart-generated coupling between blood pressure (BP) and subarachnoid space width (SAS) oscillations during hypoxic exposure. Methods Twenty participants were subjected to a controlled decrease in oxygen saturation (SaO2 = 80%) for five minutes. BP and heart rate (HR) were measured using continuous finger-pulse photoplethysmography, oxyhaemoglobin saturation with an ear-clip sensor, end-tidal CO2 with a gas analyser, and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), pulsatility and resistive indices with Doppler ultrasound. Changes in SAS were recorded with a recently-developed method called near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding. Wavelet transform analysis was used to assess the relationship between BP and SAS oscillations. Results Gradual increases in systolic, diastolic BP and HR were observed immediately after the initiation of hypoxic challenge (at fifth minute +20.1%, +10.2%, +16.5% vs. baseline, respectively; all P<0.01), whereas SAS remained intact (P = NS). Concurrently, the CBFV was stable throughout the procedure, with the only increase observed in the last two minutes of deoxygenation (at the fifth minute +6.8% vs. baseline, P<0.05). The cardiac contribution to the relationship between BP and SAS oscillations diminished immediately after exposure to hypoxia (at the fifth minute, right hemisphere -27.7% and left hemisphere -26.3% vs. baseline; both P<0.05). Wavelet phase coherence did not change throughout the experiment (P = NS). Conclusions Cerebral haemodynamics seem to be relatively stable during short exposure to normobaric hypoxia. Hypoxia attenuates heart-generated BP SAS coupling. PMID:28241026

  7. Soluble Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Acute Hydrocephalus following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Sokół

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR signalling begins early in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH, and plays a key role in inflammation following cerebral aneurysm rupture. Available studies suggest significance of endogenous first-line blockers of a TLR pathway-soluble TLR2 and 4.Eighteen patients with SAH and acute hydrocephalus underwent endovascular coiling and ventriculostomy; sTLR2 and 4 levels were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF collected on post-SAH days 0-3, 5, and 10-12. Release kinetics were defined. CSF levels of sTLR2 and 4 were compared with a control group and correlated with the clinical status on admission, the findings on imaging, the degree of systemic inflammation and the outcome following treatment.None of study group showed detectable levels of sTLR2 and 4 on post-SAH day 0-3. 13 patients showed increased levels in subsequent samples. In five SAH patients sTLR2 and 4 levels remained undetectable; no distinctive features of this group were found. On post-SAH day 5 the strongest correlation was found between sTLR2 level and haemoglobin level on admission (cc = -0.498, P = 0.037. On post-SAH day 10-12 the strongest correlation was revealed between sTLR2 and treatment outcome (cc = -0.501, P = 0.076. Remaining correlations with treatment outcome, status at admission, imaging findings and inflammatory markers on post-SAH day 5 and 10-12 were negligible or low (-0.5 ≤ cc ≤ 0.5.In the majority of cases, rupture of a cerebral aneurysm leads to delayed release of soluble TLR forms into CSF. sTLR2 and 4 seem to have minor role in human post-SAH inflammation due to delayed release kinetics and low levels of these protein.

  8. Predictors for Symptomatic Intracranial Hemorrhage After Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yonggang; Yang, Dong; Wang, Huaiming; Zi, Wenjie; Zhang, Meng; Geng, Yu; Zhou, Zhiming; Wang, Wei; Xu, Haowen; Tian, Xiguang; Lv, Penghua; Liu, Yuxiu; Xiong, Yunyun; Liu, Xinfeng; Xu, Gelin

    2017-05-01

    Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) pose a major safety concern for endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. This study aimed to evaluate the risk and related factors of SICH after endovascular treatment in a real-world practice. Patients with stroke treated with stent-like retrievers for recanalizing a blocked artery in anterior circulation were enrolled from 21 stroke centers in China. Intracranial hemorrhage was classified as symptomatic and asymptomatic ones according to Heidelberg Bleeding Classification. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors for SICH. Of the 632 enrolled patients, 101 (16.0%) were diagnosed with SICH within 72 hours after endovascular treatment. Ninety-day mortality was higher in patients with SICH than in patients without SICH (65.3% versus 18.8%; P0.83 (odds ratio [OR], 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-3.46), pretreatment Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score of stroke of cardioembolism type (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.13-3.25), poor collateral circulation (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.16-3.36), delay from symptoms onset to groin puncture >270 minutes (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.03-2.80), >3 passes with retriever (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.40-4.65) were associated with SICH after endovascular treatment. Incidence of SICH after thrombectomy is higher in Asian patients with acute ischemic stroke. Cardioembolic stroke, poor collateral circulation, delayed endovascular treatment, multiple passes with stent retriever device, lower pretreatment Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score, higher baseline neutrophil ratio may increase the risk of SICH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Influence of Acute Jugular Vein Compression on the Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity, Pial Artery Pulsation and Width of Subarachnoid Space in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Frydrychowski, Andrzej F.; Pawel J Winklewski; Wojciech Guminski

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of acute bilateral jugular vein compression on: (1) pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ); (2) cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV); (3) peripheral blood pressure; and (4) possible relations between mentioned parameters. METHODS: Experiments were performed on a group of 32 healthy 19-30 years old male subjects. cc-TQ and the subarachnoid width (sas-TQ) were measured using near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS), CBFV i...

  10. Successful surgical treatment of descending aorta interruption in a 29-year-old woman with acute paraplegia and subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shutang; Wang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Hongdu; Zhuang, Huanwei; Cao, Xianjun; Liang, Liming; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-06-06

    Interruption of the descending aorta is an extremely rare great vessel malformation. In this report, we describe a very unusual case of a 29-year-old female with a 13-year history of hypertension who was found to have an interruption of the descending aorta when she was hospitalized with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and symptoms of acute paraplegia. We successfully surgically corrected the defect using a Gore-Tex® graft to bypass the aortic interruption. The patient's blood pressure postoperatively returned to normal, and the patient recovered completely from her paraplegia by the time of her 5-month follow-up visit.

  11. Influence of Acute Jugular Vein Compression on the Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity, Pial Artery Pulsation and Width of Subarachnoid Space in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Frydrychowski, Andrzej F.; Winklewski, Pawel J.; Wojciech Guminski

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of acute bilateral jugular vein compression on: (1) pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ); (2) cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV); (3) peripheral blood pressure; and (4) possible relations between mentioned parameters. METHODS: Experiments were performed on a group of 32 healthy 19-30 years old male subjects. cc-TQ and the subarachnoid width (sas-TQ) were measured using near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS), CBFV i...

  12. Functional independence: A comparison of the changes during neurorehabilitation between patients with non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage or acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stabel, Henriette Holm; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the changes in functional independence measured by the FIM after specialized neurorehabilitation between patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Design Historical cohort study......) comprised patients with a first-time nontraumatic SAH (n=212) and age-matched patients with a first-time ICH/AIS (n=448). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Crude and adjusted comparisons of FIM (total and item by item) measured at baseline and at discharge. Results Patients...

  13. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-02-29

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Mouse models of intracranial aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yutang; Emeto, Theophilus I; Lee, James; Marshman, Laurence; Moran, Corey; Seto, Sai-wang; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a highly lethal medical condition. Current management strategies for unruptured intracranial aneurysms involve radiological surveillance and neurosurgical or endovascular interventions. There is no pharmacological treatment available to decrease the risk of aneurysm rupture and subsequent subarachnoid hemorrhage. There is growing interest in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysm focused on the development of drug therapies to decrease the incidence of aneurysm rupture. The study of rodent models of intracranial aneurysms has the potential to improve our understanding of intracranial aneurysm development and progression. This review summarizes current mouse models of intact and ruptured intracranial aneurysms and discusses the relevance of these models to human intracranial aneurysms. The article also reviews the importance of these models in investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in the disease. Finally, potential pharmaceutical targets for intracranial aneurysm suggested by previous studies are discussed. Examples of potential drug targets include matrix metalloproteinases, stromal cell-derived factor-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, the renin-angiotensin system and the β-estrogen receptor. An agreed clear, precise and reproducible definition of what constitutes an aneurysm in the models would assist in their use to better understand the pathology of intracranial aneurysm and applying findings to patients.

  15. Acute Stroke and Obstruction of the Extracranial Carotid Artery Combined with Intracranial Tandem Occlusion: Results of Interventional Revascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescher, Stephanie, E-mail: stephanie.lescher@kgu.de; Czeppan, Katja; Porto, Luciana [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology (Germany); Singer, Oliver C. [Hospital of Goethe University, Department of Neurology (Germany); Berkefeld, Joachim [Hospital of Goethe University, Institute of Neuroradiology (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeDue to high thrombus load, acute stroke patients with tandem obstructions of the extra- and intracranial carotid arteries or the middle cerebral artery show a very limited response to systemic thrombolysis. Interventional treatment with mechanical thrombectomy—often in combination with acute stenting of underlying atherosclerotic stenosis or dissection—is increasingly used. It has been shown that such complex interventions are technically feasible. The lack of optimal management strategies and clinical data encouraged us to review our acute stroke interventions in patient with anterior circulation tandem lesions to determine lesion patterns, interventional approaches, and angiographic or clinical outcomes.Patients and MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed a series of 39 consecutive patients with intracranial vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation simultaneously presenting with high-grade cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis or occlusion.ResultsEmergency ICA stent implantation was technically feasible in all patients, and intracranial recanalization with TICI ≥ 2b was reached in a large number of patients (64 %). Good clinical outcomes (mRS ≤ 2 at 3 months) were achieved in one third of the patients (36 %). Symptomatic hemorrhages occurred in four patients (10 %). Mortality was 10 %.ConclusionEndovascular recanalization of acute cervical carotid artery occlusion was technically feasible in all patients, and resulted in high extra- and intracranial revascularization rates. A trend for favorable clinical outcome was seen in a higher TICI score, younger age, good collateral status, and combined IV rTPA and endovascular therapy.

  16. Intracranial endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, H W; Gaab, M R

    1999-04-15

    The authors' intention is to reduce the invasiveness of intracranial procedures while avoiding traumatization of brain tissue, to decrease the risk of neurological and mental deficits. Intracranial endoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that provides rapid access to the target via small burr holes without the need for brain retraction. Craniotomy as well as microsurgical brain splitting and dissection can often be avoided. Furthermore, because obstructed cerebrospinal fluid pathways can be physiologically restored, the need for shunt placement is eliminated. The ventricular system and subarachnoid spaces provide ideal conditions for the use of an endoscope. Therefore, a variety of disorders, such as hydrocephalus, small intraventricular lesions, and arachnoid and parenchymal cysts can be effectively treated using endoscopic techniques. With the aid of special instruments, laser fibers, and bipolar diathermy, even highly vascularized lesions such as cavernomas may be treated. Moreover, during standard microsurgical procedures, the endoscopic view may provide valuable additional information ("looking around a corner") about the individual anatomy that is not visible with the microscope. In transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, transseptal dissection can be avoided if an endonasal approach is taken. In the depth of the intrasellar space, the extent of tumor removal can be more accurately controlled, especially in larger tumors with para- and suprasellar growth. The combined use of endoscopes and computerized neuronavigation systems increases the accuracy of the approach and provides real-time control of the endoscope tip position and approach trajectory. In the future, the indications for neuroendoscopy will certainly expand with improved technical equipment.

  17. Brain hypoxanthine concentration correlates to lactate/pyruvate ratio but not intracranial pressure in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Hauerberg, John; Jørgensen, Linda;

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cerebral edema in acute liver failure is suggested, in in vitro and animal studies, to involve a compromised oxidative metabolism with a decrease in cerebral ATP levels and an increase in purine concentrations. In this study we hypothesize that the cerebral concentrations...... of hypoxanthine, inosine, and lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio are increased and correlated in patients with acute liver failure. Furthermore, we expect the purines and L/P ratio to correlate with intracranial pressure (ICP) (positively), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) (negatively)....

  18. Development and validation of intracranial thrombus segmentation on CT angiography in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie M M Santos

    Full Text Available Thrombus characterization is increasingly considered important in predicting treatment success for patients with acute ischemic stroke. The lack of intensity contrast between thrombus and surrounding tissue in CT images makes manual delineation a difficult and time consuming task. Our aim was to develop an automated method for thrombus measurement on CT angiography and validate it against manual delineation.Automated thrombus segmentation was achieved using image intensity and a vascular shape prior derived from the segmentation of the contralateral artery. In 53 patients with acute ischemic stroke due to proximal intracranial arterial occlusion, automated length and volume measurements were performed. Accuracy was assessed by comparison with inter-observer variation of manual delineations using intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analyses.The automated method successfully segmented the thrombus for all 53 patients. The intraclass correlation of automated and manual length and volume measurements were 0.89 and 0.84. Bland-Altman analyses yielded a bias (limits of agreement of -0.4 (-8.8, 7.7 mm and 8 (-126, 141 mm3 for length and volume, respectively. This was comparable to the best interobserver agreement, with an intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 and 0.85 and a bias (limits of agreement of -0.1 (-11.2, 10.9 mm and -17 (-216, 185 mm3.The method facilitates automated thrombus segmentation for accurate length and volume measurements, is relatively fast and requires minimal user input, while being insensitive to high hematocrit levels and vascular calcifications. Furthermore, it has the potential to assess thrombus characteristics of low-density thrombi.

  19. Metabolic pattern of the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage in a novel porcine model: studies with cerebral microdialysis with high temporal resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffer Nyberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH may produce cerebral ischemia and systemic responses including stress. To study immediate cerebral and systemic changes in response to aneurysm rupture, animal models are needed. OBJECTIVE: To study early cerebral energy changes in an animal model. METHODS: Experimental SAH was induced in 11 pigs by autologous blood injection to the anterior skull base, with simultaneous control of intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Intracerebral microdialysis was used to monitor concentrations of glucose, pyruvate and lactate. RESULTS: In nine of the pigs, a pattern of transient ischemia was produced, with a dramatic reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure soon after blood injection, associated with a quick glucose and pyruvate decrease. This was followed by a lactate increase and a delayed pyruvate increase, producing a marked but short elevation of the lactate/pyruvate ratio. Glucose, pyruvate, lactate and lactate/pyruvate ratio thereafter returned toward baseline. The two remaining pigs had a more severe metabolic reaction with glucose and pyruvate rapidly decreasing to undetectable levels while lactate increased and remained elevated, suggesting persisting ischemia. CONCLUSION: The animal model simulates the conditions of SAH not only by deposition of blood in the basal cisterns, but also creating the transient global ischemic impact of aneurysmal SAH. The metabolic cerebral changes suggest immediate transient substrate failure followed by hypermetabolism of glucose upon reperfusion. The model has features that resemble spontaneous bleeding, and is suitable for future research of the early cerebral and systemic responses to SAH that are difficult to study in humans.

  20. Effect of blood transfusion, dopamine, or normal saline on neurogenic shock secondary to acutely raised intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimifar, M; Tator, C H; Shanlin, R J; Sole, M J

    1989-06-01

    An experimental model to simulate acutely raised intracranial pressure due to a rapidly expanding intracranial space-occupying lesion was used to produce neurogenic shock. Forty-one rats in neurogenic shock (defined as a mean systemic arterial pressure (SAP) of less than 60 mm Hg) were subjected to various treatments to increase the mean SAP to a level of more than 80 mm Hg. The control group with neurogenic shock received no treatment, and the six treatment groups received infusions of: whole blood, packed cells, plasma, normal saline, dopamine, or a combination of dopamine and saline. Detrimental effects were observed after transfusion of packed cells or whole blood, which caused further deterioration of mean SAP. Although dopamine or the combination of dopamine and saline were both effective (p = 0.0001) for reversing hypotension, the combination was the most effective. If this rat paradigm correlates with human disease, these results indicate that, in the absence of hypovolemia, neurogenic shock due to acute intracranial hypertension should be treated with a combined transfusion of dopamine and normal saline, but not blood since the latter could have a detrimental effect.

  1. Endovascular therapy for acute basilar artery occlusion: Comparison between patients with and without underlying intracranial atherosclerotics stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gun Soo; Kim, Seul Kee; Baek, Byeong Hyeon; Lee, Youn Young; Yoon, Woong [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To compare the characteristics and outcomes of multimodal endovascular therapy (EVT) in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) with and without underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). We retrospectively analyzed the data from 50 patients with acute BAO who were treated with EVT. The baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without ICAS were compared. Patients with ICAS underwent intracranial angioplasty or stenting after mechanical thrombectomy. Thirty percent of the patients (15/50) had underlying ICAS at the occlusion site. On pretreatment diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), bilateral thalamic infarction was less frequently found in patients with ICAS (0% vs. 25.7%, p = 0.03). Occlusion in the proximal segment of the basilar artery was more common in patients with ICAS (60% vs. 5.7%, p < 0.001), whereas occlusion in the distal segment of the basilar artery was more common in patients without ICAS (26.7% vs. 91.4%, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the rates of successful revascularization, 3-month modified Rankin Scale scores of 0–2, symptomatic hemorrhage, and mortality between the two groups. ICAS was common in patients with acute stroke due to BAO. The occlusion site and the presence or absence of bilateral thalamic infarction on pretreatment DWI might help predict the underlying ICAS in patients with acute BAO.

  2. 急性颅脑创伤后进展性颅内出血的CT表现%CT scan manifestations of progressive intracranial hemorrhage of patients with acute traumaticbrain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卫兵

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the CT scan manifestations and clinical significance of progressive intracranial hemor-rhage (PTH) of patients with acute traumatic brain injury .Methods The clinical data of 626 patients with acute traumatic brain injury in our hospital from February 2009 to September 2013 were retrospectively analyzed to observe the CT scan mani-festations of PIH and non-PIH patients and the risk factors of PIH .Results Single factor regression analysis showed that there were statistical difference in the CT scan manifestations of PIH and non-PIH patients such as skull fracture ,subarachnoid hemorrhage ,cerebral contusion and laceration ,epidural hematoma ,subdural hematoma .Multivariate regression analysis found that skull fracture ,subarachnoid hemorrhage ,cerebral contusion and laceration ,epidural hematoma were independent risk fac-tor of PIH in patients with acute traumatic brain injury .Conclusion Patients with acute traumatic brain injury should be tested by CT scan as early as possible to confirm PIN in favor of treating PIH timely .%目的:探讨急性颅脑创伤后进展性颅内出血(PIH)发生的CT表现与临床价值。方法回顾性分析我院2009-02-2013-09收治的626例急性颅脑创伤患者的临床资料,分析PIH患者与非 PIH患者的CT 表现差异以及PIH发生的危险因素。结果单因素回归分析发现,PIH组与非 PIH组首次CT 表现中颅骨骨折、蛛网膜下腔出血、脑挫裂伤、硬膜外血肿、硬膜下血肿差异有统计学意义(P<0·05)。多因素回归分析发现,颅骨骨折、蛛网膜下腔出血、脑挫裂伤、硬膜外血肿是影响急性颅脑创伤后进展性颅内出血的独立危险因素(P<0·05),蛛网膜下腔出血是最强因素。结论急性颅脑创伤后应尽快进行头颅CT检查,以便尽快确诊PIH及时进行治疗。

  3. Non-stenotic intracranial arteries have atherosclerotic changes in acute ischemic stroke patients: a 3T MRI study

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    Lee, Woo Jin; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jang, Jinhee; Sung, Jinkyeong; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-soo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Won; Koo, Jaseong [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong Sam [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the degree of atherosclerotic changes in intracranial arteries by assessing arterial wall thickness using T1-weighted 3D-turbo spin echo (3D-TSE) and time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF-MRA) in patients with acute ischemic stroke as compared with unaffected controls. Thirty-three patients with acute ischemic stroke and 36 control patients were analyzed. Acute ischemic stroke patients were divided according to TOAST classification. At both distal internal carotid arteries and basilar artery without stenosis, TOF-MRA was used to select non-stenotic portion of assessed arteries. 3D-TSE was used to measure the area including the lumen and wall (Area{sub Outer}) and luminal area (Area{sub Inner}). The area of the vessel wall (Area{sub VW}) of assessed intracranial arteries and the ratio index (RI) of each patient were determined. Area{sub Inner}, Area{sub Outer}, Area{sub VW}, and RI showed good inter-observer reliability and excellent intra-observer reliability. Area{sub Inner} did not significantly differ between stroke patients and controls (P = 0.619). However, Area{sub Outer}, Area{sub VW}, and RI were significantly larger in stroke patients (P < 0.001). The correlation coefficient between Area{sub Inner} and Area{sub Outer} was higher in the controls (r = 0.918) than in large vessel disease patients (r = 0.778). RI of large vessel disease patients was significantly higher than that of normal control, small vessel disease, and cardioembolic groups. In patients with acute ischemic stroke, wall thickening and positive remodeling are evident in non-stenotic intracranial arteries. This change is more definite in stroke subtype that is related to atherosclerosis than that in other subtypes which are not. (orig.)

  4. Prolonged Paroxysmal Sympathetic Storming Associated with Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    Yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal sympathetic storming (PSS is a rare disorder characterized by acute onset of nonstimulated tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, hyperthermia, external posturing, and diaphoresis. It is most frequently associated with severe traumatic brain injuries and has been reported in intracranial tumors, hydrocephalous, severe hypoxic brain injury, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Although excessive release of catecholamine and therefore increased sympathetic activities have been reported in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, there is no descriptive report of PSS primarily caused by spontaneous SAH up to date. Here, we report a case of prolonged PSS in a patient with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and consequent vasospasm. The sympathetic storming started shortly after patient was rewarmed from hypothermia protocol and symptoms responded to Labetalol, but intermittent recurrence did not resolve until 3 weeks later with treatment involving Midazolam, Fentanyl, Dexmedetomidine, Propofol, Bromocriptine, and minimizing frequency of neurological and vital checks. In conclusion, prolonged sympathetic storming can also be caused by spontaneous SAH. In this case, vasospasm might be a precipitating factor. Paralytics and hypothermia could mask the manifestations of PSS. The treatment of the refractory case will need both timely adjustment of medications and minimization of exogenous stressors or stimuli.

  5. Highlighting intracranial pressure monitoring in patients with severe acute brain trauma Ressaltando a monitorização da pressão intracraniana em pacientes com traumatismo cerebral agudo grave

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    Antonio L. E Falcão

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial pressure (ICP monitoring was carried out in 100 patients with severe acute brain trauma, primarily by means of a subarachnoid catheter. Statistical associations were evaluated between maximum ICP values and: 1 Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores; 2 findings on computed tomography (CT scans of the head; and 3 mortality. A significant association was found between low GCS scores (3 to 5 and high ICP levels, as well as between focal lesions on CT scans and elevated ICP. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with ICP > 40 mm Hg than in those with ICP Monitorização da pressão intracraniana (PIC foi adotada em 100 pacientes com traumatismo cerebral agudo grave, usando-se preferencialmente um catéter subaracnóide. Associações estatísticas foram avaliadas entre valores máximos de PIC e : 1 número de pontos na Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECG; 2 achados na tomografia computadorizada (TC da cabeça; e 3 mortalidade. Encontrou-se associação significante entre baixo número de pontos (3 a 5 na ECG e PIC elevada, assim como entre lesões focais na TC e hipertensão intracraniana. A mortalidade foi significantemente maior em pacientes com PIC > 40 mm Hg do que naqueles com PIC < 20 mm Hg.

  6. Neonatal Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia Presenting with Leukemia Cutis and Multiple Intracranial Lesions Successfully Treated with Unrelated Cord Blood Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tsujimoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL without Down syndrome (DS is an extremely rare disorder. We report of a one-day-old male infant without DS who developed AMKL with leukemia cutis and right facial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the patient’s brain revealed multiple intracranial tumors. A biopsy specimen of the skin lesion was suggestive of AMKL, but the bone marrow leukemic cells were less than 5% of the marrow nucleated cells. The skin and intracranial lesions had spontaneously regressed within one and a half months, but the patient’s anemia and thrombocytopenia gradually worsened and the leukemic cells in the bone marrow gradually increased to more than 20% of the nucleated cells. In addition, multiple intracranial lesions reappeared at 72 days of life. We diagnosed the patient with AMKL, and chemotherapy followed by unrelated cord blood transplantation after a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen resulted in sustained complete remission. At present, the patient is well, and he has demonstrated normal development for five years.

  7. Nontraumatic Convexal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Concomitant with Acute Ischemic Stroke:Case Report and Literature Review%凸面蛛网膜下腔出血伴急性缺血性卒中1例报告并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杜娟; 连立飞; 梁钧昱; 梁奇明; 朱遂强

    2015-01-01

    目的:凸面蛛网膜下腔出血(cSAH)是一种罕见的卒中亚型,本研究旨在报道 cSAH 伴缺血性卒中,以提高对该病的认识。方法:报道 cSAH 伴同侧急性缺血性卒中1例;应用“凸面蛛网膜下腔出血、颅内动脉狭窄、颈动脉狭窄和缺血性中风”等主题词在 Pubmed 数据库和 CNKI 数据库纳入另外13例有详细资料的cSAH 伴缺血性卒中和(或)大动脉闭塞/狭窄患者。分析其一般状况、临床和影像学特征、发病机制、治疗和预后。结果:共纳入患者14例。男9例,女5例;平均发病年龄为(54.9±10.3)岁;多具有明显的血管危险因素。临床表现以局灶损害体征为主;出血部位以中央沟附近最为常见,且主要发生在血管闭塞或严重狭窄的同侧,抗血小板聚集治疗可能有效,预后好。结论:cSAH 伴急性缺血性卒中是一种罕见的临床表现,抗血小板治疗可能有效且预后好。%Objective:Nontraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) is a relatively rare entity and we would report cSAH cases associated with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: We described 1 patient of cSAH who presented with ipsilateral acute ischemic stroke and identified an additional 13 cases in the Pubmed database and Chinese CNKI database using the MeSH terms convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracranial stenosis, carotid stenosis, and ischemic stroke. We analyzed the background characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes of the 14 cases. Results: Fourteen cases were included, 9 male and 5 female cases. The average onset age was (54.9±10.3) years. Patients often presented with transient sensory and/or motor symptoms, whereas headaches typical of sub-arachnoid hemorrhage were rare. There were vascular risk factors in most cases. Predominant site of the cSAH lo-cated in the vicinity of the central sulcus. The cSAH typically showed ipsilateral involvement of severe intracranial stenosis or

  8. CT perfusion in subarachnoid hemorrhage: pieces of a complicated puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, C.H.P.

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) accounts for 5% of all strokes and is caused by a ruptured intracranial aneurysm in 85% of the cases. After aneurysmal SAH (aSAH) many complications can occur. A common neurological complication is delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), which can present as focal neurological

  9. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, L N; Singh, S N

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage from intracranial aneurysms in the paediatric age group is extremely rare. Interestingly, occurrence of vasospasm has been reported to be less in comparison to the adults. Both coiling and clipping have been advocated in selected cases. Because of the thinness of the wall of the arteries, utmost care should be taken while handling these arteries during surgery. The overall results of surgery in children have been reported to be better than their adult counterparts. We present four such cases from our own experience. All these children were operated upon, where the solitary aneurysm in each case was clipped and all of them made a good recovery.

  10. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of intracranial artery dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debette, Stephanie; Compter, Annette; Labeyrie, Marc-Antoine; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Metso, Tina M.; Majersik, Jennifer J.; Goeggel-Simonetti, Barbara; Engelter, Stefan T.; Pezzini, Alessandro; Bijlenga, Philippe; Southerland, Andrew M.; Naggara, Olivier; Bejot, Yannick; Cole, John W.; Ducros, Anne; Giacalone, Giacomo; Schilling, Sabrina; Reiner, Peggy; Sarikaya, Hakan; Welleweerd, Janna C.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; de Borst, Gert Jan; Bonati, Leo H.; Jung, Simon; Thijs, Vincent; Martin, Juan J.; Brandt, Tobias; Grand-Ginsbach, Caspar; Kloss, Manja; Mizutani, Tohru; Minematsu, Kazuo; Meschia, James F.; Pereira, Vitor M.; Bersano, Anna; Touze, Emmanuel; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Leys, Didier; Chabriat, Hugues; Markus, Hugh S.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Chabrier, Stephane; Baumgartner, Ralph; Stapf, Christian; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Arnold, Marcel; Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    Spontaneous intracranial artery dissection is an uncommon and probably underdiagnosed cause of stroke that is defined by the occurrence of a haematoma in the wall of an intracranial artery. Patients can present with headache, ischaemic stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage, or symptoms associated with

  11. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy following subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Hidetsugu; Hadeishi, Hiromu

    2014-08-01

    A 67-year-old woman was admitted with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and a 12-lead ECG showed ST segment elevation. Transthoracic echocardiography confirmed akinesis of the left ventricular mid-apical segment, with an ejection fraction of 26%, features characteristic of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Five days later, we identified thrombus in the apex of the left ventricle. Sixteen days after onset, the thrombus had disappeared and wall motion improved (ejection fraction 58%) without evidence of cardioembolism. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a cause of cardiac dysfunction after stroke, including SAH. It is characterised by transiently depressed contractile function of the left mid and apical ventricle, without obstructive coronary artery disease. Clinicians should suspect takotsubo cardiomyopathy in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage who have an ECG abnormality. Echocardiography is needed to detect the distinctive regional wall motion abnormality. Despite its severity in the acute phase, takotsubo cardiomyopathy is self-limiting and its management is conservative.

  12. Treatments for Reversing Warfarin Anticoagulation in Patients with Acute Intracranial Hemorrhage: A Structured Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    CINAHL® Via EBSCOhost ®) for relevant reviews and articles as of December 2009. We identified no relevant reviews in the Cochrane Database . A search...of articles relevant to intracranial hemorrhage and warfarin and treatment in the emergency department was performed. Databases for PubMed, CINAHL...multiple database searches revealed 586 papers for review for possible inclusion. The final consensus of our comprehensive search strategy was a total

  13. Aspectos técnicos da monitorização da pressão intracraniana pelo método subaracnóideo no traumatismo craniencefálico grave Technical aspects of intracranial pressure monitoring by subarachnoid method in severe head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venâncio Pereira Dantas Filho

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados prospectivamente 206 pacientes com traumatismo craniencefálico (TCE grave (8 pontos ou menos na Escala de Coma de Glasgow, internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Após avaliação por tomografia computadorizada de crânio (TC, 72 pacientes necessitaram de tratamento neurocirúrgico. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à monitorização contínua da pressão intracraniana (PIC pelo método subaracnóideo (11 com parafuso metálico e 195 com cateter plástico. Os níveis de PIC foram registrados continuamente na tela do monitor, sendo os seus valores de final de hora anotados em ficha padronizada. Todos os pacientes foram tratados segundo um protocolo orientado pelos níveis da PIC. Não foram observadas complicações hemorrágicas ou hematomas intracranianos relacionados ao método de monitorização em TC de controle. Para controle de infecções intracranianas, foram colhidas amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano através de punção lateral C1-C2 em 66 pacientes com PIC abaixo de 20 mm Hg, sendo positivas as culturas para Acinetobacter sp em 2 pacientes. O resultado final na alta hospitalar mostrou 75 (36,40% óbitos e 131 (63,6% sobreviventes. Os níveis de PIC influenciaram significativamente o resultado final (pTwo hundred and six patients with severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale of 8 points or less after nonsurgical resuscitation on admission, managed at Intensive Care Unit-Hospital das Clínicas - Universidade Estadual de Campinas were prospectively analysed. All patients were assessed by CT scan and 72 required neurosurgical intervention. All patients were continuously monitored to evaluate intracranial pressure (ICP levels by a subarachnoid device (11 with subarachnoid metallic bolts and 195 with subarachnoid polyvinyl catheters. The ICP levels were continuously observed in the bedside pressure monitor display and their end-hour values were

  14. Resveratrol Attenuates Acute Inflammatory Injury in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats via Inhibition of TLR4 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Wei; Wu, Qi; Wu, Ling-Yun; Ye, Zhen-Nan; Liu, Jing-Peng; Zhuang, Zong; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Zhang, Xin; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2016-08-12

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been proven to play a critical role in neuroinflammation and to represent an important therapeutic target following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Resveratrol (RSV), a natural occurring polyphenolic compound, has a powerful anti-inflammatory property. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of RSV in protecting against early brain injury (EBI) after SAH remain obscure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of RSV on the TLR4-related inflammatory signaling pathway and EBI in rats after SAH. A prechiasmatic cistern SAH model was used in our experiment. The expressions of TLR4, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of Iba-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain cortex were determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological function were further evaluated to investigate the development of EBI. We found that post-SAH treatment with RSV could markedly inhibit the expressions of TLR4, HMGB1, MyD88, and NF-κB. Meanwhile, RSV significantly reduced microglia activation, as well as inflammatory cytokines leading to the amelioration of neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological behavior impairment at 24 h after SAH. However, RSV treatment failed to alleviate brain edema and neurological deficits at 72 h after SAH. These results indicated that RSV treatment could alleviate EBI after SAH, at least in part, via inhibition of TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway.

  15. Resveratrol Attenuates Acute Inflammatory Injury in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats via Inhibition of TLR4 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Sheng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 has been proven to play a critical role in neuroinflammation and to represent an important therapeutic target following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Resveratrol (RSV, a natural occurring polyphenolic compound, has a powerful anti-inflammatory property. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of RSV in protecting against early brain injury (EBI after SAH remain obscure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of RSV on the TLR4-related inflammatory signaling pathway and EBI in rats after SAH. A prechiasmatic cistern SAH model was used in our experiment. The expressions of TLR4, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of Iba-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain cortex were determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological function were further evaluated to investigate the development of EBI. We found that post-SAH treatment with RSV could markedly inhibit the expressions of TLR4, HMGB1, MyD88, and NF-κB. Meanwhile, RSV significantly reduced microglia activation, as well as inflammatory cytokines leading to the amelioration of neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological behavior impairment at 24 h after SAH. However, RSV treatment failed to alleviate brain edema and neurological deficits at 72 h after SAH. These results indicated that RSV treatment could alleviate EBI after SAH, at least in part, via inhibition of TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway.

  16. [Content of C-reactive protein in patients in an acute period of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globa, M V; Lisyanyi, M I; Tsimeyko, A; Litvak, S O

    2015-03-01

    A content of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood serum was determined in 36 patients in acute period of a ruptured intracranial arterial aneurysm (AA). It was significantly more, than in a control group, and have exceeded 10 mg/I in 1 - 4th day of the disease. The level of CRP have had differ, depending on severity of cerebral vasospasm (CVS), determined in accordance to the ultrasound investigation data. In a pronounced CVS in majority of patients the level of CRP in the blood serum have had exceed 10 mg/l, and have secured elevated in a spinal liquor on the 7 - 10th day of the disease, differing from this index in patients with moderately pronounced CVS or without it. In patients with severe invalidization or those, who have died, the level of CRP was trust-worthy higher.

  17. Low-pressure balloon angioplasty with adjuvant pharmacological therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by intracranial arterial occlusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Raul G. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Endovascular Neurosurgery/Interventional Neuroradiology Section, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Endovascular Neurosurgery/Interventional Neuroradiology Section, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurology, Neurocritical Care and Vascular Neurology Section, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Schwamm, Lee H.; Buonanno, Ferdinando S.; Koroshetz, Walter J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurology, Neurocritical Care and Vascular Neurology Section, Boston, MA (United States); Yoo, Albert J.; Rabinov, James D.; Pryor, Johnny C.; Hirsch, Joshua A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Endovascular Neurosurgery/Interventional Neuroradiology Section, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Endovascular Neurosurgery/Interventional Neuroradiology Section, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The use of coronary balloons in the cerebral vasculature is limited due to their poor trackability and increased risk of vessel injury. We report our experience using more compliant elastomer balloons for thrombus resistant to intraarterial (IA) pharmacological and mechanical thrombolysis in acute stroke. We retrospectively analyzed 12 consecutive patients with an occluded intracranial artery treated with angioplasty using a low-pressure elastomer balloon. Angiograms were graded according to the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) and Qureshi grading systems. Outcomes were categorized as independent (modified Rankin scale, mRS, score {<=}2), dependent (mRS score 3-5), or dead (mRS score 6). Included in the study were 12 patients (mean age 66{+-}17 years, range 31-88 years; mean baseline National Institutes of Health stroke scale score 17{+-}3, range 12-23). The occlusion sites were: internal carotid artery (ICA) terminus (five patients, including two concomitant cervical ICA occlusions), M1 segment (two patients), and basilar artery (two patients). Pharmacological treatment included intravenous (IV) t-PA only (two patients), IA urokinase only (nine patients), both IV t-PA and IA urokinase (one patient), and IV and/or IA eptifibatide (eight patients). Mean time to treatment was 5.9{+-}3.9 h (anterior circulation) and 11.0{+-}7.2 h (posterior circulation). Overall recanalization rate (TICI grade 2/3) was 91.6%. Procedure-related morbidity occurred in one patient (distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery embolus). There were no symptomatic hemorrhages. Outcomes at 90 days were independent (five patients), dependent (three patients) and dead (four patients, all due to progression of stroke with withdrawal of care). Angioplasty of acutely occluded intracranial arteries with low-pressure elastomer balloons results in high recanalization rates with an acceptable degree of safety. Prior use of thrombolytics may increase the chances of recanalization, and

  18. Nonthyroidal illness syndrome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysm Sindrome da doença não tiroideana em pacientes com hemorragia subaracnoidea devida a aneurisma cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Casulari

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm (SH is associated with changes in the hormonal profile in the first 24 hours after the event. We proposed that the hormonal changes observed are due to the intense stress to which the patients are exposed. However, the thyroidal hormonal profile is indicative of the presence of a nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS. In this paper, we examined whether the change in the thyroid hormone profile is compatible with a NTIS. Two groups of patients were included in the study: A 30 patients with SH (21 females and 9 males; 41.7±11.4 years and B a control group including 25 patients with benign diseases of the spine (BDS (lumbar disc hernia or stable spinal trauma (8 females and 17 males; 41.3±14.2 years. In a subgroup of eight patients of each group serum triiodothyronine (T3 and reverse T3 levels were measured. The blood samples were obtained between 8:00 and 9:00 AM. The following results were obtained: The SH group had smaller serum T3 and free T4 levels than the BDS group (pNós apresentamos previamente que a hemorragia subaracnoidea devido à ruptura de aneurisma intracraniano (SH está associada com alterações no perfil hormonal nas primeiras 24 horas após o evento. Nós propusemos que as alterações hormonais observadas são devidas ao intenso estresse ao qual os pacientes estão expostos. Contudo, o perfil hormonal tireoidiano é indicativo da presença da síndrome da doença não tireoidiana (NTIS. Neste trabalho, examinamos se as alterações no perfil dos hormônios tireoidianos são compatíveis com a NTIS. Dois grupos de pacientes foram incluídos no estudo: A 30 pacientes com SH (21 mulheres e 9 homens; 41,7±11,4 anos e B um grupo controle incluindo 25 pacientes com doenças benignas da coluna (BDS (hérnia de disco lombar ou estável trauma da coluna (8 mulheres e 17 homens; 41,3±14,2 anos. Em um subgrupo de oito pacientes de cada grupo

  19. Genetics of intracranial aneurysms and related diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Hof, F.N.G.

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IA) are dilatations of the vessel walls of cerebral arteries. Some can rupture and result in a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a severe subtype of stroke. This thesis is set out to elucidate the pathophysiology of IA from a genetic perspective. The main conclusions are: 1.

  20. Intracranial Hypertension as an Acute Complication of Aseptic Meningoencephalitis with Leptomeningeal Contrast Enhancement on FLAIR MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc E. Wolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 19-year-old woman who developed intracranial hypertension as an unusual clinical complication of severe aseptic meningoencephalitis probably due to a diminished cerebrospinal fluid reabsorption capacity or leptomeningeal transudation as a consequence of blood-brain barrier dysfunction. These severe inflammatory changes were accompanied by prominent leptomeningeal contrast enhancement best visualized on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging. In such a prolonged course, a continuous lumbar drainage might be a temporary option to provide rapid symptom relief to the patient.

  1. Endovascular embolization treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms at the acute stage with micro - coils%微弹簧圈血管内栓塞治疗急性期破裂颅内动脉瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏吉勇; 焦铁鹰; 李志强; 路长宇; 苗林; 郭吉卫

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of the microcoil embolization treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms at the acute stage. Methods The clinical data of 30 cases(34 aneurysms)were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients were diagnosed as sub-arachnoid hemorrhage by CT. All cases were confirmed by DSA for intracranial aneurysms. And all of them underwent endovascular embolization within 72 hours after aneurysm rupture. Results Complete embolization was achieved in 24 of 34 aneurysms,95% embolization in 6 aneurysms, 90% embolization in 2 aneurysms,80% embolization in 2 aneurysms. The operation associated complications occurred in 6 patients. The last coil extruding into the patent artery was observed in 1 patient. Re - rupture of aneurysm during the operation in 1 patient,severe cerebral angiospasm in 2 patients and cerebral infarction in 2 patients. After operation,25 patients recovered well,4 patients with mild disability or paralysis,1 patient died of postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding. During the follow - up of 1 ~ 6 months,no rebleeding occurred. Conclusion Microcoil emboliza-tion is a safe and effective method to treat acutely ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Early intracranial surgery and timely treatment after operation is important to reduce fatality and disability.%目的:探讨微弹簧圈血管内栓塞治疗急性期破裂颅内动脉瘤的安全性及有效性。方法回顾性分析30例颅内动脉瘤在破裂出血后72小时内行微弹簧圈血管内栓塞治疗的临床资料。30例患者发病后均行 CT 检查,诊断为蛛网膜下腔出血,并经全脑血管造影证实为颅内动脉瘤,共检出34枚动脉瘤,其中单发26例,2枚4例。结果34枚动脉瘤中,100%栓塞24枚,95%栓塞6枚,90%栓塞2枚,80%栓塞2枚。术后发生手术相关并发症6例,包括微弹簧圈脱出至载瘤动脉1例,术中动脉瘤破裂1例,严重脑血管痉挛2例,术后脑梗死2

  2. Utilization of a New Intracranial Support Catheter as an Intermediate Aspiration Catheter in the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Technical Report on Initial Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, J Diego; Massari, Francesco; Howk, Mary C; de Macedo Rodrigues, Katyucia; Brooks, Christopher; Perras, Mary; Rex, David E; Wakhloo, Ajay K; Kühn, Anna Luisa; Puri, Ajit S

    2016-05-21

    The endovascular management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to emergency large vessel occlusion (ELVO) has become the standard of care after the recent publication of landmark randomized, controlled trials. Mechanical thrombectomy, in addition to intravenous thrombolysis (within 4.5 hours when eligible), is now part of the algorithm of the standard of care when treating AIS in patients with ELVO in the anterior circulation up to six hours after symptom onset. A newly introduced device, the Arc™ intracranial support catheter (Medtronic, Irvine, USA), is specifically designed for the introduction of neurointerventional devices into the cerebral vasculature and facilitates the delivery of microcatheters into smaller, more distal intracranial vessels. This technical report describes the use of the Arc™ intracranial support catheter in the setting of AIS.

  3. Computed tomography and intracranial hemorrhages in the neonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Iekado; Kushida, Yoshimasa; Shishido, Masaru; Nagasawa, Sadatsugu; Seiki, Yoshikatsu (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-02-01

    Thirty-two of 290 neonates admitted to the Perinatal Intensive Care Unit, Toho University Medical School, were examined by CT scan because of tentative clinical diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage. CT scanner employed in this study was TCT-60 A from the Toshiba The Electric Co., Ltd. Fourteen cases (44%) were confirmed by the CT scan to have intracranial hemorrhage. Four cases had hemorrhage in the ventricle, while the remaining ten cases had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Subdural hemorrhage was not revealed in our series. Three of the four cases with intraventricular hemorrhage showed a typical subependymal germinal matrix hemorrhage. The prognosis of intraventricular hemorrhage in neonates seemed to be poor; two of the four cases died within a week. Their body weight at birth was apparently under the standard, and their Apgar score was 3 points. The subarachnoid hemorrhage was the main type of intracranial neonatal hemorrhages. In our series, it was constituted approximately 70% of the intracranial hemorrhages. The CT images of the subarachnoid hemorrhage in neonate were greatly different from those in adults. An irregular, wide high-density area around the falxtentorial junction was characteristic of the CT in many neonatal subarachnoid hemorrhages. In severe subarachnoid hemorrhages, a characteristic Y-shaped, high-density figure was demonstrated. In cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage from the deep venous system, high-density spreading immediately ventral to the falx-tentrium junction was demonstrated. These high-density areas due to blood in the subarachnoid space rapidly disappeared with the lapse of time. On the other hand, high-density areas in cerebral cisterns and/or fissures were rarely demonstrated in neonatal subarachnoid hemorrhages. The prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage in neonates was fairly good in the sense of life and cerebral functions.

  4. Evaluation of a metal artifact reduction algorithm applied to post-interventional flat detector CT in comparison to pre-treatment CT in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennecke, Angelika; Svergun, Stanislav; Doerfler, Arnd; Struffert, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Scholz, Bernhard [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Forchheim (Germany); Royalty, Kevin [Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Hoffman Estates, IL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Metal artefacts can impair accurate diagnosis of haemorrhage using flat detector CT (FD-CT), especially after aneurysm coiling. Within this work we evaluate a prototype metal artefact reduction algorithm by comparison of the artefact-reduced and the non-artefact-reduced FD-CT images to pre-treatment FD-CT and multi-slice CT images. Twenty-five patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were selected retrospectively. FD-CT and multi-slice CT before endovascular treatment as well as FD-CT data sets after treatment were available for all patients. The algorithm was applied to post-treatment FD-CT. The effect of the algorithm was evaluated utilizing the pre-post concordance of a modified Fisher score, a subjective image quality assessment, the range of the Hounsfield units within three ROIs, and the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation. The pre-post concordance of the modified Fisher score, the subjective image quality, and the pre-post correlation of the ranges of the Hounsfield units were significantly higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. Within the metal-affected slices, the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation coefficient was higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. The overall diagnostic quality of the artefact-reduced images was improved and reached the level of the pre-interventional FD-CT images. The metal-unaffected parts of the image were not modified. (orig.)

  5. Cerebral haemodynamic response to acute intracranial hypertension induced by head-down tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosone, Daniele; Ozturk, Vesile; Roatta, Silvestro; Cavallini, Anna; Tosi, Piera; Micieli, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a context of general inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system, the cerebral haemodynamic response to -30 degrees head-down tilt (HDT), a manoeuvre that produces an increase in intracranial arterial pressure. Nineteen healthy subjects were studied according to the following protocol: 10 min lying in supine position, 10 min HDT, 10 min recovery. Inhibition of the sympathetic system was confirmed by the decrease in heart rate (-3.6 bpm) and arterial blood pressure (-5.9 mmHg, p<0.05) in the late phase of the test. Blood velocity and blood pusatility index initially increased (+3.2 cm s(-1) and +9% respectively, p<0.01) then returned towards baseline before the end of HDT, while the cerebrovascular resistance index (=arterial blood pressure/blood velocity) dropped significantly and remained below control level (-7%, p<0.01) throughout the test. The changes in both these indices were opposite to those reported in several sympathetic activation tests, such as the handgrip and cold pressor tests. Conversely, arterial pressure at cranial level increased during HDT (as it also does during sympathetic activation tests), due to the development of a hydrostatic pressure gradient between heart and brain levels. Therefore, the effects observed on the pulsatility and resistance indices are not secondary to the increase in intracranial arterial pressure. It is suggested that the changes in these cerebrovascular indices are mediated by a reduction of sympathetic tone that presumably involves the cerebral as well as the peripheral vascular bed.

  6. Prevalence of hypopituitarism after intracranial operations not directly associated with the pituitary gland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fleck, Steffen Kristian; Wallaschofski, Henri; Rosenstengel, Christian; Matthes, Marc; Kohlmann, Thomas; Nauck, Matthias; Schroeder, Henry Werner Siegfried; Spielhagen, Christin

    2013-01-01

    ...) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has steadily increased. Moreover, recent studies have found that a clinically relevant number of patients develop pituitary insufficiency after intracranial operations and radiation treatment for non-pituitary tumors...

  7. Familial aggregation of intracranial aneurysms in an Inuit patient population in Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Lars; Eskesen, Vagn; Gjerris, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracranial aneurysm (IA) has been reported to be higher in Greenlandic Inuits than in Caucasian Danes, but the rate of familial aggregation in Inuits is unknown....

  8. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Sousa Nanji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. Methods: We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Results: Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5% cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2% were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases, aerobics (2 cases, cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007. In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1% or 2 (88.9% at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.

  9. Development and Validation of Intracranial Thrombus Segmentation on CT Angiography in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, E.M.M.; Marquering, H.A.; Berkhemer, O.A.; Van Zwam, W.H.; Van der Lugt, A.; Majoie, C.B.; Niessen, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Thrombus characterization is increasingly considered important in predicting treatment success for patients with acute ischemic stroke. The lack of intensity contrast between thrombus and surrounding tissue in CT images makes manual delineation a difficult and time consuming

  10. Development and validation of intracranial thrombus segmentation on CT angiography in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, E.M.; Marquering, H.A.; Berkhemer, O.A.; Zwam, W.H. van; Lugt, A. van der; Majoie, C.B.; Niessen, W.J.; Dijk, E.J. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombus characterization is increasingly considered important in predicting treatment success for patients with acute ischemic stroke. The lack of intensity contrast between thrombus and surrounding tissue in CT images makes manual delineation a difficult and time consuming

  11. Intraparenchymal intracranial pressure monitoring in patients with acute liver failure Monitoreo intraparenquimatoso de presión intracraneana en pacientes con falla hepática aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Rabadán, Alejandra T.; Natalia Spaho; Diego Hernández; Adrián Gadano; Eduardo de Santibañes

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is a common cause of death in acute liver failure (ALF) and is determinant for decision-making regarding the timing of liver transplantation. The recommended type ICP monitoring device is controversial in ALF patients. Epidural devices had less risk of hemorrhagic complications, but they are less reliable than intraparenchymal ones. METHOD: Twenty-three patients with ALF were treated, and 19 of them received a liver transplant. Seventeen patien...

  12. Superior cerebellar aneurysm causing subarachnoid haemorrhage in a 17-year-old with alagille syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, David

    2012-04-01

    Alagille syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterised by mutation in Jagged1 gene. Intracranial aneurysms may be seen in this condition and may present as subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe the first case of superior cerebellar aneurysm rupture causing WFNS grade 1 subarachnoid haemorrhage in a 17-year-old girl. The clinical condition and management of this rare occurrence is discussed with a review of literature.

  13. Posttraumatic spinal subarachnoid cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffin, C.M. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Weill, A. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Miaux, Y. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Srour, A. [Service de Neurochirurgie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Cognard, C. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Dubard, T. [Federation de Neurologie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Savin, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Chiras, J. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l`hopital, F-75651, Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    1996-08-01

    A case of posttraumatic compressive subarachnoid cyst of the thoracic spine studied by MR, myelography, and myelo-CT is reported. This cyst was surgically confirmed and treated by shunting. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  14. Development and validation of intracranial thrombus segmentation on CT angiography in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.M. Santos (Emilie M.); H. Marquering (Henk); O.A. Berkhemer (Olvert); W.H. van Zwam (Wim); A. van der Lugt (Aad); C.B. Majoie (Charles); W.J. Niessen (Wiro)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Purpose: Thrombus characterization is increasingly considered important in predicting treatment success for patients with acute ischemic stroke. The lack of intensity contrast between thrombus and surrounding tissue in CT images makes manual delineation a difficult and tim

  15. Lactic Acidosis Induced by Linezolid Mimics Symptoms of an Acute Intracranial Bleed: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarini, Nichole Suzzanne; Yousuf, Tariq; Wozniczka, Daniel; Rauf, Anis Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is common and most often associated with disturbed acid-base balance. Rarely, it can be a life-threatening medication side effect. Hence, determining the etiology of lactic acidosis early in patients is paramount in choosing the correct therapeutic intervention. Although lactic acidosis as an adverse drug reaction of linezolid is a well-recognized and documented clinical entity, the occurrence of such mimicking an acute intracranial bleed has not been reported to our knowledge. The following case is presented as an example of such an occurrence. A 67-year-old woman presented to the emergency department for lethargy, nausea and syncope. The head CT did not demonstrate any bleeding or mass effect, but lab results were significant for elevated lactic acid. The patient recently underwent left total hip replacement surgery, which was complicated by a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. She received 6 weeks of oral linezolid therapy. And upon learning that key part of her history, the linezolid was discontinued. Her lactic acid rapidly normalized and she was discharged home. Several publications demonstrate that linezolid induces lactic acidosis by disrupting crucial mitochondrial functions. It is essential that clinicians are aware that linezolid can cause lactic acidosis. And, the important reminder is that adverse drug reactions can often mimic common diseases. If it is not recognized early, ominous clinical consequences may occur. In conclusion, linezolid should be suspected and included in the differential diagnosis if lactic acidosis exists with an uncommon clinical picture. PMID:27635182

  16. Intracranial Thrombus Morphology and Composition Undergoes Time-Dependent Changes in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A CT Densitometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikija, Slaven; Magdic, Jozef; Trkulja, Vladimir; Unterkreuter, Peter; Mutzenbach, Johannes Sebastian; Novak, Helmut F; Weymayr, Friedrich; Hauer, Larissa; Sellner, Johann

    2016-11-23

    The aim of our study was to assess whether cerebral artery clots undergo time-dependent morphological and compositional changes in acute ischemic stroke. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients admitted within 5 h from symptom onset to three European stroke centers and evaluated non-contrast-enhanced CT (NECT) for hyperdense artery signs (HAS) in 2565 scans. The occlusion site, density of HAS expressed in Hounsfield units (HU), area of HAS, and relative density (rHU) (HU clot/HU non-affected artery) were studied and related to time from symptom onset, clinical severity, stroke etiology, and laboratory parameters. A HAS was present in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 185 (7.2%) and further explored. The mean time from symptom onset to CT was 100 min (range 17-300). We found a time-dependent loss of density in the occluded M1 segment within the first 5 h (N = 118, 95% CI [-15, -2], p = 0.01). Further, the thrombus area in the M2 segment decreased with time (cubic trend N = 67, 95% CI [-63, -8], p = 0.02). Overall, and especially in the M2 segment, a lower clot area was associated with higher fibrinogen (-21.7%, 95% CI [-34.8, -5.8], p = 0.009). In conclusion, our results disclosed time-dependent changes of intracranial thrombi with regard to occlusion site, density and area.

  17. Design and characterization of a dedicated cone-beam CT scanner for detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Wang, X.; Foos, D. H.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V. E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Prompt and reliable detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) has substantial clinical impact in diagnosis and treatment of stroke and traumatic brain injury. This paper describes the design, development, and preliminary performance characterization of a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) head scanner prototype for imaging of acute ICH. Methods: A task-based image quality model was used to analyze the detectability index as a function of system configuration, and hardware design was guided by the results of this model-based optimization. A robust artifact correction pipeline was developed using GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo (MC) scatter simulation, beam hardening corrections, detector veiling glare, and lag deconvolution. An iterative penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) reconstruction framework with weights adjusted for artifact-corrected projections was developed. Various bowtie filters were investigated for potential dose and image quality benefits, with a MC-based tool providing estimates of spatial dose distribution. Results: The initial prototype will feature a source-detector distance of 1000 mm and source-axis distance of 550 mm, a 43x43 cm2 flat panel detector, and a 15° rotating anode x-ray source with 15 kW power and 0.6 focal spot size. Artifact correction reduced image nonuniformity by ~250 HU, and PWLS reconstruction with modified weights improved the contrast to noise ratio by 20%. Inclusion of a bowtie filter can potentially reduce dose by 50% and improve CNR by 25%. Conclusions: A dedicated CBCT system capable of imaging millimeter-scale acute ICH was designed. Preliminary findings support feasibility of point-of-care applications in TBI and stroke imaging, with clinical studies beginning on a prototype.

  18. Delayed acute spinal cord injury following intracranial gunshot trauma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jason S; Richardson, R Mark; Gean, Alisa D; Stiver, Shirley I

    2012-04-01

    The authors report the case of a patient who presented with a hoarse voice and left hemiparesis following a gunshot injury with trajectory entering the left scapula, traversing the suboccipital bone, and coming to rest in the right lateral medullary cistern. Following recovery from the hemiparesis, abrupt quadriparesis occurred coincident with fall of the bullet into the anterior spinal canal. The bullet was retrieved following a C-2 and C-3 laminectomy, and postoperative MR imaging confirmed signal change in the cord at the level where the bullet had lodged. The patient then made a good neurological recovery. Bullets can fall from the posterior fossa with sufficient momentum to cause an acute spinal cord injury. Consideration for craniotomy and bullet retrieval should be given to large bullets lying in the CSF spaces of the posterior fossa as they pose risk for acute spinal cord injury.

  19. Clinical practice guideline for the management of intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hae Woong; Seo, Jung Hwa; Kim, Sung Tae; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Suh, Sang-Il

    2014-09-01

    An intracranial aneurysm, with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is a relevant health problem. The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a critical concern for individual health; even an unruptured intracranial aneurysm is an anxious condition for the individual. The aim of this guideline is to present current and comprehensive recommendations for the management of intracranial aneurysms, with or without rupture. We performed an extensive literature search, using Medline. We met in person to discuss recommendations. This document is reviewed by the Task Force Team of the Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology (KSIN). We divided the current guideline for ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIAs) and unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). The guideline for RIAs focuses on diagnosis and treatment. And the guideline for UIAs focuses on the definition of a high-risk patient, screening, principle for treatment and selection of treatment method. This guideline provides practical, evidence-based advice for the management of patients with an intracranial aneurysm, with or without rupture.

  20. Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in pregnancy: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Maurizio; Maurizio, Guida; Altieri, Roberto; Roberto, Altieri; Palatucci, Valeria; Valeria, Palatucci; Visconti, Federica; Federica, Visconti; Pascale, Renato; Renato, Pascale; Marra, Marialuisa; Marialuisa, Marra; Locatelli, Giampiero; Giampiero, Locatelli; Saponiero, Renato; Renato, Saponiero; Tufano, Rosalba; Rosalba, Tufano; Bifulco, Francesca; Francesca, Bifulco; Piazza, Ornella

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is a recognized risk factor for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Headache is very frequent in normal pregnancy and it is a common sign shared between several intracranial diseases. We present a case series of 10 women in the third trimester of pregnancy admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) with neurological signs and symptoms. 4 of these patients were diagnosed with SAH. Data in this study suggest that a timely diagnosis and an appropriate treatment is crucial for mother and baby.

  1. Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in pregnancy: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Guida, Maurizio; Altieri, Roberto; Palatucci, Valeria; Visconti, Federica; Pascale, Renato; Marra, Marialuisa; Locatelli, Giampiero; Saponiero, Renato; Tufano, Rosalba; Bifulco, Francesca; Piazza, Ornella

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is a recognized risk factor for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Headache is very frequent in normal pregnancy and it is a common sign shared between several intracranial diseases. We present a case series of 10 women in the third trimester of pregnancy admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) with neurological signs and symptoms. 4 of these patients were diagnosed with SAH. Data in this study suggest that a timely diagnosis and an appropriate treatment is crucial for moth...

  2. NONCONVULSIVE SEIZURES AFTER SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE: MULTIMODAL DETECTION AND OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Jan; Perotte, Adler; Albers, David; Kleinberg, Samantha; Schmidt, J. Michael; Tu, Bin; Badjatia, Neeraj; Lantigua, Hector; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Mayer, Stephan A.; Connolly, E. Sander; Hripcsak, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective Seizures have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury, but the systemic and cerebral physiologic effects of seizures after acute brain injury are poorly understood. Methods We analyzed intracortical EEG and multimodality physiological recordings in 48 comatose subarachnoid hemorrhage patients to better characterize the physiological response to seizures after acute brain injury. Results Intracortical seizures were seen in 38% of patients and 8% had surface seizures. Intracortical seizures were accompanied by elevated heart rate (P=0.001), blood pressure (P<0.001), and respiratory rate (P<0.001). There were trends for rising cerebral perfusion pressure (P=0.03) and intracranial pressure (P =0.06) seen after seizure onset. Intracortical seizure associated increases in global brain metabolism, partial brain tissue oxygenation, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) did not reach significance, but a trend for a pronounced delayed rCBF rise was seen for surface seizures (P=0.08). Functional outcome was very poor for patients with severe background attenuation without seizures and best for those without severe attenuation or seizures (77% vs. 0% dead or severely disabled, respectively). Outcome was intermediate for those with seizures independent of the background EEG and worse for those with intracortical only seizures when compared to those with intracortical and scalp seizures (50% and 25% death or severe disability, respectively). Interpretation We replicated in humans complex physiologic processes associated with seizures after acute brain injury previously described in laboratory experiments and illustrated differences such as the delayed increase in regional cerebral blood flow. These real-world physiologic observations may permit more successful translation of laboratory research to the bedside. PMID:23813945

  3. Management of acute ischemic stroke due to tandem occlusion: should endovascular recanalization of the extracranial or intracranial occlusive lesion be done first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Rajah, Gary B; Shakir, Hakeem J; Shallwani, Hussain; Gandhi, Sirin; Davies, Jason M; Snyder, Kenneth V; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Acute tandem occlusions of the cervical internal carotid artery and an intracranial large vessel present treatment challenges. Controversy exists regarding which lesion should be addressed first. The authors sought to evaluate the endovascular approach for revascularization of these lesions at Gates Vascular Institute. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained, single-institution database. They analyzed demographic, procedural, radiological, and clinical outcome data for patients who underwent endovascular treatment for tandem occlusions. A modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤ 2 was defined as a favorable clinical outcome. RESULTS Forty-five patients were identified for inclusion in the study. The average age of these patients was 64 years; the mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at presentation was 14.4. Fifteen patients received intravenous thrombolysis before undergoing endovascular treatment. Thirty-seven (82%) of the 45 proximal cervical internal carotid artery occlusions were atherothrombotic in nature. Thirty-eight patients underwent a proximal-to-distal approach with carotid artery stenting first, followed by intracranial thrombectomy, whereas 7 patients underwent a distal-to-proximal approach (that is, intracranial thrombectomy was performed first). Thirty-seven (82%) procedures were completed with local anesthesia. For intracranial thrombectomy procedures, aspiration alone was used in 15 cases, stent retrieval alone was used in 5, and a combination of aspiration and stent-retriever thrombectomy was used in the remaining 25. The average time to revascularization was 81 minutes. Successful recanalization (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction Grade 2b/3) was achieved in 39 (87%) patients. Mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were 9.3 immediately postprocedure (p acute carotid artery stenting and mechanical thrombectomy concurrently. Proximal-to-distal and aspiration

  4. Cerebral Hemodynamic Changes Induced by a Lumbar Puncture in Good-Grade Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Eric A.; Stein Silva; Jean François Albucher; Aymeric Luzi; Isabelle Loubinoux; Anne Christine Januel; Christophe Cognard; Pierre Payoux; François Chollet

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with good-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are those without initial neurological deficit. However, they can die or present severe deficit due to secondary insult leading to brain ischemia. After SAH, in a known context of energy crisis, vasospasm, hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension contribute to unfavorable outcome. Lumbar puncture (LP) is sometimes performed in an attempt to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP) and release headaches. We hypothesize that in good...

  5. Clinical Features and Prognosis of Intracranial Artery Dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, Tineke; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Dijk, van J.M.C.; Groen, Rob J. M.; Metzemaekers, Jan D. M.; Eshghi, Omid; Mazuri, Aryan; Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Luijckx, Gert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial artery dissections (IADs) are an important cause of stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Outcome of IAD in the anterior circulation or presentation without SAH is rarely investigated and might be different. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical features and prognosis of pa

  6. INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Widiyanthi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Intracranial pressure is total of pressure that is produced by brain, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid/CSF in the tight cranial space. As a respon to intracranial pressure increasing, compensation begin by movement of CSF from ventricle to cerebral subarachnoidal space, and increase the absorption of CSF. Increasing of ICP usually caused by increasing of brain volume (cerebral oedem, blood (intracranial bleeding, space occupying lesion, or CSF (hidrocephalus. Indication in ICP monitoring can be seen from : neurological criteria, abnormal CT-scan result when admission, normal CT-scan result, but had more two risk factors. According to the procedure that must be done, there are two methods in ICP monitoring: invasive ICP monitoring methodes and non-invasive measuring method. Increasing of ICP will decrease the compliance of brain, pulsation of artery more clearly, and the component of vein is lost. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  7. Clinical evaluation of flat-panel detector compared with multislice computed tomography in 65 patients with acute intracranial hemorrhage: initial results. Clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struffert, Tobias; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y; Huttner, Hagen B; Engelhorn, Tobias; Doelken, Marc; Saake, Marc; Ganslandt, Oliver; Doerfler, Arnd

    2010-10-01

    The goal in this study was to compare flat-panel detector (FD) CT with multislice (MS) CT in the visualization of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intraventricular hemorrhage, and external ventricular drains (EVDs) to evaluate the diagnostic quality and limitations of the new FD CT imaging modality. Neuroimages obtained in 65 patients, including 24 with EVDs, were reviewed by 2 independent, experienced clinicians. Lesions in all patients were investigated with FD CT and MS CT. The numbers of slices positive for ICH and SAH were counted, and for ICH the diameter and area of the lesion was measured. The positioning of drains was assessed. The presence of ventricular blood was noted. Statistical analysis was performed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) to evaluate the level of inter- and intraobserver agreement, and linear regression analysis was done to visualize the results of the numbers of ICH- and SAH-positive slices. The authors found high interobserver agreement regarding the number of slices with evidence of ICH (r = 0.89 for MS CT, r = 0.78 for FD CT) and SAH (r = 0.88 for MS CT, r = 0.9 for FD CT). Thin layers of blood in the ventricles were not detected on FD CT in 36.4% of cases. Six of 7 perimesencephalic SAHs were not seen on FD CT scans. The EVDs could be assessed with both modalities in 83.3% of cases, but the position of the drain could not be determined with FD CT in 16.7% (4 of 24 cases). In some respects, FD CT is of limited use for the visualization of intracranial hemorrhage. However, despite limited contrast resolution, ICH and EVDs can be reliably demonstrated. Perimesencephalic SAH and thin layers of blood in the occipital horns may not be detected using FD CT. Further evaluation and improvement of the image quality is necessary before FD CT will provide identical quality in comparison with MS CT.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Toshihide; Shimosegawa, Eku; Inugami, Atsushi; Shishido, Fumio; Fujita, Hideaki; Ito, Hiroshi; Uemura, Kazuo; Yasui, Nobuyuki (Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to aneurysm rupture was evaluated in relation to CT findings in nine patients. Six patients were studied within 3 days and the other three patients were studied 4 to 6 days from the ictus of SAH using a 0.5 Tesla superconducting unit. In all of the patients, hematoma in the subarachnoid space and ventricles was demonstrated by the proton density-weighted spin echo sequence, which showed that bloody cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) had a higher signal intensity than brain tissue or normal CSF. Magnetic resonance imaging was more sensitive in detecting SAH and more informative as to the site of the ruptured aneurysm than CT. Despite some limitations in applying it to patients with acute SAH, magnetic resonace imaging has clear advantages in the diagnosis of SAH. (author).

  9. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T

    2011-12-01

    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.

  10. Analysis of 8 cases of the performance of pseudo subarachnoid hemorrhage of acute cerebral infarction%表现为假性蛛网膜下腔出血的急性脑梗死8例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅芳; 易婷玉; 吴燕敏; 陈文伙

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨表现为假性蛛网膜下腔出血的急性脑梗死的原因.方法:收治急性脑梗死患者8例,分析临床表现及影像学表现.结果:右侧偏瘫及失语3例,左侧偏瘫3例,视野异常2例.头颅MRI显示急性脑梗死8例,左侧额叶3例,其中2例合并皮层下分水岭梗死,右侧额叶3例,均合并皮层下分水岭梗死,右侧枕叶2例, MRA提示脑血管狭窄、闭塞5例,左侧大脑中动脉重度狭窄2例,右侧大脑中动脉闭塞2例,右侧大脑中动脉重度狭窄1例.结论:急性大脑皮层梗死早期因代偿脑膜支血流缓慢,易在CT表现为假性蛛网膜下腔出血.%Objective:To explore the manifestations of acute cerebral pseudo subarachnoid hemorrhage causes.Methods:8 patients with acute cerebral infarction were selected,analysis of clinical manifestation and imaging performance.Results:On the right side of 3 cases of hemiplegia and aphasia,3 cases of left hemiplegia,2 cases of abnormal visual field.Brain MRI showed acute cerebral infarction in 8 cases,left frontal lobe in 3 cases,2 cases with cerebral watershed infarction,right frontal lobe in 3 cases,2 cases of right occipital lobe,5 cases of cerebral artery stenosis,2 cases of left middle cerebral artery stenosis,2 cases of right middle cerebral artery occlusion,right middle cerebral artery stenosis in 1 cases.Conclusion:Acute cortical infarction due to compensatory meningeal branch blood flow is slow,easy to show in CT as a pseudo subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  11. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage: epidemiology, social impact and a multidisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Fàbregas Julià, N; Rama-Maceiras, P; Hernández-Palazón, J; Rubio Romero, R; Carmona Aurioles, J

    2010-12-01

    Cerebrovascular disease, whether ischemic or hemorrhagic, is a worldwide problem, representing personal tragedy, great social and economic consequences, and a heavy burden on the health care system. Estimated to be responsible for up to 10% of mortality in industrialized countries, cerebrovascular disease also affects individuals who are still in the workforce, with consequent loss of productive years. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a type of cerebrovascular accident that leads to around 5% of all strokes. SAH is most often due to trauma but may also be spontaneous, in which case the cause may be a ruptured intracranial aneurysm (80%) or arteriovenous malformation or any other abnormality of the blood or vessels (20%). Although both the diagnosis and treatment of aneurysmal SAH has improved in recent years, related morbidity and mortality remains high: 50% of patients die from the initial hemorrhage or later complications. If patients whose brain function is permanently damaged are added to the count, the percentage of cases leading to severe consequences rises to 70%. The burden of care of patients who are left incapacitated by SAH falls to the family or to private and public institutions. The economic cost is considerable and the loss of quality of life for both the patient and the family is great. Given the magnitude of this problem, the provision of adequate prophylaxis is essential; also needed are organizational models that aim to reduce mortality as well as related complications. Aneurysmal SAH is a condition which must be approached in a coordinated, multidisciplinary way both during the acute phase and throughout rehabilitation in order to lower the risk of unwanted outcomes.

  12. Technique of stepwise intracranial decompression combined with external ventricular drainage catheters improve the prognosis of acute post-traumatic hemispheric brain swelling patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eShi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute post-traumatic cerebral hemispheric brain swelling (ACHS is a serious disorder that occurs after traumatic brain injury (TBI, and it often requires immediate treatment. The aim of our clinical study was to assess the effects of stepwise intracranial decompression combined with external ventricular drainage catheters on the prognosis of ACHS patients.Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 172 cases of severe craniocerebral trauma patients with acute cerebral hemispheric swelling. The patients were divided into two groups: unilateral stepwise standard large trauma craniectomy (S-SLTC combined with external ventricular drainage (EVD catheter implants (n = 86 and unilateral routine frontal temporal parietal SLTC (control group, n = 86.Result: No significant differences in age, sex, or preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score were observed between groups (P < 0.05. There were no significant differences in the ipsilateral subdural effusion incidence rates between the S-SLTC+EVD treatment group and the routine SLTC group. However, the incidence rates of intraoperative acute encephalocele and contralateral epidural and subdural hematoma in the S-SLTC+EVD group were significantly lower than those in the SLTC group (17.4% and 3.5% vs. 37.2% and 23.3%, respectively. The mean intracranial pressure (ICP values of patients in the S-SLTC+EVD group were also lower than those in the SLTC group at days 1 through7 (P<0.05. A positive neurological outcome (GOS score 4 to 5, 50.0% and decreased mortality (15.1% was observed in the S-SLTC+EVD group compared to the neurological outcome (GOS score 4 to 5, 33.8%; 36.0% in the SLTC group (P<0.05.Conclusions: Our data suggest that S-SLTC+EVD is more effective for controlling ICP, improving neurological outcome, and decreasing mortality rate compared with routine SLTC.

  13. Intracranial CNS Manifestations of Myeloid Sarcoma in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Review of the Literature and Three Case Reports from the Author’s Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M. Cervantes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid sarcoma (MS of the central nervous system (CNS is a rare presentation of leukemic mass infiltration outside of the bone marrow. It may involve the subperiosteum and dura mater and, on rare occasions, can also invade the brain parenchyma. The disease is most commonly seen in children or young adults; however, it has been described in multiple age groups. MS can be seen in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, chronic myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders. This entity has the potential to be underdiagnosed if the MS appearance precedes the first diagnosis of leukemia. The main reason is that their appearance on CT and MRI has a broad differential diagnosis, and proper diagnosis of MS can only be made if the imaging findings are correlated with the clinical history and laboratory findings. Herein, we describe the intracranial CNS manifestations of MS in patients with AML on CT and MRI involving the brain and/or meninges. This study is based on a systematic review of the literature. In addition, three case reports from the author’s institution with AML and intracranial involvement of MS are included. Our aim is to enhance the awareness of this entity among both clinicians and radiologists.

  14. Interferon-beta attenuates lung inflammation following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobelens, P.M.; Tiebosch, I.A.C.W.; Dijkhuizen, R.M.; van der Meide, P.H.; Zwartbol, R.; Heijnen, C.J.; Kesecioglu, J.; van den Bergh, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects relatively young people and carries a poor prognosis with a case fatality rate of 35%. One of the major systemic complications associated with SAH is acute lung injury (ALI) which occurs in up to one-third of the patients and is associat

  15. Intracranial Pressure Influences the Behavior of the Optic Nerve Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yi; Tong, Junfei; Ghate, Deepta; Kedar, Sachin; Gu, Linxia

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the biomechanical responses of the optic nerve head (ONH) to acute elevations in intracranial pressure (ICP) were systematically investigated through numerical modeling. An orthogonal experimental design was developed to quantify the influence of ten input factors that govern the anatomy and material properties of the ONH on the peak maximum principal strain (MPS) in the lamina cribrosa (LC) and postlaminar neural tissue (PLNT). Results showed that the sensitivity of ONH responses to various input factors was region-specific. In the LC, the peak MPS was most strongly dependent on the sclera thickness, LC modulus, and scleral canal size, whereas in the PLNT, the peak MPS was more sensitive to the scleral canal size, neural tissue modulus, and pia mater modulus. The enforcement of clinically relevant ICP in the retro-orbital subarachnoid space influenced the sensitivity analysis. It also induced much larger strains in the PLNT than in the LC. Moreover, acute elevation of ICP leads to dramatic strain distribution changes in the PLNT, but had minimal impact on the LC. This work could help to better understand patient-specific responses, to provide guidance on biomechanical factors resulting in optic nerve diseases, such as glaucoma, papilledema, and ischemic optic neuropathy, and to illuminate the possibilities for exploiting their potential to treat and prevent ONH diseases.

  16. Reversible Akinetic Mutism after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage in the Territory of the Anterior Cerebral Artery without Permanent Ischaemic Damage to Anterior Cingulate Gyri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Sibille

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on two cases of transient akinetic mutism after massive subarachnoid haemorrhage due to the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA. In the two cases, vasospasm could not be demonstrated by imaging studies throughout the clinical course. Both patients shared common radiological features: a hydrocephalus due to haemorrhagic contamination of the ventricular system and a mass effect of a subpial hematoma on the borders of the corpus callosum. Patients were also investigated using auditory event-related evoked potentials at acute stage. In contrast to previous observations of akinetic mutism, P300 wave could not be recorded. Both patients had good recovery and we hypothesized that this unexpectedly favourable outcome was due to the absence of permanent structural damage to the ACA territory, with only transient dysfunction due to a reversible mass effect on cingulate gyri.

  17. Progressive Intracranial Vertebral Artery Dissection Presenting with Isolated Trigeminal Neuralgia-Like Facial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamizo, Tomoki; Koide, Takashi; Miyazaki, Hiromichi

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial vertebral artery dissection (IVAD) is a potentially life-threatening disease, which usually presents with ischemic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage. IVAD presenting with isolated facial pain is rare, and no case with isolated trigeminal neuralgia- (TN-) like facial pain has been reported. Here, we report the case of a 57-year-old male with IVAD who presented with acute isolated TN-like facial pain that extended from his left cheek to his left forehead and auricle. He felt a brief stabbing pain when his face was touched in the territory of the first and second divisions of the left trigeminal nerve. There were no other neurological signs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain 7 days after onset revealed dissection of the left intracranial vertebral artery without brain infarction. The pain gradually disappeared in approximately 6 weeks, and the patient remained asymptomatic thereafter, except for a brief episode of vertigo. Follow-up MRI revealed progressive narrowing of the artery without brain infarction. This case indicates that IVAD can present with isolated facial pain that mimics TN. IVAD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute facial pain or TN.

  18. Progressive Intracranial Vertebral Artery Dissection Presenting with Isolated Trigeminal Neuralgia-Like Facial Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Nakamizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial vertebral artery dissection (IVAD is a potentially life-threatening disease, which usually presents with ischemic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage. IVAD presenting with isolated facial pain is rare, and no case with isolated trigeminal neuralgia- (TN- like facial pain has been reported. Here, we report the case of a 57-year-old male with IVAD who presented with acute isolated TN-like facial pain that extended from his left cheek to his left forehead and auricle. He felt a brief stabbing pain when his face was touched in the territory of the first and second divisions of the left trigeminal nerve. There were no other neurological signs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain 7 days after onset revealed dissection of the left intracranial vertebral artery without brain infarction. The pain gradually disappeared in approximately 6 weeks, and the patient remained asymptomatic thereafter, except for a brief episode of vertigo. Follow-up MRI revealed progressive narrowing of the artery without brain infarction. This case indicates that IVAD can present with isolated facial pain that mimics TN. IVAD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute facial pain or TN.

  19. Lethal subarachnoid bleeding under immunosuppressive therapy due to mycotic arteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, S.; Kloska, S.; Freund, M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Kehl, H.G. [Dept. of Pediatric Cardiology, Univ. Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    A subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) occurred 67 days after cardiac transplantation in 10-year-old girl with consecutive immunocompromising therapy. Neither digital subtraction angiography (DSA) nor computed tomographic angiography showed signs of intracranial vascular malformations. One month before the lethal SAH occurred, she had developed arterial hypertension and attacks of severe headache with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis while CT scans showed an infarct of the left thalamus. Pathologic findings established the rare diagnosis of SAH due to aspergillosis-related mycotic arteritis. Imaging characteristics are presented. (orig.)

  20. Fahr′s disease Presenting with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam Al-Jehani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fahr′s disease is a rare disorder of slowly progressive cognitive, psychiatric, and motor decline associated with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC and widespread calcification in the brain and cerebellum. Acute presentation of IBGC is most often as a seizure disorder; however, we present a case of an acute IBCG presentation in which the cause of the deterioration was an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  1. Intracranial haemorrhage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    His interests include vascular neurosurgery and spinal deformities. ... he returned to specialise in neurosurgery after time spent working abroad. ... at Groote Schuur Hospital, where his major interests are skull base surgery and ... intracranial bleed is hypertension – this is an ... cerebellar signs and symptoms or with raised.

  2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with von Willebrand's disease--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakau, Reiko; Nomura, Motohiro; Kida, Shinya; Yamashita, Junkoh; Kinoshita, Akira; Nitta, Hisashi; Muramatsu, Naoki

    2005-12-01

    A 59-year-old woman with type IIA von Willebrand's disease (VWD) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Computed tomography showed SAH in the right sylvian fissure and intracranial hemorrhage in the right temporal lobe. Angiography demonstrated an aneurysm at the bifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery. Neck clipping was performed on the 3rd day after the onset with intra- and postoperative administration of factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate. No excessive bleeding occurred. Patients with prolonged bleeding time should be screened for VWD before surgery. This is a rare case of VWD presenting with SAH secondary to ruptured intracranial aneurysm. The clinical characteristics and the management of SAH in a patient with VWD are discussed.

  3. CT examination, clinical situation and experimental characteristics of infants with intracranial hemorrhage induced by delayed vitamin K deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqing Lin; Feng Fang; Min Chen; Guoxiang Cai

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed vitamin K deficiency is characterized by acute onset, severe illness and high fatality rate. 33%-50% survivors accompany with other various nervous system sequelas. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of intracranial hemorrhage in time become a key factor for improving healing rate and reducing fatality rate and incidence of sequela.OBJECTTVE: To investigate the clinical situation, experimental characteristics, CT examination and terminative characteristics of infants with intracranial hemorrhage induced by delayed vitamin K deficiency.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 17 infants with intracranial hemorrhage induced by delayed vitamin K deficiency aged 1-3 months including 11 boys and 6 girls were selected from Department of Pediatrics, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University from January 1994 to December 2005. All infants had drowsiness,rejective milk, spiting milk, gaze of both eyes, tic, coma, full anterior fontanelle, high muscular tension and cerebral hernia, etc. Experimental examination demonstrated that infants had anemia at various degrees;prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time were prolonged; platelet count was normal. CT examination indicated that screenages of subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, cerebral parenchyma hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrage were changed. Hemorrhage was stopped by the application of vitamin K. All patients provided informed consent.METHODS: ① Clinical situation and physical sign of infants were observed after hospitalization and scanned with rapid spiral CT scanning system. The thickness and average space of layers were 8-10 mm and the scanning time was 5 s with window width of 30-80 Hu and window position of 28-35 Hu. ② After hospitalization, four items of blood coagulation was measured with Futura meter and biochemical indexes of blood, such as serum calcium, serum

  4. Good Intracranial Collaterals Trump Poor ASPECTS (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score) for Intravenous Thrombolysis in Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Benjamin Y Q; Wan-Yee, Kong; Paliwal, Prakash; Gopinathan, Anil; Nadarajah, Mahendran; Ting, Eric; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Seet, Raymond C S; Chan, Bernard P L; Teoh, Hock L; Rathakrishnan, Rahul; Sharma, Vijay K; Yeo, Leonard L L

    2016-09-01

    In acute ischemic stroke, large early infarct size estimated by the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is associated with poorer outcomes and is a relative contraindication for recanalization therapies. The state of the intracranial collateral circulation influences the functional outcome and may be a variable to consider before thrombolysis. We evaluated the prognostic effect of the collateral circulation in patients with thrombolyzed acute ischemic stroke who have large early infarct sizes as indicated by low ASPECTS. Patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke who received a computed tomographic angiogram and subsequent treatment with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator from 2010 to 2013 were studied. Two independent neuroradiologists determined their ASPECTS. We stratified patients using ASPECTS into 2 groups: large volume infarcts (ASPECTS≤7 points) and small volume infarcts (ASPECTS 8-10). In addition, we evaluated a third group with very large volume infarcts (ASPECTS≤5 points). We then analyzed the 3 subgroups using the Maas, Tan, and ASPECTS-collaterals grading systems of the computed tomographic angiogram intracranial collaterals. Good outcomes were defined by modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2 at 3 months. A total of 300 patients were included in the final analysis. For patients with very large volume infarcts (ASPECTS≤5 points), univariable analysis showed that younger age, male sex, lower National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), lower systolic blood pressure, and good collaterals by Maas, Tan, or ASPECTS-collaterals grading were predictors of good outcomes. On multivariate analysis, younger age (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.97; P=0.002) and good collaterals by ASPECTS-collaterals system (odds ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.57; P<0.001) were associated with good outcomes. In patients with large and very large volume infarcts, good collaterals as measured by the

  5. Emergent intracranial balloon angioplasty and bailout self-expandable stent placement in acute large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation: Experience of a single institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin; Seo, Jung Hwa; Jeong, Hae Woong [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the outcomes of angioplasty for recanalization after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The study population was selected from 134 patients who underwent endovascular revascularization therapy (ERT) for AIS between October 2011 and May 2014. Of those 134 patients, 39 who underwent balloon angioplasty with or without stent insertion were included in this study. Balloon angioplasty was the primary treatment for nine patients and a rescue method for 30 patients. The revascularization rate at 7 days, procedure-related complications, and clinical outcomes at 3 months were analyzed. The occlusion sites were the middle cerebral artery (n = 26), intracranial internal carotid artery (n = 10), and middle cerebral artery branch (n = 3). Angioplasty achieved successful revascularization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Ischemia grade 2b–3) in 76.9% of patients. Computed tomography angiography performed 7 days post-procedure revealed a maintained reperfusion in 82.8% of successful cases. Only two patients had symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. At the 3-month follow-up, 18 (48.6%) and 10 (27.0%) patients showed good and poor functional outcomes, respectively (modified Rankin Scale scores, 0–2 and 5–6). Emergent balloon angioplasty and bailout self-expandable stent placement may be safe and effective for achieving successful revascularization in acute large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation. It could be a feasible rescue method as well as a primary method for ERT.

  6. Emergent stent-assisted angioplasty of extracranial internal carotid artery and intracranial stent-based thrombectomy in acute tandem occlusive disease: technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, José E; Gomori, Moshe; Rajz, Gustavo; Moscovici, Samuel; Leker, Ronen R; Rosenberg, Shai; Itshayek, Eyal

    2013-09-01

    Tandem occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and a major intracranial artery respond poorly to intravenous thrombolytic therapy, and are usually managed by endovascular means. This study describes experience with stent-assisted endovascular ICA revascularization and stent-based thrombectomy. In patients with tandem ICA-middle cerebral artery (MCA)/distal ICA occlusion, the carotid occlusion was recanalized by primary angioplasty and stent implantation, and the distal occlusion by stent-based thrombectomy. Two variant techniques are described. Seven consecutive patients, mean age 64.1 years (range 49-75) and mean admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 23, were included. Occlusion sites were tandem proximal ICA and MCA trunk (six patients) and tandem proximal left ICA and ICA terminus (one patient). Complete recanalization with complete perfusion (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] 3, Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction [TICI] 3) was achieved in six patients and partial recanalization with partial perfusion (TIMI 2, TICI 2A) in one. Mean time to therapy was 4.9 h (range 3-6.5); mean time to recanalization was 55 min (range 38-65 min). CT performed 1 day after recanalization showed cortical sparing (>90% of the cortex at risk) in seven patients. Five patients (72%) presented with good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-2) at 1 month; one patient (patient No 7) reached an mRS score of 3 and one patient died. In selected cases of acute ICA occlusion and concomitant major vessel embolic stroke, angioplasty and stenting of the proximal occlusion and stent-based thrombectomy of the intracranial occlusion may be feasible, effective and safe, and provide early neurological improvement. Further experience and prospective studies are warranted.

  7. Delayed Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in a Polytraumatized Patient with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwoong Oh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The precise mechanism involved in DIC and delayed traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (DT-SAH remains unclear in multipletrauma patients. Hereby, we describe a polytraumatized patient with DIC who died due to DT-SAH. A 75-year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department complaining of abdominal pain and drowsiness after a pedestrian accident. Her initial brain computerized tomography (CT finding was negative for intracranial injury. However, her abdominal CT scan revealed a collection of retroperitoneal hematomas from internal iliac artery bleeding after a compressive pelvic fracture. This event eventually resulted in shock and DIC. An immediate angiographic embolization of the bleeding artery was performed along with transfusion and antithrombin III. Her vital signs were stabilized without neurological change. Fourteen hours after admission, she suddenly became comatose, and her follow-up brain CT scan revealed a dense DT-SAH along the basal cisterns with acute hydrocephalus. This event rapidly prompted brain CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography, which both confirmed the absence of any cerebrovascular abnormality. Despite emergency extraventricular drainage to reverse the hydrocephalus, the patient died three days after the trauma. This paper presents an unusual case of DT-SAH in a polytraumatized patient with DIC.

  8. Chronic basilar artery dissection with an associated symptomatic aneurysm presenting with massive subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, José E; Moscovici, Samuel; Rajz, Gustavo; Vargas, Andres; Itshayek, Eyal

    2016-08-01

    Basilar artery dissection (BAD) is a rare condition with a worse prognosis than a dissection limited to the vertebral artery. We report a rare case of chronic BAD with an associated symptomatic aneurysm presenting with massive subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 54-year-old woman. The diagnosis of acute BAD could only be made retrospectively, based on clinical and neuroradiological studies from a hospital admission 10months earlier. Angiography performed after her SAH showed unequivocal signs of imperfect healing; she was either post-recanalization of a complete occlusion or post-dissection. Residual multi-channel intraluminal defects led to the development of a small aneurysm, which was responsible for the massive hemorrhage. The occurrence of an associated aneurysm, and wall disease, but not an intraluminal process, reinforces the diagnosis of dissection. The patient was fully recovered at 90day follow-up. This case reinforces the need for long-term neuroradiological surveillance after non-hemorrhagic intracranial dissections to detect the development of de novo aneurysms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Subarachnoid hemorrhage with transient ischemic attack: Another masquerader in cerebral venous thrombosis

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    Bhawna Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may mimic many other neurological disorders and lead to frequent misdiagnoses or delay in diagnosis. The most frequent symptoms and signs are headache, seizures, focal deficits, and papilledema. A number of rare atypical manifestations have been described. Cerebral venous thrombosis may present with an isolated intracranial hypertension type picture, thunderclap headache, attacks of migraine with aura, isolated psychiatric disturbances, pulsatile tinnitus, isolated or multiple cranial nerve involvement, and occasionally as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH or transient ischemic attack. Our patient presented with thunderclap headache and transient ischemic attack like episode with obvious SAH on CT scan. Acute SAH suggests the presence of a vascular lesion, such as ruptured aneurysm, and CVT is not generally considered in the diagnostic workup of SAH. The case emphasizes the importance of cerebral venous study in nonaneurysmal cases of SAH. It is important to have a high index of suspicion in such atypical cases to avoid delay in diagnosis.

  10. Complications corner: Anterior thoracic disc surgery with dural tear/CSF fistula and low-pressure pleural drain led to severe intracranial hypotension

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    Eline A Oudeman

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Severe neurological deterioration occurring after thoracic decompressive surgery may rarely be attributed to intracranial hypotension due to a subarachnoid-pleural fistula. Patients should be treated with external lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for 3-5 days rather than a low-pressure pleural drain to avoid the onset of intracranial hypotension leading to symptomatic subdural hematomas.

  11. Risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 55 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, William N; Slot, Karsten Bruins; Fernandes, Peter; Sandercock, Peter; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2012-11-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is an effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke but is associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). We sought to identify the risk factors for ICH with a systematic review of the published literature. We searched for studies of rtPA-treated stroke patients that reported an association between a variable measured before rtPA infusion and clinically important ICH (parenchymal ICH or ICH associated with clinical deterioration). We calculated associations between baseline variables and ICH with random-effect meta-analyses. We identified 55 studies that measured 43 baseline variables in 65 264 acute ischemic stroke patients. Post-rtPA ICH was associated with higher age (odds ratio, 1.03 per year; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.04), higher stroke severity (odds ratio, 1.08 per National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale point; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.11), and higher glucose (odds ratio, 1.10 per mmol/L; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.14). There was approximately a doubling of the odds of ICH with the presence of atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, renal impairment, previous antiplatelet agents, leukoaraiosis, and a visible acute cerebral ischemic lesion on pretreatment brain imaging. Little of the variation in the sizes of the associations among different studies was explained by the source of the cohort, definition of ICH, or degree of adjustment for confounding variables. Individual baseline variables were modestly associated with post-rtPA ICH. Prediction of post-rtPA ICH therefore is likely to be difficult if based on single clinical or imaging factors alone. These observational data do not provide a reliable method for the individualization of treatment according to predicted ICH risk.

  12. The clinical analysis of three methods in the treatment of intracranial bacterial infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of three therapeutic methods to find an optimal approach to the treatment of intracranial bacterial infection by retrospectively reviewing 33 intracranial bacterial infection patients who were admitted from 1995 to 2008 in our hospital.Methods The treatments by intermittent lumbar puncture,continuous lumbar subarachnoid space drainage,and embedment of Ommaya cyst for continuous drainage from the ventricles were performed in 15 cases,12 cases,and 6 cases respectively along wit...

  13. Feasibility and methodology of optical coherence tomography imaging of human intracranial aneurysms: ex vivo pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Barry; Sun, Cuiru; Khiel, Tim-Rasmus; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Standish, Beau A.; da Costa, Leodante; de Morais, Josaphat; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2012-02-01

    Rupture of intracranial aneurysm is a common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. An aneurysm may undergo microscopic morphological changes or remodeling of the vessel wall prior to rupture, which could potentially be imaged. In this study we present methods of tissue sample preparation of intracranial aneurysms and correlation between optical coherence tomography imaging and routine histology. OCT has a potential future in the assessment of microscopic features of aneurysms, which may correlate to the risk of rupture.

  14. Intracranial aneurysms in twins: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H K; Lam, Y; Cheng, K M; Chan, C M; Cheung, Y L

    2011-04-01

    Intracranial aneurysm in twins is a rare clinical disease entity. Only 15 cases have been described in the literature. We report on a pair of identical twins with intracranial aneurysms. One presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage; digital subtraction angiography showed a left posterior communicating artery aneurysm, which was treated by coiling. The patient's twin sister was called for screening, whereupon digital subtraction angiography revealed a right ophthalmic internal carotid artery aneurysm that was treated conservatively.

  15. Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease

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    Maria Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD is the most common proximate mechanism of ischemic stroke worldwide. Approximately half of those affected are Asians. For diagnosis of ICAD, intra-arterial angiography is the gold standard to identify extent of stenosis. However, noninvasive techniques including transcranial ultrasound and MRA are now emerging as reliable modalities to exclude moderate to severe (50%–99% stenosis. Little is known about measures for primary prevention of the disease. In terms of secondary prevention of stroke due to intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, aspirin continues to be the preferred antiplatelet agent although clopidogrel along with aspirin has shown promise in the acute phase. Among Asians, cilostazol has shown a favorable effect on symptomatic stenosis and is of benefit in terms of fewer bleeds. Moreover, aggressive risk factor management alone and in combination with dual antiplatelets been shown to be most effective in this group of patients. Interventional trials on intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis have so far only been carried out among Caucasians and have not yielded consistent results. Since the Asian population is known to be preferentially effected, focused trials need to be performed to establish treatment modalities that are most effective in this population.

  16. Superficial siderosis is a warning sign for future intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Jennifer; Wollenweber, Frank A; Lummel, Nina; Bochmann, Katja; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Bruckmann, Hartmut; Dichgans, Martin; Opherk, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Supratentorial superficial siderosis (SS) is a frequent imaging marker of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). It is most probably caused by focal subarachnoid hemorrhages (fSAHs). Based on single-case observations, it has been proposed that such fSAHs might be a predisposing factor for future intracranial hemorrhage. Here we tested the hypothesis if a SS as a residue of fSAHs must be regarded as a warning sign for future intracranial hemorrhage. Fifty-one consecutive patients with SS and no apparent cause other than possible or probable CAA were identified through a database search and followed-up for a median interval of 35.3 months (range 6-120 months). Main outcome measures were rate and location of new intracranial hemorrhages. Twenty-four patients (47.1 %) had experienced any new intracranial hemorrhage, 18 patients (35.3 %) had an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and in 13 of them (25.5 %), the hemorrhage was located at the site of pre-existing siderosis. Six patients (11.7 %) had developed a new subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), four of them at the site of siderosis. Patients with SS are at substantial risk for subsequent intracranial hemorrhage. SS can be considered a warning sign of future ICH or SAH, which frequently occur adjacent to pre-existing SS. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  17. ECG pattern in reverse takotsubo cardiomyopathy demonstrated in 5 cases with intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elikowski, Waldemar; Małek-Elikowska, Małgorzata; Kudliński, Bartosz; Skrzywanek, Paweł; Smól, Sławomir; Rzymski, Stanisław

    2016-09-29

    In typical takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) apical transient left ventricular dysfunction with concomitant ECG changes mimicking acute anterior myocardial infarction can be observed. Reverse TC (RTC) characterized by contractile disturbances in all basal and often simultaneous mid-ventricular segments is definitely less frequent. ECG pattern of RTC is less known. The authors present ECG findings in 5 cases of RTC in course of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH); 3 patients were diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the other two with intracerebral hemorrhage or subdural posttraumatic hematoma. In all patients, initial ECG appearance was dominated by ST segment depression in inferior leads (II, III, avF) and/or lateral leads (V4-6). In 4 patients, concurrent ST segment elevation in avR and avL leads was seen, additionally 4 patients had low QRS voltage in high lateral leads (I, avL). Potential normalization of these changes did not influence the patient`s survival. In one woman, immediately before death, early repolarization was recorded. In subjects with an increased risk of TC, for example in intracranial hemorrhage, particularly in SAH, the ECG abnormalities presented may indicate a need for further search of its atypical echocardiographic variants.

  18. Glioblastoma and intracranial aneurysms: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushna Ali

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Several theories stand to explain the coincidental occurrence of intracranial aneurysms and GBM. The treating physician should be aware of this association when patients with intraaxial tumors present with unusual manifestation such as an intratumoral hemorrhage or angiogram negative subarachnoid hemorrhage. No guidelines exist to assist in the management of such patients; therefore, authors have attempted to address this issue using a classification and treatment algorithm.

  19. Detection of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage at Acute and Subacute/Chronic Stages: Comparison of Four Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pulse Sequences and Computed Tomography

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    Mei-Kang Yuan

    2005-03-01

    Conclusion: FLAIR and GE T2* MRI pulse sequences, and CT scans, are all statistically significant indicators of acute SAH. GE T2*-weighted images are statistically significant indicators of subacute-to-chronic SAH, whereas other MRI pulse sequences, and CT scans, are not.

  20. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage in the emergency department

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    Diego Garbossa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is one of the major cause of mortality for stroke. The leading cause is the rupture of an intracrnial aneurym. Acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is a complex multifaceted disorder that plays out over days to weeks. The development of aneurysms is mainly due to a hemodynamic stress. Considerableadvances have been made in endovascular techniques, diagnostic methods, and surgical and perioperative management guidelines. Rebleeding remains the most imminent danger until the aneurysm is excluded from cerebral circulation. The only effective prevention of rebleeding is repair the aneurysm; choosing the right way with surgical or an endovascular approach. Outcome for patients with SAH remains poor, with population-based mortality rates as high as 45% and significant morbidity among survivors. In this work we analyzed the diagnostic-therapeutic course of patients presenting SAH. We analyzed the types and the occurrence of complications. We present two cases report to better demonstrate that treatments for specific patients need to be individualized.

  1. Acute Traumatic Intracranial Hematoma in Children%小儿外伤性急性颅内血肿(附59例分析)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚家楫; 陈学超; 张玉梁

    1985-01-01

    @@ 小儿外伤性急性颅内血肿有一些特点,了解这些特点对诊断、治疗和判断预后都有意义.本文对广州市几个医院1966年5月至1984年3月收治并手术证实的59例进行分析.本组病例自受伤至手术时间均在3天以内,属于急性颅内血肿范畸.%59 cases of acute traumaticintracranial hematoma in children are reported in this paper,with a mortality of 28.8%and sequela of 26.2%.Its characteristics include remarkable diffuse cerebral syruptom,less localization signs,rapid change of the patient's condition and early oecurence of brain herniation.In our series.extradural hematoma complicated by skull fracture had a higher rate(63.6%)compared with other reports.To evacuate the hematoma before the occurence of brain herniation was the key to reduce mottalky.Whenever intracranial hematoma is suspected and the patient's condition allows for further examination,CT examination should always be recommended.

  2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage after aneurysm surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gilberto Carlotti Junior

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms by clipping is recognized as effective and definitive. However some cases that suffered a new subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH some time after they were submitted to aneurysm clipping have raised doubts about the concept of "cure"after this treatment. Eleven patients previously submitted to aneurysm clipping who presented a new SAH were analyzed. The time elapsed from surgery to SAH varied from 3 to 10 years. After SAH four patients had a poor outcome. The new episode of SAH occurred due to intrinsic factors of the cerebral vasculature: 1. a weak point of the vessel wall near the previous aneurysm, 2. a weak point of another vessel far from the previous aneurysm, 3. a previous infundibular dilation of the posterior communicating artery; and due to technical problems: 1. aneurysm not identified during the previous treatment, 2. aneurysm deliberately left untreated, 3. persistence of the aneurysm due to inappropriate surgery, 4. persistency of part of the aneurysm neck after clipping and 5. slipping of the clip from the neck of the aneurysm. The measures to prevent new SAH after surgery start with adequate preoperative angiographic studies, a careful inspection of the position of the clip and emptying of the aneurysm. Early angiography studies may reveal a persistent neck and later ones may reveal newly developed aneurysms. In conclusion, SAH after aneurysm clipping is a late and severe phenomenon and the concept of "cure" after this surgery should be interpreted with caution.O tratamento cirúrgico dos aneurismas cerebrais através de sua clipagem é reconhecido como eficaz e definitivo. Entretanto alguns casos sofrem nova hemorragia algum tempo após a cirurgia, deixando dúvidas sobre a "cura" pelo tratamento. Onze pacientes submetidos anteriormente a clipagem do aneurisma e que apresentaram nova hemorragia foram analisados. O intervalo de tempo da cirurgia para a nova hemorragia foi de 3 a 10 anos

  3. Epidemiology and genetics of intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranci, F; Briganti, F; Cirillo, L; Leonardi, M; Muto, M

    2013-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are acquired lesions (5-10% of the population), a fraction of which rupture leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage with devastating consequences. Until now, the exact etiology of intracranial aneurysms formation remains unclear. The low incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage in comparison with the prevalence of unruptured IAs suggests that the vast majority of intracranial aneurysms do not rupture and that identifying those at highest risk is important in defining the optimal management. The most important factors predicting rupture are aneurysm size and site. In addition to ambiental factors (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and hypertension), epidemiological studies have demonstrated a familiar influence contributing to the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms, with increased frequency in first- and second-degree relatives of people with subarachnoid hemorrhage. In comparison to sporadic aneurysms, familial aneurysms tend to be larger, more often located at the middle cerebral artery, and more likely to be multiple. Other than familiar occurrence, there are several heritable conditions associated with intracranial aneurysm formation, including autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, neurofibromatosis type I, Marfan syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type I, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II and IV. The familial occurrence and the association with heritable conditions indicate that genetic factors may play a role in the development of intracranial aneurysms. Genome-wide linkage studies in families and sib pairs with intracranial aneurysms have identified several loci on chromosomes showing suggestive evidence of linkage, particularly on chromosomes 1p34.3-p36.13, 7q11, 19q13.3, and Xp22. For the loci on 1p34.3-p36.13 and 7q11, a moderate positive association with positional candidate genes has been demonstrated (perlecan gene, elastin gene, collagen type 1 A2 gene

  4. Epidemiology and genetics of intracranial aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caranci, F., E-mail: ferdinandocaranci@libero.it [Unit of Neuroradiology, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Radiotherapy, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Briganti, F., E-mail: frabriga@unina.it [Unit of Neuroradiology, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Radiotherapy, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Cirillo, L.; Leonardi, M. [Neuroradiology service, Bellaria Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Service Cardarelli Hospital Naples (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are acquired lesions (5–10% of the population), a fraction of which rupture leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage with devastating consequences. Until now, the exact etiology of intracranial aneurysms formation remains unclear. The low incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage in comparison with the prevalence of unruptured IAs suggests that the vast majority of intracranial aneurysms do not rupture and that identifying those at highest risk is important in defining the optimal management. The most important factors predicting rupture are aneurysm size and site. In addition to ambiental factors (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and hypertension), epidemiological studies have demonstrated a familiar influence contributing to the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms, with increased frequency in first- and second-degree relatives of people with subarachnoid hemorrhage. In comparison to sporadic aneurysms, familial aneurysms tend to be larger, more often located at the middle cerebral artery, and more likely to be multiple. Other than familiar occurrence, there are several heritable conditions associated with intracranial aneurysm formation, including autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, neurofibromatosis type I, Marfan syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type I, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II and IV. The familial occurrence and the association with heritable conditions indicate that genetic factors may play a role in the development of intracranial aneurysms. Genome-wide linkage studies in families and sib pairs with intracranial aneurysms have identified several loci on chromosomes showing suggestive evidence of linkage, particularly on chromosomes 1p34.3–p36.13, 7q11, 19q13.3, and Xp22. For the loci on 1p34.3–p36.13 and 7q11, a moderate positive association with positional candidate genes has been demonstrated (perlecan gene, elastin gene, collagen type 1 A2

  5. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in pituitary tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Patnaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is the bleeding into the subarachnoid space containing cerebrospinal fluid. The most common cause of SAH is trauma. Rupture of aneurysms, vascular anomalies, tumor bleeds and hypertension are other important etiologies. SAH in the setting of pituitary tumor can result from various causes. It can be due to intrinsic tumor related pathology, injury to surrounding the vessel during the operative procedure or due to an associated aneurysm. We discuss the pathological mechanisms and review relevant literature related to this interesting phenomenon. Early and accurate diagnosis of the cause of the SAH in pituitary tumors is important, as this influences the management.

  6. Molecular basis and genetic predisposition to intracranial aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Gerard; Weinsheimer, Shantel; Ronkainen, Antti; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2014-12-01

    Intracranial aneurysms, also called cerebral aneurysms, are dilatations in the arteries that supply blood to the brain. Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is fatal in about 50% of the cases. Intracranial aneurysms can be repaired surgically or endovascularly, or by combining these two treatment modalities. They are relatively common with an estimated prevalence of unruptured aneurysms of 2%-6% in the adult population, and are considered a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Known risk factors include smoking, hypertension, increasing age, and positive family history for intracranial aneurysms. Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms is complex. Genome-wide approaches such as DNA linkage and genetic association studies, as well as microarray-based mRNA expression studies, provide unbiased approaches to identify genetic risk factors and dissecting the molecular pathobiology of intracranial aneurysms. The ultimate goal of these studies is to use the information in clinical practice to predict an individual's risk for developing an aneurysm or monitor its growth or rupture risk. Another important goal is to design new therapies based on the information on mechanisms of disease processes to prevent the development or halt the progression of intracranial aneurysms.

  7. Systematic review of reviews of risk factors for intracranial aneurysms

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    Clarke, Mike [National Institute for Health Research, UK Cochrane Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    Systematic reviews of systematic reviews identify good quality reviews of earlier studies of medical conditions. This article describes a systematic review of systematic reviews performed to investigate factors that might influence the risk of rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. It exemplifies the technique of this type of research and reports the finding of a specific study. The annual incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage resulting from the rupture of intracranial aneurysms is estimated to be nine per 100,000. A large proportion of people who have this bleed, will die or remain dependent on the care of others for some time. Reliable knowledge about the risks of subarachnoid haemorrhage in different populations will help in planning, screening and prevention strategies and in predicting the prognosis of individual patients. If the necessary data were available in the identified reviews, an estimate for the numerical relationship between a particular characteristic and the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage was included in this report. The identification of eligible systematic reviews relied mainly on the two major bibliographic databases of the biomedical literature: PubMed and EMBASE. These were searched in 2006, using specially designed search strategies. Approximately 2,000 records were retrieved and each of these was checked carefully against the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. These criteria required that the report be a systematic review of studies assessing the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients known to have an unruptured intracranial aneurysm or of studies that had investigated the characteristics of people who experienced a subarachnoid haemorrhage without previously being known to have an unruptured aneurysm. Reports which included more than one systematic review were eligible and each of these reviews was potentially eligible. The quality of each systematic review was assessed. In this review, 16 separate reports were

  8. Early transient mild hypothermia attenuates neurological deficits and brain damage after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilla, Nadine; Rinne, Christoph; Weiland, Judith; Linsenmann, Thomas; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Westermaier, Thomas

    2017-09-23

    Metabolic exhaustion in ischemic tissue is the basis for a detrimental cascade of cell damage. In the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a sequence of global and focal ischemia occurs, threatening brain tissue to undergo ischemic damage. This study was conducted to investigate whether early therapy with moderate hypothermia can offer neuroprotection after experimental SAH. 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to SAH and treated by active cooling (34° C) or served as controls by continuous maintenance of normothermia (37.0° C). Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), intracranial pressure (ICP) and local cerebral blood flow (CBF) over both hemispheres were continuously measured. Neurological assessment was performed 24 hours later. Hippocampal damage was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin and Caspase-3 staining. By a slight increase of MABP in the cooling phase and a significant reduction of ICP, hypothermia improved cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in the first 60 minutes after SAH. Accordingly, a trend to increased CBF was observed during this period. The rate of injured neurons was significantly reduced in hypothermia-treated animals compared to normothermic controls. The results of this series cannot finally answer whether this form of treatment permanently attenuates or only delays ischemic damage. In the latter case, slowing down metabolic exhaustion by hypothermia may still be a valuable treatment during this state of ischemic brain damage and prolong the therapeutic window for possible causal treatments of the acute perfusion deficit. Therefore, it may be useful as a first-tier therapy in suspected SAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid natural resolution of intracranial hematoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明灿; 刘建雄; 罗国才; 张志文; 闵杰; 余辉; 姚远

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical characteristics of intracranial hematoma and the mechanism involved in its rapid natural resolution. Methods:Seventeen cases of intracranial hematoma with typical clinical and CT manifestations were retrospectively studied. Results: Intracranial hematoma was found obviously decreased in size within 72 h after its occurrence in 8 cases. The rest 9 cases presented complete resolution. Conclusions: Rapid natural resolution of acute epidural hematoma is mostly found in teenagers and the resolution is correlated with cranial fracture at the hematoma site. As for acute subdural hematoma, its rapid resolution is associated with the transfer of cerebrospinal fluid toward subdural space, the lavage effect, and the compression caused by the increased intracranial pressure or the space left resulting from redistribution of the hematoma in brain atrophy.

  10. Paravascular channels, cisterns, and the subarachnoid space in the rat brain: A single compartment with preferential pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedussi, Beatrice; van der Wel, Nicole N; de Vos, Judith; van Veen, Henk; Siebes, Maria; VanBavel, Ed; Bakker, Erik Ntp

    2016-06-15

    Recent evidence suggests an extensive exchange of fluid and solutes between the subarachnoid space and the brain interstitium, involving preferential pathways along blood vessels. We studied the anatomical relations between brain vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid compartments, and paravascular spaces in male Wistar rats. A fluorescent tracer was infused into the cisterna magna, without affecting intracranial pressure. Tracer distribution was analyzed using a 3D imaging cryomicrotome, confocal microscopy, and correlative light and electron microscopy. We found a strong 3D colocalization of tracer with major arteries and veins in the subarachnoid space and large cisterns, attributed to relatively large subarachnoid space volumes around the vessels. Confocal imaging confirmed this colocalization and also revealed novel cisternal connections between the subarachnoid space and ventricles. Unlike the vessels in the subarachnoid space, penetrating arteries but not veins were surrounded by tracer. Correlative light and electron microscopy images indicated that this paravascular space was located outside of the endothelial layer in capillaries and just outside of the smooth muscle cells in arteries. In conclusion, the cerebrospinal fluid compartment, consisting of the subarachnoid space, cisterns, ventricles, and para-arteriolar spaces, forms a continuous and extensive network that surrounds and penetrates the rat brain, in which mixing may facilitate exchange between interstitial fluid and cerebrospinal fluid.

  11. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart Syn

  12. Spinal syringomyelia following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kinya; Uchiyama, Takuya; Nakano, Naoki; Fukawa, Norihito; Yamada, Kimito; Yabuuchi, Tomonari; Kato, Amami

    2012-04-01

    Subarachnoid blood has been reported as a cause of chronic spinal arachnoiditis. Although syringomyelia has been thought to be caused by spinal arachnoiditis, reports of syringomyelia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are very rare. We describe two patients with syringomyelia associated with chronic spinal arachnoiditis following SAH. From January 2001 to December 2010, 198 patients with aneurysmal SAH were treated at Kinki University School of Medicine. Two of the 198 patients had syringomyelia following aneurysmal SAH; thus the rate of syringomyelia associated with aneurysmal SAH was 1.0%. Patient 1 was a 54-year-old woman who presented with back pain, back numbness and gait disturbance 20 months after SAH. Her MRI revealed syringomyelia of the spinal cord from C2 to T10. She underwent shunting of the syrinx to the subarachnoid space. Patient 2 was a 49-year-old man, who was admitted to the hospital with headache, diplopia, hoarseness, dysphagia and ataxia five months after SAH. MRI revealed syringomyelia from the medulla oblongata to C6, and an enlargement of the lateral and fourth ventricles. After foramen magnum decompression and C1 laminectomy, a fourth ventricle-subarachnoid shunt was placed by insertion of a catheter. Spinal arachnoiditis and spinal syringomyelia are rare but important chronic complications after SAH.

  13. Attenuation of Acute Phase Injury in Rat Intracranial Hemorrhage by Cerebrolysin that Inhibits Brain Edema and Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhaotao; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Mou; Xu, Ruxiang; Liang, Chunyang; Zhang, Hongtian

    2016-04-01

    The outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is mainly determined by the volume of the hemorrhage core and the secondary brain damage to penumbral tissues due to brain swelling, microcirculation disturbance and inflammation. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of cerebrolysin on brain edema and inhibition of the inflammation response surrounding the hematoma core in the acute stage after ICH. The ICH model was induced by administration of type VII bacterial collagenase into the stratum of adult rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups: ICH + saline; ICH + Cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) and sham. Cerebrolysin or saline was administered intraperitoneally 1 h post surgery. Neurological scores, extent of brain edema content and Evans blue dye extravasation were recorded. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) were assayed by Real-time PCR and Elisa kits. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction proteins (TJPs; claudin-5, occludin and zonula occluden-1) expression were measured at multiple time points. The morphological and intercellular changes were characterized by Electron microscopy. It is found that cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) improved the neurological behavior and reduced the ipsilateral brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation. After cerebrolysin treated, the levels of pro-inflammatory factors and AQP4 in the peri-hematomal areas were markedly reduced and were accompanied with higher expression of TJPs. Electron microscopy showed the astrocytic swelling and concentrated chromatin in the ICH group and confirmed the cell junction changes. Thus, early cerebrolysin treatment ameliorates secondary injury after ICH and promotes behavioral performance during the acute phase by reducing brain edema, inflammatory response, and blood-brain barrier permeability.

  14. 急性颅内血肿术后迟发性血肿临床诊治分析%Analysis of clinical diagnosis and treatment of delayed hematoma after the surgery for acute intracranial hematoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴世强; 骆安林; 方挺; 关惠东; 沈才锋

    2013-01-01

      目的:通过观察急性颅内血肿术后发生迟发性血肿现象,探讨分析其临床诊治方法。方法:选择34例急性颅内血肿术后出现迟发性血肿现象的患者,对患者的临床资料进行分析研究,决定再次手术清除还是保守治疗。结果:34例患者中有18例患者进行再次手术清除颅内血肿,4例家属拒绝再次手术治疗,其余12例采用保守治疗。有15例恢复较好,6例中度残废,6例重度残废,3例植物生存,4例死亡。结论:急性颅内血肿术后迟发性血肿的原因一般与头部钝挫伤、颅内压发生较大变化以及颅骨骨折有关,对病情恢复情况应给予严密监控以及定时定期复查头颅CT,早发现早治疗以便保证预后恢复。%Objective To explore the clinical diagnosis and treatment for delayed hematoma after the surgery for acute intracranial hematoma through observation.Methods Clinical data of 34 delayed hematoma patients after the surgery of acute intracranial hematoma who were treated in our hospital were analyzed and studied first and then whether they were treated with another dissection or conservative treatment was confirmed. Results Of the 34 patients,18 needed another surgery for dissecting intracranial hematoma,4 got their families refused a second surgery,and the rest 12 patients adopted conservative treatment.15 patients well recovered,6 patients were moderately disabled,6 patients were severely disabled,3 survived in vegetative state and 4 patients were dead.Conclusion The reasons for delayed hematoma after the surgery for acute intracranial hematoma are usually related to head blunt trauma,big changes of intracranial pressure,and skull fracture and it is required to closely monitor the recovery of disease and carry out periodic reexamination for skull CT,ensuring that the prognosis for recovery is good through early discovery and early treatment.

  15. Significance of monitoring the initial intracranial pressure on hematoma irrigation with trephination therapy for acute subdural hematomas in critical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Naoki; Takasato, Yoshio; Masaoka, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Takanori; Yoshino, Yoshikazu; Yatsushige, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Hiroki; Sumiyoshi, Kyoko; Sugawara, Takashi; Chikashi, Aoyagi; Takeuchi, Satoru; Suzuki, Go

    2010-01-01

    Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) patients presenting in a severe condition tend to have poor outcomes due to the significant brain edema required to maintain the ICP at less than 20-25 mmHg. This study compared the surgical outcomes of 16 critically ill patients with ASDH who underwent hematoma irrigation with trephination therapy (HITT) based on their initial ICP values. The initial mean GCS score upon admission was four. A unilateral dilated pupil was seen in one and bilateral dilated pupils were seen in seven patients. The co-existence of a brain contusion was seen in seven patients, brain swelling was noted in six patients, and both basal cistern effacement and a midline shift greater than 5 mm were observed in all patients. The mean initial ICP value was 45 mmHg (range: 3 to 85 mmHg). Ten patients (62.5%) underwent a rapid external decompression to evacuate the hematoma. By using the Glasgow Outcome Scale upon discharge a score of good recovery (GR) was assigned to two (12.5 %), moderate disability (MD) to four (25.0 %), vegetative state (VS) to two (12.5 %), and death (D) to eight (50.0 %) patients. All six patients who showed an initial ICP greater than 60 mmHg died despite intensive care. Eight patients who showed an initial ICP less than 40 mmHg had a favorable outcome, but two patients deteriorated due to a traumatic cerebrovascular disorder. It seems that the initial ICP monitoring with HITT for ASDH patients in critical condition may be an important factor for predicting both surgical outcome and clinical course.

  16. Brain edema formation correlates with perfusion deficit during the first six hours after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

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    Westermaier Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe brain edema is observed in a number of patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Little is known about its pathogenesis and time-course in the first hours after SAH. This study was performed to investigate the development of brain edema and its correlation with brain perfusion after experimental SAH. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats, randomly assigned to one of six groups (n = 8, were subjected to SAH using the endovascular filament model or underwent a sham operation. Animals were sacrificed 15, 30, 60, 180 or 360 minutes after SAH. Intracranial pressure (ICP, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP and bilateral local cerebral blood flow (LCBF were continuously measured. Brain water content (BWC was determined by the wet/dry-weight method. Results After SAH, CPP and LCBF rapidly decreased. The decline of LCBF markedly exceeded the decline of CPP and persisted until the end of the observation period. BWC continuously increased. A significant correlation was observed between the BWC and the extent of the perfusion deficit in animals sacrificed after 180 and 360 minutes. Conclusions The significant correlation with the perfusion deficit after SAH suggests that the development of brain edema is related to the extent of ischemia and acute vasoconstriction in the first hours after SAH.

  17. Clinical Trials in Cardiac Arrest and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Lessons from the Past and Ideas for the Future

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    Jennifer A. Frontera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Elevated intracranial pressure that occurs at the time of cerebral aneurysm rupture can lead to inadequate cerebral blood flow, which may mimic the brain injury cascade that occurs after cardiac arrest. Insights from clinical trials in cardiac arrest may provide direction for future early brain injury research after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Methods. A search of PubMed from 1980 to 2012 and clinicaltrials.gov was conducted to identify published and ongoing randomized clinical trials in aneurysmal SAH and cardiac arrest patients. Only English, adult, human studies with primary or secondary mortality or neurological outcomes were included. Results. A total of 142 trials (82 SAH, 60 cardiac arrest met the review criteria (103 published, 39 ongoing. The majority of both published and ongoing SAH trials focus on delayed secondary insults after SAH (70%, while 100% of cardiac arrest trials tested interventions within the first few hours of ictus. No SAH trials addressing treatment of early brain injury were identified. Twenty-nine percent of SAH and 13% of cardiac arrest trials showed outcome benefit, though there is no overlap mechanistically. Conclusions. Clinical trials in SAH assessing acute brain injury are warranted and successful interventions identified by the cardiac arrest literature may be reasonable targets of the study.

  18. 慢性化脓性中耳炎伴蛛网膜下腔出血病例分析%Chronic suppurative otitis media induced subarachnoid hemorrhage: case analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠楠; 杨文强; 张怡; 孙圣荣

    2012-01-01

    Summary We present a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage induced by chronic suppurative otitis media, and discuss the possible mechanism here. Chronic suppurnlive otitis media is a common suppurative inflammation of middle ear, which can cause sorts of extracranial and intracranial complications in the situation of lower resistance or higher virulence. However, the condition of subarachnoid heamorrhage casued by chronic suppurative otitis media is quite rare. According to this case and previously published articles, we consider that meningitis may be the main reason of subarachnoid hemorrhage induced by chronic suppurative otitis media.

  19. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    Nelson de Azambuja Pereira Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vasospasm remains an extremely serious complication that affects patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH due to ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The current therapeutic armamentarium is still insufficient in many cases, and the search for new therapies is necessary. In this study, we evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC on cerebral arterial vasospasm using an experimental model. Twenty-four wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: [1] Control, [2] SAH, [3] SAH+NAC and [4] SAH+Placebo. The experimental model employed double subarachnoid injections of autologous blood. The proposed dose of NAC was 250 mg/kg intraperitoneally per day. We analyzed the inner area of the basilar artery to assess the action of NAC. The experimental model proved to be very adequate, with a mortality rate of 4%. The inner area of the basilar artery in the SAH group showed significant difference to the control group (p=0.009. The use of NAC significantly reduced vasospasm as compared to the untreated group (p=0.048 and established no significant difference to the control group (p=0.098. There was no significant improvement with the administration of placebo (p=0.97. The model of the dual hemorrhage proved to be very useful for vasospasm simulation, with overall low mortality. The administration of NAC significantly reduced vasospasm resulting from SAH, and may represent a new therapeutic alternative.

  20. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  1. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage with blister aneurysms: Endovascular management

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    Swati Dayanand Chinchure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blister aneurysms of are rare lesions representing a real challenge for diagnosis and management. They typically show small size, hemispherical shape, fragile wall, broad neck, and are arising from non-branching sites of intracranial arteries. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all aneurysms treated at our institution. Seventeen patients (6 male, 11 female with 17 blister aneurysms were identified (mean age 53.3, range 41-63 years. Clinical, procedural, angiographic data as well as follow up data were evaluated. Results: All patients presented with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Majority of the blister aneurysms were located in ICA while 1 was located at posterior cerebral artery, 1 at vertebral and 1 involving basilar artery. All patients were treated using single or overlapping stents and if possible additional coiling. There was no intra-operative rupture. Good outcome (mrs 0-2 was seen in 14 patients. Poor clinical outcome (mrs 3-5 was seen in 2 patients due to vasospasm induced ischemic deficits at discharge, both of them improved on follow up (mrs 1 on follow up. There were 3 mortalities, One patient died of rebleeding while other 2 died due to SAH induced complications. Follow-up angiography was available in 16 patients (one patient died before follow up angiogram and revealed complete or near complete aneurysm occlusion in 11, incomplete obliteration in 1 and no change in 2 cases. Two cases showed post-treatment angiographic aneurysm recurrence. Both cases were managed with repeat coiling and overlapping stent placement. Conclusion: Endovascular management using single/overlapping stent and if possible coil placement is technically safe and feasible in blister aneurysms. Overlapping stents lead to better aneurysm occlusion than a single stent. Blister aneurysm in dorso-medial ICA showed higher tendency of continued growth/recurrence, higher incidence of clinical vasospasm and in these cases early angiographic follow

  3. Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracen, A; Kotwica, Z; Woźniak-Kosek, A; Kasprzak, P

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is observed in cerebral injuries and has an impact on treatment results, being a predictor of fatal prognosis. In this study we retrospectively reviewed medical records of 250 consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for the frequency and treatment results of NPE. The following factors were taken under consideration: clinical status, aneurysm location, presence of NPE, intracranial pressure (ICP), and mortality. All patients had plain- and angio-computer tomography performed. NPE developed most frequently in case of the aneurysm located in the anterior communicating artery. The patients with grades I-III of SAH, according to the World Federation of Neurosurgeons staging, were immediately operated on, while those with poor grades IV and V had only an ICP sensor's implantation procedure performed. A hundred and eighty five patients (74.4 %) were admitted with grades I to III and 32 patients (12.8 %) were with grade IV and V each. NPE was not observed in SAH patients with grade I to III, but it developed in nine patients with grade IV and 11 patients with grade V. Of the 20 patients with NPE, 19 died. Of the 44 poor grade patients (grades IV-V) without NPE, 20 died. All poor grade patients had elevated ICP in a range of 24-56 mmHg. The patients with NPE had a greater ICP than those without NPE. Gender and age had no influence on the occurrence of NPE. We conclude that the development of neurogenic pulmonary edema in SAH patients with poor grades is a fatal prognostic as it about doubles the death rate to almost hundred percent.

  4. Endovascular treatment for pediatric intracranial aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xianli; Jiang, Chuhan; Li, Youxiang; Yang, Xinjian; Wu, Zhongxue [Capital Medical University, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, Hebei (China)

    2009-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to report the characteristics and outcomes of pediatric patients with intracranial aneurysms. From 1998 to 2005, 25 pediatric patients (aged {<=}17 years) with intracranial aneurysm were treated at our institute. Eleven of 25 patients had subarachnoid hemorrhage. In ten patients, the aneurysm was an incidental finding. One patient presented with cranial nerves dysfunction and three with neurological deficits. The locations of the aneurysms were as follows: vertebral artery (VA; n = 9), middle cerebral artery (MCA; n = 5), posterior cerebral artery (PCA; n = 4), basilar artery (BA; n = 2), anterior communicating artery (n = 2), anterior cerebral artery (n = 2), and internal carotid artery (n = 1). Five patients were treated with selective embolization with coils. Sixteen patients were treated with parent vessel occlusion (PVO). Eight PVOs were performed with balloons and eight were performed with coils. One patient with a VA aneurysm was spontaneously thrombosed 4 days after the initial diagnostic angiogram. In three patients treated with stent alone or stent-assisted coiling, one with BA trunk aneurysm died. One aneurismal recurrence occurred and was retreated. At a mean follow-up duration of 23.5 months, 96% of patients had a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 4 or 5. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms occur more commonly in male patients and have a predilection for the VA, PCA, and MCA. PVO is an effective and safe treatment for fusiform aneurysms. Basilar trunk fusiform aneurysms were difficult to treat and were associated with a high mortality rate. (orig.)

  5. Intraparenchymal intracranial pressure monitoring in patients with acute liver failure Monitoreo intraparenquimatoso de presión intracraneana en pacientes con falla hepática aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra T. Rabadán

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP is a common cause of death in acute liver failure (ALF and is determinant for decision-making regarding the timing of liver transplantation. The recommended type ICP monitoring device is controversial in ALF patients. Epidural devices had less risk of hemorrhagic complications, but they are less reliable than intraparenchymal ones. METHOD: Twenty-three patients with ALF were treated, and 19 of them received a liver transplant. Seventeen patients had ICP monitoring because of grade III-IV encephalopathy. All patients received fresh plasma (2-3 units before and during placing the intraparenchymal device. RESULTS: Eleven cases (64.7% had elevated ICP, and 6 patients (35.2% had normal values. One patient (5.9% had an asymptomatic small intraparenchymal haemorrhage ANTECEDENTES: La presión intracraneana elevada (PIC es una causa frecuente de muerte en la falla hepática aguda (FHA y es determinante para la toma de decisiones respecto del momento del transplante hepático. El tipo de dispositivo para el monitoreo de OIC es controversial em los pacientes em FHA. Los dispositivos epidurales tienen menos riesgo de complicaciones hemorrágicas, pero son menos confiables que los intraparenquimatosos. MÉTODO: Veintitrés pacientes con FHA fueron tratados, y 19 de ellos recibieron un transplante hepático. diecisiete pacientes tuvieron monitoreo de PIC debido a encefalopatía grado III-IV. Todos los pacientes recibieron plasma fresco (2-3 unidades antes y durante la colocación de la fibra intraparenquimatosa. RESULTADOS: Once casos (64.7% tuvieron PIC elevada, y 6 pacientes (35.2% tuvieron valores normales. Un paciente (5.9% tuvo una pequeña hemorragia intraparenquimatosa asintomática <1cm³ en TAC, la cual no impidió el transplante hepático. CONCLUSIÓN: En nuestra experiencia, el monitoreo intraparenquimatoso de presión intracraneana en pacientes con FHA parece ser un método preciso y con bajo riesgo

  6. [Prolonged hypothermia in refractory intracranial hypertension. Report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovegno, Maximiliano; Valenzuela, José Luis; Mellado, Patricio; Andresen, Max

    2012-02-01

    The use of hypothermia after cardiac arrest caused by ventricular fibrillation is a standard clinical practice, however its use for neuroprotection has been extended to other conditions. We report a 23-year-old male with intracranial hypertension secondary to a parenchymal hematoma associated to acute hydrocephalus. An arterial malformation was found and embolized. Due to persistent intracranial hypertension, moderate hypothermia with a target temperature of 33°C was started. After 12 hours of hypothermia, intracranial pressure was controlled. After 13 days of hypothermia a definitive control of intracranial pressure was achieved. The patient was discharged 40 days after admission, remains with a mild hemiparesia and is reassuming his university studies.

  7. Monitoring of Intracranial Pressure During Intracranial Endoscopy

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    Rajeev Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intracranial endoscopy is a minimum invasive procedure, which reduces trauma to the brain, is cost-effective, and carries a shortened hospital stay with an improved postoperative outcome. Objective: To monitor intracranial pressure changes during intracranial endoscopy among children and adults under general anesthesia/sedation, and to compare the intracranial pressure changes between children and adults receiving general anesthesia and among adults receiving general anesthesia and sedation. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the tertiary care hospitals of Lucknow. This was carried out in the department of neurosurgery from January 2008 to December 2008. Patients who were not fit for general anesthesia received local anesthesia under sedation. Patients participating in the study were divided into three groups. Intracranial pressure was recorded at specific intervals. Parametric data were subjected to statistical analysis using a student\\s t test. Result: A total of 70 patients were undergoing intracranial endoscopy under general anesthesia during the study period. In both groups A and B, intracranial pressure increases the maximum during inflation of the balloon. In group C, all the variations in ICP were found to be statistically significant. In the comparison of intracranial pressure changes between groups A and B, no significant difference was found. All correlations in the comparison of groups B and C were found to be statistically significant (p< 0.001. Conclusion: There is a need for continuous intraoperative monitoring of ICP intracranial endoscopy, because ICP increases in various stages of the procedure, which can be detrimental to the perfusion of the brain. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(4.000: 240-245

  8. CT perfusion on admission and cognitive functioning 3 months after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wajer, Irene M. C. Huenges; Cremers, Charlotte H. P.; van Zandvoort, Martine J. E.; Vergouwen, Mervyn D. I.; van der Schaaf, Irene C.; Velthuis, BK; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Vos, Pieter C.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) have persistent cognitive deficits. Underlying causes of these deficits have not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate if cerebral perfusion in the acute phase after aSAH measured with CT perfusion (CTP) is associated with cognitive out

  9. CT perfusion on admission and cognitive functioning 3 months after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huenges Wajer, Irene M C; Cremers, Charlotte H P; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; van der Schaaf, Irene C.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Vos, Pieter C.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Rinkel, Gabriel J E

    2015-01-01

    Many survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) have persistent cognitive deficits. Underlying causes of these deficits have not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate if cerebral perfusion in the acute phase after aSAH measured with CT perfusion (CTP) is associated with cognitive

  10. Combined application of virtual imaging techniques and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography in diagnosing intracranial aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background The diagnostic value of virtual imaging combined with three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) for intracranial aneurysms has not been fully elucidated yet. This study aimed to evaluate the value of combined application of virtual imaging techniques and 3D-CTA in diagnosing patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at the acute stage. Methods Eighty patients with non-traumatic SAH received 3D-CTA examinations. The raw CT data of these patients were reconstructed and transferred into the 3D mode through the surgical plan system based on virtual reality (VR) image, and the 3D virtual images of skulls and brain blood vessels were acquired. The location, size and shape of aneurysms and their anatomic relationship with adjacent tissues were measured from many points of view. Results Seventy-three aneurysms were detected in 68 of the 80 patients, but 2 aneurysms were detected in 2 of the 5 patients who had been found free of aneurysms previously and had received 3D-CTA examinations for a second time one month later. The 3D virtual images produced by the virtual imaging system were clear and vivid, and they could reveal the location and size of the aneurysm and its relations to the parent artery and skull directly. Conclusions The imaging of 3D-CTA is convenient, reliable and fast in diagnosing intracranial aneurysms and can be regarded as the first choice for the diagnosis and treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Combined with the surgical plan system based on the VR image, 3D-CTA may obtain more imaging information about aneurysms.

  11. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracereebral hematoma following lumboperitoneal shunt for pseudotumor cerebri : a rare complication.

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    Suri A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Placement of lumboperitoneal (LP shunt as a surgical treatment for benign intracranial hypertension (BIH is generally a safe procedure, with complications like mechanical failure, overdrainage and infections. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hematoma were seen after lumboperitoneal shunt in a patient having BIH. These complications were the cause of the patient′s deterioration. After removal of the hematoma and performing a decompressive procedure, patient′s neurological condition improved. The clinical features, investigations and clinical course are described and the literature reviewed.

  12. Neurosarcoidosis-related intracranial haemorrhage: three new cases and a systematic review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, J P

    2012-06-09

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial haemorrhage in neurosarcoidosis (NS-ICH) is rare, poorly understood and the diagnosis of NS may not be immediately apparent. METHODS: The clinical features of three new NS-ICH cases are described including new neuropathological findings and collated with cases from a systematic literature review. RESULTS: Cases: (i) A 41-year-old man with headaches, hypoandrogenism and encephalopathy developed a cerebellar haemorrhage. He had neuropathological confirmation of NS with biopsy-proven angiocentric granulomata and venous disruption. He responded to immunosuppressive therapy. (ii) A 41-year-old man with no history of hypertension was found unconscious. A subsequently fatal pontine haemorrhage was diagnosed. Liver biopsy revealed sarcoid granulomas. (iii) A 36-year-old man with raised intracranial pressure headaches presented with a seizure and a frontal haemorrhage. Hilar lymph node biopsy confirmed sarcoidosis, and he was treated successfully. Systematic Review: Twelve other published cases were identified and collated with our cases. Average age was 36 years and M:F = 2.3:1; 46% presented with neurological symptoms and 31% had CNS-isolated disease. Immediate symptoms of ICH were acute\\/worsening headache or seizures (60%). ICH was supratentorial (62%), infratentorial (31%) or subarachnoid (7%). 40% had definite NS, 53% probable NS and 7% possible NS (Zajicek criteria). Antigranulomatous\\/immunosuppressive therapy regimens varied and 31% died. CONCLUSIONS: This series expands our knowledge of the pathology of NS-ICH, which may be of arterial or venous origin. One-third have isolated NS. Clinicians should consider NS in young-onset ICH because early aggressive antigranulomatous therapy may improve outcome.

  13. Método para registro continuo da pressão intracraniana A method for continuous monitoring of the intracranial pressure

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    Henrique S. Ivamoto

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com hipertensão intracraniana aguda podem ser melhor manipulados se a pressão intracraniana for constantemente medida. Uma série de 91 pacientes com traumatismos cranio-encefálicos agudos, hemorragia subaracnóidea, encefalite, hemorragia intracerebral, ou intoxicação por monóxido de carbono foi acompanhada usando o interruptor a pressão de Numoto por um método aqui descrito. O principal benefício tem sido o conhecimento do valor da pressão intracraniana a todo momento e a detecção rápida de elevações da pressão. Complicações se limitaram a 3 casos de infecção. Dois deles foram pequenas coleções purulentas no ponto de saída do tubo no couro cabeludo. Um paciente com uma fratura craniana exposta, laceração cerebral e hematoma intracerebral desenvolveu uma infecção da ferida operatoria e abscesso cerebral que requereu drenagem.Patients suffering acute intracranial pressure increases can be more advantageously handled if the intracranial pressure is constantly monitored. 91 patients with acute head injuries, hydrocephalus, cerebral infarction, subarachnoid hemorrhage, encephalitis, intracerebral hemorrhage, or carbon monoxide intoxication have been so monitored by using the Numoto pressure switch by a method herein described. The main advantage has been the knowledge of the level of intracranial pressure at any given time and the early detection of a rising pressure when this phenomenon occurred. There were no complications except for 3 cases of infection. Two of these cases were minor purulent collections only at the site of exit of the tube in the scalp. One patient with a compound wound, cerebral laceration, and intracerebral hematoma developed a wound infection and brain abscess which required drainage.

  14. Intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure monitoring in non-TBI patients: special considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbok, Raimund; Olson, DaiWai M; Le Roux, Peter D; Vespa, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The effect of intracranial pressure (ICP) and the role of ICP monitoring are best studied in traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, a variety of acute neurologic illnesses e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, meningitis/encephalitis, and select metabolic disorders, e.g., liver failure and malignant, brain tumors can affect ICP. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature about ICP monitoring in conditions other than TBI and to provide recommendations how the technique may be used in patient management. A PubMed search between 1980 and September 2013 identified 989 articles; 225 of which were reviewed in detail. The technique used to monitor ICP in non-TBI conditions is similar to that used in TBI; however, indications for ICP monitoring often are intertwined with the presence of obstructive hydrocephalus and hence the use of ventricular catheters is more frequent. Increased ICP can adversely affect outcome, particularly when it fails to respond to treatment. However, patients with elevated ICP can still have favorable outcomes. Although the influence of ICP-based care on outcome in non-TBI conditions appears less robust than in TBI, monitoring ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure can play a role in guiding therapy in select patients.

  15. Advances in Intracranial Pressure Monitoring and Its Significance in Managing Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmah Kawoos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial pressure (ICP measurements are essential in evaluation and treatment of neurological disorders such as subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, hydrocephalus, meningitis/encephalitis, and traumatic brain injury (TBI. The techniques of ICP monitoring have evolved from invasive to non-invasive—with both limitations and advantages. Some limitations of the invasive methods include short-term monitoring, risk of infection, restricted mobility of the subject, etc. The invasiveness of a method limits the frequency of ICP evaluation in neurological conditions like hydrocephalus, thus hampering the long-term care of patients with compromised ICP. Thus, there has been substantial interest in developing noninvasive techniques for assessment of ICP. Several approaches were reported, although none seem to provide a complete solution due to inaccuracy. ICP measurements are fundamental for immediate care of TBI patients in the acute stages of severe TBI injury. In severe TBI, elevated ICP is associated with mortality or poor clinical outcome. ICP monitoring in conjunction with other neurological monitoring can aid in understanding the pathophysiology of brain damage. This review article presents: (a the significance of ICP monitoring; (b ICP monitoring methods (invasive and non-invasive; and (c the role of ICP monitoring in the management of brain damage, especially TBI.

  16. Advances in Intracranial Pressure Monitoring and Its Significance in Managing Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawoos, Usmah; McCarron, Richard M; Auker, Charles R; Chavko, Mikulas

    2015-12-04

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) measurements are essential in evaluation and treatment of neurological disorders such as subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, hydrocephalus, meningitis/encephalitis, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The techniques of ICP monitoring have evolved from invasive to non-invasive-with both limitations and advantages. Some limitations of the invasive methods include short-term monitoring, risk of infection, restricted mobility of the subject, etc. The invasiveness of a method limits the frequency of ICP evaluation in neurological conditions like hydrocephalus, thus hampering the long-term care of patients with compromised ICP. Thus, there has been substantial interest in developing noninvasive techniques for assessment of ICP. Several approaches were reported, although none seem to provide a complete solution due to inaccuracy. ICP measurements are fundamental for immediate care of TBI patients in the acute stages of severe TBI injury. In severe TBI, elevated ICP is associated with mortality or poor clinical outcome. ICP monitoring in conjunction with other neurological monitoring can aid in understanding the pathophysiology of brain damage. This review article presents: (a) the significance of ICP monitoring; (b) ICP monitoring methods (invasive and non-invasive); and (c) the role of ICP monitoring in the management of brain damage, especially TBI.

  17. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioannis N Mavridis; Maria Meliou; Efstratios-Stylianos Pyrgelis

    2015-01-01

    Troponin (tr) elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words:“troponin elevation”and“subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG) changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr>1μg/L), worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients’ cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  18. Experimental study in establishment of acute intracranial hypertension model and the effect of intracranial hypertension upon pattern of transcranial Doppler%急性局灶性颅内压升高动物模型的建立及颅内压升高对经颅多普勒频谱影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万景雯; 吴钢; 林建东; 郑依勇

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish the animal model of acute intracranial hypertension,investigate the changes of transeranial Doppler patterns in raised intraeranial pressure so that the necessary experimental evidence will be provided to clinical experience for monitoring intraeranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) using transeranial Doppler non-invasively. Methods Acute intraeranial hypertension was induced by inflating the balloon inserted into the epidural space. Blood flow velocity of basilar artery was measured with transcranial Doppler and intracranial pressure as well as cerebral perfusion pressure was measured. Results With progressive increase of intracranial pressure five characteristic flow patterns were observed, appearing in the following order: high resistance pattern, systolic flow, retrograde diastolic flow, very small systolic flow and zero flow. Conclusions Analysing patterns of TCD may be helpful for evaluating ICP and CPP qualitatively. The animal model is simple and strict so that it is worthy of being spreadcd.%目的 建立急性局灶性颅内高压动物模型,探讨兔颅内高压状态下经颅多普勒(TCD)频谱动态变化规律,为临床应用TCD无创监测颅内压(ICP)、脑灌注压(CPP)提供实验依据.方法 用硬膜外球囊注水法制作急性局灶性颅内高压动物模型,持续监测兔ICP、CPP及基底动脉TCD.结果 随着颅内压升高,依次出现5种典型的TCD频谱:高阻力血流频谱、收缩峰、舒张期逆向血流、极小的收缩峰、无血流.结论 根据TCD频谱变化能够定性判断颅内压和脑灌注压.本动物模型简便、严密,具有推广价值.

  19. Pseudo subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Finding of Diffuse Cerebral Edema Leading to Misdiagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Kılıç Çoban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased attenuation of the basal cisterns and subarachnoid spaces on CT scans is a characteristic finding of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. CT mimics of SAH have been called pseudo-SAH. Our case is presented to underline the differentiation of two diagnosis. A 63-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with right-sided hemiparesis and aphasia. He had middle cerebral artery enfarct on his CT. A week after his hospitalisation his neurological examination was deteriorated. A plain CT-scan of brain was consistent with sub-arachnoid hemorrhage. His antiagregant therapy was ended and anti edema therapy started. Urgent neurosurgical consultation was sought & surgery was not planned. Brain death was the finding in his CT angiography. So the CT-scan findings turned out to be `pseudo sub-arachnoid haemorrhage’.Pseudo sub-arachnoid haemorrhage is a rare CT scan finding that has been reported in different cerebral disease with cerebral edema. MR imaging studies, CSF examination by lumbar puncture and the criterias proposed by Yazawa can be useful to make the diagnosis. The aim is the unnecessary termination of antiagregant and anticoagulant therapy.

  20. Pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury or subarachnoid haemorrhage - in "Endocrine Management in the Intensive Care Unit".

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2012-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage are important causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. There is a large body of evidence that demonstrates that both conditions may adversely affect pituitary function in both the acute and chronic phases of recovery. Diagnosis of hypopituitarism and accurate treatment of pituitary disorders offers the opportunity to improve mortality and outcome in both traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage. In this article, we will review the history and pathophysiology of pituitary function in the acute phase following traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage, and we will discuss in detail three key aspects of pituitary dysfunction which occur in the early course of TBI; acute cortisol deficiency, diabetes insipidus and SIAD.

  1. Pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury or subarachnoid haemorrhage - in "Endocrine Management in the Intensive Care Unit".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, M J; Sherlock, M; Thompson, C J

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage are important causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. There is a large body of evidence that demonstrates that both conditions may adversely affect pituitary function in both the acute and chronic phases of recovery. Diagnosis of hypopituitarism and accurate treatment of pituitary disorders offers the opportunity to improve mortality and outcome in both traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage. In this article, we will review the history and pathophysiology of pituitary function in the acute phase following traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage, and we will discuss in detail three key aspects of pituitary dysfunction which occur in the early course of TBI; acute cortisol deficiency, diabetes insipidus and SIAD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intracranial Vessel Wall MRI: An Emerging Technique With a Multitude of Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Joanna D; Mikulis, David J; Mandell, Daniel M

    2016-04-01

    Intracranial vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (VW-MRI) can be a useful diagnostic technique in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Unlike conventional vascular imaging that depicts only the vessel lumen, VW-MRI allows visualization of pathology in the arterial wall itself. The ability to image the arterial wall is useful, as many pathological processes reside within the wall and only secondarily affect the lumen. In this review, we will present 6 clinical uses for intracranial wall imaging to highlight the versatility of this technique.

  3. Combined extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery with stent-assisted coil embolization for moyamoya disease with a ruptured wide-necked basilar trunk aneurysm: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hanqiang; Ni, Wei; Lei, Yu; Li, Yanjiang; Gu, Yuxiang

    2015-01-01

    A ruptured wide-necked basilar trunk aneurysm is uncommon in patients with moyamoya disease. The optimal treatment is unclear. We report a safe and beneficial treatment modality for moyamoya disease with aneurysms located in the posterior circulation. A 37-year-old man presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage was admitted to our hospital. Emergent cerebral angiography demonstrated moyamoya disease associated with a wide-necked basilar trunk aneurysm. We performed bilateral extracranial-intracranial bypass surgeries prior to stent-assisted coil embolization of the aneurysm after the acute phase. No complication occurred and the patient was discharged with no neurological deficit. Follow-up digital subtraction angiography (DSA) performed 6 months after the surgery showed that all the anastomosises were patent and bilateral collateral vascular compensation was fully established with no recanalization of the basilar trunk aneurysm post embolization.We also found that high-flow bypass did not contribute to cerebral revascularization as imagined despite the good patency. Combined extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery with endovascular treatment proved to be an efficient therapeutic modality for moyamoya disease with aneurysms located in the posterior circulation. High-flow bypass surgery was not essential due to the inefficiency and the high risk of postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome.

  4. Chronic hydrocephalus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lackner

    Full Text Available Chronic communicating hydrocephalus is a significant health problem affecting up to 20% of survivors of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. The development of new treatment strategies is hampered by the lack of well characterized disease models. This study investigated the incidence of chronic hydrocephalus by evaluating the temporal profile of intracranial pressure (ICP elevation after SAH, induced by endovascular perforation in rats. Twenty-five adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (260-320 g were subjected to either endovascular perforation or sham surgery. Five animals died after SAH induction. At 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery ICP was measured by stereotaxic puncture of the cisterna magna in SAH (n=10 and SHAM (n=10 animals. On day 21 T-maze test was performed and the number of alterations and latency to decision was recorded. On day 23, samples were processed for histological analyses. The relative ventricle area was evaluated in coronal Nissl stained sections. On day 7 after surgery all animals showed normal ICP. The absolute ICP values were significantly higher in SAH compared to SHAM animals on day 21 (8.26±4.53 mmHg versus 4.38±0.95 mmHg but not on day 14. Observing an ICP of 10 mmHg as cut-off, 3 animals showed elevated ICP on day 14 and another animal on day 21. The overall incidence of ICP elevation was 40% in SAH animals. On day 21, results of T-maze testing were significantly correlated with ICP values, i.e. animals with elevated ICP showed a lower number of alterations and a delayed decision. Histology yielded a significantly higher (3.59 fold increased relative ventricle area in SAH animals with ICP elevation compared to SAH animals without ICP elevation. In conclusion, the current study shows that experimental SAH leads to chronic hydrocephalus, which is associated with ICP elevation, behavioral alterations and ventricular dilation in about 40% of SAH animals.

  5. Temporal comparative analysis of computed tomography with ultrasound for intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisling, R.G.; Reeder, J.D.; Kaude, J.V.; Setzer, E.S.

    1983-02-01

    This study focuses on comparison of computed tomography and ultrasound in premature infants with intracranial hemorrhage and its complications. It was determined that close correlation (95%) exists between CT and ultrasound for evaluations of ventriculomegaly. Although there is reasonable correlation for the identification and localization of periventricular, intraventricular and choroidal hemorrhages, ultrasound defined such lesions at higher rates. Subarachnoid blood and periventricular edema were diagnosed better or exclusively by CT.

  6. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  7. NOISY INTRACRANIAL TUMORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDOOREN, BTH; VANBRUGGEN, AC; MOOIJ, JJA; HEW, JM; JOURNEE, HL

    1994-01-01

    Transorbital sound recordings were obtained from 21 patients with intracranial tumours, 28 patients with intracranial aneurysms and 20 control patients. The group of patients with tumours consisted of 12 patients with gliomas, of whom 6 had low-grade gliomas and 6 had high-grade gliomas, and 9 patie

  8. Paediatric intracranial aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Wani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial aneurysms in childhood account for 1-2% of intracranial aneurysms.[1],[2] These aneurysms have unique characteristics that make them different from those in adults. These differences are evident in their epidemiology, location, clinical spectrum, association with trauma and infection, complications and outcome.

  9. Hypopituitarism is uncommon after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Marianne; Brennum, Jannick; Poulsgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has recently been reported as a common cause of chronic hypopituitarism, and introduction of routine neuroendocrine screening has been advocated. We aimed at estimating the risk of hypopituitarism after SAH using strict criteria including confirmatory...

  10. Intracranial cerebrospinal fluid spaces imaging using a pulse-triggered three-dimensional turbo spin echo MR sequence with variable flip-angle distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodel, Jerome [Unite Analyse et Restauration du Mouvement, UMR-CNRS, 8005 LBM ParisTech Ensam, Paris (France); University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neuroradiology, Creteil (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Creteil (France); Silvera, Jonathan [University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neuroradiology, Creteil (France); Bekaert, Olivier; Decq, Philippe [Unite Analyse et Restauration du Mouvement, UMR-CNRS, 8005 LBM ParisTech Ensam, Paris (France); University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neurosurgery, Creteil (France); Rahmouni, Alain [University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Radiology, Creteil (France); Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie [University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Public Health, Creteil (France); Vignaud, Alexandre [Siemens Healthcare, Saint Denis (France); Petit, Eric; Durning, Bruno [Laboratoire Images Signaux et Systemes Intelligents, UPEC, Creteil (France)

    2011-02-15

    To assess the three-dimensional turbo spin echo with variable flip-angle distribution magnetic resonance sequence (SPACE: Sampling Perfection with Application optimised Contrast using different flip-angle Evolution) for the imaging of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. We prospectively investigated 18 healthy volunteers and 25 patients, 20 with communicating hydrocephalus (CH), five with non-communicating hydrocephalus (NCH), using the SPACE sequence at 1.5T. Volume rendering views of both intracranial and ventricular CSF were obtained for all patients and volunteers. The subarachnoid CSF distribution was qualitatively evaluated on volume rendering views using a four-point scale. The CSF volumes within total, ventricular and subarachnoid spaces were calculated as well as the ratio between ventricular and subarachnoid CSF volumes. Three different patterns of subarachnoid CSF distribution were observed. In healthy volunteers we found narrowed CSF spaces within the occipital aera. A diffuse narrowing of the subarachnoid CSF spaces was observed in patients with NCH whereas patients with CH exhibited narrowed CSF spaces within the high midline convexity. The ratios between ventricular and subarachnoid CSF volumes were significantly different among the volunteers, patients with CH and patients with NCH. The assessment of CSF spaces volume and distribution may help to characterise hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  11. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  12. 猪急性颅高压损伤模型的病理生理及超微结构改变%Pathophysiological and ultrastructural changes in porcine model of acute intracranial hypertension brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 成惠林; 杭春华; 史继新; 印红霞; 吴晋荣; 黎介寿

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察猪急性颅高压损伤模型的病理生理变化及超微结构改变.方法 选用中型猪5只,采用微量泵注射自体动脉血法建立急性颅高压损伤控制模型,模型制备过程中及制备后2h持续监测颅内压、平均动脉压变化,注血后2h行头部CT扫描,24 h取脑行大体切片,苏木精-伊红染色光镜观察组织学病理改变、超微电镜观察受损神经元的超微结构改变.结果 注血后颅内压、平均动脉压均明显上升,最高分别达(51.2±2.5) mmHg和(152.7±12.8) mmHg,颅内压升至约50 mmHg时,出现呼吸、心率改变;头部CT扫描、大体切片均显示脑内血肿形成;电镜检查显示血肿区神经元肿胀,胞质内细胞器数量减少,线粒体肿胀,嵴排列不整齐,粗面内质网颗粒扩张,血管内皮细胞肿胀,基膜不完整,血管周围可见明显水肿带.结论 采用微量泵注射自体动脉血法可建立稳定、可靠的猪急性颅高压损伤控制模型.%Objective To observe the pathophysiological and ultrastructural changes in the porcine model of acute intracranial hypertension brain injury. Methods Autologous arterial blood was injected into the brain in 5 middle-weighted pigs by micro-pump for establishing the brain injury model due to acute intracranial hypertension. And the change of intracranial pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were monitored. CT scanning was performed 2 h after blood injection. After H&E staining, histological changes were observed under light microscope and ultrastructural changes under electron microscope. Results ICP and MAP significantly increased after the blood injection, and the peak reached 51.2 ± 2.5 mmHg and 152.7 ± 12.8 mmHg respectively. The porcine respiration and heart rate changed when the ICP increased to about 50 mmHg. CT scanning and pathological examination all showed the brain hematoma formed. Electron microscope examination showed that the neuronal swelling in hematoma area

  13. 急性外伤性颅内血肿患者术后发生迟发性脑出血的临床分析%Clinical analysis of acute traumatic intracranial hematoma with postoperative delayed cerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡亮

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨急性外伤性颅内血肿患者的临床特征与术后迟发性脑出血发生的相关性,寻找防治措施。方法:回顾分析58例急性外伤性颅内血肿患者开颅血肿清除术后再出血的临床资料,其中23例患者术后发生迟发性脑出血( DTIH组),35例未发生( NDTIH)组。对2组患者的临床特征进行总结归纳,分析寻找再出血原因,对迟发性脑出血患者行再次手术治疗,并随访行GOS评分。结果:与NDTIH组比较DTIH组有如下特征:术前GCS评分<8分(p<0.05);术前头颅CT提示多有多发脑挫伤,对冲伤,合并颅骨骨折等,并予及时再次手术治疗,术后随访行GOS评估≥4分18例。结论:根据急性外伤性颅内血肿开颅术后患者的临床特征,及时发现迟发性脑出血,并清除迟发性颅内血肿,是提高疗效的关键。%Objective:To explore the corelation between the clinical features of patients with incidence of acute traumatic intracranial hematoma and late postoperative hemorrhage occurs and to make prevention and control measures .Methods:The clinical data of 58 cases divided two groups,postoperative delayed cerebral hemorrhage (DTIH,n=23) and did not occur (NDTIH,n=35),of acute traumatic in-tracranial hematoma in patients with invasive hematoma removal were retrospectively analyzed ,which to invastigate the reason of rehaemor-rhagia and did surgical treatment again ,to follow up through GOS score .Results:Compared with the NDTIH group ,the DTIH had the fol-lowing characteristics:preoperative GCS score <8 points ( p <0.05);Preoperative skull CT indicated that multiple cerebral contusion , hedge, skull fractures, etc,which to timely surgery again , there were18 cases those value of GOS evaluation were four points or more . Conclusion:According to the clinical features of patients with acute traumatic intracranial hematoma after craniotomy , timely detected the late-onset cerebral

  14. Hydrocephalus associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage: clinical study by computed tomography, radioisotope cisternography and constant infusion test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosaka,Yoshiki

    1981-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen patients exhibited a communicating hydrocephalus following subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured intracranial aneurysms and were treated with shunt procedures. The interval between subarachnoid hemorrhage and surgery averaged 9 weeks. Seven of the patients showed improvement. The prognostic value for surgical management was evaluated on the basis of three different diagnostic examinations (computed tomography(CT, cisternography and constant infusion test. A correct diagnosis was obtained in 78 per cent in cisternography, and 63 per cent in infusion test and CT. All patients responding to surgery showed a typical pattern in cisternography, consisting of ventricular retention of radiopharmaceutical tracer for 48 h or longer in association with no radioactivity over the cerebral hemispheres. The constant infusion test correlated well with typical cisternographic patterns. CT is useful in demonstrating pathophysiological changes in hydrocephalus. Periventricular hypodensity was visible in patients with normal or slightly elevated intracranial pressure, accompanied by fairly rapid deterioration. All of them responded well to shunting. In most cases which benefited from the shunt, the postoperative CT showed not only normal-sized ventricles but also marked regression of the hypodensity over a short period.

  15. Hydrocephalus associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Clinical study by computed tomography, radioisotope cisternography and constant infusion test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosaka, Y. (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-02-01

    Thirteen patients exhibited a communicating hydrocephalus following subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured intracranial aneurysms and were treated with shunt procedures. The interval between subarachnoid hemorrhage and surgery averaged 9 weeks. Seven of the patients showed improvement. The prognostic value for surgical management was evaluated on the basis of three different diagnostic examinations (computed tomography (CT), cisternography and constant infusion test). A correct diagnosis was obtained in 78 per cent in cisternography, and 63 per cent in infusion test and CT. All patients responding to surgery showed a typical pattern in cisternography, consisting of ventricular retention of radiopharmaceutical tracer for 48 h or longer in association with no radioactivity over the cerebral hemispheres. The constant infusion test correlated well with typical cisternographic patterns. CT is useful in demonstrating pathophysiological changes in hydrocephalus. Periventricular hypodensity was visible in patients with normal or slightly elevated intracranial pressure, accompanied by fairly rapid deterioration. All of them responded well to shunting. In most cases which benefited from the shunt, the postoperative CT showed not only normal-sized ventricles but also marked regression of the hypodensity over a short period.

  16. The clinical features and treatment of pediatric intracranial aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiantao; Bao, Yuhai; Zhang, Hongqi; Wrede, Karsten Henning; Zhi, Xinglong; Li, Meng; Ling, Feng

    2009-03-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are relatively rare in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to highlight the clinical and radiological features and the therapeutic outcome and clarify the choice of therapeutic strategies for pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Twenty-four consecutive children (age aneurysms in our institute in the last 23 years were included in this study. There were nine (36%) patients with posterior circulation aneurysms and eight (32%) with giant aneurysms. Eleven (46%) patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Fifteen patients underwent endovascular treatment, and four received microsurgical therapy. Five patients were treated conservatively. Ninety-two percent (n=22) of the patients showed favorable outcomes. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms differ in many ways from those in adults: male predominance; high incidence of giant, dissecting, and fusiform aneurysms; high incidence of aneurysms in the posterior circulation; high incidence of spontaneous thrombosis; better Hunt-Hess grades at presentation; and better therapeutic outcome. For children with intracranial aneurysms, both microsurgical approaches and endovascular treatment were effective. For many complex aneurysms, endovascular therapy was the best choice.

  17. Ruptured intracranial aneurysm in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta: 2 familial cases and a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaberel, T; Rochey, A; di Palma, C; Lucas, F; Touze, E; Emery, E

    2016-12-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is an inherited connective tissue disorder that causes bone fragility. Vascular complications have been described, but only few cases of ruptured intracranial aneurysm have been reported. We first described 2 familial cases of ruptured intracranial aneurysm and then conducted a systematic review of the literature. A mother and her daughter with a typical history of osteogenesis imperfecta presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, which was related to a posterior communicating artery aneurysm in both cases. The mother had early rebleeding and died. The aneurysm was excluded by coiling in the daughter. Despite occurrence of hydrocephalus and delayed cerebral ischemia, she had an excellent functional outcome. A systematic review of the literature identified seven additional cases. None of the cases were in fact familial. All patients had a previous medical history of multiple fractures. Seven aneurysms were resolved, three by surgical clipping and four by endovascular procedure. No periprocedural complication was reported. One patient died prematurely and 6 experienced good functional outcome. We report the first familial cases of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in osteogenesis imperfecta patients. Intracranial aneurysms are probably linked to a collagen pathology, which is at the origin of osteogenesis imperfecta. In cases of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in an osteogenesis imperfecta family, intracranial aneurysm screenings in the relatives showing osteogenesis imperfecta should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Intracranial Hypotension with Multiple Complications: An Unusual Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Ade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Undiagnosed intracranial hypotension can result in several complications including subdural hematoma (SDH, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, dural venous sinuses thrombosis (CVT, cranial nerve palsies, and stupor resulting from sagging of the brain. It is rare to see all the complications in one patient. Furthermore, imaging of the brain vasculature may reveal incidental asymptomatic small aneurysms. Given the combination of these imaging findings and a severe headache, the patients are often confused to have a primary subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case Report. We present a patient with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH who had an incidental ophthalmic artery aneurysm on MR imaging, and this presentation led to coiling of the aneurysm. The key aspect in the history “postural headaches” was missed, and this led to life threatening complications and unnecessary interventions. Revisiting the history and significant improvement in symptoms following an epidural blood patch resulted in the diagnosis of SIH. Conclusion. We strongly emphasize that appropriate history taking is the key in the diagnosis of SIH and providing timely treatment with an epidural blood patch could prevent potentially life threatening complications.

  19. Risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in first degree relatives of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, D; Vaeth, M; Tsiropoulos, I

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of occurrence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in first degree relatives (parents, siblings, children) of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. DESIGN: Population based cohort study using data from the Danish National Discharge Registry and the Central Person Registry....... SUBJECTS: Incident cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage admitted to hospital from 1977 to 1995 (9367 patients) and their first degree relatives (14 781). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence rate of subarachnoid haemorrhage was determined for the relatives and compared with that of the entire population......, standardised for age, sex, and calendar period. This process was repeated for patients discharged from neurosurgery units, as diagnoses from these wards had high validity (93%). RESULTS: 18 patients had a total of 19 first degree relatives with subarachnoid haemorrhage during the study period, corresponding...

  20. Differentiating Concussion From Intracranial Pathology in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Andrea; Livingston, Scott C

    2017-01-01

    Clinical Scenario: A cerebral concussion is a traumatically induced transient disturbance of brain function characterized by a complex pathophysiologic process and is classified as a subset of mild traumatic brain injury. The occurrence of intracranial lesions after sport-related head injury is relatively uncommon, but the possibility of serious intracranial injury (ICI) should be included in the differential diagnosis. ICIs are potentially life threatening and necessitate urgent medical management; therefore, prompt recognition and evaluation are critical to proper medical management. One of the primary objectives of the initial evaluation is to determine if the concussed athlete has an acute traumatic ICI. Athletic trainers must be able promptly recognize clinical signs and symptoms that will enable them to accurately differentiate between a concussion (ie, a closed head injury not associated with significant ICI) and an ICI. The identification of predictors of intracranial lesions is, however, relatively broad. Focused Clinical Question: Which clinical examination findings (ie, clinical signs and symptoms) indicate possible intracranial pathology in individuals with acute closed head injuries?

  1. A study about histopathological change of NBCA injected into subarachnoid space of the cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Hong; Kim, Hak Jin; Choi, Kyung Un; Lee, Suk Hong; Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Suk Hong [College of Medicine, Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-02-01

    To determine the histopathological changes occurring after the injection of NBCA (n-butyl cyanoacrylate) into the subarachnoid space of the cat. A 1:4 NBCA-Lipiodol mixture was injected into the subarachnoid space of ten cats by cervical spinal tap. Two weeks later all cats were sacrificed, and histopathological examination of the cerebrospinal leptomeninges, blood vessels and parenchyma was undertaken. 1. Changes in leptomeninges: Foreign body giant cells were noted in five cases, fibrosis in six and acute inflammation in all ten. Chronic inflammatory change accompanied 7 of 10 acute inflammations. 2. Changes in blood vessels: One case was excluded because blood vessels were not included in pathologic tissue. Acute vasculitis was noted in six cases, thrombosis in one, and one showed fibrotic change without necrosis in the media of the vessel wall. Among the six with acute vasculitis, severe change was noted in one and mild change in five. 3. Changes in parenchyma: Mild parenchymal inflammation was discovered in two cases and mild infarction in one. Parenchymal changes were limited to the outer cortex. The injection of NBCA into the subarachnoid space of the cat caused toxic histopathological changes in the cerebrospinal meninges, blood vessels, and parenchyma.

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of intracranial aneurysm in pediatric patients%儿童颅内动脉瘤诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王治平; 吴洁; 俞炬明; 朱铭

    2001-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical manifestations of the intracranial aneurysm and to evaluate theeffect of embolization therapy with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDC) in pediatric patients. Methods Three patientswith intracranial aneurysm were reported, all of them complicated with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SA H). Thesymptoms and signs were nonspecific and the diagnoses were made by digital subtracted angiography (DSA). Accordingto Hunt and Hess grading: One patient was grade I, one grade II and one grade V. Readlts All of them weretreated by GDC, neither death nor complication occurred. Conclusion Though intracranial aneurysm was rare inchildhood, it is imporamt to consider the p~sibility of this disorder in searching for the cause of SAH. Endovasculartreatment of intracranial aneurysms with GDC is also effective and safe in dealing with pediatric patients, but the longterm efficacy awaits follow-up study in the future. (Shanghai Med J, 2001,24:92-94)%目的介绍儿童颅内动脉瘤的临床特点,评价电解可脱性微弹簧圈栓塞(GDC)治疗儿童颅内动脉瘤的疗效和安全性。方法描述3例儿童颅内动脉瘤病例的临床症状和体征,3例均因瘤破裂致急性蛛网膜下腔出d。经数字减影脑d管造影明确诊断,2例为后交通动脉瘤,1例为前交通动脉瘤;Hunt和Hess分类:1例为I级,1例为Ⅱ级,1例为Ⅳ级。结果经DSA行电解可脱性微弹簧栓塞术治疗,3例均成功,也无并发症。结论儿童颅内动脉瘤虽属罕见,但对于急性蛛网膜下腔出d患儿,仍应考虑动脉瘤的可能。GDC治疗儿童颅内动脉瘤安全而有效,长期预后则有待于随访观察。

  3. Risk factors for intracranial aneurysm in a Chinese ethnic population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yu-xiang; CHEN Xian-cheng; SONG Dong-lei; LENG Bing; ZHAO Fan

    2006-01-01

    Background Intracranial aneurysm (IAN) is a protruding bubble or a sac on a brain artery that balloons out over time, which may lead to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), ultimately disability and mortality.Current research indicates that the disease is due to multiple causes, including environmental factors and various congenital abnormalities of blood vessels. Apart from congenital predisposition, various high-risk factors such as sex, age, hypertension, and atherosclerosis are involved in the formation of intracranial aneurysms. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with the formation of sporadic intracranial aneurysms in Chinese Han ethnic patients.Methods A total of 251 patients with intracranial aneurysm and 338 patients with other cerebral diseases (control group) were enrolled in this study. Single factor and logistic regression model were used to analyze the association of intracranial aneurysms with age; sex; cigarette smoking; alcohol or cocaine consumption; history of hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus and inherited connective tissue disease; and the levels of fasting blood glucose and blood fat. The data expressed as mean ± standard deviation were processed with the statistical software SPSS13. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed by the independent-sample t test,and the chi-square test respectively. Logistic regression method was used to analyze the multiple factors.Results In the 251 patients, 163 (64.94%) were at age of 40 to 60 years. Sex (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01-1.96), cigarette smoking (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.06-3.10), hypertension (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.30-4.16) and fasting blood glucose were significantly associated with intracranial aneurysm (P<0.05). Intracranial aneurysm was correlated with alcohol consumption, coronary artery disease, and the level of blood lipids (P>0.05). Using logistic regression analysis, we identified female sex and advanced age as significant risk

  4. The utility of perfusion CT and CT angiography on early diagnosis and the management of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Zabihyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage is one of the most important and dangerous neurologic emergencies worldwide. It is characterized by a sudden and severe headache caused most commonly by the rupture of intracranial aneurysm. Cerebral vasospasm is the most important cause of disability and death in whom survived from the first event. Early diagnosis and management of cerebral vasospasm could prevent and reduce its morbidity and mortality. Thus, an ideal technique must be able to detect the vasospasm before the occurrence of neurological deficits. Perfusion computed tomography could assess vascularity of brain including cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, time to peak and mean transit time. For this application, perfusion computed tomography and computed tomography angiography techniques offer significant advantages and can result in early diagnosis of vasospasm. In this review, we discuss the utility of these two techniques and their safety in the diagnosis and the management of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  5. Intracranial pressure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICP monitoring; CSF pressure monitoring ... There are 3 ways to monitor pressure in the skull (intracranial pressure). INTRAVENTRICULAR CATHETER The intraventricular catheter is the most accurate monitoring method. To insert an intraventricular catheter, a ...

  6. Increased intracranial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patient's bedside in an emergency room or hospital. Primary care doctors may sometimes spot early symptoms of increased intracranial pressure such as headache, seizures, or other nervous system problems. An MRI ...

  7. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracranial Hypertension and Herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert D; Shoykhet, Michael; Cadena, Rhonda

    2015-12-01

    Sustained intracranial hypertension and acute brain herniation are "brain codes," signifying catastrophic neurological events that require immediate recognition and treatment to prevent irreversible injury and death. As in cardiac arrest, a brain code mandates the organized implementation of a stepwise management algorithm. The goal of this emergency neurological life support protocol is to implement an evidence-based, standardized approach to the evaluation and management of patients with intracranial hypertension and/or herniation.

  8. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne M; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of this article are to characterize the headache in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and to field-test the ICHD diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to IIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 44 patients with new-onset IIH. Thirty-four patients with suspected...... tinnitus may suggest intracranial hypertension. Based on data from a well-defined IIH cohort, we propose a revision of the ICDH-3 beta diagnostic criteria with improved clinical applicability and increased sensitivity and specificity....

  9. Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms: Clipping Versus Coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ann; Huang, Judy

    2015-09-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) have an estimated incidence of up to 10 % and can lead to serious morbidity and mortality. Because of this, the natural history of IAs has been studied extensively, with rupture rates ranging from 0.5 to 7 %, depending on aneurysm characteristics. The spectrum of presentation of IAs ranges from incidental detection to devastating subarachnoid hemorrhage. Although the gold standard imaging technique is intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography, other modalities such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) are being increasingly used for screening and treatment planning. Management of these patients depends upon a number of factors including aneurysmal, patient, institutional, and operator factors. The ultimate goal of treating patients with IAs is complete and permanent occlusion of the aneurysm sac in order to eliminate future hemorrhagic risk, while preserving or restoring the patient's neurological function. The most common treatment approaches include microsurgical clipping and endovascular coiling, and multiple studies have compared these two techniques. To date, three large prospective, randomized studies have been done: a study from Finland, International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), and the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT). Despite differences in methodology, the results were similar: in patients undergoing coiling, although rates of rebleeding and retreatment are higher, the overall rate of poor outcomes at 12 months was significantly lower. As minimally invasive procedures and devices continue to be refined, endovascular strategies are likely to increase in popularity. However, as long-term outcome studies become available, it is increasingly apparent that they are complementary treatment strategies, with patient selection of critical importance.

  10. Chemical shift selective magnetic resonance imaging of the optic nerve in patients with acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Thomsen, C; Frederiksen, J

    1988-01-01

    of the 16 patients, abnormalities were seen. In one patient with bilateral symptoms, signal hyperintensity and swelling of the right side of the chiasm were found. In another patient the optic nerve was found diffusely enlarged with only a marginally increased signal in the second echo. In the third patient......Optic neuritis is often the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Sixteen patients with acute optic neuritis and one patient with benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging, using a chemical shift selective double spin echo sequence. In 3...... an area of signal hyperintensity and swelling was seen in the left optic nerve. In the patient with BIH the subarachnoid space which surrounds the optic nerves was enlarged. Even using this refined pulse sequence, avoiding the major artefact in imaging the optic nerve, the chemical shift artefact, lesions...

  11. Volumetric Integral Phase-shift Spectroscopy for Noninvasive Detection of Hemispheric Bioimpedance Asymmetry in Acute Brain Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Stroke; Stroke, Acute; Ischemic Stroke; Hemorrhage; Clot (Blood); Brain; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; Cerebral Infarction; Cerebral Hemorrhage; Cerebral Stroke; Intracerebral Hemorrhage; Intracerebral Injury

  12. [Correction of intracranial pressure in patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virozub, I D; Chipko, S S; Chernovskiĭ, V I; Cherniaev, V A

    1986-01-01

    Therapeutical correction of intracranial pressure changes were conducted in 14 patients suffering from traumatic intracranial hematomas by endolumbar administration of physiological solution. The distinguishing feature of this method is the possibility of continuous control of the intracranial pressure level by means of long-term graphic recording of epidural pressure. This makes it possible to perform endolumbar administration of physiological solution in a dose which is determined by the initial level of epidural intracranial pressure. Therapeutic correction of intracranial pressure by endolumbar injection of physiological solution proved successful in the initial stages of dislocation of the brain and in stable intracranial hypotension.

  13. 认知刺激疗法对蛛网膜下腔出血患者急性期认知功能障碍的疗效%Effectiveness of cognitive stimulation therapy for cognitive dysfunction of patients in acute stage with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鑫; 吴琪; 张庆荣; 李雪; 成惠林

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察认知刺激疗法对蛛网膜下腔出血(SAH)患者急性期认知功能障碍的疗效。方法收集30例Hunt - Hess Ⅰ~Ⅱ级动脉瘤性SAH患者,随机分为两组。实验组15例,行认知刺激治疗;对照组15例,未行认知刺激治疗。患者分别在介入治疗前、治疗后第14天各完成一次认知功能检查。检查项目:简易精神状态检查量表( MMSE)、词语流畅性测验、视觉再生、连线测验。结果(1)两组患者性别、年龄比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);术前Hunt - Hess分级比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。(2)术前两组患者MMSE、词语流畅性测验、视觉再生、连线测验A及B各项测试结果比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。(3)术后两组患者MMSE、词语流畅性测验、连线测验A及B各项测试结果比较实验组优于对照组(P<0.05);两组视觉再生评分比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论认知刺激治疗可以辅助改善急性期SAH患者的部分认知功能。%Objective To observe the effectiveness of cognitive stimulation therapy for cognitive dysfunction of patients in acute stage with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods 30 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage at Hunt - Hess [Ⅰ~ Ⅱ were brought into the study, and were divided into two groups randomly. 15 patients who received cognitive stimulation therapy were brought into experimental group;the other 15 patients were control group. All the patients' cognitive function were assessed before endovascular treatment and 14 days after treatment respectively, by mini -mental state examination (MMSE), verbal fluency test, visual reproduction, and trail making test. Results(1)There was no significant difference between the two groups in gender,age and Hunt -Hess stage( P >0. 05). (2)There was no significant difference between the two groups in MMSE, verbal fluency test, visual reproduction and trail making test ( A and B ) before

  14. The clinical analysis of three methods in the treatment of intracranial bacterial infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-zhi Wang; Wei Shi

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of three therapeutic methods to find an optimal approach to the treatment of intracranial bacterial infection by retrospectively reviewing 33 intracranial bacterial infection patients who were admitted from 1995 to 2008 in oar hospital. Methods The treatments by intermittent lumbar puncture,continuous lumbar subarachnoid space drainage, and embedment of Ommaya cyst for continuous drainage from the ventricles were performed in 15 cases, 12 cases, and 6 cases respectively along with intravenous application of full dose of antibiotics. Results Nineteen cases were cured and the best prognosis was from the group of Ommaya cyst embedment and continuous drainage from the ventricles. Conclusion Management goals are prompt recognition of the central nervous system (CNS) infection, rapid identification of causative organisms and initiation of treatment with the optimal management methods for complications. Embedment of Ommaya cyst for continuous drainage from the ventricle is a safe and effective treatment for intracranial bacterial infection.

  15. Evaluation of pituitary and thyroid hormones in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm Avaliação dos hormônios hipofisários e tireoidianos em pacientes com hemorragia subaracnoidea devido a ruptura de aneurisma intracraniano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mangieri

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the central nervous system (CNS influences the pituitary hormone secretions and that diseases of CNS are frequently associated with an altered endocrine function. The aim of this study has been the evaluation of the serum concentrations of the pituitary and thyroid hormones in a series of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Thirty-five patients (23 females and 12 males, aged 51.9±13.3 years on the mean were admitted. They were evaluated to assess the clinical severity of the subarachnoid hemorrhage by Hunt & Hess scale: nine patients were in the grade I, 14 in the grade II, and 12 in the grade III. Blood samples were obtained between 8:00 and 9:00 a.m. and serum hormones were measured by commercial kits (IRMA or MEIA methods. Cortisol serum levels (normal range (NR = 5 to 18 µg/dL were increased in all the patients (mean ± standard deviation = 31.4±12.4 µg/dL. Mean prolactin levels (NR É bem conhecido que o sistema nervoso central (SNC influencia as secreções dos hormônios hipofisários e que doenças do SNC são frequentemene associadas com função endócrina alterada. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as concentrações séricas dos hormônios hipofisários e tireoidianos em uma série de pacientes acometidos de hemorragia subaracnóidea devida a ruptura de aneurisma cerebral. Foram avaliados 35 pacientes (23 mulheres e 12 homens, com média de idade de 51,9±13,3 anos. Foram avaliados para a severidade da doença pela escala de Hunt & Hess: nove deles estavam no grau I, 14 no grau II e 12 no grau III. As amostras de sangue foram obtidas entre 8:00 e 9:00 horas e os hormônios foram medidos pelos métodos de IRMA ou de MEIA. Os níveis séricos de cortisol (valor normal (VN 5 a 18 µg/dl estavam aumentados em todos os pacientes (média±desvio padrão = 31,4±12,4 µg/dl. Os níveis de prolactina (VN <20 ng/ml foram de 18,6±17,1 ng/ml e cinco (14,2% tiveram n

  16. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommargren, Claire E

    2002-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a serious neurological disorder that is often complicated by the occurrence of electrocardiographic abnormalities unexplained by preexisting cardiac conditions. These morphological waveform changes and arrhythmias often are unrecognized or misinterpreted, potentially placing patients at risk for inappropriate management. Many previous investigations were retrospective and relied on data collected in an unsystematic manner. More recent studies that included use of serial electrocardiograms and Holter recordings have provided new insight into the high prevalence of electrocardiographic changes in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Research on the prevalence, duration, and clinical significance of these electrocardiographic abnormalities and on associated factors and etiological theories is reviewed.

  17. Meckel's cave meningiomas with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, G A; Herz, D A; Leeds, N; Strully, K

    1975-06-01

    Two patients with Meckel's Cave meningiomas were initially hospitalized as a result of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Four-vessel angiography was necessary to exclude other causes of bleeding while demonstrating these lesions. Apoplectic presentation in both cases led to early diagnosis and successful surgical therapy. A review of the literature reveals subarachnoid hemorrhage to be a rarity in association with meningiomas. The two patients currently reported are believed to be the only examples on record of hemorrhagic meningiomas arising from the region of Meckel's Cave.

  18. Chronic hypopituitarism is uncommon in survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, M J; Behan, L A; O'Brien, M M; Tormey, W; Javadpour, M; Sherlock, M; Thompson, C J

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of hypopituitarism after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is unclear from the conflicting reports in the literature. As routine neuroendocrine screening for hypopituitarism for all patients would be costly and logistically difficult, there is a need for precise data on the frequency of hypopituitarism and on factors which might predict the later development of pituitary dysfunction. We aimed to: (i) Establish the incidence of long-term hypopituitarism in patients with aneurysmal SAH. (ii) Determine whether data from patients' acute admission with SAH could predict the occurrence of long-term hypopituitarism. One hundred patients were studied prospectively from the time of presentation with acute SAH. Plasma cortisol, plasma sodium and a variety of clinical and haemodynamic parameters were sequentially measured for the first 12 days of their acute admission. Forty-one patients then underwent dynamic pituitary testing at median 15 months following SAH (range 7-30 months), with insulin tolerance test (ITT) or, if contraindicated, a glucagon stimulation test (GST) plus short synacthen test (SST). If symptoms of cranial diabetes insipidus (CDI) were present, a water deprivation test was also performed. Forty-one patients attended for follow-up dynamic pituitary testing. Although 14 of 100 had acute glucocorticoid deficiency immediately following SAH, only two of 41 had long-term adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) deficiency and four of 41 had growth hormone (GH) deficiency. None were hypothyroid or gonadotrophin deficient. None had chronic CDI or hyponatraemia. There was no association between acute glucocorticoid deficiency, acute CDI or acute hyponatraemia and long-term pituitary dysfunction. Both anterior and posterior hypopituitarism are very uncommon following SAH and are not predicted by acute clinical, haemodynamic or endocrinological parameters. Routine neuroendocrine screening is not justified in SAH patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons

  19. The efficacy of early lamina terminalis fenestration in treating acute hydrocephalus after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage%早期终板造瘘治疗动脉瘤性蛛网膜下腔出血后急性脑积水的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭四维; 漆松涛; 冯文峰; 刘忆; 张国忠; 王刚; 李明洲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of early lamina terminalis fenestration in the treatment of acute hydrocephalus after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage.Methods Ninety-eight patients of acute hydrocephalus after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage who were treated by clipping were retrospectively analyzed.These cases were divided into two groups,including aneurysm clipping group alone (42 cases) and clipping with lamina terminalis fenestration group(56 cases).The improving rate of acute hydrocephalus and the incidence rate of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus after surgical treatment were compared between two groups.Results All surgical clipping procedures were performed within 72 hours after aneurysm rupture.Ultimately,46 cases of acute hydrocephalus patients acquired improvement and 27 cases developed to chronic hydrocephalus after surgical treatment among 98 patients.Fourteen cases of acute hydrocephalus patients in aneurysm clipping group were improved (the improvement rate was 33.3%) and 14 cases developed into shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (the incidence rate was 33.3%).Thirty-two cases of acute hydrocephalus patients in lamina terminalis fenestration after aneurysm clipping group were improved (the improvement rate was 57.1%) and 13 cases developed into chronic hydrocephalus (the incidence rate was 23.2%).The acute hydrocephalus improvement rate and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus incidence rate in posterior circulation aneurysm group were statistically difference between aneurysm clipping group and lamina terminalis fenestration after aneurysm clipping group (P < 0.05),but not in anterior circulation aneurysm group (P > 0.05).Conclusions The efficacy of early lamina terminalis fenestration in the treatment of acute hydrocephalus after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage was effective in posteriorcirculation aneurysm clipping.%目的 探究早期终板造瘘治疗动脉瘤性蛛网膜下腔出血(aSAH)后急性脑积水的疗效.方法

  20. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms--our experience and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Kanwaljeet; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar; Chandra, Poodipedi Sarat; Suri, Ashish; Singh, Manmohanjit; Kumar, Rajinder; Kale, Shashank Sarad; Mishra, Nalin Kumar; Gaikwad, Shailesh K; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Intracranial aneurysms in children are not as common as in adults and there are many differences in the etiology, demographic variables, aneurysm location, aneurysm morphological characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcome in pediatric and adult intracranial aneurysms. All children (≤18 years) suffering from intracranial aneurysm managed at our center from July 2001 through June 2013 were included in the study, and the details of these patients were retrieved from the computerized database of our hospital. A total of 62 pediatric patients were treated for 74 aneurysms during the study period and constituted 2.3% of all intracranial aneurysms treated during the same period. The mean age at presentation was 13.5 years. Headache (82%) was the commonest presenting feature; other symptoms included seizures (21%), ictal loss of consciousness (27%), and motor/cranial nerve deficits (22.6%). Computed tomogram revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage in 58% of patients. Eighty-two percent of aneurysms were in anterior circulation. Sixty-seven percent of aneurysms were complex aneurysms. Fifty-eight percent of patients underwent surgical intervention while 30% underwent endovascular procedures. Twenty-one percent of the patients developed vasospasm. There was no postoperative mortality. Favorable outcome was seen in 72% of the patients. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are uncommon as compared to in adult patients. Seizures and cranial nerve involvement are seen more often as the presenting features in children. Posterior circulation aneurysms are more common in children, as are the internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysms. There is high incidence of giant, posttraumatic, and mycotic aneurysms in children.

  1. Incidence and risk factors of intracranial aneurysm: A national cohort study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tackeun; Lee, Heeyoung; Ahn, Soyeon; Kwon, O-Ki; Bang, Jae Seung; Hwang, Gyojun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Son, Young-Je; Cho, Won-Sang; Oh, Chang Wan

    2016-10-01

    Background Estimations of the intracranial aneurysm incidence require long-term follow-up of a relatively large at-risk population; as a result, the incidence remains largely unknown. Aims To investigate the national incidence of intracranial aneurysm in a Korean population. Methods After excluding 18,604 potential subjects with a previous history of stroke (I6x.x), 998,216 subjects were included in this observational cohort. The primary endpoint was the earliest date of diagnosis of either unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA; I67.1) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH; I60.x). We collected anthropometric data, blood pressure measurements, laboratory data, and smoking, drinking, and physical exercise habits of 132,355 subjects for whom healthcare screening data were available. Factors influencing intracranial aneurysm were evaluated via multivariate Cox regression. Results The overall observation size was 8,792,214 person-years. During follow-up, 4346 subjects were diagnosed with intracranial aneurysm (SAH, 1960; UIA, 2386). The crude incidence of intracranial aneurysm was 49.4/100,000 person-years. The hazard ratio for women was 1.56 ( p intracranial aneurysm. A history of heart disease and family history of stroke were associated with respective hazard ratios of 2.08 and 1.77. Conclusions In this Korean population study, the standardized incidence of intracranial aneurysm was 52.2/100,000 person-years. Older age, female sex, hypertension, history of heart disease, and family history of stroke were independent risk factors for intracranial aneurysm.

  2. Severe head injuries and intracranial pressure monitoring outcome in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Reza Farrokhi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Head injury is still a major cause of death and disability. Despite advances in intensive monitoring and clinical practice, little data is available to show the predictive value of intracranial pressure monitoring in assessment of the outcome of head injuries. This study was undertaken to evaluate this predictive value and is the first Iranian study in which ICP monitoring has been included. METHODS: In a prospective study from September 1999 to September 2003, all head- injured patients (53 patients with GCS of 4-8 who were admitted to Nemazee Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were included in this study. Subarachnoid screw method or ventricular catheter via ventriculostomy was used to determine intracranial pressure. Patients were monitored for 3 days and were followed for two years at 6-month intervals. RESULTS: Car accidents were the most common cause of head injury (43.3% and 43.3% of patients had GCS of 8. Sixty percent of patients had abnormal intracranial pressure. The patients were most commonly in their first decade of life (18.8% and 81% of patients were male. Controlling increased intracranial pressure was successful in 60% of patients and resulted in a decrease of mortality rate from 60% to 15%. CONCLUSIONS: Early treatment of increased intracranial pressure in head injury patients would be beneficial in reducing mortality and morbidity rates. KEY WORDS: Southern Iran, head injury, outcome, intracranial pressure.

  3. Microsurgical anatomy of the infratentorial trabecular membranes and subarachnoid cisterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, F C; Dujovny, M; Fandino, R; Chavez, V

    1996-04-01

    The understanding of the anatomy of the subarachnoid cisterns and trabecular membranes is of paramount importance in the surgical treatment of pathology of the posterior fossa. Aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and some tumors should be approached through the subarachnoid space. The subarachnoid cisterns provide natural pathways to approach neurovascular and cranial nerve structures. The microsurgical anatomy of the infratentorial subarachnoid cisterns was studied in twenty adult brains, using the 'immersion technique'. Air was injected into the subarachnoid cisterns and brains were dissected under the operative microscope. Six main compartmental trabecular membranes were identified in the infratentorial level. They divide the subarachnoid space into six cisterns. Cisternal divisions and the disposition of the trabecular membranes were closely related to the vascular divisional patterns of the principal arteries. Thorough knowledge of the microsurgical anatomy of the subarachnoid space will aid neurosurgeons during the surgical approach of many vascular and tumoral lesions located in the posterior fossa.

  4. Imaging findings in primary intracranial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Hemant; Shroff, Manohar [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hawkins, Cynthia [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Neuropathology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bouffet, Eric [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Neuro-Oncology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rutka, James [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Neurosurgery, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-02-01

    Intracranial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are rare and extremely aggressive neoplasms seen primarily in childhood. Imaging features are often considered non-specific. However, correct diagnosis of AT/RT is important because these tumors have a markedly different clinical prognosis and require more aggressive therapy. To determine the imaging features of AT/RT. We retrospectively analyzed imaging findings in 11 patients with primary intracranial AT/RT presenting over a period of 5 years. CT (n=11), MR (n=7), clinical (n=11) and pathological (n=11) features were evaluated. FISH analysis showing monosomy of chromosome 22 (absence of bcr 22q11 locus) was available for three patients. Immunohistochemical staining for INI-1 (BAF47) was performed on all tumors. There were 11 patients, 6 boys and 5 girls. The age of presentation varied from 1 month to 15 years (average age 3 years 8 months). Six tumors were located in the posterior fossa and five in the supratentorial compartment. The tumors showed a hyperdense solid component (64%) that showed moderate to marked enhancement with contrast medium. On MR imaging, the predominant signal pattern was isointensity on T1-weighted images (57%) and T2 shortening with heterogeneity on T2-weighted images (86%). All tumors were large in size (average 4.2 x 3.7 cm), and there was a tendency for calcification (36%), hemorrhage (46%), necrosis (46%) and perifocal edema (100%). There was also a high tendency for subarachnoid dissemination, with five patients (46%) demonstrating brain and/or spinal metastasis. At follow-up (n=7), six patients showed local recurrence. At the time of recurrence, all these patients showed extensive leptomeningeal spread of the disease in both intracranial and intraspinal compartments. There are no specific imaging features for intracranial AT/RT. But a high tendency toward large size, a hyperdense solid component on CT scan with calcification, hemorrhage, necrosis and subarachnoid spread suggest

  5. Endoscope-assisted microsurgery for intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavakonda, Chandrasekar; Sekhar, Laligam N; Ramachandran, Pranatartiharan; Hechl, Peter

    2002-11-01

    We discuss the role of the endoscope in the microsurgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms, analyzing its benefits, risks, and disadvantages. This was a prospective study of 55 patients with 79 aneurysms, treated between July 1998 and June 2001, for whom the endoscope was used as an adjunct in the microsurgical treatment of their lesions. Seventy-one aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation, and eight were located in the posterior circulation. Thirty-seven patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eighteen patients had unruptured aneurysms, of whom 5 presented with mass effect, 2 presented with transient ischemic attacks, and 11 were without symptoms. In all cases, the endoscope was used in addition to microsurgical dissection and clipping (sometimes before clipping, sometimes during clipping, and always after clipping), for observation of the neck anatomic features and perforators and verification of the optimal clip position. Intraoperative angiography was performed for all patients after aneurysm clipping. In the majority of cases, the endoscope was very useful for the assessment of regional anatomic features. It allowed better observation of anatomic features, compared with the microscope, for 26 aneurysms; in 15 cases, pertinent anatomic information could be obtained only with the endoscope. The duration of temporary clipping of the parent artery was significantly reduced for two patients. The clip was repositioned because of a residual neck or inclusion of the parent vessel during aneurysm clipping in six cases, and the clip position was readjusted because of compression of the optic nerve in one case. One patient experienced a small aneurysm rupture that was directly related to use of the endoscope, but this was easily controlled, with no sequelae. For many patients, the combination of the neuro-endoscope and the micro-Doppler probe made intraoperative angiography redundant. "Endoscope-assisted microsurgery" is a major advance in the

  6. Management of infectious intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Bruno C; Patel, Ankur R; Braga, Bruno P; Weprin, Bradley E; Batjer, H Hunt

    2016-07-01

    Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) account for approximately 15 % of all pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Histologically, they are pseudoaneurysms that develop in response to an inflammatory reaction within the adventitia and muscularis layers, ultimately resulting in disruption of both the internal elastic membrane and the intima. The majority of pediatric IIAs are located within the anterior circulation, and they can be multiple in 15-25 % of cases. The most common presentation for an IIA is intracerebral and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage. In children with a known diagnosis of infective endocarditis who develop new neurological manifestations, it is imperative to exclude the existence of an IIA. The natural history of untreated infectious aneurysms is ominous; they demonstrate a high incidence of spontaneous rupture. High clinical suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and adequate treatment are of paramount importance to prevent devastating neurological consequences. The prompt initiation of intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics represents the mainstay of treatment. Three questions should guide the management of pediatric patients with IIAs: (a) aneurysm rupture status, (b) the presence of intraparenchymal hemorrhage or elevated intracranial pressure, and (c) relationship of the parent vessel to eloquent brain tissue. Those three questions should orient the treating physician into either antibiotic therapy alone or in combination with microsurgical or endovascular interventions. This review discusses important aspects of the epidemiology, the diagnosis, and the management of IIAs in the pediatric population.

  7. [Injuries of the intracranial part of the carotid artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulla, I; Kafka, J; Mach, P; Výrostko, J; Kat'uch, V

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the submitted work was to draw attention to different types of injuries of the intracranial portion of the carotid artery and some problems associated with its solution. The investigated group comprised 7 subjects (2 women, 5 men) aged 19 to 76 years who attended between Jan. 1, 1995 and Feb. 29 2000 the Neurosurgical Clinic in Kosice with sequelae of injuries of the intracranial carotid artery. Two patients developed a pseudoaneurysm. In one case it was manifested by subarachnoid haemorrhage on the 24th day after a crash, in one instance by diplopia six weeks after a retrobulbar injection. Injury of the intracavernous portion of the artery was manifested in one instance by profuse epistaxis on the 17th day after a fall from a bicycle, four times by the development of a carotid-cavernous fistula several days to 3 years after the head injury. In the diagnosis classical as well as MR and digital subtraction angiography were used. In the patient with epistaxis classical carotid angiography was 3 times negative. The results are comparable with data in the literature. In three patients the problem was resolved by ligature of the common carotid artery on the neck. In another three it was necessary to use extra-intracranial trapping. One patient will be subjected to endovascular surgery. Two patients died (a 76-year-old woman from bronchopneumonia, a 19-year-old man from meningitis, despite a liquor fistula treated correctly by a patch).

  8. Multi-site evaluation of a computer aided detection (CAD) algorithm for small acute intra-cranial hemorrhage and development of a stand-alone CAD system ready for deployment in a clinical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ruchi R.; Fernandez, James; Lee, Joon K.; Chan, Tao; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2010-03-01

    Timely detection of Acute Intra-cranial Hemorrhage (AIH) in an emergency environment is essential for the triage of patients suffering from Traumatic Brain Injury. Moreover, the small size of lesions and lack of experience on the reader's part could lead to difficulties in the detection of AIH. A CT based CAD algorithm for the detection of AIH has been developed in order to improve upon the current standard of identification and treatment of AIH. A retrospective analysis of the algorithm has already been carried out with 135 AIH CT studies with 135 matched normal head CT studies from the Los Angeles County General Hospital/ University of Southern California Hospital System (LAC/USC). In the next step, AIH studies have been collected from Walter Reed Army Medical Center, and are currently being processed using the AIH CAD system as part of implementing a multi-site assessment and evaluation of the performance of the algorithm. The sensitivity and specificity numbers from the Walter Reed study will be compared with the numbers from the LAC/USC study to determine if there are differences in the presentation and detection due to the difference in the nature of trauma between the two sites. Simultaneously, a stand-alone system with a user friendly GUI has been developed to facilitate implementation in a clinical setting.

  9. Effect of simvastatin in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongju; Xu, Xiaoli

    2017-09-05

    Simvastatin might be beneficial to the patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, the results remained controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of simvastatin for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of simvastatin versus placebo on aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcomes were delayed ischaemic deficit and delayed cerebral infarction. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effect model. Six RCTs involving 1053 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control intervention, simvastatin intervention had no influence on delayed ischaemic deficit (RR=0.99; 95% CI=0.78 to 1.27; P=0.96), delayed cerebral infarction (RR=1.17; 95% CI=0.60 to 2.29; P=0.65), mRS≤2 (RR=0.97; 95% CI=0.87 to 1.09; P=0.61), vasospasm (RR=0.79; 95% CI=0.49 to 1.29; P=0.35), ICU stay (Std. mean difference=0.04; 95% CI=-0.54 to 0.63; P=0.88), hospital stay (Std. mean difference=0.01; 95% CI=-0.13 to 0.14; P=0.90) and mortality (RR=0.71; 95% CI=0.25 to 2.05; P=0.53) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Compared to control intervention, simvastatin intervention was found to have no influence on delayed ischaemic deficit, delayed cerebral infarction, mRS≤2, vasospasm, ICU stay, hospital stay, and mortality in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality of life after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passier, P.E.C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to increase our understanding of quality of life (QoL) after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), and the most important determinants of QoL, in order to tailor appropriate rehabilitation programs and thereby enhance their effectiveness. We reviewed the liter

  11. Antithrombotic drugs and subarachnoid haemorrhage risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, A; García Rodríguez, L A; Poulsen, F R

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate the relationship between use of antithrombotic drugs and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). We identified patients discharged from Danish neurosurgery units with a first-ever SAH diagnosis in 2000 to 2012 (n=5,834). For each case, we selected 40 age-, sex...

  12. Continuous EEG Monitoring in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Friberg, Christian Kærsmose; Wellwood, Ian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous EEG (cEEG) may allow monitoring of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and seizures, including non-convulsive seizures (NCSz), and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). We aimed to evaluate: (a) the diagnostic...

  13. Subarachnoid hemorrhage without aneurysm; Die Subarachnoidalblutung ohne Aneurysmanachweis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Forell, W. [Institut fuer Neuroradiologie des Universitaetsklinikums Mainz (Germany); Welschehold, S. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurochirurgie des Universitaetsklinikums Mainz (Germany); Koehler, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie des Universitaetsklinikums Mainz (Germany); Schicketanz, K.H. [Institut fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik des Universitaetsklinikums Mainz (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    The rupture and bleeding of intracranial aneurysms is the most common cause of a spontaneous, non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In up to 20% of these patients, no aneurysm is found, but the prognosis of these patients is known to be better than in those with aneurysms. The retrospective evaluation of the initial CT- and angiographic findings of 773 patients with spontaneous SAH, who underwent (up to three) 4-vessel DSA, brought a percentage of 12.4% with negative angiography. We found the favourable prognosis of these patients with negative angiography not only to be dependant from the distribution of the hemorrhage, with preference to perimesencephalic pattern, but the initial clinical state. 85% of our patients, who presented with perimesencephalic blood pattern and even 80% of those patients with additional intraventricular hemorrhage but the good clinical condition of Hunt-Hess I/II were discharged without neurological deficits. We recommend the obligatory 4-vessel catheter-angiography (DSA) in all patients with spontaneous SAH, independent of the blood pattern on initial CT, and one control in the presence of other than perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage, CTA might be reserved for additional controls. (orig.) [German] Die Aneurysmablutung stellt die haeufigste Ursache einer spontanen, nichttraumatischen Subarachnoidalblutung (SAB) dar, bei einem Teil dieser Patienten kann jedoch kein Aneurysma nachgewiesen werden. Die Prognose dieser Patienten ist, im Vergleich zu denen mit positivem Aneurysmabefund, deutlich guenstiger. Die retrospektive Evaluation der initialen CT- und Angiographiebefunde sowie des klinischen Verlaufs von 773 Patienten, die innerhalb der letzten 11 Jahre nach einer spontanen SAB einer 4-Gefaessangiographie (DSA) unterzogen worden waren, ergab in unserem Krankengut einen Prozentsatz von 12,4% mit endgueltig fehlendem Aneurysmanachweis, wobei bis zu 3 Kontrollangiographien durchgefuehrt worden waren. Der positive Verlauf des

  14. Bleeding in the subarachnoid space: a possible complication during laser therapy for equine progressive ethmoid haematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreman, S; Wiemer, P; Keesler, R I

    2013-10-01

    A 10-year-old KWPN (Royal Warmblood Studbook of the Netherlands) gelding was euthanized after developing severe neurological symptoms preceded by severe epistaxis during laser treatment for progressive ethmoid haematoma (PEH) in the right nasal cavity. Postmortem examination of the head revealed a large amount of clotted blood between the right ventral and dorsal conchae in the nasal cavity and acute haemorrhage in the right subarachnoid space. Histologically, there was moderate, acute polioencephalomalacia in the neuropil adjacent to the haemorrhage. The haemorrhages were most likely caused by the laser treatment and therefore should be considered a possible complication that could lead to severe peracute neurological symptoms.

  15. Early events triggering delayed vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation and cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Johansson, Sara Ellinor; Larsen, Carl Christian

    2013-01-01

    that the drop in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and wall tension experienced by cerebral arteries in acute SAH is a key triggering event. We here investigate the importance of the duration of this acute CBF drop in a rat SAH model in which a fixed amount of blood is injected into the prechiasmatic cistern either......Upregulation of vasoconstrictor receptors in cerebral arteries, including endothelin B (ETB) and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B (5-HT(1B)) receptors, has been suggested to contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia, a feared complication after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This receptor upregulation has been...

  16. Intracranial tuberculoma: MR imaging

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    Salgado, P.; Zenteno, M.A.; Rodriguez-Carbajal, J.; Brutto, O.H. del; Talamas, O.

    1989-09-01

    MR studies of 6 patients with intracranial tuberculoma are reviewed. All patients also underwent CT scans which showed hypo- or isodense lesions with abnormal enhancement following contrast administration. MR showed lesions with prolongation of the T1 relaxation time in every case. On the T2-weighted sequences, the signal properties of the tuberculoma varied according to the stage of evolution of the lesion. Incipient tuberculomas appeared as scattered areas of hypointensity surrounded by edema. Mature tuberculomas were composed of a dark necrotic center surrounded by an isointense capsule which was, in turn, surrounded by edema. In one patient, the center of the lesion was hyperintense probably because of liquefaction and pus formation (tuberculous abscess). While both, CT and MR, were equally sensitive in visualizing the intracranial tuberculoma in every patient, MR was slightly superior in demonstrating the extent of the lesion, especially for brainstem tuberculomas. Nevertheless, the potential role for MR diagnosis of intracranial tuberculoma is limited by the fact that other infectious or neoplasic diseases may present similar findings. The diagnosis of intracranial tuberculoma should rest on a proper integration of data from clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and neuroimaging studies. (orig.).

  17. Cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome after elective triplet cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Beatrice; Del Sette, Massimo; Roccatagliata, Luca; Gandolfo, Carlo; Primavera, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS) comprise a group of disorders characterized by prolonged, but reversible vasoconstriction of the cerebral arteries, usually associated with acute-onset, severe, recurrent headaches, with or without additional neurological signs and symptoms. Various complications of this condition have been observed, such as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhages (cSAH), intracerebral hemorrhages, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy, ischaemic strokes and transient ischaemic attacks. It is important to include RCVS in thunderclap headache differential diagnosis and among non-aneurismatic subarachnoid hemorrhage causes. In the past years, thanks to the major diffusion of new diagnostic tools such as magnetic resonance, computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography, RCVS have been demonstrated to be more frequent than previously thought. We report an illustrative case of a woman affected by a small cSAH, associated to RCVS, after elective triplet cesarean delivery. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cSAH associated to RCVS after a triplet pregnancy.

  18. The Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meissner Irene

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH due to ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs occurs in about 20,000 people per year in the U.S. annually and nearly half of the affected persons are dead within the first 30 days. Survivors of ruptured IAs are often left with substantial disability. Thus, primary prevention of aneurysm formation and rupture is of paramount importance. Prior studies indicate that genetic factors are important in the formation and rupture of IAs. The long-term goal of the Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA Study is to identify genes that underlie the development and rupture of intracranial aneurysms (IA. Methods/Design The FIA Study includes 26 clinical centers which have extensive experience in the clinical management and imaging of intracerebral aneurysms. 475 families with affected sib pairs or with multiple affected relatives will be enrolled through retrospective and prospective screening of potential subjects with an IA. After giving informed consent, the proband or their spokesperson invites other family members to participate. Each participant is interviewed using a standardized questionnaire which covers medical history, social history and demographic information. In addition blood is drawn from each participant for DNA isolation and immortalization of lymphocytes. High- risk family members without a previously diagnosed IA undergo magnetic resonance angiography (MRA to identify asymptomatic unruptured aneurysms. A 10 cM genome screen will be performed to identify FIA susceptibility loci. Due to the significant mortality of affected individuals, novel approaches are employed to reconstruct the genotype of critical deceased individuals. These include the intensive recruitment of the spouse and children of deceased, affected individuals. Discussion A successful, adequately-powered genetic linkage study of IA is challenging given the very high, early mortality of ruptured IA. Design features in the FIA Study

  19. MR angiography in diagnosis of subarachnoidal hemorrhage; Angiografia rezonansu magnetycznego w diagnostyce przyczyn krwotoku podpajeczynowkowego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paprzycki, W.; Gradzki, J.; Sosnowski, P.; Stajgis, M.; Mularek, J.; Mularek, O. [Osrodek Diagnostyki Obrazowej IR, Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)]|[Zaklad Neuroradiologii, Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)]|[Klinika Neurologii, Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    During 1 year 34 patients with subarachnoidal hemorrhage history have been examined by MR angiography (MRA). MRA was obtained with a 1.0 T Magnetom Impact system (Simens) using gradient-echo FISP 3D and FLASH 2D sequences. Additional spin-echo sequences were used in group of 23 patients. Conventional angiography (CA) from direct common carotid artery approach was also performed in 25 patients, in 14 patients vertebral angiography using Seldinger technique from femoral artery approach was additionally executed. Presence of 18 intracranial aneurysms was confirmed in 16 patients, diagnosis of arteriovenous hemangioma was established in 8 cases. 7 patients with aneurysms were operated on the basis of MRA images only. There were not significant diagnostic differences between MRA and CA images in this material. (author) 9 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Early brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Where are we at present?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumul Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current era has adopted many new innovations in nearly every aspect of management of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH; however, the neurological outcome has still not changed significantly. These major therapeutic advances mainly addressed the two most important sequels of the SAH-vasospasm and re-bleed. Thus, there is a possibility of some different pathophysiological mechanism that would be responsible for causing poor outcome in these patients. In this article, we have tried to compile the current role of this different yet potentially treatable pathophysiological mechanism in post-SAH patients. The main pathophysiological mechanism for the development of early brain injury (EBI is the apoptotic pathways. The macro-mechanism includes increased intracranial pressure, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, and finally global ischemia. Most of the treatment strategies are still in the experimental phase. Although the role of EBI following SAH is now well established, the treatment modalities for human patients are yet to be testified.

  1. Pial artery and subarachnoid width response to apnoea in normal humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wszedybyl-Winklewska, Magdalena; Wolf, Jacek; Swierblewska, Ewa; Kunicka, Katarzyna; Gruszecki, Marcin; Guminski, Wojciech; Winklewski, Pawel J; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F; Bieniaszewski, Leszek; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about intracranial pressure (ICP)-cerebral haemodynamic interplay during repetitive apnoea. A recently developed method based on near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS) noninvasively measures changes in pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ) as well as subarachnoid width (sas-TQ) in humans. We tested the complex response of the pial artery and subarachnoid width to apnoea using this method. The pial artery and subarachnoid width response to consecutive apnoeas lasting 30, 60 s and maximal breath-hold (91.1 ± 23.1 s) were studied in 20 healthy volunteers. The cc-TQ and sas-TQ were measured using NIR-T/BSS; cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), pulsatility index and resistive index were measured using Doppler ultrasound of the left internal carotid artery; heart rate (HR) and beat-to-beat SBP and DBP blood pressure were recorded using a Finometer; end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) was measured using a medical gas analyser. Apnoea evoked a multiphasic response in blood pressure, pial artery compliance and ICP. First, SBP declined, which was accompanied by an increase in cc-TQ and sas-TQ. Directly after these changes, SBP exceeded baseline values, which was followed by a decline in cc-TQ and the return of sas-TQ to baseline. During these initial changes, CBFV remained stable. Towards the end of the apnoea, BP, cc-TQ and CBFV increased, whereas pulsatility index, resistive index and sas-TQ declined. Changes in sas-TQ were linked to changes in EtCO2, HR and SBP. Apnoea is associated with ICP swings, closely reflecting changes in EtCO2, HR and peripheral BP. The baroreflex influences the pial artery response.

  2. Headache following intracranial neuroendovascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Eric P; Moskowitz, Shaye I; Tepper, Stewart J; Gupta, Rishi; Novak, Eric; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam; Stillman, Mark J

    2012-05-01

    Predicting who will develop post-procedure headache (PPH) following intracranial endovascular procedures (IEPs) would be clinically useful and potentially could assist in reducing the excessive diagnostic testing so often obtained in these patients. Although limited safety data exist, the use of triptans or dihydroergotamine (DHE) often raise concern when used with pre/post-coiled aneurysms. We sought to determine risk factors for PPH following IEP, to evaluate the utility of diagnostic testing in patients with post-coil acute headache (HA), and to record whether triptans and DHE have been used safely in this clinical setting. We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult patients undergoing IEPs. Bivariate analyses were conducted to compare patients who did and did not develop PPH. We reviewed records pertaining to 372 patients, of whom 263 underwent intracranial coil embolizations, 21 acrylic glue embolizations, and 88 stent placements. PPH occurred in 72% of coil patients, 33% of glue patients, and 14% of stent patients. Significant risk factors for post-coil HA were female gender, any pre-coil HA history, smoking, and anxiety/depression. A pre-stent history of HA exceeding 1 year's duration, and smoking were risk factors for post-stent HA. A pre-glue history of HA exceeding 1 year was the only risk factor for post-glue HA. In the small subgroup available for study, treatment with triptans or DHE was not associated with adverse events in pre/post-coiled aneurysms. Diagnostic testing was low yield. Occurrence of PPH was common after IEPs and especially so with coiling and in women, smokers, and those with anxiety/depression, and was often of longer duration than allowed by current International Classification of Headache Disorders-II criteria. The yield of diagnostic testing was low, and in a small subgroup treatment with triptans or DHE did not cause adverse events in pre/post-coiled aneurysms. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  3. Occult intracranial injury in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenes, D S; Schutzman, S A

    1998-12-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to determine whether clinical symptoms and signs of brain injury are sensitive indicators of intracranial injury (ICI) in infants admitted with head trauma, (2) to describe the clinical characteristics of infants who have ICI in the absence of symptoms and signs of brain injury, and (3) to determine the clinical significance of those ICIs diagnosed in asymptomatic infants. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all infants younger than 2 years of age admitted to a tertiary care pediatric hospital with acute ICI during a 6(1/2)-year period. Infants were considered symptomatic if they had loss of consciousness, history of behavior change, seizures, vomiting, bulging fontanel, retinal hemorrhages, abnormal neurologic examination, depressed mental status, or irritability. All others were considered to have occult ICI. Of 101 infants studied, 19 (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 12%, 28%) had occult ICI. Fourteen of 52 (27%) infants younger than 6 months of age had occult ICI, compared with 5 of 34 (15%) infants 6 months to 1 year, and none of 15 (0%) infants older than 1 year. Eighteen (95%) infants with occult ICI had scalp contusion or hematoma, and 18 (95%) had skull fracture. Nine (47%) infants with occult ICI received therapy for the ICI. No infants with occult ICI (0%) (95% CI 0, 14%) required surgery or medical management for increased intracranial pressure. Only 1 subject (5%) with occult ICI had any late symptoms or complications: a brief, self-limited convulsion. We found that 19 of 101 ICIs in infants admitted with head trauma were clinically occult. All 19 occult ICIs occurred in infants younger than 12 months of age, and 18 of 19 had skull fractures. None experienced serious neurologic deterioration or required surgical intervention. Physicians cannot depend on the absence of clinical signs of brain injury to exclude ICI in infants younger than 1 year of age.

  4. Ehrlichia Meningitis Mimicking Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Study for Medical Decision-Making Heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dredla, Brynn; Freeman, William D

    2016-04-01

    Thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. Patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) scan to ascertain SAH bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells (RBCs), which would be consistent with an aneurysmal leak. If the initial CT is negative and CSF is positive for RBCs, patients are usually admitted to the hospital for evaluation of intracranial aneurysm. We encountered a patient with thunderclap headache whose initial head CT was negative for SAH and whose CSF tested positive for RBCs. The patient was referred to our center for evaluation and management of aneurysmal SAH. However, on careful review of the patient's medical history, serum laboratory values, and spinal fluid values, the patient was diagnosed with Ehrlichia chaffeensis meningitis. While Ehrlichia meningitis is rare, it is important to recognize the clinical clues that could help avoid formal cerebral angiography, a costly and potentially unnecessary procedure. We present how this case represented a cognitive framing bias and anchoring heuristic as well as steps that medical providers can use to prevent such cognitive errors in diagnosis.

  5. Effect of continuous cisternal cerebrospinal fluid drainage for patients with thin subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunari Otawara

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Yasunari Otawara, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Yoshitaka Kubo, Masayuki Sasoh, Akira OgawaDepartment of Neurosurgery, Iwate Medical University, 19-1 Uchimaru, Morioka, Iwate 020-8505, JapanAbstract: External cerebrospinal fluid (CSF drainage is an effective method to remove massive subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, but carries the risk of meningitis and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. This study investigated whether postoperative cisternal CSF drainage affects the incidence of cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome in patients with thin SAH. Seventy-eight patients with thin SAH, 22 men and 56 women aged from 17 to 73 years (mean 51.2 years, underwent surgical repair for ruptured anterior circulation aneurysm. Patients were divided into groups with (38 patients and without (40 patients postoperative cisternal CSF drainage, and the incidences of angiographical and symptomatic vasospasm, shunt-dependent hydrocephalus, meningitis, and the clinical outcome were compared. The incidences of angiographical vasospasm (31.6% vs 50.0%, symptomatic vasospasm (7.9% vs 12.5%, shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (5.3% vs 0%, and meningitis (2.6% vs 0% did not differ between patients with and without cisternal CSF drainage. All patients in both groups resulted in good recovery. Postoperative cisternal CSF drainage does not affect the incidence of cerebral vasospasm or the clinical outcome in patients with thin SAH.Keywords: subarachnoid hemorrhage; cerebrospinal fluid drainage; cerebral vasospasm; meningitis; hydrocephalus; ruptured intracranial aneurysm

  6. The value of MRI in angiogram-negative intracranial haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renowden, S.A. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)); Molyneux, A.J. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)); Anslow, P. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)); Byrne, J.V. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    1994-08-01

    In one year, cerebral angiograms were performed for intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) on 334 patients. No cause for haemorrhage could be identified in 41 (12 %), 30 of whom had predominantly subarachnoid (SAH) and 11 predominantly parenchymal haemorrhage (PH). These patients were prospectively examined by cranial MRI 1-6 weeks after the ictus. The MRI studies were positive in 7 patients (17 %). In the 30 patients examined after SAH, 2 studies were positive, showing an aneurysm in one case and a brain stem lesion of uncertain aetiology in the other. In those examined after PH, cavernous angiomas were shown in 2, a tumour in 1 and a vascular malformation in another; useful diagnostic information was thus obtained in 36 % of this group. (orig.)

  7. A rare complication of spinal anesthesia: Intracranial subdural hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Kaplan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Spinal (subarachnoid anesthesia (SA is a widely used general-purpose anesthesia. Postdural Puncture Headaches (PDPHs represent one of the principal complications of spinal anesthesia. A 21-year-old man underwent inguinal herniorrhaphy and orchiectomy using spinal anesthesia. Postoperatively, our patient started to have a headache with nausea. The patient received symptomatic therapy, but the severe headache persisted even in the supine position, with his vital signs and neurological examination being normal. Cranial MRI showed a bilateral subdural hematoma from his frontal to temporal region. A postdural puncture headache is a frequent complication after spinal anesthesia. However, serious complications, such as an intracranial subdural hemorrhage, can rarely occur. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(1.000: 54-56

  8. Therapie rupturierter zerebraler Aneurysmen: Behandlungsoptionen und derzeitige Studienlage // Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: Treatment Options and Data from Recent Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several therapeutic options are available for the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Generally speaking, these procedures can be reconstructive (ie, selective aneurysm occlusion or deconstructive (ie, parent artery occlusion in conjunction with aneurysm occlusion in nature. In view of the higher ischemic complication rate of deconstructive methods reconstructive procedures are the preferred techniques in the acute phase after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. The role of the preferred reconstructive techniques for the management of ruptured intracranial aneurysms (ie, microsurgical clipping and endovascular coiling is in the process of being defined.br Recent publications of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT and the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT allow for a more precise discussion of the role of these treatment options. The ISAT long-term follow-up indicates a declining but still measurable advantage of endovascular over surgical treatment in a selected group of aneurysm patients. If preoperative fatal aneurysm re-ruptures in ISAT, however, were excluded from analysis, the difference between embolization and surgery with respect to management morbidity and mortality lost its statistical significance. The BRAT results demonstrate a 5-fold increase in treatment morbidity for surgical vs endovascular management of ruptured posterior circulation aneurysms, whereas no such differences were encountered in ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms. Although aneurysm re-ruptures were infrequent with both treatment forms, patients receiving endovascular therapy suffered re-ruptures more frequently. The morbidity of both surgical and endovascular treatment of aneurysms recurring after initial endovascular treatment is low.br In view of these findings, endovascular treatment is recommended for all ruptured posteriorcirculation aneurysms feasible for coil embolization, whereas management of ruptured anterior circulation

  9. Intracranial Hemorrhage in Full Term Infants; A Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Şah İpek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors related to, clinical presentation and outcome of intracranial hemorrhage among full-term newborn infants.Materials and Methods: Full-term newborn infants who were diagnosed with intracranial hemorrhage in the neonatal intensive care unit of Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children’s Hospital, between 2005 and 2010, were reviewed retrospectively. Cases were diagnosed with ultrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. The infants followed an average of 36 months had been underwent neurologic evaluations. Results: Fourteen full-term infants with intracranial hemorrhage were identified. The half of cases presented within the first week of life (7/14, and the most common presenting sign was seizure (8/14. Bleeding were placed frequently intraventricular (9/14 and subarachnoid (7/14, while 8 patients had two or more hemorrhage areas. The majority of cases (11/14 had a causal or contributory risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage. Only one patient required neurosurgical intervention. Two patients died during the neonatal period, and another with severely handicapped at ten months of age. Of the survivors, two patients showed severe neurodevelopmental delay, while one patient showed mild. The remaining 8 patients had a favorable outcome. Conclusions: Intracranial hemorrhage in the term newborn is usually associated with perinatal risk factors. Because of neurodevelopmental outcome may surprisingly be normal, despite severe hemorrhage, the long-term outcome is difficult to predict. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2012; 10: 85-91

  10. A model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao-liaoLI; Xiao-liangWANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To build a simple and repeatable animal model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: SAH was introduced by passing a nylon thread up through the right internal carotid artery and piercing a hone in the right anterior cerebral artery. At 12 and 24 h, the rats were evaluated with rotarod test and the behavior scale (5-point scale). RESULTS: The ratswere trained through rotarod test and then randomly divided into

  11. Burr Hole Drainage for Complicated Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Syndrome

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    Yu-Fang Liu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a potentially severe condition that is caused by continuous cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Clinically, most patients have a benign course and the condition remits after conservative management. We report two consecutive patients who presented with acute expansion of subdural collection and disturbed consciousness. Both patients recovered completely after undergoing burr hole drainage.

  12. Hypothermic total body washout and intracranial pressure monitoring in Stage IV Reye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, L L; Kalavsky, S M; Brackett, C E; Wallas, C H; Reis, R L

    1977-04-01

    The number of children in this report treated with either TBW or exchange transfusions is small. Case mortality rates among children with Reye syndrome in Stage IV coma tends to be exceedingly high, varying from 50 to 100%. Intracranial pressure monitoring with the subarachnoid screw may have been an additional factor in increasing our survival data in three patients in the TBW group, since it provided continuous monitoring of ICP and allowed judicious administration of mannitol intravenously. Survival of five of six patients without neurologic sequelae in the present series has encouraged us to coninue utilization of TBW in children with Stage IV Reye syndrome.

  13. 脑动静脉畸形破裂出血并脑疝的急诊手术治疗%Emergent Surgical Treatment of Acute Hemorrhagic Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformation with Intracerebral Herniation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏健; 刘维生; 王永和; 曹培成; 卜振富

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨脑动静脉畸形(AVMs)破裂出血并脑疝的急诊手术问题。方法回顾性分析我院17例AVMs急性破裂出血合并脑疝并行急诊手术治疗的病例资料。结果患者术后半年GOS评定疗效,良好4例,中残6例,重残2例,植物生存2例,死亡3例。术后并发肺部感染4例,皮瓣下积液2例,颅内感染并脑积水1例,迟发血肿1例。结论急诊手术治疗是AVMs破裂出血并脑疝首选治疗方法,能够提高病人生存率,降低致残率。%Objective To study the emergent operative treatment of acute hemorrhagic cerebral arteriove-nous malformations(AVMs) with cerebral herniation.Methods A retrospective analysis of 17 patients with acute hemor-rhagic cerebral AVMs with cerebral herniation was carried out ,who were treated with emergent operative treatment .Re-sults According to GOS scale six month after operation ,4 patients recovered well,moderately disabled in 6 cases,se-verely disabled in 2 cases,vegetably survived in 2 cases,3 patients died after operation,4 cases with pneumonia after op-eration,2 cases with subdural hydroma ,1 case with intracranial infection and hydrocephalus ,1 case with recurrent hema-toma.Conclusion The emergent hematoma debridement and AVMs excision by microneurosurgery is the optimal effec-tive method to treat AVMs with cerebral herniation because it can heighten survival rate and decrease disability rate .

  14. Postinterventional subarachnoid haemorrhage after endovascular stroke treatment with stent retrievers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoubashman, Omid [Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Aachen (Germany); Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine 4, Juelich (Germany); Reich, Arno; Jungbluth, Michael [Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Aachen (Germany); Pjontek, Rastislav; Wiesmann, Martin [Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the clinical significance of postinterventional subarachnoid hyperdensities (PSH) after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke. We analysed clinical and radiological data of 113 consecutive patients who received postinterventional CT scans within 4.5 h after mechanical thrombectomy. PSH was present in 27 of 113 patients (24 %). Extravasation of contrast agent was observed during intervention in only 6 of 27 cases (22 %). There was consecutive haemorrhagic transformation in four patients with PSH (p = 0.209, Fisher's exact test). Preinterventional predictors for the occurrence of PSH in our series were a long interval between clinical onset and recanalization (p = 0.028), a long procedure time (p = 0.010), and a high number of recanalization attempts (p = 0.001). PSH had no significant impact on clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale) at discharge (p = 0.419) or at 3 months (p = 0.396). There were no significant correlations between PSH and thrombectomy devices (Solitaire: p = 0.433, Trevo Pro: p = 0.124). PSH after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke are likely to occur in complicated cases in which more than one revascularisation attempt is performed. PSH per se do not appear to be associated with an impaired clinical outcome or an elevated risk for consecutive haemorrhage. (orig.)

  15. Detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage: Comparison of combined FLAIR/SWI versus CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Rajeev Kumar, E-mail: rajeev.verma@insel.ch [University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Kottke, Raimund, E-mail: raimund.kottke@insel.ch [University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Andereggen, Lukas, E-mail: lukas.andereggen@insel.ch [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Weisstanner, Christian, E-mail: christian.weisstanner@insel.ch [University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Zubler, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.zubler@insel.ch [University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Gralla, Jan, E-mail: jan.gralla@insel.ch [University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Kiefer, Claus, E-mail: claus.kiefer@insel.ch [University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Slotboom, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.slotboom@insel.ch [University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); and others

    2013-09-15

    Objectives: Aim of this study was to compare the utility of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) with the established diagnostic techniques CT and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) in their detecting capacity of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and further to compare the combined SWI/FLAIR MRI data with CT to evaluate whether MRI is more accurate than CT. Methods: Twenty-five patients with acute SAH underwent CT and MRI within 6 days after symptom onset. Underlying pathology for SAH was head trauma (n = 9), ruptured aneurysm (n = 6), ruptured arteriovenous malformation (n = 2), and spontaneous bleeding (n = 8). SWI, FLAIR, and CT data were analyzed. The anatomical distribution of SAH was subdivided into 8 subarachnoid regions with three peripheral cisterns (frontal-parietal, temporal-occipital, sylvian), two central cisterns and spaces (interhemispheric, intraventricular), and the perimesencephalic, posterior fossa, superior cerebellar cisterns. Results: SAH was detected in a total of 146 subarachnoid regions. CT identified 110 (75.3%), FLAIR 127 (87%), and SWI 129 (88.4%) involved regions. Combined FLAIR and SWI identified all 146 detectable regions (100%). FLAIR was sensitive for frontal-parietal, temporal-occipital and Sylvian cistern SAH, while SWI was particularly sensitive for interhemispheric and intraventricular hemorrhage. Conclusions: By combining SWI and FLAIR, MRI yields a distinctly higher detection rate for SAH than CT alone, particularly due to their complementary detection characteristics in different anatomical regions. Detection strength of SWI is high in central areas, whereas FLAIR shows a better detection rate in peripheral areas.

  16. Frequency and appearance of hemosiderin depositions after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage treated by endovascular therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, Bernhard; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica; Nikoubashman, Omid; Mull, Michael [University Hospital Aachen RWTH, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    It is still unclear how often subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to chronic hemosiderin depositions. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of chronic hemosiderin depositions after aneurysmal SAH in patients who did not undergo surgery. Furthermore, we analyzed typical MRI patterns of chronic SAH and sought to obtain information on the temporal course of MRI signal changes. We retrospectively analyzed 90 patients who had undergone endovascular treatment for acute aneurysmal SAH. In all patients, initial CT studies and at least one T2*-weighted MRI obtained 6 months or later after SAH were analyzed for the presence and anatomical distribution of SAH or chronic hemosiderin depositions. In total, 185 T2*-weighted MRI studies obtained between 2 days and 148 months after SAH were evaluated (mean follow-up 30.2 months). On MRI studies obtained later than 6 months after SAH, subpial hemosiderin depositions were found in 50 patients (55.5 %). Most frequent localizations were the parenchyma adjacent to the frontal and parietal sulci and the insular cisterns. While the appearance of hemosiderin depositions was dynamic within the first 3 months, no changes were found during subsequent follow-up. MR signal changes were not only conclusive with subarachnoid hemosiderin depositions but in many cases also resembled those that have been associated with cortical hemosiderosis. T2*-weighted MRI is an effective means of diagnosing prior SAH. Our study suggests that chronic hemosiderin depositions can be found in a considerable number of patients after a single event of subarachnoid hemorrhage. (orig.)

  17. Secondary Intracranial Hypotension: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Gundogan Bozdag

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial hypotension is a clinical condition that characterized by postural (orthostatic headache and low pressure. It apperas with cerebrospinal fluid leak which occurs spontaneous or depending on the secondary attempts. 31 years old female patient which has diagnosis of acute appendicitis and underwent appendectomy under spinal anesthesia. postoperative 5.day she admitted with a postural headache, diplopia. Patient was treated with conservative methods after diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. We aim to asses an encountered complication after spinal anesthesia which widely applied for surgical procedures with imaging findings and literature.

  18. Multiple intracranial aneurysms and moyamoya disease associated with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: surgical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, James S; Hetts, Steven W; Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer; Dowd, Christopher F; Fullerton, Heather J; Gupta, Nalin; Lawton, Michael T

    2009-11-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is a rare genetic syndrome characterized by extremely small stature and microcephaly, and is associated in 25% of patients with intracranial aneurysms and moyamoya disease. Although aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke are leading causes of morbidity and death in these patients, MOPD II is rarely examined in the neurosurgical literature. The authors report their experience with 3 patients who presented with MOPD II, which includes a patient with 8 aneurysms (the most aneurysms reported in the literature), and the first report of a patient with both moyamoya disease and multiple aneurysms. The poor natural history of these lesions indicates aggressive microsurgical and/or endovascular therapy. Microsurgery, whether for aneurysm clip placement or extracranial-intracranial bypass, is challenging due to tight surgical corridors and diminutive arteries in these patients, but is technically feasible and strongly indicated when multiple aneurysms must be treated or cerebral revascularization is needed.

  19. Metrizamide demonstration of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, D.; Babin, E.

    1980-05-01

    The chance opacification of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion, observed during metrizamide basal cisternography, is reported. This is compared to similar demonstrations of the optic subarachnoid space. Such infrequently observed images should be known because they may be related to the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia.

  20. Local heparinization in endovascular embolization of ruptured intracranial aneurysms at acute stage%急性出血期颅内动脉瘤血管内栓塞术中局部肝素化的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东; 吕明; 李佑祥; 杨新健; 姜除寒; 吴中学

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of ization in endovascular embolization of the ruptured intracranial aneurysms at acute stage.Methods Between April 2011 and September 2011,127 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms treated with endovascular embolization at acute stage (< 14 days) were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the efficacy of ization (3 IU/ml heparin saline was dropped into the guiding catheter at 3 ml/min.).Results Total 148 aneurysms were observed in 127 patients and 135 aneurysms were treated with endovascular coil embolization under ization at acute stage,aneurysm perforation related to manipulation occurred in 5 patients (3.9%) which caused 4 deaths and 1 disability.The distal part of the parent artery was not filled well in 11 cases (8.7%),vasospasm in 2 cases without any neurological sequelae,over embolization in 7 cases resulted in 1 severe disability.Thromboembolic complication occurred in 2 cases causing 1 neurological deficit.Clinical outcomes at3.5 years were:GOS 5 in 107 cases (84.3%),4 in 7 cases (5.5%),3 in 6 cases (4.7%),2 in 0 cases (0%) and 1 in 7 cases (5.5%).Conclusions Local heparinizqtion may not increase the incidence of thromboernbolic or hemorrhagic complications compared to systemic heparin.ization could be effective for coil embolization of ruptured aneurysm at acute stage.%目的 探讨急性出血期颅内动脉瘤血管内栓塞术中局部肝素化的安全性.方法 收集2011年4月至2011年9月经血管内治疗的127例急性出血期(<14 d)颅内动脉瘤患者(共148个动脉瘤)的临床资料,该组患者在血管内栓塞术中均应用局部肝素化(经导引导管高压灌注浓度为3 IU/ml的肝素生理盐水,灌注速度为4 ml/min),回顾性分析术中血栓栓塞和动脉瘤破裂的发生率及预后.结果 127例患者148个动脉瘤中,行介入栓塞135个,其中5例(3.9%)发生术中动脉瘤破裂,均与操作相关,术后4例死亡,1例重残.11例(8.7%)术中出

  1. Predictive Factors for Rebleeding After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : Rebleeding Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donkelaar, Carlina; Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Metzemaekers, Jan D. M.; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; Groen, Rob J. M.; van Dijk, J. Marc C.

    Background and Purpose-Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating type of stroke associated with high morbidity and mortality. One of the most feared complications is an early rebleeding before aneurysm repair. Predictors for such an often fatal rebleeding are largely unknown. We

  2. Intracranial Hypertension in Children without Papilledema

    OpenAIRE

    Chelse, Ana B.; Epstein, Leon G.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at Nationwide Children's Memorial Hospital studied the frequency of intracranial hypertension without papilledema in children followed in a multispecialty pediatric intracranial hypertension clinic.

  3. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: benign curiosity or ticking bomb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick; Gholkar, Anil; Vindlacheruvu, Raghu R; Mendelow, A David

    2004-02-01

    15 years ago, the treatment of incidentally discovered intracranial aneurysms was straightforward with a good evidence base behind it. When intracranial aneurysms were identified, people were referred to neurosurgeons who would offer surgical repair if the patient was in reasonable health and had a good life expectancy. Since that time, several studies have given contradictory evidence for what should be done with these lesions, and a new technique for the repair of aneurysms, endovascular coil embolisation, has been developed. Here we review the research and make several recommendations. First, incidentally discovered aneurysms in the anterior circulation less than 7 mm in size in people with no personal or family history of subarachnoid haemorrhage should be left untreated. Second, people with remaining life expectancy of less than 20 years or so (ie, those over age 60 years) should be informed that from a statistical point of view the benefits of treatment do not outweigh the risks. Third, in all other cases treatment with surgical clipping or coil embolisation should be advised. And finally, if surgical treatment is not feasible then medical hypotensive treatment may be a viable alternative.

  4. Analysis of periinterventional complications of intracranial angioplasty and stenting: A single center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silber, Toni; Ziemann, Ulf [Center of Neurology, Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen (Germany); Ernemann, Ulrike [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University of Tübingen (Germany); Bischof, Felix, E-mail: felix.bischof@uni-tuebingen.de [Center of Neurology, Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Periinterventional complications in 7.5% of patients with intracranial artery stenting. • 2.5% of periinterventional complications were perforator strokes. • 3.8% of patients developed a hemorrhagic stroke due to reperfusion injury. • Complications could be reduced by individualized measures to prevent perforator stroke or reperfusion injury. - Abstract: Background and purpose: Treatment of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease by angioplasty and stenting (PTAS) is limited by a high rate of periinterventional strokes. We performed a detailed analysis of these strokes at our center in order to identify strategies to reduce the risk of periinterventional complications. Methods: Case records and imaging data of 80 patients with a symptomatic 70–99% stenosis of a major intracranial artery treated with PTAS between July 2007 and December 2013 were reviewed. All patients had a sufficient response to aspirin and clopidogrel. Periinterventional strokes were categorized as either ischemic (perforator territory, distal embolic or delayed stent thrombosis) or hemorrhagic (intraparenchymal, subarachnoid). Results: Periinterventional complications occurred in 6/80 (7.5%) patients, consisting of 2 ischemic strokes (2.5%, both perforator territory), 3 hemorrhagic strokes (3.8%, 2 intraparenchymal due to reperfusion injury, 1 subarachnoid due to vessel rupture) and one death (1.3%) unrelated to stroke. All strokes occurred within 24 h after PTAS. Conclusion: Our retrospective data analysis suggests that the risk of periinterventional stroke after PTAS of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease might be reduced by sufficient antiplatelet therapy and optimized management of patients with high risk for reperfusion injury or perforator strokes, including selection of a stenting device adapted to individual vessel morphology.

  5. Intracranial Hemorrhage in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan B. Hameed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A pregnant woman with a mechanical prosthetic mitral valve was anticoagulated with low-molecular-weight heparin in the first trimester followed by warfarin until 36 weeks' gestation. She was then switched to intravenous unfractionated heparin infusion to allow for regional anesthesia in anticipation of vaginal delivery. She developed severe headache on hospital day 2 that was refractory to pain medications. Cranial imaging demonstrated a large subdural hematoma with midline shift. She delivered a healthy baby girl by cesarean section. Eventually, symptoms and intracranial abnormalities resolved over time. In conclusion, subdural hematoma is a relatively rare complication that requires multidisciplinary management plan.

  6. Intracranial abscess in Ectopia Cordis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Joseph; Tipper, Geoffrey Adrian; Hussain, Zakier; Balakrishnan, Venkataraman; Gan, Peter

    2014-08-25

    We present a case of intracranial abscess in a young female with Ectopia Cordis, an exceptionally rare cardiac condition. The neurosurgical implication is the predisposition to intracranial abscess formation. A heightened awareness of this association will aid diagnosis in similar clinical scenarios.

  7. Rapid distribution of intraventricularly administered sucrose into cerebrospinal fluid cisterns via subarachnoid velae in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi-Egea, J F; Finnegan, W; Chen, J L; Fenstermacher, J D

    1996-12-01

    The intracranial distribution of [14C]sucrose, an extracellular marker infused for 30 s into one lateral ventricle, was determined by autoradiography of frozen-dried brain sections. Within 3.5 min [14C]sucrose appeared in: (i) the third ventricle, including optic, infundibular and mammillary recesses; (ii) the aqueduct of Sylvius; (iii) the velum interpositum, a part of the subarachnoid space that runs along the roof of the third ventricle and contains many blood vessels; (iv) the mesencephalic and fourth ventricles; and (v) the superior medullary velum, a highly vascular extension of the subarachnoid space that terminates at the walls of the mesencephalic and fourth ventricles. Within 5 min, radioactivity was present in the interpeduncular, ambient and quadrigeminal cisterns, which encircle the midbrain. By 10 min, approximately 11% of the radioactivity had passed into the subarachnoid space via a previously undescribed flow pathway that included the velum interpositum and superior medullary velum. At many places along the ventricular system, [14C]sucrose appeared to move from cerebrospinal fluid into the adjacent tissue by simple diffusion, as reported previously (Blasberg R. G. et al. (1974) J. Pharmac. exp. Ther. 195, 73-83; Levin V. A. et al. (1970) Am. J. Physiol. 219, 1528-1533; Patlak C. and Fenstermacher J.D. (1975) Am. J. Physiol. 229, 877-884; Rosenberg G. A. and Kyner W.T. (1980) Brain Res. 193, 56-66; Rosenberg G. A. et al. (1986) Am. J. Physiol 251, F485-F489). Little sucrose was, however, taken up by: (i) circumventricular organs such as the subfornical organ; (ii) medullary and cerebellar tissue next to the lateral recesses; and (iii) the superior and inferior colliculi and cerebral peduncles. For the latter two groups of structures, entry from cerebrospinal fluid was apparently blocked by a thick, multilayered glia limitans. Although [14C]sucrose was virtually absent from the rest of the subarachnoid system after 1 h, it remained in the

  8. Genetic Epidemiology of Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korja, Miikka; Silventoinen, Karri; McCarron, Peter

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It would be essential to clinicians, familial aneurysm study groups, and aneurysm families to understand the genetic basis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but there are no large population-based heritability estimates assessing the relative contribution of genetic...... and 1 opposite sex) and 492 discordant twin pairs for SAH. The concordance for SAH in monozygotic twins was 3.1% compared with 0.27% in dizygotic twins, suggesting at most a modest role for genetic factors in the etiology of SAH. The population-based probability estimate for SAH in dizygotic siblings...

  9. Arachnoid granulation affected by subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Chopard

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate using light microscopy the fibro-cellular components of arachnoid granulations affected by mild and severe subarachnoid hemorrage. The erythrocytes were in the channels delimitated by collagenous and elastic bundles and arachnoid cells, showing their tortuous and intercommunicating row from the pedicle to the fibrous capsule. The core portion of the pedicle and the center represented a principal route to the bulk outflow of cerebrospinal fluid and erythrocytes. In the severe hemorrhage, the fibrocellular components are desorganized, increasing the extracellular channels. We could see arachnoid granulations without erythrocytes, which cells showed big round nucleous suggesting their transformation into phagocytic cells.

  10. Multiple intracranial lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B P Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial lipomas are rare congenital, non-neoplastic lesions discovered incidentally on computerised tomography (CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with an incidence rate of less than 0.1% of all intracranial tumours. Most lipomas are asymptomatic pericallosal lesions sometimes presenting with seizures or headache. Corpus callosum agenesis and defects of midline structures differentiation may be present. Callosal lipomas are of two types: Anterior bulky tubulonodular variety associated with forebrain and rostral callosal anomalies, and posterior ribbon-like curvilinear lipoma generally seen with a normal or near normal corpus callosum. Corpus callosal hypogenesis/agenesis is seen in up to 90% of anterior and 30% of posterior pericallosal lipomas. The association of corpus callosal lipoma with choroid plexus lipoma is variable with its reported incidence rate being 20-50%. A 50-year-old patient was referred to our department for CT scan of brain with history of recent onset of headache and one episode of seizure. We present the imaging findings in this rare case of callosal tubulonodular lipoma having prominent intralesional vessels and extensive calcification with a concomitant intraventricular lipoma in a patient with dysgenetic corpus callosum.

  11. Early postpartum eclampsia complicated by subarachnoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - November 2003. 19. Early postpartum .... baseline CPP compared with normotensive women. The CPP changes ... critical determinant of intracranial injury in preeclampsia A new hypothesis. ... A long and dangerous journey maternal mortality in Af- rica. Anaesthesia ...

  12. Interleukin-6 as a Prognostic Biomarker in Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Wen Kao

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6, a proinflammatory cytokine, was found to surge in the cerebral spinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. We hypothesized that the plasma level of IL-6 could be an independent biomarker in predicting clinical outcome of patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysm.We prospectively included 53 consecutive patients treated with platinum coil embolization of the ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Plasma IL-6 levels were measured in the blood samples at the orifices of the aneurysms and from peripheral veins. The outcome measure was the modified Rankin Scale one month after SAH. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between the plasma IL-6 levels and the neurological outcome.Significant risk factors for the poor outcome were old age, low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS on day 0, high Fisher grades, and high aneurysmal and venous IL-6 levels in univariate analyses. Aneurysmal IL-6 levels showed modest to moderate correlations with GCS on day 0, vasospasm grade and Fisher grade. A strong correlation was found between the aneurysmal and the corresponding venous IL-6 levels (ρ = 0.721; P<0.001. In the multiple logistic regression models, the poor 30-day mRS was significantly associated with high aneurysmal IL-6 level (OR, 17.97; 95% CI, 1.51-214.33; P = 0.022 and marginally associated with high venous IL-6 level (OR, 12.71; 95% CI, 0.90-180.35; P = 0.022 after adjusting for dichotomized age, GCS on day 0, and vasospasm and Fisher grades.The plasma level of IL-6 is an independent prognostic biomarker that could be used to aid in the identification of patients at high-risk of poor neurological outcome after rupture of the intracranial aneurysm.

  13. 认知刺激疗法治疗动脉瘤性蛛网膜下腔出血患者急性期认知功能障碍的护理%Nursing of cognitive stimulation therapy in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in acute stage of aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵欣; 孙晶晶; 何高利; 武燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate nursing of cognitive stimulation therapy in the treat-ment of cognitive dysfunction in acute stage of aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)patients. Methods A total of 30 SAH patients with Ⅰ~Ⅱ grading of Hunt-Hess grade were randomized in-to two groups.The experimental group with 15 patients underwent cognitive stimulation therapy, nursing intervention and rehabilitation after discharge guidance,while control group with 15 pa-tients underwent conventional treatment.Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE),word fluency, visual regeneration,connection test were used to analyze and assess the patients before and after the intervention.Results Cognitive function and activities of daily living of patients improved signifi-cantly (P <0.05).Conclusion Cognitive stimulation therapy improves the cognitive function,and reduces the return time to work.%目的:探讨认知刺激疗法治疗蛛网膜下腔出血患者急性期认知功能障碍的观察和护理。方法对30例 Hunt-Hess 分级Ⅰ级~Ⅱ级颅内动脉瘤性 ASH 患者,随机分2组,实验组15例行认知刺激疗法、综合护理干预及出院后康复指导,对照组15例行常规治疗。采用简易精神状态检查量表(MMSE)、词语流畅性测验、视觉再生、连线测验对患者干预前后进行分析评定。结果患者认知功能及日常生活能力得到显著改善(P <0.05)。结论认知刺激疗法促进了患者认知功能的改善,缩短了患者回归工作岗位的时间。

  14. Treatment of pediatric patient with ruptured intracranial aneurysm--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meljnikov, Igor; Vuleković, Petar; Cigić, Tomislav; Borisev, Vladimir; Milojević, Aleksandar; Iduski, Stevan

    2012-01-01

    Despite the contemporary diagnostics of intracranial aneurysms their treatment is still a great challenge. The decision when and if to apply a surgical or endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms should be made by a team of medical specialists which consists of a cerebrovascular neurosurgeon, neuro-radiologist and neuro-anesthesiologist. We report a case of a patient aged 16 who was admitted because of a sudden intensive headache followed by sickness, vomiting, and loss of consciousness. On admission the patient was conscious but sleepy. Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14 and the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Scale grade was I. The computed tomography scan showed a massive subarachnoid haemorrhage. The computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed a ruptured saccular aneurysm in the left vertebral artery. An early treatment with the coiling of the lumen of the aneurysm was performed under general anaesthesia. On the tenth day the boy was discharged in good condition and without any neurological deficits. Six months after the intervention the patient was without symptoms and the control digital subtraction angiography showed the complete occlusion of the aneurysm. Intracranial aneurysms in children are more common in males and are predominantly localized in the posterior circulation. In addition, they are frequently of greater size and more complex architecture and they are associated with a lower incidence of clinically manifest vasospasm. According to previous experience, endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms in paediatric patients has proven to be a safe and efficient method with a small number of complications.

  15. Evolution and Prospects for Intracranial Pharmacotherapy for Refractory Epilepsies: The Subdural Hybrid Neuroprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandor Ludvig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial pharmacotherapy is a novel strategy to treat drug refractory, localization-related epilepsies not amenable to resective surgery. The common feature of the method is the use of some type of antiepileptic drug (AED delivery device placed inside the cranium to prevent or stop focal seizures. This distinguishes it from other nonconventional methods, such as intrathecal pharmacotherapy, electrical neurostimulation, gene therapy, cell transplantation, and local cooling. AED-delivery systems comprise drug releasing polymers and neuroprosthetic devices that can deliver AEDs into the brain via intraparenchymal, ventricular, or transmeningeal routes. One such device is the subdural Hybrid Neuroprosthesis (HNP, designed to deliver AEDs, such as muscimol, into the subdural/subarachnoid space overlaying neocortical epileptogenic zones, with electrophysiological feedback from the treated tissue. The idea of intracranial pharmacotherapy and HNP treatment for epilepsy originated from multiple sources, including the advent of implanted medical devices, safety data for intracranial electrodes and catheters, evidence for the seizure-controlling efficacy of intracerebral AEDs, and further understanding of the pathophysiology of focal epilepsy. Successful introduction of intracranial pharmacotherapy into clinical practice depends on how the intertwined scientific, engineering, clinical, neurosurgical and regulatory challenges will be met to produce an effective and commercially viable device.

  16. The Safety and Efficacy of Triple Antiplatelet Therapy after Intracranial Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Iko, Minoru; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Mitsutake, Takahumi; Eto, Ayumu; Nii, Kouhei; Nakai, Kanji; Oishi, Hiromichi; Aikawa, Hiroshi; Kazekawa, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    Stent-assisted coil embolization is effective for intracranial aneurysms, especially for wide-necked aneurysms; however, the optimal antiplatelet regimens for postoperative ischemic events have not yet been established. We aimed at determining the efficacy and safety of a triple antiplatelet therapy regimen after intracranial stent-assisted coil embolization. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent stent-assisted coil embolization for unruptured intracranial aneurysms or during the chronic phase of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm (≥ 4 weeks after subarachnoid hemorrhage onset). We recorded the incidence of ischemic and bleeding events 140 days postoperatively. We assessed 79 cases in patients who received either dual (n = 51) or triple (n = 28) antiplatelet therapy. The duration of triple antiplatelet therapy was 49 ± 29 days. Seven patients in the dual group experienced postoperative ischemic events. Compared to the dual group, the triple group had a similar incidence of postoperative bleeding events but a significantly lower incidence of postoperative ischemic events (P antiplatelet therapy had a significantly lower incidence of postoperative ischemic events and a similar incidence of postoperative bleeding events 140 days postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cerebral computed tomographic angiography scan delay in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukosevicius Saulius

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA is widely applied in the evaluation of cerebral vessels. Contrast enhancement in cerebral CTA without care or test bolus is not always sufficient for high-quality images. AIMS: Evaluation of the possibilities of calculation of scan delay for cerebral CTA in case of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, based on clinical data of a patient and to find out prognostic error of the model. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study in Neurosurgery and Radiology departments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scan delay in 53 patients suffering an acute SAH was measured employing test bolus technique. Cerebral CTA was performed afterwards. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: SPSS for Windows v.10.1 software package was applied for dispersion analysis, including one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov′s test and Levene′s Test of Equality of Error Variances. RESULTS: A statistical model for the prediction of scan delay in SAH was developed. Cerebral CTA scan delay was dependent upon age, neurological status and impact of the latter factors together (P<0.05. The determined mean square error of prognosis of scan delay of the developed model equals 3.3 sec. CONCLUSION: Using our proposed model it is possible to estimate an optimal delay time for CTA in most patients with SAH with a determined error.

  18. Risk–benefit analysis of the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindlacheruvu, R; Mendelow, A; Mitchell, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine under what circumstances repair of unruptured intracranial aneurysms may be beneficial. Methods: A life expectancy analysis of patients with unruptured aneurysms with and without repair based on prospective data from the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA). Results: Life years are lost at all ages by repairing anterior circulation aneurysms under 7 mm in diameter in patients with no history of a subarachnoid haemorrhage from another aneurysm (incidental). For all other aneurysms the number of life years saved by repair is dependent on the patient's age at the time when repair is undertaken. Between 2 and 40 years are saved by repairing aneurysms in patients aged 20 years. These benefits fall to 0 when remaining life expectancy falls below 15–35 years, corresponding to the age range of 45–70 years. Conclusions: Repair of unruptured aneurysms benefits patients harbouring them by improving life expectancy except in certain circumstances. The exceptions are patients with remaining life expectancy less than 15–35 years or aged 45–70 (depending on aneurysm size and location) and patients with aneurysms of the anterior circulation under 7 mm in diameter with no history of a previous subarachnoid haemorrhage. These results are based on the findings of the ISUIA and are dependent on their accuracy. PMID:15654039

  19. Non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage: perimesencephalic versus non-perimesencephalic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luís Guilherme Bastos Silva Aguiar; Costa, José Manuel Dias; Silva, Elsa Irene Peixoto Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical evolution of perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods The study was conducted retrospectively in a tertiary hospital center in the north region of Portugal. Included patients had no identifiable cause for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Several epidemiologic, clinical and imaging aspects were statistically analyzed, taking into account the differences in perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results Sixty-two patients met the inclusion criteria (46.8% - perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage; 53.2% - non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage). Demographic and clinical background characteristics were similar in both groups. Complications were more frequent in patients with non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage - 84.8% of the patients had at least one complication versus 48.3% in perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Vasospasm, infection and hydrocephaly were the most common complications (each was detected more frequently in the non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage group than in perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage group). Two patients died, both had a non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. The median inpatient time was longer in the non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage group (21 versus 14 days). No incidents of rebleeding were reported during the follow-up period (mean time of 15 ± 10.3 months). Conclusion Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage are two different entities that have different clinical outcomes, namely in terms of complication rate and median inpatient time. The management of these patients should respect this difference to improve treatment and optimize health care resources. PMID:27410409

  20. Addison's disease presenting with idiopathic intracranial hypertension in 24-year-old woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Peter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Idiopathic intracranial hypertension can rarely be associated with an underlying endocrine disorder such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, or with administration of thyroxine or growth hormone. Though cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension associated with Addison's disease in children have been reported, there is only one documented case report of this association in adults. We describe a case of an acute adrenal insufficiency precipitated by idiopathic intracranial hypertension in a Caucasian female. Case presentation A 24-year-old Caucasian woman was acutely unwell with a background of several months of generalised fatigue and intermittent headaches. She had unremarkable neurological and systemic examination with a normal computerised tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Normal cerebrospinal fluid but increased opening pressure at lumbar puncture suggested intracranial hypertension. A flat short synacthen test and raised level of adrenocorticotrophic hormone were consistent with primary adrenal failure. Conclusion Addison's disease can remain unrecognised until precipitated by acute stress. This case suggests that idiopathic intracranial hypertension can rarely be associated with Addison's disease and present as an acute illness. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is possibly related to an increase in the levels of arginine vasopressin peptide in serum and cerebrospinal fluid secondary to a glucocorticoid deficient state.

  1. 颅内动脉瘤遗传学研究进展%Advances in genetics of intracranial aneurysm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高涢; 王雄伟

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysm is an abnormal bulging of intracranial artery wall. Its rupture can lead to subarachnoid hemorrhage. About 50% of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage will die or have poor outcomes. At present, intracranial aneurysm is considered as a complex disease associated with genetic and environmental factors. Although the etiology of intracranial aneurysm is not completely clear, a lot of evidence has shown that the genetic factor plays an important role in the processes of its occurrence, development and rupture. This article reviews the advances in gene linkage research, genome wide association studies, and gene expression research in intracranial aneurysm in recent years.%颅内动脉瘤是颅内动脉管壁的异常膨出,其破裂可导致蛛网膜下腔出血,约50%的动脉瘤性蛛网膜下腔出血患者死亡或转归不良。目前认为,颅内动脉瘤是一种与遗传和环境因素相关的复杂疾病。尽管颅内动脉瘤的病因尚不完全清楚,但诸多证据表明遗传因素在其发生、发展和破裂过程中起着重要作用。文章对近年来颅内动脉瘤的基因连锁研究、全基因组关联研究以及基因表达研究的进展进行了综述。

  2. Intracranial Large Artery Occlusive Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wong KS; Li H; Kay R

    2000-01-01

    @@Intracranial large artery stenosis is the most commonly found vascular lesion in stroke patient of Chinese, Hispanic and African ancestry. There .have been few studies on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment and prognosis of this important disease. Recent advances in technology provide safe and reliable investigation for studying large number of patients. Transcranial Doppler is an easily accessible, cheap and reliable method to diagnose intracranial stenosis. It is suitable for screening for and monitoring the progress of intracranial stenosis. Magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography provide the morphology of lumenal stenosis but are less accessible.

  3. Intracranial Pressure Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raboel, P H; Bartek, J; Andresen, M;

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has been used for decades in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. There are multiple techniques: invasive as well as noninvasive. This paper aims to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the most common and well-known methods as ......-invasive techniques are without the invasive methods' risk of complication, but fail to measure ICP accurately enough to be used as routine alternatives to invasive measurement. We conclude that invasive measurement is currently the only option for accurate measurement of ICP....... as well as assess whether noninvasive techniques (transcranial Doppler, tympanic membrane displacement, optic nerve sheath diameter, CT scan/MRI and fundoscopy) can be used as reliable alternatives to the invasive techniques (ventriculostomy and microtransducers). Ventriculostomy is considered the gold...

  4. Roles of cistern and cisternal hemorrhage in the occurrence of acute hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage%脑池及脑池积血在动脉瘤性蛛网膜下腔出血后急性脑积水发生中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭四维; 漆松涛; 冯文峰; 刘忆; 张国忠; 王刚; 陈铭; 唐四强; 王海

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨脑池及脑池积血在动脉瘤性蛛网膜下腔出血(aSAH)后急性脑积水发生中的作用.方法 对南方医科大学南方医院神经外科201 1年5月至2014年1月经手术治疗且资料完整的306例aSAH患者的临床数据进行回顾性分析,其临床变量进行单因素分析和多因素Logistic回归分析,并对各个脑池的血量进行定量分析.结果 306例患者中有112例发生了急性脑积水,发生率为36.6%.单因素分析表明Fisher分级、脑室积血、动脉瘤的位置、动脉瘤侧别、再出血、治疗方式6项因素比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);多因素Logistic回归分析显示动脉瘤位置与脑室积血为其独立发生因素.在无脑室积血的患者中,急性脑积水的发生率为22.4%,其中脑积水组中的脚间池、右侧侧裂池血量最多,与非脑积水组相比差异有统计学意义(P=0.000;P=0.005).结论 aSAH急性脑积水是多因素共同作用的结果,动脉瘤位置与脑室积血是其独立危险因素;aSAH急性脑积水是梗阻性脑积水,脑池的位置及脑池积血的分布在aSAH急性脑积水发生中有着重要的影响作用;在无脑室积血的aSAH患者中,脚间池、右侧侧裂池的积血血量越大,越容易发生急性脑积水.%Objective To investigate the roles of cistern and cisternal hemorrhage in the occurrence of acute hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).Methods The clinical data of 306 patients with aSAH diagnosed and treated surgically at the Department of Neurosurgery,Nanfang Hospital,Southern Medical University from May 2011 to January 2014 were analyzed retrospectively.Their clinical variables were analyzed with the univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis,and the blood volume of each cistern was analyzed quantitatively.Results Among of the 306 patients,112 had acute hydrocephalus,and the incidence was 36.6%.Univariate analysis suggested that there were

  5. Surgical outcomes of Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II with intracranial vascular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Mario; Johnson, Jeremiah N; Bell-Stephens, Teresa E; Marks, Michael P; Do, Huy M; Dodd, Robert L; Bober, Michael B; Steinberg, Gary K

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II (MOPD II) is a rare genetic disorder. Features of it include extremely small stature, severe microcephaly, and normal or near-normal intelligence. Previous studies have found that more than 50% of patients with MOPD II have intracranial vascular anomalies, but few successful surgical revascularization or aneurysm-clipping cases have been reported because of the diminutive arteries and narrow surgical corridors in these patients. Here, the authors report on a large series of patients with MOPD II who underwent surgery for an intracranial vascular anomaly. METHODS In conjunction with an approved prospective registry of patients with MOPD II, a prospectively collected institutional surgical database of children with MOPD II and intracranial vascular anomalies who underwent surgery was analyzed retrospectively to establish long-term outcomes. RESULTS Ten patients with MOPD II underwent surgery between 2005 and 2012; 5 patients had moyamoya disease (MMD), 2 had intracranial aneurysms, and 3 had both MMD and aneurysms. Patients presented with transient ischemic attack (TIA) (n = 2), ischemic stroke (n = 2), intraparenchymal hemorrhage from MMD (n = 1), and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1), and 4 were diagnosed on screening. The mean age of the 8 patients with MMD, all of whom underwent extracranial-intracranial revascularization (14 indirect, 1 direct) was 9 years (range 1-17 years). The mean age of the 5 patients with aneurysms was 15.5 years (range 9-18 years). Two patients experienced postoperative complications (1 transient weakness after clipping, 1 femoral thrombosis that required surgical repair). During a mean follow-up of 5.9 years (range 3-10 years), 3 patients died (1 of subarachnoid hemorrhage, 1 of myocardial infarct, and 1 of respiratory failure), and 1 patient had continued TIAs. All of the surviving patients recovered to their neurological baseline. CONCLUSIONS Patients with MMD

  6. Time trends in outcome of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, C.E.; Rinkel, G.J.E.; Rothwell, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has changed substantially over the last 25 years but there is a lack of reliable population-based data on whether case-fatality or functional outcomes have improved. Methods: We determined changes in the standardized incidence and outcome of SAH in the same population between 1981 and 1986 (Oxford Community Stroke Project) and 2002 and 2008 (Oxford Vascular Study). In a meta-analysis with other population-based studies, we used linear regression to determine time trends in outcome. Results: There were no reductions in incidence of SAH (RR = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48–1.29, p = 0.34) and in 30-day case-fatality (RR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.39–1.13, p = 0.14) in the Oxford Vascular Study vs Oxford Community Stroke Project, but there was a decrease in overall mortality (RR = 0.47, 0.23–0.97, p = 0.04). Following adjustment for age and baseline SAH severity, patients surviving to hospital had reduced risk of death or dependency (modified Rankin score > 3) at 12 months in the Oxford Vascular Study (RR = 0.51, 0.29–0.88, p = 0.01). Among 32 studies covering 39 study periods from 1980 to 2005, 7 studied time trends within single populations. Unadjusted case-fatality fell by 0.9% per annum (0.3–1.5, p = 0.007) in a meta-analysis of data from all studies, and by 0.9% per annum (0.2–1.6%, p = 0.01) within the 7 population studies. Conclusion: Mortality due to subarachnoid hemorrhage fell by about 50% in our study population over the last 2 decades, due mainly to improved outcomes in cases surviving to reach hospital. This improvement is consistent with a significant decrease in case-fatality over the last 25 years in our pooled analysis of other similar population-based studies. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; mRS = modified Rankin score; OCSP = Oxford Community Stroke Project; OXVASC = Oxford Vascular Study; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage; WFNS = World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies

  7. Tight Sylvian cisterns associated with hyperdense areas mimicking subarachnoid hemorrhage on computed tomography--four case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, S; Endo, M; Kan, S; Kitahara, T; Ohwada, T; Fujii, K

    2001-11-01

    Four patients with supratentorial mass lesions (two chronic subdural hematomas, one acute epidural hematoma, and one acute subdural hematoma) showed hyperdense sylvian cisterns on computed tomography (CT). Association of subarachnoid hemorrhage was suspected initially, but was excluded by intraoperative observation or postoperative lumbar puncture. CT showed disappearance of the hyperdense areas just after evacuation of the mass lesions. The hyperdense areas are probably a result of the partial volume phenomenon or concentrations of calcium deposits rather than abnormally high hematocrit levels, which were not found in these patients.

  8. Risk factors for re-bleeding of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfotih, Gobran Taha Ahmed; Li, FangCheng; Xu, XinKe; Zhang, ShangYi

    2014-01-01

    The mortality of re-bleeding following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is high, and surviving patients often have poor clinical condition and worse outcome than patients with a single bleed. In this study, we performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the most common risk factors for re-bleeding in this patient population, with the goal of providing neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuro-interventionalists with a simple and fast method to evaluate the re-bleeding risk for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We conducted a thorough meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with re-bleeding or re-rupture of intracranial aneurysms in cases published between 2000 and 2013. Pooled mean difference was calculated for the continuous variables (age), and pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated for categorical factors. If heterogeneity was significant (pbleeding, resulting in a weighted average rate of re-bleeding of 11.3% with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.1-12.6. In this population, sex (OR 1.46; 95% CI: 1.11-1.92), high systolic blood pressure [SBP] (OR 2.52; 95% CI: 1.40-4.53), aneurysm size (OR 3.00; 95% CI: 2.06-4.37), clinical condition (Hunt & Hess) (OR 4.94; 95% CI: 2.29,10.68), and Fisher grade (OR 2.29; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.61) were statistically significant risk factors for re-bleeding. Sex, high SBP, high Fisher grade, aneurysm size larger than 10mm, and poor clinical condition were independent risk factors for aneurysmal re-bleeding. The importance of early aneurysm intervention and careful consideration of patient risk factors should be emphasized to eliminate the risk of re-bleeding and poor outcome. Copyright © 2014 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and tends to be “secondary” which affects males and females equally. The second group, post pubescent teenagers, tends to fit the adult stereotype. How is pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension diagnosed? If ...

  10. Spinal and Intracranial Epidural Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentation, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of spinal epidural abscess (SEA and intracranial epidural abscess (ICEA are reviewed by researchers at The John's Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, and Universidad de Santander, Columbia.

  11. The tympanic membrane displacement analyser for monitoring intracranial pressure in children

    OpenAIRE

    Gwer, Samson; Sheward, Victoria; Birch, Anthony; Marchbanks, Robert; Idro, Richard; Newton, Charles R.; Kirkham, Fenella J; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Lim, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is a potentially treatable cause of morbidity and mortality but tools for monitoring are invasive. We sought to investigate the utility of the tympanic membrane displacement (TMD) analyser for non-invasive measurement of ICP in children. Methods We made TMD observations on normal and acutely comatose children presenting to Kilifi District Hospital (KDH) at the rural coast of Kenya and on children on follow-up for idiopathic intracranial hypertension ...

  12. The tympanic membrane displacement analyser for monitoring intracranial pressure in children

    OpenAIRE

    Gwer, Samson; Sheward, Victoria; Birch, Anthony; Marchbanks, Robert; Idro, Richard; Newton, Charles R; Kirkham, Fenella J.; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Lim, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is a potentially treatable cause of morbidity and mortality but tools for monitoring are invasive. We sought to investigate the utility of the tympanic membrane displacement (TMD) analyser for non-invasive measurement of ICP in children. Methods We made TMD observations on normal and acutely comatose children presenting to Kilifi District Hospital (KDH) at the rural coast of Kenya and on children on follow-up for idiopathic intracranial hypertension ...

  13. Life Satisfaction and Return to Work After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passier, Patricia E. C. A.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A. Anne; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Lindeman, Eline; Post, Marcel W. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate life satisfaction and employment status after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to explain the associations between life satisfaction and demographic, disease-related, psychological, and personality characteristics. Subjects with SAH (n = 141) livin

  14. Electrocardiographic abnormalities and serum magnesium in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Walter M; Algra, Ale; Rinkel, Gabriël J E

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: ECG abnormalities and hypomagnesemia frequently occur after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Because hypomagnesemia is associated with several ECG abnormalities, we studied whether hypomagnesemia mediates ECG abnormalities after SAH. METHODS: We prospectively studied

  15. Cardiac dysfunction after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage : Relationship with outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bilt, Ivo; Hasan, Djo; van den Brink, Renee; Cramer, Maarten-Jan; van der Jagt, Mathieu; van Kooten, Fop; Meertens, John; van den Berg, Maarten; Groen, Rob; ten Cate, Folkert; Kamp, Otto; Goette, Marco; Horn, Janneke; Groeneveld, Johan; Vandertop, Peter; Algra, Ale; Visser, Frans; Wilde, Arthur; Rinkel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether cardiac abnormalities after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are associated with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and clinical outcome, independent from known clinical risk factors for these outcomes. METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter cohort study, we

  16. Myocarditis in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage : A histopathologic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bilt, Ivo A C; Vendeville, Jean Paul; van de Hoef, Tim P.; Begieneman, Mark P V; Lagrand, Wim K.; Kros, Johan M.; Wilde, Arthur A M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Niessen, Hans W M

    Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) such as electrocardiographic changes, echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities, and elevated troponin levels are independently associated with a poor prognosis. They are caused by catecholaminergic stress coinciding with influx of

  17. Extracerebral Organ Dysfunction and Sleep Disorders in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, Wouter Jan

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac and pulmonary complications are common in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but also other extracerebral complications are frequently observed. This thesis focuses on the occurrence of extracerebral organ dysfunction and the additional value of markers of these medical complications in

  18. Extracerebral Organ Dysfunction and Sleep Disorders in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, Wouter Jan

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac and pulmonary complications are common in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but also other extracerebral complications are frequently observed. This thesis focuses on the occurrence of extracerebral organ dysfunction and the additional value of markers of these medical complications in prognost

  19. Life Satisfaction and Return to Work After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passier, Patricia E. C. A.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A. Anne; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Lindeman, Eline; Post, Marcel W. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate life satisfaction and employment status after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to explain the associations between life satisfaction and demographic, disease-related, psychological, and personality characteristics. Subjects with SAH (n = 141)

  20. The need for repeat angiography in subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Solymosi, L. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Zentner, J. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the necessity for a second angiogram study in patients in whom initial angiography after primary subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) was negative. During a 12-year period, 122 of 694 patients (17.5 %) had negative initial angiograms. CT, available for 98 patients, showed a preponderance of subarachnoid blood in the perimesencephalic cisterns in 50 of 73 patients (68.5 %) in whom blood was visible on CT. Angiography, repeated in 67 patients, revealed an aneurysm in 4 (6 %): 2 had an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, 1 of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and 1 of the P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery. CT showed subarachnoid blood in the interpeduncular and ambient cisterns in this last case, and a preponderance of subarachnoid blood outside the perimesencephalic cisterns in the remaining 3 patients. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs.

  1. Anaplastic Medullary Ependymoma Presenting as Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Nicastro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A-41-year old man presented with violent thunderclap headache and a bilateral proprioceptive sensibility deficit of the upper limbs. Cerebral CT scan and MRI were negative. Lumbar puncture confirmed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, but cerebral angiography was negative. Three months later, the patient presented with paraparesis, and a thorough work-up revealed a diffuse, anaplastic extramedullary C7-D10 ependymoma with meningeal carcinomatosis considered the source of hemorrhage. The patient went through a D5-D8 laminectomy, temozolomide chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The situation remained stable for a few months. In this paper, we would like to emphasize that spinal masses should be considered in cases of SAH with negative diagnostic findings for aneurysms or arteriovenous malformation.

  2. Neuroinflammation responses after subarachnoid hemorrhage: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Vera Zhiyuan; Wong, George Kwok Chu

    2017-03-13

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an important cause of stroke mortality and morbidity, especially in the young stroke population. Recent evidences indicate that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in both early brain injury and the delayed brain deterioration after SAH, including cellular and molecular components. Cerebral vasospasm (CV) can lead to death after SAH and independently correlated with poor outcome. Neuroinflammation is evidenced to contribute to the etiology of vasospasm. Besides, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) commonly occurs in the SAH patients, with the presence of non-infectious fever and systematic complications. In this review, we summarize the evidences that indicate the prominent role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of SAH. That may provide the potential implications on diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  3. Growth and subsequent disappearance of a ruptured small saccular intracranial aneurysm: A morphometric and flow-dynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruvumba, Jayakumar Narayan; Paul, Divyan; Verghese, Renjan

    2016-10-01

    The growth of a ruptured small saccular aneurysm has rarely been documented. Also rare are reports of spontaneous thrombosis of ruptured small intracranial saccular aneurysms. However, there are no reported instances of ruptured small saccular aneurysms that have demonstrated an increase in size after rupture, subsequently thrombosed and disappeared from circulation. We report one such aneurysm in a patient who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured small saccular aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. The possible reasons for the initial growth and subsequent thrombosis of the aneurysm from morphometric and flow dynamic points of view are discussed.

  4. Intracranial Aneurysms in Sickle-Cell Disease Are Associated With the Hemoglobin SS Genotype But Not With Moyamoya Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Peter; Gardner, Kate; Kesse-Adu, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial aneurysms and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may occur more frequently in sickle-cell disease (SCD), and this could be related to the sickle genotype and moyamoya syndrome seen in SCD. METHODS: Records from a total of 1002 patients with SCD attending 2...... had imaging data; the prevalence was significantly higher in patients with HbSS genotype compared with other sickle genotypes with the highest prevalence (15%) observed in women in the age group 30 to 39 years. Fifty-one HbSS patients had a moyamoya vasculopathy, but only 3 of these had concomitant...

  5. Clinical Applications of Cine Balanced Steady-State Free Precession MRI for the Evaluation of the Subarachnoid Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A E; Wilkinson, M D; McGrillen, K M; Stoodley, M A; Magnussen, J S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of normal brain and spinal cord motion in the subarachnoid space, principles of cine balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), clinical applications, and the pitfalls encountered with this technique. The brain and spinal cord are dynamic structures that move with each heartbeat due to transmitted arterial pulse waves. Conventional MRI sequences do not allow anatomic evaluation of the pulsatile movement of the neural structures in the subarachnoid space due to limitations in temporal resolution. Cine bSSFP MRI uses cardiac gating to evaluate dynamically the brain and spinal cord with high contrast and temporal resolution.Cine bSSFP can be used in the evaluation of idiopathic syringomyelia to assess an underlying treatable cause, including arachnoid bands, which are usually not well visualized with conventional MR sequences due to motion artifact. This MRI technique is also useful in the evaluation of intraspinal and intracranial arachnoid cysts and the degree of mass effect on the cord. Other applications include preoperative and postoperative evaluation of Chiari I malformation and the evaluation of lateral ventricular asymmetry. The major limitation of cine bSSFP is the presence of banding artifacts, which can be reduced by shimming and modifying other scan parameters.

  6. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracranial Hypertension and Herniation

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Robert D.; Shoykhet, Michael; Cadena, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    Sustained intracranial hypertension and acute brain herniation are “brain codes,” signifying catastrophic neurological events that require immediate recognition and treatment to prevent irreversible injury and death. As in cardiac arrest, a brain code mandates the organized implementation of a stepwise management algorithm. The goal of this emergency neurological life support protocol is to implement an evidence-based, standardized approach to the evaluation and management of patients with in...

  7. 术中非手术区迟发性颅内血肿致急性脑膨出的高危因素及抢救体会40例%The high risk factors and emergency treatments to the patients with in-traoperative acute encephalocele caused by delayed intracranial hematomas at non operating region:An investigate of 40 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵刚; 刘帅; 李俊; 王宇; 孙继程; 张义; 王铂

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨术中非手术区迟发性颅内血肿致急性脑膨出患者的临床高危因素及抢救经验。方法对2000年1月~2013年12月40例术中非手术区迟发性颅内血肿致急性脑膨出患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,总结其高危因素及抢救经验。结果对冲伤22例。术前合并广泛脑挫裂伤14例,合并颅骨骨折16例,合并颅内小血肿(<15 mL)10例。致急性脑膨出的颅内血肿中对侧32例,其中硬膜外血肿24例。再手术32例,存活16例,总死亡率60%。结论术中非手术区迟发性颅内血肿致急性脑膨出高危因素为广泛脑挫裂伤、对侧颅骨骨折、非手术区的颅内小血肿。掌握其临床高危因素,有足够的预见性,充分的术前准备,正确的术中处理,术后科学系统的综合治疗才能最大限度地挽救患者生命。%Objective To investigate the high risk factors and emergency treatments to the patients with intraoperative acute encephalocele caused by delayed intracranial hematomas at non operating region. Methods The clinical data of 40 patients with intraoperative acute encephalocele caused by delayed intracranial hematomas at non operating region from January 2000 to December 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Summarized the high risk factors and emergency treatments in this case. Results The 22 cases with contrecoup injury. 14 cases with extensive contusion of brain,16 cases with skull fracture and 10 cases with small intracranial hematoma (Volume <15mL).The delayed intracranial hematomas to the acute encephalocele include,32 cases at the offside. And 24 cases with epidural hematoma. 32 cases had to undergo reoperation, survived 16 cases. The total death rate was 60%. Conclusion The high risk factors are ex-tensive contusion of brain, offside skull fracture and the delayed intracranial hematomas at non operating region. Under-standing Its high risk factors in clinical, with much more foreseeability, and

  8. INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE MONITORING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Adi Kayana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Head injury is the most significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality. An estimated 1.4 million head injuries occur each year, with and more than 1.1 million come to the Emergency Unit. On each patient head injury, an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP related to poor outcomes and aggressive therapy to increased ICP can improve the outcomes. ICP monitoring is the most widely used because of the prevention and control of ICP as well as maintain the pressure increase perfusion of cerebral (Cerebral Perfusion Pressure/CPP is the basic purpose of handling head injury. There are two methods of monitoring ICP that is an invasive methods (directly and non-invasive techniques (indirectly. The method commonly used, namely intraventricular and intraparenkimal (microtransducer sensor because it is more accurate but keep attention to the existence of the risk of bleeding and infection resulting from installation. Monitoring of ICT can determine the actions that avoid further brain injury, which can be lethal and irreversibel.

  9. The radiological appearance of intracranial aneurysms in adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Blignaut

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global prevalence of intracranial aneurysms is estimated at 2.3%. Limited literature is available on intracranial aneurysms in HIV-infected patients.Objectives: To describe the radiological appearance of intracranial aneurysms in HIV-positive adults.Method: In this retrospective analysis of data, 23 HIV-positive patients, of which 15 (65.2%were female, with a total of 41 aneurysms were included. The mean age was 38 years, and their median CD4 count was 305 x 106/L. Inclusion criteria comprised subarachnoid haemorrhage and confirmed intracranial aneurysms on four-vessel angiography.Results: Fifteen (65.2% patients had a single aneurysm, of which 12 (80.0% had a saccular appearance. Seven (46.7% of the single aneurysms had a neck width larger than 50% of the transverse aneurysm sac size. The mean longitudinal diameter of the aneurysm sac was 4.9 mm and the transverse diameter 4.4 mm. More than half of these aneurysms occurred at the anterior communicating artery. The median CD4 count of single-aneurysm patients was 319 x 106 /L. Eight patients (34.8% had multiple aneurysms, with a total of 26 aneurysms (range 2–6 aneurysms per patient, of which 13 (50.0% had a complex appearance. Twenty-four (92.3% of the multiple aneurysms had a neck width larger than 50% of the transverse aneurysm sac size. The mean longitudinal diameter of the aneurysm sac was 4.0 mm and the transverse diameter 3.9 mm. The multiple aneurysms occurred more commonly in the internal carotid artery. These patients had a median CD4 count of 294 x 106/L.Conclusion: HIV-associated intracranial aneurysms occur at a younger age, appear to be saccular and complex in shape, with a wide neck, and might rupture at small sizes.

  10. Operation treatment research progress of intracranial aneurysm rupture%颅内动脉瘤破裂出血的手术治疗的进展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋洋; 王宏勤

    2015-01-01

    颅内动脉瘤是血管壁的局部病理性扩张引起的。在受到外力或精神紧张引起的颅内压增高情况下很容易发生破裂出血。颅内动脉瘤破裂造成蛛网膜下腔出血,产生颅内占位效应,造成患者偏瘫,严重时危及患者生命。颅内动脉瘤出血病死率随着时间的推移而增加,动脉瘤破裂出血后早期闭塞与相关治疗很有必要的。该研究从颅内动脉瘤出血的多种手术方式及我国动脉瘤手术治疗现状研究做一下相关介绍。%Intracranial aneurysm is caused by localized pathological dilatation of the vessel wall. Under increased intracranial press, intracranial aneurysm are prone to rupture.The rupture of intracranial aneurysm causes subarachnoid hemorrhage,which pro-duces intracranial mass effect, results in paralysis , even losses lives. Intracranial aneurysm bleeding over time the cumulative The mortality of ruptured intracranial aneurysm is gradually increasing with the time gone on. It is pretty necessary to do early occlu-sion and corresponding treatment for the rupture of intracranial aneurysm.This article will introduce a variety of surgical ways and our country status about intracranial aneurysm surgery.

  11. Effect of cerebrospinal fluid displacement through lumbar puncture on function recover of nerve system in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients%腰穿脑脊液置换对蛛网膜下腔出血患者神经系统功能恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨职; 江先娣; 袁莉

    2002-01-01

    Background: Death and disability of subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH) are caused by lesions of cerebral hernia, spasm of cerebral blood vessels, injuries the blood brain barrier, or communicating hydrocephalus.Cerebrospinal fluid displacement through lumbar puncture can clear the bloody cerebrospinal fluid and reduce the blood pollution of the cerebrospinal fluid, shorten xanthochromia time, reduce the intracranial pressure early and meninges stimulation. Intrathecal injection of dexamethasone can reduce defense reaction of the meninges, tissue adhesion and organization at the same time.

  12. NONCONVULSIVE SEIZURES IN SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE LINK INFLAMMATION AND OUTCOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Jan; Albers, David; Schmidt, J. Michael; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Pugin, Deborah; Falo, Christina Maria; Mayer, Stephan A.; Cremers, Serge; Agarwal, Sachin; Elkind, Mitchell SV; Connolly, E. Sander; Dukic, Vanja; Hripcsak, George; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nonconvulsive seizures (NCSz) are frequent following acute brain injury and have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury but mechanisms that cause NCSz are controversial. Pro-inflammatory states are common after many brain injuries and inflammatory mediated changes in blood-brain-barrier permeability have experimentally been linked to seizures. Methods In this prospective observational study of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients we explored the link between the inflammatory response following SAH and in-hospital NCSz studying clinical (systemic inflammatory response syndrome,SIRS) and laboratory markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1,TNF-R1; high sensitivity C-reactive protein,hsCRP). Logistic regression, cox proportional hazards regression, and mediation analyses were performed to investigate temporal and causal relationships. Results Among 479 SAH patients, 53(11%) had in-hospital NCSz. Patients with in-hospital NCSz had a more pronounced SIRS response (OR1.9 per point increase in SIRS; 95%-CI1.3-2.9), inflammatory surges were more likely immediately preceding NCSz onset, and the negative impact of SIRS on functional outcome at 3 months was mediated in part through in-hospital NCSz. In a subset with inflammatory serum biomarkers we confirmed these findings linking higher serum TNF-R1 and hsCRP to in-hospital NCSz (OR1.2 per 20 point hsCRP increase [95%-CI1.1-1.4]; OR2.5 per 100 point TNF-R1 increase [95%-CI2.1-2.9]). The association of inflammatory biomarkers with poor outcome was mediated in part through NCSz. Interpretation In-hospital NCSz were independently associated with a pro-inflammatory state following SAH reflected in clinical symptoms and serum biomarkers of inflammation. Our findings suggest that inflammation following SAH is associated with poor outcome and this effect is at least in part mediated through in-hospital NCSz. PMID:24771589

  13. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage following ischemia in vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Arseny A; Husain, Shakir; Sztajzel, Roman; Croquelois, Alexandre; Lobrinus, Johannes A; Thaler, David; Städler, Claudio; Hungerbühler, Hansjörg; Caso, Valeria; Rinkel, Gabriel J; Michel, Patrik

    2016-07-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a chronic disorder with various cerebrovascular and compressive manifestations, involving subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Occurrence of SAH shortly after worsening of clinical VBD symptoms has occasionally been reported. The goal of the study was to examine this association, in particular its pathophysiology, clinical precursor signs, time course, and outcome.To this end, in a retrospective multicenter study, we analyzed 20 patients with VBD and SAH in regard to preceding clinical symptoms, presence of vertebrobasilar thrombosis and ischemia, outcome and neuropathological correlates.Median age of the 7 female and 13 male patients was 70 years (interquartile range [IQR] 18.3 years). Fourteen patients (70%) presented with new or acutely worsening posterior fossa signs at a median of 3 days prior to SAH (IQR 2, range 0.5-14). A thrombus within the VBD was detected in 12 patients (60%). Thrombus formation was associated with clinical deterioration (χ = 4.38, P = 0.04) and ponto-cerebellar ischemia (χ = 8.09, P = 0.005). During follow-up after SAH, 13 patients (65%) died, after a median survival time of 24 hours (IQR 66.2, range 2-264 hours), with a significant association between proven ponto-cerebellar ischemia and case fatality (χ = 6.24, P = 0.01).The data establish an association between clinical deterioration in patients with VBD, vertebrobasilar ischemia, and subsequent SAH. Antithrombotic treatment after deterioration appears controversial and SAH outcome is frequently fatal. Our data also indicate a short window of 3 days that may allow for evaluating interventional treatment, preferably within randomized trials.

  14. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage following ischemia in vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Arseny A.; Husain, Shakir; Sztajzel, Roman; Croquelois, Alexandre; Lobrinus, Johannes A.; Thaler, David; Städler, Claudio; Hungerbühler, Hansjörg; Caso, Valeria; Rinkel, Gabriel J.; Michel, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a chronic disorder with various cerebrovascular and compressive manifestations, involving subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Occurrence of SAH shortly after worsening of clinical VBD symptoms has occasionally been reported. The goal of the study was to examine this association, in particular its pathophysiology, clinical precursor signs, time course, and outcome. To this end, in a retrospective multicenter study, we analyzed 20 patients with VBD and SAH in regard to preceding clinical symptoms, presence of vertebrobasilar thrombosis and ischemia, outcome and neuropathological correlates. Median age of the 7 female and 13 male patients was 70 years (interquartile range [IQR] 18.3 years). Fourteen patients (70%) presented with new or acutely worsening posterior fossa signs at a median of 3 days prior to SAH (IQR 2, range 0.5–14). A thrombus within the VBD was detected in 12 patients (60%). Thrombus formation was associated with clinical deterioration (χ2 = 4.38, P = 0.04) and ponto-cerebellar ischemia (χ2 = 8.09, P = 0.005). During follow-up after SAH, 13 patients (65%) died, after a median survival time of 24 hours (IQR 66.2, range 2–264 hours), with a significant association between proven ponto-cerebellar ischemia and case fatality (χ2 = 6.24, P = 0.01). The data establish an association between clinical deterioration in patients with VBD, vertebrobasilar ischemia, and subsequent SAH. Antithrombotic treatment after deterioration appears controversial and SAH outcome is frequently fatal. Our data also indicate a short window of 3 days that may allow for evaluating interventional treatment, preferably within randomized trials. PMID:27399083

  15. Experience of nursing care in patients with intracranial aneurysm caused by intracranial aneurysm%栓塞术治疗颅内动脉瘤所致的蛛网膜下腔出血术前护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琴; 葸红; 贺艳君

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨血管内介入弹簧圈栓塞术治疗颅内动脉瘤所致的蛛网膜下腔出血术前护理。方法对20例经血管介入弹簧圈栓塞术治疗颅内动脉瘤所致的蛛网膜下腔出血患者加强术前降压、镇静、密切观察意识、瞳孔及生命体征的变化,防止引起颅内再出血。结果20例颅内动脉瘤所致的蛛网膜下腔出血患者给予血管内介入弹簧圈栓塞后取得满意效果。结论对颅内动脉瘤所致的蛛网膜下腔出血患者进行血管内介入弹簧圈栓塞术治疗,术前进行相应的护理干预措施,减少了颅内再次出血,为手术治疗争取时间。%Objective To investigate the nursing care of patients with intracranial aneurysm caused by endovascular embolization treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Methods 20 cases of intracranial aneurysms treated with endovascular embolization of intracranial aneurysms were treated with endovascular embolization, and the changes of blood pressure, sedation, close observation of the consciousness, pupil and vital signs were observed. Results 20 cases of intracranial aneurysms caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage were treated with endovascular embolization in the spring coil to obtain satisfactory results. Conclusion endovascular embolization treatment for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by intracranial aneurysms, and the corresponding nursing intervention measures, reduce the intracranial bleeding again, for the surgical treatment of time.

  16. Fever after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage : relation with extent of hydrocephalus and amount of extravasated blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorhout Mees, Sanne M; Luitse, Merel J A; van den Bergh, Walter M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fever after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with poor outcome. Because hydrocephalus and extravasated blood may influence thermoregulation, we determined whether these factors increase the risk for fever after subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: Fever within 14

  17. Spreading depolarizations increase delayed brain injury in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamming, Arend M.; Wermer, Marieke J H; Umesh Rudrapatna, S.; Lanier, Christian; Van Os, Hine J A; Van Den Bergh, Walter M.; Ferrari, Michel D.; van der Toorn, A; Van Den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Stowe, Ann M.; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.

    2016-01-01

    Spreading depolarizations may contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, but the effect of spreading depolarizations on brain lesion progression after subarachnoid hemorrhage has not yet been assessed directly. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that

  18. Spreading depolarizations increase delayed brain injury in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamming, Arend M.; Wermer, Marieke J. H.; Rudrapatna, S. Umesh; Lanier, Christian; van Os, Hine J. A.; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Ferrari, Michel D.; van der Toorn, Annette; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Stowe, Ann M.; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.

    Spreading depolarizations may contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, but the effect of spreading depolarizations on brain lesion progression after subarachnoid hemorrhage has not yet been assessed directly. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that

  19. Hyperglycemia and Clinical Outcome in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Kruyt; G.J. Biessels; R.J. de Haan; M. Vermeulen; G.J.E. Rinkel; B. Coert; Y.B.W.E.M. Roos

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Hyperglycemia may worsen outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We performed a systematic review to investigate the relation between admission hyperglycemia and outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods-We included cohort studies or clinical trials o

  20. Differences in cognitive and emotional outcomes between patients with perimesencephalic and aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Boerboom (Wendy); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); L. Khajeh (Ladbon); F. van Kooten (Fop); G.M. Ribbers (Gerard)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To compare cognitive and emotional outcomes between patients with aneurysmal and perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhage and norm scores. Design: First measurement in prospective cohort study. Patients: Sixty-seven patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage, were divided into

  1. Syphilis mimicking idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne; Wegener, Marianne; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of yet unknown aetiology affecting predominantly obese females of childbearing age. IIH is a diagnosis of exclusion as raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure may occur secondary to numerous other medical conditions. An atypical phenotype...... or an atypical disease course should alert the physician to reevaluate a presumed IIH-diagnosis. The authors report a case of a 32-year-old non-obese male with intracranial hypertension, secondary to a syphilitic central nervous system infection, initially misdiagnosed as being idiopathic. Upon relevant...... antibiotic treatment, signs and symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure resolved completely. Syphilis is a rare, but very important, differential diagnosis that in this case was clinically indistinguishable from IIH....

  2. Copeptin as a marker for severity and prognosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Grading of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH is often confounded by seizure, hydrocephalus or sedation and the prediction of prognosis remains difficult. Recently, copeptin has been identified as a serum marker for outcomes in acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. We investigated whether copeptin might serve as a marker for severity and prognosis in aSAH. METHODS: Eighteen consecutive patients with aSAH had plasma copeptin levels measured with a validated chemiluminescence sandwich immunoassay. The primary endpoint was the association of copeptin levels at admission with the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS grade score after resuscitation. Levels of copeptin were compared across clinical and radiological scores as well as between patients with ICH, intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, vasospasm and ischemia. RESULTS: Copeptin levels were significantly associated with the severity of aSAH measured by WFNS grade (P = 0.006, the amount of subarachnoid blood (P = 0.03 and the occurrence of ICH (P = 0.02. There was also a trend between copeptin levels and functional clinical outcome at 6-months (P = 0.054. No other clinical outcomes showed any statistically significant association. CONCLUSIONS: Copeptin may indicate clinical severity of the initial bleeding and may therefore help in guiding treatment decisions in the setting of aSAH. These initial results show that copeptin might also have prognostic value for clinical outcome in aSAH.

  3. Intracranial calcification in central diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kandari, Salwa Ramadan; Pandey, Tarun; Badawi, Mona H

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial calcification is a known but extremely rare complication of diabetes insipidus. To date, only 16 patients have been reported and all had the peripheral (nephrogenic) type of diabetes insipidus. We report a child with intracranial calcification complicating central diabetes insipidus. We also report a child with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and compare the patterns of intracranial calcification.

  4. Intracranial calcification in central diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kandari, Salwa R. [Al Razi Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuwait (Kuwait); Pandey, Tarun [Al Razi Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuwait (Kuwait); University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Radiology Department, Little Rock, AR (United States); Badawi, Mona H. [Al-Adan Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Kuwait (Kuwait)

    2008-01-15

    Intracranial calcification is a known but extremely rare complication of diabetes insipidus. To date, only 16 patients have been reported and all had the peripheral (nephrogenic) type of diabetes insipidus. We report a child with intracranial calcification complicating central diabetes insipidus. We also report a child with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and compare the patterns of intracranial calcification. (orig.)

  5. Pseudoarachnoiditis in Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Alkan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an important cause of new daily persistent headaches in young and middle-aged individuals. The diagnosis is made based on low cerebrospinal fluid pressure with characteristic findings upon brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Although his brain MRI was normal, his lumbar spinal MRI showed clustering of the nerve roots characteristic of arachnoiditis. Radionuclide cisternography revealed an epidural leak, which was treated with an epidural blood patch. The patient reached a near-full recovery within 24 h, and the lumbar spinal MRI findings mimicking arachnoiditis disappeared.

  6. Intracranial, intradural aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, Jalil; Snuderl, Matija; Small, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign, expansile, blood-filled, osteolytic lesions with internal septations that may be intraosseous or extraosseous. The cysts may cause local mass effect, and changes in the regional vascular supply necessitating intervention. A case of an intracranial, intradural ABC in a young male patient with progressively severe headaches is presented. This is only the third recorded intradural case, the majority of these rare lesions being extracranial and only a minute fraction intracranial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Syphilis mimicking idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne; Wegener, Marianne; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    or an atypical disease course should alert the physician to reevaluate a presumed IIH-diagnosis. The authors report a case of a 32-year-old non-obese male with intracranial hypertension, secondary to a syphilitic central nervous system infection, initially misdiagnosed as being idiopathic. Upon relevant......Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of yet unknown aetiology affecting predominantly obese females of childbearing age. IIH is a diagnosis of exclusion as raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure may occur secondary to numerous other medical conditions. An atypical phenotype...

  8. Anxiety and depression after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul Graham; Wilson, J T Lindsay; Dunn, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to emotional outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study assessed levels of anxiety and depression among SAH survivors and related these to clinical indices. Seventy SAH patients from a consecutive series of neurosurgical admissions participated in semistructured assessments of functional outcome; 52 of the patients also returned standardized measures of emotional outcome. These data were compared with clinical indices collected during the initial hospital admission. Moderate to severe levels of anxiety were present in approximately 40% of patients 16 months after hemorrhage, with approximately 20% experiencing moderate to severe levels of depression. Although anxiety was more likely to be reported at interview by those with an SAH of Fisher Grade 4, the standardized measures of anxiety and depression were not associated with severity of hemorrhage or any other clinical variables. Both anxiety and depression were significantly associated with outcome indices such as return to work and engagement in social activities. Anxiety is a significant and lasting problem for approximately 40% of survivors of SAH. It is suggested that measures taken to prevent or treat such anxiety among survivors of SAH may serve to significantly improve functional outcome.

  9. Impact of anesthesia on pathophysiology and mortality following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

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    Hockel Konstantin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anesthesia is indispensable for in vivo research but has the intrinsic potential to alter study results. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of three common anesthesia protocols on physiological parameters and outcome following the most common experimental model for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, endovascular perforation. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 38 were randomly assigned to (1 chloral hydrate, (2 isoflurane or (3 midazolam/medetomidine/fentanyl (MMF anesthesia. Arterial blood gases, intracranial pressure (ICP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF were monitored before and for 3 hours after SAH. Brain water content, mortality and rate of secondary bleeding were also evaluated. Results Under baseline conditions isoflurane anesthesia resulted in deterioration of respiratory parameters (arterial pCO2 and pO2 and increased brain water content. After SAH, isoflurane and chloral hydrate were associated with reduced MAP, incomplete recovery of post-hemorrhagic rCBF (23 ± 13% and 87 ± 18% of baseline, respectively and a high anesthesia-related mortality (17 and 50%, respectively. Anesthesia with MMF provided stable hemodynamics (MAP between 100-110 mmHg, high post-hemorrhagic rCBF values, and a high rate of re-bleedings (> 50%, a phenomenon often observed after SAH in humans. Conclusion Based on these findings we recommend anesthesia with MMF for the endovascular perforation model of SAH.

  10. Aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a Chilean population, with emphasis on risk factors

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    A Cifuentes Lucía

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH is caused principally by the rupture of intracranial aneurisms. Important risk factors have been described such as age, sex, hypertension (HT and season of the year, among others. The objective is to investigate the demographic characteristics and possible risk factors in a population of Chilean patients. Methods This retrospective study was based on the analysis of 244 clinical records of patients diagnosed with aneurismal SAH who were discharged from the Instituto de Neurocirugía ASENJO in Santiago, Chile. Results The mean age of patients was 49.85 years and the male:female ratio was 1:2.7. The signs and symptoms were not different between sexes; cephalea (85.7% was predominant, followed by loss of consciousness, vomiting/nausea and meningeal signs. Risk factors included sex, age and HT. Concordant with other reports, the incidence of SAH was greatest in spring. Conclusions The demographic characteristics and risk factors observed in patients with aneurismal SAH treated in ASENJO were comparable to those of other populations. We were not able to conclude that tobacco and alcohol consumption were risk factors for this population.

  11. High dose Erythropoietin increases Brain Tissue Oxygen Tension in Severe Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    Helbok Raimund

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasospasm-related delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI significantly impacts on outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Erythropoietin (EPO may reduce the severity of cerebral vasospasm and improve outcome, however, underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, the authors aimed to investigate the effect of EPO on cerebral metabolism and brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2. Methods Seven consecutive poor grade SAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring (MM received systemic EPO therapy (30.000 IU per day for 3 consecutive days for severe cerebral vasospasm. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, intracranial pressure (ICP, PbtO2 and brain metabolic changes were analyzed during the next 24 hours after each dose given. Statistical analysis was performed with a mixed effects model. Results A total of 22 interventions were analyzed. Median age was 47 years (32–68 and 86 % were female. Three patients (38 % developed DCI. MAP decreased 2 hours after intervention (P btO2 significantly increased over time (P  Conclusions EPO increases PbtO2 in poor grade SAH patients with severe cerebral vasospasm. The effect on outcome needs further investigation.

  12. [Massive natriuresis and polyuria after triple craniocervical subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral salt wasting syndrome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, E; Scherer, R; Schuricht, G; Rol, R; Hengst, K

    1992-11-01

    A thirty-year-old male patient suffered subarachnoidal haemorrhage from an angioma positioned in the cranio-cervical transition. After rebleeding twice the patient developed a hydrocephalus internus malresorptivus and excessive natriuresis and polyuria, accompanied by depressed renin activity and extremely low aldosterone plasma levels. Neither fluid restriction and sodium substitution, nor administration of hydro-chlorothiazide/indomethacin affected natriuresis and polyuria. It was only after treatment with fludrocortisone-acetate/hydrocortisone that hyponatraemia and polyuria were resolved. At the same time a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was applied. Differential diagnosis excluded the syndromes of inadequate antidiuretic hormone secretion, renal and cerebral diabetes insipidus, osmotic receptor hypofunction, chronic renal dysfunction and tubular necrosis. Natriuresis and polyuria developed under dexamethasone therapy. Since patient history, physical examination and laboratory criteria could not explain the electrolyte and fluid imbalance, this might be attributed to the hydrocephalus. Similar disturbances have been reported from other patients with intracranial disorders. Mechanical pressure exercised on the hypothalamus might cause the disturbance of fluid and sodium balance. Assuming a cerebral salt wasting syndrome, a putative natriuretic factor coming from the brain or an imbalance in the cerebral renin-angiotensin-system, as described in rats and dogs, must be discussed.

  13. The Intracranial-B2LEED3S Score and the Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Ischemic Stroke Patients Under Antiplatelet Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Sissani, Leila; Labreuche, Julien; Vicaut, Eric; Bousser, Marie Germaine; Chamorro, Angel; Fisher, Marc; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim M; Hennerici, Michael G; Mattle, Heinrich; Rothwell, Peter M; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Sacco, Ralph L; Greving, Jacoba P; Algra, Ale

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic antiplatelet therapy in the post-acute phase of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke is limited by the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) complications. METHODS: We developed an ICH risk score based on the PERFORM trial cohort (n = 19,100), which included patients with a

  14. Bilateral Traumatic Intracranial Hematomas and its Outcome: a Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sharad; Sharma, Vivek; Singh, Kulwant; Pandey, Deepa; Sharma, Mukesh; Patil, Deepak Bhanudas; Shende, Neeraj; Chauhan, Richa Singh

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the age distribution, mode of injury, type of hematomas, and their surgical outcome in patients with bilateral traumatic head injuries. The present study included 669 cases of traumatic head injury who presented at the neurosurgery emergency out of which 94 cases had bilateral head injuries from the period of August 2009 to April 2014. The data from the hospital computerized database were retrospectively analysed. Cases of bilateral traumatic head injury included 94 patients out of which 88.29 % (n = 83) were males and 11.70 % (n = 11) were females. Commonest mode of injury was road traffic accident in 56.38 % (n = 53) followed by fall from height in 29.78 % (n = 28). In our study, 25.53 % patients had epidural hematoma (EDH) with intracerebral hematoma (ICH) or contusion (n = 24), followed by EDH with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 18.08 % (n = 17). At the time of discharge, all those patients managed conservatively had good Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) while with surgical intervention 58 % patients had good GOS, 19 % had moderate disability, and 9 % remained with severe disability. In cases of bilateral hematomas, EDH is most common and should be managed in neurosurgical emergency. Other combinations of bilateral intracranial hematomas should be managed according to the surgical indication and serial CT imaging.

  15. Treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms yesterday and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Alexander; Steiner, Anahi; Kerry, Ghassan; Ranaie, Gholamreza; Baer, Ingrid; Hammer, Christian M.; Kunze, Stefan; Steiner, Hans-Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Objective This prospective study is designed to detect changes in the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms over a period of 17 years. Methods We compared 361 treated cases of aneurysm occlusion after subarachnoid hemorrhage from 1997 to 2003 with 281 cases from 2006 to 2014. Specialists of neuroradiology and vascular neurosurgery decided over the modality assignment. We established a prospective data acquisition in both groups to detect significant differences within a follow-up time of one year. With this setting we evaluated the treatment methods over time and compared endovascular with microsurgical treatment. Results When compared to the earlier group, microsurgical treatment was less frequently chosen in the more recent collective because of neck-configuration. Endovascular treatment was chosen more frequently over time (31.9% versus 48.8%). Occurrence of initial symptomatic ischemic stroke was significantly lower in the clipping group compared to the endovascular group and remained stable over time. The number of reinterventions due to refilled treated aneurysms significantly decreased in the endovascular group at one-year follow-up, but the significantly better occlusion- and reintervention-rate of the microsurgical group persisted. The rebleeding rate in the endovascular group at one year follow-up decreased from 6.1% to 2.2% and showed no statistically significant difference to the microsurgical group, anymore (endovascular 2.2% versus microsurgical 0.0%, p = 0.11). Conclusion Microsurgical clipping still has some advantages, however endovascular treatment is improving rapidly. PMID:28257502

  16. Intracranial malignant lymphomas. Clinicopathological study of 26 autopsy cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onda, Kiyoshi; Wakabayashi, Koichi; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Hitoshi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Brain Research Inst

    1999-07-01

    We examined 26 autopsy-proven cases of intracranial malignant lymphoma (IML) in immunocompetent patients to determine the extent of neoplastic involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) and to evaluate the effects of radiation on the tumor and brain tissue. All tumors were identified as diffuse non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of B-cell origin. In six patients who had not received radiotherapy, the clinical course of the disease was short and extensive infiltration of the tumor was seen. The remaining 20 patients were treated with radiotherapy and had a longer survival time. Leptomeningeal involvement was common, but extensive subarachnoid proliferation of the tumor was seen in only two cases. The posterior, but not anterior, lobe of the pituitary was involved in 5 of 22 cases, and choroid plexus involvement was seen in 4 of 21. Direct invasion of the tumor into the spinal cord, which tended to occur in patients with posterior fossa masses, was observed in 5 of 21 cases. Following irradiation, coagulation necrosis was frequently found in the invading zone as well as in the tumor mass, and degeneration of the white matter was also seen. We suggest that IML can extensively infiltrate into the CNS, including the posterior lobe of the pituitary and spinal cord, and that radiation injury to the brain appears to occur relatively easily in this disease. (author)

  17. Neurotuberculosis: Hallazgos intracraneanos en RM Neurotuberculosis: Intracranial MRI findings

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    Jorge Docampo

    2012-06-01

    retrospectively selected 20 patients with positive MRI findings of intracranial tuberculosis. Twelve of them were males and 8 were females, with an age range of between 8 months and 49 years (mean age: 21years. Clinical diagnosis was obtained by lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF culture. Eleven patients presented positive HIV serology. MRIs were performed using 0.5T and 1.5 T scanners and computed tomography (CT of the brain was also performed in two patients. Diffusion-weighted technique was performed in two patients and spectroscopy in one patient. Results. Of the total patients studied (n=20, 14 presented convexity subarachnoid involvement and 13 subarachnoid basal cystern involvement (leptomeningeal involvement, 13 presented tuberculomas, 11 large-vessel angiitis, 7 smallvessel angiitis, 7 hydrocephalia, 6 parenchymatous infarction and one pachymeningeal involvement. Combined lesions were observed in 15 patients. Conclusion. The most frequent location of neurotuberculosis in this series was meningeal with leptomeningeal involvement (14 patients with subarachnoid involvement, followed by cysternal involvement in 13 patients, and only one patient had pachymeningeal involvement. The most frequent parenchymatous finding of tuberculosis was tuberculoma in 13 patients, 5 with a miliary pattern and only one with pseudo-tumoral behavior.

  18. BENIGN INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION WITH INCIDENTAL PARASAGITTAL MENINGIOMA

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    Sukumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Benign intracranial hypotension, otherwise called as idiopathic intracranial hypotension is caused by CSF leaks due to disruption in spinal meninges. It is most commonly caused by disruption and leak at cervical and thoracic spine. Imaging is sometimes the most important key to the diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypotension, which helps in appropriate treatment of the patient. Here, we are presenting a case of benign intracranial hypotension associated with incidental parasagittal meningioma. The presence of benign intracranial hypotension was confirmed by taking MR myelogram.

  19. Imaging intracranial tuberculosis in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D.H. [Dept. of Radiology, Red Cross War Memorial Children`s Hospital, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    1995-05-01

    A morphologically based imaging review of intracranial tuberculosis in childhood is presented. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance features of parenchymal tuberculoma, tuberculous meningitis and meningeal/meniningocerebral tuberculoma are illustrated. Recent insight into the nature of tuberculoma necrosis and its magnetic resonance correlation is reviewed. Pathogenesis, relevant clinical background and the role of modern imaging is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Lesões cerebrais agudas e sua influência sobre a motilidade gastrintestinal Influence of acute brain injuries on gut motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adson Freitas de Lucena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A hemorragia subaracnóide é um exemplo de agravo capaz de elevar a pressão intracraniana a patamares de expressiva morbidade. A dilatação gástrica aguda e o retardo do esvaziamento gástrico são alterações de relevância fisiopatológica em pacientes com hipertensão intracraniana, sendo a normalização desses parâmetros útil para otimizar a recuperação dos pacientes vítimas de lesões do sistema nervoso central. Conduziu-se uma revisão bibliográfica em revistas de pesquisa médico-acadêmica e bibliotecas eletrônicas na área das ciências da saúde nacionais e internacionais nos últimos vinte e oito anos a respeito do eixo funcional cérebro-trato gastrintestinal e seu comportamento em animais experimentais ou pacientes com lesão cerebral aguda. A diminuição do tônus parassimpático é uma potencial causa da intolerância alimentar associado a hipertensão intracraniana. O comportamento do esvaziamento gástrico e do trânsito do trato gastrintestinal seguem padrão bifásico: uma fase inicial de esvaziamento gástrico acelerado e uma fase tardia de letargia intestinal. Observações experimentais são importantes para compreender o difícil manejo nutricional e volêmico de pacientes em terapia intensiva que evoluem com HIC secundária a um trauma crânio encefálico ou após hemorragia subaracnóide pós-rotura aneurismática cerebral. A elevação da pressão intracraniana causa incremento na atividade simpática, que é responsável por muitos dos sintomas periféricos sistêmicos e gastrintestinais. Conclui-se que as lesões cerebrais agudas que cursam com elevação importante da pressão intracraniana retardam o esvaziamento gastrintestinal tendo como via fisiopatológica as alterações no sistema nervoso autônomo.Subarachnoid hemorrhage can increase intracranial pressure, causing significant morbidity. Acute gastric dilation and delayed gastric emptying are commonly seen in patients with intracranial

  1. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma invading subarachnoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kase S

    2011-06-01

    .Keywords: diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma, subarachnoid space, optic nerve

  2. 急性颅脑损伤颅内出血患者治疗前后测定血浆Cortisol、 TNF-α和IL-6水平的临床意义%Clinical Significance of Determination the Changes of Plasma Cortisol, TNF-α and IL-6 Levels in Patients with Acute Brain Injury Intracranial Bleeding Both Before and After Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁志良; 杨永青

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore clinical significance of determination of change of plasma cortisol; TNF-aand IL-6 levels in patients with acute brain injury intracranial bleeding both before and after therapy. Methods BIA determined plasma cortisol; TNF-α levels and high-sensitive immunoassay measured plasma IL-6 levels in 84 patients with acute brian injury intracranial bleeding both before and after therapy and 35 normal controls. Results Before therapy; plasma cortisol(8h and 24h); TNF-a and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in 84 patients with acute brain injury intracranial bleeding than those in 35 controls (Pal 0. 05 ) . Conclusion The increasing plasma cortisol ( 8h and 24h ); TNF-a and IL-6 levels were urgent reaction on acute brain injury intracranial bleeding and took part in patho-physiological process; and might be utilized as an useful indicator of therapeutic effect as well as prognosis.%目的:为了探讨急性颅脑损伤颅内出血患者治疗前后测定血浆皮质醇(cortisol)、TNF-α和IL-6水平的临床意义.方法:RIA和超敏免疫分析测定了84例急性颅脑损伤颅内出血患者(其中46例重症和38例轻症)治疗前后血浆皮质醇、TNF-α和IL-6水平,并与35例正常对照组进行了比较性分析.结果:84例急性颅脑损伤颅内出血患者治疗前血浆皮质醇(8h和24h)、TNF-α和IL-6水平均较35例正常对照组明显增高(P均0.05).结论:血浆皮质醇(8h和24h)、TNF-α和IL-6水平的增加是急性颅脑损伤颅内出血的应激反应,并参与病理生理过程,是观察治疗效果和预后的有效指标.

  3. Paravascular pathways contribute to vasculitis and neuroinflammation after subarachnoid hemorrhage independently of glymphatic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C; Yao, X; Li, J; He, B; Liu, Q; Ren, H; Liang, F; Li, M; Lin, H; Peng, J; Yuan, T F; Pei, Z; Su, H

    2016-03-31

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease with high mortality. The mechanisms underlying its pathological complications have not been fully identified. Here, we investigate the potential involvement of the glymphatic system in the neuropathology of SAH. We demonstrate that blood components rapidly enter the paravascular space following SAH and penetrate into the perivascular parenchyma throughout the brain, causing disastrous events such as cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, microcirculation dysfunction and widespread perivascular neuroinflammation. Clearance of the paravascular pathway with tissue-type plasminogen activator ameliorates the behavioral deficits and alleviates histological injury of SAH. Interestingly, AQP4(-/-) mice showed no improvements in neurological deficits and neuroinflammation at day 7 after SAH compared with WT control mice. In conclusion, our study proves that the paravascular pathway dynamically mediates the pathological complications following acute SAH independently of glymphatic control.

  4. Spontaneous regression of intracranial aneurysm following remote ruptured aneurysm treatment with pipeline stent assisted coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpas, Asterios; Ashley, William W; Germanwala, Anand V

    2016-10-01

    Spontaneous aneurysm regression is a rare phenomenon. We present the interesting case of a 54-year-old woman who was admitted with a Hunt/Hess grade IV, Fisher grade III subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple intracranial aneurysms. She was treated with coiling of the largest paraclinoid aneurysm and placement of a flow diverting pipeline embolization device that covered all internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms. A follow-up angiogram at 6 months showed remodeling of the ICA with complete obliteration of all treated aneurysms. A distant, untreated, right frontal M2 aneurysm regressed spontaneously, after the flow was diverted away from it with the stent. The literature is reviewed, and potential pathophysiological mechanisms leading to aneurysm regression are discussed.

  5. PHENOBARBITAL FOR THE PREVENTION OF INTRACRANIAL DAMAGE IN CHINESE NEONATES WITH SEVERE ASPHYXIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠金; 吴圣楣; 黄萍; 孙建华; 陈冠仪; 储凇雯

    2000-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of phenobarbital on preventing intracranial damage and seizure in Chinese neonates with severe asphyxia. Methods A control trial was carried out in 60 Chinese neonates with severe asphyxia. 30 neonates received loading dose of phenobarbital on an average of 5.6h of age. Results The mean value of phenobarbital serum level obtained at the 4th day after birth was 21.9μg/ml. No significant difference was observed in the two groups in terms of birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores, sex, etc. The imaging diagnosis within 3d of age in all subjects showed normal brain in 14, brain edema in 9 and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in 7 in the treated group with a 53.3% of total complication rate, and normal brain in 5, brain edema in 15, IVH in 9 and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 1 in the untreated group with a 83.3% of total complication rate. The incidence of intracranial damage in the untreated group was significantly higher than that in the treated group (83.3% vs 53.3%, P<0.05). In the treated group, 4 neonates with seizure symptom were effectively controlled soon, and none of the other 26 developed seizure. The period of seizure in the treated group was significantly shorter than that in the untreated group (P<0. 05). Other clinical symptoms were also sooner improved and no side effects were observed among the neonates treated with phenobarbital. Conclusion The incidence of postasphyxiated intracranial damage was obviously decreased, and seizure could be prophylactically intervened by phenobarbital. It is recommended that early application of preventive phenobarbitalin severely asphyxiated neonates is reasonable in reducing the incidence of intracranial lesions and subsequent seizures.

  6. [Temporary occlusion in surgical management of intracranial aneurysm. Report of 54 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, E; Rizk, T; Nohra, G; Mohasseb, G; Okais, N

    1999-03-01

    Temporary arterial occlusion (TAO) is commonly used in the surgery of intracranial giant aneurysms. Its usefulness and safety in the surgical management of all cases of aneurysms remains to be proved. We report a series of 54 patients operated on for an intracranial aneurysm with the use of TAO. Among the 27 patients, admitted before the 4th day following post subarachnoid hemorrhage with I or II on WFNS score clinically, 24 had early aneurysm surgery. The size of the aneurysm was small in 16 cases, medium in 22, large in 13 and giant in 3 cases. The protocol proposed by Batjer in 1988 for large and giant aneurysms (etomidate, normotention and hypervolemia) was used without any electrophysiological monitoring. All patients underwent a post-operative cerebral CT scan to evaluate the incidence of a cerebral ischemia. Serial transcranial doppler was used to evaluate the severity of vasospasm. Clinical results were assessed using the GOS. TAO was elective in 51 patients and done after peroperative aneurysm rupture in 3 patients. The duration of TAO was less than 5 mn in 25 patients, between 5 and 10 min in 12, between 10 and 15 in 11, between 15 and 20 in 5 and more than 20 min in one patient. The last one developed a reversible neurological deficit secondary to ischemia attribuated to TAO. Intracranial aneurysm peroperative rupture was noted in 3 patients, clinical vasospam in 13 patients. These results allow us to recommend the routine use of TAO in the surgery of intracranial aneurysm. When application time is limited and cerebral protection used, TAO is safe. It decreases the risk of intraoperative rupture from a 18% rate in literature to 4.2% in our present experience and the risk of symptomatic vasospasm is not increased.

  7. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms: current national trends in patient management and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Rohit; Patel, Jaymin; Sweeney, J M; Carpenter, Anne Marie; Downes, Katheryne; Youssef, A Samy; van Loveren, Harry; Agazzi, Siviero

    2013-03-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms constitute a medical disease process with many unique features that present unique challenges in orchestrating their treatment. Conflicts exist in pediatric aneurysm literature as to whether endovascular therapy is equivalent to surgical therapy in assuring durable aneurysm obliteration in this population. The national Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Kid's Inpatient Dataset was queried using the HCUPnet system. Overall trends in length of stay (LOS), associated charges, and in-hospital deaths were analyzed for both subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and nonruptured aneurysms from 2000 to 2009. Trends in the type of procedure, associated LOS, and charges were analyzed for SAH from 2003 to 2009. A p value aneurysms. Costs of surgery showed a slight increase, while endovascular procedures also rose 50 % from 2006 to 2009. Interestingly, mean length of stay increased for endovascular procedures from 16.5 to 17.2 days and decreased for surgical procedures from 20.4 to 14.7 days (p pediatric subarachnoid hemorrhage have not significantly declined since 1997. Second, in-hospital charges for the management of both ruptured and nonruptured aneurysms rose by over 200 % from 2000 to 2009. Surgical procedures saw a 6 % increase in price, while endovascular procedures sharply rose in costs by 50 %. Finally, endovascular therapy has increased in utilization, while the frequency of surgical therapy has not changed significantly since 2003.

  8. Clinical and radiological profiles and outcomes in pediatric patients with intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Anant; Nair, Anup P; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Srivastava, Arun; Sahu, Rabi Narayan; Kumar, Raj

    2012-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are extremely uncommon in the pediatric population, their characteristics are not well studied, and certain features make them unique. The authors analyzed pediatric patients with aneurysms to try to understand their clinical, radiological, and outcome profile. Sixty-three pediatric patients (≤ 18 years of age) with ages ranging from 4 to 18 years and features (clinical and radiological) suggestive of aneurysm presented to, and were treated at, the authors' center in the past 20 years (1991-2011). Included in the present study were only those patients who underwent surgical intervention, and thus data for 57 patients were analyzed. Seventy-three aneurysms in 57 patients were surgically treated. There was a slight female predominance (M/F 1:1.2), and the mean age among all patients was 12.69 ± 3.75 years. Fifty patients (87.72%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 4 (7.02%) with mass effect, and 3 (5.26%) with seizure. On presentation the majority of patients (45 [78.95%]) had a good clinical grade. Eleven patients had multiple aneurysms. The internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation was the most common aneurysm site (18 cases [24.66%]), followed by the middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation (11 cases [15.07%]). At a mean follow-up of 18.58 ± 10.71 months (range 1.5-44 months), 44 patients (77.19%) had a favorable outcome, and 5 patients had died. Pediatric patients with intracranial aneurysms most commonly presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and there was a slight female predominance. The ICA bifurcation followed by the MCA bifurcation was the most common aneurysm site. The incidence of posterior circulation and giant aneurysms is higher in pediatric patients than in the adult population. Children tend to present with better clinical grades and have better overall survival results and good functional outcomes.

  9. Polymorphisms of elastin and collagen type Ⅰ α2 genes and intracranial aneurysm rupture%弹性蛋白和Ⅰ型胶原α2基因多态性与颅内动脉瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂小娟; 张京芬

    2016-01-01

    颅内动脉瘤主要由动脉管壁局部缺陷和管腔内压力增高所致。未破裂的小动脉瘤一般无症状,而破裂动脉瘤则可引起蛛网膜下腔出血(subarachnoid hemorrhage, SAH)。颅内动脉瘤的病因和发病机制迄今尚不完全清楚。大量证据表明,颅内动脉瘤是环境因素与多基因共同作用的复杂性疾病。文章对弹性蛋白(elastin, ELN)和Ⅰ型胶原α2(colagen type Ⅰα2, COL1A2)基因多态性与颅内动脉瘤的联系进行了综述。%Intracranial aneurysms are mainly caused by the local arterial wal defects and the increased intraluminal pressure. Usualy, the unruptured smal aneurysms are asymptomatic, and the ruptured aneurysms can cause subarachnoid hemorrhage. So far, the etiology and pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms are not fuly understood. A lot of evidence has showed that intracranial aneurysms are a complex disease of environmental factors and multi-gene interaction. This article reviews the correlation between polymorphisms of elastin and colagen type Ⅰ α2 genes and intracranial aneurysm.

  10. Hypopituitarism after subarachnoid haemorrhage, do we know enough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Khajeh (Ladbon); K. Blijdorp (Karin); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas); G.M. Ribbers (Gerard); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); F. van Kooten (Fop)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Fatigue, slowness, apathy and decrease in level of activity are common long-term complaints after a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). They resemble the symptoms frequently found in patients with endocrine dysfunction. Pituitary dysfunction may be the result of SAH or its compli

  11. Subjective hearing impairment after subarachnoid haemorrhage : Prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Erik M.; Greebe, Paut; Visser-Meily, J. M Anne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180428047; Rinkel, Gabriel J E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/085712000; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2017-01-01

    Background Sensorineural hearing impairment is a key symptom in patients with superficial siderosis of the central nervous system, a disease caused by chronic or intermittent haemorrhage into the subarachnoid space. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of subjective hearing impairment

  12. Recovery from a Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Patient and Spouse Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Roanne G.; Brice, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    This second article of a two-part case study focuses on the experiences of a patient and his spouse (caregiver) when a neurological trauma occurs. It is the personal account when A.B. survived a vertebral artery aneurysm and hemorrhage resulting in a subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is also an in-depth post-trauma account from two speech-language…

  13. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Neuroinflammation: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon P. Lucke-Wold

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH can lead to devastating outcomes including vasospasm, cognitive decline, and even death. Currently, treatment options are limited for this potentially life threatening injury. Recent evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in injury expansion and brain damage. Red blood cell breakdown products can lead to the release of inflammatory cytokines that trigger vasospasm and tissue injury. Preclinical models have been used successfully to improve understanding about neuroinflammation following aneurysmal rupture. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of how neuroinflammation relates to secondary outcomes such as vasospasm after aneurysmal rupture and to critically discuss pharmaceutical agents that warrant further investigation for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We provide a concise overview of the neuroinflammatory pathways that are upregulated following aneurysmal rupture and how these pathways correlate to long-term outcomes. Treatment of aneurysm rupture is limited and few pharmaceutical drugs are available. Through improved understanding of biochemical mechanisms of injury, novel treatment solutions are being developed that target neuroinflammation. In the final sections of this review, we highlight a few of these novel treatment approaches and emphasize why targeting neuroinflammation following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may improve patient care. We encourage ongoing research into the pathophysiology of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, especially in regards to neuroinflammatory cascades and the translation to randomized clinical trials.

  14. MRI demonstration of subarachnoid neurocysticercosis simulating metastatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, K.Y.; Roebuck, D.J.; Metreweli, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT (Hong Kong); Mok, V.; Kay, R. [Dept. of Neurology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong); Ng, H.K.; Teo, J.G.C. [Dept. of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong); Lam, J.; Poon, W. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)

    1998-11-01

    We present a patient with neurocysticercosis with spinal subarachnoid spread who presented with lower back pain and progressive numbness and weakness of the left leg. MRI of the spine simulated metastasis. MRI of the brain demonstrated a ``bunch of grapes`` appearance in the basal cisterns, characteristic of cysticercosis. (orig.) With 2 figs., 17 refs.

  15. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Neuroinflammation: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Manoranjan, Branavan; Turner, Ryan C.; McConnell, Evan; Vates, George Edward; Huber, Jason D.; Rosen, Charles L.; Simard, J. Marc

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to devastating outcomes including vasospasm, cognitive decline, and even death. Currently, treatment options are limited for this potentially life threatening injury. Recent evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in injury expansion and brain damage. Red blood cell breakdown products can lead to the release of inflammatory cytokines that trigger vasospasm and tissue injury. Preclinical models have been used successfully to improve understanding about neuroinflammation following aneurysmal rupture. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of how neuroinflammation relates to secondary outcomes such as vasospasm after aneurysmal rupture and to critically discuss pharmaceutical agents that warrant further investigation for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We provide a concise overview of the neuroinflammatory pathways that are upregulated following aneurysmal rupture and how these pathways correlate to long-term outcomes. Treatment of aneurysm rupture is limited and few pharmaceutical drugs are available. Through improved understanding of biochemical mechanisms of injury, novel treatment solutions are being developed that target neuroinflammation. In the final sections of this review, we highlight a few of these novel treatment approaches and emphasize why targeting neuroinflammation following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may improve patient care. We encourage ongoing research into the pathophysiology of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, especially in regards to neuroinflammatory cascades and the translation to randomized clinical trials. PMID:27049383

  16. Intra-arterial nimodipine for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Andresen, Morten; Bartek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Intra-arterial nimodipine (IAN) has shown a promising effect on cerebral vasospasm (CV) after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. At our institution, Rigshospitalet, IAN treatment has been used since 2009, but the short- and long-term clinical efficacy of IAN has not yet been assessed. The purpose...

  17. Recovery from a Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Days 1 through 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.; Brice, Roanne G.; Wallace, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) are a serious medical emergency, as 30% to 50% of all SAHs can result in death. Personal accounts and case studies are an important aspect of evidence-based practice. This first article of two presents a review of AB's (patient) condition immediately following an SAH in the intensive care and immediately post…

  18. Hyponatremia, volume status and blood pressure following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.F.M. Wijdicks (Eelco)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractPatients who survive an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are endangered by complications, which especially occur during the first weeks after the hemorrhage. These complications have a high mortality and morbidity, and the outcome of patients with SAH will improve if these compli

  19. Does Ondansetron Modify Sympathectomy Due to Subarachnoid Anesthesia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkawi, Abdullah S; Mavridis, Dimitris; Flood, Pamela;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disagreement among many underpowered studies has led to an equivocal understanding of the efficacy of the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron in preventing the consequences of sympathectomy after subarachnoid anesthesia. The authors assessed the efficacy of ondansetron with respect to the ov...

  20. Percutaneous treatment of subarachnoid-pleural fistula with Onyx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Steven; Parker, Fabrice; Herbrecht, Anne; Court, Charles; Saliou, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Subarachnoid-pleural fistula is a well-described complication after anterior surgery for thoracic disc herniation, but is difficult to treat by means of traditional chest and lumbar drains due to interference by positive ventilation pressures that may keep the fistula open and prevent proper closure. Current treatment strategies include surgical repair, which is technically challenging, and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, which can take several weeks to be effective. In this report, the authors describe a novel treatment for subarachnoid-pleural fistula using percutaneous obliteration with Onyx. Surgery for removal of a T7-8 disc herniation associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament was performed in a 56-year-old woman via an anterior transthoracic transpleural approach. Ten days after surgery, she presented with diplopia due to a subarachnoid-pleural fistula that was confirmed by CT myelography. Percutaneous injection of Onyx was performed under local anesthesia. Postprocedure CT showed complete obliteration of the fistula with no adverse events. A CT scan obtained 1 month later showed complete resolution of the pleural effusion. Neurological examination at 3 months postsurgery was normal. Clinical and radiological follow-up at 1 year showed complete recovery and no sign of fistula recurrence. Percutaneous treatment for subarachnoid-pleural fistula is an easy, safe, and effective strategy and can therefore be proposed as a first-line option for this challenging complication.

  1. Cardiac dysfunction after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage : Relationship with outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bilt, Ivo; Hasan, Djo; van den Brink, Renee; Cramer, Maarten-Jan; van der Jagt, Mathieu; van Kooten, Fop; Meertens, John; van den Berg, Maarten; Groen, Rob; ten Cate, Folkert; Kamp, Otto; Goette, Marco; Horn, Janneke; Groeneveld, Johan; Vandertop, Peter; Algra, Ale; Visser, Frans; Wilde, Arthur; Rinkel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether cardiac abnormalities after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are associated with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and clinical outcome, independent from known clinical risk factors for these outcomes. METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter cohort study, we perfor

  2. Clinical utilization of microembolus detection by transcranial Doppler sonography in intracranial stenosis-occlusive disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiu-juan; XING Ying-qi; WANG Juan; LIU Kang-ding

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical ultiliazation and significance of microembolus detection by transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography in intracranial stenosis-occlusive disease.Data sources All related articles in this review were mainly searched from PubMed published in English from 1996 to 2012 using the terms of microembolic signal,transcranial Doppler,intracranial stenosis,stroke.Study selection Original articles and reviews were selected if they were related to the clinical utilization of microembolus detection in intracranial stenosis-occlusive disease.Results Intracranial stenosis is a significant cause of cerebral emboli,and microembolus detection by TCD sonography were widely used in exploring the mechanisms of ischemic stroke with intracranial stenosis (including the middle cerebral artery stenosis and the vertebral-basilar stenosis),evaluating the prognosis of acute stroke,evaluating the therapeutic effects,and predicting the recurrent events of stroke.Conclusion Microembolus detection by TCD sonography plays an important role in the cerebral ischemic stroke patients with intracranial stenosis.

  3. Intracranial hypertension secondary to abdominal compartment syndrome in a girl with giant ovarian cystic mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavras, Nick; Christianakis, E; Ereikat, K; Mpourikas, D; Velaoras, K; Alexandrou, J

    2012-04-01

    The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a potentially fatal entity that occurs as a result of an acute increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). The authors report on a girl with a giant ovarian cystic mass, and clinical signs of ACS and intracranial hypertension (ΙΗ). The possible mechanism of IH secondary to ACS is discussed.

  4. Modulação da pressão intracraniana em um modelo experimental de hipertensão abdominal e lesão pulmonar aguda Factors associated with variation in intracranial pressure in a model of intra-abdominal hypertension with acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Godinho Zampieri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de alterações hemodinâmicas, respiratórias e metabólicas sobre a pressão intracraniana em um modelo de lesão pulmonar aguda e síndrome compartimental abdominal. MÉTODOS: Oito porcos Agroceres foram submetidos, após a instrumentação, a cinco cenários clínicos: 1 estado basal com baixa pressão intra-abdominal e pulmão sadio; 2 pneumoperitôneo, com pressão intra-abdominal de 20 mm Hg; 3 lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por lavagem pulmonar e desativação de surfactante; 4 pneumoperitôneo com pressão intra-abdominal de 20 mm Hg na vigência de lesão pulmonar aguda e com PEEP baixo; e 5 PEEP ajustado a 27 cm H2O na vigência de pneumoperitôneo e lesão pulmonar aguda. Variáveis respiratórias e hemodinâmicas foram coletadas. Análise multivariada foi realizada buscando as variáveis associadas com elevação da pressão intracraniana nos cinco cenários estudados. RESULTADOS: Após a análise multivariada, nas situações não associadas com lesão pulmonar aguda apenas a pressão de platô das vias aéreas se correlacionou positivamente com a pressão intracraniana. Nos modelos associados com lesão pulmonar aguda, a pressão de platô de vias aéreas, a pressão arterial de CO2, o CO2 no final da expiração e a pressão venosa central se correlacionaram positivamente com incrementos da pressão intracraniana. CONCLUSÃO: Em um modelo de disfunção orgânica múltipla com situações clínicas associadas com aumento da pressão torácica e abdominal, o incremento da pressão intracraniana desencadeado pela elevação da pressão abdominal parece ser decorrente da piora da complacência do sistema respiratório e da redução do gradiente para drenagem venosa cerebral ocasionado pela elevação da pressão venosa central.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of hemodynamic, respiratory and metabolic changes on intracranial pressure in a model of acute lung injury and abdominal compartment syndrome

  5. Temperature variability in the day-night cycle is associated with further intracranial pressure during therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Adriano Barreto; Annen, Eva; Boss, Oliver; Farokhzad, Faraneh; Sikorski, Christopher; Keller, Emanuela

    2017-08-03

    To assess whether circadian patterns of temperature correlate with further values of intracranial pressure (ICP) in severe brain injury treated with hypothermia. We retrospectively analyzed temperature values in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients treated with hypothermia by endovascular cooling. The circadian patterns of temperature were correlated with the mean ICP across the following day (ICP24). We analyzed data from 17 days of monitoring of three subarachnoid hemorrhage patients that underwent aneurysm coiling, sedation and hypothermia due to refractory intracranial hypertension and/or cerebral vasospasm. ICP24 ranged from 11.5 ± 3.1 to 24.2 ± 6.2 mmHg. The ratio between the coefficient of variation of temperature during the nocturnal period (18:00-6:00) and the preceding diurnal period (6:00-18:00) [temperature variability (TV)] ranged from 0.274 to 1.97. Regression analysis showed that TV correlated with ICP24 (Pearson correlation = -0.861, adjusted R square = 0.725, p TV) mmHg or, for 80% prediction interval, [Formula: see text] mmHg. The results indicate that the occurrence of ICP24 higher than 20 mmHg is unlikely after a day with TV ≥1.0. TV correlates with further ICP during hypothermia regardless the strict range that temperature is maintained. Further studies with larger series could clarify whether intracranial hypertension in severe brain injury can be predicted by analysis of oscillation patterns of autonomic parameters across a period of 24 h or its harmonics.

  6. The minor symptoms of increased intracranial pressure: 101 patients with benign intracranial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, R; Keane, J R

    1988-09-01

    Of 101 patients with benign intracranial hypertension not related to vasculitis, neck stiffness occurred in 31, tinnitus in 27, distal extremity paresthesias in 22, joint pains in 13, low back pain in 5, and gait "ataxia" in 4. Symptoms resolved promptly upon lowering the intracranial pressure by lumbar puncture, and were probably directly caused by intracranial hypertension. Awareness of these "minor" symptoms of increased intracranial pressure can facilitate diagnosis and management.

  7. Chemical shift selective magnetic resonance imaging of the optic nerve in patients with acute optic neuritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, H.B.W.; Thomsen, C.; Frederiksen, J.; Henriksen, O.; Olesen, J.

    Optic neuritis is often the first manifestion of multiple sclerosis (MS). Sixteen patients with acute optic neuritis and one patient with benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging, using a chemical shift selective double spin echo sequence. In 3 of the 16 patients, abnormalities were seen. In one patient with bilateral symptoms, signal hyperintensity and swelling of the right side of the chiasm were found. In another patient the optic nerve was found diffusely enlarged with only a marginally increased signal in the second echo. In the third patient an area of signal hyperintensity and swelling was seen in the left optic nerve. In the patient with BIH the subarachnoid space which surrounds the optic nerves was enlarged. Even using this refined pulse sequence, avoiding the major artefact in imaging the optic nerve, the chemical shift artefact, lesions were only shown in 3/16 (19%) of the patients with optic neuritis. Nevertheless, the presented chemical shift selective double spin echo sequence may be of great value for detection of retrobulbar lesions.

  8. Treatment of intracranial hydatid cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sailike Duishanbai; WEN Hao; GENG Dangmurenjiafu; LIU Chen; GUO Huai-rong; HAO Yu-jun; LIU Bo; WANG Yong-xin; LUO Kun; ZHOU Kai

    2011-01-01

    Background Echinococcosis is still endemic in many countries, including China, where it is especially prevalent in the northwest. The aim of this study was to enrich the international literature about the treatment of intracranial hydatid cysts.Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features, radiological manifestations, and surgical outcome of 97 patients with intracranial hydatid cysts, who received surgical treatment at the Neurosurgical Department of First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from 1985 to 2010 and followed up the patient via sending a questionnaire or telephone contact. Clinical outcome was evaluated using the Karnofsky Performance Scale Index.Results Headache and vomiting were the most common initial symptoms in our patients. Neurological deficits caused by the mass effect of the cysts were seen in 82 cases. On the X-ray, significant bone erosion was seen in only two cases with epidural hydatid cysts. Round-shaped and thin-walled homogeneous low-density cystic lesions without surrounding edema and enhancement were the main findings on computerized tomography (CT) in 95 patients with intraparenchymal hydatid cysts, while two cases with epidural hydatid cysts presented as a heterodensity lesions. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hydatid cyst presented as a round-shaped low signal lesion in T1-weighted images and high signal lesion in T2-weighted images, without enhancement after contrast media injection, while the two cases with epidural cysts presented as mixed signal masses. Surgical removal of cyst was performed in all cases. Total removal was achieved in 93 cases without rupturing the cyst wall. Only two cysts ruptured during the dissection, resulting in two surgery-related mortalities. There was no other additional neurological deficit caused directly by surgery. In 97.2% of the patients, the Karnofsky Performance Scale score was 80 to 90 at the last follow-up.Conclusions Intracranial hydatid cyst is still a

  9. 急性外伤性颅内血肿开颅血肿清除术后继发血肿的相关因素分析%Analysis of related factors of secondary hematoma of acute traumatic intracranial hematoma after hematoma removal by craniotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永生

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨急性外伤性颅内血肿患者行开颅血肿清除术后继发血肿的相关危险因素.方法 回顾性分析我院126例行开颅血肿清除术急性外伤性颅内血肿患者的临床资料,单因素分析影响术后继发血肿发生的相关因素,多因素Logistic回归分析影响继发血肿发生的独立危险因素.结果 开颅血肿清除术后继发血肿发生率为19.05%.多因素Logistic回归分析表明:手术时机、血浆凝血酶时间、颅骨骨折为术后继发血肿的独立危险因素.结论 血浆凝血酶时间、手术时机、颅骨骨折是影响开颅血肿清除术后继发血肿发生的独立危险因素,临床中应采取相应的预防措施,以提高患者康复期间的治疗效果,降低继发颅内血肿的发生率.%Objective To investigate the related factors of secondary hematoma of acute traumatic intracranial hematoma after hematoma removal by craniotomy.Methods Retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 126 patients with acute traumatic intracranial hematoma underwent hematoma removal by craniotomy in our hospital.Carried out single factor analysis of related factors of secondary hematoma,and multi-factor Logistic regression analysis of independent risk factors of secondary hematoma.Results The incidence of secondary hematoma after hematoma removal by craniotomy was 19.05%.Multi-factor Logistic regression analysis showed that operation opportunity,plasma thrombin time,and skull fracture were independent risk factors of secondary hematoma.Conclusion Operation opportunity,plasma thrombin time,and skull fracture are independent risk factors of secondary hematoma.We should take preventive measures to improve the treatment effect and reduce the incidence of secondary hematoma.

  10. Rapid growth of an infectious intracranial aneurysm with catastrophic intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffie, Robert M; Stapleton, Christopher J; Torok, Collin M; Yoo, Albert J; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Codd, Patrick J

    2015-03-01

    Infectious intracranial aneurysms are rare vascular lesions that classically occur in patients with infective endocarditis. We present a 49-year-old man with altered mental status and headache with rapid growth and rupture of an infectious intracranial aneurysm with catastrophic intracranial hemorrhage, and review issues related to open neurosurgical and endovascular interventions.

  11. New angiographic measurement tool for analysis of small cerebral vessels: application to a subarachnoid haemorrhage model in the rat

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    Turowski, B.; Moedder, U. [Heinrich-Heine University, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Neuroradiology, Duesselorf (Germany); Haenggi, D.; Steiger, H.J. [Heinrich-Heine University, Department of Neurosurgery, Duesseldorf (Germany); Beck, A.; Aurich, V. [Heinrich-Heine University, Institute of Informatics, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    Exact quantification of vasospasm by angiography is known to be difficult especially in small vessels. The purpose of the study was to develop a new method for computerized analysis of small arteries and to demonstrate feasibility on cerebral angiographies of rats acquired on a clinical angiography unit. A new software tool analysing grey values and subtracting background noise was validated on a vessel model. It was tested in practice in animals with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). A total of 28 rats were divided into four groups: SAH untreated, SAH treated with local calcium antagonist, SAH treated with placebo, and sham-operated. The diameters of segments of the internal carotid, caudal cerebral, middle cerebral, rostral cerebral and the stapedial arteries were measured and compared to direct measurements of the diameters on magnified images. There was a direct correlation between the cross-sectional area of vessels measured in a phantom and the measurements acquired using the new image analysis method. The spread of repeated measurements with the new software was small compared to the spread of direct measurements of vessel diameters on magnified images. Application of the measurement tool to experimental SAH in rats showed a statistically significant reduction of vasospasm in the SAH groups treated with nimodipine-releasing pellets in comparison to all the other groups combined. The presented computerized method for analysis of small intracranial vessels is a new method allowing precise relative measurements. Nimodipine-releasing subarachnoidal pellets reduce vasospasm, but further testing with larger numbers is necessary. The tool can be applied to human angiography without modification and offers the promise of substantial progress in the diagnosis of vasospasm after SAH. (orig.)

  12. Impact of External Ventricular Drainage Volumes on Shunt Dependency after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

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    Hayek, Muhammad Ali; Roth, Christian; Kaestner, Stefanie; Deinsberger, Wolfgang

    2016-07-22

    Background The indication for and the timing of a permanent shunt operation in patients following acute hydrocephalus (HC) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains controversial because risk factors for chronic HC fail to predict permanent shunt dependency. The amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drained via an external ventricular drain (EVD) may predict shunt dependency. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of our HC database from January 2006 to December 2011. All patients receiving an EVD due to acute HC after SAH were analyzed. The daily amount of drained CSF was documented until the EVD was removed or converted to a permanent shunt either immediately or during a follow-up period of 6 months. Results A total of 139 patients (48 male, 91 female; mean age: 57 ± 14 years) were eligible for the study. Mean duration of EVD was 16 ± 10 days (range: 4-60 days). A permanent shunt was necessary in 32% of cases (n = 45). The mean daily CSF volume was 139 ± 17 mL (range: 15-460 mL). Using repeated-measures analysis of variance, there was a significant difference of daily drained CSF volumes between both the groups in the first 15 days after the EVD. Conclusion Our results suggest that the daily amount of external CSF drainage volume in the acute state of SAH might influence the development of HC.

  13. PATHOGENESIS OF OPTIC DISC EDEMA IN RAISED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure was first described in 1853. Ever since, there has been a plethora of controversial hypotheses to explain its pathogenesis. I have explored the subject comprehensively by doing basic, experimental and clinical studies. My objective was to investigate the fundamentals of the subject, to test the validity of the previous theories, and finally, based on all these studies, to find a logical explanation for the pathogenesis. My studies included the following issues pertinent to the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure: the anatomy and blood supply of the optic nerve, the roles of the sheath of the optic nerve, of the centripetal flow of fluids along the optic nerve, of compression of the central retinal vein, and of acute intracranial hypertension and its associated effects. I found that, contrary to some previous claims, an acute rise of intracranial pressure was not quickly followed by production of optic disc edema. Then, in rhesus monkeys, I produced experimentally chronic intracranial hypertension by slowly increasing in size space-occupying lesions, in different parts of the brain. Those produced raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and optic disc edema, identical to those seen in patients with elevated CSFP. Having achieved that, I investigated various aspects of optic disc edema by ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic color fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography, and light microscopic, electron microscopic, horseradish peroxidase and axoplasmic transport studies, and evaluated the effect of opening the sheath of the optic nerve on the optic disc edema. This latter study showed that opening the sheath resulted in resolution of optic disc edema on the side of the sheath fenestration, in spite of high intracranial CSFP, proving that a rise of CSFP in the sheath was the essential pre-requisite for the development of optic disc edema. I also investigated optic disc edema with

  14. Clinical research about the curative effect of hypertonic saline on acute intracranial hypertension caused by craniocerebral injury%高渗盐水抢救颅脑损伤所致急性颅内高压的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万宝; 刘剑; 乔着意; 赵庆波; 王梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨高渗盐水(hypertonic saline,HS)在急诊科抢救颅脑损伤所致急性颅内高压患者首次降颅压治疗中的临床疗效.方法 颅脑损伤所致急性颅内高压患者60例,随机分为3%HS组(20例)、10%HS组(20例)和20%甘露醇(mannitol,MT)组(20例).3%HS组静脉给予3%HS 260 mL,10%HS组静脉给予10%HS 80 mL,MT组静脉给予20%MT 250 mL,并于用药前及用药后30、60、90 min和2、3、4、5 h监测颅内压(intracranial pressure,ICP)、平均动脉压(mean artery pressure,MAP),记录尿量,观察生命体征变化,监测血生化指标.结果 ①HS组于用药后30 min ICP达到最大降幅,显著早于MT组(P0.05).③静脉快速滴注3%HS、10%HS和20%MT后脑灌注压(CPP)均显著升高(P0.05),但3%HS作用持续时间较10%HS、20%MT显著延长(P<0.05).结论 ①与MT比较,HS抢救颅脑损伤所致急性颅内高压起效更快、更持久,维持ICP更平稳.②两种浓度HS都能显著升高MAP,具有显著扩容作用.③三组均能升高CPP,以3%HS持续时间较长.%Objective To investigate the curative effect of hypertonic saline (HS) on the patients with acute intracranial hypertension caused by craniocerebral injury in emergency department.Methods Patients with acute intracranial hypertension caused by craniocerebral injury were divided into three groups including 3% HS group, 10% HS group and 20% mannitol (MT) group randomly.The intracranial pressure(ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood pressure(BP), cerebral perfusion pressure( CPP), urine output and blood biochemical parameters were recorded before the treatment and at 30, 60, 90 min and 2, 3, 4, 5 h after 3% HS 260 mL, 10% HS 80 mL and 20% MT 250 mL treatment respectively.Results ①The ICP decreased greatly at 30 min after HS treatment, which was earlier than in MT group(P < 0.05).Moreover, decreased ICP of 3% HS group maintained for 4 h,which was better than other groups(P < 0.05).②The MAP increased after treatment in HS

  15. Technique of ICP monitored stepwise intracranial decompression effectively reduces postoperative complications of severe bifrontal contusion

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    Guan eSun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Bifrontal contusion is a common clinical brain injury. In the early stage, it is often mild, but it progresses rapidly and frequently worsens suddenly. This condition can become life threatening and therefore requires surgery. Conventional decompression craniectomy is the commonly used treatment method. In this study, the effect of ICP monitored stepwise intracranial decompression surgery on the prognosis of patients with acute severe bifrontal contusion was investigated. Method A total of 136 patients with severe bifrontal contusion combined with deteriorated intracranial hypertension admitted from March 2001 to March 2014 in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into two groups, i.e., a conventional decompression group and an intracranial pressure (ICP monitored stepwise intracranial decompression group (68 patients each, to conduct a retrospective study. The incidence rates of acute intraoperative encephalocele, delayed hematomas, and postoperative cerebral infarctions and the Glasgow outcome scores (GOSs 6 months after the surgery were compared between the two groups.Results (1 The incidence rates of acute encephalocele and contralateral delayed epidural hematoma in the stepwise decompression surgery group were significantly lower than those in the conventional decompression group; the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05; (2 6 months after the surgery, the incidence of vegetative state and mortality in the stepwise decompression group were significantly lower than those in the conventional decompression group (P < 0.05; the rate of favorable prognosis in the stepwise decompression group was also significantly higher than that in the conventional decompression group (P < 0.05.Conclusions The ICP monitored stepwise intracranial decompression technique reduced the perioperative complications of traumatic brain injury through the gradual release of intracranial pressure and was beneficial to the prognosis of

  16. Surgical evacuation of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage due to vitamin K deficiency bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ashraf Shaker; Abdel-Hady, Hesham

    2011-03-01

    Although the incidence of vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in neonates has dramatically decreased in the developed world since the adoption of routine vitamin K prophylaxis, in developing countries the incidence is still high. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is the most dangerous complication. Early recognition and management are important to decrease the mortality rate and neurological sequelae. The authors conducted a prospective study between January 2008 and June 2010. They included all full-term neonates referred to the Department of Neurosurgery at Mansoura University Children's Hospital with ICH complicating VKDB and necessitating surgical evacuation. The objective was to evaluate the clinical presentation, diagnosis, hospital course, and outcome of ICH in full-term neonates with VKDB after surgical evacuation. Thirty-two neonates with ICH due to VKDB were included. Diagnosis and classification of ICH were based on detailed history, physical examination, and the interpretation of CT or MR imaging studies. The diagnosis of VKDB was based on pretreatment coagulation studies (prothrombin time [PT] and partial thromboplastin time [PTT]), which are grossly abnormal, together with a normal platelet count and correction of coagulation results to normal after vitamin K administration. The mean age (± SD) at onset of symptoms was 20.4 ± 4.9 days. Two neonates (6.25%) had early VKDB, 7 (21.9%) had classic VKDB, and 23 (71.9%) had late VKDB. The most common neurological manifestations included focal seizures, disturbed consciousness level, and tense anterior fontanel. The most common general manifestations included pallor, respiratory distress, and bleeding from other sites. Radiological findings varied from acute subdural hemorrhage (SDH) in 18 cases (56.3%), intracerebral hemorrhage in 10 (31.3%), and acute SDH with underlying intracerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in 4 (12.5%). Before administration of vitamin K

  17. Cerebral Hemodynamic Changes Induced by a Lumbar Puncture in Good-Grade Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Schmidt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with good-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH are those without initial neurological deficit. However, they can die or present severe deficit due to secondary insult leading to brain ischemia. After SAH, in a known context of energy crisis, vasospasm, hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension contribute to unfavorable outcome. Lumbar puncture (LP is sometimes performed in an attempt to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP and release headaches. We hypothesize that in good-grade SAH patients, a 20-ml LP releases headaches, reduces ICP and improves cerebral blood flow (CBF as measured with O15 PET scan. Methods: Six good-grade (WFNS grade 1or 2 SAH patients (mean age 48 years, 2 women, 4 men were prospectively included. All aneurysms (4 anterior communicating artery and 2 right middle cerebral artery were coiled at day 1. Patients were managed according to our local protocol. LP was performed for severe headache (VAS >7 despite maximal painkiller treatment. Patients were included when the LP was clinically needed. The 20-ml LP was done in the PET scan (mean delay between SAH and LP: 3.5 days. LP allows hydrostatic measurement of ICP. Arterial blood pressure (ABP was noninvasively gauged with photoplethysmography. Every signal was monitored and analyzed off-line. Regional CBF (rCBF was measured semiquantitatively with O15 PET before and after LP. Then we calculated the difference between baseline and post-LP condition for each area: positive value means augmentation of rCBF after the LP, negative value means reduction of rCBF. Individual descriptive analysis of CBF was first performed for each patient; then a statistical group analysis was done with SPM for all voxels using t statistics converted to Z scores (p 3.2. Results: A 20-ml LP yielded a reduction in pain (–4, a drop in ICP (24.3 ± 12.5 to 6.9 ± 4.7 mm Hg, but no change in ABP. Descriptive and statistical image analysis showed a heterogeneous and biphasic change in

  18. Uncommon presentation of pediatric ruptured intracranial aneurysm after radiotherapy for retinoblastoma. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Portillo, Gabriel A; Valdivia, Juan Martin Valdivia

    2006-04-01

    Radiation-induced intracranial aneurysms are a rare entity with high mortality. Their pathogenesis is still in debate. Their unique anatomy and behavior should be considered when deciding the proper management. A background of radiation, uncommon anatomic aspects, age of presentation, and location guide us to suspect a radiation-induced etiology. We report the case of a pediatric patient with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, who previously received radiation therapy to the orbits. We aim to contribute to the literature of this uncommon condition and stress the importance of its prompt diagnosis and treatment. A 12-year-old boy, who received radiation therapy for recurrent bilateral retinoblastomas at age 4 months, suddenly developed severe headache associated with nausea and vomiting. A computed tomography scan revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 4-vessel cerebral angiogram revealed a 2-mm aneurysm in the right A1 segment. The aneurysm was clipped successfully with excellent outcome. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient remains neurologically intact and asymptomatic. A new computed tomography angiogram revealed no new aneurysms. Vascular abnormalities develop after radiation injury to the brain. Aneurysm formation after radiation therapy has been previously reported, probably secondary to endothelial injury. In this case, early presentation, unusual anatomy, location, and small size at rupture, in contrast with saccular aneurysms, suggest a radiation-induced etiology.

  19. Two pediatric cases of variant neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy after intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Samuel G; Yanay, Ofer; Johnson, Erin M; Gibbons, Edward F

    2014-10-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is an acquired form of left ventricular systolic dysfunction seen in the setting of physiologic stress and the absence of coronary artery disease. It is thought to be caused by excessive sympathetic stimulation. It is well described in the adult literature associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage where it is known as neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy (NSC), but few such pediatric cases have been reported. We describe our experience with 2 children (13- and 10-year-old girls) who presented with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage followed by pulmonary edema and shock. Echocardiography revealed similar patterns of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities consistent with NSC, inverted Takotsubo variant. One child progressed to death, whereas the other made a remarkable recovery, including significant improvement in cardiac function over the course of 1 week. We argue that at least 1 of these cases represents true stress-induced cardiomyopathy. This report will alert pediatricians to this transient cardiomyopathy that is likely underdiagnosed in pediatric intensive care. We also highlight the challenges of managing both shock and elevated intracranial pressure in the setting of NSC.

  20. The impact of size and location on rupture of intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orz, Yasser; AlYamany, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    For effective management of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms, prognostic criteria for rupture, of which aneurysm size, location, and multiplicity are key factors. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between the aneurysm size, location, and multiplicity, and their effect on aneurysmal rupture. Eighty one patients with diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms were managed at our center from January 2008 through July 2011. The characteristics of aneurysms, such as size, location, multiplicity, and presentation were retrospectively reviewed from their charts and radiological findings. Eighty one patients harboring 104 aneurysms were diagnosed, of them 45 were males (55.5%) and 36 were females (44.5%). Seventy-six patients (94%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to ruptured aneurysm. Thirty-three patients who were presented with SAH (43%) had their ruptured aneurysm located at the anterior communicating artery with a mean size 5.8 mm. Most of the small (located at the anterior communicating artery, distal anterior cerebral arteries, posterior communicating arteries, and internal carotid artery bifurcation (51%, 13%, 11%, and 11%), respectively. There were 24 small unruptured aneurysms, 10 of them (42%) located at the middle cerebral arteries, while only 2 of them (8%) located at the anterior communicating artery. The aneurysm size and location play a substantial role in determining the risk of rupture. The most common location of rupture of small aneurysms was the anterior communicating artery, while the middle cerebral artery was the commonest site for small unrupured aneurysms.

  1. Skull thickening, paranasal sinus expansion, and sella turcica shrinkage from chronic intracranial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Michael K; Parsa, Andrew T; Horton, Jonathan C

    2013-06-01

    In children or young adults, the morphology of the skull can be altered by excessive drainage of CSF following placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. In Sunken Eyes, Sagging Brain Syndrome, gradual enlargement of the orbital cavity occurs from low or negative intracranial pressure (ICP), leading to progressive bilateral enophthalmos. The authors report several heretofore unrecognized manifestations of this syndrome, which developed in a 29-year-old man with a history of VP shunt placement following a traumatic brain injury at the age of 9 years. Magnetic resonance imaging showed typical features of chronic intracranial hypotension, and lumbar puncture yielded an unrecordable subarachnoid opening pressure. The calvaria was twice its normal thickness, owing to contraction of the inner table. The paranasal sinuses were expanded, with aeration of the anterior clinoid processes, greater sphenoid wings, and temporal bones. The sella turcica showed a 50% reduction in cross-sectional area as compared with that in control subjects, resulting in partial extrusion of the pituitary gland. These new features broaden the spectrum of clinical findings associated with low ICP. Secondary installation of a valve to restore normal ICP is recommended to halt progression of these rare complications of VP shunt placement.

  2. 3D-CT angiography in high-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Suda, Yoshitaka; Shioya, Hitoshi; Shindo, Kenjiro [Yuri Kumiai General Hospital, Honjo, Akita (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    We analyzed the role of 3D-CT angiography (3D-CTA) in the management of high-grade patients with severe subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who were classified as Grade 5 by the Hunt-Kosnik grading system. From February 1995 to January 1997, 86 out of 92 patients with SAH were studied using 3D-CTA. There were 30 Grade 5 SAH patients (32.6%) including 5 patients who arrived in cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). There were 13 men and 17 women, ranging in age from 46 to 89 years. Two-thirds were older than age 65 years. All patients underwent CT scan and were diagnosed with SAH. Excluding 5 CPA patients and one other patient, the remaining 24 patients successfully underwent 3D-CTA. As a result, ruptured aneurysms responsible for the SAH were clearly delineated in 19 patients (79.2%), and their anatomical relationships to the surrounding vessels were easily assessed. There were 8 patients with ICA aneurysms, 5 with MCA aneurysms, 2 with ACoA aneurysms, 2 with VA aneurysms, 1 with distal ACA aneurysm and 1 with distal PICA aneurysm. Intracranial vessels were not seen in 4 patients, 3 of whom had huge intracerebral hematomas associated with severe SAH. Proximal clipping was performed in a 46-years-old man with dissecting VA aneurysm. He later gained consciousness and became a surgical candidate. A 62-years-old woman underwent coil embolization for the large ICPC aneurysm after the level of her consciousness improved slightly following ventricular drainage. In conclusion, 3D-CTA can be performed safely and has a high detection rate of ruptured aneurysm even in patients with severe SAH. The results from these studies may gain further insight into epidemiology of SAH and ruptured aneurysms. (author)

  3. NEUROMONITORING IN PATIENTS WITH INTRACRANIAL NONTRAUMATIC HEMORRHAGE

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    M. A. Alakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Investigation of patients with intracranial non-traumatic hemorrhage (INH with the use of prolonged electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring allows for more effective identification of acute symptomatic seizures, subclinic epileptiform activity, local and diffuse abnormalities that are markers of brain functional activity.Aim: To increase treatment efficacy of patients with INH.Materials and methods: Thirty three patients were assessed in acute period of INH. Assessments included clinical and neurological examination, NIHSS (National Institute of Health Stroke Severity scale, GCS (Glasgow coma scale, HHS (Hunt-Hess scale; prolonged EEG monitoring with computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Patients received medical and surgical treatment (minimally invasive endovascular interventions or open operations, such as aneurysm clipping or wrapping/coating.Results: Twenty seven patients had open-type surgeries (among them, 23 patients had aneurysm clipping and 4, aneurysm wrapping. Two patients underwent the procedure of aneurysm embolization. Four patients were treated conservatively. According to results of prolonged pre-, peri- and postoperative EEG monitoring, most of patients had signs of disorganized electrical activity, with no regional differences, fragmented or absent alfa rhythm and diffuse polymorphic theta-activity. Marked EEG abnormalities correlated with severity registered with the assessment scales and with outcomes. During the study, epileptiform activity was registered in 1 patient, EEG comate in 3, diffuse abnormalities in 15 and local abnormalities in 14.Conclusion: The use of prolonged pre-, peri- and postoperative EEG monitoring allows for timely identification of status epilepticus, including the one without seizures. Minimally invasive interventions performed on time are associated with better prognosis in INH patients, whereas marked EEG abnormalities are associated with low scores of

  4. Comparison of 16-row multislice CT angiography with conventional angiography for detection and evaluation of intracranial aneurysms

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    Donmez, Halil; Serifov, Elman; Kahriman, Guven [University of Erciyes, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kayseri (Turkey); Mavili, Ertugrul, E-mail: ertmavili@yahoo.com [University of Erciyes, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kayseri (Turkey); Durak, Ahmet Candan [University of Erciyes, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kayseri (Turkey); Menkue, Ahmet [University of Erciyes, School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic performance of 16-row computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA) with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for the detection and characterization of intracranial aneurysms in patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH). Materials and methods: One-hundred and twelve consecutive patients with suspected intracranial aneurysm underwent both 16-row MDCTA and DSA. The MDCT angiograms were interpreted in a blinded fashion by using combination with VRI, MIP and MPR techniques. Sensitivity specificity and accuracy were calculated for the CTA and DSA. The results were compared with each other. The DSA reader's interpretation was accepted as the reference standard. Results: A total of 164 aneurysms were detected at DSA in 112 patients, no aneurysms were detected by DSA and MDCTA in 16 patients. Eight aneurysms were missed by MDCTA. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MDCTA on a per-aneurysm basis were 95.1%, 94.1%, and 95%, respectively. According to the size of the aneurysm less than 3 mm; sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of MDCTA were 86.1%, 94.1%, 88.6%, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that MDCTA is equally as sensitive as DSA in the detection of intracranial aneurysms of greater than 3 mm, and it also reveals 100% detection rate for ruptured aneurysms.

  5. Multifocal fibrosclerosis with intracranial pachymeningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, A; Shimomura, T; Okada, A; Takahashi, K

    1995-04-01

    A 29-year-old woman with a 4-year history of multifocal fibrosclerosis showed unique neurologic complications. Episcleritis, orbital pseudotumor, and eosinophilic phlegmon preceded intracranial inflammatory pachymeningitis. The pachymeningitis was associated with disturbance of the visual field, incomplete Gerstmann's syndrome, and pseudotumor cerebri. T2-weighted magnetic resonance images revealed a high signal intensity lesion in the left temporal and occipital lobes, and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images revealed the enhancement of the thickened left tentorial leaf. The laboratory data suggested that the etiology might be autoimmunological. The disease and MRI abnormalities improved following administration of corticosteroids.

  6. [Dolichoectatic intracranial arteries. Advances in images and therapeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Parera, I; Abruzzi, M; Lehkuniec, E; Schuster, G; Muchnik, S

    1995-01-01

    Dolichoectasia of intracranial arteries is an infrequent disease with an incidence less than 0.05% in general population. It represents 7% of all intracranial aneurysms. Commonly seen in middle age patients with severe atherosclerosis and hypertension, the affected arteries include the basilar artery, supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery, middle, anterior and posterior cerebral arteries; males are more frequently affected. The clinical features of these fusiform aneurysms are divided in three categories: ische-mic, cranial nerve compression and signs from mass effect. Hemorrhage may also occur. Nine patients with symptomatic cerebral blood vessel dolichoectasias are presented. Six of them were males with moderate or severe hypertension. Lesions were confined to the basilar artery in 3 cases, carotid arteries and the middle cerebral artery in 1 case, and both systems were affected in 4 patients. Middle cerebral arteries were affected in 5 cases and the anterior cerebral artery in one. An isolated fusiform aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery is also presented (case 8) (Table 3). Motor or sensory deficits, ataxia, dementia, hemifacial spasm and parkinsonism were observed. One patient died from cerebro-meningeal hemorrhage (Table 2). All patients were studied with computerized axial tomography of the brain, 5 cases with four vessel cerebral angiography, 4 cases with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and case 5 with MRI angiography. Clinical symptoms depend on the affected vascular territory, size of the aneurysm and compression of adjacent structures. The histopathologic findings are atheromatous lesions, disruption of the internal elastic membrane and fibrosis of the muscular wall. The resultant is a diffuse deficiency of the muscular wall and the internal elastic membrane. Recent advances in neuroimaging such as better resolution of CT scan, magnetic resonance images (MRI) and MRI angiography increased the diagnosis of this pathology showing

  7. Phase contrast MRI in intracranial aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooij, P.

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are outpouchings of intracranial arteries that cause brain hemorrhage after rupture. Unruptured aneurysms can be treated but the risk of treatment may outweigh the risk of rupture. Local intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics can contribute substantially to the rupture risk estimation

  8. Traumatic and alternating delayed intracranial hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesoin, F.; Redford, H.; Jomin, M.; Viaud, C.; Pruvo, J.

    1984-11-01

    Repeat computed tomography has enabled us to confirm the concept of delayed hematomas. With this in mind we report two cases of alternating, post-traumatic intracranial hematomas; confirming also the role of tamponade after surgical removal of an intracranial hematoma.

  9. Migraine before rupture of intracranial aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Gurary, Natalia M; Sakovich, Vladimir P

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA.......Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA....

  10. Intracranial alveolar echinococcosis: CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, A.H. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Dietemann, J.L. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Filippi de la Palavesa, M.M. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Klinkert, A. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Kastler, B. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Gangi, A. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Jacquet, G. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. Hospital, Besancon (France)); Cattin, F. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Besancon (France))

    1994-05-01

    Intracranial alveolar echinococcosis is uncommon. We report a patient with right frontal lobe and palpebral lesions secondary to a primary hepatic focus with secondary lesion in the lung. The intracranial and palpebral cystic masses were totally removed and both proved to be alveolar hydatid cysts. An unusual feature in this case is CT and MRI demonstration of dural and bony extension. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of patients with headache due to spontaneous intracranial hypotension by RN cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Zy; Park, Chan Hee; Soo, Joo In; Pai, Moon Sun; Yoon, Suk Nam; Kim, Jang Sung [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) typically occurs without an obvious cause. However, it can be seen following the lumbar puncture, craniotomy, or spinal surgery. Also listed are contributing factors such as sneezing, coughing, intercourse or minor fall. Spontaneous spinal CSF leaks are not common, but are now increasingly recognized as a cause of postural headache associated with intracranial hypotension. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of RN cisternography in the diagnosis of SIH cuased by spinal CSF leakage. Four patients with clinical suspicion of SIH (Group I) and six patients as normal control (Group II) underwent RN cisternography. RN cisternography in Group II was done for various reasons, such as hydrocephalus, syringomyelia and memory loss. Group I consisted of the patients who presented with postural headache, as well as additional symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, tinnitus and eyeball pain. The age range of these patients was 27 - 67 years. Lumbar puncture and CSF examinations were performed in Group I more than once and showed typical findings of low CSF pressure and slightly elevated protein level. Brain MRI (4/4), Cervico-thoracic spine MRI (3/4) were also performed. On gadolinium-enhanced brain MRI, enhancement of the meninges which is the most characteristic radiographic finding in intracranial hypotension was found in all patients of Group I. But, cervico-thoracic spin MRI was nonspecific. None of Group I had contrast myelography because of the patient's refusal. Group I and Group II underwent radionuclide cisternography following lumbar subarachnoid injection of 99mTc-DTPA (1-2mCi). The scans were taken in 2, 5, 24 hours later using single head gamma camera equipped with LEAP. Entire spinal region in posterior view and head in frontal and lateral views were obtained. The cisternography of Group I showed the CSF leakage or diverticulum at the level of cervico-thoracic junction(3/4) and mid

  12. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with cyclosporine A neurotoxicity in a bone-marrow transplant recipient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teksam, M.; Casey, S.O.; Michel, E.; Truwit, C.L. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-03-01

    We report subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with cyclosporine A (CSA) neurotoxicity after bone-marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia. CT showed occipital subarachnoid hemorrhage. MRI confirmed this, and demonstrated cortical and subcortical edema in the posterior temporal, occipital, and posterior frontal lobes bilaterally, which was typical of CSA neurotoxicity. Recognition of CSA neurotoxicity as the cause of the subarachnoid hemorrhage obviated angiographic investigation. After cessation of cyclosporine therapy, the cortical and subcortical edema resolved on follow-up MRI with some residual blood products in the subarachnoid space. (orig.)

  13. Intracranial haemorrhage among a population of haemophilic patients in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, S V; Vicari, P; Cavalheiro, S; Bordin, J O

    2003-09-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in haemophilic patients. The overall incidence of ICH has been reported to range from 2.2% to 7.5% in patients with haemophilia. From 1987 to 2001, 401 haemophilic patients from the Serviço de Hemofilia, Disciplina de Hematologia e Hemoterapia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo were evaluated. The episodes of ICH were documented by CT scan and the anatomic location, clinical presentation, relationship to trauma and clinical factors, including the presence of HIV infection and the presence of inhibitor, were reviewed. Among 401 haemophilic patients, 45 ICH episodes in 35 (8.7%) patients with age ranging from 4 days to 49 years (mean 10.6 years) were observed. A history of recent trauma was documented in 24 (53.3%) cases. Seventeen (37.8%) episodes occurred in more than one site of bleeding, 12 (26.7%) were subdural, seven (15.5%) subarachnoid, four (8.9%) epidural, two (4.4%) intracerebral and one (2.2%) intraventricular. The most frequent symptoms were headache and drowsiness. All patients were submitted to replacement therapy and neurosurgical intervention was performed in eight (17.8%) patients. Despite the treatment, three (8.6%) haemophilia A patients died due to the ICH event and three presented late sequelae. The most important aspect of ICH management is the early replacement therapy in haemophilic patients. This prompt treatment will increase the chances of a better prognosis. Another impact measure consists in the administration of the deficient coagulation factor after every head trauma, even when considered minor.

  14. Spinal radiological findings in nine patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiapparini, L.; Farina, L.; D' Incerti, L.; Erbetta, A.; Savoiardo, M. [Department of Neuroradiology, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico, Milan (Italy); Pareyson, D.; Carriero, M.R. [Department of Neurology, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico, Milan (Italy)

    2002-02-01

    Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) are well known, while spinal studies have received less attention. Radiological spinal findings in nine patients with SIH are presented, looking for possible characteristic features. Five of the nine patients had histories of previous minor trauma, one of previous surgery; in three patients possible relevant preceding events were completely absent. All nine patients had cervical, seven thoracic, and four lumbar spine MRI studies; post-contrast studies were obtained in seven cases, MRI myelograms in five. Radioisotope myelocisternography was performed in four patients and myelo-CT in four. Epidural fluid collections were found in seven patients. In six cases the dural sac had collapsed, with a festooned appearance; intense epidural enhancement on post-contrast studies demonstrated marked dilatation of the epidural venous plexus. In three cases an irregular root sleeve suggested a possible point of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. Myelo-CT demonstrated the CSF fistula in two cases, radioisotope myelocisternography in three. The pattern of spinal abnormalities is different from that seen in cranial MRI for anatomical reasons: in the spinal canal the dura is not adherent to the bone; therefore, collapse of the dural sac and dilatation of epidural venous plexus occur, rather than subdural hematomas. In most cases the search for the dural tear is difficult. Radioisotope cisternography is probably the most sensitive examination for documenting the leakage of CSF out of the subarachnoid space; myelo-CT may precisely demonstrate the point of the CSF fistula, whereas MRI may only suggest it. (orig.)

  15. Intracranial arteriopathy in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, Susana; Shaaya, Elias A; Auladell, Maria; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Caruso, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Arterial aneurysms, mostly aortic and intracranial, have been occasionally reported in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Brain magnetic resonance imaging reports of 404 patients with definite and 16 patients with either probable or possible tuberous sclerosis complex were revised for intracranial aneurysms. Among these patients, brain images of 220 patients with definite and 16 with probable or possible tuberous sclerosis complex were reviewed. Intracranial aneurysms were reported in 3 of 404 patients with a definite diagnosis (0.74%) (general population: 0.35%), including 2 children. A fourth intracranial aneurysm was found in a patient with probable tuberous sclerosis complex, who did not have tubers or subependymal nodules but had clinical manifestations related to neural crest derivatives, including lymphangioleiomyomatosis and extrarenal angiomyolipomas. The authors hypothesize that neural crest dysfunction can have a major role in intracranial arteriopathy in tuberous sclerosis complex, as smooth muscle cells in the forebrain vessels are of neural crest origin.

  16. Intracranial metastases: spectrum of MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Eun Ja; Lee, Yong Seok [Department of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang-shi (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ejl1048@hanmail.net; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, No Hyuck [Department of Radiology, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Myongji Hospital, Goyang-shi (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee-Jin [Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); II, Sung Park [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Intracranial metastatic lesions arise through a number of routes. Therefore, they can involve any part of the central nervous system and their imaging appearances vary. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in lesion detection, lesion delineation, and differentiation of metastases from other intracranial disease processes. This article is a reasoned pictorial review illustrating the many faces of intracranial metastatic lesions based on the location - intra-axial metastases, calvarial metastases, dural metastases, leptomeningeal metastases, secondary invasion of the meninges by metastatic disease involving the calvarium and skull base, direct or perineural intracranial extension of head and neck neoplasm, and other unusual manifestations of intracranial metastases. We also review the role of advanced MRI to distinguish metastases from high-grade gliomas, tumor-mimicking lesions such as brain abscesses, and delayed post-radiation changes in radiosurgically treated patients.

  17. Nosocomial ventriculitis due to Roseomonas gilardii complicating subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Jason S; Waites, Ken B

    2005-04-01

    Roseomonas gilardii is a pink-pigmented, non-fermentative, Gram-negative coccobacillus that has been recognized as a rare cause of human infections. We report the first case of ventriculitis caused by R. gilardii in a 54-year-old man with a subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to a vertebral artery aneurysm; discuss previous reports of this organism as a nosocomial and community-acquired pathogen, laboratory diagnosis, and patient management.

  18. The efficacy of resection of an intradural extramedullary foramen magnum cavernous malformation presenting with repeated subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Tomoya; Sakai, Naoto; Sameshima, Tetsuro; Kawaji, Hiroshi; Namba, Hiroki

    2017-03-09

    Intradural extramedullary cavernous angiomas of the central nervous system are a rare type of cavernous angioma, but they can cause fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The efficacy of resection for this type of cavernous malformations remains uncertain. This is the first report to recommend surgical resection of these types of lesions regardless of the fatal condition. Our patient was a 70-year-old Japanese man who experienced a sudden onset of an occipital headache, followed by bilateral abducens nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small amount of hemorrhage in both of the lateral ventricles and an intradural extramedullary mass lesion in the left side of his foramen magnum. Two weeks after the appearance of initial symptoms, he became comatose. A computed tomography scan showed an increase in the subarachnoid intraventricular hemorrhaging and of the acute hydrocephalus. Following ventricular drainage, total tumor resection was performed using the lateral suboccipital transcondylar approach in conjunction with a first cervical hemilaminectomy. We observed a grape-like vascular-rich tumor with calcification that was adhering tightly to the wall of his left vertebral artery. A histopathological examination of the surgery specimen identified it as a cavernous angioma. After placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and 2 months of rehabilitation, he recovered completely. An intradural extramedullary foramen magnum cavernous malformation is quite rare. The fragile surface of our patient's lesion was causing repeated subarachnoid hemorrhage and consequently progressive fatal neurological deterioration. Surgical resection of the lesion to prevent repeated hemorrhage was performed and he recovered fully. Therefore, we recommend surgical resection of the lesion regardless of the potentially fatal condition.

  19. Computed tomography of intracranial tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Lan; Lee, Jung Suk; Eun, Chung Kie; Kim, Soon Yong [School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    CT is a valuable method in determining number, location and extent of lesions, although a definite diagnosis is often not possible on CT. In intracranial tuberculosis, CT was helpful in the diagnosis, assessing the degree of hydrocephalus and evaluating the effectiveness of antituberculous therapy. Twenty-one cases of clinically proven intracranial tuberculosis were studied by CT in our hospital during last 3 years. Of them, eighteen cases were tuberculous meningitis and the rests were tuberculoma. The results were as follows: 1. Tuberculous meningitis presented the following three patterns of CT findings according to its disease process. a. In early stage of the disease, suspicious multiple isodense small nodules in the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres showed dense enhancement in postcontrast scan representing miliary tubercles. b. In later stage of the disease, precontrast scan showed partial or total obliteration of the basal and sylvian cisterns with mild dilatation of ventricular system. Postcontrast scan showed dense enhancement of basal and sylvian cisterns. This type of finding was the most common in our series. c. Moderate to marked dilatation of ventricle with or without a cluster of calcifications in suprsella area on precontrast scan was seen in far later stage of as a sequellae of the disease. No enhancement was noted in postcontrast study. 2. Tuberculoma showed an isodense or slightly hyperdense area in the cerebral or cerebellar hemisphere with associated minimal edema in precontrast study. Postcontrast scan showed a small ring enhancement with central lucent area.

  20. Stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kida, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Takayuki; Oyama, Hirofumi; Iwakoshi, Takayasu (Komaki City Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1994-07-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial meningiomas was attempted using a 201-source cobalt gamma knife. Forty patients bearing 42 tumors were involved in this study. Their ages ranged from 30 to 91 years, with an average of 55.1 years. The most frequent sites of origin were the parasellar and petroclival regions. The mean tumor diameter was 27.2 mm and the marginal tumor dose of radiosurgery ranged from 10 to 20 Gy, depending on tumor location and size. Serial imaging studies with MRI were obtained in all 40 cases, in which minor tumor shrinkage was demonstrated in 7.9%, 40.0% and 53.3% at 6, 12 and 18 months after radiosurgery respectively. Only two tumors became enlarged after the treatment. Obvious low signal intensity on MRI, indicating central tumor necrosis, was found in 32% at 12 months and 40% at 18 months. Four large tumors over 40 mm in mean diameter were treated by staged radiosurgery with intervals of 1.5 to 7 months. A similar good response was able to be obtained in all 4 cases, even though they were treated with a marginal dose less than 12 Gy. Symptomatic edema occurred in 5 cases (12.5%) within 12 months and required corticosteroid therapy and hyperosmotic diuresis. In conclusion stereotactic radiosurgery has proved to be an effective and relatively safe method for the treatment of intracranial meningiomas. (author).

  1. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kapapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N=4 or multiple (N=6 doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P≤0.05. Results. (1 Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2 The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3 There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients.

  2. Size and location of ruptured intracranial aneurysms: consecutive series of 1993 hospital-admitted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Miikka; Kivisaari, Riku; Rezai Jahromi, Behnam; Lehto, Hanna

    2016-12-02

    OBJECTIVE Large consecutive series on the size and location of ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIAs) are limited, and therefore it has been difficult to estimate population-wide effects of size-based treatment strategies of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The authors' aim was to define the size and location of RIAs in patients diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture in a high-volume academic center. METHODS Consecutive patients admitted to a large nonprofit academic hospital with saccular RIAs between 1995 and 2009 were identified, and the size, location, and multiplicity of RIAs were defined and reported by patient sex. RESULTS In the study cohort of 1993 patients (61% women) with saccular RIAs, the 4 most common locations of RIAs were the middle cerebral (32%), anterior communicating (32%), posterior communicating (14%), and pericallosal arteries (5%). However, proportional distribution of RIAs varied considerably by sex; for example, RIAs of the anterior communicating artery were more frequently found in men than in women. Anterior circulation RIAs accounted for 90% of all RIAs, and 30% of the patients had multiple intracranial aneurysms. The median size (measured as maximum diameter) of all RIAs was 7 mm (range 1-43 mm), but the size varied considerably by location. For example, RIAs of the ophthalmic artery had a median size of 11 mm, whereas the median size of RIAs of the pericallosal artery was 6 mm. Of all RIAs, 68% were smaller than 10 mm in maximum diameter. CONCLUSIONS In this large consecutive series of RIAs, 83% of all RIAs were found in 4 anterior circulation locations. The majority of RIAs were small, but the size and location varied considerably by sex. The presented data may be of help in defining effective prevention strategies.

  3. INITIAL COMPARISON OF INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM EMBOLIZATION WITH MECHANICAL DETACHABLE SPIRALS AND WITH GUGLIELMI DETACHABLE COILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大明; 凌锋; 王安顺; 蔡艺龄; 李萌

    2003-01-01

    Objective.To compare the embolization effects of intracranial aneurysms with mechanical detachable spirals(MDS)and with Guglielmi detachable coils(GDC). Methods. One hundred and twenty cases with 125 intracranial aneurysms were embolized in Beijing Hospital from March 1995 to July 1999. Sixty-six aneurysms in 64 cases were embolized with MDS,51 in 48 with GDC,and 8 in 8 with both MDS and GDC.Clinical data including sex,age,subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH),Hunt & Hess grading,diameter and neck width of aneurysms,number and length of coils used per aneurysm,occlusive ratio,and complications were compared between MDS and GDC groups. Results. MDS and GDC groups were comparable(t-test or χ2 -test,all P value >0.10)in terms of age,sex,diameter of aneurysms[(8.46±3.42)mm vs.(7.38±3.45)mm],neck width[(3.49±1.50)mm vs.(3.26±1.52)mm],coils number[(4.65±3.01)vs.(4.24±2.65)]and their length[(460.2±398.5)mm vs.(422.9±387.1)mm]used per aneurysm,occlusive ratio in aneurysms embolized≥80%[(95.00%±6.32%)vs.(94.19%±7.63%)],mortality and permanent complications(7.8% vs. 4.2%). Conclusions. MDS and GDC are all materials for embolization of intracranial aneurysms. MDS is less expensive,but more difficult to control and of propensity to complications while GDC is more compliant,easier to be used,safer,and have many alternative types for use as well as more extensive indications.

  4. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome associated with intracranial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Katharina; Forbrig, Robert; Thaler, Franziska S; Conrad, Julian; Heck, Suzette; Dorn, Franziska; Pfister, Hans-Walter; Straube, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) are both rare disorders. The pathophysiology of both diseases is not yet fully understood. We report the unique case of a 19-year-old comatose woman who was brought to the ER after a series of generalized tonic-clonic seizures 6 days post peridural anesthesia for cesarean section. Vital signs and initial laboratory testing including urine analysis and drug screening were unremarkable. Initial cranial CT scan showed an acute small subdural hematoma (17 mm length × 6 mm width × 30 mm height), cerebral edema with slit ventricles, and slight cerebellar tonsillar herniation as signs of intracranial hypotension. CT angiography depicted narrowing of the proximal intracranial vessels consistent with RCVS. MR imaging was also suggestive of both intracranial hypotension and RCVS and showed, in addition, vasogenic edema consistent with PRES. An extensive CSF leakage involving T1 to L2/L3 was confirmed by spinal MRI. The patient underwent conservative therapy for intracranial hypotension (e.g., head-down position) as well as epidural blood patch, which led to regression of the clinical symptoms within a few days. Follow-up MRI showed complete resolution of all radiological changes. In summary, our patient developed clinical and neuroradiological signs of intracranial hypotension and a combination of PRES and RCVS associated with a CSF leakage caused by peridural anesthesia; by treating the intracranial hypotension, the other syndromes resolved. From a clinical point of view, it is important to look for CSF leakage as a treatable possible cause of PRES and/or RCVS triggered by intracranial hypotension as in our patient postpartum. Moreover, it is vital to obtain a good history as, in cases of suspected CSF leakage with classic postural headache, a recent spinal/cranial procedure is typically present.

  5. Hemorrhagic Colloid Cyst Presenting with Acute Hydrocephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Reza; Zandi, Behrouz; Pezeshki-Rad, Masoud; Farrokh, Donya

    2017-01-01

    Colloid cysts are benign slow-growing cystic lesions located on the roof of the third ventricle that usually present with symptoms related to gradual rise of intracranial pressure. They mostly remain asymptomatic and sometimes grow progressively and cause diverse symptoms associated with increased intracranial pressure such as headache, diplopia, and sixth cranial nerve palsy. Here we report a 47-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with acute severe headache and nausea/vomiting. On MRI examination acute hydrocephaly due to hemorrhagic colloid cyst was detected. Acute hemorrhage in colloid cysts is extremely rare and may present with symptoms of acute increase in the intracranial pressure. Intracystic hemorrhage is very rarely reported as a complication of colloid cyst presenting with paroxysmal symptoms of acute hydrocephaly. PMID:28210514

  6. SPONTANEOUS RESOLUTION OF ACUTE SUBDURAL HAEMATOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We report a case of a 47 year old man who presented with head injury due to road traffi c accident, with CT scan suggestive of large left sided acute SDH with comminuted fracture of occipital bone. Within a few hours, patient showed significant neurological improvement. Follow - up CT scan revealed rapid spontaneous resolution and redistributio n of the acute SDH. The proposed hypothesis explaining this rare phenomenon suggests intracranial and extra cranial redistribution as the cause of spontaneous resolution of acute SDH. The intracranial phenomenon is more common of the two. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature where both intracranial and extracranial phenomenon played a role in the same patient leading to rapid spontaneous resolution of acute SDH KEY WORDS: ● acute subdural hematoma ● spontaneous resolution ● intracr anial redistribution ● extracranial redistribution

  7. Assay of Serum Sodium Balance Disturbance in Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Relation to Prognosis of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sabouri

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Electrolyte disturbances are frequently observed during the acute period after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Hyponatremia and hypernatremia are the most common electrolyte disturbance in acute period of disease, and these disturbances may worsen cerebral edema and mass effect. We performed this study to determine the prognostic significance of serum sodium concentration abnormalities.Materials & Methods: This study was performed as prospective analytic cross sectional in Kashani and Alzahra Hospitals of Isfahan during 2003-2004. The presence of hypernatremia (serum sodium concentration of>145m mol/L and hyponatremia (serum sodium concentration of<135mmol/l was determined with serum sodium measurements at admission and 3, 6 and 9 days after SAH, then the effects of hypernatremia and hyponatremia on three-month outcomes were analyzed after adjustment for age, sex, preexiting HTN , admission GCS score, initial mean arterial pressure and finding of Brain CT Scan and Brain angiography. Patients with symptomatic vasospasm were excluded.Results: The analysis of data showed that from 100 participated patients in this study 18% developed hypernatremia and 42% developed hyponatremria. Hypernatemia was significantly assiociated with poor outcomes compared with hyponatremia (odds ratio, 2.63- CI 95% . Conclusion: Hyponatremia seems to be more common than hypernatremia after SAH. Hypernatrenia after SAH associted with poor outcome and this association is independet of previously identified outcome predictors, including age, sex, admission GCS Score, and X.Ray finding.

  8. Intracranial haemorrhage: an incidental finding at magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of late preterm and term infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirgiovanni, Ida; Groppo, Michela; Bassi, Laura; Passera, Sofia; Schiavolin, Paola; Fumagalli, Monica; Mosca, Fabio [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Clinical Science and Community Health, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan (Italy); Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia; Triulzi, Fabio [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Neuroradiology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan (Italy); Lista, Gianluca [V. Buzzi Children' s Hospital, ICP, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Milan (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in term newborns has been increasingly recognised but the occurrence in late preterm infants and the clinical presentation are still unclear. To investigate the appearance of intracranial haemorrhage at MRI in a cohort of infants born at 34 weeks' gestation or more and to correlate MRI findings with neonatal symptoms. We retrospectively reviewed neonatal brain MRI scans performed during a 3-year period. We included neonates ≥34 weeks' gestation with intracranial haemorrhage and compared findings with those in babies without intracranial haemorrhage. Babies were classified into three groups according to haemorrhage location: (1) infratentorial, (2) infra- and supratentorial, (3) infra- and supratentorial + parenchymal involvement. Intracranial haemorrhage was observed in 36/240 babies (15%). All of these 36 had subdural haemorrhage. Sixteen babies were included in group 1; 16 in group 2; 4 in group 3. All infants in groups 1 and 2 were asymptomatic except one who was affected by intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3. Among the infants in group 3, who had intracranial haemorrhage with parenchymal involvement, three of the four (75%) presented with acute neurological symptoms. Uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery was reported in 20/36 neonates (56%), vacuum extraction in 4 (11%) and caesarean section in 12 (33%). Babies with intracranial haemorrhage had significantly higher gestational age (38 ± 2 weeks vs. 37 ± 2 weeks) and birth weight (3,097 ± 485 g vs. 2,803 ± 741 g) compared to babies without intracranial haemorrhage and were more likely to be delivered vaginally than by caesarian section. Mild intracranial haemorrhage (groups 1 and 2) is relatively common in late preterm and term infants, although it mostly represents an incidental finding in clinically asymptomatic babies; early neurological symptoms appear to be related to parenchymal involvement. (orig.)

  9. The link between intracranial haemorrhage and cardiogenic shock: a case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretta, Giorgio; Vizzardi, Enrico; Rovetta, Riccardo; Evaristi, Laura; Quinzani, Filippo; Raddino, Riccardo; Dei Cas, Livio

    2012-06-01

    Myocardial dysfunction occurs frequently during subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and it is often referred to as neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM). Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), which can lead to life-threatening acute heart failure, has been considered a possible complication of SAH. Actually, NSM and TTC are believed to share the same pathophysiological mechanisms and are likely a manifestation of the same disease. We report a case of a 64-year-old woman with SAH and cardiogenic shock due to acute left ventricular dysfunction. Echocardiography and ventriculography showed the typical pattern of TTC. Angiography excluded coronary artery disease or coronary spasm. Short-term inotropic support was necessary. Rapid recovery of left ventricular function was observed after 8 days. Acute myocardial dysfunction due to TTC in the setting of SAH may lead to cardiogenic shock which is difficult to treat. Patients with SAH and haemodynamic instability warrant a careful assessment of ventricular function on admission to rule out TTC

  10. Flair MR imaging in the Detection of subarachnoid hemorrhage : comparison with CT and T1-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Soo Hyun; Kim, Soo Youn; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Oh, Tae Kyung; Kim, Ho Kyun [College of Medicine, Jnje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    To compare the findings of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging in the detection of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), with those of precontrast CT and T1-weighted MR imaging. In 13 patients (14 cases) with SAH, FLAIR MR images were retrospectively analyzed and compared with CT (10 patients, 11 cases) and T1-weighted MR images (9 cases). SAH was confirmed on the basis of high density along the subarachnoid space, as seen on precontrast CT, or lumbar puncture. MR imaging was performed on a 1.0T unit. FLAIR MR and CT images were obtained during the acute stage(less than 3 days after ictus) in 10 and 9 cases, respectively, during the subacute stage (4-14 days after ictus) in two cases and one, respectively, and during the chronic stage (more than 15 days after ictus) in two cases and one, respectively. CT was performed before FLAIR MR imaging, and the interval between CT and FLAIR ranged from 24 hours (6 cases) to 2-3 (2 cases) or 4-7 days (3 cases). In each study, the conspicuity of visualization of SAH was graded as excellent, good, fair, or negative at five locations (sylvian fissure, cortical sulci, anterior basal cistern, posterior basal cistern, and perimesencephalic cistern). In all cases, subarachnoid hemorrhages were demonstrated as high signal intensity areas on FLAIR images. The detection rates for SAH on CT and T1-weighted MR images were 100% (11/11) and 89% (8/9), respectively. FLAIR was superior to T1-weighted imaging in the detection of SAH at all sites except the anterior basal cistern (p less than 0.05) and superior to CT in the detection of SAH at the cortical sulci (p less than 0.05). On FLAIR MR images, subarachnoid hemorrhages at all stages are demonstrated as high signal intensity areas; the FLAIR MR sequence is thus considered useful in the detection of SAH. In particular FLAIR is more sensitive than CT for the detection of SAH in the cortical sulci. (author)

  11. Cerebral venous etiology of intracranial hypertension and differentiation from idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mircea Iencean

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the characteristics that distinguish between idiopathic intracranial hypertension (ICH and ICH caused by intracranial vascular damage. Twenty-one patients with ICH were included in this study. The analysis of the symptomatology correlated with the values of intracranial pressure, and the imaging findings revealed significant differences between these two types of ICH. ICH caused by intracranial venous vascular damage is named vascular ICH. Vascular ICH has a known etiology, such as cerebral vascular illness, and a relatively rapid increase in intracranial pressure of approximately 21 cmH2O and imaging findings show characteristic images of thrombosis or stenosis of the intracranial venous system, while all brain images (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, angio-magnetic resonance imaging are normal in idiopathic ICH. The treatment of vascular ICH is etiologic, pathogenic, and symptomatic, but that of idiopathic ICH is only symptomatic.

  12. Cerebral venous etiology of intracranial hypertension and differentiation from idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iencean, Stefan Mircea; Poeata, Ion; Iencean, Andrei Stefan; Tascu, Alexandru

    2015-03-01

    This study presents the characteristics that distinguish between idiopathic intracranial hypertension (ICH) and ICH caused by intracranial vascular damage. Twenty-one patients with ICH were included in this study. The analysis of the symptomatology correlated with the values of intracranial pressure, and the imaging findings revealed significant differences between these two types of ICH. ICH caused by intracranial venous vascular damage is named vascular ICH. Vascular ICH has a known etiology, such as cerebral vascular illness, and a relatively rapid increase in intracranial pressure of approximately 21 cmH2O and imaging findings show characteristic images of thrombosis or stenosis of the intracranial venous system, while all brain images (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, angio-magnetic resonance imaging) are normal in idiopathic ICH. The treatment of vascular ICH is etiologic, pathogenic, and symptomatic, but that of idiopathic ICH is only symptomatic. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  13. Pediatric intracranial primary anaplastic ganglioglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdemann, Wolf; Banan, Rouzbeh; Hartmann, Christian; Bertalanffy, Helmut; Di Rocco, Concezio

    2017-02-01

    Primary intracranial anaplastic gangliogliomas are rare tumors in the pediatric patient group. Most of them present with symptoms of elevated pressure or symptomatic epilepsy. Extraaxial location is far more common than axial location. On MRI examination, they mimic pilocytic astrocytomas. The outcome after surgery depends mainly on the possible amount of surgical resection, and oncological therapy is necessary to prevent recurrence of the disease. An 11-year-old boy presented with headache and double vision due to obstructive hydrocephalus. MRI of the brain revealed an axial partially contrast enhancing lesion in the quadrigeminal plate extending from the cerebellum to the pineal gland and causing hydrocephalus. Subtotal removal of the lesion was performed, and the diagnosis of an anaplastic ganglioglioma was established and confirmed by the reference center. At the latest follow up (3 months), the boy is without any neurological symptoms and scheduled for radiation therapy as well as chemotherapy.

  14. Intracranial manifestations of malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanski, M.; Fahrendorf, G.; Urbanitz, D.; Beckmann, A.; Elger, C.

    1985-06-01

    Approximately 10% of patients with malignant lymphoma will show neurological symptoms at some time during the course of their illness. In non-Hodgkin lymphoma, CNS involvement is more frequent than in Hodgkin's disease. Diffuse histiocytic and poorly differentiated lymphomas, bone marrow involvement, advanced tumor stage and hematogenous spread are particular risk factors. Invasion of the spinal canal is the most common type of CNS involvement. Intracranial lesions, which are comparatively rare, may present as intracerebral metastases, epi- or subdural masses or focal or diffuse leptomeningeal disease. Lymphomatous leptomeningitis usually cannot be demonstrated by CT. On the other hand, dural and cerebral parenchymal lesions are sometimes highly characteristic of lymphoma as a result of their features and location.

  15. The clinical value of MRA at 3.0 T for the diagnosis and therapeutic planning of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuan-Chang; Sun, Zhen-Kui; Li, Ming-Hua; Li, Yong-Dong; Wang, Wu; Tan, Hua-Qiao; Gu, Bin-Xian [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, The Sixth Affiliated People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China); Chen, Shi-Wen [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Neurosurgery, Sixth Affiliated People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2012-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical value of unenhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 T for the diagnosis and therapeutic planning of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). A total of 165 patients with SAH were referred for three-dimensional time-of-flight MRA (3D-TOF-MRA) before digital subtraction angiography (DSA). For each aneurysm, 3D-TOF-MRA was used to determine whether the aneurysm was suitable for coil placement with or without balloon/stent-assisted coiling, surgical clipping or conservative treatment. Treatment planning with 3D-TOF-MRA was compared with actual treatment decisions or treatment that had been carried out in each aneurysm decided using DSA. The aneurysm-based evaluation yielded accuracy of 96.9%, sensitivity of 97.6%, specificity of 93.1%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 98.8% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 87.1%, in the detection of intracranial aneurysms. Treatment planning could be correctly made on the basis of aneurysm anatomy and working view by volume rendering (VR) 3D-TOF-MRA with accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 94.9%, 94.0%, 100%, 100% and 74.4%, respectively, on a per aneurysm-based evaluation. VR 3D-TOF-MRA offers high diagnostic accuracy in the detection of ruptured intracranial aneurysms, and appears to be an effective treatment planning tool for most patients with SAH. (orig.)

  16. Direct costs of modern treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the first year after diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Y B W E M; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Albrecht, K W; Beenen, L F M; Groen, R J M; de Haan, R. J.; Vermeulen, M

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the current direct costs of modern management of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the first year after diagnosis. METHODS: During a 1-year period, we studied all admitted patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage fro

  17. Encephalic hemodynamic phases in subarachnoid hemorrhage:how to improve the protective effect in patient prognoses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcelo de Lima Oliveira; Daniel Silva de Azevedo; Milena Krajnyk de Azevedo; Ricardo de Carvalho Nogueira; Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira; Edson Bor-Seng-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is frequently associated with poor prognoses. Three different hemo-dynamic phases were identified during subarachnoid hemorrhage: oligemia, hyperemia, and vasospasm. Each phase is associated with brain metabolic changes. In this review, we correlated the hemodynamic phases with brain metabolism and potential treatment options in the hopes of improving patient prognoses.

  18. Cerebral Vasospasm in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Through Aneurysm Rupture - Clinical Considerations and Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caraban B.M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Arterial aneurysm ruptures of the circle of Willis determine subarachnoid hemorrhage, which evolving due to the irritating effect of the blood in the subarachnoid space may lead to complications such as large arterial vasospasm in the origin of the large cerebral arteries, from the base of the brain.

  19. Encephalic hemodynamic phases in subarachnoid hemorrhage: how to improve the protective effect in patient prognoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Lima Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage is frequently associated with poor prognoses. Three different hemodynamic phases were identified during subarachnoid hemorrhage: oligemia, hyperemia, and vasospasm. Each phase is associated with brain metabolic changes. In this review, we correlated the hemodynamic phases with brain metabolism and potential treatment options in the hopes of improving patient prognoses.

  20. Safety of low-dose aspirin in endovascular treatment for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel versus high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel in prevention of vascular risk within 90 days of duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients treated with intracranial endovascular treatment. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2013, this prospective and observational study enrolled 370 patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis of ≥70% with poor collateral undergoing intracranial endovascular treatment. Antiplatelet therapy consists of aspirin, at a low-dose of 100 mg or high-dose of 300 mg daily; clopidogrel, at a dose of 75 mg daily for 5 days before endovascular treatment. The dual antiplatelet therapy continued for 90 days after intervention. The study endpoints include acute thrombosis, subacute thrombosis, stroke or death within 90 days after intervention. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy three patients received low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel and 97 patients received high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel before intracranial endovascular treatment. Within 90 days after intervention, there were 4 patients (1.5% with acute thrombosis, 5 patients (1.8% with subacute thrombosis, 17 patients (6.2% with stroke, and 2 death (0.7% in low-dose aspirin group, compared with no patient (0% with acute thrombosis, 2 patient (2.1% with subacute thrombosis, 6 patients (6.2% with stroke, and 2 death (2.1% in high-dose aspirin group, and there were no significant difference in all study endpoints between two groups. CONCLUSION: Low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel is comparative in safety with high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel within 90 days of duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients treated with intracranial endovascular treatment.

  1. Hypertensive response to raised intracranial pressure in infancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, A M; Whitelaw, A G

    1988-01-01

    Mean arterial pressure and intracranial pressure were measured serially in six infants with intracranial hypertension (intracranial pressure greater than 20 mm Hg), and cerebral perfusion pressure was calculated from their difference. Overall, mean arterial pressure increased with rising intracranial pressure at a mean rate of 0.20 mm Hg/mm Hg. This caused a fall in cerebral perfusion pressure with increasing intracranial pressure at a mean rate of 0.80 mm Hg/mm Hg overall, although cerebral ...

  2. Recent status of diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms%颅内动脉瘤诊断的近况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘滨; 石传江

    2004-01-01

    颅内动脉瘤(Intracranial aneurysms,AN)是由于局部血管异常改变产生的脑血管瘤样突起。是引起自发性蛛网膜下腔出血(Subarachnoid hemorrhage,SAH)的最常见原因,约占54%~75%。其致死率、致残率很高。国内外学者就如何及时、准确地诊断AN做了大量研究。现就有关诊断方法的发展、优势和应用综述如下。

  3. Effect of intracranial hypertension on cerebral hemorrhage induced autonomic nerve imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuelong Jin; Wenli Jing; Fengxia Yan; Zhaoqiang Zhang; Fengjun Lü; Shuiqing Jing; Na Sun; Kazushige Mizoguchi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral hemorrhage can cause the imbalance of nerve function, whereas its mechanism and main impact factors are still not quite clear.OBJECTIVE: To explore the rules about the changes of intracranial pressure in brainstem hemorrhage and internal capsule hemorrhage, and analyze the role of intracranial hypertension in the changes of nerve function caused by cerebral hemorrhage.DESIGN: A self-controlled trial.SETTING: Department of Physiology, Tianjin Medical University.MATERIALS: Sixty-five healthy male Japanese white rabbits with long ears (1.5-1.8 kg) were supplied and fed by the Department of Animal Experiment of Tianjin Medical University. The RM6240B biological signal collecting and processing system was used.METHODS: The experiments were conducted in the Department of Physiology, Tianjin Medical University from August 2001 to May 2006. ① The rabbits were anesthetized, then fixed onto the brain stereotaxic apparatus, and afterwards fenestration on skull and intubation to lateral ventricle were performed. The dynamic changes of intracranial pressure were monitored continuously. Rabbits were infused with autologous arterial blood (0.3 mL) into midbrain corpora quadrigemina inferior colliculus to induce model of acute brainstem hemorrhage; models of internal capsule hemorrhage were established by infusing autologous arterial blood into internal capsule. ② The dynamic intracranial pressures under the above conditions were recorded continuously with the RM6240B biological signal collecting and processing system. ③ An animal model of persistent intracranial hypertension was established by infusion of physiologic saline into lateral ventricle. ④ The changes of the intensity of autonomic nerve discharge were analyzed, using the biological signal collecting and processing system before and after hemorrhage and under persistent intracranial hypertension. ⑤ Ten animal models of internal capsule hemorrhage and 10 of brainstem hemorrhage were selected

  4. The role of intraoperative micro-Doppler ultrasound in verifying proper clip placement in intracranial aneurysm surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siasios, Ioannis; Kapsalaki, Eftychia Z; Fountas, Kostas N

    2012-10-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage constitutes a clinical entity associated with high mortality and morbidity. It is widely accepted that improper clip placement may have as a result of incomplete aneurysm occlusion and/or partial or complete obstruction of an adjacent vessel. Various modalities, including intraoperative or postoperative digital subtracting angiography, near-infrared indocyanine green angiography, micro-Doppler ultrasonography (MDU), and neurophysiological studies, have been utilized for verifying proper clip placement. The aim of our study was to review the role of MDU during aneurysmal surgery. A literature search was performed using any possible combination of the following terms: "aneurysm," "brain," "cerebral," "clip," "clipping," "clip malpositioning," "clip repositioning," "clip suboptimal positioning," "Doppler," "intracranial," "microsurgery," "micro-Doppler," "residual neck," "ultrasonography," "ultrasound," and "vessel occlusion". Additionally, reference lists from the retrieved articles were reviewed for identifying any additional articles. Case reports and miniseries were excluded. A total of 19 series employing intraoperative MDU during aneurysmal microsurgery were retrieved. All studies demonstrated that MDU accuracy is extremely high. The highest reported false-positive rate of MDU was 2 %, while the false-negative rate was reported as high as 1.6 %. It has been demonstrated that the presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, specific anatomic locations, and large size may predispose to improper clip placement. Intraoperative MDU's technical limitations and weaknesses are adequately identified, in order to minimize the possibility of any misinterpretations. Intraoperative MDU constitutes a safe, accurate, and low cost imaging modality for evaluating blood flow and for verifying proper clip placement during microsurgical clipping.

  5. Semi-Jailing Technique Using a Neuroform3 Stent for Coiling of Wide-Necked Intracranial Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jun Kyeung; Cho, Won Ho; Cha, Seung Heon; Choi, Chang Hwa; Lee, Sang Weon; Lee, Tae Hong

    2017-01-01

    Objective The semi-jailing technique (SJT) provides stent-assisted remodeling of the aneurysm neck during coil embolization without grasping the coil delivery microcatheter. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of SJT using a Neuroform3 stent for coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. Methods We collected the clinical and radiological data between January 2009 and June 2015 of the wide-necked aneurysms treated with SJT using a Neuroform3 stent. Results SJT using a Neuroform3 stent was attempted in 70 wide-necked aneurysms (68 patients). There were 56 unruptured and 14 ruptured aneurysms. The size of aneurysm ranged from 1.7 to 28.1 mm (mean 6.1 mm). The immediate angiographic results were complete occlusion in 55 aneurysms (78.6%), neck remnant in 7 (10.0%), and aneurysm remnant in 8 (11.4%). Overall, periprocedural complications occurred in 13 patients (19.1%), including asymptomatic thromboembolism in 7 (10.3%), symptomatic thromboembolism in 4 (5.9%), and symptomatic hemorrhagic complications in 2 (2.9%). Conventional angiography follow-up was obtained in 55 (78.6%) of 70 aneurysms (mean, 10.9 months). The result showed progressive occlusion in 7 aneurysms (12.7%) and recanalization in 1 aneurysm (1.8%). At the end of the observation period (mean, 17.5 months), all 54 patients without subarachnoid hemorrhage showed excellent clinical outcomes (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 0), except two (mRS 1 or 2) and seven of 14 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage remained symptom-free (mRS 0). Conclusion In this report of 70 aneurysms, SJT using a Neuroform3 stent for coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms showed good technical safety, as well as favorable clinical and angiographic outcomes. PMID:28264234

  6. Factor XIII Deficiency and Intracranial Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    A 38 month old boy with excessive bleeding following circumcision as a newborn and two episodes of intracranial hemorrhage at four months and at 85 months of age is reported from the Scott and White Clinic, Temple, TX.

  7. Aspirin-Induced Neonatal Intracranial Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    A term newborn infant with intracranial hemorrhage associated with maternal acetylsalicylic acid ingestion before delivery is reported from the Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA.

  8. MR angiography after coiling of intracranial aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Endovascular occlusion with detachable coils has become an alternative treatment to neurosurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms over the last two decades. Its minimal invasiveness is the most important advantage of this treatment compared to clipping. The disadvantage of occlusion

  9. Atypical imaging appearances of intracranial meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, S. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Adams, W.M. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Parrish, R.W. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Mukonoweshuro, W. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: William.mukonoweshuro@phnt.swest.nhs.uk

    2007-01-15

    Meningiomas are the commonest primary, non-glial intracranial tumours. The diagnosis is often correctly predicted from characteristic imaging appearances. This paper presents some examples of atypical imaging appearances that may cause diagnostic confusion.

  10. Intracranial aneurysm associated with relapsing polychondritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coumbaras, M.; Boulin, A.; Pierot, L. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Foch, Suresnes (France); Piette, A.M.; Bletry, O. [Dept. of Medicine, Hopital Foch, Suresnes (France); Graveleau, P. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Foch, Suresnes (France)

    2001-07-01

    We describe a 50-year-old man with relapsing polychondritis (RP) involving auricular cartilage, uveitis and hearing loss, who had an aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery. Intracranial aneurysm is a rare manifestation of RP. (orig.)

  11. Intracranial chondroma of the occipital lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobbs, R.J.; Narula, S.; Berger, M.; Kwok, B.C.T. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Departments of Neurosurgery and Radiology

    1998-02-01

    A case report of an intracranial chondroma is discussed with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. A case is presented of a chondroma originating in the left occipital pole close to the vertex in a 29-year-old female. Pathologic and radiologic findings with emphasis on the MR appearances are reported, followed by a brief discussion of the recent literature involving solitary intracranial chondroma. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 12 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Intracranial leiomyosarcoma in a patient with AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H.G.; Burger, P.C. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Pathology; Olivi, A.; Sills, A.K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Barditch-Crovo, P.A. [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Lee, R.R. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1999-01-01

    We report an intracranial leiomyosarcoma in the pontine cistern of a 34-year-old woman infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The clinical, radiological and pathological data are reviewed. The tumor was Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive by in situ hybridization. This case emphasizes that smooth muscle neoplasms arising in the setting of immunocompromise can occur intracranially, and corroborates a hypothesis that EBV coinfection may have a role in development of these tumors. (orig.) (orig.) With 6 figs., 22 refs.

  13. Cognitive function in idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne Maria; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Forchhammer, Hysse Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the extent and nature of cognitive deficits in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) at the time of diagnosis and after 3 months of treatment. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Neurological department, ophthalmological department and a terti......OBJECTIVE: To explore the extent and nature of cognitive deficits in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) at the time of diagnosis and after 3 months of treatment. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Neurological department, ophthalmological department...

  14. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jeronimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva Junior, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo, E-mail: leonardoruschel@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xarelto®. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban. (author)

  15. Mucocele and pyocele with marked intracranial extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Machida, Tohru; Iio, Masahiro

    1984-08-01

    Two cases are presented with frontal sinus pyocele and fronto-ethmoid sinus mucocele in which marked intracranial extension is shown. Their intracranial part appeared as a large biconvex mass, which showed iso or slightly low density homogeneously and had gross calcification in the posterior rim. The findings of the paranasal sinuses and the orbit in tomograms and CT scans are thought to be useful in the differential diagnosis of chronic subdural hematoma.

  16. Hyperalgesic effect of subarachnoid administration of phentolamine in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiré Carlos Callegari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Painful phenomenon is one of the most important and complex experiences. Phentolamine is a non-selective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of increasing doses of phentolamine into subarachnoid space in rats in the modulation of painful phenomenon. METHODS: 84 male Wistar rats were divided into formalin and plantar incision groups, subdivided into six subgroups (n = 7. Control group received only saline (10 µL; active subgroups received phentolamine 10 µmg (GF10, 20 mg (GF20, 30 mg (GF30, 40 mg (GF40, and 50 g (GF50. In formalin group, pain was induced by injection of 50 µL of 2% formalin in dorsal region of right posterior paw. In plantar incision group, pain was induced by plantar incision and evaluated using von Frey filaments. Induction and maintenance of anesthesia were performed with 3% halothane for catheter placement into subarachnoid space and plantar incision. Statistical analysis was performed using the JMP program from SAS with 5% significance level. RESULTS: Phentolamine at doses of 20 and 30 g increased the algesic response in the intermediate phase of the formalin test. In plantar incision test, it had hyperalgic effect on first, third, fifth, and seventh days at a dose of 10 g and on first, third, and fifth days at a dose of 20 g and on fifth day at a dose of 30 g. CONCLUSION: Subarachnoid administration of phentolamine showed hyperalgesic effect, possibly due to the involvement of different subclasses of alpha-adrenergic receptors in modulating pain pathways.

  17. Severe hypokalemia in a patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybanez, Neil; Agrawal, Varun; Tranmer, Bruce I; Gennari, F John

    2014-03-01

    Hypokalemia is a common electrolyte disorder in the intensive care unit. Its cause often is complex, involving both potassium losses from the body and shifts of potassium into cells. We present a case of severe hypokalemia of sudden onset in a patient being treated for subarachnoid hemorrhage in the surgical intensive care unit in order to illustrate the diagnosis and management of severe hypokalemia of unclear cause. Our patient received agents that promote renal potassium losses and treatments associated with a shift of potassium into cells. We outline the steps in diagnosis and management, focusing on the factors regulating the transcellular distribution of potassium in the body.

  18. Matrix Metalloproteinases in Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed cerebral vasospasm is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. While the cellular mechanisms underlying vasospasm remain unclear, it is believed that inflammation may play a critical role in vasospasm. Matrix metalloproteinasees (MMPs are a family of extracellular and membrane-bound proteases capable of degrading the blood-rain barrier (BBB. As such, MMP upregulation following SAH may result in a proinflammatory extravascular environment capable of inciting delayed cerebral vasospasm. This paper presents an overview of MMPs and describes existing data pertinent to delayed cerebral vasospasm.

  19. A case report on subarachnoid and intraventricular neurocysticercosis

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    Chen Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most common central nervous system helminthic infection in humans. We hereby present a case combining two rare manifestations of neurocysticercosis: the subarachnoid and intraventricular forms. The patient presented with hydrocephalus and neurologic deficits and although endoscopic removal of the cysts and two cycles of postoperative cysticidal drugs resulted in resolution of symptoms, they later recurred. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and a further cycle of albendazole plus dexamethasone led to substantial clinical improvement. Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis may be challenging to diagnose and treat and is usually associated with a poorer prognosis. Clinicians should be aware of this condition.

  20. Drug treatment of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage following aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongfei Liu; HanCheng Qiu; Juan Su; WeiJian Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is a common and severe complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Despite the improvement in treatment of aSAH, CVS complicating aSAH has remained the main cause of death. CVS begins most often on the third day after the ictal event and reaches the maximum on the 5th–7th postictal days. Several therapeutic modalities have been employed to prevent or reverse CVS. The aim of this review is to summate all the available drug treatment modalities for vasospasm.

  1. Increased Intracranial Pressure Following Removal of Intracranial Lesions

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    B. Ramamurthi

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased intracramal tension may 0 ise some days or ''leeks the problem may ari 1 of lrelUova "nt r a cra nial tumours or . lfter operation. , ""n" . " such increased tensicn raises the pOSS1- In the immed.',iate postoperat1ve perlOd" " f eopenino- Unrelieved tentorial -" d f c the dec1s10n or r O' lility of a clot rormattcn an ore ~ "e"ln .or the so called third day post " f thrombus Into a ma](Ir v .' , herniation. extenslOn 0 a f h raised intracranial pressure,. th common causes 0 sue operative oede~a. are e dematous blockage of ventricular system may When the ventnclc' has been opened. oe have to be tackled by repeated ventricular puncture. the fear of this postoperative oedema is the reason In posterior fossa surgery. '. - ' h many neurosuTgeons leave the dura open. w y " ommoner in posterior fossa " " tracranial presurc1 1S c Late onset of mcreased in f ttbromae or after excision of " b-total removal 0 neuro . operations spec1ally after su ti t the site of surgery or adheslOns block- " cyst forma ion a tubercnlomas. The cause :s Following air studies. a shunt procedure or a ing the cerebrospinal flUld "pa~hWay. tentorial incision would be md1cated.

  2. Early endovascular treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage complicated by neurogenic pulmonary edema and Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Andrea; De Gennaro, Angela; Manzo, Gaetana; Serino, Antonietta; Quaranta, Gaetano; Cancella, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be associated with acute cardiopulmonary complications, like neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) and Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy (TCM). These dysfunctions seem to result from a neurogenically induced overstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system through the brain-heart connection and often complicate poor grade aneurysmal SAH. The optimal treatment modality and timing of intervention in this clinical setting have not been established yet. Early endovascular therapy seems to be the fitting treatment in this particular group of patients, in which surgical clipping is often contraindicated due to the added risk of craniotomy. Herein we describe the case of a woman admitted to the emergency department with aneurysmal SAH complicated by NPE-TCM, in which early endovascular coiling was successfully performed. Our case, characterized by a favorable outcome, further supports the evidence that early endovascular treatment should be preferred in this peculiar clinical scenario.

  3. Therapeutic effect of enterprise stent-assisted embolization for very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feiyun; Li, Zhenbao; Fang, Xinggen; Zhao, Xintong; Liu, Jiaqiang; Wu, Degang; Lai, Niansheng

    2017-08-01

    Enterprise stent has been widespread used in wide-necked intracranial aneurysms and good efficacy has been achieved, but there are few reports on its applications in very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms in literatures. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Enterprise stent-assisted coiling embolization of very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms.We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and imaging data from 37 patients with very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms who had SAC using Enterprise stents performed from February 2012 to July 2016 in our department. Data collected and analyzed included patient demographics, morphologic features of the aneurysm, treatment results, and follow-up results. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).Enterprise stents were successfully implanted in all 37 patients with very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Of the 37 individuals, 28 patients exhibited complete occlusion at Raymond grade I, 5 patients exhibited occlusion at Raymond grade II, and 4 patients at Raymond grade III. Procedure-related complications occurred in 3 of 37 patients (8.1%), including 1 case of intraprocedure aneurysm rupture who died from cerebral herniation caused by severe postoperative cerebral ischemia during the hospital stay, and the other 2 complications were acute in-stent thrombosis, and occlusion of parent artery caused by falling-off internal carotid artery plaque, respectively. A total of 36 patients underwent postoperative clinical follow-up visits for 6 to 24 months of which 31 patients recovered (GOS ≥ 4). One patient had hemiplegic paralysis, and no rehemorrhage was found. A total of 25 patients underwent follow-up digital subtraction angiography (DSA) at 3-21 months postintervention, in whom there were 22 cases with complete occlusion, 2 cases with recurrence of aneurysm neck, and 1 case with in-stent restenosis, but there was no patient with neurologic deficits.The Enterprise

  4. Relationship between hyperventilation and intracranial pressure in patients with severe head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@With high fatality rate and disability rate, the pathophysiologic changes of severe head injury are complicated. But the method of lowering intracranial pressure (ICP) through artificial hyperventilation is called in question recently. To understand the related changes of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery (PaCO2) and the ICP at the acute period of severe head injury, a total of 64 patients with severe head injury were monitored and analyzed on the 3rd day after injury.

  5. Occurrence studies of intracranial tumours

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    Larjavaara, S.

    2011-07-01

    Intracranial tumours are a histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumours. This thesis focused on three types of intracranial tumours; gliomas, meningiomas and vestibular schwannomas (VS). The main objectives of the dissertation were to estimate the occurrence of intracranial tumours by different subtypes, and to assess the validity and completeness of the cancer registry data. The specific aims of the publications were to evaluate the validity of reported incidence rates of meningioma cases, to describe the trends of VS incidence in four Nordic countries, and to define the anatomic distribution of gliomas and to investigate their location in relation to mobile phone use. Completeness of meningioma registration was examined by comparing five separate sources of information, and by defining the frequencies of cases reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR). Incidence trends of VS were assessed in the four Nordic countries over a twenty-one-year period (1987 - 2007) using cancer registry data. The anatomic site of gliomas was evaluated using both crude locations in the cerebral lobes and, in more detail, a three-dimensional (3D) distribution in the brain. In addition, a study on specific locations of gliomas in relation to the typical position of mobile phones was conducted using two separate approaches: a case-case and a case-specular analysis. The thesis was based on four sets of materials. Data from the international Interphone study were used for the studies on gliomas, while the two other studies were register-based. The dataset for meningiomas included meningioma cases from the FCR and four clinical data sources in Tampere University Hospital (neurosurgical clinic, pathology database, hospital discharge register and autopsy register). The data on VS were obtained from the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The coverage of meningiomas was not comprehensive in any of the data sources. The completeness of FCR was

  6. Quality of Life Following Permanent Neurological Damage after Subarachnoid Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Dabota Buowari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Caesarean section is the commonest operation carried out in females of the reproductive age group. Spinal anaesthesia is commonly used for caesarean section with its risk. Permanent paralysis of the lower limbs following subarachnoid block is a rare complication but can occur even in the best of hands. Case Summary. This is a 29-year-old final-year university student now 34 years old who had emergency caesarean section for cephalopelvic disproportion in 2005 under spinal anaesthesia in a low-resource setting in a developing country. She developed permanent neurological deficit thereafter. She had urinary and faecal incontinence for one year. She lost one academic session at her school because of long hospital stay and is now confined to a wheel chair. She celebrated her daughter's fifth birthday in October, 2010. Although there is ability in inability, she is now disabled. Conclusion. It is important for clinicians to recognise the complications of subarachnoid block promptly to avoid delay in treatment and severe neurological deficits.

  7. Determining rural risk for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages: A structural equation modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda Jayne; Gall, Seana; Stirling, Christine

    2016-01-01

    An aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) carries a high disability burden. The true impact of rurality as a predictor of outcome severity is unknown. Our aim is to clarify the relationship between the proposed explanations of regional and rural health disparities linked to severity of outcome following an aSAH. An initial literature search identified limited data directly linking geographical location, rurality, rural vulnerability, and aSAH. A further search noting parallels with ischemic stroke and acute myocardial infarct literature presented a number of diverse and interrelated predictors. This a priori knowledge informed the development of a conceptual framework that proposes the relationship between rurality and severity of outcome following an aSAH utilizing structural equation modeling. The presented conceptual framework explores a number of system, environmental, and modifiable risk factors. Socioeconomic characteristics, modifiable risk factors, and timely treatment that were identified as predictors of severity of outcome following an aSAH and within each of these defined predictors a number of contributing specific individual predictors are proposed. There are considerable gaps in the current knowledge pertaining to the impact of rurality on the severity of outcome following an aSAH. Absent from the literature is any investigation of the cumulative impact and multiplicity of risk factors associated with rurality. The proposed conceptual framework hypothesizes a number of relationships between both individual level and system level predictors, acknowledging that intervening predictors may mediate the effect of one variable on another. PMID:27695237

  8. Vertebrobasilar dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective study of 29 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramgren, B; Cronqvist, M; Holtaas, S; Larsson, E-M [Center for Medical Imaging and Physiology, Lund University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Lund (Sweden); Romner, B; Brandt, L [Lund University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Lund (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    We have reviewed initial diagnostic features, treatment, and outcome in 29 patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage due to non-traumatic vertebrobasilar artery dissection diagnosed in our hospital between 1993 and 2003. The dissections occurred in the vertebral artery in 19 patients, the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in two patients, the basilar artery in four patients, and in the vertebral artery extending into the PICA in four patients. A pseudoaneurysm was found in 20 patients. Clinical manifestations typically included sudden onset of moderate to severe headache, nuchal rigidity, and drowsiness. Fourteen patients were treated conservatively. Fifteen patients underwent endovascular treatment with either parent artery occlusion (13 patients) or aneurysmal coil occlusion with preservation of the parent artery (2 patients). Re-bleeding occurred within 12 days and before treatment in nine patients. Eight of these had a pseudoaneurysm. No patient bled after endovascular treatment. Poor grade and early re-bleeding were associated with less favorable outcome. Outcome at 6 months did not differ significantly between endovascular and conservative treatment. Altogether, good recovery was achieved for 16 patients, moderate disability was seen in one, severe disability in four, and eight patients (27%) died. The absence of bleeding subsequent to endovascular treatment in this study suggests that endovascular treatment may be a rational approach in these patients at high risk of re-bleeding, especially those with a pseudoaneurysm. (orig.)

  9. Determining rural risk for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda Jayne; Gall, Seana; Stirling, Christine

    2016-01-01

    An aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) carries a high disability burden. The true impact of rurality as a predictor of outcome severity is unknown. Our aim is to clarify the relationship between the proposed explanations of regional and rural health disparities linked to severity of outcome following an aSAH. An initial literature search identified limited data directly linking geographical location, rurality, rural vulnerability, and aSAH. A further search noting parallels with ischemic stroke and acute myocardial infarct literature presented a number of diverse and interrelated predictors. This a priori knowledge informed the development of a conceptual framework that proposes the relationship between rurality and severity of outcome following an aSAH utilizing structural equation modeling. The presented conceptual framework explores a number of system, environmental, and modifiable risk factors. Socioeconomic characteristics, modifiable risk factors, and timely treatment that were identified as predictors of severity of outcome following an aSAH and within each of these defined predictors a number of contributing specific individual predictors are proposed. There are considerable gaps in the current knowledge pertaining to the impact of rurality on the severity of outcome following an aSAH. Absent from the literature is any investigation of the cumulative impact and multiplicity of risk factors associated with rurality. The proposed conceptual framework hypothesizes a number of relationships between both individual level and system level predictors, acknowledging that intervening predictors may mediate the effect of one variable on another.

  10. Roller coaster-associated subarachnoid hemorrhage--report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutsch, Sebastian; Niesen, Wolf-Dirk; Meckel, Stephan; Reinhard, Matthias

    2012-04-15

    The most common neurological injuries associated with roller coaster rides are subdural hematoma and cervical artery dissection. We report two cases of roller-coaster associated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 40-year-old healthy man developed a strong, holocephalic headache during a roller coaster ride. SAH Hunt & Hess grade II and Fisher grade 3 was diagnosed. An underlying aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery was successfully treated with coil embolization. A 41-year-old female (smoker, otherwise healthy) experienced a sudden, strong headache and diplopia during a roller coaster ride. A perimesencephalic SAH (Hunt & Hess grade II, Fisher grade 3) was disclosed by a CT scan. No aneurysm was detected on angiography. Both patients were discharged without neurological disability. In conclusion, SAH is a rare but relevant differential diagnosis in cases of acute headache during roller coaster rides. Both aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal perimesencephalic SAH can occur. A combination of mechanical factors and excessive blood pressure rises in vulnerable persons is discussed.

  11. Role of Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huiying; Zhang, Dingding; Hao, Shuangying; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that mitochondrial Ca(2+) is undertaken by mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), and its accumulation is associated with the development of many diseases. However, little was known about the role of MCU in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MCU can be opened by spermine under a physiological condition and inhibited by ruthenium red (RR). Herein, we investigated the effects of RR and spermine to reveal the role of MCU in SAH animal model. The data obtained with biochemical and histological assays showed that mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration was significantly increased in the temporal cortex of rats 1, 2, and 3 days after SAH, consistent with constant high levels of cellular Ca(2+) concentration. In agreement with the observation in the acute phase, SAH rats showed an obvious increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and decrease of ATP production. Blockage of MCU prevented Ca(2+) accumulation, abated the level of oxidative stress, and improved the energy supply. Translocation of cytochrome c, increased cleaved caspase-3, and a large amount of apoptotic cells after SAH were reversed by RR administration. Surprisingly, exogenous spermine did not increase cellular Ca(2+) concentration, but lessened the Ca(2+) accumulation after SAH to benefit the rats. Taken together, our results demonstrated that blockage of MCU or prevention of Ca(2+) accumulation after SAH is essential in EBI after SAH. These findings suggest that MCU is considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  12. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for QT prolongation following subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Shinji; Katoh, Hiroshi; Tsuzuki, Nobusuke; Ishihara, Shoichiro; Otani, Naoki; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Toyooka, Terushige; Ohnuki, Akira; Miyazawa, Takahito; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Shima, Katsuji

    2003-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often causes a prolongation of the corrected QT (QTc) interval during the acute phase. The aim of the present study was to examine independent risk factors for QTc prolongation in patients with SAH by means of multivariate analysis. Method We studied 100 patients who were admitted within 24 hours after onset of SAH. Standard 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) was performed immediately after admission. QT intervals were measured from the ECG and were corrected for heart rate using the Bazett formula. We measured serum levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), dopamine, antidiuretic hormone, and glucose. Results The average QTc interval was 466 ± 46 ms. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the QTc interval, with a cutoff line of 470 ms. Univariate analyses showed significant relations between categories of QTc interval, and sex and serum concentrations of potassium, calcium, or glucose. Multivariate analyses showed that female sex and hypokalemia were independent risk factors for severe QTc prolongation. Hypokalemia (<3.5 mmol/l) was associated with a relative risk of 4.53 for severe QTc prolongation as compared with normokalemia, while the relative risk associated with female sex was 4.45 as compared with male sex. There was a significant inverse correlation between serum potassium levels and QTc intervals among female patients. Conclusion These findings suggest that female sex and hypokalemia are independent risk factors for severe QTc prolongation in patients with SAH. PMID:12793884

  13. 颅内蛛网膜囊肿治疗中的有关问题%Clinical analysis of intracranial arachnoid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海鹏; 黄其林; 杨辉; 周政

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the indications and surgical methods of intracranial arachnoid cyst. Methods The clinical data of 209 patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts were analyzed retrospectively. Results Of 209 patients, 198 patients were performed by CT subarachnoidcisternography,47 with noncommunicating intracranial arachnoid cyst were underwent operation, in which cystectomics were perfomed in 43, ventricular-peritoneal shunts in 3 and cystoperitoneal shunt in 1. All patients were sucessfully operated. There are advantages and disadvantages in these surgical methods. Conclusions The treatment method of intracranial arachnoid cyst was determined by the cyst size, symptomes and signs, communicate or not with subarachnoid space and age. Cystectomy can reduce the cyst volume and improve symptoms caused by intracranial arachnoid cyst.%目的 探讨颅内蛛网膜囊肿的手术指征和手术方法.方法 回顾性分析209例颅内蛛网膜囊肿患者的临床表现、影像学资料、治疗方法等临床资料.结果 其中198例行CT蛛网膜下腔-脑池造影,非交通性47例均行于术治疗.43例行囊肿大部切除+脑池开放术,3例行脑室-腹腔分流术,1例行囊肿-腹腔分流术.所有手术病人手术顺利,各种术式各有利弊.结论 颅内蛛网膜囊肿应根据囊肿大小、临床症状体征、与蛛网膜下腔是否交通及年龄来决定治疗方式.手术首选囊肿切除+脑池开放术.

  14. Safety and efficacy of a new prophylactic tirofiban protocol without oral intraoperative antiplatelet therapy for endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zi-Liang; Li, Tian-Xiao; He, Ying-Kun; Bai, Wei-Xing; Wang, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Guo-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms is being increasingly used; however, thromboembolic events have become a major periprocedural complication. To determine the safety and efficacy of prophylactic tirofiban in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Tirofiban was administered as an intravenous bolus (8.0 μg/kg over 3 min) followed by a maintenance infusion (0.10 μg/kg/min) before stent deployment or after completion of single coiling. Dual oral antiplatelet therapy (loading doses) was overlapped with half the tirofiban dose 2 h before cessation of the tirofiban infusion. Cases of intracranial hemorrhage or thromboembolism were recorded. Tirofiban was prophylactically used in 221 patients, including 175 (79.19%) who underwent stent-assisted coiling and 46 (20.81%) who underwent single coiling, all in the setting of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Six (2.71%) cases of intracranial hemorrhage occurred, including four (1.81%) tirofiban-related cases and two (0.90%) antiplatelet therapy-related cases. There were two (0.90%) cases of fatal hemorrhage, one related to tirofiban and the other related to dual antiplatelet therapy. Thromboembolic events occurred in seven (3.17%) patients (6 stent-assisted embolization, 1 single coiling), of which one (0.45%) event occurred during stenting and six (2.72%) occurred during intravenous tirofiban maintenance. No thromboembolic events related to dual antiplatelet therapy were found. Tirofiban bolus over 3 min followed by maintenance infusion appears to be a safe and efficient prophylactic protocol for the endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms and may be an alternative to intraoperative oral antiplatelet therapy, especially in the case of stent-assisted embolization. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistula causing tension pneumocephalus; Traumatische subarachnoidal-pleurale Fistel mit der Folge eines Spannungspneumenzephalons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, R.; Schindler, G. [Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik in der Chirurgischen Universitaetsklinik Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Uncommon subarachnoid-pleural fistula can be caused by a blunt or penetrating trauma and can also occur after a thoracal or neurosurgical operation, ending to a progredient pneumocephalus. Clinical findings might be an enlarging tension pneumocephalus without a cranial fracture, but in most times they will be overlayed by other accompanied injuries, neurologic symptoms can dominate, also rapidly filling clear pleural effusions with obscure cause. Opportune identification of the reason of the pneumocephalus and mostly early surgical intervention prevent neurological deficit, CNS infection and other complications. (orig.) [German] Die seltene subarachnoidal-pleurale Fistel tritt durch ein stumpfes oder ein penetrierendes Trauma bzw. nach einer thorax- oder neurochirurgischen Operation auf und fuehrt zu einem progredienten Pneumenzephalon. Die klinische Symptomatik manifestiert sich als Spannungspneumenzephalon ohne kranielle Fraktur. Sie wird haeufig durch Begleiterkrankungen ueberlagert. Neurologische Symptome koennen auftreten, ebenso nichtblutige, nachlaufende Pleuraerguesse unklarer Aetiologie. Die rechtzeitige Erkennung der Ursache des Pneumenzephalons, die Antibiotikaprophylaxe und die meist chirurgische Therapie verhindern infektioese Komplikationen und neurologische Defizite. (orig.)

  16. Impact of CO2 on Intracranial Hypertension in Spaceflight. Visual Impairment and Intracranial Hypertension: An Emerging Spaceflight Risk [Part 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Polk, James D.; Tarver, William J.; Gibson, Charles R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Taddeo, Terrance A.; Alexander, David J.; Otto, Christian A.

    2010-01-01

    A. CO2 - Acute: Given the history of uneven removal of CO2 from spacecraft areas, there is a history of acute illness that impacts short-term health and performance. 1) Acute CO2 symptoms occur in space flight due to a combination of CO2 scrubbing limitations, microgravity-related lack of convection, and possibly interaction with microgravity-related physiological changes. 2) Reported symptoms mainly include headaches, malaise, and lethargy. Symptoms are treatable with analgesics, rest, temporarily increasing scrubbing capability, and breathing oxygen. This does not treat the underlying pathology. 3)ld prevent occurrence of symptoms. B. CO2 - Chronic: Given prolonged exposure to elevated CO2 levels, there is a history that the long-term health of the crew is impacted. 1) Chronic CO2 exposures occur in space flight due to a combination of CO2 scrubbing limitations and microgravity-related lack of convection, with possible contribution from microgravity-related physiological changes. 2) Since acute symptoms are experienced at levels significantly lower than expected, there are unidentified long-term effects from prolonged exposure to elevated CO2 levels on orbit. There have been long term effects seen terrestrially and research needed to further elucidate long term effects on orbit. 3) Recommended disposition: Research required to further elucidate long term effects. In particular, elucidation of the role of elevated CO2 on various levels of CO2 vasodilatation of intracranial blood vessels and its potential contribution to elevation of intracranial pressure.

  17. Intracranial aneurysms in an African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogeng'o Julius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Characteristics of intracranial aneurysms display ethnic variations. Data on this disease from the African continent is scarce and often conflicting. Aim : To describe site, age and gender distribution of intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans. Study Design and Setting : Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Materials and Methods: All records of black African patients with a diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral hospital in the Eastern and Central African region, over the period from January 1998 to December 2007 were examined for site, age and gender distribution. The data gathered were coded, analyzed with SPSS 11.50. Results : Fifty-six cases of intracranial aneurysms were analyzed. The posterior communicating artery was the most affected (35.7%, followed by the anterior communicating artery (26.8%, while the posterior cerebral artery was the least affected (2%. Multiple aneurysms were present in 2%. The mean age at presentation was 50.9 years (range 21-80 years and the gender distribution was equal. Conclusions : Intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans occur most commonly on the posterior communicating artery, in young individuals, and without gender bias. The distribution differs from that described in the literature and this requires search for risk factors.

  18. Hyperprolactinemia due to spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievink, Wouter I; Nuño, Miriam; Rozen, Todd D; Maya, M Marcel; Mamelak, Adam N; Carmichael, John; Bonert, Vivien S

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an increasingly recognized cause of headaches. Pituitary enlargement and brain sagging are common findings on MRI in patients with this disorder. The authors therefore investigated pituitary function in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. METHODS Pituitary hormones were measured in a group of 42 consecutive patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. For patients with hyperprolactinemia, prolactin levels also were measured following treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed prior to and following treatment. RESULTS The study group consisted of 27 women and 15 men with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 52.2 ± 10.7 years (mean ± SD; range 17-72 years). Hyperprolactinemia was detected in 10 patients (24%), ranging from 16 ng/ml to 96.6 ng/ml in men (normal range 3-14.7 ng/ml) and from 31.3 ng/ml to 102.5 ng/ml in women (normal range 3.8-23.2 ng/ml). In a multivariate analysis, only brain sagging on MRI was associated with hyperprolactinemia. Brain sagging was present in 60% of patients with hyperprolactinemia and in 19% of patients with normal prolactin levels (p = 0.02). Following successful treatment of the spontaneous intracranial hypotension, hyperprolactinemia resolved, along with normalization of brain MRI findings in all 10 patients. CONCLUSIONS Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a previously undescribed cause of hyperprolactinemia. Brain sagging causing distortion of the pituitary stalk (stalk effect) may be responsible for the hyperprolactinemia.

  19. Population of inlfammatory cells in intracranial aneurysm with the special insight to the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirokazu Koseki; Tomohiro Aoki

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) can cause a lethal subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture. The prevalence of IA is high in the general public; however, the annual risk for the rupture of an incidentally found lesion is relatively low. Therefore, it is crucial to selectively diagnose rupture-prone IAs among many diagnosed IAs, and properly treat such IAs before rupture. Recent studies using human IA specimens or experimentally-induced IAs in animals have revealed some important ifndings regarding the role of inlfammatory cells inifltrating IA lesions. Currently, IA is considered an inlfammatory disease of the intracranial arterial walls. Macrophages are presumably a major type of inlfammatory cells regulating the pathogenesis of IAs through the production of a wide range of pro-inlfammatory factors. Based on a series of studies, macrophages could be a diagnostic target for rupture-prone IAs. Currently, the potential diagnostic method to detect iron-engulifng macrophages in IA lesions by magnetic resonance imaging is reported. In this review, the authors will summarize the ifndings regarding the inlfammatory cell types present in IA lesions and discuss future prospects for the development of a novel diagnostic method identifying rupture-prone IAs.

  20. Antihypertensives are administered selectively in emergency department patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyer, Virginia; McDonough, Erin; Lindsell, Christopher J; Alwell, Kathleen; Moomaw, Charles J; Kissela, Brett M; Flaherty, Matthew L; Khatri, Pooja; Woo, Daniel; Ferioli, Simona; Broderick, Joseph P; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Adeoye, Opeolu

    2013-11-01

    Elevated blood pressure is common in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). American Heart Association guidelines do not specify a blood pressure target, but limited data suggest that systolic blood pressure (SBP)≥160 mmHg is associated with increased risk of rebleeding and neurologic decline. In a population-based study, we determined the frequency of antihypertensive therapy in emergency department (ED) patients with SAH and the proportion of those patients with SBP≥160 mmHg who received this therapy. In 2005, nontraumatic SAH cases were retrospectively ascertained at 16 hospitals in our region by screening for International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision diagnostic codes 430-436. Blood pressure was recorded at ED presentation and also before and after any treatment with antihypertensives. Hypotension was defined as SBP100 mmHg. The Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test were used for comparisons. Our cohort comprised 82 patients with SAH presenting to an ED; 4 patients were excluded. The median age of the included patients was 54 years, 74.4% were female, 29.5% were black, and 31 (39.7%) had SBP≥160 mmHg. Antihypertensive therapy was given to 22 of 31 patients (70.9%) with SBP≥160 mmHg and to 4 of 47 patients (8.5%) with SBP<160 mmHg. No patients became hypotensive after receiving treatment. Age, sex, Glascow Coma Scale score, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score were similar between treated and untreated patients. In the absence of definitive evidence, current blood pressure management in local EDs appears reasonable. Further studies of blood pressure management in acute SAH are warranted.